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Sample records for prevalent childbearing pattern

  1. Low prevalence of iron deficiency anemia between 1981 and 2010 in Chilean women of childbearing age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Ríos-Castillo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the prevalence of anemia and iron status among Chilean women of childbearing age between 1981 and 2010. Materials and methods. Calculation of the prevalence of anemia and iron status was based on multiple cross-sectional iron absorption studies performed in 888 women during this period of time. All studies included measurements of hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, zinc protoporphyrin, percentage of transferrin saturation and serum ferritin. Data were grouped by decade (1981-1990,1991-2000, and 2001-2010. Results. Prevalence of anemia for these decades was 9, 6 and 10%, respectively (p=NS. Iron deficiency anemia was the main cause of anemia in all periods (55, 85 and 75%, respectively; p=NS. A high prevalence of women with normal iron status was observed for all periods (64, 69, and 67, respectively; p=NS. Prevalence of iron deficiency without anemia in 1981-1990, 1991-2000 and 2001-2010 was 7, 20 and 12%, respectively (p menor que 0.05. Finally, prevalence of iron depleted stores was 20, 6 and 10%, respectively (p menor que 0.05. Conclusions. Prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in Chilean women of childbearing age was mild between 1981 and 2010. More than 60% of childbearing age women presented normal iron status in all periods. However, prevalence of iron depleted stores was moderate during 1981-1990, and was mild during 1991-2000 and 2001-2010.

  2. [Hepatitis B prevalence among women in child-bearing age in Shandong Province, China, 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Liu, J Y; Lyu, J J; Yan, B Y; Feng, Y; Wu, W L; Song, L Z; Xu, A Q

    2017-06-06

    Objective: To know the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) among women in child-bearing age in Shandong Province, China, providing references to the improvement of HBV control strategy. Methods: The participants were randomly selected by two-stage sampling method from 12 counties which were representative for the whole province. Firstly two townships were selected from each county by probability proportional to size sampling (PPS) method. Then participants aged 1-4 years, 5-14 years, 15-29 years and 30-59 years were selected by stratified random sampling method. The women in child-bearing age (20-49 years) were involved in this study. Questionnaire survey and 5 ml blood collection were conducted among all participants. Blood samples were detected for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), antibody against HBsAg (anti-HBs) and antibody against hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc). Those who were positive for HBsAg were further detected for hepatitis e antigen (HBeAg), antibody against HBeAg (anti-HBe) and the load of HBV DNA. The basic information of the participants including age, gender, occupation, nationality and residence place were collected. The prevalence of HBV infection indicators after weight adjustment were calculated and compared between participants with different demographic characteristics. Results: A total of 1 151 women in child-bearing age were involved in this study. Twenty-seven participants were positive for HBsAg and the prevalence rate was 2.10% (95 % CI: 0.97%-3.23%). Five participants were positive for both HBsAg and HBeAg and the prevalence rate was 0.36% (95 % CI: 0-0.84%). There were 567 and 291 participants who were positive for anti-HBs and anti-HBc respectively and the corresponding prevalence rates were 47.72% (95 %CI: 41.68%-53.75%) and 24.40% (95 % CI: 18.50%-30.30%). The number of participants susceptible for HBV was 527 and the percentage of HBV susceptible women was 47.55% (95 % CI: 41.63%-53.47%). Conclusion: HBV infection among

  3. The educational gradient of nonmarital childbearing in Europe : emergence of a pattern of disadvantage?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perelli-Harris, B.; Sigle-Rushton, W.; Lappegard, T.; Kreyenfeld, M.; Keizer, R.; Berghammer, C.

    2010-01-01

    Nearly every European country has experienced some increase in nonmarital childbearing, largely due to increasing births within cohabitation. Relatively few studies in Europe, however, investigate the educational gradient of childbearing within cohabitation or how it changed over time. Using

  4. Childbearing patterns among immigrant women and their daughters in Spain: Over-adaptation or structural constraints

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    Amparo González-Ferrer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spain, a country with one of the lowest fertility levels in the world, has recently received intense immigration flows that may contribute to fertility recovery. Objective: The objective of this study is to examine whether the childbearing behaviour of immigrant women and their descendants shows a pattern of convergence with that of Spanish women born in or after 1950. Methods: After merging data from the Fertility and Values Survey (2006 and the National Immigrants Survey (2007, we analyse the transition to first, second, and third birth using event history models, to identify variations in timing and incidence of birth transitions between native Spanish women and immigrant groups. Results: Previous literature has found that migration disrupts immigrants' fertility only temporarily; however, in the case of Spain, most migrant women who moved before starting family formation do not seem to fully compensate for migration-related disruption of fertility at a later stage. Our findings challenge the widespread belief that immigrants' childbearing alone will allow Spain to leave behind the current lowest-low and latest-late fertility scenario. Contribution: This article analyzes for the first time the fertility of different immigrant generations in Spain compared to native women, applying event history techniques. Our findings challenge conventional wisdom that immigration will improve very low fertility levels in Spain.

  5. The educational gradient of nonmarital childbearing in Europe: emergence of a pattern of disadvantage?

    OpenAIRE

    Perelli-Harris, B.; Sigle-Rushton, W.; Lappegard, T.; Kreyenfeld, M.; Keizer, R.; Berghammer, C.

    2010-01-01

    Nearly every European country has experienced some increase in nonmarital childbearing, largely due to increasing births within cohabitation. Relatively few studies in Europe, however, investigate the educational gradient of childbearing within cohabitation or how it changed over time. Using retrospective union and fertility histories, we employ competing risk hazard models to examine the educational gradient of childbearing in cohabitation in 8 countries across Europe. In all countries studi...

  6. [Socioeconomic status, eating patterns, and heavy metals exposure in women of childbearing age in Cali, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Roger; Caicedo, Diana; Echeverry, Ghisliane; Peña, Miguel; Méndez, Fabián

    2017-09-01

    Global increase in food and water pollution is associated with health risk, which depends on the concentration, the dose, and the exposure time. This has raised concerns about the possible long-term effects of chronic exposure to low concentrations of heavy metals, such as lead, cadmium and mercury. To explore the relationship among socioeconomic status, eating patterns, and exposure to heavy metals among a population of women in Cali, Colombia. A total of 233 non-pregnant women of childbearing age living in the Aguablanca district of Cali, Colombia, were enrolled in the study. We gathered sociodemographic data, as well as information on housing conditions, exposure to heavy metals, frequency of food intake, and anthropometric measurements. Samples of lettuce, cabbage and fish (tilapia and butterfish) were collected to determine lead, cadmium, and mercury concentrations. Descriptive and multiple correspondence analyses were performed to establish eating patterns. Fish was served in each of the three main meals of the day, with a bigger serving at lunch time. Cadmium was found in three samples of butterfish at levels below the acceptable. Of those who ate fish more than once a week, 11.1% bought the product at a cadmium-positive store. The multiple correspondence analysis showed a positive relationship between being black and consuming butterfish and tilapia more than once per week. The findings showed that the studied population had access to heavy metal-contaminated food, which combined with the women's cultural eating patterns, socioeconomic status, and metabolic characteristics led to a greater vulnerability to the effects of heavy metals exposure.

  7. Changes in the age pattern of childbearing in Serbia and EU countries - comparative analysis

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    Magdalenić Ivana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Most European countries nowadays are characterized by a fertility level, which by earlier theoretical considerations was not even assumed as the lower limit for childbearing. The focus of this paper are the changes in reproductive behavior of women during the second half of the 20th and beginning of the 21st century as well as the changes in the age model of childbearing which resulted from that. The comparative analysis between Serbia and 28 EU member countries covers the period 1960-2012. The distribution of live births according to mother's age was analyzed, as well as the phenomena of postponing births and increasing the average age of mothers at childbirth, changes in the structure of female population according to the number of live births, and the decrease of higher birth orders. Demographic potentials of fertility through age structures of the fertile cohort were also pointed out. The similarities and differences in the fertility patterns in the Republic of Serbia and the EU countries were considered in order to determine the specificities of the reproductive model of women in Serbia and the widespread phenomena of postponing births. The fertility transition in Serbia in the second half of the 20th century had the same trend as in the EU countries evolving in the direction of constant lowering of the childbirth levels. Nevertheless, in relation to the sixties of the 20th century, Serbia shifted towards the lower part of the scale at which the EU countries are ranked according to total fertility rate. Almost all EU member countries (except for Luxembourg, Malta, Cyprus and Portugal marked an increase in fertility in the 2000-2011 period, while the fertility level in Serbia, with some oscillations, continued to decrease. The turnabout in total fertility rate registered in most European countries is attributed to the effect of postponed childbirths, while it is assumed that its impact will be marked in Serbia during the next decade. Changes

  8. Socioeconomic status, eating patterns, and heavy metals exposure in women of childbearing age in Cali, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Figueroa

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions: The findings showed that the studied population had access to heavy metal-contaminated food, which combined with the women’s cultural eating patterns, socioeconomic status, and metabolic characteristics led to a greater vulnerability to the effects of heavy metals exposure.

  9. Adolescent childbearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, M

    1991-05-01

    The concern for the consequences of adolescent pregnancy are discussed. Childbirth among unmarried teenagers results in a higher incidence of low birth weight babies, a higher infant mortality and morbidity rate, a higher percentage of childbirth complications, a decreased likelihood of completing school, a higher risk of unemployment and welfare dependency, limited vocational opportunities, larger families, and vulnerability to psychological problems and distress. In 1988, 66% of all births to teens occurred outside of marriage. Out of wedlock live births to teens 14 years rose from 80.8% in 1970 to 92.5% in 1986, and for teens 15-19 years, 29.5% to 60.8%. 70% have a repeat pregnancy within the 1st year following their 1st childbirth. 50% have a 2nd child within 3 years. Most 2nd pregnancies occur in teenagers who are not using effective contractive methods, and the pregnancy is frequently unplanned and unwanted. The factors affecting the rate of 2nd pregnancy are age, race, marital status, education, and economic status. Teenage mothers tend to come from disadvantaged backgrounds, and childbearing compounds the poverty. Aid to families with dependent children 50% of payments were to teen mothers for the birth of their 1st child. Teen fathers are usually low income providers. The public costs are high. Some teen fathers abandon their children after birth, but many are interested in supporting their child. Specific programs to help prepare fathers are needed. Teenage mothers are stressed by child care arrangements, living arrangements, employment, school, relationships with peers, relationships with parents, housework and errands, health, finances, job counseling, community services, and child care information. Parents play an important role in guiding sexual involvement and early childbearing, and need to understand why teens get pregnant and to keep channels of communication open. Teens are influenced by media, peer pressure, lack of self-esteem, unhappiness

  10. Folate and Vitamin B12 Deficiency Among Non-pregnant Women of Childbearing-Age in Guatemala 2009-2010: Prevalence and Identification of Vulnerable Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Jorge; Lopez-Pazos, Eunice; Dowling, Nicole F; Pfeiffer, Christine M; Mulinare, Joe; Vellozzi, Claudia; Zhang, Mindy; Lavoie, Donna J; Molina, Roberto; Ramirez, Nicte; Reeve, Mary-Elizabeth

    2015-10-01

    Information on folate and vitamin B12 deficiency rates in Guatemala is essential to evaluate the current fortification program. The objectives of this study were to describe the prevalence of folate and vitamin B12 deficiencies among women of childbearing age (WCBA) in Guatemala and to identify vulnerable populations at greater risk for nutrient deficiency. A multistage cluster probability study was designed with national and regional representation of nonpregnant WCBA (15-49 years of age). Primary data collection was carried out in 2009-2010. Demographic and health information was collected through face-to-face interviews. Blood samples were collected from 1473 WCBA for serum and red blood cell (RBC) folate and serum vitamin B12. Biochemical concentrations were normalized using geometric means. Prevalence rate ratios were estimated to assess relative differences among different socioeconomic and cultural groups including ethnicity, age, education level, wealth index and rural versus urban locality. National prevalence estimates for deficient serum [Guatemala, folate deficiency was more prevalent among indigenous rural and urban poor populations. Vitamin B12 deficiency was widespread among WCBA. Our results suggest the ongoing need to monitor existing fortification programs, in particular regarding its reach to vulnerable populations.

  11. Folate and Vitamin B12 Deficiency Among Nonpregnant Women of Childbearing Age in Guatemala 2009–2010: Prevalence and Identification of Vulnerable Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Jorge; Lopez-Pazos, Eunice; Dowling, Nicole F.; Pfeiffer, Christine M.; Mulinare, Joe; Vellozzi, Claudia; Zhang, Mindy; Lavoie, Donna J; Molina, Roberto; Ramirez, Nicte; Reeve, Mary-Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Information on folate and vitamin B12 deficiency rates in Guatemala is essential to evaluate the current fortification program. The objectives of this study were to describe the prevalence of folate and vitamin B12 deficiencies among women of childbearing age (WCBA) in Guatemala and to identify vulnerable populations at greater risk for nutrient deficiency. Methods A multistage cluster probability study was designed with national and regional representation of nonpregnant WCBA (15–49 years of age). Primary data collection was carried out in 2009–2010. Demographic and health information was collected through face-to-face interviews. Blood samples were collected from 1,473 WCBA for serum and red blood cell (RBC) folate and serum vitamin B12. Biochemical concentrations were normalized using geometric means. Prevalence rate ratios were estimated to assess relative differences among different socioeconomic and cultural groups including ethnicity, age, education level, wealth index and rural versus urban locality. Results National prevalence estimates for deficient serum (Guatemala, folate deficiency was more prevalent among indigenous rural and urban poor populations. Vitamin B12 deficiency was widespread among WCBA. Our results suggest the ongoing need to monitor existing fortification programs, in particular regarding its reach to vulnerable populations. PMID:26002178

  12. Educational differences in early childbearing: A cross-national comparative study

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    James M. Raymo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent research on fertility in industrialized countries focuses primarily on delayed childbearing, despite the facts that large numbers of women continue to enter parenthood at relatively young ages and that early childbearing has been linked to economic disadvantage. Objective: This cross-national comparative study describes relationships between women's educational attainment and young age at first birth and evaluates the extent to which these differences have changed over time for women born 1955-1981. Methods: Defining 'early' childbearing as the age by which 20Š of first births have occurred to women in a given birth cohort and country, we describe differences in early childbearing by educational attainment across three cohorts of women in 20 countries. Results: We find a strong negative educational gradient in early childbearing across all 20 countries and some evidence of an increase in the relative prevalence of early childbearing among the least-educated women. In 10 countries, the relative prevalence of early childbearing among women with low education is significantly higher for one or both of the more recent birth cohorts compared to the earliest cohort. However, many countries show no significant change, and in one country (Poland there is modest evidence of a decreasing educational gap. Conclusions: Evidence that educational differences in early childbearing have grown in some countries is generally consistent with the notion of family bifurcation and 'diverging destinies' by socioeconomic status. However, the pattern is not universal and future work should examine the various factors that shape these patterns, including the role of public policies.

  13. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance pattern of coagulase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance pattern of coagulase negative Staphylococci isolated from pigs and in-contact humans in Jos Metropolis, Nigeria. ... (53/401) of the isolates were CoNS species based on confirmatory test with Microgen biochemical kit and were further subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing.

  14. Prevalence And Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern Of Methicillin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important nosocomial pathogen. We report the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of MRSA in Amravati, Maharashtra state (India). A total of 150 healthcare-associated (HA) sources (doctors mobiles phone and wound/pus swabs), and 160 ...

  15. The Prevalence of Traditional Malpractice during Pregnancy, Child Birth, and Postnatal Period among Women of Childbearing Age in Meshenti Town, 2016

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    Haileyesus Gedamu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cultural practices, beliefs, and taboos are often implicated in determining the care received by mothers during pregnancy and child birth which is an important determinant of maternal mortality. Objective. To assess prevalence of cultural malpractice during pregnancy, child birth, and postnatal period among women of childbearing age in Meshenti town, Amhara region, northwest Ethiopia, in 2016. Methods. Community based cross-sectional study was conducted among women of reproductive age group interviewed during the study period from May 10 to June 17, 2016. Total sample size was 318 women of reproductive age group. Systematic sampling technique was conducted. Result. Overall, 50.9% of the respondents had cultural malpractices during their pregnancy. Out of 318 women, 62 (19.5% practiced nutrition taboo, 78 (24.5% practiced abdominal massage, 87 (29.7% delivered their babies at home, 96 (32.8% avoided colostrums, 132 (45.2% washed their baby before 24 hr after delivery, and 6 (6.9% cut the cord by unclean blade. Conclusion and Recommendation. The findings of this study show that different traditional malpractice during perinatal period is still persisting in spite of modern developments in the world. Health education and promoting formal female education are important to decrease or avoid these cultural malpractices.

  16. Mortality Associated With Seasonal and Pandemic Influenza Among Pregnant and Nonpregnant Women of Childbearing Age in a High-HIV-Prevalence Setting-South Africa, 1999-2009.

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    Tempia, Stefano; Walaza, Sibongile; Cohen, Adam L; von Mollendorf, Claire; Moyes, Jocelyn; McAnerney, Johanna M; Cohen, Cheryl

    2015-10-01

    Information on the mortality burden associated with seasonal and pandemic influenza virus infection among pregnant women is scarce in most settings, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa where pregnancy and maternal mortality rates as well as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence are elevated. We used an ecological study design to estimate the seasonal and A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza-associated mortality among pregnant and nonpregnant women of childbearing age (15-49 years) by HIV serostatus during 1999-2009 in South Africa. Mortality rates were expressed per 100 000 person-years. During 1999-2009, the estimated mean annual seasonal influenza-associated mortality rates were 12.6 (123 deaths) and 7.3 (914 deaths) among pregnant and nonpregnant women, respectively. Among pregnant women, the estimated mean annual seasonal influenza-associated mortality rates were 74.9 (109 deaths) among HIV-infected and 1.5 (14 deaths) among HIV-uninfected individuals. Among nonpregnant women, the estimated mean annual seasonal influenza-associated mortality rate was 41.2 (824 deaths) among HIV-infected and 0.9 (90 deaths) among HIV-uninfected individuals. Pregnant women experienced an increased risk of seasonal influenza-associated mortality compared with nonpregnant women (relative risk [RR], 2.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7-3.9). In 2009, the estimated influenza A(H1N1)pdm09-associated mortality rates were 19.3 (181 deaths) and 9.4 (1189 deaths) among pregnant and nonpregnant women, respectively (RR, 3.2; 95% CI, 2.3-4.1). Among women of childbearing age, the majority of estimated seasonal influenza-associated deaths occurred in HIV-infected individuals. Pregnant women experienced an increased risk of death associated with seasonal and A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza infection compared with nonpregnant women. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Intimate Partner Violence among Women of Childbearing Age in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the prevalence and characteristics of intimate partner violence among women of childbearing age in a primary health centre. With interviewer-administered questionnaire, information on partner violence was elicited from three hundred women of childbearing age selected by systematic sampling in a ...

  18. Teen Pregnancy and Childbearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnancy has sub items, Reproductive Health & Teen Pregnancy Contraceptive Use STDs Teen Pregnancy & Childbearing Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program Trends Negative Impacts Strategies & Approaches for Prevention Engaging Adolescent Males in Prevention Tips for Parents of Teens ...

  19. 2. PREVALENCE AND PATTERN OF METHICILLIN RESISTANT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RICHY

    Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. ... Results: In our study specimens, the prevalence of MRSA was 42.7% and .... Our result also revealed excellent performance by vancomycin as all.

  20. Delayed child-bearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jo-Ann; Tough, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    To provide an overview of delayed child-bearing and to describe the implications for women and health care providers. Delayed child-bearing, which has increased greatly in recent decades, is associated with an increased risk of infertility, pregnancy complications, and adverse pregnancy outcome. This guideline provides information that will optimize the counselling and care of Canadian women with respect to their reproductive choices. Maternal age is the most important determinant of fertility, and obstetric and perinatal risks increase with maternal age. Many women are unaware of the success rates or limitations of assisted reproductive technology and of the increased medical risks of delayed child-bearing, including multiple births, preterm delivery, stillbirth, and Caesarean section. This guideline provides a framework to address these issues. Studies published between 2000 and August 2010 were retrieved through searches of PubMed and the Cochrane Library using appropriate key words (delayed child-bearing, deferred pregnancy, maternal age, assisted reproductive technology, infertility, and multiple births) and MeSH terms (maternal age, reproductive behaviour, fertility). The Internet was also searched using similar key words, and national and international medical specialty societies were searched for clinical practice guidelines and position statements. Data were extracted based on the aims, sample, authors, year, and results. The quality of evidence was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1). The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. RECOMMENDATIONS 1. Women who delay child-bearing are at increased risk of infertility. Prospective parents, especially women, should know that their fecundity and fertility begin to decline significantly after 32 years of age. Prospective parents should know that assisted reproductive technologies cannot guarantee a live birth or completely

  1. High prevalence of thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency in early childhood among a nationally representative sample of Cambodian women of childbearing age and their children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Kyly C; Smith, Geoffry; Chamnan, Chhoun

    2017-01-01

    the thiamine status (measured as erythrocyte thiamine diphosphate concentrations; eThDP) among a representative sample of Cambodian women of childbearing age (15-49 y) and their young children (6-69 mo). METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Samples for this cross-sectional analysis were collected as part...... of a national micronutrient survey linked to the Cambodian Demographic and Health Survey (CDHS) 2014. One-sixth of households taking part in the CDHS were randomly selected and re-visited for additional blood sampling for eThDP analysis (719 women and 761 children). Thiamine status was assessed using different...... cut-offs from literature. Women were mean (SD) 30 (6) y, and children (46% girls) were 41 (17) mo. Women had lower mean (95% CI) eThDP of 150 nmol/L (146-153) compared to children, 174 nmol/L (171-179; P

  2. Angiographic prevalence and pattern of coronary artery disease in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezhumalai, Babu; Jayaraman, Balachander

    2014-01-01

    There are not many studies describing the prevalence and pattern of "coronary artery disease" (CAD) in women undergoing "coronary angiography" (CAG). Hence, uncertainty thrives with regard to the angiographic prevalence and pattern of CAD in women. Our objective was to study the prevalence and pattern of CAD among women undergoing CAG. Data of 500 women who underwent CAG for suspected CAD over 3 years were retrospectively analyzed. They were classified into young group (age right coronary artery. Bifurcation lesion involving distal left main coronary artery is the most prevalent pattern of LMD. There has been a change with regard to clinical presentation and onset of risk factors for CAD at young age, but the load of atherosclerotic burden and pattern of involvement of coronary arteries have not changed in women. Copyright © 2014 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Prevalence and susceptibility pattern of methicillinresistant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multi-resistant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MMRSA) has been commonly reported to be one of the commonest causes of nosocomial infections worldwide. Also, recent reports describe methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) carriage in persons in the community. The study investigated its prevalence in urine ...

  4. Global patterns of Leptospira prevalence in vertebrate reservoir hosts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen-Ranberg, Emilie U.; Pipper, Christian Bressen; Jensen, Per Moestrup

    2016-01-01

    leptospirosis requires more detailed information on animal reservoirs that are the source of human infection. We evaluated the prevalence of Leptospira in vertebrates worldwide and its association with taxonomy, geographic region, host biology, ambient temperature, and precipitation patterns. A multivariate...

  5. Prevalence and pattern of prescription errors in a Nigerian kidney ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Setting: Kidney Care Centre is a public Specialist hospital. ... Main outcome measures: Prevalence of prescription errors, pattern of prescription errors, pharmacist's intervention. ... A medication quality assurance unit is needed in our hospitals.

  6. Patterns of Perception of Causes and Prevalence of Anaemia at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patterns of Perception of Causes and Prevalence of Anaemia at Booking in Tropical ... of pregnant women attending antenatal clinic on common causes of anaemia. ... half (53.3%) knew its mode of transmission and 33.5% knew its prevention.

  7. Prevalence and patterns of combat sport related maxillofacial injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Shirani, Gholamreza; Kalantar Motamedi, Mohammad Hosein; Ashuri, Alireza; Eshkevari, Pooyan Sadr

    2010-01-01

    Aim: This study was designed to assess the prevalence, distribution, and patterns of injury among athletes engaged in combat sports and compare the prevalence, pattern, and types of oral and maxillofacial trauma in these athletes. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 male athletes engaged in four combat sports (boxing, taekwondo, kickboxing, and Muay Thai) who had sustained bodily trauma were studied; 95 subjects with at least one traumatic injury to the face requiring treatment were referre...

  8. Family planning use: prevalence, pattern and predictors among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: High fertility,high birth rates and low family planning prevalence rate is a common feature in developing countries with consequent rapid population growth. Family planning has saved the lives and protected the health of millions of women and children. This study aims to ascertain prevalence, pattern and ...

  9. Adolescent childbearing in developing countries: a global review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S

    1998-06-01

    This article discusses the current levels and recent trends in the rate of adolescent childbearing, the timing of the first birth, and births to unmarried women for 43 developing countries. Differences in rates of adolescent childbearing by residence and level of education are also examined. The analysis is based on nationally representative fertility surveys. Substantial declines in adolescent fertility have occurred in North Africa and Asia, but levels are still high in some countries. Declines are beginning to occur in sub-Saharan Africa, but current levels are still high in most countries of this region, and the proportion of births to unmarried adolescents is increasing in some countries. In Latin America, where the level of teenage childbearing is moderate, declines are less prevalent and some small increases have occurred. Higher education is associated with lower rates of adolescent childbearing, but other socioeconomic changes cancel or reduce this effect in several countries.

  10. Prevalence and Pattern of Back Pain among Pregnant Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr S.B. OLALEYE

    Back pain is (BP) is recognized as an important problem in pregnancy. The objectives of this study were to examine the prevalence and pattern of back pain. (BP) in pregnancy. A survey of 2,187 pregnant women attending ante-natal clinics in selected Medical facilities in Ibadan and Ogbomoso, Nigeria was carried out ...

  11. Prevalence and pattern of small animal orthopaedic conditions at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Small animal orthopaedic case records of a 20-year period were surveyed to obtain the prevalence and pattern of orthopaedic conditions presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital (VTH), University of Ibadan, Nigeria, with the objective of providing data for planning on small animal healthcare facilities, policy ...

  12. Adolescent malnutrition: Prevalence and pattern in Abuja Municipal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of malnutrition among adolescents in senior secondary schools in The Abuja Municipal area council. Methods: Study design: this is a cross-sectional study conducted among adolescents (10-19 years) in secondary schools. A multistage sampling technique was employed ...

  13. Prevalence and Susceptibility Patterns of Clinical Isolates of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of Escherichia coli as an aetiologic agent in bacterial infections and its antimicrobial susceptibility patterns to ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, norfloxacin, perfloxacin, gentamycin and cotrimoxazole as a guide for empiric therapy. A retrospective study was carried out using a ...

  14. Prevalence and pattern of asthma exacerbation in children seen at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-01-15

    Jan 15, 2016 ... asthma. Aim: To determine the prevalence and pattern of acute exacerbation of asthma in ... cost to health care systems and seriously diminish the quality of life of .... also from USA, 2% of all outpatient visits and 2.3% of.

  15. ORIGINAL ARTICLE The pattern and prevalence of vertebral artery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vertebral artery injury in all patients who have fractures involving the transverse foraminae of the cervical spine, those with facet joint dislocations, and those with fractures involving the first to the third cervical vertebrae. The aim of this study was to determine the pattern and prevalence of vertebral artery injury using CTA in ...

  16. Prevalence, Pattern and Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is the most common type of violence against women. It is a major public health problem and violates the fundamental human rights of women. Aim: To determine the prevalence, pattern and consequences of IPV during pregnancy in Abakaliki, Southeast Nigeria. Subjects and ...

  17. Prevalence and pattern of Lupus erythematosus cell positivity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence and pattern of lupus erythematosus (LE) cell positivity in diseases in Ile-Ife, Osun state was carried out between January 1999 and June 2004 (5½ years). A total of 96 patients with different diseases were screened for LE cell using standard techniques. Of this number, 63 (65.6%) were females and 33 ...

  18. Prevalence and pattern of sickle cell disease in premarital couples ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Premarital haemoglobin screening is an important strategy for the control of Sickle Cell Disease. Aims: To determine the prevalence and pattern of sickle cell disease among premarital couples and to assess their attitude to the risk of sickle cell anaemia in their offspring. Settings and Design: A cross sectional ...

  19. Fertility and Childbearing Among American Female Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stentz, Natalie Clark; Griffith, Kent A; Perkins, Elena; Jones, Rochelle DeCastro; Jagsi, Reshma

    2016-10-01

    Female physicians may experience unique challenges regarding fertility and family planning. We sought to determine childbearing patterns and decision-making among American female physicians. In 2012-2013, we surveyed a random sample of 600 female physicians who graduated medical school between 1995 and 2000. Primary outcome measures included fertility and childbearing history, reflections regarding decision-making, perceptions of workplace support, and estimations of childbearing potential. Response rate was 54.5% (327/600). A majority (82.0%) of the sample were parents, 77.4% had biological children with an average of 2.3 children. Average age at medical school graduation was 27.5 years, at completion of training (completion of medical school, residency, and/or fellowship) was 31.6 years, and at first pregnancy was 30.4 years. Nearly one quarter (24.1%) of respondents who had attempted conception were diagnosed with infertility, with an average age at diagnosis of 33.7 years. Among those with infertility, 29.3% reported diminished ovarian reserve. When asked what they would do differently in retrospect, most respondents (56.8%) would do nothing differently regarding fertility/conception/childbearing, 28.6% would have attempted conception earlier, 17.1% would have gone into a different specialty, and 7.0% would have used cryopreservation to extend fertility. Fewer of those whose first pregnancy was in medical school perceived substantial workplace support (68.2%) than those whose first pregnancies followed training (88.6%). A substantial proportion of female physicians have faced infertility or have regrets about family planning decisions and career decision-making. Combining a medical career with motherhood continues to pose challenges, meriting further investigation and targeted support.

  20. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance pattern of bacterial meningitis in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaban Lamyaa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Infectious diseases are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the developing world. In Egypt bacterial diseases constitute a great burden, with several particular bacteria sustaining the leading role of multiple serious infections. This article addresses profound bacterial agents causing a wide array of infections including but not limited to pneumonia and meningitis. The epidemiology of such infectious diseases and the prevalence of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae are reviewed in the context of bacterial meningitis. We address prevalent serotypes in Egypt, antimicrobial resistance patterns and efficacy of vaccines to emphasize the importance of periodic surveillance for appropriate preventive and treatment strategies.

  1. GLOBAL PATTERNS OF LEPTOSPIRA PREVALENCE IN VERTEBRATE RESERVOIR HOSTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen-Ranberg, Emilie U; Pipper, Christian; Jensen, Per M

    2016-07-01

    Leptospirosis is a widespread emerging bacterial zoonosis. As the transmission is believed to be predominantly waterborne, human incidence is expected to increase in conjunction with global climate change and associated extreme weather events. Providing more accurate predictions of human leptospirosis requires more detailed information on animal reservoirs that are the source of human infection. We evaluated the prevalence of Leptospira in vertebrates worldwide and its association with taxonomy, geographic region, host biology, ambient temperature, and precipitation patterns. A multivariate regression analysis with a meta-analysis-like approach was used to analyze compiled data extracted from 300 Leptospira-related peer reviewed papers. A fairly uniform Leptospira infection prevalence of about 15% was found in the majority of mammalian families. Higher prevalence was frequently associated with species occupying urban habitats, and this may explain why climatic factors were not significantly correlated with prevalence as consistently as expected. Across different approaches of the multiple regression analyses, the variables most frequently correlated with Leptospira infection prevalence were the host's ability to swim, minimum ambient temperature, and methodologic quality of the study. Prevalence in carnivores was not associated with any climatic variable, and the importance of environmental risk factors were indicated to be of lesser consequence in nonhuman mammals. The dataset is made available for further analysis.

  2. Happiness and Childbearing across Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aassve, Arnstein; Goisis, Alice; Sironi, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Using happiness as a well-being measure and comparative data from the European social survey we focus in this paper on the link between happiness and childbearing across European countries. The analysis motivates from the recent lows in fertility in many European countries and that economic wellbeing measures are problematic when considering…

  3. The Prevalence and Patterns of Allergic Sensitization in Isparta, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Aynali

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and pattern of allergic sensitization in Isparta. Material and Method: Of the patients, 266 were children, 213 were women, and 119 were men. Serum specific IgE levels were analyzed by %uFB02uoroenzymeimmunoassay method (UniCAP, Pharmacia and Upjohn Diagnostics AB, Uppsala, Sweden. Results: Serum specific IgE levels were positive in 27.1% of the adults and in 26.3% of the children. Hypersensitivity to allergens was determined in 32.9% of boys, in 16.7% of girls, in 40.3% of men, and in 19.7% of women. There was no difference in allergy prevalence in terms of age (p> 0.05. However, the prevalence of allergic sensitization in males was found significantly higher than in the females (p< 0.05. The most frequently encountered allergens were as follows: Ambrosia trifida(31.6 %, honey bee (31.2 %, elm (27.6 %, nuts (18.5 %, cow epithelium (17.4%, Acarus siro (11.5 %, and penicillin G (4.2 %. Discussion: It was determined that the rates of sensitization against grass and weed pollens, tree pollens, and foods were high in Isparta and they exhibited an increased tendency in males.

  4. Abortion Legalization and Childbearing in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez Vázquez, Edith Y; Parrado, Emilio A

    2016-06-01

    In 2007 abortion was legalized in the Federal District of Mexico, making it the largest jurisdiction in Latin America, outside of Cuba, to allow women to have abortions on request during the first trimester of pregnancy. While the implications of the law for women's health and maternal mortality have been investigated, its potential association with fertility behavior has yet to be assessed. We examine metropolitan-area differences in overall and parity-specific childbearing, as well as the age pattern of childbearing between 2000 and 2010 to identify the contribution of abortion legalization to fertility in Mexico. Our statistical specification applies difference-in-difference regression methods that control for concomitant changes in other socioeconomic predictors of fertility to assess the differential influence of the law across age groups. In addition, we account for prior fertility levels and change to better separate the effect of the law from preceding trends. Overall, the evidence suggests a systematic association between abortion legalization and fertility. The law appears to have contributed to lower fertility in Mexico City compared to other metropolitan areas and prior trends. The influence is mostly visible among women aged 20-34 in connection with the transition to first and second child, with limited impact on teenage fertility. There is some evidence that its effect might be diffusing to the Greater Mexico City Metropolitan area. © 2016 The Population Council, Inc.

  5. Romania: Childbearing metamorphosis within a changing context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christin Schröder

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In 1989, the socialist regime in Romania collapsed and the state's coercive pro-natalist policy ended. Since then, fertility has gone through major changes, namely, a massive reduction in fertility and important structural changes: birth postponement, an end to universal childbearing, and the emergence of non-marital births. Family formation has been postponed, but a pattern of early marriage still persists compared to other European countries. Although unmarried cohabitation is rising, it is rarely seen as an alternative to marriage. Modern contraceptive methods are being used increasingly, but traditional contraceptive methods continue to be widespread. Abortion, which was re-legalized in 1989 and made available after two decades of prohibition, has been practiced extensively ever since, especially after first birth. Romanians in 2004 continue to have a universal preference for parenting. However, the preference for the two-child family has declined and the desire for a larger family has become the exception. The transformation of the socialist regime into a democratic society with a market economy generated a socio-economic crisis, and the majority of social benefits have therefore been oriented towards alleviating poverty. Other social policies, including those affecting the family, were redefined. However, fewer funds were made available than for those geared to promote economic development or reduce poverty and, as a consequence, their impact on childbearing has been small.

  6. Pattern and prevalence of neonatal thrombocytopenia in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaccheaus A Jeremiah

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Zaccheaus A Jeremiah1, Justina E Oburu21Hematology and Blood Transfusion Science Unit, Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State, Nigeria; 2Department of Hematology and Blood Transfusion University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, NigeriaBackground: In Port Harcourt, evidence-based guidelines for platelet transfusion therapy in neonatal patients are yet to be defined and the prevalence and pattern of neonatal thrombocytopenia has not yet been reported.Methods: Platelet counts of 132 neonatal patients admitted into the special care baby unit (SCBU at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital in Nigeria were assessed using the International Committee on Standards in Hematology (ICSH approved manual procedures for hemocytometry.6Study design: This is a cross sectional study carried out on neonates to determine the prevalence and pattern of neonatal thrombocytopenia.Results: The median platelet count of the neonates was 97.0 × 109/L (interquartile range [IQR] 50–152 while the mean age was 61.7 hours (range 1–336 hours. The overall prevalence of neonatal thrombocytopenia was 53.0%. Mild thrombocytopenia (platelet count 51–100 × 109/L was found in 39.4% of the neonates, 12.1% had moderate thrombocytopenia (platelet count 30–50 × 109/L, while severe thrombocytopenia (platelet count <30 × 109/L was detected in 1.5% of the neonates. Of these, 84.84% of the cases occurred within 72 hours (early onset. The most common clinical diagnosis among the neonates was severe birth asphyxia (33.3%, followed by neonatal jaundice (19.7%, neonatal sepsis (16.7%, low birth weight (13.6%, anemia and bleeding (6.1%, and other clinical conditions (10.6%. There was no association between clinical diagnosis and thrombocytopenia (Fisher’s exact test = 10.643; P = 0.923.Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of early onset neonatal thrombocytopenia

  7. A longitudinal examination of US teen childbearing and smoking risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Woo, Juhee; Rogers, Richard G.

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND Teenage motherhood and smoking have important health implications for youth in the United States and globally, but the link between teen childbearing and subsequent smoking is inadequately understood. The selection of disadvantaged young women into early childbearing and smoking may explain higher smoking levels among teen mothers, but teen motherhood may also shape subsequent smoking through compromised maternal depression or socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity may condition these processes. OBJECTIVE This study examines the relationship between US teen childbearing and subsequent daily smoking, accounting for prior smoking and selection processes related to social disadvantage. Analyses investigate whether socioeconomic status and depression in young adulthood explained any relationship between teen childbearing and daily smoking, as well as examining racial/ethnic heterogeneity in these processes. METHODS Multivariate binary logistic regression analyses employ the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health; N = 7,529). RESULTS The highest daily smoking prevalence occurred among non-Hispanic White teen mothers, with lower prevalence among Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black teen mothers. Compared to other women, teenage mothers are 2.5 times as likely to smoke daily in young adulthood. Their greater likelihood of daily smoking is due in part to selection and is also mediated by socioeconomic status in ways that differ by race/ethnicity. CONCLUSIONS The findings suggest that preventing teen pregnancy or ameliorating its socioeconomic consequences may decrease daily smoking in this vulnerable population. Reducing teen smoking, especially during pregnancy, could improve teen, maternal, and infant health and thereby increase US health and longevity. CONTRIBUTION This study provides new, nationally representative information about selection, mediation, and heterogeneity processes in the relationship between teen childbearing and

  8. A longitudinal examination of US teen childbearing and smoking risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Mollborn

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Teenage motherhood and smoking have important health implications for youth in the United States and globally, but the link between teen childbearing and subsequent smoking is inadequately understood. The selection of disadvantaged young women into early childbearing and smoking may explain higher smoking levels among teen mothers, but teen motherhood may also shape subsequent smoking through compromised maternal depression or socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity may condition these processes. Objective: This study examines the relationship between US teen childbearing and subsequent daily smoking, accounting for prior smoking and selection processes related to social disadvantage. Analyses investigate whether socioeconomic status and depression in young adulthood explained any relationship between teen childbearing and daily smoking, as well as examining racial/ethnic heterogeneity in these processes. Methods: Multivariate binary logistic regression analyses employ the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health; N = 7,529. Results: The highest daily smoking prevalence occurred among non-Hispanic White teen mothers, with lower prevalence among Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black teen mothers. Compared to other women, teenage mothers are 2.5 times as likely to smoke daily in young adulthood. Their greater likelihood of daily smoking is due in part to selection and is also mediated by socioeconomic status in ways that differ by race/ethnicity. Conclusions: The findings suggest that preventing teen pregnancy or ameliorating its socioeconomic consequences may decrease daily smoking in this vulnerable population. Reducing teen smoking, especially during pregnancy, could improve teen, maternal, and infant health and thereby increase US health and longevity. Contribution: This study provides new, nationally representative information about selection, mediation, and heterogeneity processes in the relationship

  9. A longitudinal examination of US teen childbearing and smoking risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Woo, Juhee; Rogers, Richard G

    2018-01-01

    Teenage motherhood and smoking have important health implications for youth in the United States and globally, but the link between teen childbearing and subsequent smoking is inadequately understood. The selection of disadvantaged young women into early childbearing and smoking may explain higher smoking levels among teen mothers, but teen motherhood may also shape subsequent smoking through compromised maternal depression or socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity may condition these processes. This study examines the relationship between US teen childbearing and subsequent daily smoking, accounting for prior smoking and selection processes related to social disadvantage. Analyses investigate whether socioeconomic status and depression in young adulthood explained any relationship between teen childbearing and daily smoking, as well as examining racial/ethnic heterogeneity in these processes. Multivariate binary logistic regression analyses employ the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health; N = 7,529). The highest daily smoking prevalence occurred among non-Hispanic White teen mothers, with lower prevalence among Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black teen mothers. Compared to other women, teenage mothers are 2.5 times as likely to smoke daily in young adulthood. Their greater likelihood of daily smoking is due in part to selection and is also mediated by socioeconomic status in ways that differ by race/ethnicity. The findings suggest that preventing teen pregnancy or ameliorating its socioeconomic consequences may decrease daily smoking in this vulnerable population. Reducing teen smoking, especially during pregnancy, could improve teen, maternal, and infant health and thereby increase US health and longevity. This study provides new, nationally representative information about selection, mediation, and heterogeneity processes in the relationship between teen childbearing and subsequent smoking.

  10. Adolescent childbearing: consequences and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruedinger, Emily; Cox, Joanne E

    2012-08-01

    Adolescent childbearing in the United States continues to occur at high rates compared with other industrialized nations, despite a recent decline. Adolescent mothers and their offspring are at risk for negative outcomes. Recent literature exploring the consequences of teenage childbearing and interventions to ameliorate these consequences are presented. Negative consequences of adolescent childbearing can impact mothers and their offspring throughout the lifespan. These consequences are likely attributable to social and environmental factors rather than solely to maternal age. Increasing educational attainment, preventing repeat pregnancy and improving mother-child interactions can improve outcomes for mothers and their children. Home, community, school and clinic-based programs are all viable models of service delivery to this population. Connecting teen mothers with comprehensive services to meet their social, economic, health and educational needs can potentially improve long-term outcomes for both mothers and their offspring. Programs that deliver care to this population in culturally sensitive, developmentally appropriate ways have demonstrated success. Future investigation of parenting interventions with larger sample sizes and that assess multiple outcomes will allow comparison among programs. Explorations of the role of the father and coparenting are also directions for future research.

  11. Prevalence and patterns of combat sport related maxillofacial injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirani, Gholamreza; Kalantar Motamedi, Mohammad Hosein; Ashuri, Alireza; Eshkevari, Pooyan Sadr

    2010-10-01

    This study was designed to assess the prevalence, distribution, and patterns of injury among athletes engaged in combat sports and compare the prevalence, pattern, and types of oral and maxillofacial trauma in these athletes. A total of 120 male athletes engaged in four combat sports (boxing, taekwondo, kickboxing, and Muay Thai) who had sustained bodily trauma were studied; 95 subjects with at least one traumatic injury to the face requiring treatment were referred to us by the physician team. The type of injury (facial laceration, facial fractures, jaw dislocation, etc.), site of facial injury (jaw, nose, malar bone, teeth, etc.), dental injuries (tooth fracture, displacement, luxation, and avulsion), causative sport (boxing, taekwondo, kickboxing, and Muay Thai) as well as demographic data were recorded. Injuries were examined clinically and radiographically, and treated accordingly by a specialist. Treatment data and demographics were recorded for each subject. Recorded data were assessed, and χ(2), ANOVA, and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to statistically analyze and compare the data. Of 120 subjects, 95 male subjects (79.2%), aged 18-25 years (avg. 20 years), had at least one traumatic injury to the face requiring medical treatment. These injuries included facial laceration, bone fractures (nose, mandible, and zygoma), dental injuries (displacement, luxation, fracture, and avulsion), and mandibular dislocation which were recorded in 83 (69.2%), 55 (45.1%), 53 (44.2%), and 8 (6.7%) cases respectively. Statistically significant differences were encountered among various injuries and the sports; kickboxing caused the most maxillofacial injuries and was identified as more injurious. Tooth fractures (59.7%) were the most common dental injuries, and the nose (84.7%) was the most frequently fractured facial bone. Lacerations were more common in Thai-boxers (93.3%). Injuries were significantly greater in professional rather than amateur athletes. In this study

  12. Prevalence and patterns of combat sport related maxillofacial injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirani Gholamreza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was designed to assess the prevalence, distribution, and patterns of injury among athletes engaged in combat sports and compare the prevalence, pattern, and types of oral and maxillofacial trauma in these athletes. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 male athletes engaged in four combat sports (boxing, taekwondo, kickboxing, and Muay Thai who had sustained bodily trauma were studied; 95 subjects with at least one traumatic injury to the face requiring treatment were referred to us by the physician team. The type of injury (facial laceration, facial fractures, jaw dislocation, etc., site of facial injury (jaw, nose, malar bone, teeth, etc., dental injuries (tooth fracture, displacement, luxation, and avulsion, causative sport (boxing, taekwondo, kickboxing, and Muay Thai as well as demographic data were recorded. Injuries were examined clinically and radiographically, and treated accordingly by a specialist. Treatment data and demographics were recorded for each subject. Recorded data were assessed, and c2 , ANOVA, and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to statistically analyze and compare the data. Results: Of 120 subjects, 95 male subjects (79.2%, aged 18-25 years (avg. 20 years, had at least one traumatic injury to the face requiring medical treatment. These injuries included facial laceration, bone fractures (nose, mandible, and zygoma, dental injuries (displacement, luxation, fracture, and avulsion, and mandibular dislocation which were recorded in 83 (69.2%, 55 (45.1%, 53 (44.2%, and 8 (6.7% cases respectively. Statistically significant differences were encountered among various injuries and the sports; kickboxing caused the most maxillofacial injuries and was identified as more injurious. Tooth fractures (59.7% were the most common dental injuries, and the nose (84.7% was the most frequently fractured facial bone. Lacerations were more common in Thai-boxers (93.3%. Injuries were significantly greater in professional rather

  13. Examining the psychosocial determinants of women's decisions to delay childbearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Allison L; White, Katherine M

    2016-08-01

    What are the psychosocial determinants of women's intentions to delay childbearing until after 35 years? Attitudes, pressure from important others, perceived self-confidence and anticipated regret all influence the decision-making process of women aged 18-30 years to defer their attempts to conceive their first child until 35+ years. Research has consistently demonstrated that, for many women, the decision to delay childbearing can lead to 'unintentional childlessness' due to a failure to consider the impact of age-related fertility decline. A large body of literature has also found strong links between age-related involuntary infertility and negative psychological impacts, including an increased prevalence of anxiety, depression, guilt, stigma and poor mental health. The study initially conducted focus groups designed to ascertain important beliefs informing participants' intentions to delay childbearing. A subsequent larger-scale quantitative questionnaire followed. Participants (n = 358) were female, aged between 18 and 30 years, lived in Australia, identified as being open to the idea of having children, were heterosexual, had not already had children, were not already pregnant, and had not received a diagnosis of medical infertility prior to participating. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed strong support for psychosocial predictors of attitude, pressure from others and perceived self-confidence as predictors of women's intentions to delay childbearing, accounting for 59% of total variance. The extended model that included anticipated regret, accounted for a significant additional 4.4% variance in intention to delay childbearing past the age of 35 years. Proportionally more participants were younger, Caucasian, and were university students, thus limiting the generalizability of results to the wider Australian community. Future research in this domain is recommended to adopt a prospective design and incorporate a measure of behaviour to

  14. The temporal patterns of disease severity and prevalence in schistosomiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciddio, Manuela; Gatto, Marino; Casagrandi, Renato; Mari, Lorenzo; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is one of the most widespread public health problems in the world. In this work, we introduce an eco-epidemiological model for its transmission and dynamics with the purpose of explaining both intra- and inter-annual fluctuations of disease severity and prevalence. The model takes the form of a system of nonlinear differential equations that incorporate biological complexity associated with schistosome's life cycle, including a prepatent period in snails (i.e., the time between initial infection and onset of infectiousness). Nonlinear analysis is used to explore the parametric conditions that produce different temporal patterns (stationary, endemic, periodic, and chaotic). For the time-invariant model, we identify a transcritical and a Hopf bifurcation in the space of the human and snail infection parameters. The first corresponds to the occurrence of an endemic equilibrium, while the latter marks the transition to interannual periodic oscillations. We then investigate a more realistic time-varying model in which fertility of the intermediate host population is assumed to seasonally vary. We show that seasonality can give rise to a cascade of period-doubling bifurcations leading to chaos for larger, though realistic, values of the amplitude of the seasonal variation of fertility

  15. Prevalence and Patterns of Learning Disabilities in School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhy, Susanta Kumar; Goel, Sonu; Das, Shyam Sinder; Sarkar, Siddharth; Sharma, Vijaylaxmi; Panigrahi, Mahima

    2016-04-01

    To assess the prevalence and patterns of learning disabilities (LD) in school going children in a northern city of India. The present cross-sectional study comprised of three-staged screening procedure for assessing learning disabilities of 3rd and 4th grade students studying in government schools. The first stage comprised of the teacher identifying at-risk student. In the second stage, teachers assessed at-risk students using Specific Learning Disability-Screening Questionnaire (SLD-SQ). The third stage comprised of assessment of the screen positive students using Brigance Diagnostic Inventory (BDI) part of NIMHANS Index of Specific Learning Disabilities for identifying the cases of LD. A total of 1211 (33.6%) children out of the total screened (n = 3600) were identified as at-risk by the teachers at the first stage. Of them, 360 were found to screen positive on the second stage using SLD-SQ. The most common deficits were missing out words or sentences while reading, misplacing letters or words while reading or writing, and making frequent mistake in spelling while writing or reading. Of these, 108 children were confirmed to have learning disability on the third stage using BDI, which represented 3.08% of the total population. Learning disability is an important concern in young school aged children. Early identification of such students can help in early institution of intervention and suitable modifications in teaching techniques.

  16. Planned and Unplanned Childbearing among Unmarried Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musick, Kelly

    2002-01-01

    Uses data from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth to examine social, demographic, and economic correlates of planned and unplanned childbearing among unmarried women. Finds that low education increases the likelihood such childbearing outside of marriage for all race and ethnic groups. Results suggest ways in which the meaning of…

  17. Dietary patterns of Korean adults and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Hae Dong; Shin, Aesun; Kim, Jeongseon

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has been increasing in Korea and has been associated with dietary habits. The aim of our study was to identify the relationship between dietary patterns and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Using a validated food frequency questionnaire, we employed a cross-sectional design to assess the dietary intake of 1257 Korean adults aged 31 to 70 years. To determine the participants' dietary patterns, we considered 37 predefined food groups in principal components analysis. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. The abdominal obesity criterion was modified using Asian guidelines. Prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the metabolic syndrome were calculated across the quartiles of dietary pattern scores using log binomial regression models. The covariates used in the model were age, sex, total energy intake, tobacco intake, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 19.8% in men and 14.1% in women. The PCA identified three distinct dietary patterns: the 'traditional' pattern, the 'meat' pattern, and the 'snack' pattern. There was an association of increasing waist circumference and body mass index with increasing score in the meat dietary pattern. The multivariate-adjusted prevalence ratio of metabolic syndrome for the highest quartile of the meat pattern in comparison with the lowest quartile was 1.47 (95% CI: 1.00-2.15, p for trend = 0.016). A positive association between the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and the dietary pattern score was found only for men with the meat dietary pattern (2.15, 95% CI: 1.10-4.21, p for trend = 0.005). The traditional pattern and the snack pattern were not associated with an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome. The meat dietary pattern was associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Korean male adults.

  18. Dietary patterns of Korean adults and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae Dong Woo

    Full Text Available The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has been increasing in Korea and has been associated with dietary habits. The aim of our study was to identify the relationship between dietary patterns and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Using a validated food frequency questionnaire, we employed a cross-sectional design to assess the dietary intake of 1257 Korean adults aged 31 to 70 years. To determine the participants' dietary patterns, we considered 37 predefined food groups in principal components analysis. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. The abdominal obesity criterion was modified using Asian guidelines. Prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the metabolic syndrome were calculated across the quartiles of dietary pattern scores using log binomial regression models. The covariates used in the model were age, sex, total energy intake, tobacco intake, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 19.8% in men and 14.1% in women. The PCA identified three distinct dietary patterns: the 'traditional' pattern, the 'meat' pattern, and the 'snack' pattern. There was an association of increasing waist circumference and body mass index with increasing score in the meat dietary pattern. The multivariate-adjusted prevalence ratio of metabolic syndrome for the highest quartile of the meat pattern in comparison with the lowest quartile was 1.47 (95% CI: 1.00-2.15, p for trend = 0.016. A positive association between the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and the dietary pattern score was found only for men with the meat dietary pattern (2.15, 95% CI: 1.10-4.21, p for trend = 0.005. The traditional pattern and the snack pattern were not associated with an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome. The meat dietary pattern was associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Korean male adults.

  19. Prevalence and patterns of HIV transmitted drug resistance in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Ríos, Santiago; Mejía-Villatoro, Carlos R; García-Morales, Claudia; Soto-Nava, Maribel; Escobar, Ingrid; Mendizabal, Ricardo; Girón, Amalia; García, Leticia; Reyes-Terán, Gustavo

    2011-12-01

    To assess human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diversity and the prevalence of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) in Guatemala. One hundred forty-five antiretroviral treatment-naïve patients referred to the Roosevelt Hospital in Guatemala City were enrolled from October 2010 to March 2011. Plasma HIV pol sequences were obtained and TDR was assessed with the Stanford algorithm and the World Health Organization (WHO) TDR surveillance mutation list. HIV subtype B was highly prevalent in Guatemala (96.6%, 140/145), and a 2.8% (4/145) prevalence of BF1 recombinants and 0.7% (1/145) prevalence of subtype C viruses were found. TDR prevalence for the study period was 8.3% (12/145) with the Stanford database algorithm (score > 15) and the WHO TDR surveillance mutation list. Most TDR cases were associated with non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) (83.3%, 10/12); a low prevalence of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors was observed in the cohort (Guatemala. TDR prevalence in Guatemala was at the intermediate level. Most TDR cases were associated with NNRTIs. Further and continuous TDR surveillance is necessary to gain more indepth knowledge about TDR spread and trends in Guatemala and to optimize treatment outcomes in the country.

  20. EFFECTS OF CHILDBEARING ON RURAL WOMEN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ifedotun Aina

    socio-economic characteristics of childbearing women involved in ... an individual is an important factor in determining performance in any situation. ..... for agricultural research institutions; CIMMTT Economics program paper No 99-2 Mexico.

  1. Prevalence and Antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Panton-Valentine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec typing by two standard multiplex PCR assay, revealed an uncharacterized resistance element. Overall antibiotic susceptibility pattern showed relatively high degree of susceptibility,however 1 isolate demostrated multidrug resistant pattern, 37(74.0%)resistant to only penicillin, 5 to ...

  2. Abortion legalization and childbearing in Mexico1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez Vazquez, Edith Y.; Parrado, Emilio A.

    2016-01-01

    In 2007 abortion was legalized in the Federal District of Mexico, making the largest jurisdiction in Latin America, outside of Cuba, to allow women to have abortions on request during the first trimester of pregnancy. While the implications of the law for women's health and maternal mortality have been investigated, its potential association with fertility behavior has yet to be assessed. In this paper, we examine metropolitan area differences in overall and parity-specific, as well as the age pattern of childbearing between 2000 and 2010 to more precisely isolate the contribution of abortion legalization to fertility in Mexico. Our statistical specification applies difference-in-difference regression methods that control for concomitant changes in other socioeconomic predictors of fertility to assess the differential influence of the law across age groups. In addition, we account for prior fertility levels and change to better separate the effect of the law from preceding trends. Overall, the evidence suggests a systematic association between abortion legalization and fertility. The law appears to have contributed to lower fertility in Mexico City compared to other metropolitan areas and prior trends, though the influence is mostly visible among women aged 20-34 in connection with the transition to first and second child with limited impact on teenage fertility. There is some evidence that its effect might be diffusing to the greater Mexico City metropolitan area. PMID:27285423

  3. Domestic gender equality and childbearing in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Goldscheider

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sweden, which is among the most gender-equal societies in the world, combines 'modern' family patterns such as unmarried cohabitation, delayed parenthood, high maternal labor force participation, and high break-up rates - all usually linked with low birth rates - with relatively high fertility. Sweden also has a high level of shared parental responsibility for home and children. Objective: After decades of late 20th century research showing that increasing gender equality in the workplace was linked with lower fertility, might gender equality in the home increase fertility? Methods: Using data from the Swedish Young Adult Panel Study (YAPS, we use Cox regression to examine the effects on first, second, and third births of 1 holding attitudes about sharing equally in the care of the home and children, and 2 actual sharing in these domestic tasks. Results: Our analysis shows that, measuring attitudes before the transition to parenthood and actual practice four years later, it is inconsistency between sharing attitudes and the actual division of housework that reduces the likelihood of continued childbearing, especially on second births among women. Conclusions: As women are most likely to confront an inconsistent situation, with egalitarian ideals in a household without equal sharing, it is clear that having a partner who does not share housework is depressing Swedish fertility.

  4. Prevalence and pattern of sleep disorder among children with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Sleep disorders significantly affect the quality of live and may impair cognitive development. Sleep disorders are reported to be common in children with neurological diseases. However no report has evaluated the prevalence of sleep disorders among children chronic neurological diseases in Nigeria.

  5. Tobacco consumption prevalence and pattern among residents of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East African Journal of Public Health ... The prevalence of cigarette smoking was 7.1% and the smokers had smoked for an average of 14.3 ± 5.2 years. ... Stringent policies on smoking including delineation of smoking zone should be put in place to reduce exposure to secondhand smoke and subsequently burdens of ...

  6. Dietary patterns and prevalence of wasting among street children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a cross-sectional study of 36 street children in Lilongwe, Malawi, dietary practices and the prevalence of wasting were assessed to provide information on the risk of poor dietary intake and malnutrition in this population. A food frequency questionnaire and 24-hour dietary recalls were used to determine dietary practices, ...

  7. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern and ESBL prevalence in nosocomial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are the most prevalent infections worldwide, mostly caused byEscherichia coli. These bacteria also produce enzymes called extended spectrum Escherichia coli. These bacteria also produce enzymes called extended spectrum Escherichia coli. These bacteria also produce enzymes called ...

  8. changing patterns of the prevalence of helicobacter pylori among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    study described the prevalence of H. pylori among large numbers of ... the gastric antrum for Rapid Urease Test (RUT) in identifying H. Pylori. Data on patient characteristics, clinical diagnosis and findings upon endoscopy were analyzed by simple ..... factors to be taken into account when planning treatment include compli-.

  9. prevalence and patterns of depression among post myocardial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Back ground: Depression often affects the clinical outcome of Myocardial Infarction. Depression reduces the recovery rate of the individual and often deteriorates the condition. Knowledge regarding the prevalence of depression after myocardial infarction is necessary for treatment purposes. The present study ...

  10. Angiographic prevalence and pattern of coronary artery disease in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu Ezhumalai

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: There has been a change with regard to clinical presentation and onset of risk factors for CAD at young age, but the load of atherosclerotic burden and pattern of involvement of coronary arteries have not changed in women.

  11. Prevalence and anatomical pattern of the median artery among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge of the anatomy of median arteries is important in the diagnosis and management of carpal tunnel and pronator teres syndromes, reconstructive surgery in the forearm, minimizing inadvertent vascular injury as well as in limiting operative complications due to unexpected bleeding. The anatomical pattern displays ...

  12. Prevalence, Patterns and Correlates of Domestic Violence in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three hundred and eight Igbo women were randomly selected to respond to a number of questions on experiences, patterns and attitudes to domestic violence. Data was collected using structured questionnaires that were complemented with focus group discussions. The results show that 78.8% of the women have ever ...

  13. The prevalence and clinical pattern of infertility in Bauchi, northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Infertility is a common condition and is now viewed as a global reproductive health issue. The causes of infertility vary widely, both among and within countries. Objectives: To describe the magnitude, pattern, aetiology, outcome of infertility and its associated factors in Bauchi, northern Nigeria. Methods: This was a ...

  14. Eating disorders among women of childbearing age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Maria Bień

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nutrition is one of the fundamental human needs, which allows for the proper functioning of the body. Nowadays, people are increasingly turning attention to the type and quantity of food intake, in order to preserve health and slim. Rigorous adherence to the principles of nutrition only healthy meals can lead to disorder orthorexia nervosa, which can lead to many complications (such as weight loss, vitamin deficiencies and mineral, hormonal disorders, psychological problems. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of eating disorders such orthorexia nervosa in women of childbearing age and to check whether there is a relationship between the occurrence of eating disorders and a global orientation of life of respondents. Material and method. The study included 280 women aged between 18 and 35 years old who voluntarily joined the study. The study used the questionnaire technique, consisting of the author's questionnaire and standardized research tools (ORTO-15 Questionnaire, the SCOFF Eating Disorders Questionnaire and the Sense of Coherence Scale SOC-29. Results. After conducting these studies found an association between the occurrence of eating disorders such as orthorexia nervosa to religion, and between type of eating disorder anorexia and bulimia and marital status, and body mass index (BMI. It was also shown that the lower the overall level of sense of coherence and its components is more common in individuals at risk of developing anorexia or bulimia. Conclusion. There is a relationship between the occurrence of eating disorders such as orthorexia nervosa to religion. There is a relationship between the occurrence of eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia marital status and body mass index of women.

  15. Cohabitation, nonmarital childbearing, and the marriage process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Musick

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Past work on the relationship between cohabitation and childbearing shows that cohabitation increases fertility compared to being single, and does so more for intended than unintended births. Most work in this area, however, does not address concerns that fertility and union formation are joint processes, and that failing to account for the joint nature of these decisions can bias estimates of cohabitation on childbearing. For example, cohabitors may be more likely to plan births because they see cohabitation as an acceptable context for childbearing; alternatively, they may be more likely to marry than their single counterparts. In this paper, I use a modeling approach that accounts for the stable, unobserved characteristics of women common to nonmarital fertility and union formation as a way of estimating the effect of cohabitation on nonmarital fertility net of cohabitors' potentially greater likelihood of marriage. I distinguish between intended and unintended fertility to better understand variation in the perceived acceptability of cohabitation as a setting for childbearing. I find that accounting for unmeasured heterogeneity reduces the estimated effect of cohabitation on intended childbearing outside of marriage by up to 50%, depending on race/ethnicity. These results speak to cohabitation's evolving place in the family system, suggesting that cohabitation may be a step on the way to marriage for some, but an end in itself for others.

  16. Spatiotemporal patterns of coral disease prevalence on Heron Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapkylä, J.; Melbourne-Thomas, J.; Flavell, M.; Willis, B. L.

    2010-12-01

    Despite increasing research effort on coral diseases, little is known about factors driving disease dynamics on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR). This is the first study to investigate the temporal patterns of coral disease prevalence and potential drivers of disease around Heron Island, in the southern Capricorn Bunker sector of the GBR. Surveys were conducted in two austral summers and three winters between November 2007 and August 2009 on six sites around the island. Six diseases were detected: brown band syndrome (BrB), growth anomalies (GA), ulcerative white spots (UWS), white syndrome (WS), skeletal eroding band disease (SEB) and black band disease (BBD). The lowest overall mean disease prevalence was 1.87 ± 0.75% (mean ± SE) in November 2007 and the highest 4.22 ± 1.72% in August 2008. There was evidence of seasonality for two diseases: BrB and UWS. This is the first study to report a higher prevalence of BrB in the winter. BrB had a prevalence of 3.29 ± 0.58% in August 2008 and 1.53 ± 0.28% in August 2009, while UWS was the most common syndrome in the summer with a prevalence of 1.12 ± 0.31% in November 2007 and 2.67 ± 0.52% prevalence in January 2008. The prevalence of GAs and SEB did not depend on the season, although the prevalence of GAs increased throughout the study period. WS had a slightly higher prevalence in the summer, but its overall prevalence was low (disease prevalence (12% of Acropora and 3.3% of Montipora species were diseased respectively). These results highlight the correlations between coral disease prevalence, seasonally varying environmental parameters and coral community composition. Given that diseases are likely to reduce the resilience of corals, seasonal patterns in disease prevalence deserve further research.

  17. Childbearing impeded education more than education impeded childbearing among Norwegian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joel E; Kravdal, Øystein; Keilman, Nico

    2011-07-19

    In most societies, women at age 39 with higher levels of education have fewer children. To understand this association, we investigated the effects of childbearing on educational attainment and the effects of education on fertility in the 1964 birth cohort of Norwegian women. Using detailed annual data from ages 17 to 39, we estimated the probabilities of an additional birth, a change in educational level, and enrollment in the coming year, conditional on fertility history, educational level, and enrollment history at the beginning of each year. A simple model reproduced a declining gradient of children ever born with increasing educational level at age 39. When a counterfactual simulation assumed no effects of childbearing on educational progression or enrollment (without changing the estimated effects of education on childbearing), the simulated number of children ever born decreased very little with increasing completed educational level, contrary to data. However, when another counterfactual simulation assumed no effects of current educational level and enrollment on childbearing (without changing the estimated effects of childbearing on education), the simulated number of children ever born decreased with increasing completed educational level nearly as much as the decrease in the data. In summary, in these Norwegian data, childbearing impeded education much more than education impeded childbearing. These results suggest that women with advanced degrees have lower completed fertility on the average principally because women who have one or more children early are more likely to leave or not enter long educational tracks and never attain a high educational level.

  18. Risk of Ionizing Radiation in Women of Childbearing Age undergoing Radiofrequency Ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Gustavo Glotz de; Gomes, Daniel Garcia; Gensas, Caroline Saltz; Simão, Mariana Fernandez; Rios, Matheus N.; Pires, Leonardo Martins; Kruse, Marcelo Lapa; Leiria, Tiago Luiz Luz

    2013-01-01

    The International Commission of Radiology recommends a pregnancy screening test to all female patients of childbearing age who will undergo a radiological study. Radiation is known to be teratogenic and its effect is cumulative. The teratogenic potential starts at doses close to those used during these procedures. The prevalence of positive pregnancy tests in patients undergoing electrophysiological studies and/or catheter ablation in our midst is unknown. To evaluate the prevalence of positive pregnancy tests in female patients referred for electrophysiological study and/or radiofrequency ablation. Cross-sectional study analyzing 2,966 patients undergoing electrophysiological study and/or catheter ablation, from June 1997 to February 2013, in the Institute of Cardiology of Rio Grande do Sul. A total of 1490 procedures were performed in women, of whom 769 were of childbearing age. All patients were screened with a pregnancy test on the day before the procedure. Three patients tested positive, and were therefore unable to undergo the procedure. The prevalence observed was 3.9 cases per 1,000 women of childbearing age. Because of their safety and low cost, pregnancy screening tests are indicated for all women of childbearing age undergoing radiological studies, since the degree of ionizing radiation needed for these procedures is very close to the threshold for teratogenicity, especially in the first trimester, when the signs of pregnancy are not evident

  19. Risk of Ionizing Radiation in Women of Childbearing Age undergoing Radiofrequency Ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Gustavo Glotz de, E-mail: gglima.pesquisa@gmail.com; Gomes, Daniel Garcia; Gensas, Caroline Saltz; Simão, Mariana Fernandez; Rios, Matheus N.; Pires, Leonardo Martins; Kruse, Marcelo Lapa; Leiria, Tiago Luiz Luz [Instituto de Cardiologia, Fundação Universitária de Cardiologia, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2013-11-15

    The International Commission of Radiology recommends a pregnancy screening test to all female patients of childbearing age who will undergo a radiological study. Radiation is known to be teratogenic and its effect is cumulative. The teratogenic potential starts at doses close to those used during these procedures. The prevalence of positive pregnancy tests in patients undergoing electrophysiological studies and/or catheter ablation in our midst is unknown. To evaluate the prevalence of positive pregnancy tests in female patients referred for electrophysiological study and/or radiofrequency ablation. Cross-sectional study analyzing 2,966 patients undergoing electrophysiological study and/or catheter ablation, from June 1997 to February 2013, in the Institute of Cardiology of Rio Grande do Sul. A total of 1490 procedures were performed in women, of whom 769 were of childbearing age. All patients were screened with a pregnancy test on the day before the procedure. Three patients tested positive, and were therefore unable to undergo the procedure. The prevalence observed was 3.9 cases per 1,000 women of childbearing age. Because of their safety and low cost, pregnancy screening tests are indicated for all women of childbearing age undergoing radiological studies, since the degree of ionizing radiation needed for these procedures is very close to the threshold for teratogenicity, especially in the first trimester, when the signs of pregnancy are not evident.

  20. Hypopituitarism patterns and prevalence among men with macroprolactinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirosh, Amit; Benbassat, Carlos; Lifshitz, Avner; Shimon, Ilan

    2015-02-01

    Men with prolactin-secreting tumors usually harbor macroadenomas. The degree of pituitary dysfunction may vary among different adenoma size subgroups, as is recovery after treatment. Our study purpose was to characterize hypopituitarism and recovery after treatment in men with macroprolactinomas. A retrospective study, including a consecutive group of 81 men with pituitary macroadenomas (≥10 mm) and hyperprolactinemia (>7×ULN). Patients were divided into three categories according to adenoma size at presentation: 10-19 mm (group A), 20-39 mm (group B), and ≥40 mm (group C). We compared total testosterone, gonadotropins, cortisol, thyroid hormones and hemoglobin levels at presentation and after treatment. Eighty-one patients were included; 24, 31 and 26 patients in groups A, B and C, respectively. Pretreatment hypogonadism prevalence was 75.0, 93.5 and 90.9% (p = 0.046; A vs B and C), central hypocortisolism - 0, 6.9 and 33.3% (p = 0.005), and central hypothyroidism - 6.7, 17.9 and 26.1% (NS) in groups A, B and C, respectively. Only 26.7% of all patients presented with hypocortisolism and/or hypothyroidism (42.9% in group C). Anemia (Hb hypopituitarism, affecting testosterone in all adenoma size groups and cortisol more in patients with larger adenomas. However, most of the men did not have pituitary hormones affected, beside testosterone. Most patients recovered central hypocortisolism but not hypothyroidism following treatment.

  1. Early adolescent childbearing in low- and middle-income countries: associations with income inequity, human development and gender equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Michele R; Kalamar, Amanda; Tunçalp, Özge; Hindin, Michelle J

    2017-03-01

    Reducing unwanted adolescent childbearing is a global priority. Little is known about how national-level economic and human development indicators relate to early adolescent childbearing. This ecological study evaluates associations of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), GINI index, Human Development Index (HDI) and Gender-related Development Index (GDI; i.e. the HDI adjusted for gender disparities) with early adolescent childbearing in 27 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) across three time periods. Among women ages 18–24, prevalence estimates for early birth (development adjusted for gender disparities in educational and economic prospects, was more consistently related to early adolescent childbearing than the absolute development prospects as given by the HDI. While creating gender equality is an important goal in and of itself, the findings emphasize the potential for improved national-level gender equitable development as a means to improve adolescents’ sexual and reproductive health.

  2. Seroepidemiology of toxoplasmosis in childbearing women of Northwest Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaii, Mehrangiz; Pourhassan, Aboulfazl; Asle-Rahnamaie-Akbari, Najibeh; Aghebati, Leili; Xie, Juliana Ling; Goldust, Mohammad; Naghavi-Behzad, Mohammad

    2013-09-01

    Toxoplasma gondii causes the most common parasitic infection in the world. Congenital transmission, prenatal mortality and abortion are major problems of T. gondii. Prevalence of toxoplasmosis is high in Iran, especially in Azerbaijan. The current literature reviewed in this paper reveal results pertaining to various regions of Iran. The present cross-sectional e-study was designed to evaluate the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in childbearing women in Northwest Iran. We evaluated 1659 women in childbearing age from several cities in Northwestern Iran (Tabriz, Maragheh, Ahar, Marand, Sarab, Miane) from July 2009 to August 2010. Women aged between 20 and 40 years and seeking prenatal care were enrolled in the study. The subjects' sera were probed with indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA). A total of 1659 subjects were examined. Titres ranged from 1:100 to 1:800. In all, 899 subjects (54.13%) were seropositive. The highest frequency of seropositivity was shown in 1:200 dilution (36.08%) and in subjects from Maragheh (84% of 211 subjects). There was a direct linear relationship between seropositivity and age (p 0.001). Also, seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis was higher in subjects with primary school/lower educational level (p 0.001) and subjects living in rural regions (p 0.001). Overall, more than 50% of women in childbearing age were seropositive for toxoplasmosis in northwestern Iran. Increasing seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis with age was a predictable result due to longer exposure to the parasite. The relationship between increasing seroprevalence and lower educational level as well as living in rural areas is in line with the latest epidemiological findings, which also show such relationships due to lower socioeconomic status.

  3. High School Dropout and Teen Childbearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcotte, Dave E.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between high school dropout and teen childbearing is complicated because both are affected by a variety of difficult to control factors. In this paper, I use panel data on aggregate dropout and fertility rates by age for all fifty states to develop insight by instrumenting for dropout using information on state…

  4. The prevalence of atopic diseases and the patterns of sensitization in adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Elisabeth Soegaard; Fomsgaard Kjær, Henrik; Eller, Esben

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Atopic diseases are among the most common chronic diseases in adolescents, and it is uncertain whether the prevalence of atopic diseases has reached a plateau or is still increasing. The use of the ISAAC (International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood) questionnaire has provided......: The children were examined eight times from birth to 14 years. Visits included questionnaire-based interviews, clinical examination, skin prick test, and specific IgE. RESULTS: Follow-up rate at 14 years was 66.2%. The 12-month prevalence of any atopic disease was high (40.3%) mostly due to a high prevalence...... comparable prevalence rates from many countries, whereas studies including clinical examinations and strict diagnostic criteria are scarce. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of atopic diseases, the pattern of sensitization, and comorbidities at 14 years in a prospective birth cohort. METHODS...

  5. Interrelationships between childbearing and housing transitions in the family life course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulu, Hill; Steele, Fiona

    2013-10-01

    Research has examined the effect of family changes on housing transitions and childbearing patterns within various housing types. Although most research has investigated how an event in one domain of family life depends on the current state in another domain, the interplay between them has been little studied. This study examines the interrelationships between childbearing decisions and housing transitions. We use rich longitudinal register data from Finland and apply multilevel event history analysis to allow for multiple births and housing changes over the life course. We investigate the timing of fertility decisions and housing choices with respect to each other. We model childbearing and housing transitions jointly to control for time-invariant unobserved characteristics of women, which may simultaneously influence their fertility behavior and housing choices, and we show how joint modeling leads to a deeper understanding of the interplay between the two domains of family life.

  6. Prevalence and pattern of radiographic hand osteoarthritis and association with pain and disability (the Rotterdam study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Dahaghin; S.M. Bierma-Zeinstra (Sita); A.Z. Ginai (Abida); H.A.P. Pols (Huib); J.M.W. Hazes (Mieke); B.W. Koes (Bart)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and pattern of radiographic osteoarthritis (ROA) of the hand joints and its association with self reported hand pain and disability. METHODS: Baseline data on a population based study (age >/=55 years) were used (n = 3906). Hand

  7. The pattern and prevalence of vertebral artery injury in patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Other important risk factors for vertebral artery injury include facet joint dislocations and fractures of the first to the third cervical vertebral bodies. The aim of this study was to determine the pattern and prevalence of vertebral artery injury on CT angiography (CTA) in patients with cervical spine fractures. Method.

  8. HIV prevalence, sexual risk behaviour and sexual mixing patterns among migrants in Amsterdam, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gras, M. J.; Weide, J. F.; Langendam, M. W.; Coutinho, R. A.; van den Hoek, A.

    1999-01-01

    To study (1) HIV prevalence; (2) sexual risk behaviour; (3) sexual mixing patterns; (4) determinants of disassortative (between-group) mixing among migrant groups in Amsterdam, the Netherlands and to gain insight into the potential for heterosexual spread of HIV/sexually transmitted diseases.

  9. The Netherlands: Childbearing within the context of a "Poldermodel" society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coen Van Duin

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The Netherlands has seen a considerable decline of the period total fertility rate and delayed childbearing, just like all other European countries. The drop in fertility, however, has not been as sharp as in many other regions of Europe. The period total fertility rate in the Netherlands has stabilized since the late 1970s at around 1.6 children per woman, and it has even risen slightly since 1995. In addition, although the Netherlands has one of the oldest first-time mothers, completed fertility is still rather high compared to other European countries, suggesting a strong "catching up" of births by women in their thirties. This chapter provides a comprehensive overview of the main driving forces behind specific fertility trends in the Netherlands. Among other factors, it focuses on changing patterns of home leaving and union formation, declining partnership stability, and the growing acceptability and use of contraception. The chapter also looks at prolonged education, rising labor-force participation of women, economic uncertainties, the growing migrant population, and family policies. Data allowing, and to the extent possible, we examine the effects of these factors on decision-making about parenthood and the timing of childbearing.

  10. Prevalence and pattern of ocular disorders seen among artisans in Owerri, Imo State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Chukwuma Eziechila

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To determine the pattern and prevalence of ocular disorders among artisans with a view to make recommendations to the appropriate ministries for the formulation of necessary policies to preserve the ocular health status of these artisans.METHODS: This was a descriptive cross sectional study in which the sample population was selected using the proportion to size technique and simple random sampling.RESULTS: There was a high prevalence of degenerative conjunctival disorders among the artisans with pingueculum topping the list at 30.1%. Automobile mechanics had the highest prevalence for conjunctival disorders, corneal opacities, and allergic conjunctivitis. Superficial foreign bodies(74.4%were the most common work related injury observed while 13.6% of the artisans developed cataract from work related injuries.CONCLUSION: Governmental policies targeted at preserving and maintaining the ocular health of the artisans is needed to reduce the prevalence of ocular disorders noted in this study.

  11. The importance of culture in childbearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewallen, Lynne Porter

    2011-01-01

    In 1972, Mary Lou Moore wrote about the importance of nurses in the United States becoming aware of childbirth traditions of other countries. In 2010, North America has become more culturally diverse, and the dominant culture related to childbirth has become the hospital culture. Nurses must acknowledge this unique culture and work to make women of all cultures comfortable in this setting to ensure a safe and satisfying childbearing experience. © 2011 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  12. Periodontal status and associated risk factors among childbearing age women in Cixi City of China*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan-min; Liu, Jia; Sun, Wei-lian; Chen, Li-li; Chai, Li-guo; Xiao, Xiang; Cao, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the periodontal status and associated risk factors among women of childbearing age to increase the awareness of oral health. Methods: The study was conducted on childbearing age women in Cixi, a city in Zhejiang Province in the southeast of China. A total of 754 women participated in periodontal examination while receiving prenatal care. Data of the women were collected from the Cixi Family Planning Commission and during an interview. Clinical periodontal indices, such as bleeding on probing (BOP), probing depth (PD), and clinical attachment level (CAL) were measured during the examination. Statistical analysis on subject-based data was performed. Results: The prevalence of periodontal disease among childbearing age women in Cixi was high (84.7%). A significant association was found between the disease and educational level, pregnancy, taking oral contraceptives, stress, alcohol consumption, overweight, dental visit, and teeth brushing (Pperiodontal disease showed deep PD, obvious BOP, and clinical attachment loss. Among this population, pregnancy was closely associated with higher BOP percentage; teeth brushing no more than once per day or brushing for less than 1 min (Pperiodontal status of childbearing age women in Cixi needs to be improved urgently. Attention towards the periodontal health should be warranted, especially for those in special statuses and with poor awareness. PMID:23463766

  13. Social dimensions related to anaemia among women of childbearing age from rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Shobha; Joshi, Smita; Bhide, Pradnya; Puranik, Bhairavi; Kanade, Asawari

    2011-02-01

    To examine various sociodemographic aspects related to consumption of micronutrient-rich foods like green leafy vegetables (GLV), which will be helpful in modifying dietary habits, a strategy that merits consideration for prevention of anaemia. Cross-sectional study for collecting data on socio-economic and anthropometric (weight, height) variables, Hb, dietary pattern (FFQ) and peripheral smear examination for classifying nutritional and iron-deficiency anaemia (IDA). Three villages near Pune city, Maharashtra, India. Rural women (n 418) of childbearing age (15-35 years). Mean Hb was 11·07 g/dl. Seventy-seven per cent of the women were anaemic (Hb women had nutritional anaemia. Higher prevalence of IDA was associated with several sociodemographic and maternal parameters, but multiple logistic regression analysis showed significant (P lack of awareness about different recipes for GLV. Our findings highlight that low consumption of GLV, which are treasures of micronutrients including Fe, is associated with genuine social reasons. This indicates a need for developing action programmes to improve nutritional knowledge and awareness leading to enhanced consumption of Fe-rich foods for preventing anaemia in rural India.

  14. Prevalence and pattern of dyslipidemia in Nepalese individuals with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokharel, Daya Ram; Khadka, Dipendra; Sigdel, Manoj; Yadav, Naval Kishor; Acharya, Shreedhar; Kafle, Ramchandra; Sapkota, Ravindra Mohan; Sigdel, Tara

    2017-04-04

    Atherogenic dyslipidemia is an important modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease among patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Timely detection and characterization of this condition help clinicians estimate future risk of cardiovascular disease and take appropriate preventive measures. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, pattern and predictors of dyslipidemia in a cohort of Nepalese patients with type 2 diabetes. We found mixed dyslipidemia as the most prevalent (88.1%) and isolated dyslipidemia (10.1%) as the least prevalent forms of dyslipidemia in our patients. The most prevalent form of single dyslipidemia was high LDL-C (73.8%) and combined dyslipidemia was high TG, high LDL-C and low HDL-C (44.7%). Prevalence of all single and mixed dyslipidemia was higher in patients with poor glycemic control and hypertension. The glycemic status of patients correlated with their fasting serum lipid profile. Dyslipidemia was associated mainly with male gender, poor glycemic control and hypertension. Atherogenic dyslipidemia is associated mainly with male gender, poor glycemic control and hypertension. It is highly prevalent in Nepalese patients with type 2 diabetes. Urgent lifestyle modification, sustained glycemic control and aggressive lipid lowering treatment plans are necessary to minimize the future risk of cardiovascular disease in this population.

  15. Childbearing and Work-Family Balance among Contemporary Russian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Temkina

    2010-01-01

    In depth interview data gathered during the last decade is used to analyze how the two main gender contracts of the professional women and the working mother relate to family planning, child birth, pregnancies, and mothering. Results indicate that while Russian women experience increasing pressure of the double burden and few signs of increasing gender equality in domestic life, the stable identity of Russian mothering contributes to the birth of at least one child. Childbearing does not depend directly on gender roles and division of labor in households. The decision to have a child and care for small children continues to be womens responsibility even as fertility patterns have modernized and gender equality in couple relations is slightly increasing. However, the type of gender contract influences the process of negotiation concerning reproductive matters and the timing of childbirth.

  16. Study of internet addiction: Prevalence, pattern, and psychopathology among health professional undergraduates

    OpenAIRE

    Sachin R Gedam; Santanu Ghosh; Lipsy Modi; Arvind Goyal; Himanshu Mansharamani

    2017-01-01

    Background: Internet has become an essential part of our daily life, especially among adolescents and youth. It is mainly used for education, entertainment, social networking, and information sharing. Its excessive use among health care providers is becoming a major concern. Aims: The aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence, understand the pattern, and to determine the association between psychopathology and internet addiction among health profession undergraduates. Materials and Meth...

  17. Prevalence and patterns of physical activity among medical students in Bangalore, India

    OpenAIRE

    Padmapriya, Krishnakumar; Krishna, Pushpa; Rasu, Thenna

    2013-01-01

    Background: Physical activity is one of the leading health indicators. The objective was to study the prevalence and patterns of physical activity among young adults. Methods: 259 Medical students (Men: Women = 116:143) in the age group of 18?22 yrs were interviewed using the official English long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). The total level of physical activity and activity in each of the 4 life domains ? work, transport, domestic and gardening and lei...

  18. Association between dietary pattern scores and the prevalence of colorectal adenoma considering population subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, Alyson; Wagner Robb, Sara; Hébert, James R; Huang, Hanwen; Ebell, Mark H

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of the current study is to examine the dietary patterns in a diverse cohort of individuals and to see if the identified dietary patterns predict the prevalence of adenoma in a cross-sectional study. Factor analysis was used to derive both sex- and population subgroup-specific dietary patterns among participants in the screening arm of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. Logistic regression was used to assess associations between identified factor scores and colorectal adenoma (CRA) in sex-specific subgroups. Three diet patterns were observed in this cohort: 'Fruits and vegetables', 'Western' and 'Sweet and salty'. Foods that loaded on each factor were similar between the racial subgroups. In men, being in the highest quintile of 'Western' dietary scores was associated with higher odds of any (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.21; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.03-1.42), advanced (aOR = 1.32; 95% CI = 1.07-1.63) or multiple (>1; aOR = 1.51; 95% CI = 1.17-1.94) adenoma, compared to those in the lowest quintile. These results were most notably seen in Caucasian men. In women, having a 'Fruits and vegetable' score in the highest quintile was associated with lower odds of multiple adenoma (>1; aOR = 0.53; 95% CI = 0.28-1.00). Of the three dietary factors, the 'Western' diet pattern was most strongly associated with prevalent CRA in Caucasian men. Further research is needed to examine the association between dietary factor scores and adenomas in the proximal colon, where there are larger racial disparities in prevalence. © 2017 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  19. Eating disorders among women of childbearing age

    OpenAIRE

    Bień, Agnieszka; Pieczykolan, Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    Bień Agnieszka, Pieczykolan Agnieszka. Eating disorders among women of childbearing age. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2017;7(3):381-391. eISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.344548 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/4289 The journal has had 7 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation. Part B item 1223 (26.01.2017). 1223 Journal of Education, Health and Sport eISSN 2391-8306 7 © Th...

  20. Prevalence and patterns of depression and anxiety in hemodialysis patients: a 12-month prospective study on incident and prevalent populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Hui Juan; Tan, Wei Jie; Mooppil, Nandakumar; Newman, Stanton; Griva, Konstadina

    2015-05-01

    Depression is common in dialysis patients and has been shown to be associated with higher morbidity and mortality, but little is known about the course of symptoms over time. The current study set up to explore group and individual patterns of change in symptoms of anxiety and depression within the hemodialysis population and to identify socio-demographic, clinical, and psychological factors that may be associated with different trajectories of emotional distress. A total of 159 hemodialysis patients (n = 42 incident and n = 117 prevalent) completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and social support and symptoms subscales from the Kidney Disease Quality of Life (Short Form) on two occasions 12 months apart. Clinical cut-offs were used to identify individual patterns of change in anxiety and depression symptoms across time, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedures were employed to establish potential correlates of these trajectories. Mean levels of anxiety and depression symptoms remained unchanged over 1 year with 44.7-54.1% of patients above cut-off at both baseline and follow-up. Individual-level analyses showed that the course of symptoms does not follow a single trajectory. While most patients had either persistent symptoms of distress (39.6% and 31.8% for depression and anxiety, respectively) or no/low symptoms of distress (32.1% and 36.9% for depression and anxiety, respectively), a total of 12.7-18.5% patients either had new-onset symptoms of depression/anxiety or symptoms diminishing over time. Patients with persisting or new-onset symptoms of depression or anxiety reported reduced perceived social support and quality of social interaction compared to the subgroups with low depressive/anxious symptoms. Different patterns of symptoms reflect heterogeneity in patients' emotional reactions and adjustment. More research is needed to identify patients at risk for emotional distress and to explore social support in the context of dialysis. Statement

  1. Prevalence and patterns of sexting among ethnic minority urban high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleschler Peskin, Melissa; Markham, Christine M; Addy, Robert C; Shegog, Ross; Thiel, Melanie; Tortolero, Susan R

    2013-06-01

    Although sexting among U.S. youth has received much popular media attention, there are only limited data on its prevalence among ethnic minority youth. This study, therefore, specifically examined the prevalence and patterns of sexting (sending and/or receiving a nude or semi-nude picture/video or a sexual text-only message) among a sample of black and Hispanic youth. Data from 1,034 tenth graders from a large, urban school district in southeast Texas were used to calculate the prevalence of sexting by gender-race/ethnicity. Overlap among sexting behaviors was also examined. Electronic surveys were administered via an audio-computer-assisted self-interview on laptop computers. Prevalence estimates were obtained, and chi-square analyses were conducted to compare the distribution of sexting behaviors by gender-race/ethnicity subgroups. More than 20% of students reported sending either a nude or semi-nude picture/video or a sexual text-only message (jointly referred to as a "sext"), and more than 30% reported receiving a sext. Sexts were also frequently shared with unintended recipients. Black males and females reported similar prevalence estimates for sexting behaviors. However, they were more likely than Hispanic males to participate in some sexting behaviors. Hispanic females reported the lowest estimates for sexting behaviors for all gender-race/ethnicity subgroups. Many youth who sent or received a nude or semi-nude picture/video were also likely to have sent or received sexual text-only messages. The results of this study indicate that sexting is prevalent among ethnic minority youth. However, more research is needed to understand the specific context and circumstances around which sexting occurs in this population.

  2. The prevalence, patterns and predictors of diabetic peripheral neuropathy in a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katulanda Prasad

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM has reached epidemic proportions in Sri Lanka. Presently there are studies on the community prevalence of distal peripheral neuropathy (DPN in Sri Lanka. We describe prevalence, patterns and predictors of DPN in patients with DM in Sri Lanka. Data were collected as part of a national study on DM. In new cases DPN was assessed using the Diabetic-Neuropathy-Symptom (DNS score, while in those with established diabetes both DNS and Toronto-Clinical-Scoring-System (TCSS were used. A binary logistic-regression analysis was performed with ‘presence of DPN’ as the dichomatous dependent variable and other independent co-variants. The study included 528 diabetic patients (191-new cases, with a mean age of 55.0 ± 12.4 years and 37.3% were males, while 18% were from urban areas. Prevalence of DPN according to DNS score among all patients, patients with already established diabetes and newly diagnosed patients were 48.1%, 59.1% and 28.8% respectively. Prevalence of DPN in those with established DM as assessed by TCSS was 24% and the majority had mild DPN (16.6%. The remainder of the abstract is based on subjects with established DM. The prevalence of DPN in males and female was 20.0% and 26.4% respectively. The mean age of those with and without DPN was 62.1 ± 10.8 and 55.1 ± 10.8 years respectively (p 

  3. Prevalence of different palatal rugae patterns in a sample Lucknow population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Asdullah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Palatoscopy is the study of palatal rugae pattern and it can be used to establish the identity of a person. The rugae are unique internal structures protected by the lips, buccal pad of fat and teeth that resist decomposition, thus serving an important role in forensic identification. The appearance of palatal rugae is constant, as they do not demonstrate changes after the completion of growth of the individual, thus increasing its utility as a personal identification tool. Aims and Objectives: To study the prevalence of different palatal rugae patterns in a sample of Lucknow, India population. Materials and Methods: The study comprised 100 healthy (50 males and 50 females subjects of age between 18 and 40 years, who were randomly selected. In this study we used the classification of rugae patterns suggested by Kapali et al. (straight, curved, wavy andcircular, and Thomas and Kotze (unification and nonspecific. Results: The mean rugae number in females was slightly more than males. The most prevalent forms in both genders were curved type followed by wavy, straight and diverging types. Straight and curved forms were significantly more in numbers in females than males. Conclusion: This is a preliminary study on a localized Indian population. Scope still exists for further studies to determine gender as well as personal identification. We believe that rugae can be used as a reliable guide in forensic identification.

  4. Social age deadlines for the childbearing of women and men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Billari, F.; Goisis, A.; Liefbroer, A.C.; Settersten, R.A.; Aassve, A.; Hagestad, G.O.; Spéder, Z.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines whether social age deadlines exist for childbearing in women and men, how they vary across countries, whether they are lower than actual biological deadlines and whether they are associated with childbearing at later ages and the availability of assisted reproduction techniques

  5. Social age deadlines for the childbearing of women and men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Billari, F.C.; Goisis, A.; Liefbroer, A.C.; Settersten, R.A. Jr.; Aassve, A.; Hagestad, G.; Spéder, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study examines whether social age deadlines exist for childbearing in women and men, how they vary across countries, whether they are lower than actual biological deadlines and whether they are associated with childbearing at later ages and the availability of assisted reproduction

  6. Prevalence and clinical patterns of psoriatic arthritis in Indian patients with psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence and clinical patterns of psoriatic arthritis (PsA varies in different parts of the world and there is little clinical and epidemiological data from the Indian subcontinent. Aims: Our study was designed to evaluate the prevalence and clinical patterns of PsA in Indian patients. Methods: This was a non-interventional, cross-sectional study, in which 1149 consecutive psoriasis patients seen over 1 year were screened for PsA according to classification of psoriatic arthritis (CASPAR criteria. Demographic and disease parameters were recorded including Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI, Nail Psoriasis Severity Index (NAPSI, and number of swollen and tender joints. Results: Among 1149 patients with psoriasis, 100 (8.7% patients had PsA, of which 83% were newly diagnosed. The most common pattern was symmetrical polyarthritis (58%, followed by spondyloarthropathy 49%, asymmetric oligoarthritis (21%, isolated spondyloarthropathy (5%, predominant distal interphalangeal arthritis (3%, and arthritis mutilans (1%. Enthesitis and dactylitis were present in 67% and 26% of cases, respectively. The mean number of swollen and tender joints were 3.63 ± 3.59 (range, 0-22 and 7.76 ± 6.03 (range, 1-26, respectively. Nail changes were present in 87% of the cases. The median PASI and NAPSI of the subjects with PsA was 3.6 and 20, respectively. There was no significant correlation of number of swollen/tender joints with PASI or NAPSI. Conclusion: There is a relatively low prevalence of PsA among Indian psoriasis patients presenting to dermatologists. No correlation was found between the severity of skin and nail involvement and articular disease.

  7. E-cigarette use in Canada: prevalence and patterns of use in a regulated market

    OpenAIRE

    Shiplo, Samantha; Czoli, Christine D; Hammond, David

    2015-01-01

    Objective Canada is among the few countries in which e-cigarettes containing nicotine are prohibited. To date, there is little evidence on the prevalence and patterns of use of e-cigarettes in markets with product bans. The current study examines e-cigarette use among a sample of non-smokers and smokers in Canada. Design Online cross-sectional survey. Setting Conducted in October 2013 using a commercial panel of Canadians from Global Market Insite, Inc (GMI). Participants In total, 1095 Canad...

  8. Prevalence and pattern of radiographic intervertebral disc degeneration in Vietnamese: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho-Pham, Lan T; Lai, Thai Q; Mai, Linh D; Doan, Minh C; Pham, Hoa N; Nguyen, Tuan V

    2015-06-01

    Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) is one of the most common skeletal disorders, yet few data are available in Asian populations. We sought to assess the prevalence and pattern of radiographic IDD in a Vietnamese population. This population-based cross-sectional investigation involved 170 men and 488 women aged ≥40 years, who were randomly sampled from the Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnam). Anthropometric data, clinical history and self-reported back and neck pain were ascertained by a questionnaire. Plain radiographs (from the cervical spine, thoracic spine to the lumbar spine) were examined for the presence of disc space narrowing and/or osteophytosis using the Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grading system. The presence of radiographic IDD was defined if the KL grade was 2 or greater in at least one disc. The prevalence of radiographic IDD was 62.4% (n = 106) in men and 54.7% (n = 267) in women. The most frequently affected site was the lumbar spine with prevalence being 50.6 and 43.2% in men and women, respectively. The prevalence of IDD increased with advancing age: 18.8% among those aged 40-49 years, and increased to 83.4% in those aged ≥60 years. Self-reported neck pain and lower back pain were found in 30 and 44% of individuals, respectively. There was no statistically significant association between self-reported neck pain and cervical spine OA. These data suggest that radiographic IDD is highly prevalent in the Vietnamese population, and that self-reported back pain is not a sensitive indicator of IDD.

  9. Childbearing and child care in surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, K L; Ho, H S; Goodnight, J E

    2001-06-01

    The responsibility for childbearing and child care has a major effect on general surgical residency and subsequent surgical practice. A survey of all graduates from a university general surgical training program between 1989 and 2000. Twenty-seven women and 44 men completed general surgical training at our university during the period, and 42 (59%) responded to our survey. The age at completion of the residency was 34.0 +/- 2.2 years for men and 33.9 +/- 2.8 years for women. During residency, 64% (14/22) of the men and 15% (3/20) of the women had children. At the time of the survey, 21 (95%) of the men and 8 (40%) of the women had children. Most residents (24 [57%] of 42) relied on their spouse for child care. During surgical practice, 18 (43%) indicated that they rely on their spouse; 19 (45%) use day care, home care, or both; and (8%) of 26 are unsatisfied with their current child care arrangement. During training, 38% (5/13) of men and 67% (2/3) of women took time off for maternity leave, paternity leave, or child care. Two of 3 surgeons would like to have had more time off during residency; most men (70%, or 7 of 10) recommended a leave of 1 to 3 months, and all women preferred a 3-month maternity or child care leave of absence. During surgical practice, only 12% (2/17) of men but 64% (7/11) of women have taken time off for either childbearing or child care. Half of the respondents (21/42) have a formal leave of absence policy at work, 52% (11/21) of which are paid leave programs. Although the workweek of our practicing graduates is 69 +/- 16 hours for men and 64 +/- 12 hours for women, 62% (26/42) spend more than 20 hours per week parenting. More than 80% (27/32) would consider a part-time surgical practice for more parenting involvement; one third of the responders suggested that 30 hours a week constitutes a reasonable part-time practice, one third preferred fewer than 30 hours, and one third favored more than 30 hours per week. Data are presented as mean

  10. Childbearing and childrearing practices in Mormonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, L J

    1990-10-01

    Mormons, who have the highest birth rates in the US, have unique childbearing attitudes and practices that should be understood by the health care practitioners who work with this population. There are several million members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in the US, and 70% of the population of Utah is Mormon. Family life is the basic unit of the religion, with women expected to serve as childbearers while men preside over the family and provide for the physical and spiritual needs of the children. Both premarital sex and adultery are prohibited, and marriage below the age of 18 years is rare. In keeping with the Mormon belief that heaven is full of millions of spirits awaiting an earthly body, birth control and abortion are also forbidden. Since the female body is regarded as the tabernacle of the spirit and the residence of God's spirit children, a high priority is given to prenatal care. Most Mormons adhere to the hegemonic model in the US physician visits in the prenatal period and delivery in a hospital. In the postpartum period, Mormon women are relieved of routine household and child care duties by extended family and church ward members. Breastfeeding is encouraged for both its health and bonding advantages. From a young age, Mormon children are given responsibilities such as household duties and the tending of younger siblings. Mothers play a key role in their children's religious education, and parents who do not rear their children strictly according to Mormon gospel are condemned. Since most deliveries of Mormon infants occur in hospitals, neonatal nurses should be mindful of the patriarchal structure of the family, expect parents to process medical information in spiritual terms, grant requests for priesthood blessings, requests for priesthood blessings and not advocate contraceptive usage.

  11. Patterns of diet-related practices and prevalence of gastro-esophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaillzadeh, A; Keshteli, A H; Feizi, A; Zaribaf, F; Feinle-Bisset, C; Adibi, P

    2013-10-01

    No studies have evaluated associations between patterns of diet-related practices as determined by latent class analysis (LCA) and gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). We aimed to assess this relationship in a large sample of Iranian adults. In a cross-sectional study in 4763 adults, diet-related practices were assessed in four domains, 'meal pattern', 'eating rate', 'intra-meal fluid intake', and 'meal-to-sleep interval', using a pretested questionnaire. LCA was applied to identify classes of diet-related practices. We defined GERD as the presence of heartburn sometimes, often or always. The prevalence of GERD in the study population was 23.5% (n = 1120). We identified two distinct classes of meal patterns: 'regular' and 'irregular', three classes of eating rates: 'moderate', 'moderate-to-slow', and 'moderate-to-fast', two major classes of fluid ingestion with meals: 'moderate' and 'much intra-meal drinking', and two classes regarding the interval between meals and sleeping: 'short' and 'long meal-to-sleep' interval. After adjustment for potential confounders, subjects with 'irregular meal pattern' had higher odds of GERD compared with subjects with 'regular meal pattern' (OR: 1.21; 1.00-1.46). However, when taking into account BMI, the association disappeared. 'Long meal-to-sleep interval' was inversely associated with GERD compared with 'short meal-to-sleep interval' (OR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.57-0.95). 'Eating rate' and 'intra-meal fluid intake' were not significantly associated with GERD. Our data suggest certain associations between dietary patterns and GERD. These findings warrant evaluation in prospective studies to establish the potential value of modifications in dietary behaviors for the management of GERD. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Prevalence and patterns of multimorbidity among the elderly in Burkina Faso: cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hien, Hervé; Berthé, Abdramane; Drabo, Maxime Koiné; Meda, Nicolas; Konaté, Blahima; Tou, Fatoumata; Badini-Kinda, Fatoumata; Macq, Jean

    2014-11-01

    To assess the prevalence and distribution patterns of multimorbidity among urban older adults in Burkina Faso. Cross-sectional study among community-dwelling elderly people aged ≥60 in Bobo-Dioulasso. We performed interviews, clinical examination and medical record review. Multimorbidity was defined as co-occurrence of at least two chronic diseases in one person whether as a coincidence or not. The overall prevalence of multimorbidity among older adults was 65%. Age ≥70 was associated with multimorbidity in multivariate analysis: adjusted OR = 1.65, 95% CI (1.01-2.68, P = 0.04). The most common chronic diseases were hypertension (82%) 95% CI (78; 86), malnutrition (39%) 95% CI (34; 44), visual impairments (28%) 95% CI (24; 33) and diabetes mellitus (27%) 95% CI (22; 31). Those aged ≥70 had significantly more malnutrition (50% vs. 31%, P = 0.0003) and osteoarthritis (8% vs. 3%, P = 0.01) than those aged 60-69. The high prevalence of multimorbidity requires a reorganization of healthcare systems in sub-Saharan Africa, especially in Burkina Faso. Interventions and care guidelines usually focused on individual diseases should be improved to better reflect this reality. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus: A multicentre study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajaduraipandi K

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is an important nosocomial pathogen. We report the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of MRSA in major southern districts of Tamilnadu. Methods: A total of 7172 clinical specimens and 1725 carrier screening samples were collected from different centers and subjected to MRSA screening using conventional microbiological methods. Subsequently the antibiotic sensitivity test was performed for the confirmed MRSA isolates. Results: Out of 906 strains of S. aureus isolated from clinical and carrier samples, 250 (31.1% and 39 (37.9% were found to be methicillin resistant respectively. Almost all clinical MRSA strains (99.6% were resistant to penicillin, 93.6% to ampicillin, and 63.2% towards gentamicin, co-trimoxazole, cephalexin, erythromycin, and cephotaxime. All MRSA strains (100% of carrier screening samples had resistance to penicillin and about 71.8% and 35.9% were resistant to ampicillin and co-trimoxazole respectively. Multidrug resistance was observed among 63.6% of clinical and 23% of carrier MRSA isolates. However, all strains of clinical and carrier subjects were sensitive to vancomycin. Conclusion: The determination of prevalence and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of MRSA will help the treating clinicians for first line treatment in referral hospitals.

  14. Fertility and the fast-track: Continued childbearing among professionals in Sweden, 1991-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Stanfors

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: During recent decades women have made considerable advances in education and the labor market, even in fast-track professions such as law, medicine, and academia. While women have entered high-status professions, the career paths of some jobs have changed little and are still inflexible, which implies that professional gains may be offset by familial losses. Objective: We investigate continued childbearing, focusing on the relationship between occupation and second and third births, among highly educated men and women in three high-status professions. Methods: We analyze the determinants of having a second or a third birth using longitudinal data from population registers in Sweden, 1991-2009. We use descriptive statistics and logistic models. Results: Net of demographic and socioeconomic controls, medical doctors are more likely to continue childbearing than lawyers and academics, irrespective of parity and gender. The patterns that emerge are independent of income. Public sector work is conducive to continued childbearing, especially for women. Conclusions: Although there are more opportunities to combine career and family in Sweden than in many other countries, this does not hold equally for all. The results indicate that working conditions and career structures contribute to making it easier for some groups than others to combine a professional career and children. Patterns that emerge reflect that women and men are not equally sensitive to career structures that imply a tradeoff between career and children at an early stage of the career. This puts policies promoting work and family for all into perspective.

  15. Human papilloma virus prevalence, genotype distribution, and pattern of infection in Thai women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthipintawong, Cheepsumon; Siriaunkgul, Sumalee; Tungsinmunkong, Kobkul; Pientong, Chamsai; Ekalaksananan, Tipaya; Karalak, Anant; Kleebkaow, Pilaiwan; Vinyuvat, Songkhun; Triratanachat, Surang; Khunamornpong, Surapan; Chongsuwanich, Tuenjai

    2011-01-01

    The pattern of infection in cervical lesions with respect to HPV subtype has not been systematically studied in Thai women. The aim here was to determine HPV prevalence, genotype, and infection pattern in cervical lesions and to estimate the potential efficacy of an HPV prophylactic vaccine. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded cervical tissue blocks of 410 Thai patients from 8 institutes in 4 regions of Thailand (northern, southern, north-eastern, and central) were studied. The samples included 169 low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSILs), 121 high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs), and 120 squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). HPV-DNA was amplified by PCR using consensus primers GP5+ and GP6+. The HPV genotype was then determined by reverse linear blot assay that included 37 HPV-specific 5'-amino-linked oligonucleotide probes. Patterns of infection were classified as single infection (one HPV type), double infection (two HPV types), and multiple infection (three or more HPV types). The mean age of the subjects was 42 years. The prevalence of HPV infection was 88.8%. The highest HPV prevalence was found in the southern region (97.1%) and the lowest in the central region (78.6%). HPV-DNA was detected in 84.6% of LSILs, 90.1% of HSILs, and 93.3% of SCCs. A total of 20 HPV genotypes were identified. The five most common high risk HPV were HPV16 (83.2%), HPV18 (59.3%), HPV58 (9.3%), HPV52 (4.1%), and HPV45 (3.8%). In double and multiple infection patterns, the most common genotypes were HPV16/18 (27.8%) and HPV11/16/18 (54.9%). HPV6 was found only in LSIL and never in combination with other subtypes. HPV11 was most common in LSIL. There is no difference of HPV type distribution in women from 4 regions of Thailand with prominent HPV16 and HPV18 in all cases. The bivalent and quadrivalent vaccines have the potential to prevent 48.6 % and 74.5% of cervical cancers in Thai women. The potential of cancer prevention would rise to 87.6% if other frequent HR

  16. Educational differentials in cohabitors' marriage intentions at different childbearing stages in seven European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergauwen, Jorik; Neels, Karel; Wood, Jonas

    2017-07-01

    Several studies have looked into the socio-economic gradients of cohabitation and non-marital fertility. According to the theory of the Second Demographic Transition, highly educated individuals can be considered as forerunners in the Western European spread of non-marital family forms after the 1970s. In Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), however, research has provided evidence for a Pattern of Disadvantage where those with the lowest education have been the most likely to adopt such family forms. Hitherto, few studies have considered the educational gradient of the intentions underlying these behaviors. This contribution uses information on marriage and fertility intentions from the Generations and Gender Surveys for seven European countries to assess educational differentials. In Western Europe we observe no strong educational gradients in marriage intentions at any childbearing stage (before, during or following). In CEE countries, however, less educated cohabitors more frequently choose for cohabitation during childbearing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. An examination of healthy aging across a conceptual continuum: prevalence estimates, demographic patterns, and validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Sara J; Jette, Alan M; Connell, Cathleen M

    2012-06-01

    Although the notion of healthy aging has gained wide acceptance in gerontology, measuring the phenomenon is challenging. Guided by a prominent conceptualization of healthy aging, we examined how shifting from a more to less stringent definition of healthy aging influences prevalence estimates, demographic patterns, and validity. Data are from adults aged 65 years and older who participated in the Health and Retirement Study. We examined four operational definitions of healthy aging. For each, we calculated prevalence estimates and examined the odds of healthy aging by age, education, gender, and race-ethnicity in 2006. We also examined the association between healthy aging and both self-rated health and death. Across definitions, the prevalence of healthy aging ranged from 3.3% to 35.5%. For all definitions, those classified as experiencing healthy aging had lower odds of fair or poor self-rated health and death over an 8-year period. The odds of being classified as "healthy" were lower among those of advanced age, those with less education, and women than for their corresponding counterparts across all definitions. Moving across the conceptual continuum--from a more to less rigid definition of healthy aging--markedly increases the measured prevalence of healthy aging. Importantly, results suggest that all examined definitions identified a subgroup of older adults who had substantially lower odds of reporting fair or poor health and dying over an 8-year period, providing evidence of the validity of our definitions. Conceptualizations that emphasize symptomatic disease and functional health may be particularly useful for public health purposes.

  18. Prevalence and patterns of renal involvement in imaging of malignant lymphoproliferative diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bach, Andreas Gunter; Behrmann, Curd; Spielmann, Rolf Peter; Surov, Alexey; Holzhausen, Hans Jurgen; Katzer, Michaela; Arnold, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Background: Renal involvement in patients with lymphoproliferative disease is an uncommon radiological finding. Purpose: To determine its prevalence and radiological appearances in a patient population. Material and Methods: All forms of lymphoproliferative disease (ICD: C81-C96) were considered. From January 2005 to January 2010, 668 consecutive patients with lymphoproliferative disease were identified with the help of the radiological database and patient records. Inclusion criteria were complete staging including appropriate CT scan and/or MRI. All stored images (initial staging and follow-up examinations) were reviewed. Results: Review of all stored images revealed renal infiltration in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (11 of 364 = 3.0%; median age = 65 years, m:f = 6:5) but also multiple myeloma (2 of 162 = 1.2%; median age = 72 years; m:f = 1:1) and leukemia (5 of 101 4.9%; median age = 12 years; m:f = 2:3). There were no cases of renal infiltration in 41 patients with Hodgkin's disease. In total there were six patients with solitary lesions, five patients with diffuse renal enlargement, four patients with perirenal lesions, and two patients with direct invasion of the kidney. Conclusion: In leukemia the most common imaging pattern is diffuse enlargement. In the other subtypes of lymphoproliferative disease no specific correlation between typical CT patterns and subtype of lymphoproliferative disease can be found. The prevalence of renal involvement is in line with earlier studies. Contrary to earlier reports, multiple lesions were not found to be a common pattern

  19. Leisure time physical activity in Saudi Arabia: prevalence, pattern and determining factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Al Khoudair, Ali Salah; Al Harbi, Mohammad Abdulwahab; Al Ali, Ahmed Radi

    2012-01-01

    Identification of reliable predictors of leisure time physical activity (LTPA) will enable healthcare providers to intervene and change the patterns of LTPA in the population to improve community health. The objectives of this study were to determine prevalence and pattern of LTPA among adult Saudis aged 18-65 years, and to define the socio-demographic determinants that correlate with LTPA in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study of 2176 adult Saudis attending urban and rural primary health care centers were selected using a multistage proportionate sampling method. Participants were personally interviewed to gather information regarding socio-demographics, physical activity pattern using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ). Physical activity (PA) in each domain was expressed in metabolic equivalents (METs). The median total METs minutes/week for LTPA for both genders was 256, higher for men (636 METs minutes/week) compared to women (249 METs minutes/week). Overall, only 19.8% of the total PA was derived from LTPA. Of the sampled population 50.0% reported doing no leisure activity. Using the cut off of 600 METs-minutes/day or 150 minutes of moderate intensity over 5 or more days/week, only 21.0% of the included sample were considered as being sufficiently active and 10.4% were in the high active category with beneficial health effects. Multivariate regression analysis showed that male, younger age (active in the LTPA domain. The prevalence and intensity of LTPA among the included sample demonstrated low levels. Nearly 80% of the included sample population did not achieve the recommended LTPA level with beneficial health effects. Female gender, urban residence and associated chronic diseases correlated with a low LTPA.

  20. Socio-economic and demographic factors influencing nutritional status among early childbearing young mothers in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Ashraful; Islam, Nurul; Bharati, Premananda; Aik, Saw; Hossain, Golam

    2016-08-26

    Early childbearing influences women's health. This study aims to examine the effects of socio-demographic factors on nutritional status of early childbearing mothers in Bangladesh based on Body Mass Index (BMI) as the indicator. Data was extracted from Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS)-2011. The survey was performed on 17,842 married women aged 15-49. We focused on early childbearing mothers (age ≤ 24, and who had delivered their first child ≤ 20). Mothers who were underweight (BMI ≤ 18.5 kg/m(2)) would be further classified into various grades of chronic energy deficiency (CED): mild (17.0 ≤ BMI Bangladesh is very high (32.1 %), associated with the still common practice of teenage marriage. Education level, wealth index, occupation, place of residence, age at first marriage and parity were important predictors for their nutritional status. The government and non-government organizations should take initiatives to reduce the prevalence of underweight mothers in Bangladesh.

  1. Familial patterning and prevalence of male androphilia among Istmo Zapotec men and muxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Francisco R; Semenyna, Scott W; Court, Lucas; Vasey, Paul L

    2018-01-01

    Male androphilia (i.e., male sexual attraction to other adult males) is known to cluster within families. Some studies demonstrate that male androphilia clusters in both the paternal and maternal familial lines, whereas other studies demonstrated that it clusters only in the latter. Most of these studies were conducted in Euro-American populations where fertility is low and the sexual orientation of male relatives can sometimes be difficult to ascertain. These two factors can potentially confound the results of such studies. To address these limitations, we examined the familial patterning of male androphilia among the Istmo Zapotec of Oaxaca, Mexico--a high fertility, non-Euro-American population where androphilic males are known locally as muxes, a third gender category. The Istmo Zapotec recognize two types of muxes--muxe gunaa and muxe nguiiu--who typify the transgender and cisgender forms of male androphilia, respectively. We compared the familial patterning of male androphilia between muxe gunaa and muxe nguiiu, as well as between gynephilic men and muxes (both cisgender and transgender forms combined). Istmo Zapotec muxe gunaa and muxe nguiiu exhibit similar familial patterning of male androphilia. Overall, muxes were characterized by significantly more muxe relatives than gynephilic men. This familial patterning was equivalent in both the paternal and maternal lines of muxes. The population prevalence rate of male androphilia was estimated to fall between 3.37-6.02% in the Istmo Zapotec. This is the first study that has compared cisgender and transgender androphilic males from the same high fertility population and demonstrated that the two do not differ with respect to the familial patterning of male androphilia.

  2. Familial patterning and prevalence of male androphilia among Istmo Zapotec men and muxes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco R Gómez

    Full Text Available Male androphilia (i.e., male sexual attraction to other adult males is known to cluster within families. Some studies demonstrate that male androphilia clusters in both the paternal and maternal familial lines, whereas other studies demonstrated that it clusters only in the latter. Most of these studies were conducted in Euro-American populations where fertility is low and the sexual orientation of male relatives can sometimes be difficult to ascertain. These two factors can potentially confound the results of such studies. To address these limitations, we examined the familial patterning of male androphilia among the Istmo Zapotec of Oaxaca, Mexico--a high fertility, non-Euro-American population where androphilic males are known locally as muxes, a third gender category. The Istmo Zapotec recognize two types of muxes--muxe gunaa and muxe nguiiu--who typify the transgender and cisgender forms of male androphilia, respectively. We compared the familial patterning of male androphilia between muxe gunaa and muxe nguiiu, as well as between gynephilic men and muxes (both cisgender and transgender forms combined. Istmo Zapotec muxe gunaa and muxe nguiiu exhibit similar familial patterning of male androphilia. Overall, muxes were characterized by significantly more muxe relatives than gynephilic men. This familial patterning was equivalent in both the paternal and maternal lines of muxes. The population prevalence rate of male androphilia was estimated to fall between 3.37-6.02% in the Istmo Zapotec. This is the first study that has compared cisgender and transgender androphilic males from the same high fertility population and demonstrated that the two do not differ with respect to the familial patterning of male androphilia.

  3. Seroprevalence of rubella among Jordanian women of childbearing age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarour, Najwa; Hayajneh, Wail A; Balbeesi, Adel; Otoom, Haidar; Al-Shurman, Abdullah; Kharabsheh, Sa'ad

    2007-05-04

    This study was conducted to assess immunity (seroprevalence) to rubella among Jordanian women of childbearing age. A multistage cluster sampling was used to recruit 1125 women of childbearing age (15-49 year) from the 12 Governorates of Jordan. Anti-rubella antibody titers were measured using enzyme-linked immunoassays. The overall immunity rate to rubella among women in childbearing age was 90.9% (CI: 88.8-92.9). However, the immunity rate was significantly lower in younger women aged 15-19 years (83%) compared to the whole cohort (Ppre-marriage counseling regarding rubella and CRS for young females.

  4. Prevalence and correlates of atypical patterns of drug use progression: findings from the South African Stress and Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, B; van Heerden, MS; Grimsrud, A; Myer, L; Williams, DR; Stein, DJ

    2012-01-01

    Objective Atypical sequences of drug use progression are thought to have important implications for the development of substance dependence. The extent to which this assumption holds for South African populations is unknown. This paper attempts to address this gap by examining the prevalence and correlates of atypical patterns of drug progression among South Africans. Method Data on substance use and other mental health disorders from a nationally representative sample of 4351 South Africans were analysed. Weighted cross tabulations were used to estimate prevalence and correlates of atypical patterns of drug use progression. Results Overall, 12.2% of the sample reported atypical patterns of drug use progression. The most common violation was the use of extra-medical drugs prior to alcohol and tobacco. Gender was significantly associated with atypical patterns of drug use with the risk pattern varying by the type of drug. None of the anxiety or mood disorders were associated with atypical patterns of use. Atypical patterns of drug use were not associated with increased risk for a lifetime substance use disorder. Conclusion Atypical patterns of drug use initiation seem more prevalent in South Africa compared to other countries. The early use of extra-medical drugs is common, especially among young women. Drug availability and social environmental factors may influence patterns of drug use. The findings have important implications for prevention initiatives and future research. PMID:21509404

  5. Problem gambling and family violence: prevalence and patterns in treatment-seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, N A; Jackson, A C; Suomi, A; Lavis, T; Thomas, S A; Patford, J; Harvey, P; Battersby, M; Koziol-McLain, J; Abbott, M; Bellringer, M E

    2014-12-01

    The primary aim of this study was to explore the prevalence and patterns of family violence in treatment-seeking problem gamblers. Secondary aims were to identify the prevalence of problem gambling in a family violence victimisation treatment sample and to explore the relationship between problem gambling and family violence in other treatment-seeking samples. Clients from 15 Australian treatment services were systematically screened for problem gambling using the Brief Bio-Social Gambling Screen and for family violence using single victimisation and perpetration items adapted from the Hurt-Insulted-Threatened-Screamed (HITS): gambling services (n=463), family violence services (n=95), alcohol and drug services (n=47), mental health services (n=51), and financial counselling services (n=48). The prevalence of family violence in the gambling sample was 33.9% (11.0% victimisation only, 6.9% perpetration only, and 16.0% both victimisation and perpetration). Female gamblers were significantly more likely to report victimisation only (16.5% cf. 7.8%) and both victimisation and perpetration (21.2% cf. 13.0%) than male gamblers. There were no other demographic differences in family violence prevalence estimates. Gamblers most commonly endorsed their parents as both the perpetrators and victims of family violence, followed by current and former partners. The prevalence of problem gambling in the family violence sample was 2.2%. The alcohol and drug (84.0%) and mental health (61.6%) samples reported significantly higher rates of any family violence than the gambling sample, while the financial counselling sample (10.6%) reported significantly higher rates of problem gambling than the family violence sample. The findings of this study support substantial comorbidity between problem gambling and family violence, although this may be accounted for by a high comorbidity with alcohol and drug use problems and other psychiatric disorders. They highlight the need for routine

  6. Trends in the dietary patterns and prevalence of obesity among Greenlandic school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnohr, C; Pedersen, J M; Alcón, M C G

    2004-01-01

    . CONCLUSION: Most of the observed trends are positive, with regard to intake of vegetables and sweets and consumption of soft drinks. The fact that a high proportion of schoolchildren consider themselves to be obese must be assumed to have a negative impact on the psychological well-being of this population......OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to examine the trends in the dietary patterns of selected food items and in the prevalence of self-perceived obesity in a population of Greenlandic schoolchildren. STUDY DESIGN: The study is based on three school surveys among Greenlandic schoolchildren, class 6......,057 and 2,010 pupils, respectively. RESULTS: The intake of vegetables has increased significantly since 1994, and the intake of fruits, sweets and soft drink has decreased significantly at a 5% level. An unchanged high proportion of schoolchildren report to be on a diet or consider themselves obese...

  7. Prevalence and Pattern of Traditional and Complementary Alternative Medicine Use in Diabetic Patients in Dubai, UAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usama ALAlami

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The current study explored the prevalence and pattern of traditional and complementary alternative medicine (TCAM use, its perceived benefits and possible impact on health outcomes amongst diabetics in Dubai, UAE. Objectives: Diabetes is highly prevalent in the UAE, with diabetics potentially not complying with the prescribed conventional medicines, or preferring to use of traditional and complementary alternative medicines. The current study therefore sheds light on these two areas. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional pilot study was conducted in 4 healthcare facilities in Dubai using quantitative data collection methods. Using a systematic random sampling method, 145 diabetic participants completed a self-reported questionnaire. Measures in the questionnaire included traditional and complementary alternative medicine use, and perceived benefits. SPSS version 21 was used for result analysis. Chi-square test was used to confirm significance amongst various groups. Results: Amongst 145 diabetic participants recruited, 66.9% were female, and 57.9% had undergraduate degree. Majority of participants (95.2% had type II diabetes. Participants age was between 20 to 79 years. The prevalence of TCAM use amongst the participants was 21.4%, with the majority of users being female (27.8%. TCAM use was more common amongst housewives (28.6%. None of the TCAM users had the intervention prescribed by a health specialist, and the majority (51.6% used it for the purpose of slowing the progression of the disease. More than half (58.1% of TCAM users reported receiving the desired effect, and 77.4% used TCAM in combination with the prescribed conventional medicine. Conclusion: The current study confirmed the un-prescribed use of TCAM amongst participants in Dubai, UAE. Further studies are required to elaborate on the interaction between TCAM and prescribed conventional medicines.

  8. Prevalence and multidrug resistance pattern of Salmonella isolated from resident wild birds of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Al Faruq

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Salmonellosis is one of the most common zoonotic diseases, and the presence of antimicrobial resistant Salmonella in wild birds is global public health threat. Throughout the last decades, multidrug resistance of Salmonella spp. has increased, particularly in developing countries. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella spp. and antimicrobial resistance pattern against Salmonella spp. from two species of resident wild birds namely house crow (Corvus splendens and Asian pied starling (Gracupica contra. Materials and Methods: Samples were collected from cloacal swabs of house crows and Asian pied starling for isolating Salmonella spp. (bacteriological culture methods followed by antimicrobial susceptibility testing (disk diffusion method against Salmonella spp. isolates during March to December 2014. Results: The prevalence of Salmonella in Asian pied starling and house crows were 67% and 65%, respectively. Within the category of samples from different species, the variation in prevalence was not varied significantly (p>0.05. Isolated Salmonella spp. was tested for resistance to six different antimicrobial agents. Among six antimicrobial tested, 100% resistance were found to penicillin, oxacillin, and clindamycin followed by erythromycin (50-93%, kanamycin (7-20%, and cephalothin (30-67% from both species of birds. Kanamycin remained sensitive in (70-73%, cephalothin (26-70%, and erythromycin appeared to be (0-30% sensitive against Salmonella spp. isolates. Isolated Salmonella spp. was multidrug resistant up to three of the six antimicrobials tested. Conclusion: It can be said that the rational use of antimicrobials needs to be adopted in the treatment of disease for livestock, poultry, and human of Bangladesh to limit the emergence of drug resistance to Salmonella spp.

  9. A Systematic Review of the Prevalence and Pattern of Imaging Defined Post-TB Lung Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamilah Meghji

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is an important risk factor for chronic respiratory disease in resource poor settings. The persistence of abnormal spirometry and symptoms after treatment are well described, but the structural abnormalities underlying these changes remain poorly defined, limiting our ability to phenotype post-TB lung disease in to meaningful categories for clinical management, prognostication, and ongoing research. The relationship between post-TB lung damage and patient-centred outcomes including functional impairment, respiratory symptoms, and health related quality of life also remains unclear.We performed a systematic literature review to determine the prevalence and pattern of imaging-defined lung pathology in adults after medical treatment for pleural, miliary, or pulmonary TB disease. Data were collected on study characteristics, and the modality, timing, and findings of thoracic imaging. The proportion of studies relating imaging findings to spirometry results and patient morbidity was recorded. Study quality was assessed using a modified Newcastle-Ottowa score. (Prospero Registration number CRD42015027958.We identified 37 eligible studies. The principle features seen on CXR were cavitation (8.3-83.7%, bronchiectasis (4.3-11.2%, and fibrosis (25.0-70.4%, but prevalence was highly variable. CT imaging identified a wider range of residual abnormalities than CXR, including nodules (25.0-55.8%, consolidation (3.7-19.2%, and emphysema (15.0-45.0%. The prevalence of cavitation was generally lower (7.4-34.6% and bronchiectasis higher (35.0-86.0% on CT vs. CXR imaging. A paucity of prospective data, and data from HIV-infected adults and sub-Saharan Africa (sSA was noted. Few studies related structural damage to physiological impairment, respiratory symptoms, or patient morbidity.Post-TB structural lung pathology is common. Prospective data are required to determine the evolution of this lung damage and its associated morbidity over time. Further

  10. Prevalence and pattern of self-medication in Karachi: A community survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afridi, M. Iqbal; Rasool, Ghulam; Tabassum, Rabia; Shaheen, Marriam; Siddiqullah; Shujauddin, M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study the prevalence and pattern of self-medication among adult males and females in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods: This cross-sectional community- based survey was carried out at five randomly selected towns of Karachi (Defence, Gulshan-e-Iqbal, North Nazimabad, Malir, Orangi town) over a period of 3 months (October, November & December 2012). A sample size of 500 adult cases (250 males & 250 females), with systemic random selection from different towns of Karachi were inducted in this study. The city was divided in 5 zones and one town from each zone was selected by systemic randomization. First available male and female from each randomly selected house were included in the study. After consent and confidentiality assurance they were interviewed on semi-structured Performa designed for this purpose. Results were analyzed and tabulated through SPSS v14.0. Result: The prevalence of self-medication in males and females in Karachi is found to be 84.8% (males 88.4% and females 81.2%). The most frequent symptoms for which self-medication used were headache (32.7%), fever (23.3%) and the medicines used were painkillers (28.8%), fever reducer medicines (19.8%). The most common reason 33.3% was previous experience with similar symptom. Conclusion: Self-medication is highly prevalent (84.8%) in Karachi. It was frequently used for headache followed by fever. Predominantly painkillers, fever reducer and cough syrups were used in the form of tablets and syrups. Main source of medicines for males were friends and for females were relatives. PMID:26649022

  11. Teenage Childbearing and its Health Consequences on the Mother ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    childbearing raise fundamental concerns about the ... on the mother and child in Eritrea, and the social and demographic context in which it occurs. ... A descriptive bivariate analysis is used to estimate the proportion of teenage women ...

  12. Childbearing Differences among Three Generations of U.S. Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NCHS Childbearing Differences Among Three Generations of U.S. Women Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir NCHS Data ... System. Keywords: birth cohort, childlessness, total fertility rate Women born in 1935 had on average three births— ...

  13. Clinical pattern and prevalence of upper gastrointestinal toxicity in patients abusing ketamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shirley Yuk Wah; Ng, Stephen Ka Kei; Tam, Yuk Him; Yee, Samuel Chi Hang; Lai, Franco Pui Tak; Hong, Cindy Yuek Lam; Chiu, Philip Wai Yan; Ng, Enders Kwok Wai; Ng, Chi Fai

    2017-09-01

    Evaluations of upper gastrointestinal toxicity from ketamine abuse are uncommon. This study investigated the clinical pattern of upper gastrointestinal symptoms in patients inhaling ketamine. In a cross-sectional study of 611 consecutive patients who were seeking treatment for ketamine uropathy in a tertiary hospital setting between August 2008 and June 2016, their clinical pattern of upper gastrointestinal symptoms was evaluated and compared with a control population of 804 non-users. A total of 168 (27.5%) patients abusing ketamine (mean age 26.3 years, 58.9% female) reported the presence of upper gastrointestinal symptoms. These symptoms were significantly more prevalent in patients inhaling ketamine than in those who were not (27.5% vs 5.2%, P ketamine abuse before symptom presentation was 5.0 ± 3.1 years. The presenting symptoms included epigastric pain (n = 155, 25.4%), recurrent vomiting (n = 48, 7.9%), anemia (n = 36, 5.9%) and gastrointestinal bleeding (n = 20, 3.3%). Uropathy symptoms were preceded by upper gastrointestinal symptoms for 4.4 ± 3.0 years in 141 (83.9%) patients. Logistic regression showed that elder age (odds ratio [OR] 1.06, P = 0.04), active abuser status (OR 1.60, P = 0.04) and longer duration of ketamine abuse (OR 1.00, P = 0.04) were independent factors associated with upper gastrointestinal toxicity. Although epigastric symptoms are unusual in the young population, upper gastrointestinal toxicity was highly prevalent in those inhaling ketamine. Enquiries about ketamine abuse are recommended when assessing young patients with epigastric symptoms. © 2017 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. Alcohol policies and practices among four-year colleges in the United States: prevalence and patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenk, Kathleen M; Erickson, Darin J; Nelson, Toben F; Winters, Ken C; Toomey, Traci L

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of college alcohol policies and practices and to identify patterns of policies/practices across colleges. An online survey of administrators at a random sample of 351 4-year U.S. colleges was conducted in 2008. The prevalence of 31 alcohol policies and practices was assessed as well as differences across size and type of colleges. Latent class analyses identified classes of colleges based on their alcohol policies/practices. The majority of colleges prohibit alcohol use at sporting events, whereas less than half prohibit alcohol use at fraternity and sorority events. Less than half of the colleges also prohibit alcohol advertising in/on campus newspapers and radio stations. Small colleges are more likely than large colleges to prohibit alcohol use at tailgating events and to prohibit newspaper alcohol advertising. Public colleges are more likely than private colleges to prohibit alcohol use in dorms but less likely to prohibit alcohol advertising. We identified four classes of colleges-the largest class (38%) was characterized by having many alcohol policies/practices, the smallest class (13%) had none or few alcohol policies/practices, and the remainder fit into two middle classes that had certain policies/practices in place but lacked others. Most colleges report implementing some alcohol policies/ practices but are lacking others. Only two of every five colleges fit into a class that has many alcohol policies. More studies are needed to validate our findings and assess whether certain policies/practices and patterns of policies are associated with reducing student alcohol consumption and related problems.

  15. Study of internet addiction: Prevalence, pattern, and psychopathology among health professional undergraduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin R Gedam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Internet has become an essential part of our daily life, especially among adolescents and youth. It is mainly used for education, entertainment, social networking, and information sharing. Its excessive use among health care providers is becoming a major concern. Aims: The aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence, understand the pattern, and to determine the association between psychopathology and internet addiction among health profession undergraduates. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 846 students of various faculties from Deemed University. Students were assessed with semi-structured data, Internet Addiction Test and Mental Health Inventory, after giving them brief instructions. Students were classified into normal students and addicted students for comparison. Results: The total prevalence of internet addiction was 19.85%, with moderate and severe addiction being 19.5% and 0.4%, respectively. Internet addiction was associated with gender, computer ownership, preferred time of internet use, login status, and mode of internet access (P < 0.05. It was also associated with anxiety, depression, loss of emotional/behavioral control, emotional ties, life satisfaction, psychological distress, and lower psychological well-being (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Significant association was found between psychopathology and internet addiction. Male gender, login status, emotional ties, and psychological distress were found to be important predictors of internet addiction among students. Hence, these parameters should be taken into consideration while promoting awareness of problematic internet use and educating students regarding healthy internet use.

  16. Prevalence and Pattern of Third Molar Impaction; A retrospective study of radiographs in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira M. Al-Anqudi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the prevalence and pattern of third molar impaction in patients between 19‒26 years old attending Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH in Muscat, Oman. Methods: The study reviewed 1,000 orthopantomograms (OPGs of patients attending the Oral Health Department of SQUH between October 2010 and April 2011. Patients were evaluated to determine the prevalence of third molar impaction, angulation, level of eruption and associated pathological conditions. Results: Of the study population, 543 (54.3% OPGs showed at least one impacted third molar. The total number of impacted molars was 1,128. The most common number of impacted third molars was two (41%. The most common angulation of impaction in the mandible was the mesioangular (35% and the most common level of impaction in the mandible was level A. Of the 388 bilateral occurrences of impacted third molars, 377 were in the mandible. There was no significant difference in the frequency of impaction between the right and left sides of both jaws. Pathological conditions associated with impacted lower third molars were found in 18%, of which 14% were associated with a radiographic radiolucency of more than 2.5 mm, and 4% of impacted lower third molars were associated with dental caries. Conclusion: This study found that more than half of Omani adult patients ranging in age from 19‒26 years had at least one impacted third molar.

  17. Iliopsoas injury: an MRI study of patterns and prevalence correlated with clinical findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bui, Kimmie L.; Ilaslan, Hakan; Recht, Michael; Sundaram, Murali

    2008-01-01

    The objective was to retrospectively determine the prevalence and patterns of iliopsoas injuries based on consecutive MRI examinations, correlated with clinical findings. From 4,862 consecutive MRI examinations of the hips and pelvis, 32 patients with 33 iliopsoas injuries were identified and graded as muscle strain, partial tendon tear, and complete tendon tears. These patients' medical records were reviewed to determine age, gender, and cause of symptoms. The prevalence of iliopsoas tendon and myotendinous injuries was 0.66% (95% CI: 0.44-0.89). There were 18 females and 14 males whose ages ranged from 7 to 95 years (mean, 54 years). The most frequent presenting symptom was hip pain and the most frequent clinical diagnosis, an occult fracture. The most common injuries in patients under 65 years (16 patients) were muscle strains and partial tendon tears, most often due to an athletic injury. The most common injury in patients 65 years and older (16 patients) was a complete tear (8 patients, all females), 2 of which were spontaneous in origin. Each grade of iliopsoas injury occurred with similar frequency. The more advanced the age of the patient, the more severe the injury. Non-athletic injuries predominated in patients 65 years and older; athletic injuries were the most common cause of iliopsoas injury in patients under 65 years. (orig.)

  18. Prevalence and treatment patterns of ranibizumab and photodynamic therapy in a tertiary care setting in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, Nur Afiqah; Ramachandran, Vasudevan; Ismail, Patimah; Mohd Isa, Hazlita; Chan, Yoke Mun; Ngah, Nor Fariza; Md Bakri, Norshakimah; Ching, Siew Mooi; Hoo, Fan Kee; Wan Sulaiman, Wan Aliaa

    2017-01-01

    To describe the prevalence and changes in treatment patterns of ranibizumab and photodynamic therapy (PDT) among retinal disease patients who attended the Ophthalmology Clinic in the tertiary care Hospital Selayang from 2010 to 2014. Study subjects were recruited retrospectively using the Electronic Medical Record (EMR) database software in Hospital Selayang. Demographic data, medical history, diagnostic procedure, treatments and diagnosis of patients were recorded. The five-year analysis included 821 patients with a mean age of 65.9±11.73y. Overall, there were a higher number of males (63.1%) and a higher number of Chinese (47.4%) patients. Among the 821 patients, 62.9% received ranibizumab injection followed by 19.2% PDT therapy and 17.9% had ranibizumab combined with PDT therapy. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) were the most common retinal eye diseases reported, recording prevalence of 25.0% and 45.6%, respectively. The trend in ranibizumab treatment was reported to increase while PDT showed a decrease in trend from year 2010 to 2014. In terms of treatment, following multiple logistic regression, AMD was associated with the subjects being more likely to have received ranibizumab monotherapy ( P Malaysia is consistent with management of patients from other countries whereby ranibizumab is the most common treatment given to patients with AMD, while PCV patients most commonly receive PDT and ranibizumab combined with PDT therapy.

  19. Aetiology of teenage childbearing: reasons for familial effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olausson, P O; Lichtenstein, P; Cnattingius, S

    2000-03-01

    The aims of the present study were to evaluate the contribution of the genetic and environmental factors to the risk of teenage childbearing, and to study whether life style, socio-economic conditions, and personality traits could explain possible familial effects. We linked two population-based registers: the Swedish Twin Register and the Swedish Medical Birth Register. The study covers female twin pairs born between 1953 and 1958, having their first infant before the age of 30 years (n = 1885). In order to separate familial effects from other environmental influences, and genetic effects from shared environmental effects, only complete twin pairs with known zygosity were included, in all 260 monozygotic and 370 dizygotic twin pairs. We used quantitative genetic analyses to evaluate the importance of genetic and environmental effects for liability to teenage childbearing. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the effects of life style, socio-economic situation, and personality on the probability of teenage childbearing, and to study whether psychosocial factors could explain possible familial effects. Fifty-nine percent (0-76%) of the variance in being a teenage mother was attributable to heritable factors; 0% (0-49%) was due to shared environmental factors; and 41% (23-67%) was explained by non-shared environmental factors. Thus, the data were consistent with the hypothesis that the familial aggregation of teenage childbearing is completely explained by genetic factors, although the alternative hypothesis that familial aggregation is entirely explained by shared environmental factors cannot be ruled out. Significant effects of smoking habits, housing conditions, and educational level were found in relation to liability to teenage childbearing. However, the familial effects on risk of teenage childbearing were not mediated through similarities in life style and socio-economic factors. When studying risk factors for teenage childbearing, it is

  20. Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Al-Darwish

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Results indicated that dental caries prevalence among school children in Qatar has reached critical levels, and is influenced by socio-demographic factors. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth values obtained in this study were the second highest detected in the Eastern Mediterranean region.

  1. Mortality in women in relation to their childbearing history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, A.; Beral, V.; Moser, K.

    1988-01-01

    With data from the Office of Population Censuses and Surveys' longitudinal study the mortality of currently married women aged under 60 in 1971 was investigated in relation to the number of liveborn children reported at the 1971 census, adjusting for their husbands' social class. Women who had never had children experienced a higher mortality from many causes of death than the parous women, and this was probably due, at least in part, to selective factors. When the analysis was confined to parous women mortality from diabetes mellitus and cervical cancer increased significantly and oesophageal cancer decreased significantly with increasing number of liveborn children. Mortality from all circulatory diseases and from hypertensive disease, ischaemic heart disease, and subarachnoid haemorrhage tended to rise with parity, though the trends were not statistically significant. Mortality from breast cancer decreased significantly with the number of liveborn children, but only when nullipara were included in the analyses. These data suggest that there may be residual and cumulative effects of childbearing which influence patterns of disease in the long term. PMID:3408979

  2. The Educational Consequences of Teen Childbearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Jennifer B.; Morgan, S. Philip; Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Guilkey, David K.

    2013-01-01

    A huge literature shows that teen mothers face a variety of detriments across the life course, including truncated educational attainment. To what extent is this association causal? The estimated effects of teen motherhood on schooling vary widely, ranging from no discernible difference to 2.6 fewer years among teen mothers. The magnitude of educational consequences is therefore uncertain, despite voluminous policy and prevention efforts that rest on the assumption of a negative and presumably causal effect. This study adjudicates between two potential sources of inconsistency in the literature—methodological differences or cohort differences—by using a single, high-quality data source: namely, The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. We replicate analyses across four different statistical strategies: ordinary least squares regression; propensity score matching; and parametric and semiparametric maximum likelihood estimation. Results demonstrate educational consequences of teen childbearing, with estimated effects between 0.7 and 1.9 fewer years of schooling among teen mothers. We select our preferred estimate (0.7), derived from semiparametric maximum likelihood estimation, on the basis of weighing the strengths and limitations of each approach. Based on the range of estimated effects observed in our study, we speculate that variable statistical methods are the likely source of inconsistency in the past. We conclude by discussing implications for future research and policy, and recommend that future studies employ a similar multimethod approach to evaluate findings. PMID:24078155

  3. Damned if you do: culture, identity, privilege, and teenage childbearing in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geronimus, Arline T

    2003-09-01

    Why is the broad American public disapproving of urban African American teen mothers and unaware that the scientific evidence on the consequences of teen childbearing, per se, is equivocal? I focus on the links between culture, identity, and privilege. I argue that the broader society is selective in its attention to the actual life chances of urban African Americans and how these chances shape fertility-timing norms, in part, because this selective focus helps maintain the core values, competencies, and privileges of the dominant group. Delayed childbearing is an adaptive practice for European Americans and an intensely salient goal they have for their children. Yet early fertility-timing patterns may constitute adaptive practice for African American residents of high-poverty urban areas, in no small measure because they contend with structural constraints that shorten healthy life expectancy. European Americans put their cultural priorities into action ahead of the needs of African Americans and employ substantial resources to disseminate the social control message meant for their youth that teenage childbearing has disastrous consequences. Their ability to develop a more nuanced understanding of early childbearing is limited by their culturally mediated perceptions. Thus, cultural dominance can be perpetuated by well-meaning people consciously dedicated to children's well-being, social justice, and the public good. The entrenched cultural interdependence of and social inequality between European and African Americans leads African Americans to be highly visible targets of moral condemnation for their fertility behavior, and also sets up African Americans to pay a particularly high political, economic, psychosocial, and health price.

  4. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from Trinidad & Tobago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monteil Michele

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA has become increasingly prevalent worldwide since it was first reported in a British hospital. The prevalence however, varies markedly in hospitals in the same country, and from one country to another. We therefore sought to document comprehensively the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of MRSA isolates in Trinidad and Tobago. Methods All Staphylococcus aureus isolates encountered in routine clinical specimens received at major hospitals in the country between 2000 and 2001 were identified morphologically and biochemically by standard laboratory procedures including latex agglutination test (Staphaurex Plus; Murex Diagnostics Ltd; Dartford, England; tube coagulase test with rabbit plasma (Becton, Dickinson & Co; Sparks, MD, USA, and DNase test using DNase agar (Oxoid Ltd; Basingstoke, Hampshire, England. MRSA screening was performed using Mueller-Hinton agar containing 6 μg oxacillin and 4% NaCl, latex agglutination test (Denka Seiken Co. Ltd, Tokyo, Japan and E-test system (AB Biodisk, Solna, Sweden. Susceptibility to antimicrobial agents was determined by the modified Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method while methicillin MICs were determined with E-test system. Results Of 1,912 S. aureus isolates received, 12.8% were methicillin (oxacillin resistant. Majority of the isolates were recovered from wound swabs (86.9% and the least in urine (0.4% specimens. Highest number of isolates was encountered in the surgical (62.3% and the least from obstetrics and gynaecology (1.6% facilities respectively. Large proportions of methicillin sensitive isolates are >85% sensitive to commonly used and available antimicrobials in the country. All MRSA isolates were resistant to ceftriaxone, erythromycin, gentamicin and penicillin but were 100% sensitive to vancomycin, rifampin and chloramphenicol. Conclusion There is a progressive increase in MRSA prevalence in the country but

  5. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus prevalence: Current susceptibility patterns in Trinidad

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    Land Michael

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA has become one of the most widespread causes of nosocomial infections worldwide. Recently, reports have emerged that S. aureus strains recovered from community-acquired infections are also methicillin-resistant. This study was undertaken to analyze the prevalence of methicillin resistance among isolates at a regional hospital in Trinidad, and document the current resistance profile of MRSA and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA to the commonly used anti-staphylococcal agents. Methods Over a 6-year period we analyzed 2430 isolates of S. aureus strains recovered from various clinical sources, from hospital and community practices. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done according to guideline recommendations of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Results The prevalence of MRSA from surgical/burn wounds, urine and pus/abscess were 60.1%, 15.5% and 6.6%, respectively. The major sources of MSSA were surgical/burn wounds, pus/abscess and upper respiratory tract specimens with rates of 32.9%, 17.1% and 14.3%, respectively. The greatest prevalence of resistance of MRSA was seen for erythromycin (86.7%, and clindamycin (75.3%. Resistance rates among MSSA were highest for ampicillin (70%. Resistance rates for tetracycline were similar among both MRSA (78.7% and MSSA (73.5%. The MRSA recovery rates from nosocomial sources (20.8% was significantly higher than that of previous years (12.5% (p Conclusion The prevalence of MRSA in the hospital increased from 12.5% in 1999 to 20.8% in 2004. Most isolates were associated with infected surgical/burn wounds which may have become infected via the hands of HCPs during dressing exercises. Infection control measures aimed at the proper hand hygiene procedures may interrupt the spread of MRSA. HCPs may also be carriers of MRSA in their anterior nares. Surveillance cultures of both patients and HCPs may help

  6. Prevalence of enteropathogens and their antibiotic sensitivity pattern in puppies with hemorrhagic gastroenteritis

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    A. Kokila Priya

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Hemorrhagic gastroenteritis (HGE ranging from mild to severe forms is commonly encountered in puppies. The aim of the study was to identify the prevalence of common enteropathogens and the antibiotic sensitivity pattern in puppies reported with HGE. Materials and Methods: The canine HGE activity index, with little modification, was adopted to identify Grade III/ severely affected puppies below 6 months of age. Fecal polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay was employed to screen and compare the enteropathogens in puppies with hemorrhagic diarrhea and healthy control. Results: Canine parvovirus 2b was identified in 90.3% of the diarrheic and 10% of the non-diarrheic healthy puppies. Clostridium difficile was identified in all the diarrheic puppies and in 80% of the healthy puppies. Among the diarrheic puppies, 17.7% were positive for Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin, 9.7% were positive for C. perfringens alpha toxin, 6.4% were positive for Escherichia coli shiga toxin, 6.4% were positive for E. coli enterotoxin (LT, and 3.2% were positive for canine distemper virus. Whereas, none of the healthy puppies were positive for these bacteria and toxins. Fecal antibiotic sensitivity test pattern revealed gentamicin to be sensitive in 95% of the cases, azithromycin in 50%, enrofloxacin in 25%, cefotaxime in 20%, and tetracycline in 5% of the cases. Conclusion: Parvoviral enteritis is predominant among puppies. Yet, bacteria and their toxins also play an important role in HGE. Gentamicin has higher sensitivity against the enteropathogens associated with the condition.

  7. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Shigella among acute diarrheal outpatients in Mekelle hospital, Northern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebrekidan, Atsebaha; Dejene, Tsehaye Asmelash; Kahsay, Getahun; Wasihun, Araya Gebreysus

    2015-10-28

    Emergence of increased antimicrobial resistance of Shigella species is a global challenge, particularly in developing countries where increased misuse of antimicrobial agents occurs. There is no published data in the study area on the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Shigella among acute diarrheal patients. This study was therefore, under taken to fill this gap. Using cross sectional study method, stool specimens were collected from 216 patients with acute diarrhea at Mekelle Hospital from August to November 2014. Standard bacteriological methods were used to isolate and determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the isolates, and data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Out of the total 216 participants, Shigella was isolated from 15 (6.9 %) of the participants. Ten (66.7 %) of the positive isolates were from children Shigella showed 100, 86.7 and 66.7 % resistance to amoxicillin, amoxicillin and cotrimoxazole respectively. Low levels of resistance were observed for norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin (6.7 % each). Overall, 80 % of the isolates showed multidrug resistance. Shigella isolates were highly resistant to amoxicillin, amoxicillin and cotrimoxazole. However, ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin were effective. Antibiotic surveillance is needed to prevent further emergence of drug resistant Shigella strains. More has to be done in the availability of latrine, supply of safe drinking water to the community to reduce the disease burden.

  8. Differences in gay men's AIDS risk knowledge and behavior patterns in high and low AIDS prevalence cities.

    OpenAIRE

    St Lawrence, J S; Hood, H V; Brasfield, T; Kelly, J A

    1989-01-01

    Several studies have found reductions in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) risk practices among gay men in high AIDS-prevalence cities since the start of the AIDS crisis. Much less is known about risk behavior patterns among gay men in smaller cities, where AIDS cases are less common and the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus infection is relatively lower. In the study, men entering gay bars in three cities, one large and two small, completed anonymous surveys of sexual practi...

  9. Smartphone use during inpatient attending rounds: prevalence, patterns and potential for distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz-Sidlow, Rachel J; Ludwig, Allison; Miller, Scott; Sidlow, Robert

    2012-10-01

    While there are numerous benefits of smartphone use for physicians, little is known about the negative effects of using these devices in the context of patient care. To assess resident and faculty smartphone use during inpatient attending rounds and its potential as a source of distraction during transfer of clinical information. Cross-sectional survey. University-affiliated public teaching hospital. All housestaff and inpatient faculty in the departments of Medicine and Pediatrics. Participants were asked about smartphone ownership, usage patterns during attending rounds, and whether team members had ever missed important data during rounds due to distraction from smartphones. Attendings were asked whether policies should be established for smartphone use during rounds. The overall response rate was 73%. Device ownership was prevalent (89% residents, 98% faculty), as was use of smartphones during inpatient rounds (57% residents, 28% attendings). According to self-reports, smartphones were used during rounds for patient care (85% residents, 48% faculty), reading/responding to personal texts/e-mails (37% residents, 12% faculty), and other non-patient care uses (15% residents, 0% faculty). Nineteen percent of residents and 12% of attendings believed they had missed important information because of distraction from smartphones. Residents and faculty agreed that smartphones "can be a serious distraction during attending rounds," and nearly 80% of faculty believed that smartphone policies should be established. Smartphone use during attending rounds is prevalent and can distract users during important information transfer. Attendings strongly favored the institution of formal policies governing appropriate smartphone use during inpatient rounds. Copyright © 2012 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  10. Prevalence and pattern of sickle cell disease in premarital couples in Southeastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnaji, G A; Ezeagwuna, D A; Nnaji, Ijf; Osakwe, J O; Nwigwe, A C; Onwurah, O W

    2013-01-01

    Premarital haemoglobin screening is an important strategy for the control of Sickle Cell Disease. To determine the prevalence and pattern of sickle cell disease among premarital couples and to assess their attitude to the risk of sickle cell anaemia in their offspring. A cross sectional descriptive study using interviewer administered questionnaire and haemoglobin screening to collect data. Systematic sampling of every third premarital couples attending the General outpatient Clinic of Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, between November 2010 and October 2011 was used to select the subjects for the study. SPSS version 16 was used for statistical analysis of data from 212 premarital couples or 424 subjects. The prevalence of HbAA and HbAS were 72.64% or 308/424 and 26.4% or 112/424, respectively, while HbSS was 0.94% or 4/424. In 95.3% of the couples there was no risk of offspring inheriting sickle cell anaemia. An equal percentage of males (χ2 = 24.704; df = 6; P = 0.000) and females (χ2 = 12. 684; df 6; P = 0.048) (67.9% or 144/212) would call-off their marriage if there was risk of their offspring being HbSS. Three quarters of the premarital couples had HbAA, while one quarter had Sickle cell trait. A very low percentage of the couples (2.8%) had 1:4 risk of their offspring inheriting SCA (HbSS). About 2/3 of the subjects would call-off the marriage if there was risk of their offspring inheriting SCA.

  11. Patterns and prevalence of violence-related skull trauma in medieval London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakowka, Kathryn

    2017-11-01

    This study aims to identify the patterns and prevalence of violence-related skull trauma (including the cranium and mandible) among a large sample of skeletons from medieval London (1050-1550 AD). In total, data from 399 skulls, representing six different sites from across medieval London, were analyzed for evidence of trauma and assessed for the likelihood that it was caused by violence. The sites include the three parish cemeteries of St Nicholas Shambles (GPO75), St Lawrence Jewry (GYE92), and St Benet Sherehog (ONE94); the two monastic houses of London Blackfriars (PIC87) and St Mary Graces (MIN86); and the early inmate cemetery from the medieval hospital of St Mary Spital (NRT85). The overall findings suggest that violence affected all aspects of medieval London society, but how that violence was characterized largely depended on sex and burial location. Specifically, males from the lay cemeteries appear to have been the demographic most affected by violence-related skull injuries, particularly blunt force trauma to the cranial vault. Using both archaeological and historical evidence, the results suggest that violence in medieval London may have been more prevalent than in other parts of medieval England, particularly rural environments, but similar to other parts of medieval Europe. However, more studies focusing on medieval trauma, and violence specifically, need to be carried out to further strengthen these results. In particular, males from the lay cemeteries were disproportionately affected by violence-related trauma, especially blunt force trauma. It perhaps indicates a means of informal conflict resolution as those of lower status did not always have the newly established medieval legal system available to them. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Khat Chewing among Students of Higher Education in Jazan Region, Saudi Arabia: Prevalence, Pattern, and Related Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Alsanosy, Rashad Mohammed; Mahfouz, Mohamed Salih; Gaffar, Abdelrahim Mutwakel

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. (1) To estimate the prevalence and behavioral patterns of Khat chewing and (2) to investigate factors that influenced the pattern of Khat use among undergraduate students in different higher education institutions in Jazan region, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study using a pretested structured self-administered quantitative questionnaire was used to collect data. SPSS version 17 software program was used for data analysis. Results. The overall current Kha...

  13. Prevalence and resistance pattern of Moraxella catarrhalis in community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections

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    Shaikh SBU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Safia Bader Uddin Shaikh, Zafar Ahmed, Syed Ali Arsalan, Sana Shafiq Department of Pulmonology, Liaquat National Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan Introduction: Moraxella catarrhalis previously considered as commensal of upper respiratory tract has gained importance as a pathogen responsible for respiratory tract infections. Its beta-lactamase-producing ability draws even more attention toward its varying patterns of resistance. Methods: This was an observational study conducted to evaluate the prevalence and resistance pattern of M. catarrhalis. Patients aged 20–80 years admitted in the Department of Chest Medicine of Liaquat National Hospital from March 2012 to December 2012 were included in the study. Respiratory samples of sputum, tracheal secretions, and bronchoalveolar lavage were included, and their cultures were followed. Results: Out of 110 respiratory samples, 22 showed positive cultures for M. catarrhalis in which 14 were males and eight were females. Ten samples out of 22 showed resistance to clarithromycin, and 13 samples out of 22 displayed resistance to erythromycin, whereas 13 showed resistance to levofloxacin. Hence, 45% of the cultures showed resistance to macrolides so far and 59% showed resistance to quinolones. Conclusion: Our study shows that in our environment, M. catarrhalis may be resistant to macrolides and quinolones; hence, these should not be recommended as an alternative treatment in community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections caused by M. catarrhalis. However, a study of larger sample size should be conducted to determine if the recommendations are required to be changed. Keywords: community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections or pneumonia, M. catarrhalis, antibiotic resistance, gram-negative diplococcic, Pakistan

  14. Prevalence, patterns and predictors of substance use among Latino migrant men in a new receiving community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissinger, Patricia; Althoff, Meghan; Burton, Nicole; Schmidt, Norine; Hembling, John; Salinas, Oscar; Shedlin, Michele

    2013-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, patterns and predictors (individual, social, cultural, and environmental) of illicit drug use and binge drinking in a cohort of Latino migrant men (LMM) in a new receiving community. A cohort of LMM in New Orleans (n=125) was assembled in 2007 using respondent driven sampling and interviewed quarterly for 18 months regarding past month substance use and other potential covariates. Baseline frequencies were weighted using RDSAT and longitudinal analyses included generalized estimating equations (GEE) and the Cochran-Armitage test for trends. At baseline, substance use behaviors were: drug use 15.0% (range 7.3-25.0%) and binge drinking 58.3% (range 43.6-74.6%). All three of these behaviors decreased over follow-up (Pworker was associated with increased risk, whereas belonging to a club or organization was associated with less risk. Additional factors associated with increased drug use were: having a friend in New Orleans upon arrival, symptoms of depression, and working in construction. An additional factor associated with less binge drinking was having family in New Orleans upon arrival. Among LMM, substance use is influenced by social and environmental factors. Interventions increase community connectedness may help decrease usage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. PREVALENCE AND PATTERN OF SUBSTANCE ABUSE AT BANDARDEWA, A BORDER AREA OF ASSAM AND ARUNACHAL PRADESH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, N.C.; Biswas, D.; Phukan, R.K.; Hazarika, D.; Mahanta, J.

    2000-01-01

    A total of 312 persons aged 10 years and above were interviewed to collect information about their habits of taking tobacco, alcohol and other substances. The study reveals that 40.4% of the respondents used tobacco irrespective of their using pattern, with significant difference between sexes (p< 0.001). Among tobacco users 58.2% were only tobacco chewers. 26.3% were smokers and 15% of them were practicing both the modes. 61.4% among housewives were tobacco users. Prevalence of alcohol use was 36.5% among the respondents. Alcohol use among males (39.5%) was slightly higher than females (32.6%). A significant association of alcohol users (p< 0.01) was observed with level of educational status. 3.4% of the study population were found to be habituated with substance abuse other than tobacco and alcohol. Percentage of injecting drug users was found to be 1.28%. A very small number (0.64%) was also found to be addicted to petrol inhalation. PMID:21407954

  16. Land cover variation and West Nile virus prevalence: Patterns, processes, and implications for disease control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezenwa, V.O.; Milheim, L.E.; Coffey, M.F.; Godsey, M.S.; King, R.J.; Guptill, S.C.

    2007-01-01

    Identifying links between environmental variables and infectious disease risk is essential to understanding how human-induced environmental changes will effect the dynamics of human and wildlife diseases. Although land cover change has often been tied to spatial variation in disease occurrence, the underlying factors driving the correlations are often unknown, limiting the applicability of these results for disease prevention and control. In this study, we described associations between land cover composition and West Nile virus (WNV) infection prevalence, and investigated three potential processes accounting for observed patterns: (1) variation in vector density; (2) variation in amplification host abundance; and (3) variation in host community composition. Interestingly, we found that WNV infection rates among Culex mosquitoes declined with increasing wetland cover, but wetland area was not significantly associated with either vector density or amplification host abundance. By contrast, wetland area was strongly correlated with host community composition, and model comparisons suggested that this factor accounted, at least partially, for the observed effect of wetland area on WNV infection risk. Our results suggest that preserving large wetland areas, and by extension, intact wetland bird communities, may represent a valuable ecosystem-based approach for controlling WNV outbreaks. ?? Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  17. Pathways to adolescent childbearing among Kaqchikel women in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemon, Emily; Hennink, Monique; Can Saquic, Nely Amparo

    2017-10-01

    One-in-five children in Guatemala is born to a mother aged 15-19 years, which poses social, economic and health risks to both mother and child. In Guatemala, adolescent childbearing is directly associated with education, ethnicity and poverty, which increases vulnerability among Indigenous young women living in poverty. This study examines the context and experiences of adolescent childbearing from the perspectives of young mothers in the Kaqchikel Indigenous ethnic group of Sololá, Guatemala. Data were collected in 19 qualitative in-depth interviews with women who had given birth to one or more children when aged 15 to 19 years. Grounded theory and narrative analysis were used to develop a conceptual framework of the process and influences on childbearing. Four distinct pathways were identified, which were influenced by gender expectations, limited communication about sex and stigma around sex. The study identifies key sociocultural influences that lead to adolescent childbearing and reveals variability within these. Identifying distinct pathways to early childbearing and their influences enables a clearer understanding of potential opportunities to interrupt these pathways with culturally relevant policies and programmes, in particular those that promote gender equality and intergenerational communication about sex.

  18. Prevalence and patterns of cognitive impairment in adult hemodialysis patients: the COGNITIVE-HD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zwieten, Anita; Wong, Germaine; Ruospo, Marinella; Palmer, Suetonia C; Barulli, Maria Rosaria; Iurillo, Annalisa; Saglimbene, Valeria; Natale, Patrizia; Gargano, Letizia; Murgo, Marco; Loy, Clement T; Tortelli, Rosanna; Craig, Jonathan C; Johnson, David W; Tonelli, Marcello; Hegbrant, Jörgen; Wollheim, Charlotta; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Strippoli, Giovanni F M

    2017-11-22

    Mounting evidence indicates an increased risk of cognitive impairment in adults with end-stage kidney disease on dialysis, but the extent and pattern of deficits across the spectrum of cognitive domains are uncertain. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 676 adult hemodialysis patients from 20 centers in Italy, aiming to evaluate the prevalence and patterns of cognitive impairment across five domains of learning and memory, complex attention, executive function, language and perceptual-motor function. We assessed cognitive function using a neuropsychological battery of 10 tests and calculated test and domain z-scores using population norms (age or age/education). We defined cognitive impairment as a z-score  ≤ -1.5. Participants' median age was 70.9 years (range 21.6-94.1) and 262 (38.8%) were women. Proportions of impairment on each domain were as follows: perceptual-motor function 31.5% (150/476), language 41.2% (273/662), executive function 41.7% (281/674), learning and memory 42.2% (269/638), complex attention 48.8% (329/674). Among 474 participants with data for all domains, only 28.9% (n  =  137) were not impaired on any domain, with 25.9% impaired on a single domain (n  =  123), 17.3% on two (n  =  82), 13.9% on three (n  =  66), 9.1% on four (n  =  43) and 4.9% (n  =  23) on all five. Across patients, patterns of impairment combinations were diverse. In conclusion, cognitive impairment is extremely common in hemodialysis patients, across numerous domains, and patients often experience multiple deficits simultaneously. Clinical care should be tailored to meet the needs of patients with different types of cognitive impairment and future research should focus on identifying risk factors for cognitive decline. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  19. Changing prevalence and resistance patterns in children with drug-resistant tuberculosis in Mumbai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ira; Shah, Forum

    2017-05-01

    The prevalence of drug-resistant (DR) tuberculosis (TB) in children is increasing. Although, in India, multi-drug-resistant (MDR) TB rates have been relatively stable, the number of children with pre-extensively drug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) TB is increasing. To determine whether the prevalence of DR TB in children in Mumbai is changing and to study the evolving patterns of resistance. A retrospective study was undertaken in 1311 paediatric patients referred between April 2007 and March 2013 to the Paediatric TB clinic at B. J. Wadia Hospital for Children, Mumbai. Children were defined as having DR TB on the basis of drug susceptibility testing (DST) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis grown on culture of body fluids (in the case of extra pulmonary TB) or from gastric lavage/bronchi-alveolar lavage/sputum in patients with pulmonary TB or from DST of the contacts. The prevalence of DR TB was calculated and the type of DR was evaluated yearly and in the pre-2010 and post-2010 eras. The overall prevalence of DR TB was 86 (6.6%) with an increase from 23 (5.6%) patients pre-2010 to 63 (7%) post-2010 (P = 0.40). Nine (10.4%) patients were diagnosed on the basis of contact with a parent with DR TB. Overall fluoroquinolone resistance increased from 9 (39.1%) pre-2010 to 59 (93.7%) post-2010 (P = 0.0001): moxifloxacin resistance increased from 2 (8.7%) to 29 (46%) (P = 0.0018) and ofloxacin resistance increased from 7 (30.4%) to 30 (47.6%) (P = 0.14). Ethionamide resistance also increased from 6 (26.1%) to 31 (49.2%) (P = 0.04), aminoglycoside resistance was one (4.3%) pre-2010 and 12 (19%) post-2010 (P = 0.17) and resistance remained virtually the same for both amikacin [0 pre-2010 and 6 (9.5%) after 2010] and kanamycin [one (4.3%) pre- and 6 (9.5%) post-2010]. Of the first-line drugs, resistance remained the same for isoniazid [23 (100%) to 61 (96.8%)], rifampicin [22 (95.7%) to 51 (80.9%),P = 0.17], pyrazinamide [15 (65.2%) to

  20. E-cigarette use in Canada: prevalence and patterns of use in a regulated market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiplo, Samantha; Czoli, Christine D; Hammond, David

    2015-01-01

    Objective Canada is among the few countries in which e-cigarettes containing nicotine are prohibited. To date, there is little evidence on the prevalence and patterns of use of e-cigarettes in markets with product bans. The current study examines e-cigarette use among a sample of non-smokers and smokers in Canada. Design Online cross-sectional survey. Setting Conducted in October 2013 using a commercial panel of Canadians from Global Market Insite, Inc (GMI). Participants In total, 1095 Canadians were included in the analysis: 311 non-smokers aged 16–24 years (younger non-smokers), 323 smokers aged 16–24 years (younger smokers) and 461 smokers 25 years and older (older smokers). Primary and secondary outcome measures E-cigarette ever and current use, types of products used, and reasons for use. Results Approximately 79% of younger non-smokers, 82% of younger smokers and 81% of older smokers were aware of e-cigarettes. Ever trial of e-cigarettes was reported by 10% of younger non-smokers, 42% of younger smokers and 27% of older smokers. Moreover, current use of an e-cigarette, which was defined as use in the last 30 days, was reported by 0.3% of younger non-smokers, 18% of younger smokers and 10% of older smokers. Among those who had ever tried an e-cigarette, approximately 10% of younger non-smokers, 46% of younger smokers and 43% of older smokers reported trying an e-cigarette that contained nicotine. The most popular e-cigarette flavours were fruit followed by menthol, and the most common reason for using e-cigarettes was to help them quit smoking. Conclusions In the context of previous research, it appears that the prevalence of e-cigarette trial has increased in Canada. Although a considerable proportion of non-smokers have tried e-cigarettes, current use is almost entirely concentrated among smokers. Further research should be conducted to monitor e-cigarette use by Canadians. PMID:26310400

  1. E-cigarette use in Canada: prevalence and patterns of use in a regulated market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiplo, Samantha; Czoli, Christine D; Hammond, David

    2015-08-26

    Canada is among the few countries in which e-cigarettes containing nicotine are prohibited. To date, there is little evidence on the prevalence and patterns of use of e-cigarettes in markets with product bans. The current study examines e-cigarette use among a sample of non-smokers and smokers in Canada. Online cross-sectional survey. Conducted in October 2013 using a commercial panel of Canadians from Global Market Insite, Inc (GMI). In total, 1095 Canadians were included in the analysis: 311 non-smokers aged 16-24 years (younger non-smokers), 323 smokers aged 16-24 years (younger smokers) and 461 smokers 25 years and older (older smokers). E-cigarette ever and current use, types of products used, and reasons for use. Approximately 79% of younger non-smokers, 82% of younger smokers and 81% of older smokers were aware of e-cigarettes. Ever trial of e-cigarettes was reported by 10% of younger non-smokers, 42% of younger smokers and 27% of older smokers. Moreover, current use of an e-cigarette, which was defined as use in the last 30 days, was reported by 0.3% of younger non-smokers, 18% of younger smokers and 10% of older smokers. Among those who had ever tried an e-cigarette, approximately 10% of younger non-smokers, 46% of younger smokers and 43% of older smokers reported trying an e-cigarette that contained nicotine. The most popular e-cigarette flavours were fruit followed by menthol, and the most common reason for using e-cigarettes was to help them quit smoking. In the context of previous research, it appears that the prevalence of e-cigarette trial has increased in Canada. Although a considerable proportion of non-smokers have tried e-cigarettes, current use is almost entirely concentrated among smokers. Further research should be conducted to monitor e-cigarette use by Canadians. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Metabolic syndrome and its components in Polish women of childbearing age: a nationwide study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Szostak-Węgierek

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abnormal body mass and related metabolic disorders may affect female reproductive health. The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of underweight, overweight, obesity, lipid and glucose metabolism disorders, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome, among Polish women of childbearing age. Methods One thousand five hundred eighty-eight non-pregnant Polish women of childbearing age (20–49 years who participated in the Multi-Centre National Population Health Examination Survey (WOBASZ II study in 2013–2014, were assigned to 3 age groups: 20–29 years (n = 403, 30–39 years (n = 600 and 40–49 years (n = 585. Measurements of weight, height, waist circumference, blood pressure, blood lipids, and blood glucose were taken. For statistical analysis, the Kruskal-Wallis, Chi-Square, and Cohran-Armitage tests were used. Results Of the participants, 4.3% were determined to be underweight, 25.2% were overweight, 15% were obese, and 53.1% had abdominal obesity. With age, the prevalence of both excessive body mass and abdominal obesity tended to increase, and that of underweight to decrease. Frequency of hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia found in the whole group were 50% and 12.6% respectively, and also tended to rise with age. Low serum HDL-cholesterol (high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were found in 15.1% of the participants. Prevalence of impaired fasting glucose in the whole group was 8.2% and tended to increase with age. Diabetes was found in 1.2% of the participants and its prevalence also tended to rise with age, at the borderline of significance. Frequency of arterial hypertension and metabolic syndrome in the whole group was 15.7% and 14.1% respectively and both tended to increase with age. Conclusions Overweight and obesity, especially of abdominal type, and the related metabolic abnormalities are common in Polish women of childbearing age. Their prevalence tends to increase with

  3. Metabolic syndrome and its components in Polish women of childbearing age: a nationwide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szostak-Węgierek, Dorota; Waśkiewicz, Anna; Piotrowski, Walerian; Stepaniak, Urszula; Pająk, Andrzej; Kwaśniewska, Magdalena; Nadrowski, Paweł; Niklas, Arkadiusz; Puch-Walczak, Aleksandra; Drygas, Wojciech

    2017-07-13

    Abnormal body mass and related metabolic disorders may affect female reproductive health. The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of underweight, overweight, obesity, lipid and glucose metabolism disorders, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome, among Polish women of childbearing age. One thousand five hundred eighty-eight non-pregnant Polish women of childbearing age (20-49 years) who participated in the Multi-Centre National Population Health Examination Survey (WOBASZ II study) in 2013-2014, were assigned to 3 age groups: 20-29 years (n = 403), 30-39 years (n = 600) and 40-49 years (n = 585). Measurements of weight, height, waist circumference, blood pressure, blood lipids, and blood glucose were taken. For statistical analysis, the Kruskal-Wallis, Chi-Square, and Cohran-Armitage tests were used. Of the participants, 4.3% were determined to be underweight, 25.2% were overweight, 15% were obese, and 53.1% had abdominal obesity. With age, the prevalence of both excessive body mass and abdominal obesity tended to increase, and that of underweight to decrease. Frequency of hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia found in the whole group were 50% and 12.6% respectively, and also tended to rise with age. Low serum HDL-cholesterol (high density lipoprotein cholesterol) levels were found in 15.1% of the participants. Prevalence of impaired fasting glucose in the whole group was 8.2% and tended to increase with age. Diabetes was found in 1.2% of the participants and its prevalence also tended to rise with age, at the borderline of significance. Frequency of arterial hypertension and metabolic syndrome in the whole group was 15.7% and 14.1% respectively and both tended to increase with age. Overweight and obesity, especially of abdominal type, and the related metabolic abnormalities are common in Polish women of childbearing age. Their prevalence tends to increase with age. Underweight is relatively common in the youngest age group.

  4. Emergence of group B Streptococcus serotype IV in women of child-bearing age in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kiely, R A

    2011-02-01

    This study determined the carriage rate and serotype distribution of group B Streptococcus (GBS) in women of child-bearing age in the southern region of Ireland. A total of 2000 vaginal swabs collected in two periods in 2004 and 2006 were examined and revealed a GBS carriage rate of 16·1%. Serotyping of isolates showed that serotypes Ia, II, III, IV, and V were the most prevalent. A high prevalence of serotype IV was found, increasing from 7·6% to 15·2% between 2004 and 2006. Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis demonstrated considerable genetic heterogeneity in the serotype IV isolates. This serotype should be considered for inclusion in potential vaccines for use in Ireland.

  5. Prevalence and pattern of congenital malformations among neonates in the neonatal unit of a teaching hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, S.; Sabir, M.; Tarar, S. H.; Mushtaq, R.; Asghar, I.; Chattha, M. N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence and pattern of congenital malformations among neonates in a teaching hospital. Methods: The prospective hospital-based study was conducted over a period of 18 months in the neonatal unit of Combined Military Hospital, Kharian, from September 2011 to February 2013. All neonates from newborn to 28 days of age admitted to the unit irrespective of their condition comprised the study population. Neonatal examination was done by the Registrar at the time of admission followed by neonatologist/paediatrician. Information regarding gender, weight, gestational age, mode of delivery, consanguinity, maternal age, antenatal visit record and family history were recorded on a predesigned proforma. After clinical examination, if required, relevant investigations like ultrasonography, radiology, echocardiography, laboratory and genetic studies were done to confirm diagnosis. Data was statistically analysed by using SPSS 20. Results: Out of 3,210 total admissions, 226 (7%) neonates were congenitally malformed. Of them, 130 (57.52 %) were male and 96 (42.47 %) females. Among different body systems affected, anomalies related to the central nervous system were 46(20.35%) musculoskeletal 42(18.58%), genitourinary 34 (15.04%), cardiovascular system 30 (13.27%), ear, eye, face, neck 27(11.94%), digestive system 19 (8.40%), syndromes and skin 14 (6.19%) each. Conclusion: Congenital Malformations are not rare in our community and central nervous system is the most commonly affected system. Healthcare managers must stress upon primary prevention in the form of vaccination, nutrition and drugs to decrease preventable share of congenital malformations. (author)

  6. Eating patterns and prevalence of obesity. Lessons learned from the Malaysian Food Barometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, T; Tibère, L; Laporte, C; Mognard, E; Ismail, M N; Sharif, S P; Poulain, J-P

    2016-12-01

    The Malaysian society is experiencing and coping with a fast modernization process, which is characterized by a rapid urbanization and rural exodus, an important reduction of the size of households, and the emergence of a new middle class. The Malaysian Food Barometer launched in 2013 has provided better understanding how these macro issues have affected the lifestyles and especially the food habits of the Malaysians. The country has indeed undergone a transition period from under-nutrition to over-nutrition in a few decades, with the prevalence of overweight and obesity having markedly and rapidly increased. A quantitative survey (n = 2000), elaborated from a qualitative preliminary phase, was carried out with the aim of analyzing the transformation of food habits at the national level. The present article focuses on the BMI issue in Malaysia, and investigates its relationships with the socio-demographic variables of the population, as well as their eating patterns. The mean BMI is 23.64 kg/m 2 , with 9.5% of the sample being obese, and 22% overweight. Strong statistical associations have been identified between BMI and independent variables such as size of the living area, ethnicity, level of education, gender, and age. Contrary to general believe, overweight and obesity were neither associated with the number of food intakes taken per day (including snacks) nor with the frequency of eating out. Nonetheless, obesity is over-represented in people who have dissonant eating behaviors, i.e. who declare having fewer food intakes a day (food norms) than they do actually (food practices). This process testifies that the Malaysians are experiencing a "food transition", which is linked with socio-economic development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevalence of leptospirosis and toxoplasmosis: A study of rodents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    prevalence of toxoplasmosis in child-bearing women in rural Sudan is even higher ranging ... crops. Animal trapping. Live rodents and shrews were captured in cultivated ..... P., Hodný, Z. & Vondrová, M. (2011) Fatal attraction phenomenon in.

  8. Trends in teenage childbearing and schooling outcomes for children born to teens in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Nicola Branson; Cally Ardington; Murray Leibbrandt

    2013-01-01

    Teenage childbearing is considered a social problem with costs to the teenage mother, her child and society at large. In South Africa, media attention suggests a contemporary crisis in teen childbearing; often linking this to a fear that the Child Support Grant incentivises motherhood among teens. Despite these assertions, there is little empirical research assessing the trends in teen childbearing over time in South Africa and the intergenerational consequences of teenage childbearing. This ...

  9. Ten Reasons to Still Keep the Focus on Teen Childbearing. Research Brief, Publication #2009-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, Emily; Peterson, Kristen; Manlove, Jennifer; Scarupa, Harriet J., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    In 2002, Child Trends drew on statistics and research findings to produce a report called "Ten Reasons to Keep the Focus on Teen Childbearing." That report took note of the steady decline in the nation's teenage pregnancy and childbearing rates, beginning in 1991, while citing multiple reasons to continue to be concerned about teen childbearing.…

  10. Khat chewing among students of higher education in Jazan region, Saudi Arabia: prevalence, pattern, and related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsanosy, Rashad Mohammed; Mahfouz, Mohamed Salih; Gaffar, Abdelrahim Mutwakel

    2013-01-01

    (1) To estimate the prevalence and behavioral patterns of Khat chewing and (2) to investigate factors that influenced the pattern of Khat use among undergraduate students in different higher education institutions in Jazan region, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study using a pretested structured self-administered quantitative questionnaire was used to collect data. SPSS version 17 software program was used for data analysis. The overall current Khat chewing prevalence among higher education students was found to be 23.1%, significantly higher among males at 38.5% than among females at 2.1% (P higher compared with females at 3.7% (P higher education students in Jazan region. A multilevel, value based, comprehensive, and strategic long-term intervention plan is needed. The comprehensive plan may include social interventions geared by creating recreations alternatives and opportunities for youth and a critical review for current authorities' interventions and services.

  11. Acute and Early HIV1 Infection in Childbearing Women during ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    National HIV prevention programs in Tanzania, Zambia, and Botswana must effectively address the infection rate among childbearing women during pregnancy and the postpartum period. This project aims to determine the incidence of HIV infection among pregnant and postpartum women. Researchers from the Botswana ...

  12. Adolescent Childbearing: Whose Problem? What Can We Do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Jones, Diane

    1993-01-01

    Understanding of adolescent child-bearing and efforts to ameliorate attendant problems are diminished by unexamined, emotionally charged beliefs regarding race, poverty, gender. Adolescent birth rates that declined from 1970s to 1980s were sharper for African Americans. However, sexually active adolescents in comparison countries have fewer…

  13. Considering childbearing in the age of highly active antiretroviral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Based on a qualitative study conducted in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe, this article examines how the availability of HAART since April 2004 may impact the views and choices of HIV-positive couples on childbearing. Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with 15 couples where at least one partner was HIV ...

  14. Individual correlates of sleep among childbearing women in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Women of childbearing age (WOCBA) may be at high risk for short or poor sleep. Yet few studies have focused on this population. The study objective was to identify individual correlates of sleep duration and quality among WOCBA. The sample consisted of 9,749 WOCBA aged 18–44 years from the Canadian ...

  15. In search of a face: Childbearing decisions among couples living ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper therefore explores factors that influence childbearing decisions of married couples living with HIV in patrilineal and matrilineal kinship communities in rural Malawi. Qualitative exploratory research was conducted in two rural districts in the southern part of Malawi. Data were collected using in-depth interviews ...

  16. PREVALENCE, CAUSES AND PATTERNS OF ANXIETY TOWARDS EXAMINATIONS AND ATTITUDE TOWARDS COPING: A STUDY AMONG MEDICAL STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Tassadaq, Mohammad Munaim; Naseem, Muhammed; Zafar, Mehnaz

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The objective of this study is to assess symptoms of test anxiety among medical students and its association with various academic, social and health-related factors. The specific aims are to determine: the prevalence of symptoms of test anxiety, the factors responsible for and different patterns of test anxiety, the correlation of socio-demographic data with test anxiety in medical students and the attitude towards coping strategies developped by them to deal with test anxiety.Methods:...

  17. Ultrasound assessment of the posterior circumflex humeral artery in elite volleyball players: Aneurysm prevalence, anatomy, branching pattern and vessel characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    van de Pol, Daan; Maas, Mario; Terpstra, Aart; Pannekoek-Hekman, Marja; Alaeikhanehshir, Sena; Kuijer, P. Paul F. M.; Planken, R. Nils

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine the prevalence of posterior circumflex humeral artery (PCHA) aneurysms and vessel characteristics of the PCHA and deep brachial artery (DBA) in elite volleyball players. Methods Two-hundred and eighty players underwent standardized ultrasound assessment of the dominant arm by a vascular technologist. Assessment included determination of PCHA aneurysms (defined as segmental vessel dilatation ?150 %), PCHA and DBA anatomy, branching pattern, vessel course and diameter. R...

  18. Contemporary migration patterns in the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Samantha; Costa, Ana Rute; Ferro, Ana; Lunet, Nuno; Peleteiro, Bárbara

    2017-06-01

    A rapid growth in the number of international migrants over the past years has occurred with most traveling to more affluent settings. As Helicobacter pylori infects over half of the adult population and its prevalence is higher in developing countries, understanding the prevalence of infection in migrants can provide insight into future trends in the burden and management of infection. We aimed to describe the prevalence of H. pylori among migrants through a systematic literature review. We searched PubMed ® from inception to September 2015 to identify studies reporting the prevalence of H. pylori in international migrants according to country of birth for first-generation, and country of birth and parents' nationality for successive generations. Comparable data from origin and destination populations were obtained from the same studies or, when not present, from a previous systematic review on H. pylori worldwide. A total of 28 eligible studies were identified with data for 29 origin and 12 destination countries. Two studies that evaluated refugees presented prevalences of infection higher than both the origin and destination countries. Otherwise, the prevalences among migrants were generally similar or below that of the origin and higher than the destination. Second- or more generation had lower prevalences compared to first-generation migrants. Our study findings are consistent with what would be expected based on the prevalence of H. pylori worldwide. The results of this review show that migrants are particularly at risk of infection and help to identify gaps in the knowledge of migrants' prevalence of infection globally. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Prevalence, patterns, and perceived value of complementary and alternative medicine among HIV patients: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahall, Mandreker

    2017-08-23

    Use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is widespread among different patient populations despite the availability of evidence-based conventional medicine and lack of supporting evidence for the claims of most CAM types. This study explored the prevalence, patterns, and perceived value of CAM among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients. This quantitative descriptive study was conducted between November 1, 2014 and March 31, 2015 among a cross-sectional, convenience sample of attendees of the HIV clinic of a public tertiary health care institution. Face-to-face interviews using a 34-item questionnaire were conducted. Data analysis included descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, and binary logistic regression analysis. CAM was used by 113 (32.8%) of a total of 343 HIV patients, but Medicinal herbs were the most common type of CAM used (n = 110, 97.3%) followed by spiritual therapy (n = 56, 49.6%), including faith healing/prayer and meditation. The most used medicinal herbs were Aloe vera (n = 54, 49.1%), ginger (n = 33, 30.0%), and garlic (n = 23, 20.9%). The most used vitamins were complex B vitamins (n = 70, 61.9%), followed by vitamin A (n = 58, 51.3%), vitamin E (n = 51, 45.1%), and vitamin D (n = 42, 37.1%). Most CAM users continued using conventional medicine in addition to CAM and were willing to use CAM without supervision and without informing their health care provider. Patients were generally satisfied with CAM therapy (n = 91, 80.5%). The main reasons for CAM use were the desire to take control of their treatment (8.8%) or just trying anything that could help (18.8%). Main influences were the mass media (32.7%) and non-hospital health personnel (19.5%). Predictors of CAM use were being 30-50 years, married and having a secondary school education. About one-third of HIV patients used CAM, but virtually none informed their healthcare provider. Medicinal herbs were the most common type of CAM, followed by spiritual

  20. Prevalence and patterns of psychiatric disorders in referred adolescents with Internet addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Hasan; Coskun, Murat; Ayaydin, Hamza; Adak, Ibrahim; Zoroglu, S Salih

    2013-07-01

    To investigate prevalence and patterns of psychiatric disorders in young subjects with Internet addiction (IA). Subjects were taken from a sample of patients, aged 10-18 years old, referred to Istanbul Medical Faculty, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Department due to a variety of behavioral and emotional problems alongside problematic Internet use. Inclusion criteria included IQ ≥70 and score ≥80 on Young's Internet Addiction Scale (YIAS). Psychiatric comorbidity was assessed using the Turkish version of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version. Subjects were 45 boys (75%) and 15 girls (25%) with an age range of 10-18 years old (mean age, 13.38 ± 1.79 years). A total of 60% (n = 36) had been using Internet for ≥5 years. Mean hours/week spent on the Internet was 53.7 (range, 30-105 h) and the average YIAS score was 85. All subjects (100%) had at least one and 88.3% (n = 53) had at least two comorbid psychiatric disorders. The frequency of diagnostic groups were as follows: behavioral disorder, n = 52 (86.7%); anxiety disorder, n = 43 (71.7%); mood disorder, n = 23 (38.3%); elimination disorder, n = 16 (26.7%); tic disorder, n = 10 (16.7%); and substance use disorder, n = 4 (6.7%). The most common psychiatric disorders were attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (n = 53; 83.3%), social phobia (n = 21; 35.0%) and major depressive disorder (n = 18; 30.0%). High rates of psychiatric comorbidity, particularly behavioral, anxiety and mood disorders were found in young subjects with IA. Because the presence of psychiatric disorders may affect the management /prognosis of IA, assessment should include that for other psychiatric disorders. © 2013 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2013 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  1. A Study on the Relationship between Dietary Patterns and Prevalence of Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Sadeghi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Although several dietary factors have been reported to alleviate or ag-gravate the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, no information is available linking dietary patterns to irritable bowel syndrome. Objective: This study was undertaken to assess the association between dietary patterns and the risk of irritable bowel syndrome among Ira-nian adults. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study, data on 3846 Iranian general adults working in 50 different health centers were examined. Dietary intake of the participants was assessed using a 106-item self-administered Dish-based Semi-quantitative Food Frequency Question-naire (DS-FFQ which was designed and validated specifically for Iranian adults. A modified Persian version of the Rome III questionnaire was used for assessment of FGIDs, including IBS, which was defined according to ROME III criteria. To identify major dietary patterns based on the 39 food groups, we used principal component analysis. Results: We identified four major dietary patterns: 1 “fast food” dietary pattern; 2 “tradi-tional” dietary pattern; 3 “lacto-vegetarian” dietary pattern; 4 “western” dietary pattern. Af-ter adjustment for potential confounders, we found that those in the highest quartile of “fast food” dietary pattern tended to have higher risk of IBS than those in the lowest quartile (1.32; 0.99, 1.75, Ptrend=0.05. An inverse association was found between “lacto-vegetarian” die-tary pattern and risk of IBS; such that even after adjustment for potential confounders, those in top quartile of this dietary pattern were 24% less likely to have IBS (0.76; 0.59, 0.98; Ptrend=0.02. No overall significant associations were observed between “traditional” and “western” dietary patterns and risk of IBS, either before or after adjustment for covariates. Conclusion: We found that “lacto-vegetarian” dietary pattern was associated with reduced risk , while

  2. Prevalence, patterns, and correlates of equestrian injuries in Malaysia: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeedkutty, Nizar A; Khairulanuar, Nor A B

    2017-01-01

    Equestrian sport carries with it an implicit risk of injury. Despite the frequency of injuries in equestrian sports, there is no published study on injuries of equestrian athletes in Malaysia. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of injuries and its correlates among horseback riders. A web-based standardized questionnaire was used to collect data for this cross-sectional survey. Horseback riders aged 18 years and above were included in the study. Out of 169 participants, 93 were females and 76 were males. The correlation of injuries to gender, age, level of experience, exercise habits, use of safety measures, and type of equestrian sport were determined. Chi-square test was performed to test for statistical significance. The prevalence was high with 85.8% of the participants reporting symptoms and characteristics of injuries in the past 12 months. The most frequently perceived symptoms reported were in the upper extremities (43.4%) followed by lower extremities (40.7%), head injury (8.3%) and injuries of upper and lower back (3.4%). There was a higher prevalence of injury among female participants (55.03%) than males (42.60%). A significant correlation was found between gender and prevalence of injuries. About 70% of the riders sustained soft tissue injuries. Fifty-five percent of the injured were involved in recreational riding. The most common mechanism of injury was a fall from a horse. Sixty percent of the injured riders did not seek medical attention after being injured, and physiotherapy consultation was even lower with 10.3%. The high prevalence of injuries and low rate of medical consultation emphasize the need for education programs on safety in Malaysia. Sessions should be held to improve coaching for riders and instructors, and their knowledge of the nature of the horse, mechanisms of injuries, horse handling, and riding skills to help them host safe equestrian activities.

  3. Prevalence, patterns, and correlates of equestrian injuries in Malaysia: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizar A Majeedkutty

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Equestrian sport carries with it an implicit risk of injury. Despite the frequency of injuries in equestrian sports, there is no published study on injuries of equestrian athletes in Malaysia. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of injuries and its correlates among horseback riders. Subjects And Methods: A web-based standardized questionnaire was used to collect data for this cross-sectional survey. Horseback riders aged 18 years and above were included in the study. Out of 169 participants, 93 were females and 76 were males. The correlation of injuries to gender, age, level of experience, exercise habits, use of safety measures, and type of equestrian sport were determined. Chi-square test was performed to test for statistical significance. Results: The prevalence was high with 85.8% of the participants reporting symptoms and characteristics of injuries in the past 12 months. The most frequently perceived symptoms reported were in the upper extremities (43.4% followed by lower extremities (40.7%, head injury (8.3% and injuries of upper and lower back (3.4%. There was a higher prevalence of injury among female participants (55.03% than males (42.60%. A significant correlation was found between gender and prevalence of injuries. About 70% of the riders sustained soft tissue injuries. Fifty-five percent of the injured were involved in recreational riding. The most common mechanism of injury was a fall from a horse. Sixty percent of the injured riders did not seek medical attention after being injured, and physiotherapy consultation was even lower with 10.3%. Conclusions: The high prevalence of injuries and low rate of medical consultation emphasize the need for education programs on safety in Malaysia. Sessions should be held to improve coaching for riders and instructors, and their knowledge of the nature of the horse, mechanisms of injuries, horse handling, and riding skills to help them host safe

  4. The meaning of "control" for childbearing women in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namey, Emily E; Lyerly, Anne Drapkin

    2010-08-01

    Childbearing women, healthcare providers, and commentators on birth broadly identify control as an important issue during childbirth; however, control is rarely defined in literature on the topic. Here we seek to deconstruct the term control as used by childbearing women to better understand the issues and concepts underpinning it. Based on qualitative interviews with 101 parous women in the United States, we analyze meanings of control within the context of birth narratives. We find these meanings correspond to five distinct domains: self-determination, respect, personal security, attachment, and knowledge. We also find ambivalence about this term and concept, in that half our sample recognizes "you cannot control birth". Together, these findings call into question the usefulness of the term for measuring quality or improving maternity care and highlight other concepts which may be more fruitfully explored. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Spatial pattern and variations in the prevalence of congenital heart disease in children aged 4-18 years in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li-Guang; Chen, Qiu-Hong; Wang, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Jing; Ren, Zhou-Peng; Cao, Zong-Fu; Cao, Yan-Rong; Ma, Xu; Wang, Bin-Bin

    2018-06-15

    This study aimed to investigate the spatial distribution pattern of the prevalence of congenital heart disease (CHD) in children in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP), a high-altitude region in China. Epidemiological data from a survey on the prevalence of CHD in Qinghai Province including 288,066 children (4-18 years) were used in this study. The prevalence and distribution pattern of CHD was determined by sex, CHD subtype, and nationality and altitude. Spatial pattern analysis using Getis-Ord Gi ⁎ was used to identify the spatial distribution of CHD. Bayesian spatial binomial regression was performed to examine the relationship between the prevalence of CHD and environmental risk factors in the QTP. The prevalence of CHD showed a significant spatial clustering pattern. The Tibetan autonomous prefecture of Yushu (average altitude > 4000 m) and the Mongolian autonomous county of Henan (average altitude > 3600 m) in Huangnan had the highest prevalence of CHD. Univariate analysis showed that with ascending altitude, the total prevalence of CHD, that in girls and boys with CHD, and that of the subtypes PDA and ASD increasing accordingly. Thus, environmental factors greatly contributed to the prevalence of CHD. The prevalence of CHD shows significant spatial clustering pattern in the QTP. The CHD subtype prevalence clustering pattern has statistical regularity which would provide convenient clues of environmental risk factors. Our results may provide support to make strategies of CHD prevention, to reduce the incidence of CHD in high altitude regions of China. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Dietary adequacy and alcohol consumption of Inuvialuit women of child-bearing age in the Northwest Territories, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolahdooz, F; Spearing, K; Corriveau, A; Sharma, S

    2013-12-01

    Previous studies highlight a possible association between alcohol-drinking patterns and dietary inadequacies, which may have negative implications, particularly for women of child-bearing age. The present study aimed to compare dietary adequacy among alcohol drinkers versus nondrinkers in Inuvialuit women of child-bearing age. A cross-sectional survey of 92 randomly selected women of childbearing age (19-44 years) was conducted in three communities in the Northwest Territories of Arctic Canada, using a validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Data were analysed to compare mean daily energy and nutrient intakes, dietary adequacy and nutrient densities (per 4184 kJ) between alcohol drinkers and nondrinkers, as well as heavy drinkers and nonheavy drinkers, using the nonparametric Wilcoxen rank sum test. The response rate was between 65% and 85% depending on the community sampled. Of the study participants, 54% (n = 49) were drinkers and 46% (n = 42) were nondrinkers. Of the drinkers, 45% (n = 22) were heavy drinkers. Mean energy intakes were high among all women, although they were significantly higher among drinkers [17,179 kJ (4106 kcal)] compared to nondrinkers [13,317 kJ (3183 kcal)]. There were no significant differences in nutrient intake between the two groups; however, drinkers had a lower nutrient density for most nutrients. Heavy drinkers had a significantly lower nutrient density for all nutrients, except protein, iron, and vitamins B6 , C and D, compared to nonheavy drinkers. The findings of the present study provide evidence of inadequate dietary intake among Inuvialuit of child-bearing age, regardless of alcohol-drinking behaviour. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  7. Prevalence, serotypes and resistance patterns of Salmonella in Danish pig production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arguello, Hector; Sørensen, Gitte; Carvajal, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Typhimurium in finishers and Salmonella Derby in breeding herds while the most prevalent phage types of the S. Typhimurium isolates were DT 12 and DT 120. The antimicrobial resistance analysis yielded a 35.2% of the isolates from the slaughter pigs resistant to one or more antimicrobials while 19.3% were...... resistant to four or more antimicrobials. A significantly higher percentage of resistance to antimicrobials was found in the S. Typhimurium isolates (χ2=4.72, p=0.029), where 42.9% presented resistance to one or more compounds. In breeding herds, just S. Typhimurium and S. 4,5],12:i: – isolates were tested......The objective of this paper is to analyse in further detail the Danish results of the EFSA baseline studies in slaughter pigs and breeding herds, and compare them with the results obtained in (1) the pre-implementation study that was carried out to establish the initial prevalence values...

  8. Prevalence and Ethnic Pattern of Diabetes and Prediabetes in China in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Limin; Gao, Pei; Zhang, Mei; Huang, Zhengjing; Zhang, Dudan; Deng, Qian; Li, Yichong; Zhao, Zhenping; Qin, Xueying; Jin, Danyao; Zhou, Maigeng; Tang, Xun; Hu, Yonghua; Wang, Linhong

    2017-06-27

    Previous studies have shown increasing prevalence of diabetes in China, which now has the world's largest diabetes epidemic. To estimate the recent prevalence and to investigate the ethnic variation of diabetes and prediabetes in the Chinese adult population. A nationally representative cross-sectional survey in 2013 in mainland China, which consisted of 170 287 participants. Fasting plasma glucose and hemoglobin A1c levels were measured for all participants. A 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test was conducted for all participants without diagnosed diabetes. Primary outcomes were total diabetes and prediabetes defined according to the 2010 American Diabetes Association criteria. Awareness and treatment were also evaluated. Hemoglobin A1c concentration of less than 7.0% among treated diabetes patients was considered adequate glycemic control. Minority ethnic groups in China with at least 1000 participants (Tibetan, Zhuang, Manchu, Uyghur, and Muslim) were compared with Han participants. Among the Chinese adult population, the estimated standardized prevalence of total diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes was 10.9% (95% CI, 10.4%-11.5%); that of diagnosed diabetes, 4.0% (95% CI, 3.6%-4.3%); and that of prediabetes, 35.7% (95% CI, 34.1%-37.4%). Among persons with diabetes, 36.5% (95% CI, 34.3%-38.6%) were aware of their diagnosis and 32.2% (95% CI, 30.1%-34.2%) were treated; 49.2% (95% CI, 46.9%-51.5%) of patients treated had adequate glycemic control. Tibetan and Muslim Chinese had significantly lower crude prevalence of diabetes than Han participants (14.7% [95% CI, 14.6%-14.9%] for Han, 4.3% [95% CI, 3.5%-5.0%] for Tibetan, and 10.6% [95% CI, 9.3%-11.9%] for Muslim; P prediabetes for Tibetan Chinese and 0.73 (95% CI, 0.63-0.85) for diabetes and 0.78 (95% CI, 0.71-0.86) for prediabetes in Muslim Chinese. Among adults in China, the estimated overall prevalence of diabetes was 10.9%, and that for prediabetes was 35.7%. Differences from previous estimates for 2010 may

  9. Prevalence of current patterns and predictive trends of multidrug-resistant Salmonella Typhi in Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshayeb, Ayman A; Ahmed, Abdelazim A; El Siddig, Marmar A; El Hussien, Adil A

    2017-11-14

    Enteric fever has persistence of great impact in Sudanese public health especially during rainy season when the causative agent Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi possesses pan endemic patterns in most regions of Sudan - Khartoum. The present study aims to assess the recent state of antibiotics susceptibility of Salmonella Typhi with special concern to multidrug resistance strains and predict the emergence of new resistant patterns and outbreaks. Salmonella Typhi strains were isolated and identified according to the guidelines of the International Standardization Organization and the World Health Organization. The antibiotics susceptibilities were tested using the recommendations of the Clinical Laboratories Standards Institute. Predictions of emerging resistant bacteria patterns and outbreaks in Sudan were done using logistic regression, forecasting linear equations and in silico simulations models. A total of 124 antibiotics resistant Salmonella Typhi strains categorized in 12 average groups were isolated, different patterns of resistance statistically calculated by (y = ax - b). Minimum bactericidal concentration's predication of resistance was given the exponential trend (y = n e x ) and the predictive coefficient R 2  > 0 current antimicrobial drug resistance patterns of community-acquired agents causing outbreaks.

  10. Sweden: Combining childbearing and gender equality

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    Eva Bernhardt

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Sweden is the forerunner of the Second Demographic Transition. Fertility trends have fluctuated greatly since the 1960s, and the 1990s showed both European-highest and lowest-ever-in-Sweden levels, while the cohort pattern has been relatively stable. Period fluctuations have been accompanied by a postponement of entering committed partnerships and parenthood as well as an increasing instability of family relationships. The awareness and the availability of effective contraceptives have been extensive since the mid-1970s, the year the liberal abortion law was introduced. Post-modern values are dominant in this highly secularized society, but ideal family size is among the highest in the European Union, and childlessness has remained at a relatively low level. Ethnic diversification has increased over time, with about one-fifth of the population having a 'foreign background' in the early 2000s. The level of female labor-force participation is the highest in Europe (although mothers of pre-schoolers often work part-time, and young women are just as highly educated as men. Family policies, based on the principle of equality across social groups and gender, seem to play an important role in keeping fertility relatively high. In combination with other factors, family policies also play a role in the fluctuations of fertility rates, as eligibility to parental-leave and benefits as well as the availability of public childcare are linked to parents' labor-force attachment.

  11. Prevalence and Pattern of Consanguineous Marriages Among Different Communities in Mangalore

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    Bhagya Bhaskar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Consanguineous marriages are a common practice in the Middle East, Asian and African populations. Many studies have stated an association between first cousin marriages and the incidence of autosomal recessive diseases and congenital malformations. High frequency of consanguinity is reported by researchers among South India. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and type of consanguineous marriages among the different communities of Mangalore. Methods: This study was conducted on 1164 married women in Mangalore to investigate the prevalence and type of consanguineous marriages. All the women were interviewed personally using a structured questionnaire. Family pedigree was constructed to study the type of consanguineous marriages. Data analysis was done by SPSS Win 13.0. Results: A low percentage of consanguinity (6.53% was observed with a mean inbreeding coefficient of 0.0339. Frequency of consanguinity between religions was highly significant. Of these the most frequent were first cousin marriages (43.42%. Within Hindu religion the highest rate of consanguinity was among the Billavas (47.62% of which the most frequent were distant relative marriages (75% followed by second cousin marriages (57.14%. There was no significant difference in the frequency distribution of the types of consanguinity between the religions and also between the different groups among Hindus. Conclusion: The frequency of consanguinity was found to be low in Mangalore. The findings contradict with the earlier reports of high prevalence of consanguineous marriages in South India. Increased female education, increased socio-economic status and decrease in parental decisions in marriages may be the reasons.

  12. Prevalence and pattern of self-medication practices in an urban area of Delhi, India

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    Varun Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Self-medication is one of the major health concerns worldwide and World Health Organization has laid emphasis on correctly investigating and controlling it. There is much public and professional concern regarding self-medication practices, which has dramatically increased in the last few decades, especially in the developing countries. Hence, this study was designed to study the prevalence and practice of self-medication practices in an urban area of Delhi, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in March 2013 and data were collected by personal interviews using pretested questionnaires. An urban colony in the south district of Delhi was chosen and the eldest member of the family, present at the time of the visit was interviewed. Data were collected from 236 persons and analyzed using SPSS version 21. Results: The prevalence of self-medication was 92.8% (95 confidence interval: 66.5-79.4. 74.9% preferred allopathic medicines. Self-medication was found to be practiced more among younger persons than older age group persons (P = 0.000. Graduates and postgraduates practiced self-medication more than others (P = 0.002. Common cold (61.6% and fever (51.8% were the most common ailments for which self-medication were practiced. Paracetamol and cough syrups were the most commonly used class of drugs. Conclusion: The prevalence of self-medication in this study was high. Drugs especially antimicrobials were not taken for the proper length of time. Awareness regarding self-medication practices to help patients decide on the appropriateness of self-medication is required.

  13. Patterns of infection: using age prevalence data to understand epidemic of HIV in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Williams, BG

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available to manage it and to evaluate the impact of intervention implemented. It is essential to gather information on the patterns of infection. In particular it is important to know how these vary with gender, age, migrancy status and between urban and rural...

  14. Differences in gay men's AIDS risk knowledge and behavior patterns in high and low AIDS prevalence cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Lawrence, J S; Hood, H V; Brasfield, T; Kelly, J A

    1989-01-01

    Several studies have found reductions in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) risk practices among gay men in high AIDS-prevalence cities since the start of the AIDS crisis. Much less is known about risk behavior patterns among gay men in smaller cities, where AIDS cases are less common and the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus infection is relatively lower. In the study, men entering gay bars in three cities, one large and two small, completed anonymous surveys of sexual practices and AIDS risk knowledge. Men in high AIDS-prevalence areas were found to have had a greater number of sexual partners, were more knowledgeable about AIDS, were much more likely to engage in low-risk practices (such as mutual masturbation or body rubbing), and had unprotected anal intercourse less frequently than gay men in smaller cities. The most common sexual activity among gay men in the larger city was mutual masturbation, a low-risk practice. The most common sexual activity among gay men in the smaller cities was unprotected anal intercourse. Increased efforts are needed to educate gay men and to promote risk behavior changes among those living in smaller cities and in communities outside the prominent AIDS epicenters.

  15. Differences in injury pattern and prevalence of cartilage lesions in knee and ankle joints: a retrospective cohort study

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    Matthias Aurich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA is more common in the knee compared to the ankle joint. This can not be explained exclusively by anatomical and biomechanical differences. The aim of this study is to analyze and compare the injury pattern (clinically and the cartilage lesions (arthroscopically of knee and ankle joints in a cohort of patients from the same catchment area. A retrospective study of the clinical data of 3122 patients (2139 outpatients and 983 inpatients was performed, who were treated due to an injury of the knee and ankle joint. Statistical analysis was performed using SigmaStat 3.0 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, USA. There is a higher prevalence of injuries in the ankle as compared to the knee joint in this population from the same catchment area. In contrast, high-grade cartilage lesions are more prevalent in the knee, whereas low grade cartilage lesions are equally distributed between knee and ankle. From this data it can be concluded that the frequency of injuries and the injury pattern of knee versus ankle joints do not correlate with the severity of cartilage lesions and may therefore have no direct influence on the differential incidence of OA in those two joints.

  16. Khat Chewing among Students of Higher Education in Jazan Region, Saudi Arabia: Prevalence, Pattern, and Related Factors

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    Rashad Mohammed Alsanosy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. (1 To estimate the prevalence and behavioral patterns of Khat chewing and (2 to investigate factors that influenced the pattern of Khat use among undergraduate students in different higher education institutions in Jazan region, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study using a pretested structured self-administered quantitative questionnaire was used to collect data. SPSS version 17 software program was used for data analysis. Results. The overall current Khat chewing prevalence among higher education students was found to be 23.1%, significantly higher among males at 38.5% than among females at 2.1% . Lifetime Khat chewer students were 24.8% for males at 40.5%, significantly higher compared with females at 3.7% . Univariate analysis revealed that the gender of student, smoking status of student, a friend’s smoking, and Khat chewing were associated with a significant high risk of Khat chewing (   for all. Conclusions. The use of Khat trend is increasing among higher education students in Jazan region. A multilevel, value based, comprehensive, and strategic long-term intervention plan is needed. The comprehensive plan may include social interventions geared by creating recreations alternatives and opportunities for youth and a critical review for current authorities’ interventions and services.

  17. Prevalence of current patterns and predictive trends of multidrug-resistant Salmonella Typhi in Sudan

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    Ayman A. Elshayeb

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enteric fever has persistence of great impact in Sudanese public health especially during rainy season when the causative agent Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi possesses pan endemic patterns in most regions of Sudan - Khartoum. Objectives The present study aims to assess the recent state of antibiotics susceptibility of Salmonella Typhi with special concern to multidrug resistance strains and predict the emergence of new resistant patterns and outbreaks. Methods Salmonella Typhi strains were isolated and identified according to the guidelines of the International Standardization Organization and the World Health Organization. The antibiotics susceptibilities were tested using the recommendations of the Clinical Laboratories Standards Institute. Predictions of emerging resistant bacteria patterns and outbreaks in Sudan were done using logistic regression, forecasting linear equations and in silico simulations models. Results A total of 124 antibiotics resistant Salmonella Typhi strains categorized in 12 average groups were isolated, different patterns of resistance statistically calculated by (y = ax − b. Minimum bactericidal concentration’s predication of resistance was given the exponential trend (y = n ex and the predictive coefficient R2 > 0 < 1 are approximately alike. It was assumed that resistant bacteria occurred with a constant rate of antibiotic doses during the whole experimental period. Thus, the number of sensitive bacteria decreases at the same rate as resistant occur following term to the modified predictive model which solved computationally. Conclusion This study assesses the prediction of multi-drug resistance among S. Typhi isolates by applying low cost materials and simple statistical methods suitable for the most frequently used antibiotics as typhoid empirical therapy. Therefore, bacterial surveillance systems should be implemented to present data on the aetiology and current

  18. Prevalence and pattern of dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in a rural tertiary care centre, southern India

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    Jayarama N

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is a common secondary cause of hyperlipidaemia, particularly, if glycaemic control is poor, which in-turn is an important risk factor for atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. The spectrum of dyslipidemia in diabetes mellitus can include all the various types of dyslipidemia identified in the general population Objectives: To study the prevalence and pattern of dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetes. Methods: This is a cross sectional study, done on type 2 diabetes patients attending medicine outpatient department of RL Jalappa hospital, Kolar between March 2010 to April 2012 . All the patients were interviewed with pre-designed Performa. Fasting lipid profile and Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c of patients were measured. Patients suffering from other causes of secondary dyslipidemia were excluded. Patients having one or more parameters outside the targets recommended by American Diabetes Association (ADA were considered to have dyslipidemia. Results: A total of 820 type 2 DM patients (533 males and 287 females were studied. Prevalence of dyslipidemia among diabetic males was 95.4 % and 86.75% in females. Among males with dyslipidemia the proportion of patients with mixed dyslipidemia, combined two parameter dyslipidemia and isolated single parameter dyslipidemia were 24.5%, 44.2%, and 31.2% respectively. Figures for the same among female patients stood at 27.3%, 42.97% and 29.7% respectively. Conclusion: Majority of type 2 diabetic patients were dyslipidimic. The most common pattern of dyslipidemia among males was combined dyslipidemia with high triglycerides (TG and low High density lipoprotein (HDL and in females it was high Low density lipoprotein (LDL and low HDL. The most prevalent lipid abnormality in our study was low HDL followed by high TG. No significant relation was found between HbA1c and serum lipid parameters

  19. Prevalence and pattern of dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in a rural tertiary care centre, southern India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayarama N

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is a common secondary cause of hyperlipidaemia, particularly, if glycaemic control is poor, which in-turn is an important risk factor for atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. The spectrum of dyslipidemia in diabetes mellitus can include all the various types of dyslipidemia identified in the general population Objectives: To study the prevalence and pattern of dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetes. Methods: This is a cross sectional study, done on type 2 diabetes patients attending medicine outpatient department of RL Jalappa hospital, Kolar between March 2010 to April 2012 . All the patients were interviewed with pre-designed Performa. Fasting lipid profile and Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c of patients were measured. Patients suffering from other causes of secondary dyslipidemia were excluded. Patients having one or more parameters outside the targets recommended by American Diabetes Association (ADA were considered to have dyslipidemia. Results: A total of 820 type 2 DM patients (533 males and 287 females were studied. Prevalence of dyslipidemia among diabetic males was 95.4 % and 86.75% in females. Among males with dyslipidemia the proportion of patients with mixed dyslipidemia, combined two parameter dyslipidemia and isolated single parameter dyslipidemia were 24.5%, 44.2%, and 31.2% respectively. Figures for the same among female patients stood at 27.3%, 42.97%and29.7%respectively. Conclusion: Majority of type 2 diabetic patients were dyslipidimic. The most common pattern of dyslipidemia among males was combined dyslipidemia with high triglycerides (TG and low High density lipoprotein (HDL and in females it was high Low density lipoprotein (LDL and low HDL. The most prevalent lipid abnormality in our study was low HDL followed by high TG. No significant relation was found between HbA1c and serum lipid parameters.

  20. Prevalence and Pattern of Executive Dysfunction in School Age Children with Congenital Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Jacqueline H.; Berl, Madison M.; Armour, Anna C.; Wang, Jichuan; Cheng, Yao I.; Donofrio, Mary T.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Executive Function, a set of cognitive skills important to social and academic outcomes, is a specific area of cognitive weakness in children with congenital heart disease (CHD). We evaluated the prevalence and profile of executive dysfunction in a heterogeneous sample of school aged children with CHD, examined whether children with executive dysfunction are receiving school services and support, and identified risk factors for executive dysfunction at school age. Design 91 school aged patients completed questionnaires, including the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and a medical history questionnaire. An age and gender matched control sample was drawn from a normativedatabase. Results CHD patients had a higher rate of parent reported executive dysfunction (OR=4.37, p0.05). Gender, premature birth (≤37 weeks), and CHD with aortic obstruction were predictive of executive dysfunction, especially for behavior regulation skills. Conclusions School aged children with CHD have an increased prevalence of executive dysfunction, especially problems with working memory and flexibility, and are underserved by the school system. The increased risk for executive dysfunction in those with CHD and prematurity or CHD with aortic obstruction suggests an etiology of delayed brain development in the fetal and neonatal periods, while male gender may increase susceptibility to brain injury. This study highlights the need for regular neurodevelopmental follow up in children with CHD, and a need to better understand mechanisms that contribute to adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. PMID:27863079

  1. HIV infection among foreign transsexual sex workers in Rome: prevalence, behavior patterns, and seroconversion rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spizzichino, L; Zaccarelli, M; Rezza, G; Ippolito, G; Antinori, A; Gattari, P

    2001-07-01

    The Azienda Sanitaria Locale Roma E (ASL-RME) outpatient clinic is the main reference center in Rome for HIV testing of foreign people. To define the prevalence and incidence of HIV infection among foreign transsexual sex workers attending the center. A cross-sectional, follow-up study was conducted. Between 1993 and 1999, 353 transsexuals attended the ASL-RME. They were from Colombia (n = 208), Brazil (n = 122), and other countries (n = 23). Most of these transsexuals reported having 5 to 10 partners per day. The overall HIV prevalence was 38.2%, which multivariate analysis found to be associated with origin from Brazil and a higher number of sex partners. The observed HIV seroconversion rate was 4.1 per 100 person-years, and non-regular condom use was the only factor related to seroconversion. The data from this study suggest that promotion of safer sex practices and regular condom use still is the main priority among marginalized population subgroups, such as foreign prostitutes, involved in sex activities that put them at risk for HIV infection.

  2. Prevalence and pattern of executive dysfunction in school age children with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Jacqueline H; Berl, Madison M; Armour, Anna C; Wang, Jichuan; Cheng, Yao I; Donofrio, Mary T

    2017-03-01

    Executive function, a set of cognitive skills important to social and academic outcomes, is a specific area of cognitive weakness in children with congenital heart disease (CHD). We evaluated the prevalence and profile of executive dysfunction in a heterogeneous sample of school aged children with CHD, examined whether children with executive dysfunction are receiving school services and support, and identified risk factors for executive dysfunction at school age. Ninety-one school aged patients completed questionnaires, including the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and a medical history questionnaire. An age- and gender- matched control sample was drawn from a normative database. Children with CHD had a higher rate of parent reported executive dysfunction (OR = 4.37, P  .05). Gender, premature birth (≤37 weeks), and CHD with aortic obstruction were predictive of executive dysfunction, especially for behavior regulation skills. School aged children with CHD have an increased prevalence of executive dysfunction, especially problems with working memory and flexibility, and are underserved by the school system. The increased risk for executive dysfunction in those with CHD and prematurity or CHD with aortic obstruction suggests an etiology of delayed brain development in the fetal and neonatal periods, while male gender may increase susceptibility to brain injury. This study highlights the need for regular neurodevelopmental follow up in children with CHD, and a need to better understand mechanisms that contribute to adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Prevalence, pattern, and determinants of placental malaria in a population of southeastern Nigerian parturients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezebialu, Ifeanyichukwu U; Eke, Ahizechukwu C; Ezeagwuna, Dorothy A; Nwachukwu, Chukwuemeka E; Ifediata, Francis; Ezebialu, Chinenye U

    2012-12-01

    Placental malaria is a complication of malaria in pregnancy and is associated with adverse outcomes. Its burden is highest in Sub-Saharan Africa, but despite this, data based on histological analysis are scarce from this region. Questionnaires administered by the researchers were used to obtain information from parturients at a university teaching hospital in southeastern Nigeria between April and November 2010. Maternal blood and placental blood were collected for analysis. Placental blocks were taken for histological analysis. Statistical analyses were done using SPSS v. 17. Three hundred and sixty-five placentas were analyzed, out of which 254 showed histological evidence of malaria parasitization, giving a prevalence of 69.6%. Of the 254 placentas, 23 (9.0%) showed active infection and 196 (77.2%) showed active-on-past infection, while 35 (13.8%) showed past infection. Rural residence, hemoglobin genotype AA, not receiving intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp), and not sleeping under insecticide-treated bed nets (ITN) were significantly associated with placental malaria. Placental parasite density was inversely related to parity. This study showed that the prevalence of placental malaria in southeastern Nigeria is high, and demonstrated that the mean parasite density was inversely related to parity. Significant factors associated with placental malaria were also identified. Appreciation of these significant factors will assist program managers in implementing the strategies for the prevention of malaria in pregnancy. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Infectious Diseases. All rights reserved.

  4. Ultrasound assessment of the posterior circumflex humeral artery in elite volleyball players: Aneurysm prevalence, anatomy, branching pattern and vessel characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Pol, Daan; Maas, Mario; Terpstra, Aart; Pannekoek-Hekman, Marja; Alaeikhanehshir, Sena; Kuijer, P Paul F M; Planken, R Nils

    2017-03-01

    To determine the prevalence of posterior circumflex humeral artery (PCHA) aneurysms and vessel characteristics of the PCHA and deep brachial artery (DBA) in elite volleyball players. Two-hundred and eighty players underwent standardized ultrasound assessment of the dominant arm by a vascular technologist. Assessment included determination of PCHA aneurysms (defined as segmental vessel dilatation ≥150 %), PCHA and DBA anatomy, branching pattern, vessel course and diameter. The PCHA and DBA were identified in 100 % and 93 % (260/280) of cases, respectively. The prevalence of PCHA aneurysms was 4.6 % (13/280). All aneurysms were detected in proximal PCHA originating from the axillary artery (AA). The PCHA originated from the AA in 81 % of cases (228/280), and showed a curved course dorsally towards the humeral head in 93 % (211/228). The DBA originated from the AA in 73 % of cases (190/260), and showed a straight course parallel to the AA in 93 % (177/190). PCHA aneurysm prevalence in elite volleyball players is high and associated with a specific branching type: a PCHA that originates from the axillary artery. Radiologists should have a high index of suspicion for this vascular overuse injury. For the first time vessel characteristics and reference values are described to facilitate ultrasound assessment. • Prevalence of PCHA aneurysms is 4.6 % among elite volleyball players. • All aneurysms are in proximal PCHA that originates directly from AA. • Vessel characteristics and reference values are described to facilitate US assessment. • Mean PCHA and DBA diameters can be used as reference values. • Radiologists need a high index of suspicion for this vascular overuse injury.

  5. Prevalence and pattern of misconceptions about semen loss and sexual prowess among male medical interns

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    Ajish G Mangot

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sexual misconceptions have been around in India for a very long time. Growing liberal attitudes toward sex and sexual permissiveness can be expected to occur in the context of improved sexual knowledge among people. However, sexual myths continue to remain rampant. Therefore, the present study was planned with the aim to assess the level of sexual misconceptions regarding semen loss prevalent among male medical interns. Participants and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study among unmarried male medical students doing an internship. Eighty-one interns were recruited after fulfilling predecided inclusion/exclusion criteria and were asked to complete a specially made questionnaire to assess their sexual beliefs anonymously in complete privacy. Responses were analyzed using frequency distribution. Results: Seventy-nine percent of the participants believed that loss of semen can lead to reduction in the size of the penis, while 44.44% (n = 36 believed that it leads to sexual weakness, 56.8% (n = 46 believed it can lead to physical weakness, and 56.8% (n = 46 believed that excess masturbation can decrease sexual prowess. Discussion: This study helps bring to light the prevalence of sexual misconceptions among medical interns in spite of reaching a stage where they are expected to have sound conceptual, theoretical, and practical knowledge about sexual health and wellbeing. There is a dearth of national and international studies exploring the sociocultural aspects of sexuality specifically among medical students. The findings from this study are expected to stimulate researchers and academicians into further exploring the aspect of sexuality among the young medical fraternity.

  6. Prevalence of pulmonary TB and spoligotype pattern of Mycobacterium tuberculosis among TB suspects in a rural community in Southwest Ethiopia

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    Deribew Amare

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Ethiopia where there is no strong surveillance system and state of the art diagnostic facilities are limited, the real burden of tuberculosis (TB is not well known. We conducted a community based survey to estimate the prevalence of pulmonary TB and spoligotype pattern of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Southwest Ethiopia. Methods A total of 30040 adults in 10882 households were screened for pulmonary TB in Gilgel Gibe field research centre in Southwest Ethiopia. A total of 482 TB suspects were identified and smear microscopy and culture was done for 428 TB suspects. Counseling and testing for HIV/AIDS was done for all TB suspects. Spoligotyping was done to characterize the Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates. Results Majority of the TB suspects were females (60.7% and non-literates (83.6%. Using smear microscopy, a total of 5 new and 4 old cases of pulmonary TB cases were identified making the prevalence of TB 30 per 100,000. However, using the culture method, we identified 17 new cases with a prevalence of 76.1 per 100,000. There were 4.3 undiagnosed pulmonary TB cases for every TB case who was diagnosed through the passive case detection mechanism in the health facility. Eleven isolates (64.7% belonged to the six previously known spoligotypes: T, Haarlem and Central-Asian (CAS. Six new spoligotype patterns of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, not present in the international database (SpolDB4 were identified. None of the rural residents was HIV infected and only 5 (5.5% of the urban TB suspects were positive for HIV. Conclusion The prevalence of TB in the rural community of Southwest Ethiopia is low. There are large numbers of undiagnosed TB cases in the community. However, the number of sputum smear-positive cases was very low and therefore the risk of transmitting the infection to others may be limited. Active case finding through health extension workers in the community can improve the low case detection rate

  7. Students’ Perception on Ideal Age of Marriage and Childbearing

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    Mohanambehai Subranmiam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early-age marriage is still common in Indonesia, especially in the rural areas. There are many negative effects of the marriage; the young brides may get lower education, lower social status, minimum reproduction control, higher maternal mortality, higher domestic violence rate and others. Thus, this study is conducted to identify the students’ perception on the ideal age of marriage and childbearing. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted from June to September 2013 in Jatinangor using secondary data from Jatinangor Cohort Survey Team. The data comprised two hundred and twenty students from Jatinangor Senior High School and PGRI Vocational School. A hundred and ten males and a hundred and ten females were chosen by random sampling. Questionnaires were given after the written informed consent was obtained from the students. Results: The results showed 74.55% of the students chose 19¬–24 years old as the ideal age of marriage for a woman and 68.64% students chose 25–30 years old as the ideal age of marriage for a man. Moreover, for childbearing, 25–30 years old was chosen to be the ideal age for both man and woman. The percentage of students agreed to this was 74.55% and 54.09% respectively. Conclusions: Majority of the students agreed on 19–24 years old and 25–30 years old as the ideal age of marriage for woman and man respectively. For childbearing, 25–30 years old was concluded as the ideal age for both genders.

  8. Valproic Acid in Women and Girls of Childbearing Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotlib, Dorothy; Ramaswamy, Rachel; Kurlander, Jacob E; DeRiggi, Alana; Riba, Michelle

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate recent literature on valproic acid (VPA) in women and girls of childbearing age and to emphasize new findings. Recent research confirms VPAs teratogenicity and risk of hormone disruption. VPA exposure in utero increases the risk for a variety of major congenital malformations (MCMs), reduced IQ and behavioral problems. In girls and women, VPA increases the risk of hormone abnormalities, obesity, and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Despite guidelines recommending caution, VPA use continues to be prescribed to reproductive-aged women and girls. Despite significant and well-documented risk, adherence to guidelines in VPA use in reproductive-aged girls and women remains low.

  9. Nuptial and childbearing customs of the ethnic minorities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Y; Yang, Y

    1989-01-01

    The current nuptial customs of the ethnic minorities in China are examined. "Although monogamous marriage has now been adopted by all but a few ethnic communities, variations still exist between different nationalities in the specific forms of marriage and range of intermarriage owing to the uneven nature of historical development. Such variations are shaped by various factors of the given locality and given time such as the socioeconomy, religion, culture and education, and exert direct influence on the childbearing behavior and reproduction of the ethnic population." excerpt

  10. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance pattern of Salmonella in animal feed produced in Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilangale, Renatus P; Di Giannatale, Elisabetta; Chimwamurombe, Percy M; Kaaya, Godwin P

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence of Salmonella is a global challenge in the public health and food production sectors. Our study investigated the prevalence, serovar and antimicrobial susceptibility of strains of Salmonella serovars isolated from animal feed (meat-and-bone and blood meal) samples from two commercial abattoirs in Namibia. A total of 650 samples (n=650) were examined for the presence of Salmonella. Results showed that 10.9% (n=71) were positive for Salmonella. Of the Salmonella serovars isolated, S. Chester was the most commonly isolated serovar (19.7%), followed by S. Schwarzengrund at 12.7%. From the Salmonella isolates, 19.7% (n=14) were resistant to one or more of the antimicrobials (nalidixic acid, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, sulfisoxazole, streptomycin and/or tetracycline), whereas 80.3% (n=57) were susceptible to all 16 antimicrobials tested. Resistance to sulfisoxazole and the trimethroprimsuflamethoxazole combination were the most common. The resistant isolates belonged to ten different Salmonella serovars. The susceptibility of most of the Salmonella isolated to the antimicrobials tested indicates that anti-microbial resistance is not as common and extensive in Namibia as has been reported in many other countries. It also appears that there is a range of antimicrobials available that are effective in managing Salmonella infections in Namibia. However, there is some evidence that resistance is developing and this will need further monitoring to ensure it does not become a problem.

  11. Rural Asthma: Current Understanding of Prevalence, Patterns, and Interventions for Children and Adolescents.

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    Estrada, Robin Dawson; Ownby, Dennis R

    2017-06-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic illness of children and adolescents in the USA. While asthma has been understood to disproportionately affect urban dwellers, recent investigations have revealed rural pediatric asthma prevalence to be very similar to urban and to be more closely correlated with socioeconomic and environmental factors than geographic location or population density. Rural children experience factors unique to location that impact asthma development and outcomes, including housing quality, cigarette smoke exposure, and small/large-scale farming. Additionally, there are challenging barriers to appropriate asthma care that frequently are more severe for those living in rural areas, including insurance status, lack of primary care providers and pulmonary specialists, knowledge deficits (both patient and provider), and a lack of culturally tailored asthma interventions. Interventions designed to address rural pediatric asthma disparities are more likely to be successful when targeted to specific challenges, such as the use of school-based services or telemedicine to mitigate asthma care access issues. Continued research on understanding the complex interaction of specific rural environmental factors with host factors can inform future interventions designed to mitigate asthma disparities.

  12. The pattern and prevalence of vertebral artery injury in patients with cervical spine fractures

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    Farzanah Ismail

    2013-06-01

    Method: A retrospective review of patients who had undergone CTA of the vertebral arteries was undertaken. Reports were reviewed to determine which patients met the inclusion criteria of having had both cervical spine fractures and CTA of the vertebral arteries. Images of patients who met the inclusion criteria were analysed by a radiologist. Results: The prevalence of vertebral artery injury was 33%. Four out of the 11 patients who had vertebral artery injury, had post-traumatic spasm of the artery, with associated thrombosis or occlusion of the vessel. In terms of blunt carotid vertebral injury (BCVI grading, most of the patients sustained grade IV injuries. Four patients who had vertebral artery injury had fractures of the upper cervical vertebrae, i.e. C1 to C3. Fifteen transverse process fractures were associated with vertebral artery injury. No vertebral artery injury was detected in patients who had facet joint subluxations. Conclusion: Patients with transverse process fractures of the cervical spine and upper cervical vertebral body fractures should undergo CTA to exclude vertebral artery injury.

  13. Prevalent practice patterns in glaucoma: Poll of Indian ophthalmologists at a national conference

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    Nikhil Shreeram Choudhari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study is to explore and compare the prevailing practice patterns in the diagnosis and management of glaucoma among subspecialists and general ophthalmologists in India. Materials and Methods: This is an interactive audience response system (ARS based poll of ophthalmologists attending the annual conference of the Glaucoma Society of India in 2013. Results: The information was obtained from 379 ophthalmologists (146 glaucoma specialists, 54 nonglaucoma subspecialists, and 179 general ophthalmologists. The majority of polled ophthalmologists (236; 62% had 10 or more years of experience in ophthalmology. The glaucoma specialists differed from nonglaucomatologists in their preference for Goldmann applanation tonometer (P < 0.01, four-mirror gonioscope (P < 0.01, Humphrey perimeter (P < 0.01, laser peripheral iridotomy in primary angle closure disease (P = 0.03, postiridotomy gonioscopy (P < 0.01, and usage of antifibrotic agents during filtering surgery (P < 0.01. Optical coherence tomography was the most preferred imaging modality and was utilized more often by the subspecialists than general ophthalmologists. The ophthalmologists also differed in their choice of antiglaucoma medications. More glaucoma specialists were performing surgery on children with congenital glaucoma (P < 0.01, implanting glaucoma drainage devices (P < 0.01, and using scientific journals to upgrade knowledge (P = 0.03 than the other ophthalmologists. Conclusions: This poll is the first of its kind in India, in its usage of the ARS, and in comparing the practice patterns of care for glaucoma among subspecialists and general ophthalmologists. It has revealed substantial diversity in a few areas among those who did and did not receive specialty training in glaucoma.

  14. Hazardous drinkers in Norwegian hospitals – a cross-sectional study of prevalence and drinking patterns among somatic patients

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    Kristian Oppedal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: High alcohol intake has been associated with increased risk of hospital admission, increased complication rates, and prolonged hospital stay. Thus, hospital admission may present a relevant opportunity for alcohol intervention. To understand the potential of alcohol interventions we need knowledge about patients’ drinking patterns. The aim of this study was therefore to determine the drinking patterns in a Norwegian hospital population.Methods: A multicentre cross-sectional survey was carried out at three university hospitals. Patients were asked about alcohol intake one month prior to admission/outpatient treatment. The questionnaire included weekly alcohol intake calculated by frequency X quantity as well as episodes of binge drinking (drinking more than 5 AU during a single day. AUDIT-C was used to determine the frequency of patients having a hazardous drinking pattern during the 12 months prior to hospital treatment.Results: In total we assessed 2,932 patients for eligibility. A total of 2,350 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. We included 1,522 patients (65% in the analyses. Six percent of the women and 11% of the men reported drinking more than the weekly limits of nine alcohol units (AU for women and 14 AU for men. Fourteen percent of the women and 29% of the men reported binge drinking during the last month. The frequency of women scoring more or equal to 4 points on AUDIT-C was 20%. The frequency of men scoring more or equal to 5 points was 25%.Conclusion: Hazardous drinking among Norwegian hospital patients may be more prevalent than what has been reported for the Norwegian population in general. Binge drinking is the dominant drinking pattern.

  15. Ice and the outback: Patterns and prevalence of methamphetamine use in rural Australia.

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    Roche, Ann; McEntee, Alice

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated whether lifetime and recent methamphetamine use (including crystal methamphetamine) differed among city, regional and rural residents and whether particular subpopulations were more at-risk. Secondary analyses of the last three National Drug Strategy Household Surveys and corresponding Alcohol and Other Drug Treatment Services National Minimum Data Sets (AODTS NMDS). Australian general population. Australians who completed the 2007 (n = 22 519), 2010 (n = 25 786) and 2013 (n = 23 512) NDSHS (aged 14 + ); and treatment episodes where the principal drug of concern was recorded in the 2006/2007 (n = 139 808), 2009/2010 (n = 139 608) and 2012/2013 (n = 154 489) AODTS NMDS. To determine whether rural Australians were more likely to use methamphetamine than non-rural counterparts. Lifetime and recent methamphetamine and recent crystal methamphetamine use were significantly higher among rural than other Australians. Significantly more rural men and employed rural Australians used methamphetamine than their city, regional or Australian counterparts. Rural Australians aged 18-24 and 25-29 years were significantly more likely to have used methamphetamine in their lifetime than city or Australian residents. Rural Australians aged 18-24 years were significantly more likely to have recently used crystal methamphetamine. Interventions tailored to address the specific and unique circumstances of rural settings are required to reduce and prevent methamphetamine use, particularly crystal methamphetamine. Scope exists to focus prevention efforts on rural workplaces and primary care settings. Greater understanding of the higher prevalence of methamphetamine use in rural areas is required, plus implementation of comprehensive strategies and optimised treatment utilisation. © 2016 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  16. Prevalence and contamination patterns of Listeria monocytogenes in catfish processing environment and fresh fillets.

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    Chen, Bang-Yuan; Pyla, Rajkumar; Kim, Tae-Jo; Silva, Juan L; Jung, Yean-Sung

    2010-08-01

    Catfish skins, intestines, fresh fillets, processing surfaces at different production stages, chiller water and non-food contact surfaces were sampled for Listeria monocytogenes and other Listeria species. Among 315 samples, prevalence of L. monocytogenes, Listeria innocua and a group of Listeria seeligeri-Listeria welshimeri-Listeria ivanovii was 21.6, 13.0 and 29.5%, respectively. No Listeria grayi was detected in this survey. While no L. monocytogenes strains were isolated from catfish skins and intestines, the strains were found with a frequency of 76.7% in chilled fresh catfish fillets and 43.3% in unchilled fillets. L. monocytogenes and Listeria spp. were also detected in fish contact surfaces such as deheading machine, trimming board, chiller water, conveyor belts at different stages, and fillet weighing table. Among L. monocytogenes, 1/2b (47.0%), 3b (16.0%) and 4c (14%) were the predominant serotypes isolated, whereas 4b, 4e, 1/2c and 1/2a were detected at much lower frequencies. Genotype analyses of L. monocytogenes isolates using serotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR revealed that chiller water represented an important contamination source of L. monocytogenes in the chilled catfish fillets of two processing facilities, whereas fillet weighing table significantly contributed to the catfish fillet contamination of the third facility. This study suggests that L. monocytogenes contamination in the processed catfish fillets originates from the processing environment, rather than directly from catfish. Results from this study can aid the catfish industry to develop a plant-specific proper cleaning and sanitation procedure for equipment and the processing environment designed to specifically target L. monocytogenes contamination. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Prevalence and patterns of chronic disease multimorbidity and associated determinants in Canada

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    K. C. Roberts

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Multimorbidity is increasingly recognized as a key issue in the prevention and management of chronic diseases. We examined the prevalence and correlates of chronic disease multimorbidity in the general adult Canadian population in relation to age and other key determinants. Methods: We extracted data from the Canadian Community Health Survey 2011/12 on 105 416 Canadians adults. We analysed the data according to the number of multimorbidities (defined as 2+ or 3+ diseases from a list of 9 and examined the determinants of multimorbidity using regression analyses. Results: Our findings show that 12.9% of Canadians report 2+ chronic diseases and 3.9% report 3+ chronic diseases. Those reporting 3 or more chronic diseases were more likely to be female, older, living in the lowest income quintile and to have not completed high school. In the overall population, social deprivation is associated with a 3.7 odds of multimorbidity, but when examined across age groups, the odds of multimorbidity were notably higher in middle age, 7.5 for those aged 35 to 49 years and 5.4 for those aged 50 to 64 years. Discussion: As the proportion of Canadians living with multiple chronic diseases increases, we need to assess chronic disease from a holistic perspective that captures multimorbidity and upstream factors, to facilitate broader and more context-appropriate associations with healthy living, quality of life, health care costs and mortality. Special consideration should be given to the role that social deprivation plays in the development of multimorbidity. Canadians living in the lowest socioeconomic group are not only more likely to develop multimorbidity, but the onset of multimorbidity is also likely to be significantly earlier.

  18. Bacteriuria amongst pregnant women in the Buea Health District, Cameroon: prevalence, predictors, antibiotic susceptibility patterns and diagnosis.

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    Morike Ngoe Mokube

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bacteriuria is associated with significant maternal and foetal risks. However, its prevalence is not known in our community. OBJECTIVES: This study was carried out to determine the prevalence and predictors of bacteriuria in pregnant women of the Buea Health District (BHD as well as the antibiotic sensitivity patterns of bacterial isolates. It also sought to determine the diagnostic performance of the nitrite and leucocyte esterase tests in detecting bacteriuria in these women. METHODS: An observational analytic cross-sectional study was carried out amongst pregnant women attending selected antenatal care centres in Buea. We recruited 102 consenting pregnant women for the study. Demographic and clinical data were collected using structured questionnaires. Clean catch midstream urine was collected from each participant in sterile leak proof containers. Samples were examined biochemically, microscopically and by culture. Significant bacteriuria was defined as the presence of ≥10⁸ bacteria/L of cultured urine. Identification and susceptibility of isolates was performed using API 20E and ATB UR EU (08 (BioMerieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France. RESULTS: Significant bacteriuria was found in the urine of 24 of the 102 women tested giving a bacteriuria prevalence of 23.5% in pregnant women of the BHD. Asymptomatic bacteriuria was detected in 8(7.8% of the women. There was no statistically significant predictor of bacteriuria. Escherichia coli were the most isolated (33% uropathogens and were 100% sensitive to cefixime, cefoxitin and cephalothin. The nitrite and leucocyte esterase tests for determining bacteriuria had sensitivities of 8%, 20.8% and specificities of 98.7% and 80.8% respectively. CONCLUSION: Bacteriuria is frequent in pregnant women in the BHD suggesting the need for routine screening by urine culture. Empiric treatment with cefixime should be instituted until results of urine culture and sensitivity are available. Nitrite and

  19. Bacteriuria amongst pregnant women in the Buea Health District, Cameroon: prevalence, predictors, antibiotic susceptibility patterns and diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokube, Morike Ngoe; Atashili, Julius; Halle-Ekane, Gregory Edie; Ikomey, George M; Ndumbe, Peter M

    2013-01-01

    Bacteriuria is associated with significant maternal and foetal risks. However, its prevalence is not known in our community. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence and predictors of bacteriuria in pregnant women of the Buea Health District (BHD) as well as the antibiotic sensitivity patterns of bacterial isolates. It also sought to determine the diagnostic performance of the nitrite and leucocyte esterase tests in detecting bacteriuria in these women. An observational analytic cross-sectional study was carried out amongst pregnant women attending selected antenatal care centres in Buea. We recruited 102 consenting pregnant women for the study. Demographic and clinical data were collected using structured questionnaires. Clean catch midstream urine was collected from each participant in sterile leak proof containers. Samples were examined biochemically, microscopically and by culture. Significant bacteriuria was defined as the presence of ≥10⁸ bacteria/L of cultured urine. Identification and susceptibility of isolates was performed using API 20E and ATB UR EU (08) (BioMerieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France). Significant bacteriuria was found in the urine of 24 of the 102 women tested giving a bacteriuria prevalence of 23.5% in pregnant women of the BHD. Asymptomatic bacteriuria was detected in 8(7.8%) of the women. There was no statistically significant predictor of bacteriuria. Escherichia coli were the most isolated (33%) uropathogens and were 100% sensitive to cefixime, cefoxitin and cephalothin. The nitrite and leucocyte esterase tests for determining bacteriuria had sensitivities of 8%, 20.8% and specificities of 98.7% and 80.8% respectively. Bacteriuria is frequent in pregnant women in the BHD suggesting the need for routine screening by urine culture. Empiric treatment with cefixime should be instituted until results of urine culture and sensitivity are available. Nitrite and leucocyte esterase tests were not sensitive enough to replace urine

  20. PREVALENCE OF MBL AND ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERN OF ACINETOBACTER ISOLATES FROM A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL, ASSAM, INDIA

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    Monjuri Kataki

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Acinetobacter infection have been clinically prominent pathogen in tropical countries have caused recurrent problems during wars and natural disasters and have recently caused multihospital outbreaks. Rational use of antimicrobial agents is clinically important to prevent Acinetobacter infections as well as to avoid poor outcomes. 1 The aim of the study is to see the prevalence of Acinetobacter as a pathogen in this tertiary care hospital, their susceptibility pattern along with prevalence of metallo-beta-lactamase. MATERIALS AND METHODS The samples were processed for a period of one year. Samples were collected from ICU including urine, sputum, endotracheal aspirate, BAL, blood, pus, body fluids (pleural fluid, CSF, etc. and the stool specimens were plated using appropriate culture media (MAC, BA, CLED, XLD. RESULTS Shows Acinetobacter baumannii is the significant species isolated is ICU among 700 cases, which yielded only 100% sensitivity to commonly used antibiotics. So, it is the need of the hour to implement infection control measures in a serious and intensive way. CONCLUSION So, it is the need of the hour to implement infection control measures in a serious and intensive way.

  1. Prevalence and Patterns of Tobacco Use in Bangladesh from 2009 to 2012: Evidence from International Tobacco Control (ITC) Study.

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    Nargis, Nigar; Thompson, Mary E; Fong, Geoffrey T; Driezen, Pete; Hussain, A K M Ghulam; Ruthbah, Ummul H; Quah, Anne C K; Abdullah, Abu S

    2015-01-01

    Smoking and passive smoking are collectively the biggest preventable cause of death in Bangladesh, with major public health burden of morbidity, disability, mortality and community costs. The available studies of tobacco use in Bangladesh, however, do not necessarily employ nationally representative samples needed to monitor the problem at a national scale. This paper examines the prevalence and patterns of tobacco use among adults in Bangladesh and the changes over time using large nationally representative comparable surveys. Using data from two enumerations of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Bangladesh Project conducted in 2009 and 2012, prevalence estimates are obtained for all tobacco products by socio-economic determinants and sample types of over 90,000 individuals drawn from over 30,000 households. Household level sample weights are used to obtain nationally representative prevalence estimates and standard errors. Statistical tests of difference in the estimates between two time periods are based on a logistic regression model that accounts for the complex sampling design. Using a multinomial logit model, the time trend in tobacco use status is identified to capture the effects of macro level determinants including changes in tobacco control policies. Between 2009 and 2012, overall tobacco use went down from 42.4% to 36.3%. The decline is more pronounced with respect to smokeless tobacco use than smoking. The prevalence of exclusive cigarette smoking went up from 7.2% to 10.6%; exclusive bidi smoking remained stable at around 2%; while smoking both cigarette and bidi went down from 4.6% to 1.8%; exclusive smokeless tobacco use went down from 20.2% to 16.9%; and both smokeless tobacco use and smoking went down from 8.4% to 5.1%. In general, the prevalence of tobacco use is higher among men, increases from younger to older age groups, and is higher among poorer people. Smoking prevalence is the highest among the slum population, followed by the tribal

  2. Prevalence and Patterns of Tobacco Use in Bangladesh from 2009 to 2012: Evidence from International Tobacco Control (ITC Study.

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    Nigar Nargis

    Full Text Available Smoking and passive smoking are collectively the biggest preventable cause of death in Bangladesh, with major public health burden of morbidity, disability, mortality and community costs. The available studies of tobacco use in Bangladesh, however, do not necessarily employ nationally representative samples needed to monitor the problem at a national scale. This paper examines the prevalence and patterns of tobacco use among adults in Bangladesh and the changes over time using large nationally representative comparable surveys.Using data from two enumerations of the International Tobacco Control (ITC Bangladesh Project conducted in 2009 and 2012, prevalence estimates are obtained for all tobacco products by socio-economic determinants and sample types of over 90,000 individuals drawn from over 30,000 households. Household level sample weights are used to obtain nationally representative prevalence estimates and standard errors. Statistical tests of difference in the estimates between two time periods are based on a logistic regression model that accounts for the complex sampling design. Using a multinomial logit model, the time trend in tobacco use status is identified to capture the effects of macro level determinants including changes in tobacco control policies.Between 2009 and 2012, overall tobacco use went down from 42.4% to 36.3%. The decline is more pronounced with respect to smokeless tobacco use than smoking. The prevalence of exclusive cigarette smoking went up from 7.2% to 10.6%; exclusive bidi smoking remained stable at around 2%; while smoking both cigarette and bidi went down from 4.6% to 1.8%; exclusive smokeless tobacco use went down from 20.2% to 16.9%; and both smokeless tobacco use and smoking went down from 8.4% to 5.1%. In general, the prevalence of tobacco use is higher among men, increases from younger to older age groups, and is higher among poorer people. Smoking prevalence is the highest among the slum population

  3. Effect of tobacco smoke on the oral health of U.S. women of childbearing age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Hiroko; Kumar, Jayanth V; Kopycka-Kedzierawski, Dorota T; Billings, Ronald J

    2009-01-01

    To determine the oral health status of US women of childbearing age and to analyze the effect of tobacco smoke on their oral health. Data from the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were evaluated for women 15-44 years of age. The association of exposure to tobacco smoke with untreated caries, mean DMFS, gingivitis, and periodontitis were examined in bivariate and regression analyses controlling for potential confounders. The prevalence of untreated caries was 25%, for gingivitis 49%, and for periodontitis 6%. After adjusting for potential confounders, self-reported current smoking was a strong independent risk indicator for untreated caries, periodontitis, and to a lesser extent for greater DMFS count. Women with detectable cotinine levels below 15 ng/mL presented with an increased risk for gingivitis. Independent factors associated with increased risk for untreated caries were being Black, having less than a high school education, Medicaid or no health insurance, previous live births, and infrequent and episodic dental visits. Characteristics associated with gingivitis were being Mexican-American, obese, pregnant, and having infrequent dental visits. Older age, no insurance, and the last dental visit for treatment were independently associated with periodontitis. Dental caries and periodontitis were prevalent among certain subgroups of women of reproductive age. Smoking was found to be a significant risk indicator for various negative oral health outcomes. Barriers to accessing to dental care that were manifested by untreated caries among Black women, mothers, and Medicaid beneficiaries must be better understood.

  4. Prevalence, patterns, and perceived value of complementary and alternative medicine among cancer patients: a cross-sectional, descriptive study.

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    Bahall, Mandreker

    2017-06-30

    Sophisticated conventional medicine (CM) has brought significant advances to cancer prevention, detection, and treatment. However, many cancer patients still turn to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatment. This study explored the prevalence, patterns, and perceived value of CAM among cancer patients. This quantitative descriptive study was conducted between March 1, 2015, and July 31, 2015, among a cross-sectional, convenience sample of patients from the Oncology Department of San Fernando General Hospital in Trinidad and Tobago. Face-to-face interviews were conducted at the oncology clinic and treatment suite after obtaining informed consent. Data analysis included descriptive analysis, chi-square tests, and binary logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of CAM use among a sample of 350 cancer patients was 39.1% (39.6% for breast cancer, 44.4% for prostate cancer, 37% for ovarian cancer, and 38.7% for colon cancer patients). Herbs were the most common type of CAM used (93.4%), followed by spiritual therapy (73.7%). CAM use was more prevalent among females (68.6%), Indo-Trinidadians (63.5%), and patients aged 41-50 years (37.2%). The majority (70%-80%) rated CAM efficacy on perceived value. CAM was used mainly because of a desire to try anything that might help (67.6%), followed by it being congruent with the patients' beliefs (59.1%). Patients knew about CAM mainly through friends (69.3%) and family (69.3%). Most patients were generally satisfied (93.6%) and considered CAM helpful (89.8%), but the majority never informed their health care provider of CAM use (78.8%). Patients reported the simultaneous use of more than one type of CAM, without considering or knowing of possible side-effects. The perceived value of CAM included empowerment, control, cure, and improved quality of life. CAM use was associated with age, but no predictors of CAM use could be identified. Medicinal herbs and spiritual therapy are commonly used among cancer patients

  5. A study to assess the prevalence and pattern of substance use among male adolescents in suburban area of Delhi

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    Liza Thankam Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the Study: To assess the prevalence and pattern of substance use among male adolescents in Sunder Nagari, New Delhi. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was designed to assess the prevalence and pattern of substance use among male adolescents in New Delhi. One hundred and ten adolescents were conveniently selected from Sunder Nagari, New Delhi. Adolescents aged more than 11 years and able to read and write Hindi or English were included in the study. A structured questionnaire for demographic variables was developed by researchers. To assess the prevalence and pattern of substance use, a structured questionnaire was prepared with the reliability coefficient of 0.94 (test-retest reliability with a content validity index of 0.90 between the experts. Data were collected from the subjects after getting their written consent. Data analyzed using statistical package SPSS version 17.0. The level of significance was set as P < 0.05. Results: The study findings revealed that nearly more than half (55.6% of the male adolescents reported the use of one or more substances in their lifetime. About 44.26% of the adolescents started to use substances before 13 years of age. Most common reason specified by the subjects to take substance were to be liked by friends (57.38%, to feel like an adult (24.6%, and few of them reported: “like the feeling of substances” (13.11% as reason for taking substances. Common substances used by the subjects were any kind of tobacco (77.05%, inhalants (26.23%, and alcohol (11.47%. Most of the subjects were getting substances from their friends (85.25% and only a few (14.75% by themselves. Association analyses revealed that adolescents who studied less than 10th standard reported more usage of any kind of substances than who studied more than 10th standard. More prevalence of substance use was seen among adolescents who were from nuclear family. Subjects who had less than two siblings reported more substance

  6. Association between sleep and overweight/obesity among women of childbearing age in Canada

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    Tests of the relationship between sleep and overweight/obesity (OW/OB) among women have been inconsistent. Few studies reporting such associations have focused on women of childbearing age. This paper investigates this association among Canadian women of childbearing age. Data were from the Canadian...

  7. A reversed gender pattern? A meta-analysis of gender differences in the prevalence of non-suicidal self-injurious behaviour among Chinese adolescents

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    Xueyan Yang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A reversed gender pattern has been observed in the suicide rate in China compared to elsewhere. Like suicidal behaviour, non-suicidal self-injurious (NSSI behaviour is a health-risk behaviour. We examined whether a reversed gender pattern existed in the prevalence of NSSI. Methods Online literature databases were searched for English and Chinese articles on NSSI behaviours among the Chinese. A meta-analysis with a random-effects model and a subgroup analysis were used to estimate the odds ratios of gender differences in NSSI prevalence among Chinese adolescents including college students, middle school students, and clinical samples, as well as rural, urban, and Hong Kong middle school students. Results There was a male bias in NSSI prevalence among college students (OR = 1.56, 95% CI = [1.30, 1.87], p  0.1. The NSSI prevalence among middle school students had a female bias in the rural (OR = 0.58, 95% CI = [0.47, 0.72], p  0.1 among middle school students. Conclusions Our analysis indicated the existence of specific gender and age patterns in NSSI prevalence among Chinese adolescents. The sample type, age, and the areas that have different gender norms and culture could partly explain this pattern.

  8. Prevalence and patterns of prenatal use of traditional medicine among women at selected harare clinics: a cross-sectional study

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    Mureyi Dudzai D

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prenatal use of traditional medicine or complementary and alternative medicine is widespread globally despite the lack of evidence of the effectiveness of these therapeutic options. Documentation on the prevalence and patterns of this maternal practice in the Zimbabwean setting was also lacking. Methods A cross sectional survey of 248 women at selected health centres in Harare was carried out to address the need for such data using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Results Fifty-two (52% (95% C.I. 44%-60% of the participants reported to have used at least one traditional medicine intervention during the third trimester of their most recent pregnancy to induce labour, avoid perineal tearing and improve the safety of their delivery process. The study found prenatal use of traditional medicine to be significantly associated with nulliparity and nulligravidity. Such practice was also significant among participants residing in a particular high density suburb located in close proximity to informal traders of traditional medicines. Prenatal traditional medicine use was not significantly linked to experiencing an obstetrics-related adverse event. Instead, participants who reported not using any traditional medicine during pregnancy reported experiencing significantly more adverse events, mainly perineal tearing during delivery. Conclusions The practice of prenatal use of traditional medicine was significant in the study setting, with a prevalence of 52%. A variety of products were used in various dosage forms for differing indications. Nulliparity, nulligavidity and possible accessibility of these products were the factors significantly associated with prenatal use of traditional medicine. Prenatal use of traditional medicine was not significantly associated with any obstetric adverse event.

  9. A reversed gender pattern? A meta-analysis of gender differences in the prevalence of non-suicidal self-injurious behaviour among Chinese adolescents.

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    Yang, Xueyan; Feldman, Marcus W

    2017-07-28

    A reversed gender pattern has been observed in the suicide rate in China compared to elsewhere. Like suicidal behaviour, non-suicidal self-injurious (NSSI) behaviour is a health-risk behaviour. We examined whether a reversed gender pattern existed in the prevalence of NSSI. Online literature databases were searched for English and Chinese articles on NSSI behaviours among the Chinese. A meta-analysis with a random-effects model and a subgroup analysis were used to estimate the odds ratios of gender differences in NSSI prevalence among Chinese adolescents including college students, middle school students, and clinical samples, as well as rural, urban, and Hong Kong middle school students. There was a male bias in NSSI prevalence among college students (OR = 1.56, 95% CI = [1.30, 1.87], p gender difference among clinical samples (OR = 0.88, 95% CI = [0.41, 1.89], p > 0.1). The NSSI prevalence among middle school students had a female bias in the rural (OR = 0.58, 95% CI = [0.47, 0.72], p gender difference in NSSI prevalence in the Hong Kong areas being greater than in rural areas. No gender difference in NSSI prevalence was found in urban areas (OR = 1.01, 95% CI = [0.84, 1.22], p > 0.1) among middle school students. Our analysis indicated the existence of specific gender and age patterns in NSSI prevalence among Chinese adolescents. The sample type, age, and the areas that have different gender norms and culture could partly explain this pattern.

  10. Tetanus in women of childbearing age in the infectious disease department in the national hospital of Conakry (Guinea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traore, F A; Sako, F B; Sylla, D; Traore, M; Kpamy, D O; Doumbouya, M; Sylla, A O; Diallo, M O S

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to determine the hospital prevalence rate of tetanus in women of childbearing age in the infectious disease department of Donka CHU in Conakry and to describe their sociodemographic characteristics and outcomes. This descriptive retrospective study examined the records of all patients aged 15 to 495 years hospitalized for tetanus over a 10-year period. During the study period, 74555 patients were hospitalized - 239 for tetanus. In all, 22 woman of childbearing age had tetanus, that is, 9.2%. Their mean age was 325 years. Most of the women were married (13/22) and lived in Conakry (18/22); 165 were housewives, and 65 patients had begun but not completed the required vaccinations. The incubation period was >75 days for 165 patients. Tetanus infection resulted from medical procedures for 9 women and trauma for 6. We recorded 125 deaths. The average duration of hospitalization was 215 days. Preventing tetanus requires a reinforcement of vaccination drives and especially the implementation of policies for booster reminders.

  11. Parity and carotid atherosclerosis in men and women: insights into the roles of childbearing and child-rearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skilton, Michael R; Sérusclat, André; Begg, Lisa M; Moulin, Philippe; Bonnet, Fabrice

    2009-04-01

    Parity appears to be associated with carotid atherosclerosis in women aged 45 years and older. Studying this association among younger women and men may provide insight into whether this association relates predominantly to childbearing or child-rearing. The association between parity and carotid atherosclerosis (intima-media thickness and presence of plaques) was assessed in a cohort consisting of 750 women and 1164 men, all with at least one traditional cardiovascular risk factor, aged 18 to 80 years of age. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors were also assessed, and the Framingham Risk Score calculated. In age-adjusted analyses, the number of children was associated with adiposity, fasting glucose, 2-hour glucose, Framingham risk score, and carotid atherosclerosis in women, but not in men. Multivariate linear regression models indicate that the prevalence of plaques was increased by 15% (95% CI, 2 to 29) per child among women, and 0% (95% CI, -10 to 11) among men, after adjustment for age, socioeconomic and lifestyle factors (including waist circumference). The association between parity and carotid intima-media thickness was similar in younger and older women (P(Heterogeneity)=0.20). A higher number of children is associated with increased carotid atherosclerosis in both younger and older women, but not among men. These findings indicate that childbearing, but not child-rearing, may be a risk factor for atherosclerosis, and suggest the potential importance of considering the number of children when assessing the level of cardiovascular risk in women.

  12. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of bacteria from milkmen and cows with clinical mastitis in and around Kampala, Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Patrick Kateete

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Identification of pathogens associated with bovine mastitis is helpful in treatment and management decisions. However, such data from sub-Saharan Africa is scarce. Here we describe the distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of bacteria from cows with clinical mastitis in Kampala, Uganda. Due to high concern of zoonotic infections, isolates from milkmen are also described. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Ninety seven milk samples from cows with clinical mastitis and 31 nasal swabs from milkmen were collected (one sample per cow/human. Fifty eight (60% Gram-positive isolates namely Staphylococci (21, Enterococci (16, Streptococci (13, Lactococci (5, Micrococci (2 and Arcanobacteria (1 were detected in cows; only one grew Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, 24 (25% coliforms namely Escherichia coli (12, Klebsiella oxytoca (5, Proteus vulgaris (2, Serratia (2, Citrobacter (1, Cedecea (1 and Leclercia (1 were identified. From humans, 24 Gram-positive bacteria grew, of which 11 were Staphylococci (35% including four Staphylococcus aureus. Upon susceptibility testing, methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS were prevalent; 57%, 12/21 in cows and 64%, 7/11 in humans. However, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was not detected. Furthermore, methicillin and vancomycin resistant CoNS were detected in cows (Staphylococcus hominis, Staphylococcus lugdunensis and humans (Staphylococcus scuiri. Also, vancomycin and daptomycin resistant Enterococci (Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium, respectively were detected in cows. Coliforms were less resistant with three pan-susceptible isolates. However, multidrug resistant Klebsiella, Proteus, Serratia, Cedecea, and Citrobacter were detected. Lastly, similar species grew from human and bovine samples but on genotyping, the isolates were found to be different. Interestingly, human and bovine Staphylococcus aureus were genetically similar (spa-CC435

  13. Intimate partner violence against married rural-to-urban migrant workers in eastern China: prevalence, patterns, and associated factors

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    Li Chen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV is a significant public health issue among married rural-to-urban migrant workers, the largest group of internal migrants in China. This study aims to explore the prevalence, patterns and associated factors of intimate partner violence against married rural-to-urban migrant workers in eastern China. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Zhejiang province in China between July 2015 and April 2016, and a total of 1,744 married rural-to-urban migrant workers ultimately took part in the study. Conflict Tactics Scales and several short demographic questions were applied. Data were principally analyzed with logistic regression. Results The majority of married rural-to-urban migrant workers were middle-aged couples with a low education level and a relatively long-term duration of migration in fixed migrant cities. Nearly 45% of married rural-to-urban migrant workers were experienced at least one incident of intimate partner violence during the past 12 months. The joint occurrence of multiple forms of violence is the most commonly reported features of intimate partner violence, especially three overlapping patterns of intimate partner violence. Some individual (education and age, relationship (marital satisfaction, premarital sex and extramarital affairs and social (duration of migration and number of migratory cities factors of the respondents, were negatively or positively associated with intimate partner violence against married rural-to-urban migrant workers. Conclusion The results indicated that one out of two married rural-to-urban migrant workers experienced at least one incident of intimate partner violence during the past 12 months in China. Accordingly, there is an obvious demand of intervention and treatment activities to prevent and reduce the occurrence of intimate partner violence among the millions of migrant workers in China.

  14. High prevalence of elevated blood lead levels in both rural and urban Iowa newborns: Spatial patterns and area-level covariates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrel, Margaret; Zahrieh, David; Young, Sean G; Oleson, Jacob; Ryckman, Kelli K; Wels, Brian; Simmons, Donald L; Saftlas, Audrey

    2017-01-01

    Lead in maternal blood can cross the placenta and result in elevated blood lead levels in newborns, potentially producing negative effects on neurocognitive function, particularly if combined with childhood lead exposure. Little research exists, however, into the burden of elevated blood lead levels in newborns, or the places and populations in which elevated lead levels are observed in newborns, particularly in rural settings. Using ~2300 dried bloods spots collected within 1-3 days of birth among Iowa newborns, linked with the area of mother's residence at the time of birth, we examine the spatial patterns of elevated (>5 μg/dL) blood lead levels and the ecological-level predictors of elevated blood lead levels. We find that one in five newborns exceed the 5 μg/dL action level set by the US Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC). Bayesian spatial zero inflated regression indicates that elevated blood lead in newborns is associated with areas of increased pre-1940s housing and childbearing-age women with low educational status in both rural and urban settings. No differences in blood lead levels or the proportion of children exceeding 5 μg/dL are observed between urban and rural maternal residence, though a spatial cluster of elevated blood lead is observed in rural counties. These characteristics can guide the recommendation for testing of infants at well-baby appointments in places where risk factors are present, potentially leading to earlier initiation of case management. The findings also suggest that rural populations are at as great of risk of elevated blood lead levels as are urban populations. Analysis of newborn dried blood spots is an important tool for lead poisoning surveillance in newborns and can direct public health efforts towards specific places and populations where lead testing and case management will have the greatest impact.

  15. Smokeless tobacco (shammah) in Saudi Arabia: a review of its pattern of use, prevalence, and potential role in oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsanosy, Rashad Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Shammah is a traditional form of chewing tobacco [smokeless tobacco, (ST)] that is commonly used in the Middle East especially in Saudi Arabia (KSA), Yemen and Sudan. The Substance Abuse Research Centre (SARC) at Jazan University noted that no adequate research and information on the prevalence of shammah use in the province of Jazan, and KSA as well, has been provided in the scientific literature. An intensive systematic review of online databases was performed, including AMED (The Allied and Complementary Medicine Database), Biological Abstracts, Cochrane Collection Plus, Dentistry and Oral Sciences Source, E-Journals Database, EBSCO Discovery Service, MEDLINE, PEMSoft, PEP Archive, PsycARTICLES, scopus, Sciencedirect and Google Scholar. Shammah is a mixture of powdered tobacco, lime, ash, black pepper, oils and flavorings. ST in KSA is placed in the buccal or lower labial vestibule of the mouth. The user (or dipper) spits out insoluble debris. The importation of ST products is prohibited in KSA. Accessible information on legislative action to control the use of ST in KSA appeared in 1990. The actual percentage use may be higher, than reported since shammah is illegal in KSA and there may be some reluctance to admit to its use. This review paper is an initial step in a funded research project by SARC to understand the pattern of use of shammah and provide adequate epidemiological data. One goal of this review is to generate further data for public health education.

  16. The Prevalence and pattern of HPV-16 immunostaining in uterine cervical carcinomas in Ethiopian women: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona M Rashed

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Cancer of the cervix uteri is the second most common cancer among women worldwide. The association of human papillomavirus (HPV infection with cervical carcinogenesis is well documented. This is a pilot study aiming to studying the prevalence and the pattern of Human Papilloma Virus Type 16 (HPV16 by immunostaining in the tissues of cervical carcinomas of Ethiopian women. METHODS: 20 specimens of uterine cervical carcinomas were studied histopathologically and immunohistochemically for HPV16. RESULTS: Histologically the specimens were classified as: Ten cases were Non Keratinized Squamous cell carcinoma (NKSCC, six cases were Keratinized Squamous Cell Carcinoma (KSCC and four cases were Adenocarcinoma (ADC. Immunohistochemistry study showed positivity in eleven cases (55%; seven cases (35% were non-keratinized squamous cell carcinoma; three cases (15% were keratinized squamous cell carcinoma and one case (5% belonged to the adenocarcinomas. CONCLUSION: This study reveals a significant detection of HPV in Ethiopian women by the use of advanced techniques such as Immunohistochemistry (IHC. The data of this study suggested that the marked expression of the HPV 16 was in the less differentiated uterine cervix carcinomas

  17. Prevalence and pattern of rape among girls and women attending Enugu State University Teaching Hospital, southeast Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohayi, Robsam S; Ezugwu, Euzebus C; Chigbu, Chibuike O; Arinze-Onyia, Susan U; Iyoke, Chukwuemeka A

    2015-07-01

    To determine the prevalence and pattern of rape in Enugu, southeast Nigeria. A prospective descriptive study was conducted among female survivors of rape who presented at the emergency gynecologic and/or forensic unit of Enugu State University Teaching Hospital between February 2012 and July 2013. Data were collected via a pretested interviewer-administered questionnaire. Among 1374 gynecologic emergencies, there were 121 (8.8%) rape cases. The mean age of the rape survivors was 13.1±8.1 years. Ninety (74.4%) survivors were younger than 18 years. At least 72 hours had passed since the rape for 74 (61.2%) cases. The perpetrator was known to 74 (82.2%) patients younger than 18 years and 18 (58.1%) aged at least 18 years (P=0.013). The location of the rape was the bush or an uncompleted building for 36 (29.8%) and the perpetrator's residence for another 36 (29.8%). Four (3.3%) individuals became pregnant after the rape. A considerable proportion of patients with gynecologic emergencies had been raped. Individuals should be encouraged to report to the hospital quickly to prevent unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Sleep Disorders and Reporting of Trouble Sleeping Among Women of Childbearing Age in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amyx, Melissa; Xiong, Xu; Xie, Yiqiong; Buekens, Pierre

    2017-02-01

    Objectives Whether racial/ethnic differences in prevalence/reporting of sleep disorders exist in pregnant women/women of child-bearing age is unknown. Study objectives were to estimate prevalence of sleep disorders and to examine racial/ethnic differences in sleep disorders, reporting of sleep issues, and amount of sleep among women of child-bearing age (15-44 years) in the US. Methods Through a secondary analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2010 (3175 non-pregnant, 432 pregnant women in main analysis), prevalence of sleep disorders, reporting of sleep disorders to a physician/health professional, and amount of sleep were estimated overall, by pregnancy status, and by race/ethnicity stratified by pregnancy status. Racial/ethnic differences in reporting of trouble sleeping by pregnancy status were examined using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Results Prevalence of diagnosed sleep disorders among women of childbearing age was 4.9 % [3.9 % pregnant; 5.1 % non-pregnant (p sleep (7-8 h) than non-Hispanic white (white) women (p sleeping were significantly higher for white compared to black (aOR 0.47 [95 % CI 0.36, 0.61]) or Mexican-American women (aOR 0.29 [95 % CI 0.21, 0.41]); non-pregnant minority women were also significantly less likely to report trouble sleeping than white women when controlling for amount of sleep. Among pregnant women, these same trends were found. Discussion Compared to white women, minority women, despite reporting less adequate sleep, are less likely to report trouble sleeping, providing evidence of an important health disparity.

  19. Hygiene interventions for prevention of cytomegalovirus infection among childbearing women: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Jessica; Dennis, Cindy-Lee

    2008-09-01

    This paper is a report of a systematic review to examine the effectiveness of preventive interventions to reduce congenital cytomegalovirus transmission and infection among women of childbearing age. Congenital cytomegalovirus has been identified as the leading infectious cause of damage to the growing fetus in developed countries, including Down syndrome, fetal alcohol syndrome and spina bifida. Despite the prevalence and consequences of this infection, it has a low profile and pregnant mothers are often unaware of the risks and protective behaviours related to its transmission. Women with children in daycare and nurses working with children are particularly at risk of acquiring the virus. A computerized literature search for articles up to 1 December 2007 was performed using MEDLINE (from 1950); EMBASE (from 1980) and CINAHL (from 1982). Both authors independently reviewed studies that met inclusion criteria and assigned a quality rating determined by the number of validity criteria met. Differences were discussed until consensus was reached. Differences in hygiene behaviour changes were most statistically significant for pregnant, seronegative women. Although the methodological quality of the three included studies was not strong, seroconversion rates consistently decreased as cytomegalovirus education and support increased. Nurses can act as preventive agents for cytomegalovirus infection through education about hygiene precautions during antenatal care and through preventive measures in the workplace. The review findings suggest educational interventions in hygiene practices have the potential to be a feasible, large-scale, primary prevention strategy.

  20. Identification of dietary patterns in urban population of Argentina: study on diet-obesity relation in population-based prevalence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pou, Sonia Alejandra; Del Pilar Díaz, María; De La Quintana, Ana Gabriela; Forte, Carla Antonella; Aballay, Laura Rosana

    2016-12-01

    In Argentina, obesity prevalence rose from 14.6% in 2005 to 20.8% in 2013. Although the number of studies on noncommunicable diseases and dietary patterns as a unique dietary exposure measure has increased, information on this topic remains scarce in developing countries. This is the first population-based study investigating the association between diet and obesity using a dietary pattern approach in Argentina. We aimed (a) to identify current dietary patterns of the population of Córdoba city, (b) to investigate its association with obesity prevalence, and (c) to identify and describe dietary patterns from the subgroup of people with obesity. The Córdoba Obesity and Diet Study (CODIES) was conducted in Córdoba city by using a random sample of n = 4,327 subjects between 2005 and 2012. Empirically derived dietary patterns were identified through principal component factor analysis. A multiple logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the association of dietary patterns with obesity. Four dietary patterns were identified, called " Starchy-Sugar ", " Prudent ", " Western ", and " Sugary drinks ". High scores for the " Western " pattern (with strongest factor loading on meats/eggs, processed meats, and alcohol) showed a positive association with obesity (OR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.06-1.67, for third versus first tertile of factor score). " Meats/Cheeses " and " Snacks/Alcohol " patterns emerged in people with obesity. The findings suggest that high adherence to the " Western " pattern promoted obesity in this urban population. In addition, people with obesity showed characteristic dietary patterns that differ from those identified in the overall population.

  1. Intake of game birds in the UK: assessment of the contribution to the dietary intake of lead by women of childbearing age and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Caroline M; Golding, Jean; Emond, Alan M

    2014-05-01

    Concern has recently been expressed about Pb levels in Pb-shot game meat. Our aim was to determine the consumption of game birds in a representative sample population in the UK, and in children and women of childbearing age in particular. Population-based cross-sectional cohort study. Data from 4 d diet diaries from the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS; 2008-2010) were extracted to analyse data on game bird consumption in the sample population, in women of childbearing age (15-45 years old) and in children ≤6 years old. Home-based study in representative areas of the UK. Participants in the NDNS (2008-2010; n 2126, age 1·5 to >65 years). Fifty-eight participants (2·7 %) reported eating game birds. The mean intake was 19·5 (sd 18·1) g/d (median 15·6, range 1·3-92·9 g/d). In women of childbearing age (15-45 years), 11/383 (2·9 %) reported eating game birds, with a mean intake of 22·4 (sd 25·8) g/d (median 15·6, range 2·0-92·9 g/d). In children aged ≤6 years old, 3/342 (0·9 %) were reported as eating game birds, with a mean intake of 6·8 (sd 9·7) g/d (median 2·4, range 1·3-23·2 g/d). The prevalence of consumption of game birds by women of childbearing age and children ≤6 years old was relatively low and intakes were small. However, any exposure to Pb in these two groups is undesirable. As are uncertainties about the ability of the diet diary method to capture the consumption of food items that are infrequently consumed, alternative methods of capturing these data should be used in future studies.

  2. Prevalence and drug susceptibility pattern of group B Streptococci (GBS) among pregnant women attending antenatal care (ANC) in Nekemte Referral Hospital (NRH), Nekemte, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengist, Hylemariam Mihiretie; Zewdie, Olifan; Belew, Adugna; Dabsu, Regea

    2017-08-10

    The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and drug susceptibility pattern of group B Streptococci (GBS) among pregnant women. The specific objectives include; (1) To determine the prevalence of GBS colonization among pregnant women (2) To determine the drug susceptibility pattern of GBS among pregnant women and (3) To identify associated risk factors with GBS colonization among pregnant women. The median age of the participants was 24.5 years (range 16-38) and 86% participants were urban residents. The total prevalence of maternal GBS colonization from vaginal swab culture was 12.2% (22/180). The prevalence of GBS colonization rate was significantly higher in those pregnant women above 37 weeks of gestation [AOR, 95% CI 2.1 (1.2, 11.6), P = 0.03] and married ones [AOR, 95% CI 3.2 (1.8, 11.6), P < 0.021]. Twenty (91%) of GBS isolates were sensitive to vancomycin and the highest resistance was observed against penicillin G (77.3%). The prevalence of GBS colonization in this study was significantly high and differed by gestational age and marital status. None of the GBS isolates were resistant to vancomycin but higher resistance was shown against Penicillin G.

  3. Protein expression profile and prevalence pattern of the molecular classes of breast cancer - a Saudi population based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Tamimi, Dalal M; Shawarby, Mohamed A; Ahmed, Ayesha; Hassan, Ammar K; AlOdaini, Amal A

    2010-01-01

    tumor. Subtyping by use of this immunohistochemical panel revealed a prevalence pattern that is unique to our population; luminal tumors comprised only 19.9%, and the unclassified group (penta negative) 42.8%, a distribution which is distinctive to our population and in contrast with all Western studies. The presence of a predominant unclassified group also suggests that the currently used molecular analytic spectrum may not completely encompass all molecular classes and there is a need to further refine and develop the existing classification systems

  4. Delayed childbearing in contemporary Spain: trends and differentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Martin, T

    1992-01-01

    Data from the 1985 Spanish Survey of Fertility including 8789 women aged 18-49 years is used to examine the timing of 1st births from marriage. Premarital births are excluded. Life table estimates are used to describe trends and differentials. A piecewise constant hazard model, which assumes a constant transition rate within each duration segment (0-7, 8-12, 13-18, 19-24, 25-36, and 37-48 months), and discrete-time hazard models are used in the analysis. Analysis is devoted to the trends in the timing of 1st birth, differentials in the timing of transition to 1st birth as affected by age at marriage, education, labor force participation before marriage, religiosity, number of siblings, place of residence, and region. Fertility has declined from 2.7 in 1975 to 1.3 in 1990 while the country adapted to a democratic political process, legalization of contraceptives, and relaxation of gender roles. There was rapid family formation during the 1960s and 1970s. Recent marriage cohorts have been delaying the birth of a 1st child and birth control has increased. Premarital conceptions have increased. Differentials in timing of 1st birth did not affect fertility because delayers still had children. Postponement of childbearing is new to Spain and may reflect unstable economic conditions or security of women's position in the labor market. Cultural norms have also changed to define an appropriate time for childbearing as not immediately after marriage. Life table estimates show the median age of women at 1st birth as 25.6 years in the early 1980s compared to 24.6 years in the later 1970s. The interquartile timing of 1st births ranged from 14 months for the 1970-74 birth cohort to 26 months for the 1980-83 cohort. Women who married in the 1960s and early 1970s had their 1st child within the 1st year of marriage. Observations are that motherhood remains unchanged, timing reflects intercohort differences, postponement occurs after 1975, and differentials are not constant across

  5. The Internet as a source of health information among Singaporeans: prevalence, patterns of health surfing and impact on health behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siow, T R; Soh, I P; Sreedharan, S; Das De, S; Tan, P P; Seow, A; Lun, K C

    2003-11-01

    The Internet is an increasingly popular source of healthcare information. This study describes the prevalence of health surfers in Singapore and their health-surfing patterns. It also assesses their confidence in online health information and the impact the Internet has on health-seeking behaviour. A cross-sectional survey using a standardised questionnaire was carried out among residents aged 13 to 55 years in 1852 units in Bishan North. These units were selected by single-stage simple random cluster sampling method. The household response rate was 51% (n = 950) and the individual response rate was 69% (n = 1646). Responding and non-responding households were similar in terms of ethnicity and housing type. Of the responders, 62.9% surfed the Internet and 37.7% have surfed for health information. Health surfers tended to be younger (20 to 39 years) and have higher education status. Indians were also more likely than other ethnic groups to surf for health. Professional health-related sites comprised the majority (68%) of sites visited, and the most common search keywords concern chronic degenerative diseases, e.g. hypertension. The top preferred sources of health information were doctors (25.9%), the Internet (25.3%) and the traditional mass media (20.5%). Almost half (45.1%) considered online health information trustworthy if it was from a professional source or if the website displayed the source, while 10.6% trusted the information if it concurred with the doctors' advice. The vast majority (91.7%) had taken some action in response to the information. The Internet is being used as an accessible source of health information by a substantial proportion of the lay public. While this can facilitate greater partnership in healthcare, it underlines the need for doctors to be pro-active in the practice of evidence-based medicine, and for guidelines to enable patients to use this tool in a discerning manner.

  6. Geographic pattern of serum antibody prevalence for Brucella spp. in caribou, grizzly bears, and wolves from Alaska, 1975-1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarnke, Randall L; Ver Hoef, Jay M; DeLong, Robert A

    2006-07-01

    Blood samples were collected from 2,635 caribou (Rangifer tarandus), 1,238 grizzly bears (Ursus arctos), and 930 wolves (Canis lupus) from throughout mainland Alaska during 1975-98. Sera were tested for evidence of exposure to Brucella spp. Serum antibody prevalences were highest in the northwestern region of the state. In any specific area, antibody prevalences for caribou and wolves were of a similar magnitude, whereas antibody prevalence for bears in these same areas were two to three times higher.

  7. Experiences and impact of mistreatment and obstetric violence on women during childbearing: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarry, Julie; Hinsliff-Smith, Kathryn; Watts, Kim; McCloskey, Paula; Evans, Catrin

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this review is to synthesize the best available evidence on the experiences of mistreatment and/or obstetric violence in women. Specifically, the objective is to explore, from a woman's point of view, the impacts and consequences of mistreatment and/or obstetric violence during childbearing. The review question is: "What are the experiences and impact of mistreatment and obstetric violence on women during the active period of childbearing?"

  8. Childbearing dynamics of couples in a universalistic welfare state: The role of labor-market status, country of origin, and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirk Scott

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article studies childbearing dynamics by labor-market status of co-residing parents in Sweden. We apply event-history techniques to longitudinal register data on the life histories of foreign-born mothers from ten different countries and the partners to these women, as well as to a sample of Swedish-born mothers and their partners. The context is a universalistic welfare state geared towards gender and social equality where formal social rights are largely independent of a person's civil status, citizenship, and country of origin. We investigate the extent to which the associations of parents' labor-market status with childbearing in Sweden differ between women and men and by country of origin. We find that the patterns of association are fairly similar on both of these individual dimensions. As measured by the way the labor-market activity of parents is related to their subsequent childbearing, we find evidence of equality by gender and at least some evidence of integration of immigrants into the dynamics of Swedish society.

  9. We are mothers too: childbearing experiences of lesbian families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Michelle T

    2007-01-01

    To describe lesbians' personal and health care experiences of becoming pregnant, giving birth, and being mothers and comothers within the context of potentially oppressive family, social, and political structures. Critical ethnography. Participants' homes, lesbian mother support group, and prenatal clinics and hospitals in the Pacific Northwest. English-speaking self-identified lesbian women, including 21 interview and six focus-group participants and approximately 43 observed in a support group. In-depth open-ended interviews, focus group, and participant observation. Content/categorical analysis followed by discussion of the mother's stories and a critical conversation about lesbian mothering. The seven organizing themes are as follows: preparing the way: becoming ready; conception: you can't just fall into it; you can hear a heartbeat: pregnancy; birthing our babies; the work of mothers and mothers who work; families who sustain and families who oppose; and sources of support in everyday life. The first four are described in this article. Health care providers, policy makers, and the public can be better informed about the specific needs of childbearing lesbians.

  10. Marriage, childbearing, and migration in Kyrgyzstan: Exploring interdependencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesia Nedoluzhko

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In our study we investigate interdependencies between entry into a marital union, childbearing, and migration. We apply event-history techniques to retrospective data on women aged 18-29 from a survey conducted in northern Kyrgyzstan in 2005 to examine how these events can influence one another, with a special focus on the effects of duration of exposure. In addition we analyze the impact of some individual characteristics on the propensity to get married, to become a mother, and to migrate. In our analysis we account for several duration dependences ('clocks'. The results illustrate that months since marriage formation is the most important duration variable in the first-birth propensities model. Out-of-wedlock conception is associated with increased marriage risks. Migration is often a part of the family building process: high first-birth propensities of recent migrants as well as high migration risks among pregnant women are due to marriage-related migration.

  11. Nutritional status as assessed by nutrient intakes and biomarkers among women of childbearing age--is the burden of nutrient inadequacies growing in America?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Deshanie; Bird, Julia K; McBurney, Michael I; Chapman-Novakofski, Karen M

    2015-06-01

    Understanding nutrient intakes among women of childbearing age within the USA is important given the accumulating evidence that maternal body weight gain and nutrient intakes prior to pregnancy may influence the health and well-being of the offspring. The objective of the present study was to evaluate nutritional status in women of childbearing age and to ascertain the influence of ethnicity and income on nutrient intakes. Nutritional status was assessed using data on nutrient intakes through foods and supplements from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Biomarker data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were used to assess nutritional status for selected nutrients. Poverty-income ratio was used to assess family income. White (n 1560), African-American (n 889) and Mexican-American (n 761) women aged 19-30 and 31-50 years were included. A nationally representative sample of non-pregnant women of childbearing age resident in the USA. African-American women had the lowest intakes of fibre, folate, riboflavin, P, K, Ca and Mg. Women (31-50 years) with a poverty-income ratio of ≤ 1.85 had significantly lower intakes of almost all nutrients analysed. Irrespective of ethnicity and income, a significant percentage of women were not consuming the estimated recommended amounts (Estimated Average Requirement) of several key nutrients: vitamin A (~80%), vitamin D (~78%) and fibre (~92%). Nutrient biomarker data were generally reflective of nutrient intake patterns among the different ethnic groups. Women of childbearing age in the USA are not meeting nutrient intake guidelines, with differences between ethnic groups and socio-economic strata. These factors should be considered when establishing nutrition science advocacy and policy.

  12. Some (But Not Much) Progress Toward Understanding Teenage Childbearing: A Review of Research From the Past Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Claire A.; D’Onofrio, Brian M.

    2013-01-01

    In the decade and a half since Coley & Chase-Lansdale’s (1998) review of teenage childbearing there have been a number of studies investigating teenage childbearing from a developmental psychological perspective. Many of these studies have focused primarily on identifying individual, familial, and socioeconomic risk factors in childhood and adolescence that are highly correlated with teenage sexual behavior and teenage childbearing. We have an emerging understanding of teenage childbearing as the culmination of a complex cascade of experiences and decisions that overlap greatly with the risks for antisocial behavior. Much of this research, however, is limited by its reliance on correlational and cross-sectional research designs, which are not able to rigorously test causal inferences or to identify mechanisms associated with teenage childbearing. Innovative studies using large, nationally representative samples with quasi-experimental and longitudinal designs can expand on such descriptive studies. In particular, quasi-experimental studies can help answer questions about which risk factors are causally associated with teenage childbearing and suggest potential mechanisms that can explain how teenage childbearing is associated with poor outcomes. Future studies also will need to incorporate more precise measures of developmental processes and explore heterogeneity among adolescent mothers. Although advances have been made in the psychological study of teenage childbearing, more research is needed in order to answer important questions about which psychological processes are causally related to teenage childbearing and how teenage childbearing is associated with poor outcomes for young mothers and their offspring. PMID:22675905

  13. The prevalence, pattern and clinical presentation of developmental dental hard-tissue anomalies in children with primary and mix dentition from Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temilola, Dada Oluwaseyi; Folayan, Morenike Oluwatoyin; Fatusi, Olawunmi; Chukwumah, Nneka Maureen; Onyejaka, Nneka; Oziegbe, Elizabeth; Oyedele, Titus; Kolawole, Kikelomo Adebanke; Agbaje, Hakeem

    2014-10-16

    The study of dental anomalies is important because it generates information that is important for both the anthropological and clinical management of patients. The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence and pattern of presentation of dental hard-tissue developmental anomalies in the mix dentition of children residing in Ile-Ife, a suburban region of Nigeria. Information on age, sex and socioeconomic status was collected from 1,036 children aged four months to 12 years through a household survey. Clinical examination was conducted to assess the presence of dental anomalies. Associations between age, sex, socioeconomic status, prevalence, and pattern of presentation of the developmental hard-tissue dental anomalies were determined. Two hundred and seventy six (26.6%) children had dental anomalies. Of these, 23.8% had one anomaly, 2.5% had two anomalies, and 0.3% had more than two anomalies. Of the children with anomalies, 49.3%were male, 50.7%were female, and 47.8%, 28.6% and 23.6% were children from low, middle and high socioeconomic classes, respectively. More anomalies were seen in permanent than primary dentition. Anomalies of tooth structure were most prevalent (16.1%); anomalies which affect tooth number were least prevalent (1.3%). Dens evaginatus, peg-shaped lateral, macrodontia, and talon cusp were more prevalent in the permanent dentition, and dens evaginatus peg-shaped lateral and macrodontia were more prevalent in the maxilla. There were significantly more macrodontia anomalies in males and in children of high socioeconomic status. This large survey of dental hard-tissue anomalies found in the primary dentition and mixed dentition of children in Nigeria provides anthropological and clinical data that may aid the detection and management of dental problems of children in Nigeria.

  14. The prevalence and pattern of deciduous molar hypomineralization and molar-incisor hypomineralization in children from a suburban population in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Temilola, Oluwaseyi Dada; Folayan, Morenike Oluwatoyin; Oyedele, Titus

    2015-01-01

    Background Molar Incisor Hypoplasia (MIH) and Deciduous Molar Hypoplasia (DMH) have significant impact on the quality of life of affected individuals. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence, pattern and clinical presentation of MIH and DMH in children resident in Ile-Ife, Nigeria, and their association with sex and socioeconomic status of the children. Methods Information on age, sex and socioeconomic status was collected from 563 children aged 3 to 5?years and 8 to 10?yea...

  15. The prevalence, pattern and clinical presentation of developmental dental hard-tissue anomalies in children with primary and mix dentition from Ile-Ife, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Temilola, Dada Oluwaseyi; Folayan, Morenike Oluwatoyin; Fatusi, Olawunmi; Chukwumah, Nneka Maureen; Onyejaka, Nneka; Oziegbe, Elizabeth; Oyedele, Titus; Kolawole, Kikelomo Adebanke; Agbaje, Hakeem

    2014-01-01

    Background The study of dental anomalies is important because it generates information that is important for both the anthropological and clinical management of patients. The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence and pattern of presentation of dental hard-tissue developmental anomalies in the mix dentition of children residing in Ile-Ife, a suburban region of Nigeria. Methods Information on age, sex and socioeconomic status was collected from 1,036 children aged four months t...

  16. Dental caries prevalence as a product of agriculture and subsistence pattern at the Yean-ri site, South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, H; Hashimoto, H; Shoda, S; Suzuki, T

    2011-01-01

    Yean-ri human skeletal remains from South Korea have been dated to the fourth to seventh century AD. They have morphological similarities to immigrants of the Yayoi period excavated in northern Kyushu and Yamaguchi prefecture in Japan. The overall dental caries prevalence was 8.1% in the Yean-ri skeletal remains, indicating a much lower prevalence than that of most Yayoi immigrant skeletal remains from Japan, although similar to that of the Kofun people (8.3%) in Japan. There was no significant difference in the dental caries prevalence between the males and females of the same age group, but there were differences in the prevalence by age. The late middle age and elderly males and females had significantly higher dental caries prevalence than the early middle age males and females, indicating increased prevalence with age. Root caries prevalence tended to increase in old age. The percentage of root caries increased, accounting for 80% of all caries in Yean-ri human skeletal remains. Agriculture is believed to have arisen approximately 3,000 years ago in Korea. Therefore, agriculture was practiced during this period, but since the Yean-ri tumuli are from coastal areas, their diet may have retained a significant marine component. Additionally, caries prevalence was not very high in Nukdo human remains (ca. 2100-2000 BC) in Korea. We speculate that they maintained subsistence activities suitable for their environment despite their knowledge of agriculture. This hypothesis is supported by differences in the caries prevalence between excavation sites of the Yayoi and Kofun periods in Japan. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Another Baby? Father Involvement and Childbearing in Fragile Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotila, Letitia E.; Dush, Claire M. Kamp

    2013-01-01

    An historic number of women in the US have children outside of marriage, and with more than one father, yet little research has examined the association between family process and women’s childbearing decisions. Using a subsample of unmarried women from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N=2028), a study of primarily low-income unmarried parents, we conducted discrete-time survival analysis models to predict whether women had another child with the focal child’s father (same-father birth) or with a new father (new-father birth). Father involvement was measured by engagement, indirect care, accessibility, and financial support. Overall, mothers who reported greater engagement and indirect care from the focal child’s father were more likely to have a same-father birth even when he was not living in her home, and were also less likely to have a new-father birth. Further, mothers who reported greater accessibility and stable financial support from the focal child’s nonresident father were also less likely to have a new-father birth. One pathway through which this may have occurred was that single mothers who perceived less indirect care and accessibility from the focal child’s nonresident father were more likely to begin new romantic relationships. Indeed, whether or not the mother had a new romantic partner partially mediated the association between indirect care and a same-father birth, and fully mediated the association between accessibility and a new-father birth, suggesting that one pathway linking father involvement to a new-father birth was through maternal repartnering. Clinical and policy implications are discussed. PMID:23244460

  18. Teenage childbearing in the United States, 1960-1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, S J; Freedman, M A

    2000-07-01

    Teenage childbearing in the United States has declined significantly in the 1990s. Still the U.S. teen birth rate is higher than in other developed countries; in 1997 it was 52.3 births per 1000 women aged 15 to 19. A steep rise in teen birth rates in the late 1980s generated a great deal of public concern and a variety of initiatives targeted to reducing teen births. Data from the National Center for Health Statistics' National Vital Statistics System are used to review and describe trends and variations in births and birth rates for teenagers for the period 1960-1997. Teen birth rates were much higher in the early 1960s than at present; in fact, rates for 18- to 19-year-olds were double what they are currently. In the 1990s, birth rates for teenagers dropped for younger and older teenagers, with greater declines recorded for younger teens. While rates have fallen in all population groups, the greatest declines have been experienced by black teenagers, whose rates have dropped 24% on average. %Trends in teen births and birth rates since 1960 have been affected by a variety of factors. These include wide swings in the number of female teenagers, substantial declines in marriage among older teens, falling birth rates for married teens concurrent with rapidly rising birth rates for unmarried teens, and sharp increases in sexual activity among teens that have abated only recently, according to the National Center for Health Statistics' National Survey of Family Growth. This review article also tracks changes in contraceptive practice and abortion rates.

  19. State policy and teen childbearing: a review of research studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltz, Martha A; Sacks, Vanessa H; Moore, Kristin A; Terzian, Mary

    2015-02-01

    Teen childbearing is affected by many individual, family, and community factors; however, another potential influence is state policy. Rigorous studies of the relationship between state policy and teen birth rates are few in number but represent a body of knowledge that can inform policy and practice. This article reviews research assessing associations between state-level policies and teen birth rates, focusing on five policy areas: access to family planning, education, sex education, public assistance, and access to abortion services. Overall, several studies have found that measures related to access to and use of family planning services and contraceptives are related to lower state-level teen birth rates. These include adolescent enrollment in clinics, minors' access to contraception, conscience laws, family planning expenditures, and Medicaid waivers. Other studies, although largely cross-sectional analyses, have concluded that policies and practices to expand or improve public education are also associated with lower teen birth rates. These include expenditures on education, teacher-to-student ratios, and graduation requirements. However, the evidence regarding the role of public assistance, abortion access, and sex education policies in reducing teen birth rates is mixed and inconclusive. These conclusions must be viewed as tentative because of the limited number of rigorous studies that examine the relationship between state policy and teen birth rates over time. Many specific policies have only been analyzed by a single study, and few findings are based on recent data. As such, more research is needed to strengthen our understanding of the role of state policies in teen birth rates. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Dietary Pattern and Its Association with the Prevalence of Obesity and Related Cardiometabolic Risk Factors among Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Xianwen; Li, Yanping; Liu, Ailing; Zhang, Qian; Hu, Xiaoqi; Du, Songming; Ma, Guansheng

    2012-01-01

    Background The association of dietary pattern with chronic diseases has been investigated widely in western countries. However, information is quite limited among children in China. Our study is aimed to identify the dietary patterns of Chinese children and examine their association with obesity and related cardiometabolic risk factors. Methods A total of 5267 children were selected using multistage random sampling from 30 primary schools of 5 provincial capital cities in China. Dietary intake was derived from 24 hour dietary recall for three consecutive days. Anthropometric measurements, glucose and lipid profiles were obtained. Factor analysis combined with cluster analysis was used for identifying major dietary patterns. The associations of dietary patterns with obesity and related cardiometabolic risk factors were examined by logistic regression analysis. Results Three mutually exclusive dietary patterns were identified, which were labeled as the healthy dietary pattern, the transitive dietary pattern, and the Western dietary pattern. Compared with children of the healthy dietary pattern, the multiple-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval (CI)) of obesity were 1.11 (0.89–1.38) for children with the transitive dietary pattern and 1.80 (1.15–2.81) for children with the Western dietary pattern, which was 1.31 (95%CI 1.09–1.56) and 1.71 (95%CI: 1.13–2.56), respectively, for abdominal obesity. The Western dietary pattern was associated with significantly higher concentrations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (Pdietary pattern. Conclusions The Western dietary pattern characterized by red meat, eggs, refined grain and products, was positively associated with odds of obesity, the levels of plasma glucose, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides, and was inversely associated with the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. PMID:22905228

  1. Dietary pattern and its association with the prevalence of obesity and related cardiometabolic risk factors among Chinese children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianwen Shang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The association of dietary pattern with chronic diseases has been investigated widely in western countries. However, information is quite limited among children in China. Our study is aimed to identify the dietary patterns of Chinese children and examine their association with obesity and related cardiometabolic risk factors. METHODS: A total of 5267 children were selected using multistage random sampling from 30 primary schools of 5 provincial capital cities in China. Dietary intake was derived from 24 hour dietary recall for three consecutive days. Anthropometric measurements, glucose and lipid profiles were obtained. Factor analysis combined with cluster analysis was used for identifying major dietary patterns. The associations of dietary patterns with obesity and related cardiometabolic risk factors were examined by logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Three mutually exclusive dietary patterns were identified, which were labeled as the healthy dietary pattern, the transitive dietary pattern, and the Western dietary pattern. Compared with children of the healthy dietary pattern, the multiple-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval (CI of obesity were 1.11 (0.89-1.38 for children with the transitive dietary pattern and 1.80 (1.15-2.81 for children with the Western dietary pattern, which was 1.31 (95%CI 1.09-1.56 and 1.71 (95%CI: 1.13-2.56, respectively, for abdominal obesity. The Western dietary pattern was associated with significantly higher concentrations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P<.001, triglycerides (P<.001, systolic blood pressure (P = 0.0435 and fasting glucose (P = 0.0082 and a lower concentration of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = 0.0023, as compared with the healthy dietary pattern. CONCLUSIONS: The Western dietary pattern characterized by red meat, eggs, refined grain and products, was positively associated with odds of obesity, the levels of plasma glucose, low-density lipoprotein

  2. PREVALENCE OF ANTIBODIES TO HUMAN PARVOVIRUS B19 IN SAUDI WOMEN OF CHILDBEARING AGE IN MAKKAH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazi, Hani O.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the seroprevalence rate of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) to parvovirus B19 in pregnant Saudi women in Makkah. Subjects and Methods: Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), a total of 1200 serum samples were tested for antibodies to parvovirus B19 known to cause a variety of clinical syndromes in women and newborn infants. Results: Parvovirus B19 IgG antibodies detected in 46.6% and IgM antibodies were found in 2.25% of different age groups. Conclusion: The previous exposure to parvovirus B19 was determined, and 560 (46.6%) of 1200 pregnant Saudi women tested at their first antenatal visit were seropositive for specific IgG. The rate of maternal infection in susceptible pregnancies was 2.25%. These results were in accordance with previous studies performed in other countries. PMID:23012138

  3. Predictors of anemia among haitian children aged 6 to 59 months and women of childbearing age and their implications for programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidkamp, Rebecca A; Ngnie-Teta, Ismael; Ayoya, Mohamed Ag A; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J; Mamadoultaibou, Aissa; Durandisse, Emmanuela Blain; Pierre, Joseline Marhone

    2013-12-01

    The Haitian National Nutrition Policy prioritizes prevention and treatment of anemia among mothers and young children, but there are few available data to support planning for scale-up of anemia interventions. To describe the prevalence and predictors of anemia among Haitian women (15 to 49 years) and children (6 to 59 months) and to draw implications for national nutrition programming. Descriptive and univariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression models were performed using data from the nationally representative Haitian Demographic Health Survey 2005/06. The prevalence of mild (hemoglobin 11.0 to 11.9 g/dL), moderate (hemoglobin 8.0 to 10.9 g/dL), and severe (hemoglobin education level, p = .022) were different from those in rural women (wealth quintile, p < .05; employment, p = .003). Anemia in urban and rural children aged 6 to 59 months increased with child age (p < .05) and maternal anemia status (p = .004; p < .001). Female sex (p = .007) and maternal overweight (p = .009) were associated with reduced risk of anemia in rural children only. Anemia among Haitian young children and women of childbearing age is a severe public health problem. The findings suggest the need for context-specific rural and urban strategies, reinforcement of anemia prevention in health services reaching women of childbearing age, and targeted interventions for young children.

  4. A whole-of-population study of the prevalence and patterns of criminal offending in people with schizophrenia and other mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, V A; Morgan, F; Valuri, G; Ferrante, A; Castle, D; Jablensky, A

    2013-09-01

    Large epidemiological studies are needed to better understand the prevalence and profile of offending by people with mental illness. This study used a whole-of-population design to examine the prevalence, type and pattern of offending across all psychiatric diagnoses, including schizophrenia, compared to the general population. Method We used whole-of-population longitudinal record-linked data for a cohort of all Western Australians born 1955-1969 to determine arrest history over the period 1985-1996 and to ascertain recorded history of psychiatric illness. Of the cohort, 116 656 had been arrested and 40 478 were on the psychiatric case register. The period prevalence of arrest for people with any psychiatric illness was 32.1%. The highest arrest prevalence, by diagnostic category, was for substance use disorders (59.4%); the prevalence for schizophrenia was 38.7%. Co-morbid substance use disorders significantly increased risk of arrest in people with schizophrenia. The prevalence of mental illness among offenders was 11.1%: 6.5% of offenders had substance use disorders and 1.7% had schizophrenia. For the majority of offenders with a psychiatric illness, first arrest preceded first contact with mental health services; for schizophrenia only, this proportion was increasing over time. The mean percentage annual change in the number of arrests during 1985-1996 rose significantly for offenders with a psychiatric illness other than schizophrenia and dropped significantly for those with no mental illness. Compared to non-psychiatric offenders, offenders with schizophrenia were more likely to offend alone, to offend in open places and to target strangers. Our findings open the way to an informed approach to the management of offenders with mental illness.

  5. Rapid integrated clinical survey to determine prevalence and co-distribution patterns of lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis in a Loa loa co-endemic area: The Angolan experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Brito

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Angola is a priority country for onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis (LF elimination, however, the co-distribution of the filarial parasite Loa loa (loiasis is a significant impediment, due to the risk of severe adverse events (SAEs associated with ivermectin used in mass drug administration (MDA campaigns. Angola has a high risk loiasis zone identified in Bengo Province where alternative interventions may need to be implemented; however, the presence and geographical overlap of the three filarial infections/diseases are not well defined. Therefore, this study conducted a rapid integrated filarial mapping survey based on readily identifiable clinical conditions of each disease in this risk zone to help determine prevalence and co-distribution patterns in a timely manner with limited resources. In total, 2007 individuals from 29 communities in five provincial municipalities were surveyed. Community prevalence estimates were determined by the rapid assessment procedure for loiasis (RAPLOA and rapid epidemiological mapping of onchocerciasis (REMO together with two questions on LF clinical manifestations (presence of lymphoedema, hydrocoele. Overall low levels of endemicity, with different overlapping distributions were found. Loiasis was found in 18 communities with a prevalence of 2.0% (31/1571, which contrasted to previous results defining the area as a high risk zone. Onchocerciasis prevalence was 5.3% (49/922 in eight communities, and LF prevalence was 0.4% for lymphoedema (8/2007 and 2.6% for hydrocoeles (20/761 males in seven and 12 communities respectively. The clinical mapping survey method helped to highlight that all three filarial infections are present in this zone of Bengo Province. However, the significant difference in loiasis prevalence found between the past and this current survey suggests that further studies including serological and parasitological confirmation are required. This will help determine levels

  6. ECLAMC Study: prevalence patterns of hypospadias in South America: multi-national analysis over a 24-year period

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    Nicolás Fernández

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate prevalence trends of hypospadias in South-America it is essential to perform multicenter and multinational studies with the same methodology. Herein we present systematic data as part of an international multicenter initiative evaluating congenital malformations in South America over a 24-year period. Materials and Methods A nested case-control study was conducted using the Latin American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations (ECLAMC, between January 1989 and December 2012. Cases were stratified as isolated (IH and non-isolated hypospadias (NIH. Global prevalence was calculated and discriminated by country. Associations between birth weight and gestational age, and NIH distribution by associated abnormality and severity of hypospadias, were analyzed. Results A total of 159 hospitals from six countries participated, reporting surveillance on 4.020.384 newborns. A total of 4.537 hypospadias cases were detected, with a global prevalence of 11.3/10.000 newborns. Trend analyses showed in Chile, Brazil and Uruguay a statistically significant increase in prevalence. Analysis of severity and associated anomalies did not to find an association for distal cases, but did for proximal (RR=1.64 [95% CI=1.33-2.03]. Conclusion This is one of only a few Latin American multicenter studies reporting on the epidemiology of hypospadias in South America in the last two decades. Our data adds to evidence suggesting an increase in some countries in the region at different times. There were also variations in prevalence according to severity. This study adds to literature describing associated anomalies at a hospital-based level.

  7. ECLAMC Study: Prevalence patterns of hypospadias in South America: Multi-national analysis over a 24-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Nicolás; Pérez, Jaime; Monterrey, Pedro; Poletta, Fernando A; Bägli, Darius J; Lorenzo, Armando J; Zarante, Ignacio

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate prevalence trends of hypospadias in South-America it is essential to perform multicenter and multinational studies with the same methodology. Herein we present systematic data as part of an international multicenter initiative evaluating congenital malformations in South America over a 24-year period. A nested case-control study was conducted using the Latin American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations (ECLAMC), between January 1989 and December 2012. Cases were stratified as isolated (IH) and non-isolated hypospadias (NIH). Global prevalence was calculated and discriminated by country. Associations between birth weight and gestational age, and NIH distribution by associated abnormality and severity of hypospadias, were analyzed. A total of 159 hospitals from six countries participated, reporting surveillance on 4.020.384 newborns. A total of 4.537 hypospadias cases were detected, with a global prevalence of 11.3/10.000 newborns. Trend analyses showed in Chile, Brazil and Uruguay a statistically significant increase in prevalence. Analysis of severity and associated anomalies did not to find an association for distal cases, but did for proximal (RR=1.64 [95% CI=1.33-2.03]). This is one of only a few Latin American multicenter studies reporting on the epidemiology of hypospadias in South America in the last two decades. Our data adds to evidence suggesting an increase in some countries in the region at different times. There were also variations in prevalence according to severity. This study adds to literature describing associated anomalies at a hospital-based level. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  8. Social Stigma and Childbearing for Women Living With HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuca, Yvette P; Rose, Carol Dawson

    2016-09-01

    As more women become infected with HIV, the issue of childbearing becomes increasingly salient. A more nuanced understanding of women's situations is needed to provide high-quality and relevant services and support. We examined reproductive decision making among 20 women living with HIV through in-depth interviews. These women made decisions within situations of chaos, instability, and trauma, which often limited their ability to make truly informed choices about their lives and childbearing. Despite their HIV, many of the women wanted children, but experienced stigmatization related both to their HIV and to their decisions to have children. This stigmatization came from multiple sources, including health care providers, some of whom encouraged their patients to abort pregnancies because of their HIV. Participants, however, demonstrated resistance to stigmatization, through building supportive communities and developing trusting relationships with HIV providers. These results support the need for specialized HIV care for women of childbearing age. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Alcohol consumption in 0.5 million people from 10 diverse regions of China: prevalence, patterns and socio-demographic and health-related correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millwood, Iona Y; Li, Liming; Smith, Margaret; Guo, Yu; Yang, Ling; Bian, Zheng; Lewington, Sarah; Whitlock, Gary; Sherliker, Paul; Collins, Rory; Chen, Junshi; Peto, Richard; Wang, Hongmei; Xu, Jiujiu; He, Jian; Yu, Min; Liu, Huilin; Chen, Zhengming; Li, Liming; Chen, Zhengming; Chen, Junshi; Collins, Rory; Wu, Fan; Peto, Richard; Chen, Zhengming; Lancaster, Garry; Yang, Xiaoming; Williams, Alex; Smith, Margaret; Yang, Ling; Chang, Yumei; Millwood, Iona; Chen, Yiping; Zhang, Qiuli; Lewington, Sarah; Whitlock, Gary; Guo, Yu; Zhao, Guoqing; Bian, Zheng; Wu, Lixue; Hou, Can; Pang, Zengchang; Wang, Shaojie; Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Kui; Liu, Silu; Zhao, Zhonghou; Liu, Shumei; Pang, Zhigang; Feng, Weijia; Wu, Shuling; Yang, Liqiu; Han, Huili; He, Hui; Pan, Xianhai; Wang, Shanqing; Wang, Hongmei; Hao, Xinhua; Chen, Chunxing; Lin, Shuxiong; Hu, Xiaoshu; Zhou, Minghao; Wu, Ming; Wang, Yeyuan; Hu, Yihe; Ma, Liangcai; Zhou, Renxian; Xu, Guanqun; Dong, Baiqing; Chen, Naying; Huang, Ying; Li, Mingqiang; Meng, Jinhuai; Gan, Zhigao; Xu, Jiujiu; Liu, Yun; Wu, Xianping; Gao, Yali; Zhang, Ningmei; Luo, Guojin; Que, Xiangsan; Chen, Xiaofang; Ge, Pengfei; He, Jian; Ren, Xiaolan; Zhang, Hui; Mao, Enke; Li, Guanzhong; Li, Zhongxiao; He, Jun; Liu, Guohua; Zhu, Baoyu; Zhou, Gang; Feng, Shixian; Gao, Yulian; He, Tianyou; Jiang, Li; Qin, Jianhua; Sun, Huarong; Liu, Liqun; Yu, Min; Chen, Yaping; Hu, Zhixiang; Hu, Jianjin; Qian, Yijian; Wu, Zhiying; Chen, Lingli; Liu, Wen; Li, Guangchun; Liu, Huilin; Long, Xiangquan; Xiong, Youping; Tan, Zhongwen; Xie, Xuqiu; Peng, Yunfang

    2013-01-01

    Background Drinking alcohol has a long tradition in Chinese culture. However, data on the prevalence and patterns of alcohol consumption in China, and its main correlates, are limited. Methods During 2004–08 the China Kadoorie Biobank recruited 512 891 men and women aged 30–79 years from 10 urban and rural areas of China. Detailed information on alcohol consumption was collected using a standardized questionnaire, and related to socio-demographic, physical and behavioural characteristics in men and women separately. Results Overall, 76% of men and 36% of women reported drinking some alcohol during the past 12 months, with 33% of men and 2% of women drinking at least weekly; the prevalence of weekly drinking in men varied from 7% to 51% across the 10 study areas. Mean consumption was 286 g/week and was higher in those with less education. Most weekly drinkers habitually drank spirits, although this varied by area, and beer consumption was highest among younger drinkers; 37% of male weekly drinkers (12% of all men) reported weekly heavy drinking episodes, with the prevalence highest in younger men. Drinking alcohol was positively correlated with regular smoking, blood pressure and heart rate. Among male weekly drinkers, each 20 g/day alcohol consumed was associated with 2 mmHg higher systolic blood pressure. Potential indicators of problem drinking were reported by 24% of male weekly drinkers. Conclusion The prevalence and patterns of drinking in China differ greatly by age, sex and geographical region. Alcohol consumption is associated with a number of unfavourable health behaviours and characteristics. PMID:23918852

  10. Socioeconomic, cultural and demographic determinants of childbearing desires among married women attending health centers in Hamedan (2012

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    Hatam Hosseini

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Changes in values and attitudes of the Iranian society during the past few decades have greatly influenced the reproductive decisions and actions of individuals and families, especially women. The aim of this study was to analyze the determinants of childbearing desires of married women attending Health Centers in Hamedan. Methods: Data were collected through a survey which was conducted during November and December, 2012. This cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 273 eligible women who were selected randomly. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Results: Results showed that 70.7 percent of women did not want to have another child in addition to the children they had at the time of survey. Among these women, 55 percent and 84.3 percent had one and two children, respectively. Further, 78.4 percent of respondents stated that two children were the ideal number of children for the households. The most important reasons for the two-children pattern were economic problems and families’ problems in rearing and training the children, respectively. Results of multivariate analysis showed that the likelihood of stopping childbearing was higher among working women,women with more children, women at the end of reproduction age, women evaluating children’s benefits lower than their expenditures, and women with little tendency to prefer sons to daughters. Conclusion: Population policies to prevent further decline in fertility should be focused on employment, family, and quality of life, especially among women without children, women with one child and newly married couples.

  11. Dietary Pattern and Its Association with the Prevalence of Obesity and Related Cardiometabolic Risk Factors among Chinese Children

    OpenAIRE

    Shang, Xianwen; Li, Yanping; Liu, Ailing; Zhang, Qian; Hu, Xiaoqi; Du, Songming; Ma, Jun; Xu, Guifa; Li, Ying; Guo, Hongwei; Du, Lin; Ma, Guansheng

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The association of dietary pattern with chronic diseases has been investigated widely in western countries. However, information is quite limited among children in China. Our study is aimed to identify the dietary patterns of Chinese children and examine their association with obesity and related cardiometabolic risk factors. METHODS: A total of 5267 children were selected using multistage random sampling from 30 primary schools of 5 provincial capital cities in China. Dietary int...

  12. Pattern of demand for children in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, T

    1992-01-01

    The study aim was to determine the pattern of demand for children and to suggest ways to introduce the idea of a small-family norm and reduce the unmet need for contraception in Pakistan. The concept of demand for children included the wantedness of the last birth and the timing of the next birth and changed with stage in reproductive life cycle. Data were obtained from the Pakistan Contraception Prevalence Survey of 1984/85. Pakistan's strong patriarchal system emphasized rapid achievement of first pregnancy in order to assure the perpetuation of the lineage. Female status, even with advanced education, emphasized fecundity and producing a male heir. The birthing pattern among rural and urban lower-class women is to bear 3-4 children early in marriage. Evidence from prior surveys showed that educated women plan for a delay in second birth. Of the 6655 ever pregnant and nonsterilized women, about 48% of currently married women desired discontinuation of childbearing. 18% desired a delay of childbearing by 2 years and 10% desired no more children after a last undesired pregnancy. Unmet need was estimated at 17% of all women in the sample. Women desiring no more children were primarily older with 6-8 prior births. Indirect fertility estimates were generated by using Arriaga's techniques for stages of family formation. The resulting estimates showed that higher-parity women desiring no more children still had 2 more children, which was evidence of unmet need. Those desiring more children had higher fertility than those not desiring more children. These women also showed different patterns in their total demand for children, ideal family size, currently living children, and desire for their next birth. Ideal size tended to rise over the length of a marriage, which may mean that women with growing families may justify unwanted fertility. Duration of marriage was viewed as a reasonable indicator of need for fertility control and the concomitant need for outreach

  13. Social differentials in speed-premium effects in childbearing in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan M. Hoem

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In Sweden, parents receive a parental-leave allowance of a high percentage (currently 80% of their pre-birth salary for about a year in connection with any birth. If they space their births sufficiently closely, they avoid a reduction in the allowance caused by any reduced income earned between the births. The gain is popularly called a "speed premium". In previous work we have shown that childbearing was sped up correspondingly. This is clear evidence of a causal effect of a policy change on childbearing behavior. In the present paper, we study how this change in behavior was adopted in various social strata of the Swedish population.

  14. Determining the prevalence of patterns of pregnancy-induced pelvic girdle pain and low back pain in urban and rural populations: A cross-sectional study

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    Arati Mahishale

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Biomechanical changes during pregnancy impose postural deviations, leading to various musculoskeletal pain syndromes. Commonly noted pain syndromes are the pelvic girdle pain (PGP and low back pain (LBP, which were experienced by pregnant women globally. There is a prevalence of pregnancy-related PGP (PPGP and pregnancy-related LBP (PLBP in Western population. Data of the same in Indian pregnant population lack evidence. Objective: To find the rates of incidence and prevalence of different patterns of PPGP and PLBP in the urban and rural pregnant women. Materials and Methods: A total of 580 pregnant women were screened for inclusion criteria. Confirmation of diagnosis of PGP and LBP was done for 457 subjects using Modified Oswestry Disability Index (MODI questionnaire and the pelvic girdle questionnaire (PGQ. Once diagnosed, all participants were subjected to nine clinical tests to differentiate the site of pain and to classify them accordingly into three different groups, namely group A (LBP, group B [posterior pelvic pain (PPP], and group C [anterior pelvic pain (APP]. Results: The point prevalence of pain in group A (LBP was 31%, in group B (PPP was 65%, and in group C (APP was 15%. The prevalence of PGP and LBP was 75% in the urban pregnant population and 25% in the rural pregnant population. Conclusion: The prevalence rate of PPP (65% is higher than that of LBP (31% and APP (15%. Also PPP is reported to be highest in primiparous with gestational age of 38 weeks. The urban population showed 75% and rural population showed 25% of PGP and LBP.

  15. Dietary pattern trajectories during 15 years of follow-up and HbA1c, insulin resistance and diabetes prevalence among Chinese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batis, Carolina; Mendez, Michelle A; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Popkin, Barry

    2014-08-01

    Most research on dietary patterns and health outcomes does not include longitudinal exposure data. We used an innovative technique to capture dietary pattern trajectories and their association with haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), homeostasis model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and prevalence of newly diagnosed diabetes. We included 4096 adults with 3-6 waves of diet data (1991-2006) and biomarkers measured in 2009 from the China Health and Nutrition Survey. Diet was assessed with three 24-h recalls and a household food inventory. We used a dietary pattern previously identified with reduced rank regression that positively predicted diabetes in 2006 (high in wheat products and soy milk and low in rice, legumes, poultry, eggs and fish). We estimated a score for this dietary pattern for each subject at each wave. Using latent class trajectory analysis, we grouped subjects with similar dietary pattern score trajectories over time into five classes. Three trajectory classes were stable over time, and in two classes the diet became unhealthier over time (upward trend in dietary pattern score). Among two classes with similar scores in 2006, the one with the lower (healthier) initial score had an HbA1c 1.64% lower (-1.64 (95% CI -3.17 to -0.11)) and non-significantly a HOMA-IR 6.47% lower (-6.47 (-17.37 to 4.42)) and lower odds of diabetes (0.86 (0.44 to 1.67)). Our findings suggest that dietary pattern trajectories with healthier scores longitudinally had a lower HbA1c compared with those with unhealthier scores, even when the trajectories had similar scores in the end point. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Dietary pattern and other lifestyle factors as potential contributors to hypertension prevalence in Arusha City, Tanzania: a population-based descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katalambula, L K; Meyer, D N; Ngoma, T; Buza, J; Mpolya, E; Mtumwa, A H; Petrucka, P

    2017-08-16

    High blood pressure is increasing worldwide, disproportionately so in developing countries. Inadequate health care systems and adoption of unhealthy lifestyles have been linked to this emergent pattern. To better understand this trend, it is imperative we measure prevalence of hypertension, and examine specific risk factors, at a local level. This study provides a cross-sectional view of urban residents of Arusha City to determine prevalence and associated risk factors. Blood pressure was measured using a digital sphygmomanometer. Interviews were conducted using the WHO STEPwise survey questionnaire to assess lifestyle factors. Dietary intake information was collected by a standardized Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). Descriptive statistics were used to analyze demographic characteristics. Means and standard deviations were calculated for continuous variables and percentages for categorical variables. Pearson's Chi Square (χ 2 ) tests were used to determine significant risk factors for hypertension, and multivariate log binomial regression was used to reveal potential predictors of hypertension. Dietary patterns were analyzed by principal component analysis. Approximately 45% of the study population was found to be hypertensive. The mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) of the sample was 102.3 mmHg (SD = 18.3). Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure were 136.3 (SD = 30.5) and 85.3 (SD = 16.1) mmHg, respectively. Through multivariate analysis, age and body mass index were found to be independently, positively, associated with hypertension. Adherence to 'healthy' dietary pattern was negatively independently associated with hypertension. With nearly half of participants being hypertensive, this study suggests that hypertension is a significant health risk in Arusha, Tanzania. Obesity, healthy diet, and age were found to be positively associated with hypertension risk. This study did not establish any significant association between increased blood

  17. Dietary pattern and other lifestyle factors as potential contributors to hypertension prevalence in Arusha City, Tanzania: a population-based descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. K. Katalambula

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High blood pressure is increasing worldwide, disproportionately so in developing countries. Inadequate health care systems and adoption of unhealthy lifestyles have been linked to this emergent pattern. To better understand this trend, it is imperative we measure prevalence of hypertension, and examine specific risk factors, at a local level. This study provides a cross-sectional view of urban residents of Arusha City to determine prevalence and associated risk factors. Methods Blood pressure was measured using a digital sphygmomanometer. Interviews were conducted using the WHO STEPwise survey questionnaire to assess lifestyle factors. Dietary intake information was collected by a standardized Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze demographic characteristics. Means and standard deviations were calculated for continuous variables and percentages for categorical variables. Pearson’s Chi Square (χ 2 tests were used to determine significant risk factors for hypertension, and multivariate log binomial regression was used to reveal potential predictors of hypertension. Dietary patterns were analyzed by principal component analysis. Results Approximately 45% of the study population was found to be hypertensive. The mean arterial blood pressure (MABP of the sample was 102.3 mmHg (SD = 18.3. Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure were 136.3 (SD = 30.5 and 85.3 (SD = 16.1 mmHg, respectively. Through multivariate analysis, age and body mass index were found to be independently, positively, associated with hypertension. Adherence to ‘healthy’ dietary pattern was negatively independently associated with hypertension. Conclusions With nearly half of participants being hypertensive, this study suggests that hypertension is a significant health risk in Arusha, Tanzania. Obesity, healthy diet, and age were found to be positively associated with hypertension risk. This study did not

  18. Limited socioeconomic opportunities and Latina teen childbearing: a qualitative study of family and structural factors affecting future expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnis, Alexandra M; Marchi, Kristen; Ralph, Lauren; Biggs, M Antonia; Combellick, Sarah; Arons, Abigail; Brindis, Claire D; Braveman, Paula

    2013-04-01

    The decrease in adolescent birth rates in the United States has been slower among Latinas than among other ethnic/racial groups. Limited research has explored how socioeconomic opportunities influence childbearing among Latina adolescents. We conducted in-depth interviews with 65 pregnant foreign- and US-born Latina women (31 adolescents; 34 adults) in two California counties. We assessed perceived socioeconomic opportunities and examined how family, immigration and acculturation affected the relationships between socioeconomic opportunities and adolescent childbearing. Compared with women who delayed childbearing into adulthood, pregnant adolescents described having few resources for educational and career development and experiencing numerous socioeconomic and social barriers to achieving their goals. Socioeconomic instability and policies limiting access to education influenced childbearing for immigrant adolescents. In contrast, family disintegration tied to poverty figured prominently in US-born adolescents' childbearing. Limited socioeconomic opportunities may play a large role in persistently high pregnancy rates among Latina adolescents.

  19. Prevalence of Dental Occlusal Patterns and Their Association with Obstractive Upper Airway Diseases in Primary School Children, Isfahan, Iran

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    SM Sonbolestan

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Teeth, apart from their physiologic function, play an important role in general appearance of indivduals. Therefore any disorder in their growth and evolution, will cause psychologic, social and even economic problems for the person. This observational cross- sectional study aimed to investigate relationship between dental occlusal patterns and obstructive nasal-upper airway- diseases. Methods: This study was perfromed in schools of No.4 Education at district of Isfahan in educational year 1381-82 between 607 students (277 male, 330 female aged 9-12 years old. Results of accurate ENT and dentistry physical examination were registered and analyzed using SPSS software and Chi-square and Mantel - Hanzel test. Results: With increasing age, The frequency of abnormal occlusal patterns increases (from 45.5% to 68.2% in males and 25.8% to 48.5% in females, p=0.015. The increasing in degree of palatal tonsilar hypertrophy was related to higher frequency of abnormal occlusal patterns (36.7% in +1 tonsilar hypertrophy, and 70% in +4 tonsilar hypertrophy, p=0.02. Also, history of frequent common colds, and history of previous nasal fractures were related with abnormal patterns [58.9% (p=0.032, and 83.4% (p= 0.043%, respectively].Five other parameters including sinusitis, hypertrophy of nasal turbinates, rhinitis, nasal polyposis and nasal septal deviation were not associated with abnormal occlusal patterns (p>0.1. Conclusion: Some of obstructive upper airwacy diseases are related with abnormal dental occlusal patterns. These parameters can be simply diagnosed, treated or prevented. Key words: dental occlusion, malocclusion, obstructive nasal disorders, nasal turbinates, adenoid, rhinitis, tonsillectomy, open mouth breathing

  20. Acral melanocytic lesions in the United States: Prevalence, awareness, and dermoscopic patterns in skin-of-color and non-Hispanic white patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madankumar, Reshmi; Gumaste, Priyanka V; Martires, Kathryn; Schaffer, Panta R; Choudhary, Sonal; Falto-Aizpurua, Leyre; Arora, Harleen; Kallis, Penelope J; Patel, Shailee; Damanpour, Shadi; Sanchez, Margaret I; Yin, Natalie; Chan, Aegean; Sanchez, Miguel; Polsky, David; Kanavy, Holly; Grichnik, James M; Stein, Jennifer A

    2016-04-01

    Acral lentiginous melanoma has increased mortality compared with other melanoma subtypes and disproportionately affects ethnic minorities. Acral melanocytic lesions have not been well studied in diverse populations of the United States. We sought to assess the prevalence, awareness, and dermoscopic patterns of acral melanocytic lesions in skin-of-color and non-Hispanic white patients. We prospectively examined the palms and soles of 1052 patients presenting to dermatology clinics in New York, NY, and Miami, FL, from October 2013 to April 2015. Acral melanocytic lesions were observed in 36% of our cohort. Skin-of-color patients were more likely to have acral melanocytic lesions than non-Hispanic white patients (P < .01). Acral melanocytic lesions correlated with increased mole counts, particularly on non-Hispanic white patients. The majority of lesions demonstrated benign dermoscopic patterns. We observed 2 lesions with the parallel ridge pattern in our cohort, both found to be atypical nevi on biopsy specimen. Patients often lacked awareness of the presence of their lesions. Interobserver variability in assessing dermoscopic patterns is a limitation. Melanocytic lesions of the palms and soles are common, particularly in a cohort of multiple ethnicities from the United States. Dermoscopy of acral lesions is an important clinical tool for diagnosis and management of these lesions. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Risk Effect of Primary Dysmenorrhea on Women of Childbearing Age in Ploso Subdistrict of Tambaksari Surabaya

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    Ulya Rohima Ammar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Primary dysmenorrhea was menstrual pain without any real abnormalities in genitals and could be a sign of reproductive system disorders. Prevalence of primary dysmenorrhea was quite high, but the lack of attention from the medical world, whereas primary dysmenorrhea can lead to decreased productivity and hinder daily activities. This  study  aimed  to  analyze  the  risk factors  of  primary  dysmenorrhea  in  Ploso  subdistrict  of Tambaksari Surabaya. The study was an observational analytic cross sectional design. Sampling was done by multistage cluster sampling. Respondents were 80 women of childbearing age 15-35 years old. Based on the results the prevalence of primary dysmenorrhea was at 71.3% . Most of the impact of primary dysmenorrhea that respondents perceived were declining productivity that is equal to 77.2%. Most of respondents not been examined primary dysmenorrhea to the doctor or midwife (84.2% with the majority reason was respondents think that symptoms of primary dysmenorrhea perceived is reasonable (54.2% . The highest proportion of respondents characteristics are aged 15-25 years (51.3%, had family history (52.5%, never given birth (60%, duration of menstruation 3-7 days (86%, age of menarche 12-13 years (53.8%, not did exercise (53.8%, had a normal nutritional status (38.8%, and severe stress (25%. The results of the bivariate analysis showed that there was a relationship between age and family history with primary dysmenorrhea, and there was no relationship between the experience of childbirth, length of menstruation, age of menarche, exercise habits, nutritional status, and state of stress with primary dysmenorrhea. The advice is to check primary dysmenorrhea to the doctor or midwife if find symptoms of primary dysmenorrhea to get treatment (psychotherapy or medication therapy, so that respondents could still work or do activities and productivity is not compromised. Keywords : primary dysmenorrhea

  2. Prevalence and patterns of use of mantra, mindfulness and spiritual meditation among adults in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Adam; Lam, Chun Nok; Stussman, Barbara; Yang, Hui

    2017-06-15

    Despite a growing body of scientific literature exploring the nature of meditation there is limited information on the characteristics of individuals who use it. This is particularly true of comparative studies examining prevalence and predictors of use of various forms of meditation. A secondary analysis was conducted using data from the 2012 National Health Interview Survey (n = 34,525). Three popular forms of meditation were compared-mantra, mindfulness, and spiritual-to determine lifetime and 12-month use related to key sociodemographic, health behavior, health status, and healthcare access variables. The 12-month prevalence for meditation practice was 3.1% for spiritual meditation, 1.9% for mindfulness meditation, and 1.6% for mantra meditation. This represents approximately 7.0, 4.3, and 3.6 million adults respectively. A comparison across the three meditation practices found many similarities in user characteristics, suggesting interest in meditation may be more related to the type of person meditating than to the type of practice selected. Across meditation styles use was more prevalent among respondents who were female, non-Hispanic White, college educated, physically active; who used other complementary health practices; and who reported depression. Higher utilization of conventional healthcare services was one of the strongest predictors of use of all three styles. In addition to similarities, important distinctions were observed. For example, spiritual meditation practice was more prevalent among former drinkers. This may reflect use of spiritual meditation practices in support of alcohol treatment and sobriety. Reasons for use of meditation were examined using the sample of respondents who practiced mindfulness meditation. Wellness and prevention (74%) was a more common reason than use to treat a specific health condition (30%). Common reasons for use included stress management (92%) and emotional well-being (91%), and to support other health

  3. Prevalence and Characteristics of Nonblanching, Palpable Skin Lesions With a Linear Pattern in Children With Henoch-Schönlein Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Gregorio P; Lava, Sebastiano A G; Ramelli, Vera; Bianchetti, Mario G

    2017-11-01

    Linear nonblanching skin lesions are thought to occur very rarely in patients with Henoch-Schönlein syndrome. To examine the prevalence and characteristics of linear nonblanching skin lesions in children with Henoch-Schönlein syndrome. A prospective case series was conducted at the ambulatory practice of a hospitalist between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2015, among 31 consecutive children with Henoch-Schönlein syndrome. Thirty-one consecutive children affected with Henoch-Schönlein syndrome who were from 3.0 to 12.0 years of age (median age, 6.2 years). Children with Henoch-Schönlein syndrome underwent a careful, structured skin examination established in advance with emphasis on the presence of palpable lesions with a linear pattern. Among the 31 children in the study (12 girls and 19 boys; median age, 6.2 years [range, 3.0-12.0 years]), 8 (26%) had linear lesions on the legs, groin, waistline, wrists, or forearms. Patients with or without linear lesions did not differ significantly with respect to sex, age, and cutaneous, abdominal, articular, or renal involvement. This study illustrates the prevalence and characteristics of linear skin lesions in patients with Henoch-Schönlein syndrome. Patients with symptoms suggestive of this vasculitis should be evaluated for the presence of nonblanching, palpable lesions with a linear pattern.

  4. GROUP-B STREPTOCOCCUS IN PREGNANT WOMEN: Prevalence of Colonization and Sensitivity Pattern in Denpasar during June 2007May 2008

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    N Sri-Budayanti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Group-B Streptococci (GBS are Gram-positive cocci that are the most common cause of early onset neonatal sepsis. The mortality rate of early onset neonatal sepsis has been reported up to 50%. One of the major risks of early onset neonatal sepsis is GBS colonization in birthcanal of pregnant women that can infect the baby during process of vaginal delivery. Antibiotic chemoprophylaxis for pregnant women that is colonized by GBS can reduce the risk of early onset neonatal sepsis. The detection of GBS colonization needs Todd Hewitt (TH enrichment medium toreduce false negative result. Until now, there is no report about either prevalence of colonization or sensitivity pattern of Group B Streptococcus among pregnant women in Denpasar. The aims of this research were to determine the prevalence of GBS colonization and sensitivity pattern of GBS amongpregnant women with Todd Hewitt enrichment medium.Method: This research was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Vaginal swab specimens from 3537 weeks gestation pregnant women were collected and 32 samples that met the inclusion criteria were cultured on Blood agar (BA plates, Chromagar (CA plates, and Todd Hewitt (TH broth. The GBS colonization that grew in culture medium was followed by antibiotic sensitivity test.Results: In the present study, we found that the prevalence of GBS colonization in pregnant women detected with culture method using BA and CA without TH broth was 9.4%, whereas the prevalence with culture method using BA and CA enriched by TH broth was 31.3%. Moreover, GBS showed resistance to penicillin, erythromycin, and cefazolin. It is indicated that TH enrichment medium seems to be promising as a screening method for GBS colonization in pregnant women in Bali.Conclusion: There was an enrichment detection of GBS prevalence colonization in pregnant women detected the swab with culture method using BA and CA enriched by TH compare to BA and CA without TH broth

  5. Marital Quality and Divorce Decisions: How Do Premarital Cohabitation and Nonmarital Childbearing Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tach, Laura M.; Halpern-Meekin, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    This study used the 1979 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 3,481) to test whether the association between marital quality and divorce is moderated by premarital cohabitation or nonmarital childbearing status. Prior research identified lower marital quality as a key explanation for why couples who cohabit or have children…

  6. Sociodemographic and dietary profile of 4,471 childbearing-age women planning a pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuervo, Marta; Goni, Leticia; Santiago, Susana; Zazpe, Itziar; García, Aquilino; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2014-02-01

    The maintenance of healthy lifestyles is of great importance to prevent pregnancy-related diseases at early stages. For this reason, the knowledge of the overall wellbeing of women at childbearing-age is necessary to provide appropriate advice to maintain or improve the nutritional status. The aim of this research was to assess the lifestyles of childbearing-age women planning a pregnancy and to examine the difference between primiparae and multiparae women on these lifestyles. This cross-sectional survey involved 4,471 Spanish women at childbearing-age that were planning a pregnancy. Information was collected through a questionnaire by community health professionals. The profile of childbearing-age recruited women planning a pregnancy were in her early thirties (31.4 ± 4.8 years) and 72.5% were seeking for her first baby. They had a good self-perception of their nutritional and health status and followed a balanced diet. Interestingly, primiparae women had lower risk of health complications but they were greater consumers of tobacco and alcohol (p pregnancies underlying modifiable or preventable factors. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  7. Gender Equality and Outsourcing of Domestic Work, Childbearing, and Relationship Stability among British Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Pia S.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates whether gender inequality in the division of housework and child care may be an obstacle to childbearing and relationship stability among different groups of British couples. Furthermore, it explores whether outsourcing of domestic labor ameliorates any negative effects of domestic work inequality. The empirical…

  8. Adolescent Childbearing, Poverty, and Siblings: Taking New Direction from the New Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Patricia L.; Jacobson, Leanne J.

    2000-01-01

    Article critically appraises the sibling-comparison method by discussing its limitations: it assumes within-family homogeneity; it neglects naturally occurring heterogeneity across siblings; it overlooks unique effects of a teen's childbearing for her family and siblings; it underappreciates the selectivity of sisters of teenage mothers who delay…

  9. Anatomical characterisation of the cricothyroid membrane in females of childbearing age using computed tomography.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Long, N

    2014-02-01

    In the event of failure to secure the airway by conventional means, it may be necessary to perform invasive airway access via the cricothyroid membrane. No studies have addressed anatomy of this structure in the obstetric population. We aimed to review the anatomical variation of this structure in a population of childbearing age.

  10. Latina Daughters' Childbearing Attitudes: The Role of Maternal Expectations and Education Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mireles-Rios, Rebeca; Romo, Laura F.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent girls' and their mothers' expectations for their daughters' college attainment, mother-daughter communication about education, and daughters' early childbearing attitudes were examined in 146 U.S.-raised Latina girls (mean age = 14.4 years) and their mostly immigrant mothers. Through structural equation modeling, we…

  11. Childbearing traditions of Indian women at home and abroad: An integrative literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Young-Oak; Dietsch, Elaine

    2014-12-01

    The percentage of overseas-born mothers giving birth in Australia has increased to 31.5% in 2012 and Indian women represent 10% (the highest proportion). It is important for midwives in Australia to be aware of the childbearing traditions of Indian women and how these influence Indian women birthing in Australia. To explore childbearing practices in India and Indian women's experience of giving birth abroad; and to discuss the relevant findings for midwives working with Indian women in Australia. An integrative literature review was employed. 32 items, including 18 original research articles were thematically reviewed to identify commonly occurring themes relating to Indian women's childbearing traditions. Five themes relating to traditional childbearing practices of women birthing in India were identified. These themes included diversity and disparity; social context of childbirth and marriage; diet based on Ayurveda; pollution theory and confinement; and finally, rituals and customs. Indian women giving birth abroad and by implication in Australia experience a transition to motherhood in a new culture. While adjusting to motherhood, they are also negotiating between their old and new cultural identities. To provide culturally safe care, it is essential that midwives reflect on their own culture while exploring what traditions are important for Indian women. Copyright © 2014 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact of Childbearing Decisions on Family Size of Korean Women with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In Je; Kim, Hyoun-Ah; Suh, Chang-Hee; Park, Yong-Wook; Lee, Hye-Soon; Bang, So-Young; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Kang, Young Mo; Lee, Won Kyung; Park, Hyesook; Lee, Jisoo

    2016-05-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) predominantly affects women in their reproductive years and has a significant impact on childbearing. We investigated the influence of personal decision on family size among Korean women with SLE and factors that affect the decisions. A case-control study comparing childbearing history and decisions of 112 SLE patients and 135 controls was performed. Women with SLE participating in the Network for Lupus Clinical Research in South Korea and matching controls between ages of 18-45, who are/were married or living with a partner were included. Data regarding socio-demographics, reproductive history, and childbearing decisions were collected through a survey using a standardized questionnaire and medical record review. More women with SLE reported at least one pregnancy (85.7% vs. 71.9%, P = 0.009) or at least one live birth (85.7% vs. 71.9%, P = 0.003) compared with controls. Mean number of pregnancies was significantly higher (2.4 ± 1.6 vs. 1.4 ± 1.3, P family size and childbearing decisions among Korean women with SLE.

  13. Why Wait? The Effect of Marriage and Childbearing on the Wages of Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughran, David S.; Zissimopoulos, Julie M.

    2009-01-01

    We use data from the earlier and later cohorts of the NLSY to estimate the effect of marriage and childbearing on wages. Our estimates imply that marriage lowers female wages 2-4 percent in the year of marriage. Marriage also lowers the wage growth of men and women by about two and four percentage points, respectively. A first birth lowers female…

  14. Love, marriage, then the baby carriage? Marriage timing and childbearing in Sweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holland, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Some scholars claim that marriage is an outmoded institution, decoupled from the childbearing process in Sweden. However, it is likely that the presence of children is still linked to marriage, since most children born to cohabiting couples experience the marriage of their parents. The

  15. Serum Folate Shows an Inverse Association with Blood Pressure in a Cohort of Chinese Women of Childbearing Age: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minxue Shen

    Full Text Available It has been reported that higher folate intake from food and supplementation is associated with decreased blood pressure (BP. The association between serum folate concentration and BP has been examined in few studies. We aim to examine the association between serum folate and BP levels in a cohort of young Chinese women.We used the baseline data from a pre-conception cohort of women of childbearing age in Liuyang, China, for this study. Demographic data were collected by structured interview. Serum folate concentration was measured by immunoassay, and homocysteine, blood glucose, triglyceride and total cholesterol were measured through standardized clinical procedures. Multiple linear regression and principal component regression model were applied in the analysis.A total of 1,532 healthy normotensive non-pregnant women were included in the final analysis. The mean concentration of serum folate was 7.5 ± 5.4 nmol/L and 55% of the women presented with folate deficiency (< 6.8 nmol/L. Multiple linear regression and principal component regression showed that serum folate levels were inversely associated with systolic and diastolic BP, after adjusting for demographic, anthropometric, and biochemical factors.Serum folate is inversely associated with BP in non-pregnant women of childbearing age with high prevalence of folate deficiency.

  16. Patterns and Prevalence of School Access, Transitions and Equity in South Africa: Secondary Analyses of BT20 Large-Scale Data Sources. CREATE Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 27

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleisch, Brahm; Shindler, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This monograph looks at patterns and prevalence of initial school enrolment, late entry, attainment promotion, and repetition in urban South Africa. The paper pays special attention to the particular gender nature of the patterns of school participation. The study analyses data generated in the genuine representative cohort study, Birth-to-Twenty…

  17. Prevalence, Patterns and Correlates of Cigarette Smoking in Male Adolescents in Northern Jordan, and the Influence of Waterpipe Use and Asthma Diagnosis: A Descriptive Cross-Sectional Study

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    Nihaya Al-Sheyab

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Our study investigates the prevalence, patterns and predictors of tobacco smoking among early adolescent males in Northern Jordan and whether asthma diagnosis affects smoking patterns. A descriptive cross sectional design was used. Males in grades 7 and 8 from four randomly selected high schools in the city of Irbid were enrolled. Data on waterpipe (WP use and cigarette smoking patterns were obtained (n = 815 using a survey in Arabic language. The overall prevalence of ever having smoked a cigarette was 35.6%, with 86.2% of this group smoking currently. Almost half of the sample reported WP use. The most common age in which adolescents started to experiment with cigarettes was 11–12 years old (49.1%, although 10 years was also common (25.3%. Significant predictors of male cigarette smoking were WP use (OR = 4.15, 95% CI = 2.99–5.76, asthma diagnosis (OR = 2.35, 95% CI = 1.46–3.78, grade 8 (OR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.10–2.11, and having a sibling who smokes (OR = 2.23, 95% CI = 1.53–3.24. However, this cross-sectional study cannot establish causality, thus longitudinal studies are needed. Public health programs and school-based anti-tobacco smoking interventions that target children in early years at high schools are warranted to prevent the uptake of tobacco use among this vulnerable age group. High school students with asthma should be specifically targeted.

  18. Small area estimation of obesity prevalence and dietary patterns: a model applied to Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil.

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    Cataife, Guido

    2014-03-01

    We propose the use of previously developed small area estimation techniques to monitor obesity and dietary habits in developing countries and apply the model to Rio de Janeiro city. We estimate obesity prevalence rates at the Census Tract through a combinatorial optimization spatial microsimulation model that matches body mass index and socio-demographic data in Brazil's 2008-9 family expenditure survey with Census 2010 socio-demographic data. Obesity ranges from 8% to 25% in most areas and affects the poor almost as much as the rich. Male and female obesity rates are uncorrelated at the small area level. The model is an effective tool to understand the complexity of the problem and to aid in policy design. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Prevalence and patterns of HIV transmitted drug resistance in Guatemala Prevalencia y patrones de farmacorresistencia transmitida del VIH en Guatemala

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    Santiago Avila-Ríos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess human immunodeficiency virus (HIV diversity and the prevalence of transmitted drug resistance (TDR in Guatemala. METHODS: One hundred forty-five antiretroviral treatment-naïve patients referred to the Roosevelt Hospital in Guatemala City were enrolled from October 2010 to March 2011. Plasma HIV pol sequences were obtained and TDR was assessed with the Stanford algorithm and the World Health Organization (WHO TDR surveillance mutation list. RESULTS: HIV subtype B was highly prevalent in Guatemala (96.6%, 140/145, and a 2.8% (4/145 prevalence of BF1 recombinants and 0.7% (1/145 prevalence of subtype C viruses were found. TDR prevalence for the study period was 8.3% (12/145 with the Stanford database algorithm (score > 15 and the WHO TDR surveillance mutation list. Most TDR cases were associated with non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs (83.3%, 10/12; a low prevalence of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors was observed in the cohort (OBJETIVO: Evaluar la diversidad del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH y la prevalencia de la farmacorresistencia transmitida en Guatemala. MÉTODOS: Entre octubre del 2010 y marzo del 2011 se incluyeron en el estudio 145 pacientes no tratados anteriormente con antirretrovirales, derivados al Hospital Roosevelt en la Ciudad de Guatemala. Se obtuvieron las secuencias pol a partir del VIH plasmático y se evaluó la farmacorresistencia transmitida con el algoritmo de Stanford y la lista de mutaciones para la vigilancia de la farmacorresistencia transmitida de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS. RESULTADOS: El subtipo B del VIH fue sumamente prevalente en Guatemala (96,6%, 140/145, y se encontró una prevalencia de formas recombinantes BF1 de 2,8% (4/145 y una prevalencia del subtipo C del virus de 0,7% (1/145. La prevalencia de la farmacorresistencia transmitida durante el período de estudio fue de 8,3% (12/145 según el algoritmo de

  20. Prevalence, Mutation Patterns, and Effects on Protease Inhibitor Susceptibility of the L76V Mutation in HIV-1 Protease▿ †

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    Young, Thomas P.; Parkin, Neil T.; Stawiski, Eric; Pilot-Matias, Tami; Trinh, Roger; Kempf, Dale J.; Norton, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Patterns of HIV-1 protease inhibitor (PI) resistance-associated mutations (RAMs) and effects on PI susceptibility associated with the L76V mutation were studied in a large database. Of 20,501 sequences with ≥1 PI RAM, 3.2% contained L76V; L76V was alone in 0.04%. Common partner mutations included M46I, I54V, V82A, I84V, and L90M. L76V was associated with a 2- to 6-fold decrease in susceptibility to lopinavir, darunavir, amprenavir, and indinavir and a 7- to 8-fold increase in susceptibility to atazanavir and saquinavir. PMID:20805393

  1. Prevalence and gender patterns of mental health problems in German youth with experience of violence: the KiGGS study

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    2013-01-01

    Background Research examining mental health in violence-affected youth in representative samples is rare. Using data from the nationally representative German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) this study reports on gender-specific prevalence rates and associations of a broad range of internalizing and externalizing mental health problems: emotional problems, conduct problems, ADHD, disordered eating, somatic pain and substance use in youth variously affected by violence. While internalizing is generally more common in girls and externalizing in boys, observations of prior non-normative studies suggest reverse associations once an individual is affected by violence. The occurrence of such “gender cross-over effects” is therefore examined in a representative sample. Methods The sample consisted of 6,813 adolescents aged 11 to 17 from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS): Applying multivariate logistic regression analyses, associations between each type of violence history and mental health indicator were determined for perpetrators, victims, and perpetrating victims of youth violence. Moderating effects of gender were examined by using product term interaction. Results Victim status was associated primarily with internalizing problems, while perpetrators were more prone to externalizing problems. Perpetrating victims stood out with respect to the number and strength of risk associations with all investigated mental health indicators. However, the risk profiles of all violence-affected youth included both internalizing and externalizing mental health problems. Gender cross-over effects were found for girls and boys: despite lower overall prevalence, girls affected by violence were at far higher risk for conduct problems and illicit drug use; by contrast, somatic pain, although generally lower in males, was positively associated with perpetrator status and perpetrating

  2. Prevalence of Bacteriuria and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns among Diabetic and Nondiabetic Patients Attending at Debre Tabor Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

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    Seble Worku

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Urinary tract infection is a major health problem especially in developing countries. Information about bacterial pathogens isolated from urinary tract infection in diabetic patients and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns is limited in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed at isolating bacterial pathogens and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. Methods. A hospital based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted at Debre Tabor. Urine sample was inoculated onto cysteine lysine electrolyte deficient (CLED medium. Bacterial pathogens were identified using standard bacteriological methods. The data were cleaned and entered into SPSS version 20. P value less than 0.05 is considered statistically significant. Result. A total of 384 study participants were included in the study. Of them, 21 (10.9% were from diabetics and 9 (4.7% of them were from nondiabetics. Large proportion of gram positive bacteria at 18 (58.1% were isolated compared to gram negatives at 13 (41.9%. Gram positive isolates were resistant to cotrimoxazole 10 (58.8%. Conclusion. The isolation rates of bacterial pathogens were higher in diabetic than nondiabetic patients. Bacteriuria was significantly associated with sex and type of diabetes. Multidrug resistance to two or more antibiotics was observed in 56.7% of bacterial isolates. Rational use of antimicrobial agent should be thought of to prevent the emergence of multidrug resistance.

  3. Patterns of prevalent HPV and STI co-infections and associated factors among HIV-negative young Western Cape, South African women: the EVRI trial.

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    Menezes, Lynette J; Pokharel, Ubin; Sudenga, Staci L; Botha, Matthys H; Zeier, Michele; Abrahamsen, Martha E; Glashoff, Richard H; Engelbrecht, Susan; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F; van der Laan, Louvina E; Kipping, Siegfried; Taylor, Douglas; Giuliano, Anna R

    2018-02-01

    To estimate the prevalence and describe the patterns of concurrent human papillomavirus (HPV) and STIs and associated factors among HIV-negative young Western Cape, South African women participating in the Efficacy of HPV Vaccine to Reduce HIV Infection (EVRI) trial. HIV-negative women aged 16-24 years old were enrolled in the EVRI trial (NCT01489527) and randomised to receive the licensed four-valent HPV vaccine or placebo. At study entry, participants were clinically evaluated for five STIs: herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis and disease-causing HPV genotypes (6/11/16/18/31/33/35/39/45/51/52/56/58/59/68). Demographic and sexual history characteristics were compared among women with STI co-infections, single infection and no infection using Pearson χ 2 and Mann-Whitney tests. ORs were calculated to evaluate factors associated with STI co-infection prevalence. Among 388 young women, STI co-infection prevalence was high: 47% had ≥2 concurrent STIs, 36% had a single STI and 17% had none of the five evaluated STIs. HPV/HSV-2 (26%) was the most prevalent co-infection detected followed by HPV/HSV-2/ Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) (17%) and HPV/CT (15%). Co-infection prevalence was independently associated with alcohol use (adjusted OR=2.01, 95% CI 1.00 to 4.06) and having a sexual partner with an STI (adjusted OR=6.96, 95% CI 1.53 to 30.08). Among high-risk young women from underserved communities such as in Southern Africa, a multicomponent prevention strategy that integrates medical and behavioural interventions targeting both men and women is essential to prevent acquisition of concurrent STI infections and consequent disease. NCT01489527; Post-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. Changing prevalence patterns in endoscopic and histological diagnosis of gastritis? Data from a cross-sectional Central European multicentre study.

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    Wolf, Eva-Maria; Plieschnegger, Wolfgang; Geppert, Michael; Wigginghaus, Bernd; Höss, Gabriele M; Eherer, Andreas; Schneider, Nora I; Hauer, Almuthe; Rehak, Peter; Vieth, Michael; Langner, Cord

    2014-05-01

    Traditionally, Helicobacter infection is considered to be the most common cause of gastritis. In the cross-sectional Central European histoGERD trial, we assessed the prevalence of different types of gastritis, correlating histological and endoscopic diagnoses. A total of 1123 individuals participated in an observational multicentre study. Endoscopists classified individuals as positive or negative for gastritis and rendered the putative cause. Pathologists evaluated biopsy specimens based upon the Updated Sydney System. Histological diagnosis of gastritis was made in 639 (56.9%) participants. In all, 210 (18.7%) individuals were diagnosed with Helicobacter gastritis, 215 (19.1%) with post Helicobacter gastritis, 234 (20.8%) with reactive gastropathy, 26 (2.3%) with autoimmune gastritis, and 6 (0.5%) with focally enhanced gastritis related to Crohn's disease. In 46 out of 639 (7.2%) individuals diagnosed with gastritis, combinations of different histological subtypes were noted the most common being reactive gastropathy and post Helicobacter gastritis. Endoscopic diagnosis of gastritis was made in 534 (47.6%) individuals. Reactive gastropathy was more common than active Helicobacter gastritis, and the majority of cases attributable to Helicobacter infection were no longer ongoing, i.e. post Helicobacter gastritis. Agreement between histological and endoscopic diagnoses was better in reactive gastropathy than in Helicobacter gastritis. Copyright © 2014 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevalence and identification by multiplex polymerase chain reaction patterns of Cronobacter spp. isolated from plant-based foods

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    Filiz AKSU

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cronobacter spp. involves a group of opportunistic pathogens that cause meningitis in newborns, immunosuppressed individuals with a mortality rate of 50-80%. Seven species like C. sakazakii, C. malonaticus, C. muytjensii, C. turicensis, C. dublinensis, C. universalis, C. condimenti are included in this genus which has been a subject of research especially in the bacteriologic analysis of baby foods. However, since these species were detected also in prepared foodstuffs. The objective of this study was to assert the presence of Cronobacter spp. in foodstuff offered for sale in Turkey. A total of 151 prepared foodstuffs including a variety of spice, flour, instant soup were purchased from different sales points. The presence of Cronobacter spp. were investigated in these samples. Cronobacter suspected isolates which were obtained by microbiological analyses were confirmed by PCR targeted to gyrB gene and were then identified by multiplex PCR. Prevalence of Cronobacter spp was estimated to be 17.88%. Out of 27 Cronobacter spp. isolates obtained, 13(48.1%, 6(22.2%, 5(18.5%, 3(11.1% belonged to C. sakazakii, C. muytjensii, C. turicensis, C. malonaticus species, respectively. Consequently, the presence of the bacteria in widely consumed foodstuff revealed that Cronobacter spp. is subject to monitoring due to its opportunistic nature in terms of public health concern.

  6. Changing pattern of fascioliasis prevalence early in the 3rd millennium in Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adarosy, H A; Gad, Y Z; El-Baz, S A; El-Shazly, A M

    2013-04-01

    Fascioliasis is an important food- and water-borne parasitic zoonosis caused by liver flukes of genus Fasciola (Digenea: Fasciolidae) of worldwide distribution. In Egypt, fascioliasis was encountered in nearly all Egyptian Governorates, particularly in the Nile Delta and specifically in Dakahlia. All enrolled cases were subjected to complete history taking, clinical examination, routine investigations and abdominal ultrasonography. Stool analysis, IHA and ELISA were used for fascioliasis diagnosis. Rural areas showed highest prevalence of fascioliasis than urban areas, however, but.without significance (x2= 0.042 & P= 0.837). Regarding human fascioliasis in examined the centers, no statistically significant difference (x2 =2.824 & P=0.243) was detected. Regarding gender variation, the difference was statistically insignificant (x2= 0.166 & P= 0.683). The difference between the age groups was statistically insignificant (x2= 3.882 & P=0.274). Clinically, 7 cases (35%) were asymptomatic and another 13 cases (65%) had different clinical pictures. Abdominal pain, anemia, eosinophilia, and tender hepatomegaly were seen in 70%, 80%, 70%, and 10%; respectively. Of them, 1 1cases showed positive abdominal ultrasonographic findings suggestive of fascioliasis.

  7. Non-Venereal Dermatoses In Male Genital Region-Prevalence And Patterns In A Referral Centre In South India

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    Karthikeyan K

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of 100 male patients with non-venereal dermatoses of external genitalia were screened amongst patients visiting Dermatology OPD of JIPMER, Pondicherry from Aug ’97 to March ’99. The overall prevalence was found to be 14.1 per 10,000. Non-venereal dermatoses were common in the 21-40 years age group. Most of the patients (74% belonged to labourer class. A total of 25 different non-venereal dermatoses were studied. Genital vitiligo was the most common disorder accounting for 16 cases. Sebaceous cyst of the scrotum was present 13 patients. Among infections and infestations, scabies was observed in 9 patients. Ariboflavinosis was seen in 9 cases. Other disorders encountered were calcinosis scrotum. Iymphangiectasia of the scrotum. Lichen simplex chronicus. Fixed drug eruption, angiokeratoma of Fordyce, lichen sclerosus et atrophicus etc. The study has been quite useful in understanding the clinical and aetiological characteristics of various types of non-veneral dermatoses in males in this subcontinen of Asia.

  8. Zinc and copper status in childbearing age Tunisian women: Relation to age, residential area, socioeconomic situation and physiologic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ati-Hellal, Myriam; Doggui, Radhouene; Hedhili, Abderrazek; Traissac, Pierre; El Ati, Jalila

    2016-04-01

    Plasma zinc and copper status of 1689 non pregnant Tunisian women, aged 20-49 years old, was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. A multiple regression was run to predict plasma trace element concentrations from age, BMI, marital status, menopause, education level, professional activity, economic level and area of living. The mean zinc and copper values were similar to those measured among comparable populations in earlier studies. However, a high prevalence of low plasma zinc and copper concentrations was observed assuming that women at childbearing age are at high risk of zinc and copper deficiencies and specific intervention may be considered. In univariate analysis, the mean values of plasma zinc and copper were associated with sitting areas and professional activity. For only plasma copper levels, there was an increase with BMI and parity, and a decrease with increasing schooling level and economic score. After adjustment for all variables, profession and parity showed a significant relationship between plasma levels copper. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Electronic Cigarette Prevalence and Patterns of Use in Adults with a History of Cardiovascular Disease in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Andrew; Collins, Jason M; Berry, Kaitlyn M; Reynolds, Lindsay M; Fetterman, Jessica L; Rodriguez, Carlos J; Siegel, Michael B; Benjamin, Emelia J

    2018-04-26

    Characterizing electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use patterns is important for guiding tobacco regulatory policy and projecting the future burden of tobacco-related diseases. Few studies have examined patterns of e-cigarette use in individuals with cardiovascular disease (CVD). We examined e-cigarette use in adults aged 18 to 89 years with a history of CVD, using data from the 2014 National Health Interview Survey. We investigated associations between ever and current e-cigarette use and smoking with multivariable logistic regression. In a secondary analysis, we modeled the association between e-cigarette use and a quit attempt over the past year. Former smokers with CVD who quit smoking within the past year showed 1.85 (95% confidence interval, 1.03, 3.33) times the odds of having ever used e-cigarettes as compared with those who reported being "some days" current smokers. Current smokers who attempted to quit smoking within the past year showed significantly increased odds of ever having used e-cigarettes (odds ratio, 1.70; 95% confidence interval, 1.25, 2.30) and currently using e-cigarettes (odds ratio, 1.97; 95% confidence interval, 1.32, 2.95) as compared with smokers who had not attempted to quit over the past year. Individuals with CVD who recently quit smoking or reported a recent quit attempt were significantly more likely to use e-cigarettes than current smokers and those who did not report a quit attempt. Our findings may indicate that this population is using e-cigarettes as an aid to smoking cessation. Characterizing emerging e-cigarette use behaviors in adults with CVD may help to inform outreach activities aimed at this high-risk population. © 2018 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  10. Effect of free stall surface on daily activity patterns in dairy cows with relevance to lameness prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, N B; Bennett, T B; Nordlund, K V

    2004-09-01

    Differences in behavior of nonlame cows, slightly lame cows, and moderately lame cows in 6 free stall barns with sand bedding (SAND) vs. 6 free stall barns with rubber-crumb geotextile mattress surfaces (MAT) were documented in Wisconsin dairy herds. All lactating cows in the 12 herds were observed and given a locomotion score based on a 4-point scale: 1 = nonlame, 2 = slightly lame, 3 = moderately lame, and 4 = severely lame. Herd least square means +/-SE for prevalence of clinical lameness (locomotion scores = 3 and 4) were 11.1 vs. 24.0 +/- 1.7% for herds using SAND vs. MAT surfaces, respectively. Subsets of 10 cows per herd with locomotion scores of 1 to 3 were observed via video cameras for 24-h periods. Cows in MAT herds spent more time standing in free stalls per day than cows in SAND herds. Differences in standing times were 0.73 h/d for cows that were not lame, 2.32 h/d for cows that were slightly lame, and 4.31 h/d for cows that were moderately lame in MAT herds compared with equivalent cows in SAND herds. In MAT herds, the increase in time spent standing in the stall in moderately lame cows was associated with a significant reduction in stall use sessions per day, which impacted daily lying time. Although cause and effect are not clear, these findings have implications for housing, comfort, and care of cows in dairy herds with different types of free stall surfaces.

  11. Prevalence and pattern of abnormal myocardial perfusion in patients with isolated coronary artery ectasia: study by 99mTc-sestamibi radionuclide scintigraphy.

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    Ismail, Ahmed M; Rayan, Mona; Adel, Amr; Demerdash, Salah; Atef, Mohamed; Abdallah, Mohamed; Nammas, Wail

    2014-02-01

    We explored the prevalence and pattern of abnormal myocardial perfusion in patients with isolated coronary artery ectasia (CAE), as demonstrated by (99m)Tc-sestamibi scintigraphy. Prospectively, we enrolled 35 patients with angiographically documented CAE and no significant coronary obstruction, who underwent elective coronary angiography. Patients underwent Stress-rest (99m)Tc-sestamibi scintigraphy within 4 days of coronary angiography. They were divided into 2 groups: group I: with normal perfusion scan; and group II: with reversible perfusion defects. The mean age was 49.6 ± 6.9 years; 34 (97.1 %) were males. Seventy-nine (75.2 %) arteries were affected by CAE. Among 79 arteries affected by CAE, affection was diffuse in 37 (46.8 %). Thirteen (37.1 %) patients had normal perfusion scan (group I), whereas 22 (62.9 %) had reversible perfusion defects (group II). Among 22 patients with reversible perfusion defects, 20 (90.9 %) had mild and 2 (9.1 %) had moderate ischemia. Among 49 myocardial segments with reversible perfusion defects, 22 (44.9 %) were basal, 18 (36.7 %) mid-, and 9 (18.4 %) apical segments. Diffuse CAE was significantly more prevalent in group II versus group I, in all 3 major coronary arteries (p < 0.05 for all). In patients with isolated CAE who underwent elective coronary angiography, reversible perfusion defects demonstrated by (99m)Tc-sestamibi scintigraphy were rather prevalent, mostly mild, more likely to affect the basal and mid-segments of the myocardium, and more frequently associated with diffuse ectasia.

  12. Changing prevalence and antibiotic drug resistance pattern of pathogens seen in community-acquired pediatric urinary tract infections at a tertiary care hospital of North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwardhan, Vrushali; Kumar, Dinesh; Goel, Varun; Singh, Sarman

    2017-01-01

    The aim and objective of this study was to assess the temporal changes in the microbiological profiles and antimicrobial resistance patterns of uropathogens in pediatric community-acquired UTI. This is a retrospective analysis of data collected over a Scattered period of 5 years. The baseline data collected were from January to December 2009, and the second period considered for comparison was from January to December 2014. Urine specimens from children (Antibiotic sensitivity was put up by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method as per the Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute guidelines. In the year 2009, 340 of 2104 (16.15%) urine specimens yielded significant colony count, whereas in 2014, it was 407 of 2212 (18.39%) ( P = 0.051). Escherichia coli was the predominant pathogen and was significantly more prevalent in girls than in boys ( P resistance to ampicillin (from 40.29% to 58.72%), amoxyclav (from 26.17% to 40.54%), nitrofurantoin (from 28.82% to 39.06%), and norfloxacin (from 30% to 41.42%). However, the maximum increase in the resistance was noted for co-trimoxazole from 35.58% in 2009 to 63.39% in 2014 ( P = 0.0000058). The prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) has also significantly increased from 21.7% to 33.16% ( P = 0.0045). Although E. coli remains the prime pathogen in pediatric UTI, the prevalence of resistance has dramatically increased over the 5-year study period. Our study highlights the emergence of community-acquired ESBL-producing uropathogens in children proclaiming treatment challenges.

  13. Malaria prevalence pattern observed in the highland fringe of Butajira, Southern Ethiopia: a longitudinal study from parasitological and entomological survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfaye, Solomon; Belyhun, Yeshambel; Teklu, Takele; Mengesha, Tesfaye; Petros, Beyene

    2011-06-07

    In Ethiopia, information regarding highland malaria transmission is scarce, and no report has been presented from Butajira highland so far whether the appearance of malaria in the area was due to endemicity or due to highland malaria transmission. Thus this study aimed to determine the presence and magnitude of malaria transmission in Butajira. For parasitological survey, longitudinal study was conducted from October to December 2006. The entomological surveys were done from October to December 2006 and continued from April to May 2007. Both parasitological and entomological surveys were done using standard procedures. The parasitological result in all the survey months (October-December) showed an overall detection rate of 4.4% (48/1082) (CI 95%; 3.2-5.7%) malaria parasite. Among infected individuals, 32 (3.0%) of the infection was due to Plasmodium vivax and the rest 16 (1.5%) were due to Plasmodium falciparum. The highest prevalence 39(3.6%) of the parasite was observed in age groups of above 15 years old. Among the total tested, 25(2.3%) of males and 23(2.1%) of females had malaria infection. Among tested individuals, 38(5.3%) and 10 (2.7%) of infection was occurred in Misrak-Meskan (2100 m a.s.l) and Mirab-Meskan (2280 m a.s.l), respectively which was statistically significant (X2=3.72, P0.05). The entomological survey showed a collection of 602 larvae and 80 adult Anopheles. Anopheles christyi was the dominant species both in the first (45.3%) and in the second (35.4%) surveys; where as, Anopheles gambiae sensu lato comprised 4.7% and 14.6%, in the first and second surveys, respectively. Anopheles gambiae s.l comprises 55% of the adult collection, and both species were collected more from outdoors (57.5%). The number of An. christyi was higher in Mirab-Meskan (58. 3%) than Misrak-Meskan (41.7%) (Prisk of malaria and its control programme in the area must be given adequate attention to minimize potential epidemics. In addition, the current study should be

  14. Antibiotic resistance pattern and prevalence of qacEΔ1 and sul1 genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa from hospital wastewater

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    Rosa Maria Pinto Novaes

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hospital effluents may pose great environmental risk due to the presence of pathogenic microorganisms, drugs and chemical components. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen frequently found in hospital environment. Objective: To evaluate the resistome of P. aeruginosa from the hospital wastewater treatment plant (HWTP in a hospital complex of Rio de Janeiro city. Method: Twenty isolates from the five stages of the HWTP were identified as P. aeruginosa by 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. Susceptibility to antibiotics was determined according to CLSI and qacEΔ1 and sul1 genes were detected by PCR. Sulphonamide residues were investigated by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to sequential mass spectrometry. Results: The sulfamethoxazole has been demonstrated at a level below 50 ng L-1. Sulfonamide resistance (80% has been demonstrated followed by quinolone class (50% and 13 susceptibility patterns to antimicrobials. The qacEΔ1-sul1 genes were detected in 100% of isolates suggesting the presence of class 1 integrons in the whole HWTP. Conclusions: The results signalized limitations of HWTP and propagation of resistance genes in all stages of the HWTP. These data also contribute to the environmental sanitary surveillance in the design of prevention actions against negative impact on the public health.

  15. The prevalence, patterns of usage and people's attitude towards complementary and alternative medicine (CAM among the Indian community in Chatsworth, South Africa

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    Raidoo Deshandra M

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to determine, among the Indian community of Chatsworth, South Africa, the prevalence and utilisation patterns of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM, attitudes associated with CAM use and communication patterns of CAM users with their primary care doctors. Methods Face-to-face structured interviews were conducted in Chatsworth, a suburb of Durban in which South Africans of Indian origin predominantly reside. Participants were 200 randomly selected adult English-speaking Indian residents. Results The prevalence of CAM usage for period 2000/2001 was 38.5% (95% confidence interval 31.7% to 45.6%. Spiritual healing and herbal/natural medicines, including vitamins were the most common types of CAM used, accounting for 42.8% and 48.1% respectively of overall CAM usage. People used CAM to treat conditions including diabetes mellitus, headaches, arthritis and joint pains, stress, skin disorders, backaches, hypertension and nasal disorders. Half of the CAM users used allopathic medicines concurrently. The cost of CAM utilization over this 1-year period, incurred by 80.5% of users for the duration of therapy for their most troublesome condition was below R500 (approximately US$50. Age, sex, marital status, religion, level of education and income were shown not to influence the use of CAM. Greater than half (51.9% of CAM users did so either upon the advice of someone they knew, or after noticing a CAM advertisement in the local press. Seventy-nine percent of CAM users indicated that they had positive outcomes with their treatments. Fifty four percent of CAM users (excluding those using spiritual healing only failed to inform their doctors that they used CAM. The main reason given by half of this group was that informing their doctors did not seem necessary. Conclusion The prevalence of CAM in Chatsworth is similar to findings in other parts of the world. Although CAM was used to treat many different

  16. The Prevalence and Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Salmonella typhi among Patients Attending a Military Hospital in Minna, Nigeria

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    N. U. Adabara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The threat to human health posed by antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogens is of growing concern to medical practice. This study investigated the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of Salmonella typhi isolated from blood specimen. One hundred blood samples were collected from suspected typhoid fever patients in 31 Artillery Brigade Medical Centre, Minna, and were analyzed for S. typhi while antibiotic sensitivity testing was done Kirby-Bauer method. Sixty (60.0% samples out of the total 100 were positive for bacterial growth. The organisms isolated 2 include Salmonella typhi; 45 (75.0%, Shigella; 6 (10.0%, E. coli; 3 (5.0%, Klebsiella; 3 (5.0%, Enterobacter; 2 (3.3%, and Citrobacter; 1 (1.7%. Result of the sensitivity test showed that the isolates were resistant to all the antibiotics; ceftriaxone, cefuroxime, amoxicillin, ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, and augmentin, which are the drug of choice routinely used in the study area for the treatment of typhoid fever. They were however sensitive to chloramphenicol and ofloxacin, which, unfortunately, are not used in this study area for the treatment of typhoid fever. There appear to be multiple drug resistant (MDR strain of S. typhi in the study area. These may be as a result of overdependence or uncontrolled use of the few available antibiotics and/or inaccurate or inconclusive diagnosis resulting in the development and spread of resistant strains of S. typhi. The study, therefore, highlights the need for a strong collaboration between the physicians and the laboratory in the choice of antibiotics for the treatment of bacterial diseases in order to discourage the development of resistant strain of bacterial pathogen.

  17. Knowledge and prevalence of risk factors for arterial hypertension and blood pressure pattern among bankers and traffic wardens in Ilorin, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaudeen, A G; Musa, O I; Babatunde, O A; Atoyebi, O A; Durowade, K A; Omokanye, L O

    2014-09-01

    High job strain, mental stress, sedentary lifestyle, increase in BMI are among the factors associated with significantly higher incidence of hypertension. The job of bank employees is both sedentary in nature and accompanies high mental stress. The aim of this study is to assess the level of knowledge of risk factors among respondents and to compare the blood pressure pattern of bankers and traffic wardens. The study design is a descriptive cross-sectional conducted among bankers and traffic wardens in Ilorin to determine the pattern and knowledge of blood pressure. Self-administered questionnaires, weighing scale (Omron Digital scale), stadiometer and sphygmomanometer were used as the research instruments. Simple random sampling was used to select respondents involved in the study. The prevalence of hypertension in this study was 34.4% in bankers and 22.2% in traffic wardens. The risk factors the bankers commonly had knowledge of are alcohol, obesity, high salt intake, certain drugs, stress, emotional problems and family history while the traffic wardens commonly had knowledge of all these in addition to cigarette smoking. Also, more bankers (32.2%) than traffic wardens (13.3%) were smoking cigarette and more of these cigarette smokers that are bankers (17.8%) had elevated blood pressure compared to the traffic wardens (3.3%). Workers in the banking industry as well as traffic wardens should be better educated about the risk factors of hypertension and bankers should be encouraged to create time for exercise.

  18. Prevalence and patterns of antimicrobial resistance of fecal Escherichia coli among pigs on 47 farrow-to-finish farms with different in-feed medication policies in Ontario and British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Akwar, Holy T.; Poppe, Cornelis; Wilson, Jeff; Reid-Smith, Richard J.; Dyck, Monica; Waddington, Josh; Shang, Dayue; McEwen, Scott A.

    2008-01-01

    The main objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and patterns of antimicrobial resistance in pigs on farms that medicated swine ration and those that did not. A total of 940 isolates of Escherichia coli from 188 pooled fecal samples obtained from weaner and finisher pigs on 47 farrow-to-finish swine farms (34 farms used in-feed medication and 13 did not) were tested for susceptibility to 21 antimicrobials using a breakpoint concentration method. The prevalence of resistance ...

  19. Malaria prevalence pattern observed in the highland fringe of Butajira, Southern Ethiopia: A longitudinal study from parasitological and entomological survey

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    Mengesha Tesfaye

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Ethiopia, information regarding highland malaria transmission is scarce, and no report has been presented from Butajira highland so far whether the appearance of malaria in the area was due to endemicity or due to highland malaria transmission. Thus this study aimed to determine the presence and magnitude of malaria transmission in Butajira. Methods For parasitological survey, longitudinal study was conducted from October to December 2006. The entomological surveys were done from October to December 2006 and continued from April to May 2007. Both parasitological and entomological surveys were done using standard procedures. Results The parasitological result in all the survey months (October-December showed an overall detection rate of 4.4% (48/1082 (CI 95%; 3.2-5.7% malaria parasite. Among infected individuals, 32 (3.0% of the infection was due to Plasmodium vivax and the rest 16 (1.5% were due to Plasmodium falciparum. The highest prevalence 39(3.6% of the parasite was observed in age groups of above 15 years old. Among the total tested, 25(2.3% of males and 23(2.1% of females had malaria infection. Among tested individuals, 38(5.3% and 10 (2.7% of infection was occurred in Misrak-Meskan (2100 m a.s.l and Mirab-Meskan (2280 m a.s.l, respectively which was statistically significant (X2 = 3.72, P Plasmodium species declined from October to December, the trend was non-significant (X2 for trend = 0.49, P > 0.05. The entomological survey showed a collection of 602 larvae and 80 adult Anopheles. Anopheles christyi was the dominant species both in the first (45.3% and in the second (35.4% surveys; where as, Anopheles gambiae sensu lato comprised 4.7% and 14.6%, in the first and second surveys, respectively. Anopheles gambiae s.l comprises 55% of the adult collection, and both species were collected more from outdoors (57.5%. The number of An. christyi was higher in Mirab-Meskan (58. 3% than Misrak-Meskan (41.7% (P Conclusion

  20. The Meaning of “Control” for Childbearing Women in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namey, Emily E; Lyerly, Anne D

    2010-01-01

    Childbearing women, healthcare providers, and commentators on birth broadly identify control as an important issue during childbirth; however, control is rarely defined in literature on the topic. Here we seek to deconstruct the term control as used by childbearing women to better understand the issues and concepts underpinning it. Based on qualitative interviews with 101 parous women in the United States, we analyze meanings of control within the context of birth narratives. We find these meanings correspond to five distinct domains: self-determination, respect, personal security, attachment, and knowledge. We also find ambivalence about this term and concept, in that half our sample recognizes “you cannot control birth”. Together, these findings call into question the usefulness of the term for measuring quality or improving maternity care and highlight other concepts which may be more fruitfully explored. PMID:20579792

  1. Understanding the Social Meaning of Infertility and Childbearing: A Qualitative Study of the Perception of Childbearing and Childlessness in Northern Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabong, Philip Teg-Nefaah; Adongo, Philip Baba

    2013-01-01

    Background Infertility is a major medical condition that affects many married couples in sub-Saharan African and as such associated with several social meanings. This study therefore explored community's perception of childbearing and childlessness in Northern Ghana using the Upper West Region as a case study. Methods The study was exploratory and qualitative using in-depth and key informant interviews and focus group discussions. Fifteen marriage unions with infertility (childless), forty-five couples with children, and eight key informants were purposively sampled and interviewed using a semi-structured interview guides. Three focus group discussions were also carried out, one for childless women, one for women with children and one with men with children. The data collected were transcribed, coded, arranged, and analyzed for categories and themes and finally triangulated. Results The study revealed that infertility was caused by both social and biological factors. Socially couples could become infertile through supernatural causes such as bewitchment, and disobediences of social norms. Abortion, masturbation and use of contraceptives were also identified as causes of infertility. Most childless couples seek treatment from spiritualist, traditional healers and hospital. These sources of treatment are used simultaneously. Conclusion Childbearing is highly valued in the community and Childlessness is highly engendered, and stigmatised in this community with manifold social consequences. In such a community therefore, the concept of reproductive choice must encompass policies that make it possible for couples to aspire to have the number of children they wish. PMID:23342158

  2. Understanding the social meaning of infertility and childbearing: a qualitative study of the perception of childbearing and childlessness in Northern Ghana.

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    Philip Teg-Nefaah Tabong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infertility is a major medical condition that affects many married couples in sub-Saharan African and as such associated with several social meanings. This study therefore explored community's perception of childbearing and childlessness in Northern Ghana using the Upper West Region as a case study. METHODS: The study was exploratory and qualitative using in-depth and key informant interviews and focus group discussions. Fifteen marriage unions with infertility (childless, forty-five couples with children, and eight key informants were purposively sampled and interviewed using a semi-structured interview guides. Three focus group discussions were also carried out, one for childless women, one for women with children and one with men with children. The data collected were transcribed, coded, arranged, and analyzed for categories and themes and finally triangulated. RESULTS: The study revealed that infertility was caused by both social and biological factors. Socially couples could become infertile through supernatural causes such as bewitchment, and disobediences of social norms. Abortion, masturbation and use of contraceptives were also identified as causes of infertility. Most childless couples seek treatment from spiritualist, traditional healers and hospital. These sources of treatment are used simultaneously. CONCLUSION: Childbearing is highly valued in the community and Childlessness is highly engendered, and stigmatised in this community with manifold social consequences. In such a community therefore, the concept of reproductive choice must encompass policies that make it possible for couples to aspire to have the number of children they wish.

  3. Trends in low birth weight infants and changes in Baltimore's childbearing population, 1972–77

    OpenAIRE

    Strobino, Donna M.

    1982-01-01

    Linked birth and death records provided the population for a study of trends in low birth weight (LBW) rates in Baltimore between 1972 and 1977 and of the effect of changes in the characteristics of the childbearing population on these trends. The impact of shifts in the birth weight distribution on neonatal mortality rates was also investigated. Trends were analyzed for unstandardized LBW rates as well as for rates standardized on the distributions of maternal age, education, gravidity, prio...

  4. Child-Bearing Decision Making Among Women Previously Treated for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-04-01

    this kind of study is an essential preliminary step to developing meaningful theory-driven psychosocial research on the issues of childbearing among...than older women with the disease and may experience unique vulnerability factors. Adult developmental theory ( Erikson , 1963; Levinson, Darrow, Klein...variety of developmental tasks characterize different stages of the adult life cycle. Several significant tasks for younger women are likely to be

  5. Transactional relationships and sex with a woman in prostitution: prevalence and patterns in a representative sample of South African men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewkes, Rachel; Morrell, Robert; Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Dunkle, Kristin; Penn-Kekana, Loveday

    2012-05-02

    Sex motivated by economic exchange is a public health concern as a driver of the Sub-Saharan African HIV epidemic. We describe patterns of engagement in transactional sexual relationships and sex with women in prostitution of South African men, and suggest interpretations that advance our understanding of the phenomenon. Cross-sectional study with a randomly-selected sample of 1645 sexually active men aged 18-49 years who completed interviews in a household study and were asked whether they had had sex with a woman in prostitution, or had had a relationship or sex they took to be motivated by the expectation of material gain (transactional sex). 18% of men had ever had sex with a woman in prostitution, 66% at least one type of transactional sexual relationship, only 30% of men had done neither. Most men had had a transactional relationship/sex with a main partner (58% of all men), 42% with a concurrent partner (or makhwapheni) and 44% with a once off partner, and there was almost no difference in reports of what was provided to women of different partner types. The majority of men distinguished the two types of sexual relationships and even among men who had once-off transactional sex and gave cash (n = 314), few (34%) reported that they had had sex with a 'prostitute'. Transactional sex was more common among men aged 25-34 years, less educated men and low income earners rather than those with none or higher income. Having had sex with a woman in prostitution varied little between social and demographic categories, but was less common among the unwaged or very low earners. The notion of 'transactional sex' developed through research with women does not translate easily to men. Many perceive expectations that they fulfil a provider role, with quid pro quo entitlement to sex. Men distinguished these circumstances of sex from having sex with a woman in prostitution. Whilst there may be similarities, when viewed relationally, these are quite distinct practices

  6. Transactional relationships and sex with a woman in prostitution: prevalence and patterns in a representative sample of South African men

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Sex motivated by economic exchange is a public health concern as a driver of the Sub-Saharan African HIV epidemic. We describe patterns of engagement in transactional sexual relationships and sex with women in prostitution of South African men, and suggest interpretations that advance our understanding of the phenomenon. Methods Cross-sectional study with a randomly-selected sample of 1645 sexually active men aged 18–49 years who completed interviews in a household study and were asked whether they had had sex with a woman in prostitution, or had had a relationship or sex they took to be motivated by the expectation of material gain (transactional sex). Results 18% of men had ever had sex with a woman in prostitution, 66% at least one type of transactional sexual relationship, only 30% of men had done neither. Most men had had a transactional relationship/sex with a main partner (58% of all men), 42% with a concurrent partner (or makhwapheni) and 44% with a once off partner, and there was almost no difference in reports of what was provided to women of different partner types. The majority of men distinguished the two types of sexual relationships and even among men who had once-off transactional sex and gave cash (n = 314), few (34%) reported that they had had sex with a ‘prostitute’. Transactional sex was more common among men aged 25–34 years, less educated men and low income earners rather than those with none or higher income. Having had sex with a woman in prostitution varied little between social and demographic categories, but was less common among the unwaged or very low earners. Conclusions The notion of ‘transactional sex’ developed through research with women does not translate easily to men. Many perceive expectations that they fulfil a provider role, with quid pro quo entitlement to sex. Men distinguished these circumstances of sex from having sex with a woman in prostitution. Whilst there may be similarities, when

  7. Stigma gets in my way: Factors affecting client-provider communication regarding childbearing among people living with HIV in Uganda.

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    Jolly Beyeza-Kashesya

    Full Text Available Many HIV-affected couples living in sub-Saharan Africa desire to have children, but few quantitative studies have examined support for their childbearing needs. Our study explored client-provider communication about childbearing and safer conception among HIV clients in Uganda.400 Ugandan HIV clients in committed relationships and with intentions to conceive were surveyed. Knowledge, attitudes and practices related to childbearing, and use of safer conception methods were assessed, including communication with providers about childbearing needs, the correlates of which were examined with bivariate statistics and logistic multivariate analysis.75% of the sample was female; 61% were on antiretroviral therapy; and 61% had HIV-negative or unknown status partners. Nearly all (98% reported the desire to discuss childbearing intentions with their HIV provider; however, only 44% reported such discussions, the minority (28% of which was initiated by the provider. Issues discussed with HIV providers included: HIV transmission risk to partner (30%, HIV transmission risk to child (30%, and how to prevent transmission to the child (27%; only 8% discussed safer conception methods. Regression analysis showed that those who had communicated with providers about childbearing were more likely to have been diagnosed with HIV for a longer period [OR (95% CI = 1.09 (1.03, 1.15], while greater internalized childbearing stigma was associated with lower odds of this communication [OR (95% CI = 0.70 (0.49, 0.99], after controlling for all bivariate correlates and basic demographics.Communication between HIV clients and providers about childbearing needs is poor and associated with stigma. Innovations to mitigate stigma among clients as well as training to improve health worker communication and skills related to safer conception counseling is needed.

  8. A ‘High Risk’ Lifestyle Pattern Is Associated with Metabolic Syndrome among Qatari Women of Reproductive Age: A Cross-Sectional National Study

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    Mohammed Al Thani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of lifestyle patterns, as a combination of diet, physical activity and smoking, on Metabolic Syndrome (MetS among Qatari women of childbearing age (n = 418, a population group particularly vulnerable to the health sequela of this syndrome. Using data from the National WHO STEPwise survey conducted in Qatar in 2012, Principal Component Factor Analysis was performed to derive lifestyle patterns with survey variables related to the frequency of consumption of 13 foods/food groups, physical activity levels, and smoking status. MetS was diagnosed using ATPIII criteria. Three lifestyle patterns were identified: ‘High Risk’ pattern, characterized by intakes of fast foods, sweets and sugar sweetened beverages, in addition to lower levels of physical activity and higher smoking prevalence; ‘Prudent’ pattern, driven mainly by higher intakes of fruits, vegetables, fish, and whole grains; and ‘Traditional’ pattern which included beans, meat, dairy products, and a low prevalence of smoking. Among these three lifestyle patterns, only the ‘High Risk’ was associated with MetS, whereby subjects belonging to the third tertile of this pattern’s score had 2.5 times the odds of MetS compared to those belonging to the first tertile. The findings of this study demonstrated the synergy among high risk behaviors among Qatari women in increasing the odds of MetS; the latter being a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases.

  9. Sweeping Changes in Marriage, Cohabitation, and Childbearing in Central and Eastern Europe: New Insights from the Developmental Idealism Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Arland; Philipov, Dimiter

    2009-01-01

    In Central and Eastern Europe following the political transformations of the late 1980s and early 1990s there were dramatic declines in marriage and childbearing, significant increases in nonmarital cohabitation and childbearing, and a movement from reliance on abortion to a reliance on contraception for fertility limitation. Although many explanations have been offered for these trends, we offer new explanations based on ideational influences and the intersection of these ideational influences with structural factors. We focus on the political, economic, social, and cultural histories of the region, with particular emphasis on how countries in the region have interacted with and been influenced by Western European and North American countries. Our explanations emphasize the role of developmental models in guiding change in the region, suggesting that developmental idealism influenced family and demographic changes following the political transformations. Developmental idealism provides beliefs that modern family systems help to produce modern political and economic accomplishments and helps to establish the importance of freedom and equality as human rights in both the public and private spheres. The disintegration of the governments and the fall of the iron curtain in the late 1980s and early 1990s brought new understanding about social, economic, and family circumstances in the West, increasing consumption aspirations and expectations which clashed with both old economic realities and the dramatic declines in economic circumstances. In addition, the dissolution of the former governments removed or weakened systems supporting the bearing and rearing of children, and, the legitimacy of the former governments and their programs was largely destroyed, removing government support for old norms and patterns of behavior. In addition, the attacks of previous decades on the religious institutions in the region had in many places left these institutions weak. During this

  10. [Awareness and infection of Toxoplasma gondii in married childbearing women in Chengde Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue-jing; Xu, Tao; Song, Ren-hao

    2014-08-01

    To understand Toxoplasma gondii infection and awareness condition of married childbearing women in Chengde Region, so as to provide the evidence for the establishment of control measures. Totally 733 married childbearing women who took physical examination in Chengde Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine from July to December in 2013 were investigated by questionnaire to understand the awareness condition on T. gondii infection, then 490 women among them from 3 counties and 2 districts were randomly chosen to detect the Toxoplasma antibodies by ELISA. A total of 733 questionnaires were returned, and 126 women knew related knowledge about T. gondii infection, and the awareness rate was 17.19%( 126/733). Sixty-three women were determined as infected cases, and the infection rate was 12.86%( 63/490). The infection rates of the women who with higher educational level, working as medical staff and living in urban were lower, and the awareness rates of them were higher. The infection rate of T. gondii among the married childbearing women in Chengde Region is high, and the awareness rate of them is low. In order to decrease the infection rate as well as to increase the awareness rate of the population, the health education should be strengthened.

  11. Retrospective Study on the Prevalence and Antibiotic Resistance Pattern of Staphylococcus Aureus and Staphylococcus Epidermidis Among Patients Suspicious of Bacteremia During 2006 - 2011

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    Mohammad Ali Mohaghegh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Staphylococci bacteria cause different diseases, varies from mild skin infections to serious bacteremia. Also they are a major cause of nosocomial and community-acquired infections globally. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis are the two important opportunistic pathogens of the staphylococci that both can cause bacteremia. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence and antibiotic resistance pattern of S. aureus and S. epidermidis among blood culture of patients of Ghaem Educational, Research and Treatment Center, Mashhad, Iran, during 6 years (2006 - 2011. Patients and Methods: In this retrospective study, hospital medical records of 28000 patients referred to Ghaem Educational, Research and Treatment Center, Mashhad, Iran, who were suspicious of blood infections during 6 years (2005-2011, were extracted. The patient’s blood culture with staphylococcal growth and their antibiogram results during 2006 - 2011 were collected and studied. Results: Staphylococcus spp. were isolated from 600 (2.14% out of 28000 blood cultures. Furthermore, 420 (70%, 170 (28.3% and 10 (1.7% out of 600 bacterial isolates identified as S. epidermidis, S. aureus and other Staphylococcus spp., respectively. Ampicillin, amoxicillin, cefixime, ceftazidime, penicillin, oxacillin, nalidixic acid and cephepime were the most antibiotics that the isolates were resistant against. Also vancommycin and chloramphenicol were the most effective antibiotics against S. epidermidis and S. aureus, respectively. Conclusions: Prevalence of Staphylococcal bacteremia caused by S. epidermidis is fairly high comparing to S. aureus among patients referred to Ghaem Educational, Research and Treatment Center, Mashhad, Iran. Also the resistance rate of Staphylococcus spp. isolated from blood against commonly used antibiotic is high, but there are some highly sensitive antibiotic against the infection.

  12. Prevalence and Prescription of Antidepressants in Depression with Somatic Comorbidity in Asia: The Research on East Asian Psychotropic Prescription Patterns Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao Chen; Tian-Mei Si; Yu-Tao Xiang; Gabor S Ungvari; Chuan-Yue Wang; Yan-Ling He; Ee-Heok Kua

    2015-01-01

    Background:Depression is often comorbid with chronic somatic diseases.Few previous studies have investigated the prevalence of somatic diseases in depression or the prescription pattern of antidepressants in comorbidly depressed patients in Asia.This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of somatic comorbidity (SC) in depression and compared the prescriptions of antidepressants in depressed patients with and without SC.Methods:A total of 2320 patients treated with antidepressants in 8 Asian countries were examined,and a diagnosis was based on the International Classification of Disease,10th revision.We listed 17 common chronic somatic diseases.Patients' socio-demographic and clinical characteristics and psychotropic drug prescriptions were recorded using a standardized protocol and data collection procedure.Results:Of the patients examined,1240 were diagnosed with depression and 30% of them (n =375) had SC.The most common comorbid condition was diabetes (23.7%).The patients with SC were more likely to seek help at a general hospital (74.7% vs.47.2%),and had a higher incidence of symptoms involving sadness,disturbed sleep,and poor appetite.Noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressant was prescribed more for patients with SC than for those without SC (30.4% vs.22.9%).Conclusions:SC is common in depressed Asian patients.It is important to strengthen the recognition of depression,especially in general hospitals and when patients report some somatic discomfort.It is also a matter of urgency to establish evidence-based guidelines for the use of new antidepressants in depressed patients with SC.

  13. Prevalence of Anemia in Latin America and the Caribbean.

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    Mujica-Coopman, María F; Brito, Alex; López de Romaña, Daniel; Ríos-Castillo, Israel; Coris, Héctor; Olivares, Manuel

    2015-06-01

    In Latin America and the Caribbean, anemia has been a public health problem that affects mainly women of childbearing age and children under 6 years of age. However, the current prevalence of anemia in this region is unknown. To examine the latest available prevalence data on anemia in Latin America and the Caribbean. A systematic review was conducted in 2011 and updated in 2014. Studies determining the prevalence of anemia conducted in apparently healthy populations with national or regional representativeness were included in the review. The lowest prevalence rates of anemia among children under 6 years of age were found in Chile (4.0%), Costa Rica (4.0%), Argentina (7.6%), and Mexico (19.9%). In Nicaragua, Brazil, Ecuador, El Panama, and Honduras, anemia was a moderate public health problem, with prevalence ranging Salvador, Cuba, Colombia, the Dominican Republic, Peru, from 20.1% to 37.3%. Anemia was a severe public health problem in Guatemala, Haiti, and Bolivia. The prevalence of anemia among women of childbearing age was lowest in Chile (5.1%). In Colombia, El Salvador, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Honduras, and Argentina, anemia was a mild public health problem, with prevalence ranging from 7.6% to 18.7%. In Guatemala, Brazil, the Dominican Republic, and Bolivia, anemia was a moderate public health problem, with prevalence ranging from 21.4% to 38.3%. Panama and Haiti had the highest reported prevalence rates (40.0% and 45.5%, respectively), and anemia was considered a severe public health problem in those countries. Anemia remains a public health problem in children under 6 years of age and women of childbearing age in most Latin America and Caribbean countries for which data are available.

  14. Several dominants risk factors related to obesity in urban childbearing age women in Indonesia

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    Kencana Sari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang: Prevalensi kegemukan pada perempuan semakin meningkat terutama di daerahperkotaan yang dapat menyebabkan meningkatnya risiko penyakit kronis. Penelitian ini bertujuan untukmenganalisis beberapa faktor risiko dominan terhadap obesitas pada wanita usia subur usia yang tinggaldi daerah perkotaan di wilayah perkotaan di Indonesia.Metode: Naskah ini memakai sebagian data Riset Kesehatan Dasar (Riskesdas 2007 data. Subjek terdiridari 76408 wanita di usia subur (15-49 years tinggal di daerah perkotaan yang dengan status gizi normaldan gemuk yang berasal dari 258366 rumah tangga. Data Riskesdas tentang faktor-faktor sosio-demografidan lainnya dikumpulkan dengan kuesioner. Status gizi diukur dengan menggunakan indeks massa tubuh(IMT yang dikategorikan menjadi normal, (18,5–24,9 dan gemuk (27 atau lebih. Analisis menggunakanregresi Cox dengan waktu yang tetap.Hasil: Pada analisis ini terdapat 18,8% (14357 wanita obese dan 81.2% (62052 normal. Wanita berusia 25-49 tahun memiliki 3,5 kali lipat risiko lebih besar menjadi obese [risiko relatif suaian (RRa = 3,49; P= 0,000],dan yang bercerai atau menikah berisiko 2,5 kali lipat lebih tinggi terhadap obesitas (masing-masing RRa =2,58; P = 0,000 dan RRa = 2.62; P = 0,000. Wanita tidak bekerja berisiko lebih tinggi untuk menjadi obese(RRa = 1,06; p = 0,000. Selanjutnya, mengkonsumsi protein berlebih, dan sering makan makanan berlemakmemiliki risiko lebih tinggi terhadap obesitas, (RRa = 1,09; P = 0,000 dan RRa = 1,17; P = 0,000.Kesimpulan: Wanita berusia 25-49 tahun, bercerai atau menikah, pengangguran, mengkonsumsi proteinberlebih, dan sering mengkonsumsi makanan berlemak mempunyai risiko obesitas lebih tinggi. (HealthScience Journal of Indonesia 2015;6:63-8Kata kunci: obesitas, perkotaan, wanita usia subur AbstractBackground: The prevalence of women suffered from obesity is elevating, mostly in urban areas. Thiscould lead problems especially for chronic diseases. This study aimed to

  15. Distribution pattern of urine albumin creatinine ratio and the prevalence of high-normal levels in untreated asymptomatic non-diabetic hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmaru, Natsuki; Nakatsu, Takaaki; Izumi, Reishi; Mashima, Keiichi; Toki, Misako; Kobayashi, Asako; Ogawa, Hiroko; Hirohata, Satoshi; Ikeda, Satoru; Kusachi, Shozo

    2011-01-01

    Even high-normal albuminuria is reportedly associated with cardiovascular events. We determined the urine albumin creatinine ratio (UACR) in spot urine samples and analyzed the UACR distribution and the prevalence of high-normal levels. The UACR was determined using immunoturbidimetry in 332 untreated asymptomatic non-diabetic Japanese patients with hypertension and in 69 control subjects. The microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria levels were defined as a UCAR ≥30 and creatinine and a UCAR ≥300 µg/mg·creatinine, respectively. The distribution patterns showed a highly skewed distribution for the lower levels, and a common logarithmic transformation produced a close fit to a Gaussian distribution with median, 25th and 75th percentile values of 22.6, 13.5 and 48.2 µg/mg·creatinine, respectively. When a high-normal UACR was set at >20 to creatinine, 19.9% (66/332) of the hypertensive patients exhibited a high-normal UACR. Microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria were observed in 36.1% (120/336) and 2.1% (7/332) of the patients, respectively. UACR was significantly correlated with the systolic and diastolic blood pressures and the pulse pressure. A stepwise multivariate analysis revealed that these pressures as well as age were independent factors that increased UACR. The UACR distribution exhibited a highly skewed pattern, with approximately 60% of untreated, non-diabetic hypertensive patients exhibiting a high-normal or larger UACR. Both hypertension and age are independent risk factors that increase the UACR. The present study indicated that a considerable percentage of patients require anti-hypertensive drugs with antiproteinuric effects at the start of treatment.

  16. The Prevalence of Obesity and Its Relation to Physical Activity and Dietary Patterns among Female High School Students of Tehran, Iran

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    Sabaei Sara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: There are many causes for obesity; inappropriate dietary patterns, inadequate physical activity, and lethargic lifestyle can be mentioned as the main and most important of these causes. Due to the increasing prevalence of obesity in society, it seems necessary to study its causes and find ways to tackle this problem. Materials and Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was conducted on 380 female high school students from district 5 of Tehran, Iran, in 2012. In this research, physical activity was measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ, and dietary pattern was measured using the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ. Body mass index (BMI was also calculated. In addition, for measurement of aerobic and anaerobic powers, the 540-meter sprint and vertical jump test (Sargent Jump Test were applied. Gathered data was analyzed using SPSS software. Results: The findings of the present study show that 24.7% of the population was overweight and obese, 67% of normal weight (natural, and 8.2% underweight (thin. Chi-square test on breakfast and classification of weight (r = -0.285 and P = 0.002 showed a negative relationship between obesity and eating breakfast. Moreover, it showed a significant positive correlation between watching television and working on the computer, and obesity. Conclusion: According to the results of this research, there is a positive and direct relationship between obesity and lack of exercise and fast food intake (P < 0.05. There is also a positive and direct relationship between physical fitness, and amount of physical activity and fruit and vegetables intake (P < 0.05. The highest rates of overweight and obesity were observed in 17 year olds.

  17. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern and the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from skin and soft tissue in Tehran Razi skin hospital (2014-15

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    Zeynab Fagheei-Aghmiyuni

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus is the most common cause of skin and soft tissue infections. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of S. aureus isolated from skin and soft tissue and antibiotic susceptibility pattern among the patient hospitalized in Razi skin hospital (Tehran-Iran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on patients (n=400 with skin and soft tissue infections in Razi skin hospital. Sterilized swabs were used to collect the skin infection samples. S. aureus isolates were confirmed using biochemical tests (gram staining, catalase, coagulase, DNase test and manitol fermentation tests. Result: 51.3 %( 205 out of 400 of isolates were S. aureus. Ninety six (46.8% of isolates were methicillin and penicillin-resistant S. aureus. All of the isolates showed sensitivity to vancomycin, linezolid. 98% of the isolates were susceptible to daptomycin. One-hundred sixteen (56.6% isolates were multi- drug resistant. Conclusion: More than half of the skin and soft tissue infections were caused by S.aureus. More than 46 percent of the isolates were methicillin resistant. The highest resistance to penicillin was observed.

  18. Menstrual pattern and prevalence of dysmenorrhea among school going adolescent girls in a rural block of Haryana: A cross sectional study

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    Garima Sangwan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The World Health Organization (WHO has defined adolescence as the age group of 10-19 years. Adolescents in India comprise 19.3% of the total Indian population. Adolescence is a transition phase through which a child becomes an adult. It is characterized by rapid growth and development; physiologically, psychologically and socially. This period is marked by the onset of menarche. Menstruation is a natural, normal biological process experienced by all adolescent girls and women in reproductive age. Objectives To study the menstrual pattern and prevalence of dysmenorrhea among school going adolescent girls in a rural block of Haryana. Methods There were 18 government high and senior secondary schools in block Lakhanmajra. Out of these 5 were exclusively girls’ schools, 10 were co-ed schools and 3 were exclusively boys’ schools. All the 5 schools meant exclusively for girls were included in the study. All girls studying in 6th to 12th classes from these schools, after applying the exclusion criteria were included in the study. Results The mean age at menarche was 12.83±1.326 years. The inter-menstrual interval was 21 to 35 days in majority (80.1% of the adolescent girls and the duration of menstruation was more than 7 days in 9.4% of the girls. Majority of the girls (52.1% reported the duration of menstruation to be 2-3 days.

  19. e-Cigarette Use and Perceived Harm Among Women of Childbearing Age Who Reported Tobacco Use During the Past Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashford, Kristin; Wiggins, Amanda; Butler, Karen; Ickes, Melinda; Rayens, Mary Kay; Hahn, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of electronic cigarette use grows. Amid increased e-cigarette use nationwide, this paper attempts to identify underlying risk factors for the most vulnerable populations. The purpose of the study was to assess predictors of e-cigarette use among female current and former tobacco users of childbearing age-specifically to determine whether demographic factors, pregnancy status, conventional cigarette smoking, and perceived e-cigarette harm are associated with e-cigarette use. Reasons for using e-cigarettes were also measured. A cross-sectional, correlational design was used; 194 current and former female tobacco users, 18-45 years of age, from two university-affiliated prenatal clinics and one women's health clinic in Kentucky took part. Slightly more than half were pregnant. Age, race/ethnicity, education, pregnancy status, use history for cigarettes and e-cigarettes, and perception of health hazard from e-cigarettes were measured, and associations with e-cigarette use were made with Mann-Whitney U-tests or Spearman's rank correlations. Predictors of e-cigarette use were determined using proportional odds modeling. Most current e-cigarette users were also current cigarette smokers (88%). Nearly half of current and former e-cigarette users were pregnant. Most women perceived e-cigarettes as a minor (38%) or moderate (31%) health hazard. In the proportional odds model, younger women were at greater risk for e-cigarette use, whereas minority women and those who were pregnant were less likely to be e-cigarette users. Pregnant women were less likely to be more recent e-cigarette users, compared with nonpregnant women. However, nearly all current e-cigarette users were dual tobacco users, including pregnant women. It is both imperative and timely to determine the impact of e-cigarette use on maternal and infant health, thus improving healthcare provider confidence to discuss the health implications of e-cigarette use with their patients.

  20. Diet quality and history of gestational diabetes mellitus among childbearing women, United States, 2007-2010.

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    Xiao, Rui S; Simas, Tiffany A Moore; Person, Sharina D; Goldberg, Robert J; Waring, Molly E

    2015-02-26

    Women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have elevated risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Diet quality plays an important role in the prevention of type 2 diabetes. We compared diet quality among childbearing women with a history of GDM with the diet quality of childbearing women without a history of GDM. We used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 2007 through 2010. We included women without diabetes aged 20 to 44 years whose most recent live infant was born within the previous 10 years and who completed two 24-hour dietary recalls. The Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2010 estimated overall and component diet quality. Multivariable linear regression models estimated the association between a history of GDM and current diet quality, adjusting for age, education, smoking status, and health risk for diabetes. A history of GDM was reported by 7.7% of women. Compared with women without a history of GDM, women with a history of GDM had, on average, 3.4 points lower overall diet quality (95% confidence interval [CI], -6.6 to -0.2) and 0.9 points lower score for consumption of green vegetables and beans (95% CI, -1.4 to -0.4). Other dietary component scores did not differ by history of GDM. In the United States, women with a history of GDM have lower diet quality compared with women who bore a child and do not have a history of GDM. Improving diet quality may be a strategy for preventing type 2 diabetes among childbearing women.

  1. Mode of delivery and the probability of subsequent childbearing: a population-based register study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvander, C; Dahlberg, J; Andersson, G; Cnattingius, S

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the relationship between mode of first delivery and probability of subsequent childbearing. Population-based study. Nationwide study in Sweden. A cohort of 771 690 women who delivered their first singleton infant in Sweden between 1992 and 2010. Using Cox's proportional-hazards regression models, risks of subsequent childbearing were compared across four modes of delivery. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated, using 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Probability of having a second and third child; interpregnancy interval. Compared with women who had a spontaneous vaginal first delivery, women who delivered by vacuum extraction were less likely to have a second pregnancy (HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.95-0.97), and the probabilities of a second childbirth were substantially lower among women with a previous emergency caesarean section (HR 0.85, 95% CI 0.84-0.86) or an elective caesarean section (HR 0.82, 95% CI 0.80-0.83). There were no clinically important differences in the median time between first and second pregnancy by mode of first delivery. Compared with women younger than 30 years of age, older women were more negatively affected by a vacuum extraction with respect to the probability of having a second child. A primary vacuum extraction decreased the probability of having a third child by 4%, but having two consecutive vacuum extraction deliveries did not further alter the probability. A first delivery by vacuum extraction does not reduce the probability of subsequent childbearing to the same extent as a first delivery by emergency or elective caesarean section. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  2. Sex-specific differences in hemodialysis prevalence and practices and the male-to-female mortality rate: the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS.

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    Manfred Hecking

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A comprehensive analysis of sex-specific differences in the characteristics, treatment, and outcomes of individuals with end-stage renal disease undergoing dialysis might reveal treatment inequalities and targets to improve sex-specific patient care. Here we describe hemodialysis prevalence and patient characteristics by sex, compare the adult male-to-female mortality rate with data from the general population, and evaluate sex interactions with mortality. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We assessed the Human Mortality Database and 206,374 patients receiving hemodialysis from 12 countries (Australia, Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, New Zealand, Spain, Sweden, the UK, and the US participating in the international, prospective Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS between June 1996 and March 2012. Among 35,964 sampled DOPPS patients with full data collection, we studied patient characteristics (descriptively and mortality (via Cox regression by sex. In all age groups, more men than women were on hemodialysis (59% versus 41% overall, with large differences observed between countries. The average estimated glomerular filtration rate at hemodialysis initiation was higher in men than women. The male-to-female mortality rate ratio in the general population varied from 1.5 to 2.6 for age groups <75 y, but in hemodialysis patients was close to one. Compared to women, men were younger (mean = 61.9 ± standard deviation 14.6 versus 63.1 ± 14.5 y, were less frequently obese, were more frequently married and recipients of a kidney transplant, more frequently had coronary artery disease, and were less frequently depressed. Interaction analyses showed that the mortality risk associated with several comorbidities and hemodialysis catheter use was lower for men (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.11 than women (HR = 1.33, interaction p<0.001. This study is limited by its inability to establish causality for the observed sex

  3. Prevalence, clinical and echocardiographic characteristics of various flow and gradient patterns in mild or moderate aortic stenosis with normal left ventricular ejection fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yong-Qiang Benjamin; Ngiam, Jinghao Nicholas; Kong, William K F; Yeo, Tiong-Cheng; Poh, Kian-Keong

    2016-10-15

    Paradoxical low-flow aortic stenosis (AS) with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) has only been described in severe AS. Controversy surrounds prognosis and management but no studies have reported this phenomenon in mild or moderate AS. We investigated the prevalence of flow and gradient patterns in this population, characterising their clinical and echocardiographic profile. Consecutive subjects (n=1362) with isolated AS: mild (n=462, aortic valve area≥1.5cm(2), 2.5m/spatterns. In mild AS, 130 (28%) had low-flow. Lower left ventricular mass index (LVMI) (97.0±28.5vs116.4±2.3g/m(2),p<0.001), higher percentage of concentric remodelling (40%vs6%,p<0.001) and hypertrophy (43%vs40%,p<0.001) and lower end-systolic wall stress (ESWS) (57.6±1.60vs67.7±19.6dyn/cm(2),p=0.014) were independently associated with low-flow. Similarly, in moderate AS, 297 (33%) had low-flow. Older age (73.4±14.8vs69.5±16.5,p=0.027), lower LVMI (88.6±25.9vs118.0±36.5,p<0.001), higher percentage of concentric remodelling (46%vs8%,p<0.001) and lower ESWS (59.9±18.3vs70.5±19.7,p<0.001) were independently associated with low-flow. Despite moderate AS, most had lower mean pressure gradients, especially subjects with concentric remodelling. In the entire cohort, low-flow patients had more concentric remodelling (43%vs7%,p<0.001) and less eccentric hypertrophy (2%vs27%,p<0.001) compared to normal flow. Low-flow AS with normal LVEF is observed in mild or moderate AS, in up to a third of the cases. These patients had different LV structure compared to normal-flow, with more concentric remodelling. Further studies are warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Study on patterns and prevalence of EEG abnormalities in children presenting with behavioural disturbances in psychiatry OPD, Gauhati Medical College and Hospital

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    Bobby Hmar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background of the study: Children with behavioural abnormalities and developmental disorders are often advised electroencephalography (EEG for evaluation of electrophysiological process of the brain to rule out any organic pathology. Various studies have reported abnormal EEG in these groups of children without history of clinical seizure on routine EEG and sleep EEG. Aim of the study: To study pattern and prevalence of EEG abnormalities in children with behavioural abnormalities without history of clinical seizure. Materials and methods: The study is a retrospective study. Ethical clearance has been obtained from institutional ethical committee for the study. To collect data, socio-demographic and clinical data proforma has been used. Data has been evaluated during the period from June 2011 to June 2014 as per selection criteria from the case history record of children with behavioural abnormalities attending child guidance clinic (CGC. Associations of abnormal EEG with various psychiatric diagnoses has been analysed and chi-square test has been used. p value <0.05 has been taken as test of significance. Result: Total 2011 children attended CGC from 2011 June to 2014 June. One hundred and ninety two children of various psychiatric diagnoses as per the tenth revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10 criteria had fulfilled the selection criteria and 113 children had done EEG. Abnormal EEG was found in 26.54% of children with various psychiatric diagnoses. Association was statistically significant (p<0.05. The EEG abnormalities were found more in male gender than female (p<0.05 and more in younger age group (four to ten years, p<0.05. Conclusion: Children with various psychiatric diagnoses have significant association with abnormal EEG without history of clinical seizure.

  5. Patterns of HIV prevalence among injecting drug users in the cross-border area of Lang Son Province, Vietnam, and Ning Ming County, Guangxi Province, China

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    Hoang Tran V

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess patterns of injecting drug use and HIV prevalence among injecting drug users (IDUs in an international border area along a major heroin trans-shipment route. Methods Cross-sectional surveys of IDUs in 5 sites in Lang Son Province, Vietnam (n = 348 and 3 sites in Ning Ming County, Guangxi Province, China (n = 308. Respondents were recruited through peer referral ("snowball" methods in both countries, and also from officially recorded lists of IDUs in Vietnam. A risk behavior questionnaire was administered and HIV counseling and testing conducted. Results Participants in both countries were largely male, in their 20s, and unmarried. A majority of subjects in both countries were members of ethnic minority groups. There were strong geographic gradients for length of drug injecting and for HIV seroprevalence. Both mean years injecting and HIV seroprevalence declined from the Vietnamese site farthest from the border to the Chinese site farthest from the border. 10.6% of participants in China and 24.5% of participants in Vietnam reported crossing the international border in the 6 months prior to interview. Crossing the border by IDUs was associated with (1 distance from the border, (2 being a member of an ethnic minority group, and (3 being HIV seropositive among Chinese participants. Conclusion Reducing the international spread of HIV among IDUs will require programs at the global, regional, national, and "local cross border" levels. At the local cross border level, the programs should be coordinated on both sides of the border and on a sufficient scale that IDUs will be able to readily obtain clean injection equipment on the other side of the border as well as in their country of residence.

  6. Prevalence, risk factors of human papillomavirus infection and papanicolaou smear pattern among women attending a tertiary health facility in south-west Nigeria

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    Olatunji Mathew Kolawole

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Cervical cancer amongst Nigerian women has been on the increase in the past decade, and is regarded as the second highest cause of cancer deaths among Nigerian women. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence, risk factors of HPV infection, and Papanicolaou smear pattern amongst a cohort of women attending the Gynaecology clinic of a tertiary health facility in Ido-Ekiti, South west Nigeria. Method: This was a cross-sectional study involving the screening of women between the ages of 15-64 years for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia using Papanicolaou smear staining technique and serological diagnosis using IgG enzyme linked immunosorbent assay kits. Respondents were selected through convenience sampling of subjects, while interviewer- administered questionnaire and clinical report form were also used to collect data, and data was analyzed using SPSS version 17. Results: Of the 200 blood samples examined for Human papillomavirus infection, 135 (67.5% were sero-positive while 65 (32.5% were sero-negative. For cervical cytology using Papanicolaou smear, 14 (7% were positive (had presence of cervical abnormality while 186 (93% were negative (had no cervical abnormality. Result showed a direct relationship between seropositivity, development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and Human papillomavirus infection. The risk factors for the development of HPV infection included age, type of marriage, parity, history of genital infection and tobacco usage. Non circumcision of male partner was also found to be a risk factor. Conclusion: The presence of abnormal cervical cytology and high level of serological positivity clearly showed why there is need for a holistic approach to the screening, vaccination methodologies and early detection of HPV infection in the country. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(6.000: 453-459

  7. The Social Environment and Childbearing Expectations: Implications for Strength-Based Sexual Health Interventions for Latino Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanDommelen-Gonzalez, Evan; Deardorff, Julianna; Herd, Denise; Minnis, Alexandra M

    2016-06-01

    In the United States, adolescent childbearing is disproportionately higher among Latino youth, a growing population facing substantial social exclusion. Exploring the relationship between the social environment and sexual health outcomes among Latino youth may offer insights into the development of novel interventions. In this study, Latino youth in partnerships were recruited from neighborhood venues in San Francisco and completed in-depth interviews. Youth reported a desire to complete higher education goals prior to starting a family to improve future opportunities and further personal development. Youth stated that social network members, family and partners, were supportive of their individual childbearing expectations. Social environment barriers tied to poverty, immigration status, and gang violence hindered educational attainment. Some differences were noted by gender and immigrant generation. Building on protective social ties and creating avenues in poor, urban neighborhoods for Latino youth to fully access educational opportunities may counter early childbearing and improve sexual health.

  8. Who meets their intentions to stop childbearing? Results of a longitudinal study in rural eastern Bali, Indonesia.

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    Withers, Mellissa; Tavrow, Paula; Abe, Denise

    2012-01-01

    In this longitudinal study from rural Bali, Indonesia, we sought to identify the predictors of birth avoidance among 665 married women of reproductive age who reported the intention to stop childbearing. We found that almost 30% of women who wanted no more children had a subsequent birth during the 4-year study period. Women at highest risk for an unwanted birth were younger, had fewer children, and did not use a long-term contraceptive method. The ability to meet intentions to stop childbearing depended on women's motivation (family size), fecundity (proxied by age), and their use of long-term contraceptive methods. Our results suggest that to reduce unwanted births among rural women, family planning providers should recommend long-term methods to younger women with smaller family sizes who express clear intentions to stop childbearing.

  9. Corpus luteum mimics a pelvic lesion on FDG PET in women of childbearing age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, K.W.; Sim, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To find out the nature of incidental single pelvic lesion on F-18 FDG PET scan in the women of childbearing age, further investigation were done. Methods: Three women who had a single round hypermetabolic lesion in the pelvic cavity on FDG PET were further investigated through follow up PET scan or MRI scan. The purposes of PET scan were routine follow up of breast cancer after surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy for a patient and cancer screening for two women. The ages were 39, 45, and 48 years old respectively. The last menstrual periods (LMP) were 21, 22 and 24 days before PET examinations. The size and peak SUVs (standard uptake values) of lesions are presented. Results: The lesion in pelvic cavity disappeared in a patients with breast cancer on a follow up PET scan 2 months and 1 week later. The lesions in two women were proved to be corpus luteum cysts on MRI examination on the same day of PET examination. Conclusion: Single pelvic lesion in women of childbearing age should be ruled out a normal corpus luteum cyst. Also, schedule of PET imaging should be adjusted according to her menstrual period

  10. Dental services utilization by women of childbearing age by socioeconomic status.

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    Kaylor, Mary B; Polivka, Barbara J; Chaudry, Rosemary; Salsberry, Pamela; Wee, Alvin G

    2010-04-01

    For women of childbearing age, oral health not only affects their physical and psychological well-being but also that of their children. This study used the 2003-2004 Ohio Family Health Survey (N = 9,819) to examine dental need and utilization by women in Ohio. Predisposing, enabling, and need variables were examined as they effect dental health service utilization by women of childbearing age at different socioeconomic status (SES) levels. The proportion of women in the low SES group self reporting a dental need (18%) was 3 times that of the proportion of women in the higher SES group with a self reported need (6%). Results of bivariate analysis showed that having a dental visit in the past year varied significantly by SES, race, insurance status, provider density, and need. A racial disparity in dental service utilization was noted in the bivariate analysis of the middle SES group. While dental need and type of dental coverage varied by SES, both were significantly associated with utilization of dental services within all 3 SES categories in the logistic regressions. These results suggest that measures need to be implemented to meet the goal of increasing access and utilization of dental health services by low-income populations.

  11. Determinants of vitamin D status in fair-skinned women of childbearing age at northern latitudes.

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    Linnea Hedlund

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Poor vitamin D status during pregnancy has been associated with unfavorable outcomes for mother and child. Thus, adequate vitamin D status in women of childbearing age may be important. The aim of this study is to investigate the determinants of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD serum concentrations in women of childbearing age living in Sweden, at latitude 57-58° north. METHOD: Eighty four non-pregnant, non-lactating, healthy, fair-skinned women aged between 25-40 years were included. All subjects provided blood samples, four day food records and answered questionnaires about sun exposure and lifestyle. Total serum 25(OHD was analyzed using Roche Cobas® electrochemoluminiescent immunoassay. RESULTS: Mean 25(OHD was 65.8±19.9 nmol/l and 23% of the subjects had concentrations <50 nmol/l. Only 1% had concentrations <25 nmol/l. Determinants of 25(OHD concentrations were recent sunbed use, recent travel to southern latitude, season, estrogen contraceptive use and use of supplementary vitamin D (R(2 = 0.27. CONCLUSION: Every fifth woman had 25(OHD concentrations <50 nmol/l. About 30% of the variation in vitamin D status was explained by sun exposure, use of vitamin D supplements and use of estrogen contraceptives. Cutaneous vitamin D synthesis seems to be a major contributor to vitamin D status, even at northern latitudes. Thus, recommendations on safe UV-B exposure could be beneficial for vitamin D status.

  12. Yearning, learning, and conceding: reasons men and women change their childbearing intentions.

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    Iacovou, Maria; Tavares, Lara Patrício

    2011-01-01

    People's childbearing intentions change over the course of their reproductive lives. These changes have been conceptualized as occurring in response to the realization that an individual is unlikely to achieve his or her intended fertility, because of constraints such as the "biological clock" or lack of a partner. In this article, we find that changes to child-bearing plans are influenced by a much wider range of factors than this. People change their plans in response to the wishes of their partners, in response to social norms, as the result of repartnering, and as the result of learning about the costs and benefits of parenthood; there are also differences between the factors that influence men's and women's decision-making. In a departure from existing studies in this area, we use a flexible analytical framework that enables us to analyze increases in planned fertility separately from decreases. This allows us to uncover several complexities of the decision-making process that would otherwise be hidden, and leads us to conclude that the determinants of increases in planned fertility are not simply equal and opposite to the determinants of decreases.

  13. Molecular evaluation of 7 sexually transmissible microorganisms in symptomatic and asymptomatic Italian childbearing age women: is Ureaplasma parvum a real innocent bystander?

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    Manuela Avolio

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Symptoms of most common bacterial and parasitic sexually transmitted infections tend to be non-specific and typically have a variety of different potential causal agents that may require different treatments. In this field the pathogenic potential of genital Ureaplasma species is still uncertain and debated. The goal of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT, Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG, Trichomonas vaginalis (TV, Mycoplasma genitalium (MG, Mycoplasma hominis (MH, Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU and Ureaplasma parvum (UP in a cohort of symptomatic and asymptomatic childbearing age women and to assess the relationships between bacterial vaginosis and symptoms with both UU and UP. Materials and Methods: DNA of 2735 endocervical specimens was consecutively analysed by a commercial multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction for detection of 7 multiple target sequences simultaneously: CT, NG, TV, MG, MH, UU and UP. Results: Out of the total number of population studied (n=2735, UP was found to be the species with highest prevalence (30.9% followed by MH (6.5%, UU (6.3%, CT (2.6%, MG (0.8% and TV (0.9%. UP single species detection was extremely significant in symptomatic women with normal flora (P<0.0001. The correlation of UP in symptomatic women with bacterial vaginosis was not significant (P=0.3387. Conclusions: Our results suggest a potential specific etiological role to UP, still considered rightly or wrongly innocent bystander, despite the lack so far of specific-species culture tests.

  14. Media Influences on Social Outcomes: The Impact of MTV’s 16 and Pregnant on Teen Childbearing.

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    Kearney, Melissa S; Levine, Phillip B

    2015-12-01

    This paper explores the impact of the introduction of the widely viewed MTV reality show 16 and Pregnant on teen childbearing. Our main analysis relates geographic variation in changes in teen childbearing rates to viewership of the show. We implement an instrumental variables (IV ) strategy using local area MTV ratings data from a pre-period to predict local area 16 and Pregnant ratings. The results imply that this show led to a 4.3 percent reduction in teen births. An examination of Google Trends and Twitter data suggest that the show led to increased interest in contraceptive use and abortion.

  15. Hepatitis B virus infection among first-time blood donors in Italy: prevalence and correlates between serological patterns and occult infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanò, Luisa; Velati, Claudio; Cambiè, Giuseppe; Fomiatti, Laura; Galli, Claudio; Zanetti, Alessandro Remo

    2013-04-01

    A prospective, 1-year study was performed among Italian first-time, volunteer blood donors, who account for 12% of all donations, in order to assess the frequency and serological patterns of hepatitis B virus infection and the presence of occult infection. Consecutive donors (n=31,190) from 21 blood transfusion centres, from age classes not subjected to universal HBV vaccination, were tested for HBsAg and anti-HBc by commercial immunoassays. Other HBV serological markers were searched for and qualitative and quantitative assessments of HBV-DNA were made in HBsAg and/or anti-HBc-positive individuals. Of the 31,190 donors studied, 100 (0.32%) were positive for both HBsAg and anti-HBc, 2 for HBsAg (0.01%) alone, and 2,593 (8.3%) for anti-HBc. Of these last, 86.7% were also positive for anti-HBs (with or without anti-HBe), 2.9% were positive for anti-HBe without anti-HBs and 10.4% had no other HBV markers (anti-HBc alone). A general north-south increasing gradient of HBV prevalence was observed. Circulating HBV-DNA was found in 96.8% of HBsAg-positive subjects as compared to 0.55% (12/2,186) of anti-HBc-positive/HBsAg-negative subjects, with higher frequencies among anti-HBs-negative than among anti-HBs-positive ones (1.68% vs. 0.37%; p blood donors is much lower than in the past. The presence of occult infections in this group was confirmed (frequency: 1 in 2,599), supporting the hypothesis of long-term persistence of HBV infection after clearance of HBsAg. HBsAg and nucleic acid amplification testing for blood screening and vaccination against HBV are crucial in order to further reduce the risk of transfusion-transmitted HBV towards zero.

  16. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from clinical samples at Yekatit 12 Hospital Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilnessa, Tebelay; Bitew, Adane

    2016-08-09

    Staphylococcus aureus particularly MRSA strains are one of the major causes of community and hospital acquired bacterial infections. They are also becoming increasingly multi-drug resistant and have recently developed resistance to vancomycin, which has been used successfully to treat MRSA for many years. In-vitro determination of drug resistance patterns of S. aureus is critical for the selection of effective drugs for the treatment of staphylococci infections. The main aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of methicillin resistant S. aureus strains from different clinical specimens from patients referred for routine culture and sensitivity testing. A cross sectional study was conducted among 1360 participants at Yekatit 12 Hospital Medical College in Ethiopia from September 2013 to April 2014. Clinical samples from various anatomical sites of study participants were cultured on blood agar and mannitol salt agar and identified to be S. aureus by using catalase, coagulase and DNAse tests. S. aureus isolates then were screened for MRSA using 30 μg cefoxitin disc and other 11 antimicrobial drugs by disc diffusion procedure, and agar dilution and E tests for vancomycin. All S. aureus isolates examined for beta-lactamase production by employing nitrocefin. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 software and logistic regressions were applied to assess any association between dependent and independent variables. Of 1360 clinical specimens analyzed S. aureus was recovered from (194, 14.3 %). Rate of isolation of S. aureus with regard to clinical specimens was the highest in pus (118, 55.4 %).No S. aureus was isolated from CSF and urethral discharge. Out of 194 S. aureus isolates, (34, 17.5 %) were found out to be MRSA and the remaining (160, 82.5 %) were MSSA. Ninety eight (50.5 %) S. aureus were multi drug resistant and the highest isolates were resistant to penicillin (187, 96.4 %) and least resistant for clindamycin (23, 11.9 %) and vancomycin

  17. Motivations for childbearing and fertility behavior among urban and rural families of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekmat, F; Kabacoff, R I; Klein, H E

    1983-01-01

    A sample of 384 husbands and wives were randomly selected and interviewed to investigate the implication of fertility norms and motivations for childbearing on fertility and family planning behavior among Iranian families in urban and rural areas of Iran, after the Islamic Revolution of 1979. The term "fertility behavior" refers to actual family size, which is defined as number of children the respondent has living at the time of the interview. "Family planning behavior" refers to the duration of time that the subject has used any birth control method(s). Rural families demonstrated larger actual and ideal family sizes than urban families. The rural sample had a median actual family size of 3.5 children and a median ideal family size of 4.7 children. For the urban sample these figures were 2.2 and 2.3, respectively. The median number of years married was 12.33 for rural and 13.91 for urban respondents. Urban respondents tended to emphasize the psychological and emotional benefits and liabilities associated with having children while rural respondents tended to emphasize both economic and security related motivations. Both groups endorsed infant mortality as a motivation for having more children. Male and female respondents were remarkably similar in their endorsed motivations. There was a significant positive correlation between desired and ideal family size. The correlations among ideal/desired family size and practicing birth control methods were the same and significant at the .001 level. The relationship between motivations for childbearing and years of practicing birth control methods was also significant at the .001 level. Stepwise regression analyses were performed to examine the important predictors of fertility and family planning behavior. For both actual family size and years on birth control, males and females were very similar in terms of predictor importance. Those respondents with less education and large ideal family size tended to have larger

  18. Evaluation of ovary dose for woman of childbearing age woman with breast cancer in tomotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Soo Hyeong; Park, Soo Yeon; Choi, Ji Min; Park, Ju Young; Kim, Jong Suk

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate unwanted scattered dose to ovary by scattering and leakage generated from treatment fields of Tomotherapy for childbearing woman with breast cancer. The radiation treatments plans for left breast cancer were established using Tomotherapy planning system (Tomotherapy, Inc, USA). They were generated by using helical and direct Tomotherapy methods for comparison. The CT images for the planning were scanned with 2.5 mm slice thickness using anthropomorphic phantom (Alderson-Rando phantom, The Phantom Laboratory, USA). The measurement points for the ovary dose were determined at the points laterally 30 cm apart from mid-point of treatment field of the pelvis. The measurements were repeated five times and averaged using glass dosimeters (1.5 mm diameter and 12 mm of length) equipped with low-energy correction filter. The measures dose values were also converted to Organ Equivalent Dose (OED) by the linear exponential dose-response model. Scattered doses of ovary which were measured based on two methods of Tomo helical and Tomo direct showed average of 64.94±0.84 mGy and 37.64±1.20 mGy in left ovary part and average of 64.38±1.85 mGy and 32.96±1.11 mGy in right ovary part. This showed when executing Tomotherapy, measured scattered dose of Tomo Helical method which has relatively greater monitor units (MUs) and longer irradiation time are approximately 1.8 times higher than Tomo direct method. Scattered dose of left and right ovary of childbearing women is lower than ICRP recommended does which is not seriously worried level against the infertility and secondary cancer occurrence. However, as breast cancer occurrence ages become younger in the future and radiation therapy using high-precision image guidance equipment like Tomotherapy is developed, clinical follow-up studies about the ovary dose of childbearing women patients would be more required

  19. Evaluation of ovary dose for woman of childbearing age woman with breast cancer in tomotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Soo Hyeong; Park, Soo Yeon; Choi, Ji Min; Park, Ju Young; Kim, Jong Suk [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    The aim of this study is to evaluate unwanted scattered dose to ovary by scattering and leakage generated from treatment fields of Tomotherapy for childbearing woman with breast cancer. The radiation treatments plans for left breast cancer were established using Tomotherapy planning system (Tomotherapy, Inc, USA). They were generated by using helical and direct Tomotherapy methods for comparison. The CT images for the planning were scanned with 2.5 mm slice thickness using anthropomorphic phantom (Alderson-Rando phantom, The Phantom Laboratory, USA). The measurement points for the ovary dose were determined at the points laterally 30 cm apart from mid-point of treatment field of the pelvis. The measurements were repeated five times and averaged using glass dosimeters (1.5 mm diameter and 12 mm of length) equipped with low-energy correction filter. The measures dose values were also converted to Organ Equivalent Dose (OED) by the linear exponential dose-response model. Scattered doses of ovary which were measured based on two methods of Tomo helical and Tomo direct showed average of 64.94±0.84 mGy and 37.64±1.20 mGy in left ovary part and average of 64.38±1.85 mGy and 32.96±1.11 mGy in right ovary part. This showed when executing Tomotherapy, measured scattered dose of Tomo Helical method which has relatively greater monitor units (MUs) and longer irradiation time are approximately 1.8 times higher than Tomo direct method. Scattered dose of left and right ovary of childbearing women is lower than ICRP recommended does which is not seriously worried level against the infertility and secondary cancer occurrence. However, as breast cancer occurrence ages become younger in the future and radiation therapy using high-precision image guidance equipment like Tomotherapy is developed, clinical follow-up studies about the ovary dose of childbearing women patients would be more required.

  20. Mapping for maternal and newborn health: the distributions of women of childbearing age, pregnancies and births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatem, Andrew J; Campbell, James; Guerra-Arias, Maria; de Bernis, Luc; Moran, Allisyn; Matthews, Zoë

    2014-01-04

    The health and survival of women and their new-born babies in low income countries has been a key priority in public health since the 1990s. However, basic planning data, such as numbers of pregnancies and births, remain difficult to obtain and information is also lacking on geographic access to key services, such as facilities with skilled health workers. For maternal and newborn health and survival, planning for safer births and healthier newborns could be improved by more accurate estimations of the distributions of women of childbearing age. Moreover, subnational estimates of projected future numbers of pregnancies are needed for more effective strategies on human resources and infrastructure, while there is a need to link information on pregnancies to better information on health facilities in districts and regions so that coverage of services can be assessed. This paper outlines demographic mapping methods based on freely available data for the production of high resolution datasets depicting estimates of numbers of people, women of childbearing age, live births and pregnancies, and distribution of comprehensive EmONC facilities in four large high burden countries: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Ethiopia and Tanzania. Satellite derived maps of settlements and land cover were constructed and used to redistribute areal census counts to produce detailed maps of the distributions of women of childbearing age. Household survey data, UN statistics and other sources on growth rates, age specific fertility rates, live births, stillbirths and abortions were then integrated to convert the population distribution datasets to gridded estimates of births and pregnancies. These estimates, which can be produced for current, past or future years based on standard demographic projections, can provide the basis for strategic intelligence, planning services, and provide denominators for subnational indicators to track progress. The datasets produced are part of national midwifery

  1. Peer and Individual Risk Factors in Adolescence Explaining the Relationship between Girls' Pubertal Timing and Teenage Childbearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrick, C. Emily; Cance, Jessica Duncan; Maslowsky, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Girls with early pubertal timing are at elevated risk for teenage childbearing; however, the modifiable mechanisms driving this relationship are not well understood. The objective of the current study was to determine whether substance use, perceived peer substance use, and older first sexual partners mediate the relationships among girls' pubertal timing, sexual debut, and teenage childbearing. Data are from Waves 1 – 15 of the female cohort of the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth 1997 (NLSY97), a nationwide, ongoing cohort study of U.S. men and women born between 1980 and 1984. The analytic sample (N=2,066) was 12-14 years old in 1997 and ethnically diverse (51% white, 27% black, 22% Latina). Using structural equation modeling, we found substance use in early adolescence and perceived peer substance use each partially mediated the relationships among girls' pubertal timing, sexual debut, and teenage childbearing. Our findings suggest early substance use behavior as one modifiable mechanism to be targeted by interventions aimed at preventing teenage childbearing among early developing girls. PMID:26769576

  2. Risk Factors for Pregnancy and Childbearing in Single Young Women: Evidence from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Lewis, Lauren R.; Wade, Tracey D.; Lee, Christina

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated psychosocial predictors of early pregnancy and childbearing in single young women, consistent with the Eriksonian developmental perspective. Two mail-out surveys assessing reproductive behaviour and sociodemographic, education/competence, psychosocial well-being, and aspiration factors were completed 4 years apart by 2635…

  3. The Experience of Childbearing Women in the Workplace: The Impact of Family-Friendly Policies and Practices. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrkowski, Chaya S.; And Others

    Secondary analyses of data collected in the Mothers in the Workplace study examined how family-relevant workplace policies and practices may influence childbearing women's labor force participation during pregnancy and after childbirth. It focused on 2,375 women who held wage and salary jobs during pregnancy and 1,761 of these women who were…

  4. Effects of Adolescent Childbearing on Latino Siblings: Changes in Family Dynamics and Feelings toward the Teen Mother

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Patricia L.; Slonim, Ashley; Horn, Emily J.; Reyes, Barbara T.

    2011-01-01

    Latinos have had the highest teenage birthrate of any racial or ethnic group in the United States for the past 15 years, yet little is known about how Latino families are affected by a teenage daughter's childbearing. In-depth interviews were conducted with 32 Mexican American younger siblings of parenting teens to discern how their sister's…

  5. A SOCIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE CHILDBEARING COEFFICIENT IN THE ALTAI REGION BASED ON METHOD OF FUZZY LINEAR REGRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Vladimirovich Varaksin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Construction of a mathematical model of the dynamics of childbearing change in the Altai region in 2000–2016, analysis of the dynamics of changes in birth rates for multiple age categories of women of childbearing age. Methodology. A auxiliary analysis element is the construction of linear mathematical models of the dynamics of childbearing by using fuzzy linear regression method based on fuzzy numbers. Fuzzy linear regression is considered as an alternative to standard statistical linear regression for short time series and unknown distribution law. The parameters of fuzzy linear and standard statistical regressions for childbearing time series were defined with using the built in language MatLab algorithm. Method of fuzzy linear regression is not used in sociological researches yet. Results. There are made the conclusions about the socio-demographic changes in society, the high efficiency of the demographic policy of the leadership of the region and the country, and the applicability of the method of fuzzy linear regression for sociological analysis.

  6. The timing of marriage vis-à-vis coresidence and childbearing in Europe and the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Holland (Jennifer)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE These descriptive findings extend Holland's (2013) marriage typology by linking the timing of marriage, childbearing, and cohabitation, and apply it to a range of European countries and the United States. The meaning of marriage is organized around six ideal types: Direct

  7. Internet use, needs and expectations of web-based information and communication in childbearing women with type 1 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berg Marie

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the childbearing period women use the internet both to seek information and as an important source of communication. For women with type 1 diabetes, pregnancy and early motherhood constitute a more complex situation than for women in general. This implies need for support from various professionals and a way of bridging any discontinuity in care would be to develop a website providing complementary social support and information. The objective of this study was to explore internet use, needs, and expectations regarding web-based information and communication in childbearing women with type 1 diabetes. Methods Data were collected via a web-based survey with an explorative and descriptive design, in which 105 of 139 eligible mothers with type 1 diabetes and recent childbearing experience participated. The data were analyzed with descriptive and analytical statistics, and open answers with a directed content analysis. Results Of the 105 women, 22% never used the internet to search for information concerning pregnancy, childbirth, and parenthood. 12% searched for information every day, 29% one or more times a week, and 38% one or more times a month. Of the women 44% declared themselves to be passive participants on social websites, and 45% to be active participants. 45% had specific expectations of web-based support directed towards childbearing, especially those with higher educational level (P = .01. Expectations of instrumental and informational support included an expert-controlled website with reliable, updated, and information focused on childbearing and diabetes, improved access to diabetes care professionals and alternative ways to communicate and to receive childbearing-related support. The women also asked for online technical devices to manage the frequent monitoring of blood glucose during pregnancy. Informal, emotional, and appraisal support from women in similar situations was suggested as a way to provide an

  8. Internet use, needs and expectations of web-based information and communication in childbearing women with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparud-Lundin, Carina; Ranerup, Agneta; Berg, Marie

    2011-07-07

    In the childbearing period women use the internet both to seek information and as an important source of communication. For women with type 1 diabetes, pregnancy and early motherhood constitute a more complex situation than for women in general. This implies need for support from various professionals and a way of bridging any discontinuity in care would be to develop a website providing complementary social support and information. The objective of this study was to explore internet use, needs, and expectations regarding web-based information and communication in childbearing women with type 1 diabetes. Data were collected via a web-based survey with an explorative and descriptive design, in which 105 of 139 eligible mothers with type 1 diabetes and recent childbearing experience participated. The data were analyzed with descriptive and analytical statistics, and open answers with a directed content analysis. Of the 105 women, 22% never used the internet to search for information concerning pregnancy, childbirth, and parenthood. 12% searched for information every day, 29% one or more times a week, and 38% one or more times a month. Of the women 44% declared themselves to be passive participants on social websites, and 45% to be active participants. 45% had specific expectations of web-based support directed towards childbearing, especially those with higher educational level (P = .01). Expectations of instrumental and informational support included an expert-controlled website with reliable, updated, and information focused on childbearing and diabetes, improved access to diabetes care professionals and alternative ways to communicate and to receive childbearing-related support. The women also asked for online technical devices to manage the frequent monitoring of blood glucose during pregnancy. Informal, emotional, and appraisal support from women in similar situations was suggested as a way to provide an arena for belonging instead of creating feelings of

  9. Changes in Hair Mercury Levels Among Women of Child-Bearing Age Following an Educational Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Michelle; Christensen, Krista Y; Thompson, Brooke; Anderson, Henry

    2017-06-01

    Describe mercury exposures among women of childbearing age before and after an educational intervention. Women age 18 to 45 were recruited to participate in an educational intervention concerning fish consumption. Fish consumption habits and total mercury concentration in hair were assessed pre- and post-intervention. Regression models examined associations between mercury, fish consumption, and demographics. Overall, 234 women completed the study. On average, mercury concentrations increased by 0.01 ppm (parts per million) following the intervention, despite declines in fish consumption; however, women in the 90th percentile for mercury at baseline decreased concentrations significantly while maintaining high rates of fish consumption. Mercury concentrations were positively correlated with fish consumption and certain demographic characteristics. The intervention reached individuals most at-risk. Healthcare providers should discuss fish consumption habits with women to encourage consumption of low-risk fish, and identify women needing education and counseling.

  10. Parents' experience of unintended childbearing: A qualitative study of factors that mitigate or exacerbate effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanaugh, Megan L; Kost, Kathryn; Frohwirth, Lori; Maddow-Zimet, Isaac; Gor, Vivian

    2017-02-01

    Births resulting from an unintended pregnancy affect individuals differentially, and some may experience more negative consequences than others. In this study, we sought to describe the mechanisms through which the severity of effects may be mitigated or exacerbated. We conducted in-depth interviews with 35 women and 30 men, all with a youngest child born resulting from an unintended pregnancy, in two urban sites in the United States. Respondents described both negative and positive effects of the child's birth in the areas of school; work and finances; partner relationships; personal health and outlook on life trajectories. Mechanisms through which unintended pregnancies mitigated or exacerbated certain effects fell at the individual (e.g. lifestyle modification), interpersonal (e.g. partner support) and structural (e.g. workplace flexibility) levels. These qualitative findings deepen understanding of the impact of unintended childbearing on the lives of women, men and families. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A narrative literature review of the therapeutic effects of music upon childbearing women and neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollins Martin, Caroline J

    2014-11-01

    Therapeutic effects of music are well recognised within the literature, with benefits for a variety of health problems documented. This narrative review summarises benefits in terms of reducing stress, anxiety, labour pain and depression in childbearing women. For neonates, music has been shown to reduce number of days to discharge, reduce pain response behaviours, increase weight gain, improve Brazelton scores, improve parent/infant intimacy, improve oxygen saturation, increase formula intake, stabilize vital signs and increase parental reports of calmed infants. The main criticism of the studies reviewed is lack of categorisation of the particulars of the variables within the music that directly influenced outcome variables. A recommendation is made that a music package be developed and relationships with variables rigorously evaluated. The validated product may then be made available for use. Since evidence supports advantages from listening to music, it is suggested that maternity professionals use it in more creative ways. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Harm to offspring of women of childbearing age employed in the the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-02-01

    This report evaluates risk arising from employing women of childbearing age in occupations where exposure to ionizing radiation is likely. It was assumed that about seven percent of women employed in the nuclear industry would give birth to a child in a given year, and that the period of unrecognized pregnancy is 60 days. Using data on risk factors per rem, critical periods for individual end points, and the proportion of women pregnant per year, the risk of harm to offspring was calculated. The forms of harm considered were failure to implant, mental retardation, and induction of cancer. Calculated risk factors were applied to exposure data from the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station from 1981. The maximum harm that can be expected to be produced as a result of exposure of 100 women as mechanical maintenance workers under these conditions would be three cases of either congenital malformation or cancer per 100 years

  13. Environmental, Behavioral, and Cultural Factors That Influence Healthy Eating in Rural Women of Childbearing Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Mabry

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite increasing recognition of the role nutrition plays in the health of current and future generations, many women struggle to eat healthy. We used the PhotoVoice method to engage 10 rural women in identifying perceived barriers and facilitators to healthy eating in their homes and community. They took 354 photographs, selected and wrote captions for 62 images, and explored influential factors through group conversation. Using field notes and participant-generated captions, the research team categorized images into factors at the individual, relational, community/organizational, and societal levels of a socioecological model. Barriers included limited time, exposure to marketing, and the high cost of food. Facilitators included preparing food in advance and support from non-partners; opportunities to hunt, forage, and garden were also facilitators, which may be amplified in this rural environment. Nutritional interventions for rural women of childbearing age should be multi-component and focus on removing barriers at multiple socioecological levels.

  14. Employment after childbearing and women's subsequent labour force participation: evidence from the British 1958 birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, H; Macran, S; Dex, S

    1996-01-01

    "Data on women from the British 1958 Cohort Study is used as evidence on the determinants of their labour force participation at age 33. A conventional cross-sectional model of full or part-time employment makes use of some longitudinal material not normally included in such models. Whether the woman made the hitherto customary break from employment at the time of the first maternity is included in recognition that this cohort was among the first generation to be offered Statutory Maternity Leave. Results suggest that the presence of children (still) inhibits full-time employment and raises the probability of part-time employment; that income effects on participation have continued to weaken while wage elasticity for full-time employment is high. Continuity of employment straight after childbearing raises the chances of subsequent full-time employment, but by no means guarantees it. Gains from maternity leave and other family friendly employment policies have been far from uniform." excerpt

  15. Tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccination among women of childbearing age-United States, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Halloran, Alissa C; Lu, Peng-Jun; Williams, Walter W; Ding, Helen; Meyer, Sarah A

    2016-07-01

    The incidence of pertussis in the United States has increased since the 1990s. Tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination of pregnant women provides passive protection to infants. Tdap vaccination is currently recommended for pregnant women during each pregnancy, but coverage among pregnant women and women of childbearing age has been suboptimal. Data from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and 2013 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were used to determine national and state-specific Tdap vaccination coverage among women of childbearing age by self-reported pregnancy status at the time of the survey. Although this study could not assess coverage of Tdap vaccination received during pregnancy because questions on whether Tdap vaccination was received during pregnancy were not asked in BRFSS and NHIS, demographic and access-to-care factors associated with Tdap vaccination coverage in this population were assessed. Tdap vaccination coverage among all women 18-44 years old was 38.4% based on the BRFSS and 23.3% based on the NHIS. Overall, coverage did not differ by pregnancy status at the time of the survey. Coverage among all women 18-44 years old varied widely by state. Age, race and ethnicity, education, number of children in the household, and access-to-care characteristics were independently associated with Tdap vaccination in both surveys. We identified associations of demographic and access-to-care characteristics with Tdap vaccination that can guide strategies to improve vaccination rates in women during pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cohort Fertility Patterns in the Nordic Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Andersson

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous analyses of period fertility suggest that the trends of the Nordic countries are sufficiently similar to speak of a common "Nordic fertility regime". We investigate whether this assumption can be corroborated by comparing cohort fertility patterns in the Nordic countries. We study cumulated and completed fertility of Nordic birth cohorts based on the childbearing histories of women born in 1935 and later derived from the population registers of Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. We further explore childbearing behaviour by women's educational attainment. The results show remarkable similarities in postponement and recuperation between the countries and very small differences in completed fertility across educational groups. Median childbearing age is about 2-3 years higher in the 1960-64 cohort than in the 1950-54 cohort, but the younger cohort recuperates the fertility level of the older cohort at ages 30 and above. A similar pattern of recuperation can be observed for highly educated women as compared to women with less education. An interesting finding is that of a positive relationship between educational level and the final number of children when women who become mothers at similar ages are compared. Country differences in fertility outcome are generally rather low. Childlessness is highest in Finland and lowest in Norway, and the educational differentials are largest in Norway. Despite such differences, the cohort analyses in many ways support the notion of a common Nordic fertility regime.

  17. Prevalence and patterns of antimicrobial resistance of fecal Escherichia coil among pigs on 47 farrow-to-finish farms with different in-feed medication policies in Ontario and British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akwar, Holy T; Poppe, Cornelis; Wilson, Jeff; Reid-Smith, Richard J; Dyck, Monica; Waddington, Josh; Shang, Dayue; McEwen, Scott A

    2008-01-01

    The main objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and patterns of antimicrobial resistance in pigs on farms that medicated swine ration and those that did not. A total of 940 isolates of Escherichia coli from 188 pooled fecal samples obtained from weaner and finisher pigs on 47 farrow-to-finish swine farms (34 farms used in-feed medication and 13 did not) were tested for susceptibility to 21 antimicrobials using a breakpoint concentration method. The prevalence of resistance varied widely (0.0% to 81.3%) among the antimicrobials tested. Ninety percent of all the isolates tested were resistant to one or more antimicrobials. The most common multi-drug resistance patterns were to 2 to 6 antimicrobials. Resistance was significantly more frequent (P pigs compared to finisher pigs. These findings indicate that resistance to a broad range of antimicrobials was prevalent among fecal E. coli isolates of pigs on study farms, and that this constitutes a potential reservoir for resistance genes that could spread to pathogens. The findings also provide further evidence that use of medication in swine rations provides selective pressure for antimicrobial resistance in E. coli in pigs.

  18. Identifying the causes of the changes in the prevalence patterns of diabetes in older U.S. adults: A new trend partitioning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akushevich, Igor; Yashkin, Arseniy P; Kravchenko, Julia; Fang, Fang; Arbeev, Konstantin; Sloan, Frank; Yashin, Anatoliy I

    2018-04-01

    To identify how efforts to control the diabetes epidemic and the resulting changes in diabetes mellitus, type II (T2D) incidence and survival have affected the time-trend of T2D prevalence. A newly developed method of trend decomposition was applied to a 5% sample of Medicare administrative claims filed between 1991 and 2012. Age-adjusted prevalence of T2D for adults age 65+ increased at an average annual percentage change of 2.31% between 1992 and 2012. Primary contributors to this trend were (in order of magnitude): improved survival at all ages, increased prevalence of T2D prior to age of Medicare eligibility, decreased incidence of T2D after age of Medicare eligibility. Health services supported by the Medicare system, coupled with improvements in medical technology and T2D awareness efforts provide effective care for individuals age 65 and older. However, policy maker attention should be shifted to the prevention of T2D in younger age groups to control the increase in prevalence observed prior to Medicare eligibility. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Changing prevalence and antibiotic drug resistance pattern of pathogens seen in community-acquired pediatric urinary tract infections at a tertiary care hospital of North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrushali Patwardhan

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Although E. coli remains the prime pathogen in pediatric UTI, the prevalence of resistance has dramatically increased over the 5-year study period. Our study highlights the emergence of community-acquired ESBL-producing uropathogens in children proclaiming treatment challenges.

  20. The prevalence of nosocomial infections caused by Enterobacter cloacae and antibiotic resistant patterns in samples isolated from patients in two hospitals in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahbar M

    2012-06-01

    Conclusion: This study clearly showed the high prevalence of resistance to broad-spectrum beta-lactam antibiotics in the isolated E. cloacae among which 5% were multi drug resistant. All the isolated E. cloacae were susceptible to Colistin. These results can be alarming for physicians treating resistant E. cloacae infections, especially extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing species.

  1. [Prevalence of anemia in reproductive-age Mexican women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Villalpando, Salvador; Mundo-Rosas, Verónica; De la Cruz-Góngora, Vanessa; Mejía-Rodríguez, Fabiola; Méndez Gómez-Humarán, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    To update the prevalence of anemia and its trend in Mexican women of childbearing age over the past 13 years using information from the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012 and 2006 (ENSANUT 2012 and ENSANUT 2006, respectively) and from the National Nutrition Survey 1999 (ENN 99). Data came from three national probabilistic surveys, representative at regional and rural / urban level. Hemoglobin (Hb) in women was measured using a HemoCue photometer and classified as anemia according to the WHO criteria. Frequencies and CI95% were estimated for each survey (ENSANUT 2012, ENSANUT 2006 and ENN 99) as well as percentage changes in anemia prevalence among pregnant and non-pregnant women in this survey sequence. The national prevalence of anemia in 2012 in non-pregnant women was 11.6% and in pregnant women was 17.9%. Between 1999 and 2012, a 10 percentage point (pp) decreasing in anemia prevalence was observed in the first ones and a 13.5 pp in the second ones. Although it has declined in the past 13 years, anemia in women of childbearing age remains as a serious public health problem. It is considered necessary to design strategies to prevent iron deficiency and for the early detection of anemia in women.

  2. Indian women of childbearing age do not metabolically conserve arginine as do American and Jamaican women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Christina C; Hsu, Jean W; Dwarkanath, Pratibha; Karnes, Jeffrey M; Baker, Tameka M; Bohren, Kurt M; Badaloo, Asha; Thame, Minerva M; Kurpad, Anura V; Jahoor, Farook

    2015-05-01

    In a previous study in pregnant American women, we reported that arginine flux and nitric oxide synthesis increased in trimester 2. More recently, we reported that Indian women do not increase arginine flux during pregnancy as their American or Jamaican counterparts do. The purpose of this study was to determine whether Indian women of childbearing age are producing less arginine and/or catabolizing more arginine and therefore have less available for anabolic pathways than do Jamaican and American women. Thirty healthy women aged 28.3 ± 0.8 y from the United States, India, and Jamaica (n = 10/group) were given 6 h primed, constant intravenous infusions of guanidino-¹⁵N₂-arginine, 5,5-²H₂-citrulline, ¹⁵N₂-ornithine, and ring-²H₅-phenylalanine, in addition to primed, oral doses of U-¹³C₆-arginine in both the fasting and postprandial states. An oral dose of deuterium oxide was also given to determine fat-free mass (FFM). Compared with American women, Indian and Jamaican women had greater ornithine fluxes (μmol · kg fat FFM⁻¹ · h⁻¹) in the fasting and postprandial states (27.3 ± 2.5 vs. 39.6 ± 3.7 and 37.2 ± 2.0, respectively, P = 0.01), indicating greater arginine catabolism. However, Jamaican women had a higher endogenous arginine flux than did Indian and American women in the fasting (66.1 ± 3.1 vs. 54.2 ± 3.1 and 56.1 ± 2.1, respectively, P = 0.01) and postprandial (53.8 ± 2.2 vs. 43.7 ± 4.9 and 42.8 ± 3.1, respectively, P = 0.06) states. As a consequence, Indian women had lower arginine bioavailability (μmol · kg FFM⁻¹ · h⁻¹) in the fasting state (42.0 ± 2.6) than did American (49.9 ± 1.3, P = 0.045) and Jamaican (55.5 ± 3.5, P = 0.004) women, as well as in the postprandial state (40.7 ± 3.5 vs. 51.8 ± 1.2 and 57.5 ± 3.2, respectively, P = 0.001). Compared with American and Jamaican women, Indian women of childbearing age have a decreased arginine supply because of increased arginine catabolism without an

  3. Male gender preference, female gender disadvantage as risk factors for psychological morbidity in Pakistani women of childbearing age - a life course perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medhin Girmay

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Pakistan, preference for boys over girls is deeply culturally embedded. From birth, many women experience gendered disadvantages; less access to scarce resources, poorer health care, higher child mortality, limited education, less employment outside of the home and circumscribed autonomy. The prevalence of psychological morbidity is exceptionally high among women. We hypothesise that, among women of childbearing age, gender disadvantage is an independent risk factor for psychological morbidity Methods A cross-sectional catchment area survey of 525 women aged 18 to 35 years living in Islamabad and Rawalpindi. The effect of gender disadvantage was assessed as a latent variable using structural equation modelling. Indicators were parental gender preference, low parental care, parental overprotection, limited education, early age at marriage, marital dissatisfaction and low autonomy. Psychological morbidity was assessed using the 20 item Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ. Results Gender disadvantage was independently predictive of psychological morbidity. Among married women, socio-economic status did not predict psychological morbidity, and the effect of education was mediated through gender disadvantage rather than socioeconomic status (SES. The women's own preference for a male child was strongly predicted by their perceptions of having been disadvantaged by their gender in their families of origin. Conclusions The high prevalence of psychological morbidity among women in Pakistan is concerning given recently reported strong associations with low birth weight and infant stunting. Social action, public policies and legislation are indicated to reduce culturally embedded preferences. Neglect of these fundamentals will entrench consequent inequities including gender bias in access to education, a key millennium development goal.

  4. Prevalence of prenatal exposure to substances of abuse: questionnaire versus biomarkers

    OpenAIRE

    Chiandetti, Antonella; Hernandez, Gimena; Mercadal-Hally, María; Alvarez, Airam; Andreu-Fernandez, Vicente; Navarro-Tapia, Elisabet; Bastons-Compta, Adriana; Garcia-Algar, Oscar

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol and drugs of abuse consumption in young adults, including women of childbearing age, has experienced significant increase over the past two decades. The use of questionnaires as the only measure to investigate prenatal alcohol and drugs of abuse exposure underestimates the real prevalence of exposure and could mislead to wrong conclusions. Therefore, the aim of this article was to compare reported rates of prenatal alcohol and drugs of abuse consumption with biomarkers of exposure by ...

  5. Evaluating Cost-Effectiveness of Interventions that Affect Fertility and Childbearing: How Health Effects are Measured Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D.; Brandeau, Margaret L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Current guidelines for economic evaluations of health interventions define relevant outcomes as those accruing to individuals receiving interventions. Little consensus exists on counting health impacts on current and future fertility and childbearing. Objective To characterize current practices for counting such health outcomes. Design We developed a framework characterizing health interventions with direct and/or indirect effects on fertility and childbearing and how such outcomes are reported. We identified interventions spanning the framework and performed a targeted literature review for economic evaluations of these interventions. For each article, we characterized how the potential health outcomes from each intervention were considered, focusing on QALYs associated with fertility and childbearing. Results We reviewed 108 studies, identifying seven themes: 1) Studies were heterogeneous in reporting outcomes. 2) Studies often selected outcomes for inclusion that tend to bias toward finding the intervention to be cost-effective. 3) Studies often avoided the challenges of assigning QALYs for pregnancy and fertility by instead considering cost per intermediate outcome. 4) Even for the same intervention, studies took heterogeneous approaches to outcome evaluation. 5) Studies employed multiple, competing rationales for whether and how to include fertility-related QALYs and whose QALYs to include. 6) Studies examining interventions with indirect effects on fertility typically ignored such QALYs. 7) Even recent studies had these shortcomings. Limitations The review was targeted rather than systematic. Conclusions Economic evaluations inconsistently consider QALYs from current and future fertility and childbearing in ways that frequently appear biased towards the interventions considered. As the Panel on Cost-Effectiveness in Health and Medicine updates its guidelines, making the practice of cost-effectiveness analysis more consistent is a priority. Our

  6. Premarital childbearing in sub-Saharan Africa: Can investing in women’s education offset disadvantages for children?

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    Emily Smith-Greenaway

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Premarital childbearing is common in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa, and may become increasingly so with the rise in women’s age at first marriage. These trends are concerning given the severe childhood health consequences associated with being born premaritally. However, women’s could condition the experience of having a premarital birth in a way that lessens its consequences for children. Extending the large literature on the child health benefits of mothers’ education—including her educational attainment and acquisition of key educational skills – I analyze whether the consequences of being born premaritally are lessened among children whose mothers are more highly-educated. The study focuses on Malawi, a southeast African country where child mortality rates remain high. I use Demographic and Health Survey data to estimate discrete-time logistic regression models (N=30,411 children younger than age five of the relationships between premarital childbearing, mothers’ educational background, and child mortality. The findings confirm that though being born premaritally is associated with higher child mortality, this is only true for children whose mothers have never been to school or discontinued at the primary level and/or never learned how to read. There is no evidence that being born premaritally is associated with elevated mortality among children whose mothers have been to secondary school and/or know how to read. The results demonstrate that analyzing how premarital childbearing intersects with other sources of health inequality enhances our understanding of the circumstances under which it poses the greatest risk to child well-being in sub-Saharan Africa. Keywords: Child health, Child mortality, Premarital childbearing, Education, Literacy, Africa, Malawi

  7. PERCEPTION OF WOMEN OF CHILDBEARING AGE (15-45years) ON CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF INFERTILITY IN OSOGBO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF OSUN STATE, NIGERIA

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    Onasoga, Olayinka A; Akinpelu, Adewale O; Salawu, R.A

    2012-01-01

    Infertility brings about low self-esteem, sense of powerlessness, discrimination and stigmatization as well as threatens the woman’s identity, status, marital and emotional security. This study examined the perception of women of childbearing age on causes and consequences of infertility. A descriptive non experimental research design was used. A sample frame of 40 respondents was selected using purposive sampling technique among women of childbearing age. Data were analyzed using descriptive...

  8. [Iodized salt intake in households and iodine nutritional status in women of childbearing age in Peru, 2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higa, Ana María; Miranda, Marianella; Campos, Miguel; Sánchez, José R

    2010-06-01

    To estimate the iodine nutritional status in women of childbearing age and to evaluate the intake of salt adequately iodized in their households in Peru. Cross-sectional study performed with a multistage, probabilistic, cluster sampling that included 1573 households and 2048 women in childbearing age, distributed in five domains (Lima, rest of the coast, rural highlands and jungle area). The use of iodized salt was evaluated in the households and the urinary iodine was evaluated in the childbearing age women. 97.5% (95%CI. 96.7-98.5%) of peruvian households have iodized salt consumption, being it lower in the rural highland (95%) and higher in Lima (100%). The national mean of urinary iodine was 266 μg/L, being it lower in the jungle areas (206 μg/L) and higher in the rest of the coast (302 μg/L), these values are above the level recommended by the World Health Organization in all domains (average higher than 200 μg/L), value that ensures control over the iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). Control of IDD associated with iodized salt consumption is good, and monitoring of the presence of iodine in salt, particularly in the areas with lowest access, should continue.

  9. Antiretroviral Therapy Helps HIV-Positive Women Navigate Social Expectations for and Clinical Recommendations against Childbearing in Uganda

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    Jasmine Kastner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding factors that influence pregnancy decision-making and experiences among HIV-positive women is important for developing integrated reproductive health and HIV services. Few studies have examined HIV-positive women’s navigation through the social and clinical factors that shape experiences of pregnancy in the context of access to antiretroviral therapy (ART. We conducted 25 semistructured interviews with HIV-positive, pregnant women receiving ART in Mbarara, Uganda in 2011 to explore how access to ART shapes pregnancy experiences. Main themes included: (1 clinical counselling about pregnancy is often dissuasive but focuses on the importance of ART adherence once pregnant; (2 accordingly, women demonstrate knowledge about the role of ART adherence in maintaining maternal health and reducing risks of perinatal HIV transmission; (3 this knowledge contributes to personal optimism about pregnancy and childbearing in the context of HIV; and (4 knowledge about and adherence to ART creates opportunities for HIV-positive women to manage normative community and social expectations of childbearing. Access to ART and knowledge of the accompanying lowered risks of mortality, morbidity, and HIV transmission improved experiences of pregnancy and empowered HIV-positive women to discretely manage conflicting social expectations and clinical recommendations regarding childbearing.

  10. Effect of rotating shift work on childbearing and birth weight: a study of women working in a semiconductor manufacturing factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Cheng; Chen, Mei-Huei; Hsieh, Chia-Jung; Chen, Pau-Chung

    2011-05-01

    Stable circadian rhythm is important for both maternal and fetal health. This retrospective analysis of women in a semiconductor factory evaluated the effect of shift work exposure on childbearing and birth weight. Records of 440 female employees (initial mean age: 28.4 years) including 111 mothers who had 158 live births during the period of observation (1997-2007) were reviewed. The data analyzed included maternal age, general health condition, highest educational level, life-style and occupational factors, as well as newborn gender, birth weight, birth order and gestational age. The childbearing rates of female workers on three different work schedules (consistent daytime work (CDW), intermittent (i-) or persistent (p-) rotating shift works (RSW)) were 32.1%, 20.0% and 25.4%, respectively (P=0.047). After controlling for potential confounding factors, childbearing rates among women with CDW exceeded those of shift workers (odds ratio (OR), 1.7; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.0-3.0). The birth weights of newborns from mothers on the three work schedules (CDW, i-RSW and p-RSW) were significantly different (3271.7±395.4, 3251.3±460.9, and 2998.5±381.2 g, respectively (Pmanufacturing factory. Work schedules should be carefully planned for female employees who are pregnant or preparing for pregnancy. Prenatal evaluations for mothers with persistent day-night rotating shift work exposures are especially necessary.

  11. Physical child abuse potential in adolescent girls: associations with psychopathology, maltreatment, and attitudes toward child-bearing.

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    Pajer, Kathleen A; Gardner, William; Lourie, Andrea; Chang, Chien-Ni; Wang, Wei; Currie, Lisa

    2014-02-01

    Adolescent mothers are at increased risk of mistreating their children. Intervening before they become pregnant would be an ideal primary prevention strategy. Our goal was to determine whether psychopathology, exposure to maltreatment, preparedness for child-bearing, substance use disorders (SUDs), IQ, race, and socioeconomic status were associated with the potential for child abuse in nonpregnant adolescent girls. The Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAPI) was administered to 195 nonpregnant girls (aged 15 to 16 years; 54% African American) recruited from the community. Psychiatric diagnoses from a structured interview were used to form 4 groups: conduct disorder (CD), internalizing disorders (INTs; that is, depressive disorder, anxiety disorder, or both), CD + INTs, or no disorder. Exposure to maltreatment was assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and the Childbearing Attitudes Questionnaire measured maternal readiness. CAPI scores were positively correlated with all types of psychopathology, previous exposure to maltreatment, and negative attitudes toward child-bearing. IQ, SUDs, and demographic factors were not associated. Factors associated with child abuse potential interacted in complex ways, but the abuse potential of CD girls was high, regardless of other potentially protective factors. Our study demonstrates that adolescent girls who have CD or INT are at higher risk of perpetrating physical child abuse when they have children. However, the core features of CD may put this group at a particularly high risk, even in the context of possible protective factors. Treatment providers should consider pre-pregnant counselling about healthy mothering behaviours to girls with CD.

  12. Analysis of Factors Affecting Women of Childbearing Age to Screen Using Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidabutar, Sondang; Martini, Santi; Wahyuni, Chatarina Umbul

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate patient factors such as knowledge, attitude, motivation, perception, socio-economic status and travel time to health facilities and assess how these factors affected patients' decision to pursue cervical cancer screening with visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA). A total of 80 women of childbearing age who visited Kenjeran and Balongsari Public Health Centers for health assessments were involved in this study. Patients who agreed to participate in the study underwent a verbal questionnaire to evaluate various factors. Bivariate analysis concluded that knowledge, attitude, motivation, perception, socioeconomic status, and travel time to health facilities were significantly different between women who received VIA screening and women who did not receive VIA screening ( p motivation, perception, socio-economic status, and the travel time to health facilities accounted for 2.920-fold, 2.043-fold, 3.704-fold, 2.965-fold, 3.198-fold and 2.386-fold possibility, respectively, of patients to pursue cervical cancer screening with VIA. Multivariate analysis showed that perception, socio-economic status, and travel time to health facilities were the most important factors influencing whether or not women pursued VIA screening. Knowledge, attitude, motivation, perception, socio-economic status, and travel time to health facilities appears to affect women's' decision to pursue cervical cancer screening with VIA, with the largest intake being the motivational factor.

  13. Women with epilepsy in childbearing age: Pregnancy-related knowledge, information sources, and antiepileptic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Latica; Sruk, Ana; Bielen, Ivan

    2018-03-01

    Pregnancy-related issues in epilepsy (PRIE) are essential for management of epilepsy in women. We conducted a study among women with epilepsy (WWE) aged 15-45years about their knowledge, sources, and needs for information regarding PRIE, which included their current antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) usage. Women with epilepsy, visitors of Croatian Association for Epilepsy webpage, were offered an online questionnaire, and 200 responses were analyzed. The mean number of correct answers about PRIE was 3.5 out of 5. Main predictors of knowledge on PRIE were a prior consultation with a neurologist and higher usage of books/brochures. A prior neurologist consultation on PRIE was stated by 45% of subjects. As the preferred future mode of being informed on PRIE, majority of women (61%) chooses their neurologist, 22% written materials distributed by a neurologist, and only 13% Internet. Levetiracetam was the most commonly used AED (34.5%). Valproate was used by 26%, and of those 59% stated no previous consultation on PRIE with their neurologist. In summary, we believe our study shows that knowledge of PRIE among WWE in their childbearing age is unsatisfactory, as are the neurologist consultation rates about PRIE. Our results demonstrate that, despite modern technologies, educational activities should be based on neurologist consultations and providing the patients with appropriate written materials. This is especially true for the relatively large proportion of women still taking valproate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. How Neighborhood Effects Vary: Childbearing and Fathering among Latino and African American Adolescents

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    Jessica L. Lucero

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines what neighborhood conditions experienced at age 15 and after are associated with teen childbearing and fathering among Latino and African American youth and whether these neighborhood effects vary by gender and/or ethnicity. Administrative and survey data from a natural experiment are used for a sample of 517 Latino and African American youth whose families were quasi-randomly assigned to public housing operated by the Denver (CO Housing Authority (DHA. Characteristics of the neighborhood initially assigned by DHA to wait list applicants are utilized as identifying instruments for the neighborhood contexts experienced during adolescence. Cox Proportional Hazards (PH models reveal that neighborhoods having higher percentages of foreign-born residents but lower levels of social capital robustly predict reduced odds of teen parenting though the magnitude of these effects was contingent on gender and ethnicity. Specifically, the presence of foreign-born neighbors on the risk of teen parenting produced a stronger dampening effect for African American youth when compared to Latino youth. Additionally, the effects of social capital on teen parenting were stronger for males than females.

  15. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of E. coli O157:H7 Isolated from Traditionally Marketed Raw Cow Milk in and around Asosa Town, Western Ethiopia.

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    Disassa, Nigatu; Sibhat, Berhanu; Mengistu, Shimelis; Muktar, Yimer; Belina, Dinaol

    2017-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2014 to July 2015 to determine the prevalence and populations of E. coli as well as the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of E. coli O157:H7 isolated from raw milk. Biochemical and serological tests methods were used to confirm E. coli and E. coli O157:H7 and isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility test using the agar disc diffusion method. Out of 380 raw milk samples examined, 129 (33.9%) and 11 (2.9%) were contaminated with E. coli and E. coli O157:H7, respectively. The highest prevalence was recorded in samples obtained from vendors (39.1%, 4.978 ± 0.180 log 10 /ml) compared with samples from farmers (28.1%, 3.93 ± 0.01 log 10 /ml) with significant differences ( P = 0.02). The frequency of contamination was higher in the samples collected from milk that was stored and transported in plastic containers (39.4%) than in the containers made of stainless steel (23.0%) ( P = 0.002). The antimicrobial susceptibility profile showed that E. coli O157:H7 were resistant to tetracycline (81.8%), streptomycin (81.8%), and kanamycin (63.6%). Milk samples were produced and handled under poor hygienic conditions, stored, and transported in inappropriate containers and under temperature abuse conditions leading to high health risk to the consumers. Additional studies would be needed to establish association between the occurrences of E. coli O157:H7 in raw milk and all the risk factors involved in and around Asosa town.

  16. Prevalence of Panulirus argus Virus 1 (PaV1) and habitation patterns of healthy and diseased Caribbean spiny lobsters in shelter-limited habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Alvarez, Enrique; Briones-Fourzán, Patricia; Ramírez-Estévez, Aurora; Placencia-Sánchez, David; Huchin-Mian, Juan Pablo; Rodríguez-Canul, Rossana

    2008-07-07

    Caribbean spiny lobsters Panulirus argus are socially gregarious, preferring shelters harboring conspecifics over empty shelters. In laboratory trials, however, healthy lobsters strongly avoided shelters harboring lobsters infected with the highly pathogenic Panulirus argus Virus 1 (PaV1). Because PaV1 is transmitted by contact, this behavior may thwart its spread in wild lobsters. In a field experiment conducted from 1998 to 2002 in a shelter-poor reef lagoon (Puerto Morelos, Mexico), densities of juvenile P. argus increased significantly on sites enhanced with artificial shelters (casitas) but not on control sites. Because PaV1 emerged in this location during 2000, we reexamined these data to assess whether casitas could potentially increase transmission of PaV1. In 2001, PaV1 prevalence was 2.5% and the cohabitation level (percentage of healthy lobsters cohabiting with diseased lobsters) was similar between natural shelters (3.5%) and casitas (2.4 %). The relative lobster densities in casita sites and control sites did not change significantly before (1998-1999) or after (2001-2002) the disease emergence. In late 2006, data from casita sites showed a significant increase in prevalence (10.9%) and cohabitation level (29.4%), but no significant changes in lobster density. In May 2006, casitas were deployed on shelter-poor sites within Chinchorro Bank, 260 km south of Puerto Morelos. In late 2006, prevalence and cohabitation level were 7.4 and 21.7%, respectively. Our results are inconclusive as to whether or not casitas increase PaV1 transmission, but suggest that across shelter-poor habitats, lobsters make a trade-off between avoiding diseased conspecifics and avoiding predation risk.

  17. Prevalence and Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns of Extended-Spectrum ß-Lactamase and Metallo-ß-Lactamase-Producing Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadiri, Hamed; Vaez, Hamid; Razavi-Azarkhiavi, Kamal; Rezaee, Ramin; Haji-Noormohammadi, Mehdi; Rahimi, Ali Asghar; Vaez, Vahid; Kalantar, Enayatollah

    2014-01-01

    Healthcare professionals worldwide have expressed concern over infections by extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL) and metallo-ß-lactamase (MBL)-producing bacteria. We evaluated the prevalence of ESBL- and MBL-producing Escherichia coli (E. coli) isolated from community-acquired urinary tract infections (UTIs) and their antibiotic-resistance profiles at 3 private laboratories in Tehran, Iran. E. coli isolates were mostly susceptible to meropenem (90.4%) and imipenem (90.0%), followed by amikacin (89.0%) and gentamicin (84.7%). Moreover, we detected that, of the E. coli isolates, 67 (22.3%) were ESBL producers and 21 (7.0%) of E. coli isolates were MBL positive via the imipenem-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) combined disc test. This report is the first, to our knowledge, on the prevalence of MBL-producing uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) strains in Iran. The antibiotic resistance of E. coli isolates revealed that 122 (40.7%) were multidrug resistant. The high number of antibiotic-resistant and ß-lactamase-producing UPEC strains necessitates further attention and consideration, particularly MBL-producing strains. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP).

  18. ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY BASED STUDY OF THE PREVALENCE AND PATTERN OF CONGENITAL HEART DISEASE (CHD IN 5-15 YEARS OLD SCHOOL GOING CHILDREN OF MANIPUR, A NORTH-EAST HILLY INDIAN STATE

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    Rajendra Singh Thangjam

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND CHD is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the developed world, while reports from India looking into the burden of the disease have been variable depending on the age group of subjects studied and the methodology involved. We were interested to find the prevalence and pattern of the disease in this north eastern Indian state of Manipur, which has a unique geographical and racial composition. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a community based, prospective, cross sectional study where each and every child aged 5-15 years from randomly selected schools of Manipur were examined by 2D colour Doppler Echocardiography and physically as well, where the examiners were blinded, and the findings were noted independent of each other. The anthropometric parameters, clinical details and echocardiography findings were all recorded. RESULTS Of the 3600 children examined, 47 cases of CHD were detected, giving echocardiographic prevalence of 13 per 1000 where BAV (44% was found as the commonest lesion followed by VSD (17% and ASD (14%. Clinically detectable lesion was found in 21 subjects (VSD -8, ASD-7, PS-3, PDA -1, AVSD-1, BAV-1 with AR. Of the clinically detectable CHD, VSD was the commonest followed by ASD. In the subclinical CHD category, 20 cases of BAV, 4 cases of mild MVP without MR, 1 case of apical LV discompacta, 1 case of IASA were detected. CONCLUSION The echocardiography prevalence of congenital heart disease in school going children of Manipur is 13/1000. This highest ever reported prevalence of CHD in children is most probably related to the use of the highly sensitive investigative tool of Echocardiography in each subject of our study resulting in detection of clinically silent lesions.

  19. Changing prevalence and antibiotic drug resistance pattern of pathogens seen in community-acquired pediatric urinary tract infections at a tertiary care hospital of North India

    OpenAIRE

    Patwardhan, Vrushali; Kumar, Dinesh; Goel, Varun; Singh, Sarman

    2017-01-01

    b>Introduction: Timely treatment of urinary tract infection (UTI) with appropriate antibiotic administration is of immense importance in children to reduce the consequences. Aims and Objectives: The aim and objective of this study was to assess the temporal changes in the microbiological profiles and antimicrobial resistance patterns of uropathogens in pediatric community-acquired UTI. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of data collected over a Scattered period of 5...

  20. Lifestyle Patterns and Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among Rural School Children of Age 6 to 9 Years of District Una, Himachal Pradesh

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    Shilpa Choudhary

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many studies have reported prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents from urban areas as well as of underweight or malnutrition from rural areas. With changing lifestyles everywhere, a need was felt to study the prevalence of overweight and obesity among rural children also. METHODOLOGY: Present cross-sectional study was planned involving 210 school children (103 boys and 107 girls of age 6-9 years from various private schools of district Una, Himachal Pradesh, India. IOTF (International Obesity Task Force cutoffs for BMI were used. Information about lifestyle, eating habits, physical activity and socio-economic status was collected through well designed questionnaire, which was filled by the parents of the children. The population studied mostly belonged to lower and upper middle class. SPSS version 17.0 was used to analyze the data. RESULTS: Overweight and obesity among children was found to be 14.8%. Time spent in physical activity has reduced greatly; also there was increased sedentary lifestyle among rural children. 93.5% of overweight and obese children were considered fine (according to their weight by their parents. The children, who did not have their food timely, ate less frequently and ate junk food more than 3-times a week, were found to be more overweight and obese. CONCLUSION: Percentage of overweight and obese children (14.8% seen in the study has provided evidence that it is not only the urban population or the higher socioeconomic class groups that are affected with the lifestyle related problems but changing lifestyle has affected rural children also.

  1. Constitution of traditional chinese medicine and related factors in women of childbearing age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qiao-Yu; Li, Jue; Zheng, Liang; Wang, Guang-Hua; Wang, Jing

    2018-04-01

    This study investigates the constitution of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) among women who want to be pregnant in one year and explores factors related to TCM constitution. This study was conducted on women who participated in free preconception check-ups provided by the Zhabei District Maternity and Child Care Center in Shanghai, China. The information regarding the female demographic characteristics, physical condition, history of pregnancy and childbearing, diet and behavior, and social psychological factors was collected, and TCM constitution assessment was performed. The Chi-square test, t-test, logistic regression analysis, and multinomial logistic regression analysis were used to explore the related factors of TCM constitution. The participants in this study were aged 28.3 ± 3.0 years. Approximately fifty-five women in this study had Unbalanced Constitution. Logistic regression analysis showed that Shanghai residence, dysmenorrhea, gum bleeding, aversion to vegetables, preference for raw meat, job stress, and economic stress were significantly and negatively associated with Balanced Constitution. Multinomial logistic analysis showed that Shanghai residence was significantly associated with Yang-deficiency, Yin-deficiency, and Stagnant Qi Constitutions; gum bleeding was significantly associated with Yin-deficiency, Stagnant Blood, Stagnant Qi, and Inherited Special Constitutions; aversion to vegetables was significantly associated with Damp-heat Constitution; job stress was significantly associated with Yang-deficiency, Phlegm-dampness, Damp-heat, Stagnant Blood, and Stagnant Qi Constitutions; and economic stress was significantly associated with Yang-deficiency, and Stagnant Qi Constitutions. The application of TCM constitution to preconception care would be beneficial for early identification of potential TCM constitution risks and be beneficial for early intervention (e.g., health education, and dietary education), especially during the women who do

  2. The measurement of childbearing motivation in couples considering the use of assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Warren B; Millstein, Susan G; Pasta, David J

    2008-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the motivational antecedents to the use of assisted reproductive technology (ART). In this paper we measure the fertility motivations of infertile couples who are considering the use of ART, using an established instrument, the Childbearing Questionnaire (CBQ). Our sample consists of 214 men and 216 women who were interviewed at home after an initial screening for ART but before making a final decision. We conducted two sets of analyses with the obtained data. In one set, we compared the scores on scales and subscales of the CBQ for the males and females in our sample with the scores for males and females from a comparable normative sample. For these analyses we first examined sample and gender differences with a four-group analysis of variance. We then conducted a series of linear models that included background characteristics as covariates and interactions between sample, gender, and age and between those three variables and the background characteristics. The results showed the expected higher positive and lower negative motivations in the ART sample and a significant effect on positive motivations of the interaction between sample and age. In the second set of analyses, we developed several new subscales relevant to facets of the desire for a child that appear to be important in ART decision-making. These facets include the desire to be genetically related to the child and the desire to experience pregnancy and childbirth. A third facet, the desire for parenthood, is already well covered by the existing subscales. The results showed the new subscales to have satisfactory reliability and validity. The results also showed that the original and new subscales predicted the three facets of the desire for a child in a multivariate context. We conclude with a general discussion of the way our findings relate both to ART decision-making and to further research on the motivations that drive it.

  3. Constitution of traditional chinese medicine and related factors in women of childbearing age

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    Qiao-Yu Jiang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study investigates the constitution of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM among women who want to be pregnant in one year and explores factors related to TCM constitution. Methods: This study was conducted on women who participated in free preconception check-ups provided by the Zhabei District Maternity and Child Care Center in Shanghai, China. The information regarding the female demographic characteristics, physical condition, history of pregnancy and childbearing, diet and behavior, and social psychological factors was collected, and TCM constitution assessment was performed. The Chi-square test, t-test, logistic regression analysis, and multinomial logistic regression analysis were used to explore the related factors of TCM constitution. Results: The participants in this study were aged 28.3 ± 3.0 years. Approximately fifty-five women in this study had Unbalanced Constitution. Logistic regression analysis showed that Shanghai residence, dysmenorrhea, gum bleeding, aversion to vegetables, preference for raw meat, job stress, and economic stress were significantly and negatively associated with Balanced Constitution. Multinomial logistic analysis showed that Shanghai residence was significantly associated with Yang-deficiency, Yin-deficiency, and Stagnant Qi Constitutions; gum bleeding was significantly associated with Yin-deficiency, Stagnant Blood, Stagnant Qi, and Inherited Special Constitutions; aversion to vegetables was significantly associated with Damp-heat Constitution; job stress was significantly associated with Yang-deficiency, Phlegm-dampness, Damp-heat, Stagnant Blood, and Stagnant Qi Constitutions; and economic stress was significantly associated with Yang-deficiency, and Stagnant Qi Constitutions. Conclusion: The application of TCM constitution to preconception care would be beneficial for early identification of potential TCM constitution risks and be beneficial for early intervention (e.g., health

  4. Childbearing and Economic Work: The Health Balance of Women in Accra, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterhouse, Philippa; Hill, Allan G; Hinde, Andrew

    2016-02-01

    This study aims to investigate (1) whether the health of working women with young children differs from that of working women without young children, and (2) which social factors mediate the relationship between economic and maternal role performance and health among mothers with young children. The analyses uses panel data from 697 women present in both waves of the Women's Health Study for Accra (WHSA-I and WHSA-II); a community based study of women aged 18 years and older in the Accra Metropolitan Area of Ghana conducted in 2003 and 2008-2009. Change in physical and mental health between the survey waves is compared between women with a biological child alive at WHSA-II and born since WHSA-I and women without a living biological child at WHSA-II born in the interval. To account for attrition between the two survey waves selection models were used with unconditional change score models being used as the outcome model. We found in our sample of working women that those who had a child born between WHSA-I and WHSA-II who was still alive at WHSA-II did not experience a change in mental or physical health different from other women. Among working women with young children, educational status, relationship to the household head and household demography were associated with change in mental health at the 5 % level, whilst migration status and household demography was associated with change in physical health scores. The results suggest there are no health penalties of combining work and childbearing among women with young children in Accra, Ghana.

  5. Declines in Crime and Teen Childbearing: Identifying Potential Explanations for Contemporaneous Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colen, Cynthia G.; Ramey, David M.; Browning, Christopher R.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The previous 25 years have witnessed remarkable upheavals in the social landscape of the United States. Two of the most notable trends have been dramatic declines in levels of crime as well as teen childbearing. Much remains unknown about the underlying conditions that might be driving these changes. More importantly, we do not know if the same distal factors that are responsible for the drop in the crime rate are similarly implicated in falling rates of teen births. We examine four overarching potential explanations: fluctuations in economic opportunity, shifting population demographics, differences in state-level policies, and changes in expectations regarding health and mortality. Methods We combine state-specific data from existing secondary sources and model trajectories of violent crime, homicides, robberies, and teen fertility over a 20-year period from 1990 to 2010 using simultaneous fixed-effects regression models. Results We find that 4 of the 21 predictors examined - growth in the service sector of the labor market, increasing racial diversity especially among Hispanics, escalating levels of migration, and the expansion of family planning services to low-income women – offer the most convincing explanations for why rates of violent crime and teen births have been steadily decreasing over time. Moreover, we are able to account for almost a quarter of the joint declines in violent crime and teen births. Conclusions Our conclusions underscore the far reaching effects that aggregate level demographic conditions and policies are likely to have on important social trends that might, at first glance, seem unrelated. Furthermore, the effects of policy efforts designed to target outcomes in one area are likely to spill over into other domains. PMID:27695160

  6. Antimicrobial Resistance Pattern in Escherichia coli Isolates Obtained from a Specialized Women and Children Hospital in Shiraz, Iran: A Prevalence Study

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    Mahtab Hadadi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Escherichia coli, known as a clinically significant bacteria, can cause a wide range of infections, including urinary tract infections (UTIs, blood stream infections (BSIs, and can frequently be isolated from various clinical specimens. Evaluation of antimicrobial resistant pattern is a necessary action, especially about such bacteria which are frequent and life threatening. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and antimicrobial resistance pattern of E. coli isolates obtained from various clinical specimens. Methods: This retrospective study was performed within a seven month period from January 2015 to August 2015 at a specialized women and children hospital in Shiraz, Iran. E. coli isolates were obtained from various clinical specimens and identified using standard microbiological procedure. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were determined using disk diffusion method in accordance with CLSI recommendation. Results: Of the total 130 positive cultures, the majority of E. coli isolates were obtained from urine (96=73.8% and blood (11=8.5% specimens. Overall, gentamicin (70.8% was the effective antibiotic for the tested E. coli isolates. E. coli isolates obtained from urine specimens showed the highest resistance rates against ampicillin (84.4% and nalidixic acid (61.5%; while they showed the most sensitivity to gentamicin (79.2%, nitrofurantoin (70.8% and ciprofloxacin (66.7%. Moreover, the highest antibiotic resistance rates belonged to the isolates recovered from endotracheal tube (ETT. Conclusion: The results showed that gentamicin was the most effective antibiotic against E. coli infections. However, in addition to the gentamicin, we can recommend nitrofurantoin and ciprofloxacin as the other effective agents for UTIs

  7. Global Ischemia ECG pattern for diagnosis of acute left main occlusion: prevalence and associated mortality in patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stengaard, Carsten; Sørensen, Jacob Thorsted; Andersen, M.P.

    2011-01-01

    .J. Terkelsen2, 1Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Department of medicine and Cardiology A - Aarhus - Denmark, 2Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby, Department of Cardiology - Aarhus - Denmark, 3Aalborg University, Department of Health Science and Technology - Aalborg - Denmark, 4Tampere University Hospital...... ischemia ECG pattern (GIP) has been proposed for diagnosis of acute left main stem (LM) occlusion. The GIP is defined by ST-elevation of 1mm in lead aVR and ST-depression of 0.5mm in seven or more ECG leads. Previous studies focus on the sensitivity of GIP in patients with confirmed LM occlusion. We...

  8. A snapshot of the prevalence of physical activity amongst older, community dwelling people in Victoria, Australia: patterns across the 'young-old' and 'old-old'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidson Sandra

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity has a range of health benefits for older people. The aim of this study was to determine physical activity prevalence and attitudes amongst respondents to a trial screening survey. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted. Subjects were community dwelling older people aged ≥ 65 years, recruited via general practices in Victoria, Australia. Participants completed a mailed screening tool containing the Geriatric Depression Scale, the Active Australia survey and the Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire. Results Of 330 participants, 20% were ≥ 80 years. Activity levels were similar to those reported in population studies. The proportion of participants reporting physical activity was greatest for the walking category, but decreased across categories of physical activity intensity. The oldest-old were represented at all physical activity intensity levels. Over half reported exercising at levels that, according to national criteria are, 'sufficient to attain health benefit'. A greater proportion of participants aged 85 years and older were unaware of key physical activity messages, compared to participants aged less than 85 years. Conclusion Most population surveys do not provide details of older people across age categories. This survey provided information on the physical activity of people up to 91 years old. Physical activity promotion strategies should be tailored according to the individual's needs. A better understanding of the determinants of physical activity behaviour amongst older sub-groups is needed to tailor and target physical activity promotion strategies and programs to maximise physical activity related health outcomes for older people.

  9. Evaluation of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) pattern and prevalence of beta-thalassaemia trait among sickle cell disease patients in Lagos, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemo, Titilope; Ojewunmi, Oyesola; Oyetunji, Ajoke

    2014-01-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is the most common inherited disorder of haemoglobin worldwide. This study evaluated the chromatographic patterns and red blood cell indices of sickle cell patients to determine the co-inheritance of other haemoglobin(Hb) variants and β-thalassaemia trait. Red cell indices, blood film, sickle solubility test, Hb electrophoresis using alkaline cellulose acetate membrane, and chromatographic patterns using Bio Rad HPLC Variant II were evaluated for 180 subjects. Based on low MCV 4.0% on HPLC and Hb variants eluting outside the S and C windows, at least four haemoglobin phenotypes (SS: 87.7%; SC: 1.1%; SD Punjab: 0.6%; Sβ-thalassemia: 10.6%) were identified. Mean Hb F% was 8.1±5.1 (median 7.65) for Hb SS and 6.03±5.2 (median 3.9) for Hb Sβ-thalassemia trait. Majority of Hb SS (69.1%) had Hb F% less than 10 while 27.6% had 10-19.9 and 3.2% had ≥ 20. Mean Hb F% was higher in female Hb SS (9.55±5.09; mean age 7.4±3.8 years) than the males (7.63±4.80; mean age 6.9±3.8 years) (P=0.02). A borderline significant negative correlation between age and Hb F levels among Hb SS subjects (r= -0.169 P=0.038) was also observed. Our data suggests that α and β- thalassaemia traits, and other haemoglobin variants co-exist frequently with SCD in our population.

  10. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns and prevalence of group B Streptococcus isolated from pregnant women in Misiones, Argentina Sensibilidade a antibióticos e prevalência de Streptococcus do grupo B em mulheres grávidas em Missiones, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Quiroga

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to determine the susceptibility patterns and the colonization rate of Group B Streptococcus (GBS in a population of pregnant women. From January 2004 to December 2006, vaginal-rectal swabs were obtained from 1105 women attending Dr. Ramón Madariaga Hospital, in Posadas, Misiones, Argentina. The carriage rate of GBS among pregnant women was 7.6%. A total of 62 GBS strains were randomly selected for in vitro susceptibility testing to penicillin G, ampicillin, tetracycline, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, ciprofloxacin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, linezolid, vancomycin, rifampicin, trimethoprim-sulfametoxazol, nitrofurantoin, gentamicin, clindamycin and erythromycin, and determination of resistance phenotypes. No resistance to penicillin, ampicillin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, linezolid, and vancomycin was found. Of the isolates examined 96.8%, 98.3%, 46.8%, and 29.0% were susceptible to rifampicin, nitrofurantoin, trimethoprim-sulfametoxazol and tetracycline, respectively. Rank order of susceptibility for the quinolones was: gatifloxacin (98.4% > levofloxacin (93.5% > ciprofloxacin (64.5%. The rate of resistance to erythromycin (9.7% was higher than that of other reports from Argentina. High-level resistance to gentamicin was not detected in any of the isolates. Based on our finding of 50% of GBS isolates with MIC to gentamicin equal o lower than 8 µg/ml, a concentration used in one of the selective media recommended for GBS isolation, we suggested, at least in our population, the use of nalidixic acid and colistin in selective media with the aim to improve the sensitivity of screening cultures for GBS carriage in women.Esse estudo objetivou determinar os padrões de sensibilidade a antibióticos e as taxas de colonização de Streptococcus do grupo B (GBS em uma população de mulheres grávidas. Entre janeiro de 2004 e dezembro de 2006, foram obtidos swabs vaginais-retais de 1105 mulheres no Hospital Dr. Ramon Madariaga, em

  11. Serum Retinol Concentrations, Race, and Socioeconomic Status in of Women of Childbearing Age in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrine Hanson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitamin A is an essential nutrient during pregnancy and throughout the lifecycle due to its role in the development of critical organ systems. Because maternal tissue is progressively depleted of vitamin A to supply fetal demands, women who become pregnant while possessing marginal vitamin A reserves are at increased risk of vitamin A inadequacy as pregnancy progresses. Few studies have assessed the relationship between socioeconomic factors and retinol status in women of childbearing age. Methods: We used the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES to assess the relationship between serum retinol concentrations and socioeconomic factors in women of childbearing age. Women 14–45 years of age (n = 3170 from NHANES cycles 2003–2004 and 2005–2006 were included. Serum retinol concentrations were divided into categories according to World Health Organization criteria. All statistical procedures accounted for the weighted data and complex design of the NHANES sample. A p-value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The poverty score and race were significantly associated with vitamin A status after adjustment for confounders. Odds of retinol concentrations of <1.05 µmol/L were 1.85 times higher for those of lower socioeconomic status when compared to those of higher status (95% CI: 1.12–3.03, p = 0.02, and 3.1 times higher for non-Hispanic blacks when compared to non-Hispanic whites (95% CI: 1.50–6.41, p = 0.002. Dietary intakes of retinol activity equivalents were significantly lower in groups with higher poverty scores (p = 0.004. Conclusion There appear to be disparities in serum vitamin A levels in women of childbearing age related to income and race in the United States.

  12. Siblings' premarital childbearing and the timing of first sex in three major cities of Cote d'Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diop-Sidibe, Nafissatou

    2005-06-01

    The association between youths' sexual and reproductive attitudes and behaviors and those of their peers and parents has been documented; however, information on siblings' influence is scarce, especially for developing countries. Data on 1,395 female and 1,242 male survey respondents aged 15-24 from three cities in Côte d'Ivoire were analyzed. Life-table analysis was conducted to examine respondents' probability of remaining sexually inexperienced according to siblings' history of premarital childbearing. Cox multivariate regressions were used to estimate respondents' relative risks of sexual debut by age 17 and by age 24. At any age between 15 and 24 years, the life-table probability of remaining sexually inexperienced was typically lower among persons who had at least one sibling with a premarital birth than among those who had no such sibling. In general, among those with at least one sibling who had had a premarital birth, the probability was lower if the sibling or siblings and the respondent were of the same gender rather than opposite genders, and the probability was lowest among those who had a brother and a sister with a history of premarital childbearing. In the multivariate analysis for males, having one or more brothers only, or having at least one brother and at least one sister, with a history of premarital childbearing was associated with increased relative risks of being sexually experienced by ages 17 and 24. No such association was found for females. Programs that seek to reduce premarital sexual activity among young people should develop strategies that take into account the potential influence of siblings.

  13. Elevated dry-season malaria prevalence associated with fine-scale spatial patterns of environmental risk: a case-control study of children in rural Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townes, Lindsay R; Mwandama, Dyson; Mathanga, Don P; Wilson, Mark L

    2013-11-11

    Understanding the role of local environmental risk factors for malaria in holo-endemic, poverty-stricken settings will be critical to more effectively implement- interventions aimed at eventual elimination. Household-level environmental drivers of malaria risk during the dry season were investigated in rural southern Malawi among children Authority (TA) regions dominated by small-scale agriculture. Ten villages were randomly selected from TA Sitola (n = 6) and Nsamala (n = 4). Within each village, during June to August 2011, a census was conducted of all households with children under-five and recorded their locations with a geographic position system (GPS) device. At each participating house, a nurse administered a malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT) to children under five years of age, and a questionnaire to parents. Environmental data were collected for each house, including land cover within 50-m radius. Variables found to be significantly associated with P. falciparum infection status in bivariate analysis were included in generalized linear models, including multivariate logistic regression (MLR) and multi-level multivariate logistic regression (MLLR). Spatial clustering of RDT status, environmental factors, and Pearson residuals from MLR and MLLR were analysed using the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic. Of 390 children enrolled from six villages in Sitola (n = 162) and four villages in Nsamala (n = 228), 45.6% tested positive (n = 178) for Plasmodium infection by RDT. The MLLR modelled the statistical relationship of Plasmodium positives and household proximity to agriculture ( 2.58, p < 0.01) predominantly within TA Sitola, while residuals from MLLR showed no such clustering. This study provides evidence for significant, dry-season heterogeneity of malaria prevalence strongly linked to peridomestic land use, and particularly of elevated risk associated with nearby crop production.

  14. Prevalence and patterns of cooking dinner at home in the USA: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virudachalam, Senbagam; Long, Judith A; Harhay, Michael O; Polsky, Daniel E; Feudtner, Chris

    2014-05-01

    To measure the prevalence of cooking dinner at home in the USA and test whether home dinner preparation habits are associated with socio-economic status, race/ethnicity, country of birth and family structure. Cross-sectional analysis. The primary outcome, self-reported frequency of cooking dinner at home, was divided into three categories: 0-1 dinners cooked per week ('never'), 2-5 ('sometimes') and 6-7 ('always'). We used bivariable and multivariable regression analyses to test for associations between frequency of cooking dinner at home and factors of interest. The 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The sample consisted of 10 149 participants. Americans reported cooking an average of five dinners per week; 8 % never, 43 % sometimes and 49 % always cooked dinner at home. Lower household wealth and educational attainment were associated with a higher likelihood of either always or never cooking dinner at home, whereas wealthier, more educated households were more likely to sometimes cook dinner at home (P cooked the fewest dinners at home (mean = 4·4, 95 % CI 4·2, 4·6). Households with foreign-born reference persons cooked more dinners at home (mean = 5·8, 95 % CI 5·7, 6·0) than households with US-born reference persons (mean = 4·9, 95 % CI 4·7, 5·1). Households with dependants cooked more dinners at home (mean = 5·2, 95 % CI 5·1, 5·4) than households without dependants (mean = 4·6, 95 % CI 4·3, 5·0). Home dinner preparation habits varied substantially with socio-economic status and race/ethnicity, associations that likely will have implications for designing and appropriately tailoring interventions to improve home food preparation practices and promote healthy eating.

  15. 'Informed and uninformed decision making'--women's reasoning, experiences and perceptions with regard to advanced maternal age and delayed childbearing: a meta-synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Alison; Mills, Tracey A; Lavender, Tina

    2010-10-01

    To identify what factors affect women's decisions to delay childbearing, and to explore women's experiences and their perceptions of associated risks. Systematic procedures were used for search strategy, study selection, data extraction and analysis. Findings were synthesised using an approach developed from meta-ethnography. We included qualitative papers, not confined to geographical area (1980-2009). Databases included CINAHL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycInfo, ASSIA, MIDIRS, British Nursing Index and the National Research Register. We selected qualitative empirical studies exploring the views and experiences of women of advanced maternal age who were childless or primigravidae with a singleton pregnancy or primiparous. Twelve papers fulfilled the selection criteria and were included for synthesis. Women appear to face an issue of 'informed and uninformed decision making'; those who believe they are informed but may not be, those who are not informed and find out they are at risk once pregnant, and those who are well informed but choose to delay pregnancy anyway. Maternity services could provide information to enable informed choice regarding timing of childbearing. Health professionals need to be mindful of the fact that women delay childbearing for various reasons. A strategy of pre-conception education may be beneficial in informing childbearing decisions. Obstetricians and midwives should be sensitive to the fact that women may not be aware of all the risks associated with delayed childbearing. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The influence of the distribution of household and childrearing tasks between men and women on childbearing intentions in Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Isabella Buber

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to look at the extent to which the division of household work and childrearing and the perception of how fair these tasks are divided influence plans of further childbearing. We concentrate on women with one child and want to look at the question whether a woman whose partner shares the domestic responsibilities with her wishes to have a second child more often than a woman with a partner who does not help out. The data used in this study are drawn from the Austri...

  17. A Room to Grow: The Residential Density-dependence of Childbearing in Europe and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathanael Lauster

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available I argue that cultural processes linked to the demographic transition produce new density-dependent fertility dynamics. In particular, childbearing becomes dependent upon residential roominess. This relationship is culturally specific, and I argue that the cultural nature of this relationship means that professional and managerial classes are likely to be particularly influenced by residential roominess, while immigrants are less likely to be influenced. I test hypotheses linking residential roominess to the presence of an “own infant” in the household using census data from the Austria, Greece, Portugal, Spain, and the United States. Roominess predicts fertility in all countries, but to differing degrees.

  18. The Pattern of Mobile Phone Use and Prevalence of Self-Reported Symptoms in Elementary and Junior High School Students in Shiraz, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, Seyed Mohammad Javad; Atefi, Mohammad; Kholghi, Fatemeh

    2011-01-01

    Background: The use of mobile phone by children is increasing drastically. Children are likely to accumulate many years of exposure during their lives. Furthermore, as nervous systems in children are developing, children may be at a greater risk compared to adults. In this light, some scientists have suggested that the use of mobile phones should be restricted in high-risk groups such as children. This study is an attempt to explore the pattern of mobile phone use and its health effects among students from the city of Shiraz, Iran. Methods: A total of 469 (235 males and 234 females; 250 elementary and 219 junior high school) healthy students participated in this study. The students were randomly selected from three different educational districts of the city. For each student, a questionnaire regarding the possible sources of exposure to electromagnetic fields or microwave radiation, specially the pattern of mobile phone use, medical history and life style was filled out by interviewers. Results: Only 31.42% of the students used to use mobile phones. The average daily time of using mobile phones in talk mode was 7.08±21.42 minutes. Not only the relative frequency of mobile phone ownership in boys was significantly more than the girls, but also the boys used their mobile phones more frequently. Statistically significant associations were found between the time mobile phones were used in talk mode and some symptoms. Furthermore, a statistically significant association was found between the time mobile phones were used in talk mode and the number of headaches per month, number of vertigo per month, or number of sleeping problem per month. Conclusion: Results obtained in this study show that a large proportion of children in the city of Shiraz use mobile phones. A significant increase was found in some self-reported symptoms among users of mobile phones. These findings are in line with what is widely believed regarding the higher vulnerability of children to exhibit

  19. The Pattern of Mobile Phone Use and Prevalence of Self-Reported Symptoms in Elementary and Junior High School Students in Shiraz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Javad Mortazavi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of mobile phone by children is increasing drastically. Children are likely to accumulate many years of exposure during their lives. Furthermore, as nervous systems in children are developing, children may be at a greater risk compared to adults. In this light, some scientists have suggested that the use of mobile phones should be restricted in high-risk groups such as children. This study is an attempt to explore the pattern of mobile phone use and its health effects among students from the city of Shiraz, Iran. Methods: A total of 469 (235 males and 234 females; 250 elementary and 219 junior high school healthy students participated in this study. The students were randomly selected from three different educational districts of the city. For each student, a questionnaire regarding the possible sources of exposure to electromagnetic fields or microwave radiation, specially the pattern of mobile phone use, medical history and life style was filled out by interviewers. Results: Only 31.42% of the students used to use mobile phones. The average daily time of using mobile phones in talk mode was 7.08±21.42 minutes. Not only the relative frequency of mobile phone ownership in boys was significantly more than the girls, but also the boys used their mobile phones more frequently. Statistically significant associations were found between the time mobile phones were used in talk mode and some symptoms. Furthermore, a statistically significant association was found between the time mobile phones were used in talk mode and the number of headaches per month, number of vertigo per month, or number of sleeping problem per month. Conclusion: Results obtained in this study show that a large proportion of children in the city of Shiraz use mobile phones. A significant increase was found in some self-reported symptoms among users of mobile phones. These findings are in line with what is widely believed regarding the higher vulnerability of

  20. The pattern of mobile phone use and prevalence of self-reported symptoms in elementary and junior high school students in shiraz, iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, Seyed Mohammad Javad; Atefi, Mohammad; Kholghi, Fatemeh

    2011-06-01

    The use of mobile phone by children is increasing drastically. Children are likely to accumulate many years of exposure during their lives. Furthermore, as nervous systems in children are developing, children may be at a greater risk compared to adults. In this light, some scientists have suggested that the use of mobile phones should be restricted in high-risk groups such as children. This study is an attempt to explore the pattern of mobile phone use and its health effects among students from the city of Shiraz, Iran. A total of 469 (235 males and 234 females; 250 elementary and 219 junior high school) healthy students participated in this study. The students were randomly selected from three different educational districts of the city. For each student, a questionnaire regarding the possible sources of exposure to electromagnetic fields or microwave radiation, specially the pattern of mobile phone use, medical history and life style was filled out by interviewers. Only 31.42% of the students used to use mobile phones. The average daily time of using mobile phones in talk mode was 7.08±21.42 minutes. Not only the relative frequency of mobile phone ownership in boys was significantly more than the girls, but also the boys used their mobile phones more frequently. Statistically significant associations were found between the time mobile phones were used in talk mode and some symptoms. Furthermore, a statistically significant association was found between the time mobile phones were used in talk mode and the number of headaches per month, number of vertigo per month, or number of sleeping problem per month. RESULTS obtained in this study show that a large proportion of children in the city of Shiraz use mobile phones. A significant increase was found in some self-reported symptoms among users of mobile phones. These findings are in line with what is widely believed regarding the higher vulnerability of children to exhibit symptoms from using mobile phones. The

  1. Impacts of obesity on the health of women of childbearing age: A call ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-03-08

    Mar 8, 2016 ... Background: Obesity is a leading preventable cause of death worldwide with higher prevalence among women ... a result of ingestion of food in excess of the body's needs, and the ..... and Garvey W.T. American Association of.

  2. Place of Delivery Associated With Postnatal Care Utilization Among Childbearing Women in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Chungu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivePostnatal care (PNC utilization is critical to the prevention of maternal morbidity and mortality. Despite its importance, the proportion of women utilizing this service is still low in Zambia. We investigated if place of delivery was associated with PNC utilization in the first 48 h among childbearing women in Zambia.MethodsData from the 2013/14 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey for women, aged 15–49 years, who reported giving birth in the 2 years preceding the survey was used. The data comprised of sociodemographic and other obstetric data, which were cleaned, recoded, and analyzed using STATA version 13 (Stata Corporation, College Station, TX, USA. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the association of place of delivery and other background variables.ResultsWomen who delivered in a health facility were more likely to utilize PNC in the first 48 h compared to those who did not deliver in a health facility: government hospital (AOR 7.24, 95% CI 4.92–11.84, government health center/clinic (AOR 7.15 95% CI 4.79–10.66, other public sector (AOR 23.2 95% CI 3.69–145.91, private hospital/clinic (AOR 10.08 95% CI 3.35–30.35, and Mission hospital/clinic (AOR 8.56 95% CI 4.71–15.53. Additionally, women who were attended to by a skilled personnel during delivery of the baby were more likely to utilize PNC (AOR 2.30, 95% CI 1.57–3.37. Women from rural areas were less likely to utilize PNC in the first 48 h (AOR 0.70, 95% CI 0.53–0.90.ConclusionPlace of delivery was found to be linked with PNC utilization in this population although access to health care is still driven by inequity-related dynamics and imbalances. Given that inequity stresses are heaviest in the rural and poor groups, interventions should aim to reach this group.SignificanceThe study results will help program managers to increase access to health facility delivery and direct interventional efforts toward the affected subpopulations

  3. Place of Delivery Associated With Postnatal Care Utilization Among Childbearing Women in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chungu, Charles; Makasa, Mpundu; Chola, Mumbi; Jacobs, Choolwe Nkwemu

    2018-01-01

    Postnatal care (PNC) utilization is critical to the prevention of maternal morbidity and mortality. Despite its importance, the proportion of women utilizing this service is still low in Zambia. We investigated if place of delivery was associated with PNC utilization in the first 48 h among childbearing women in Zambia. Data from the 2013/14 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey for women, aged 15-49 years, who reported giving birth in the 2 years preceding the survey was used. The data comprised of sociodemographic and other obstetric data, which were cleaned, recoded, and analyzed using STATA version 13 (Stata Corporation, College Station, TX, USA). Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the association of place of delivery and other background variables. Women who delivered in a health facility were more likely to utilize PNC in the first 48 h compared to those who did not deliver in a health facility: government hospital (AOR 7.24, 95% CI 4.92-11.84), government health center/clinic (AOR 7.15 95% CI 4.79-10.66), other public sector (AOR 23.2 95% CI 3.69-145.91), private hospital/clinic (AOR 10.08 95% CI 3.35-30.35), and Mission hospital/clinic (AOR 8.56 95% CI 4.71-15.53). Additionally, women who were attended to by a skilled personnel during delivery of the baby were more likely to utilize PNC (AOR 2.30, 95% CI 1.57-3.37). Women from rural areas were less likely to utilize PNC in the first 48 h (AOR 0.70, 95% CI 0.53-0.90). Place of delivery was found to be linked with PNC utilization in this population although access to health care is still driven by inequity-related dynamics and imbalances. Given that inequity stresses are heaviest in the rural and poor groups, interventions should aim to reach this group. The study results will help program managers to increase access to health facility delivery and direct interventional efforts toward the affected subpopulations, such as the young and rural women. Furthermore, results will help

  4. Different patterns of inappropriate antimicrobial use in surgical and medical units at a tertiary care hospital in Switzerland: a prevalence survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexia Cusini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Unnecessary or inappropriate use of antimicrobials is associated with the emergence of antimicrobial resistance, drug toxicity, increased morbidity and health care costs. Antimicrobial use has been reported to be incorrect or not indicated in 9-64% of inpatients. We studied the quality of antimicrobial therapy and prophylaxis in hospitalized patients at a tertiary care hospital to plan interventions to improve the quality of antimicrobial prescription. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Experienced infectious diseases (ID fellows performed audits of antimicrobial use at regular intervals among all patients--with or without antimicrobials--hospitalized in predefined surgical, medical, haemato-oncological, or intensive care units. Data were collected from medical and nursing patient charts with a standardized questionnaire. Appropriateness of antimicrobial use was evaluated using a modified algorithm developed by Gyssens et al.; the assessment was double-checked by a senior ID specialist. We evaluated 1577 patients of whom 700 (44.4% had antimicrobials, receiving a total of 1270 prescriptions. 958 (75.4% prescriptions were for therapy and 312 (24.6% for prophylaxis. 37.0% of therapeutic and 16.6% of prophylactic prescriptions were found to be inappropriate. Most frequent characteristics of inappropriate treatments included: No indication (17.5%; incorrect choice of antimicrobials (7.6%; incorrect application of drugs (9.3%; and divergence from institutional guidelines (8%. Characteristics of inappropriate prophylaxes were: No indication (9%; incorrect choice of antimicrobials (1%; duration too long or other inappropriate use (6.7%. Patterns of inappropriate antimicrobial varied widely in the different hospital units; empirical prescriptions were more frequently incorrect than prescriptions based on available microbiological results. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Audits of individual patient care provide important data to identify local

  5. Healthy Eating and Harambee: curriculum development for a culturally-centered bio-medically oriented nutrition education program to reach African American women of childbearing age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Srimathi; Sparks, Arlene V; Webster, J DeWitt; Krishnakumar, Ambika; Lumeng, Julie

    2010-07-01

    The purpose was to develop, implement and evaluate a peer-led nutrition curriculum Healthy Eating and Harambee that addresses established objectives of maternal and infant health and to shift the stage for African American women of childbearing age in Genesee County toward healthier dietary patterns using a socio-cultural and biomedical orientation. The PEN-3 model, which frames culture in the context of health promotion interventions, was integrated with the Transtheoretical Model to guide this 13-week pre-test/post-test curriculum. Materials developed included soul food plate visuals, a micronutrient availability worksheet, a fruit stand, and gardening kits. Learning activities included affirmations, stories, case-scenarios, point-of-purchase product recognition, church health teams, and community health fairs. We investigated health-promoting dietary behaviors (consumption of more fruits and vegetables (F&V), serving more F&V to their families, and moderating dietary sodium and fat intakes), and biomedical behaviors (self-monitoring blood pressure and exercising) across five stages of change. Session attendance and program satisfaction were assessed. N = 102 women participated (mean age = 27.5 years). A majority (77%) reported adopting at least one healthy eating behavior (moderating sodium, serving more F&V to their families), 23% adopted at least two such behaviors (reading food labels for sodium; using culinary herbs/spices; serving more F&V to their families), and 45% adopted both dietary (moderating sodium; eating more fruits) and biomedical behaviors. Participants and facilitators favorably evaluated the curriculum and suggested improvements. A multi-conceptual approach coupled with cultural and biomedical tailoring has potential to promote young African American women's movement to more advanced stages of change and improve self-efficacy for fruit and vegetable intake, dietary sodium moderation, and self-monitoring blood pressure and physical activity.

  6. Childbearing across borders: Fertility and parenthood attitudes and decisions among breast cancer survivors in USA and Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Vânia; Hudson, Janella; Canavarro, Maria Cristina; Morris, Julie; Lee, M Catherine; Donovan, Kristine A; Sutton, Steven K; Vadaparampil, Susan T; Quinn, Gwendolyn P

    2018-04-16

    To compare fertility and childbearing attitudes and decisions of Portuguese and American female reproductive aged breast cancer survivors. This was a cross-sectional study of 102 young breast cancer survivors (59 from Portugal and 43 from USA). Demographic, clinical and reproductive information were collected. Fertility and parenthood attitudes and decisions were assessed through a self-report questionnaire devised specifically for the study. Fertility issues became very important after the diagnosis for most of the women (51%). Few differences existed between USA and Portuguese participants. USA participants were more likely to undergo FP (23% USA vs Portugal 5%, p = 0.01). Portuguese women were more dissatisfied with their physician's explanations about fertility (Portugal: 23% vs USA: 3%; p = 0.01). Overall, women relied on their oncologist for fertility information (70%); only Portuguese women discussed fertility with their family medicine physician (11%). Overall, women showed positive attitudes towards motherhood. Portuguese women were more likely to report their partners placed more value on the family after their illness (Portuguese agree: 55% vs USA agree: 14%; p USA and Portuguese samples were found on fertility and childbearing attitudes and decisions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Tailoring an Alcohol Intervention for American Indian Alaska Native Women of Childbearing Age: Listening to the Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Annika C; Dusek, Marlené L; Ortega, Marina L; Camp-Mazzetti, Alexandrea; Calac, Dan J; Chambers, Christina D

    2017-11-01

    Reduction of risky drinking in women of childbearing age is 1 strategy that may be employed to prevent fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, a sequela of prenatal alcohol exposure. Communities differ in risk and protective factors, necessitating culturally informed interventions for maximal efficacy. This article describes the modification of an existing web-based screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment intervention to reduce risky drinking among American Indian Alaska Native (AIAN) women of childbearing age in Southern California into a peer-to-peer-based intervention using motivational interviewing (MI). The modification process was iterative and included various community focus groups, interviews, and a final review. Intervention modification was required for cultural congruence. Components of the peer-to-peer intervention designed by this project included a flip chart used to guide the motivational interviewing, charts of the financial and physical costs of alcohol consumption, revised baseline and follow-up questionnaires, and guidance regarding the application of MI techniques. This study may inform the modification of future interventions among AIAN communities. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  8. How prevalent is 'food addiction'?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian eMeule

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that binge eating-related disorders could be related to addiction-like eating patterns due to the addictive potential of hyperpalatable foods. Subsequently, important implications have been derived for treatment of those disorders and even political actions. However, studies on the prevalence of food addiction are rare. Few recent studies investigated addictive eating in children, adolescents, and adults. This mini-review presents these first attempts to assess addictive eating and how prevalent addictive eating patterns were in the respective studies. It is concluded that the prevalence of food addiction is increased in obese individuals and even more so in obese patients with binge eating disorder. However, prevalence of food addiction is not sufficient to account for the obesity epidemic. Conversely, an arguably high prevalence of food addiction can also be found in under-, normal-, and overweight individuals. Future studies may investigate which factors are associated with addictive eating in non-obese individuals.

  9. Nuptiality pattern in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, M K; al-Mazrou, Y Y; Baldo, M H; Aziz, K M; al-Shehri, S N

    1995-01-01

    The data of this work are based on the 'Saudi Maternal and Child Health Survey' conducted in 1991. This was a nationwide house to house field survey. The study included 6294 ever-married Saudi female in the childbearing age who represent the target population. They were randomly selected from both urban and rural settings of the five geographical areas of Saudi Arabia. The mean current age of the sample of ever-married women was 31 years and the mean age at first marriage was 17 and 16 years for urban and rural females, respectively. Education was associated with upward shift of the age at first marriage. About 20 per cent of the sampled ever-married Saudi females got married before their 15th birthday and 83 per cent before reaching 20 years of age. These percentages are even higher in rural than urban settings. The overall percentage of women who were currently married at the time of the survey was 96 per cent. The divorced and widowed women of childbearing age were 2 and 3 per cent, respectively, of the total. Husband's educational level had positive impact on the frequency of divorce. The latter was highest among women married to illiterate husbands with a dose response pattern. Comparison has been made with the situation 4 years ago. An increase in literacy rates among Saudi ever-married women and their husbands was observed, however, a significant (P < 0.05) difference still exists between female and male literacy rates (38 and 71 per cent, respectively). The events of early marriage, before the age of 15 years, became less frequent. There is an overall decline in teenage marriages which explains a large part of the recent changes observed in nuptiality and pattern of birth in Saudi Arabia.

  10. Teenage pregnancy: the impact of maternal adolescent childbearing and older sister's teenage pregnancy on a younger sister.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall-Wieler, Elizabeth; Roos, Leslie L; Nickel, Nathan C

    2016-05-25

    Risk factors for teenage pregnancy are linked to many factors, including a family history of teenage pregnancy. This research examines whether a mother's teenage childbearing or an older sister's teenage pregnancy more strongly predicts teenage pregnancy. This study used linkable administrative databases housed at the Manitoba Centre for Health Policy (MCHP). The original cohort consisted of 17,115 women born in Manitoba between April 1, 1979 and March 31, 1994, who stayed in the province until at least their 20(th) birthday, had at least one older sister, and had no missing values on key variables. Propensity score matching (1:2) was used to create balanced cohorts for two conditional logistic regression models; one examining the impact of an older sister's teenage pregnancy and the other analyzing the effect of the mother's teenage childbearing. The adjusted odds of becoming pregnant between ages 14 and 19 for teens with at least one older sister having a teenage pregnancy were 3.38 (99 % CI 2.77-4.13) times higher than for women whose older sister(s) did not have a teenage pregnancy. Teenage daughters of mothers who had their first child before age 20 had 1.57 (99 % CI 1.30-1.89) times higher odds of pregnancy than those whose mothers had their first child after age 19. Educational achievement was adjusted for in a sub-population examining the odds of pregnancy between ages 16 and 19. After this adjustment, the odds of teenage pregnancy for teens with at least one older sister who had a teenage pregnancy were reduced to 2.48 (99 % CI 2.01-3.06) and the odds of pregnancy for teen daughters of teenage mothers were reduced to 1.39 (99 % CI 1.15-1.68). Although both were significant, the relationship between an older sister's teenage pregnancy and a younger sister's teenage pregnancy is much stronger than that between a mother's teenage childbearing and a younger daughter's teenage pregnancy. This study contributes to understanding of the broader topic "who is

  11. A comparison of folate status in women of child-bearing age in Korea and in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun T

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Taisun Hyun,1 Suguna Badiga,2 Han Byul Jang,1 Young-Hee Han,1 Chandrika J Piyathilake21Department of Food and Nutrition, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Korea; 2Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USABackground: Even though several studies have demonstrated that periconceptional supplementation with folic acid (FA reduces the occurrence of neural tube defects, FA fortification has been a topic of intense debate due to the possible adverse effects of higher folate status on several health conditions. Several countries, including Korea, have been indecisive as to whether fortification is warranted or not. It is therefore helpful for these countries to compare folate concentrations in their populations with populations exposed to mandatory FA fortification.Purpose: To evaluate the differences in the distribution of circulating concentrations of folate in Korea and the United States (US at different time points.Methods: The Korean study populations consisted of women of child-bearing age recruited in 1999 and in 2009. The US study populations consisted of women of child-bearing age recruited in the post FA fortification era (2005 and 2009. Plasma and red blood cell (RBC folate concentrations were measured using the Lactobacillus casei microbiological assay.Results: The percentage of US women with neural tube defect-protective levels of RBC folate was significantly higher compared to Korean women in 1999 and 2009. However, in 2009, when FA supplements became readily available for Koreans, 50% of Korean women in the study achieved the neural tube defect-protective level of RBC folate; 11% of them demonstrating supraphysiologic concentrations of plasma folate. Even though FA fortification in the US resulted in more than 80of women achieving >400 ng/mL of RBC folate by 2009, nearly 50% also demonstrated having supraphysiologic concentrations of plasma folate, which prompted some researchers to

  12. [The course of recurrent urinary tract infections in non-pregnant women of childbearing age, the consequences for daily life and the ideas of the patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, S.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the natural history of recurrent urinary tract infections in women of childbearing age and to gain insight into their consequences and the ideas of the patients. DESIGN: Historical cohort-study and interviews with patients. METHOD: All non-pregnant women in the age-range

  13. Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission: Precarious Hopes and Childbearing Choices Among HIV-Infected Women in a Northern Province of Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Tine; Rasch, Vibeke; Bui, Kim Chi

    2012-01-01

    's faith in their futures and childbearing capacities. Based on the findings, the authors discuss the new forms of gendered uncertainty that arise in the era of HIV/AIDS in Vietnam. They conclude that prevention of mother-to-child transmission, including the counseling offered by health providers, plays...

  14. Prevalence and pattern of knee osteoarthritis in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Muiruri

    knee OA and their health-care seeking behaviour. ... Healthcare seeking behaviour of adults in this ... Least significance Difference (LSD) was used for post ... selected and all households in each selected ward were ... participants were farmers (62.8%) and non smokers ..... insurance and sustainable healthcare reform in.

  15. Anisometropia: Prevalence, Demographic Associations, Pattern and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anisometropia is the difference in the magnitude of ametropia between the two eyes. This anomaly causes unpleasant ocular symptoms; can alter binocularity; and impair vision. Under-corrected anisometropia and lack of optical considerations in correction is a common cause of spectacle intolerance. This was to determine ...

  16. Prevalence and Pattern of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This trend is on the increase consequently there is prolong hospital stay, increased hospital bills, and increased morbidity and mortality. The widespread use of antimicrobial agents such as the â- lactam antibiotics has contributed to the emergence of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA); which has become ...

  17. Electrophoresis test prevalence, requesting patterns, yield and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most of the appropriate SPE test requests were from clinical haematology, renal ... implementation of principles of demand management and the ... electrophoresis (IFE)) in a South African (SA) pathology laboratory setting are limited. Objectives. ... (NHLS) hospital information system database from 1 July 2010 to. 30 June ...

  18. "To be taken seriously" : women's reflections on how migration and resettlement experiences influence their healthcare needs during childbearing in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Eva K

    2015-06-01

    To use an intersectional approach to analyze women's reflections on how their migration and resettlement experiences to Sweden influenced their health and healthcare needs during childbearing. Focus-group discussions, pair interviews and individual interviews were conducted in southern Sweden between 2006 and 2009, with 25 women originating from 17 different countries with heterogeneous backgrounds that had experienced childbirth in Sweden. Qualitative content analysis was used with an intersectional approach, taking into consideration intersections of ethnicity, socio-economic status (SES) and gender. The hardships of migration, resettlement, and constraints in the daily life made the women feel overstrained, tense, and disembodied. Being treated as a stranger and ignored or rejected in healthcare encounters was devaluing and discriminating. The women stressed that they felt stronger and had fewer complications during pregnancy and labor when they were "taken seriously" and felt that they had a confident, caring relationship with caregivers/midwives. This, therefore, enabled the women to boost their sense of self, and to recognize their capabilities, as well as their "embodied knowledge". Caregivers/midwives should be aware of the hardships the women face. Hardships stem from experiences of migration and resettlement as well as from structural constraints such as the "triple jeopardy" of ethnicity, SES and gender, which increase women's needs of support in childbearing. Such awareness is necessary when promoting health and reducing the unnecessary suffering and victimization of women, their children, and their families. It is a matter of patient safety and equity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. [Prescribing valproate to girls and women of childbearing age in Germany : Analysis of trends based on claims data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentzell, Nadine; Haug, Ulrike; Schink, Tania; Engel, Susanne; Liebentraut, Judith; Linder, Roland; Onken, Marlies; Schaefer, Christof; Dathe, Katarina

    2018-06-19

    Measures to raise awareness of the teratogenic potential of valproate and restrict its use in girls/women of childbearing age have been intensified. For Germany, the impact of these measures on valproate prescription rates remains unknown. Trends in prescribing valproate, the underlying treatment indication, and the specialty of the prescribing physician are analyzed. With claims data from several statutory health insurance providers from 2004 to 2016 (approximately 3.5 million insured persons per year) considering treatment indication and medical specialties of prescribing physicians, we assessed the rate of girls/women (12 to 50 years) with at least one valproate dispensation per year. The age-standardized rate of girls/women with at least one valproate dispensation declined by 28% between 2004 and 2016 (2.91/1000 vs. 2.09/1000). For 2015, the indications were epilepsy (66.9%), bipolar disorder (13.6%), migraine/headache (5.6%), schizoaffective disorder (4.3%), and other mental disorders (8.9%). Among epilepsy patients, the proportion treated with valproate declined from 26.2 to 16.8%, but changed little in patients with bipolar disorder (9.3% vs. 8.0%). A total of 46.3% of valproate dispensations were issued by neurologists or psychiatrists and 29.6% by general practitioners, internal medicine specialists, or family doctors. Based on German claims data, a decline of valproate dispensations was shown for epilepsy patients of childbearing age, while the proportion in other indications has hardly changed since 2004.

  20. Trends in Attitudes About Marriage, Childbearing, and Sexual Behavior: United States, 2002, 2006-2010, and 2011-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Jill; Copen, Casey

    2016-03-17

    This report describes attitudes about marriage, childbearing, and sexual behavior among men and women aged 15-44 in the United States based on the 2002, 2006-2010, and 2011-2013 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG). Data for all three survey periods were collected through in-person interviews with nationally representative, independent samples of men and women in the household population of the United States. The overall response rate for NSFG was 79% in 2002, 77% in 2006-2010, and 73% in 2011-2013. Attitudinal items examined in this report include those related to marriage, divorce, cohabitation, parenthood, and sexual behavior. Where data from all three survey periods were available, differences were tested using trend analysis. Data from the 2002 survey were not available for some attitude items, and in these cases, comparisons were made only between the 2006-2010 and 2011-2013 surveys. Attitudinal differences by age group were analyzed using 2011-2013 data. All results are shown separately for women and men. From 2002 to 2011-2013, there was an increase in the percentages of men and women who agreed with premarital cohabitation, nonmarital childbearing, the right for gay and lesbian adults to adopt children, same-sex sexual relations, and premarital sex for those aged 18. There was a decrease in the percentages of men and women who agreed with divorce. There was no change in the percentages of men and women who agreed with premarital sex for those aged 16. There was no change from 2006-2010 to 2011-2013 in attitudes regarding marriage, cohabitation and the risk of divorce, the necessity of having children for one's happiness, and raising children in a cohabiting union. Several of the attitudinal items varied significantly by age group for both men and women. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  1. Quantifying the risks and benefits of efavirenz use in HIV-infected women of childbearing age in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, H E; Rydzak, C E; Cotich, K L; Wang, B; Sax, P E; Losina, E; Freedberg, K A; Goldie, S J; Lu, Z; Walensky, R P

    2011-02-01

    The aim of the study was to quantify the benefits (life expectancy gains) and risks (efavirenz-related teratogenicity) associated with using efavirenz in HIV-infected women of childbearing age in the USA. We used data from the Women's Interagency HIV Study in an HIV disease simulation model to estimate life expectancy in women who receive an efavirenz-based initial antiretroviral regimen compared with those who delay efavirenz use and receive a boosted protease inhibitor-based initial regimen. To estimate excess risk of teratogenic events with and without efavirenz exposure per 100,000 women, we incorporated literature-based rates of pregnancy, live births, and teratogenic events into a decision analytic model. We assumed a teratogenicity risk of 2.90 events/100 live births in women exposed to efavirenz during pregnancy and 2.68/100 live births in unexposed women. Survival for HIV-infected women who received an efavirenz-based initial antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen was 0.89 years greater than for women receiving non-efavirenz-based initial therapy (28.91 vs. 28.02 years). The rate of teratogenic events was 77.26/100,000 exposed women, compared with 72.46/100,000 unexposed women. Survival estimates were sensitive to variations in treatment efficacy and AIDS-related mortality. Estimates of excess teratogenic events were most sensitive to pregnancy rates and number of teratogenic events/100 live births in efavirenz-exposed women. Use of non-efavirenz-based initial ART in HIV-infected women of childbearing age may reduce life expectancy gains from antiretroviral treatment, but may also prevent teratogenic events. Decision-making regarding efavirenz use presents a trade-off between these two risks; this study can inform discussions between patients and health care providers.

  2. Quantifying the risks and benefits of efavirenz use in HIV-infected women of childbearing age in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, HE; Rydzak, CE; Cotich, KL; Wang, B; Sax, PE; Losina, E; Freedberg, KA; Goldie, SJ; Lu, Z; Walensky, RP

    2010-01-01

    Objectives We quantified the benefits (life expectancy gains) and harms (efavirenz-related teratogenicity) associated with using efavirenz in HIV-infected women of childbearing age in the United States. Methods We used data from the Women’s Interagency HIV Study in an HIV disease simulation model to estimate life expectancy in women who receive an efavirenz-based initial antiretroviral regimen compared with those who delay efavirenz use and receive a boosted protease inhibitor-based initial regimen. To estimate excess risk of teratogenic events with and without efavirenz exposure per 100,000 women, we incorporated literature-based rates of pregnancy, live births, and teratogenic events into a decision analytic model. We assumed a teratogenicity risk of 2.90 events/100 live births in women exposed to efavirenz during pregnancy and 2.68/100 live births in unexposed women. Results Survival for HIV-infected women who received an efavirenz-based initial antiretroviral therapy regimen was 0.89 years greater than for women receiving non-efavirenz-based initial therapy (28.91 vs. 28.02 years). The rate of teratogenic events was 77.26/100,000 exposed women, compared with 72.46/100,000 unexposed women. Survival estimates were sensitive to variations in treatment efficacy and AIDS-related mortality. Estimates of excess teratogenic events were most sensitive to pregnancy rates and number of teratogenic events/100 live births in efavirenz-exposed women. Conclusions Use of non-efavirenz-based initial antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected women of childbearing age may reduce life expectancy gains from antiretroviral treatment, but may also prevent teratogenic events. Decision-making regarding efavirenz use presents a tradeoff between these two risks; this study can inform discussions between patients and health care providers. PMID:20561082

  3. A UK clinical audit addressing the quality of prescribing of sodium valproate for bipolar disorder in women of childbearing age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paton, Carol; Cookson, John; Ferrier, I Nicol; Bhatti, Sumera; Fagan, Elizabeth; Barnes, Thomas R E

    2018-04-12

    To review prescribing practice concerning valproate, an established human teratogen, for the management of bipolar disorder in women of childbearing age. The Prescribing Observatory for Mental Health conducted a baseline clinical audit in the UK, as part of a quality improvement programme. Six hundred and forty-eight clinical teams from 55 mental health Trusts submitted retrospective treatment data relating to patients with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder. Of the audit sample of 6705 patients, 3854 were 50 years of age or younger. Valproate was prescribed for 24% of women and 43% men in this age group, and the mean dose of valproate was lower in women (1196 mg) than in men (1391 mg). For only half of such women was there documented evidence that information had been provided on the risks for the unborn child and the need for adequate contraception. Valproate was more often used in men to treat mania and aggression, while the most common treatment targets in women were hypomania and relapse prevention. Despite explicit recommendations in national treatment guidelines and published safety alerts and warnings regarding the use of valproate in women of childbearing age, current prescribing of this medication to such women in the context of the treatment of bipolar disorder falls short of best practice, particularly with regard to provision of information regarding the risks associated with exposure to valproate during pregnancy. While women younger than 50 years of age were less likely to be prescribed valproate than men in the same age group, and at a lower dosage, it is unclear to what extent this reflects clinicians' concerns about teratogenicity or is driven by perceptions of the indication for valproate, and the dosage required, for the treatment of different phases of the disorder in men and women. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless

  4. Magnitude and factors associated with institutional delivery service utilization among childbearing mothers in Cheha district, Gurage zone, SNNPR, Ethiopia: a community based cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habte, Feleke; Demissie, Meaza

    2015-11-17

    Ethiopia is one of the six countries that contributes' to more than 50 % of worldwide maternal deaths. While it is revealed that delivery attended by skilled provider at health facility reduced maternal deaths, more than half of all births in Ethiopia takes place at home. According to EDHS 2011 report nine women in every ten deliver at home in Ethiopia. The situation is much worse in southern region. The aim of our study is to measure the prevalence and to identify factors associated with institutional delivery service utilization among childbearing mothers in Cheha District, SNNPR, Ethiopia. A community based cross sectional survey was conducted in Cheha District from Dec 22, 2012 to Jan 11, 2013. Multistage sampling method was employed and 816 women who gave birth within the past 2 years and lived in Cheha district for minimum of one year prior to the survey were involved in the study. Data was entered and analyzed using Epi Info Version 7 and SPSS Version 16. Frequencies and binary logistic regression were done. Factors affecting institutional delivery were determined using multivariate logistic regression. A total of 31 % of women gave birth to their last child at health facility. Place of residence, ability to afford for the whole process to get delivery service at health facility, traveling time that takes to reach to health institution which provides delivery service, husband's attitude towards institutional delivery, counseling about where to deliver during ANC visit and place of birth of the 2(nd) youngest child were found to have statistically significant association with institutional delivery. Institutional delivery is low in the study area. Access to health service was found to be the most important predictor of institutional delivery among others. Accessing health facility within reasonable travel time; providing health education and BCC services to husbands and the community at large on importance of using health institution for delivery service

  5. Prevalence and resistance patterns of commensal S. aureus in community-dwelling GP patients and socio-demographic associations. A cross-sectional study in the framework of the APRES-project in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Kathryn; den Heijer, Casper D J; George, Aaron; Apfalter, Petra; Maier, Manfred

    2015-05-16

    The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence and resistance of commensal S. aureus in the nasal microbiota of community-dwelling persons in Austria, as well as to identify possible associations with socio-demographic factors. Multi-drug resistance in this population was additionally studied. This cross-sectional study was conducted within the context of the European APRES project. In nine European countries, nasal swabs were collected from 32,206 general practice patients who received care for non-infectious reasons. In Austria, 20 GPs attempted to recruit 200 consecutive patients without infectious diseases, with each patient completing demographic questionnaires as well as providing a nose swab sample. Isolation, identification, and resistance testing of S. aureus were performed. Statistical analyses included subgroup analyses and logistic regression models. 3309 nose swabs and corresponding questionnaires from Austrian subjects were analyzed. S. aureus was identified in 16.6 % (n = 549) of nose swabs, of which 70.1 % were resistant against one or more antibiotics, mainly penicillin. S. aureus carrier status was significantly associated with male sex (OR 1.6; 1.3-2.0), younger age (OR 1.3; 1.0-1.8), living in a rural area (OR 1.4; 1.1-1.7) and working in the healthcare sector (OR 1.5; 1.0-2.1). Multi-drug resistances were identified in 13.7 % (n = 75) of the S. aureus carriers and 1.5 % (n = 8) tested positive for MRSA. The highest resistance rate was observed against penicillin (64.8 %), followed by azithromycin (13.5 %) and erythromycin with 13.3 %. This study describes the prevalence and resistance patterns of commensal S. aureus in community-dwelling persons in Austria and shows that differences exist between socio-demographic groups. Demographic associations have been found for S. aureus carriers but not for carriers of resistant S. aureus strains. Only two thirds of S. aureus strains were found to be resistant against small spectrum penicillin

  6. Episódio depressivo maior, prevalência e impacto sobre qualidade de vida, sono e cognição em octogenários The prevalence of major depression and its impact in the quality of life, sleep patterns and cognitive function in a octogenarian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio MF Xavier

    2001-06-01

    ão maior não aparecia clinicamente sob a forma de "pseudodemência" depressiva e nem tinha impacto sobre os padrões de sono.OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of major depression in a community-dwelling population aged 80 years or more. The secondary objective was to compare this population's sleep patterns, cognitive function and frequency of other psychiatric disorders with a normal control group and other subjects with major depression. METHODS: A representative sample of 77 subjects (35% aged 80 years or more was randomly selected from the rural southern county of Veranopolis, Brazil. Of them, 5 subjects met the DSM-IV criteria for major depression disorder and 50 control subjects (without dementia, delirium or any mood disorder were compared. Sleep patterns were assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and a 2-week-sleep/wake diary. Five neuropsychological tests (the Buschke-Fuld Selective Reminding Test, the CERAD battery word list, the Verbal Fluency Test, and two sub-tests of the Wechsler memory scale were used for cognitive evaluation. RESULTS: The point prevalence rate for major depression was 7.5%. When compared to the control group, subjects with major depression had a higher frequency of generalized anxiety disorder as a comorbid condition, used more benzodiazepines and had a worse life quality according to the Short-form 36 scale. Depressed elderly people showed the same sleep patterns, and performed in the same manner in the cognitive tests as controls. CONCLUSION: The results corroborate the hypothesis that major depressive disorder is frequently found among the elderly population aged 80 or more. This disorder causes impact on life quality concerning health, and often occurs in association with generalized anxiety disorder. Among elderly aged 80 or more living in this community, major depression neither manifested as a form of depressive pseudo-dementia, nor did it have any impact on sleep patterns.

  7. An 11-year analysis of the prevalent uropathogens and the changing pattern of Escherichia coli antibiotic resistance in 38,530 community urinary tract infections, Dublin 1999-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, I M; Manecksha, R P; McCullagh, E; Ahmad, S; O'Kelly, F; Flynn, R; McDermott, T E D; Murphy, P; Grainger, R; Fennell, J P; Thornhill, J A

    2013-03-01

    Knowledge of local antimicrobial resistance patterns is essential for evidence-based empirical antibiotic prescribing, and a cutoff point of 20% has been suggested as the level of resistance at which an agent should no longer be used empirically. We sought to identify the changing incidence of causative uropathogens over an 11-year period. We also examined the trends in antibiotic resistance encountered in both the pooled urine samples and those where the causative organism was Escherichia coli. A retrospective analysis of the antimicrobial resistance within the positive community urine isolates over the 11-year period, 1999 to 2009, in a single Dublin teaching hospital was performed. In total 38,530 positive urine samples processed at our laboratory originated in the community of which 23,838 (56.7%) had E. coli as the infecting organism. The prevalence of E. coli has been increasing in recent years in community UTIs with 70.4% of UTIs in the community caused by E.coli in 2009. Ampicillin and trimethoprim were the least-active agents against E. coli with mean 11-year resistance rates of 60.8 and 31.5%, respectively. Significant trends of increasing resistance over the 11-year period were identified for trimethoprim, co-amoxyclav, cefuroxime and gentamicin. Ciprofloxacin remains a reasonable empirical antibiotic choice in this community with an 11-year resistance rate of 10.6%. Higher antibiotic resistance rates were identified in the male population and in children. Resistance rates to commonly prescribed antibiotics are increasing significantly. This data will enable evidence-based empirical prescribing which will ensure more effective treatment and lessen the emergence of resistant uropathogens in the community.

  8. [Nutritional Status of Japanese Women of Childbearing Age and the Ideal Weight Range for Pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Kyoko; Kodama, Hiroko; Kido, Michiko

    2018-01-01

    According to the recent 2015 Nutrition Survey, the prevalence of being underweight (Body Mass Index, BMI pregnancy. For optimal weight gain during pregnancy, existing guidelines recommend different ranges of weight gain based on prepregnancy BMI. Owing to the absence of official GWG recommendations in Asian countries, including China and Taiwan, the US Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines are generally followed. However, Asian women are smaller and experience lower weight gains; therefore, excessive weight gain may lead to harmful events including macrosomia, preterm birth, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, pregnancy-induced hypertension, and short- and long-term postpartum weight retention. Thus, an accurate GWG range should be determined for Asian women. We introduce one epidemiological study in which the optimal weight gain range was investigated by analyzing receiver-operating characteristic curves together with potential research ideas in this field with the aim of encouraging young researchers to solve this public health problem affecting mothers and children.

  9. Minimum Marriage Age Laws and the Prevalence of Child Marriage and Adolescent Birth: Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maswikwa, Belinda; Richter, Linda; Kaufman, Jay; Nandi, Arijit

    2015-06-01

    The relationship of national laws that prohibit child marriage with the prevalence of child marriage and adolescent birth is not well understood. Data from Demographic and Health Surveys and from the Child Marriage Database created by the MACHEquity program at McGill University were used to examine the relationship between laws that consistently set the age for marriage for girls at 18 or older and the prevalence of child marriage and teenage childbearing in 12 Sub-Saharan African countries. Countries were considered to have consistent laws against child marriage if they required females to be 18 or older to marry, to marry with parental consent and to consent to sex. Associations between consistent laws and the two outcomes were identified using multivariate regression models. Four of the 12 countries had laws that consistently set the minimum age for marriage at 18 or older. After adjustment for covariates, the prevalence of child marriage was 40% lower in countries with consistent laws against child marriage than in countries without consistent laws against the practice (prevalence ratio, 0.6). The prevalence of teenage childbearing was 25% lower in countries with consistent minimum marriage age laws than in countries without consistent laws (0.8). Our results support the hypothesis that consistent minimum marriage age laws protect against the exploitation of girls.

  10. [Prevalence, awareness, status of treatment and control on type 2 diabetes mellitus among Chinese premenopausal women aged 18-49 in 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y F; Wang, Z Q; Yang, J; Wang, L M; Zhao, Z P; Zeng, X Y; Wang, L H

    2018-02-10

    Objective: To analyze the rates on prevalence, awareness, status on treatment and control of type 2 diabetes mellitus among Chinese premenopausal women aged 18-49, in 2013. Methods: Data on China Chronic and Non-Communicable Disease Surveillance in year 2013 was used for analysis. Source of data covered 302 surveillance points which were selected by Multi-stage cluster random sampling method that including 176 534 adults over 18 years of age, with 46 674 premenopausal women aged 18-49. Plasma glucose and hemoglobin A1c levels were determined after a 10-hour overnight fast for all the participants, before a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test was conducted among participants without a self-reported history of diagnosed diabetes. Diabetes was defined according to the 1999 WHO diagnostic criteria-fasting blood glucose level as ≥7.0 mmol/L and/or 2 hours oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT-2 h) level as ≥11.1 mmol/L. After being weighed, according to complex sampling scheme and post-stratification, the sample was used to estimate the rates of prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of type 2 diabetes mellitus by age, education, urban and rural areas, and geographic locations. Results: The overall prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus was 5.6% among the Chinese premenopausal women aged 18-49. No statistical difference on the prevalence rates (5.7% and 5.4%, respectively) was seen, between participants from the rural or the urban areas. Prevalence rates in the eastern, central or western geographic areas were 5.8%, 6.2% and 4.4% respectively. The rates of awareness, treatment and control of diabetes appeared as 29.3%, 27.9% and 29.4% in childbearing women aged 18-49. The rate of treatment was 95.4% among those who knew their diabetic situation in childbearing women aged 18-49 years. The control rate of diabetes was 38.9% among those who had taken measures to control glucose, in 18-49-year-old childbearing women. The rate of awareness on diabetes in childbearing

  11. Men's childbearing desires and views of the male role in Europe at the dawn of the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Dorbritz

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The development of modern family patterns of the past decades has been accompanied by substantial changes in social norms, values and gender relations. There is theoretical support for the assumption that the persistence of low fertility levels across Europe is likely to be linked to the incomplete gender revolution, more specifically to the lack of, or only limited changes in the male gender role as opposed to women's role. In order to have a deeper understanding of the development of fertility, we aim to shed more light on the impact of men's role orientation on their fertility intentions in this study. Our analyses include men aged 20-44 years in eight countries: Austria, Estonia, East Germany, West Germany, Italy, Lithuania, the Netherlands and Poland. The data are extracted from the Population Policy Acceptance Study of the early 2000s. Examining within-country differences, we find that men with egalitarian attitudes seem to have higher fertility aspirations than their traditional counterparts in contemporary Europe. This is supported by both the descriptive and the multivariate analyses. The picture is somewhat less conclusive though when we focus on country-rankings by intended family size and by the prevalence of egalitarian versus traditional attitudes.

  12. Dietary Intakes of EPA and DHA Omega-3 Fatty Acids among US Childbearing-Age and Pregnant Women: An Analysis of NHANES 2001-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiying; Fulgoni, Victor L; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Mitmesser, Susan Hazels

    2018-03-28

    The 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) recommend that the general population should consume about 8 ounces (oz.) per week of a variety of seafood, providing approximately 250 mg per day of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and that pregnant and lactating women should consume 8–12 oz. per week of seafood. We determined the usual intakes, percentage not meeting recommendations, and trends in EPA and DHA intakes among childbearing-age and pregnant women (15–44 years of age) using the NHANES cycles 2001–2002 through 2013–2014. For the childbearing-age women, the mean usual intake of seafood was 0.44 ± 0.02 oz. equivalent per day and 100% of the population was below the DGA recommendation. Mean usual intakes of EPA, DHA, and combined EPA and DHA from foods and dietary supplements combined were 26.8 ± 1.4, 62.2 ± 1.9, and 88.1 ± 3.0 mg per day, respectively. Over 95% of the sample did not meet the daily intakes of 250 mg EPA and DHA. Similar results were observed for pregnant women. After controlling for covariates, there were slight but significant increases in EPA and DHA intakes from foods and dietary supplements over the 14-year span among childbearing-age ( p = 0.005) and pregnant women ( p = 0.002). It was estimated that a majority of U.S. childbearing-age and pregnant women consumed significantly lower amounts of seafood than what the DGA recommends, which subsequently leads to low intakes of EPA and DHA; in addition, dietary supplement use has not eliminated the nutrient shortfall.

  13. Educational attainment, perception of workplace support and its influence on timing of childbearing for Canadian women: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Amy; Vekved, Monica; Tough, Suzanne C

    2014-09-01

    Under Canada's Employment Insurance system, parents are entitled to receive up to 50 weeks of parental leave at 55 % of salary. Despite this national policy, women with higher education are more likely to delay childbearing. This analysis aimed to assess the association between workplace support, educational attainment and the timing of first births. Women who had recently given birth to their first live-born infant and lived in Alberta, Canada, were randomly selected to participate in a telephone survey. Logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between workplace support, educational attainment and timing of first pregnancy. Among 835 women with a planned pregnancy, 26 % agreed that support or lack of support for pregnant women at their workplace affected their decision about when to begin their family. After controlling for age and income, women who had completed a post-graduate degree were three times (OR 3.39, 95 % CI 1.69-6.81) more likely to indicate that support or lack of support for pregnant women in their workplace affected their childbearing decisions. In spite of national policies, and the potential risks associated with delayed childbearing, workplace support impacts timing of pregnancy, particularly for highly educated women.

  14. Blood folate concentrations among women of childbearing age by race/ethnicity and acculturation, NHANES 2001-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetta, Claire M; Hamner, Heather C

    2016-01-01

    Hispanic women have higher rates of neural tube defects and report lower total folic acid intakes than non-Hispanic white (NHW) women. Total folic acid intake, which is associated with neural tube defect risk reduction, has been found to vary by acculturation factors (i.e. language preference, country of origin, or time spent in the United States) among Hispanic women. It is unknown whether this same association is present for blood folate status. The objective of this research was to assess the differences in serum and red blood cell (RBC) folate concentrations between NHW women and Mexican American (MA) women and among MA women by acculturation factors. Cross-sectional data from the 2001-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used to investigate how blood folate concentrations differ among NHW or MA women of childbearing age. The impact of folic acid supplement use on blood folate concentrations was also examined. MA women with lower acculturation factors had lower serum and RBC folate concentrations compared with NHW women and to their more acculturated MA counterparts. Consuming a folic acid supplement can minimize these disparities, but MA women, especially lower acculturated MA women, were less likely to report using supplements. Public health efforts to increase blood folate concentrations among MA women should consider acculturation factors when identifying appropriate interventions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Methylmercury risk and awareness among American Indian women of childbearing age living on an inland northwest reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuntz, Sandra W., E-mail: skuntz@montana.edu [Montana State University, College of Nursing, 32 Campus Drive 7416, Missoula, MT 59812-7416 (United States); Hill, Wade G. [Montana State University, Sherrick Hall, PO Box 173560, Bozeman, MT 59717-3560 (United States); Linkenbach, Jeff W.; Lande, Gary [Montana State University, Culbertson Hall, Bozeman, MT 59717-3560 (United States); Larsson, Laura [Montana State University, Sherrick Hall, PO Box 173560, Bozeman, MT 59717-3560 (United States)

    2009-08-15

    American Indian women and children may be the most overrepresented among the list of disparate populations exposed to methylmercury. American Indian people fish on home reservations where a state or tribal fishing license (a source of advisory messaging) is not required. The purpose of this study was to examine fish consumption, advisory awareness, and risk communication preferences among American Indian women of childbearing age living on an inland Northwest reservation. For this cross-sectional descriptive study, participants (N=65) attending a Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinic were surveyed between March and June 2006. An electronic questionnaire adapted from Anderson et al. (2004) was evaluated for cultural acceptability and appropriateness by tribal consultants. Regarding fish consumption, approximately half of the women surveyed (49%) indicated eating locally caught fish with the majority signifying they consumed medium- and large-size fish (75%) that could result in exposure to methylmercury. In addition, a serendipitous discovery indicated that an unanticipated route of exposure may be fish provided from a local food bank resulting from sportsman's donations. The majority of women (80%) were unaware of tribal or state fish advisory messages; the most favorable risk communication preference was information coming from doctors or healthcare providers (78%). Since the population consumes fish and has access to locally caught potentially contaminated fish, a biomonitoring study to determine actual exposure is warranted.

  16. Childbearing trends in Iceland, 1982-2013: Fertility timing, quantum, and gender preferences for children in a Nordic context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Klængur Jónsson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iceland is one of the most gender-equal countries in the world, but one that does not seem to have experienced the same fertility fluctuations as most other countries, following the enhanced role of women in society. Objective: In this study we examine the childbearing trends in Iceland during 1982-2013 by analysing the progressions to parities one, two, and three. We also investigate whether there is evidence of gender preferences for children among Icelandic parents. Methods: Official individual longitudinal register data is used, covering the total female population born in Iceland between 1941 and 1997. The data is analysed by means of event history analysis. Results: We find evidence of tendencies to postpone motherhood during the period, with increases in fertility for women in their 30s and 40s. The propensity to have a second and a third child has not declined; on the contrary, these birth intensities have increased since the mid-1980s. Estimates suggest that Icelandic parents prefer to have daughters. Conclusions: During a period of increased educational attainment and postponed family formation, the resilience of Icelandic fertility is intriguing. Contribution: The study provides the first comprehensive overview of fertility trends in Iceland.

  17. Overview Chapter 5: Determinants of family formation and childbearing during the societal transition in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Frejka

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Societal conditions for early and high rates of childbearing were replaced by conditions generating late and low levels of fertility common in Western countries. Central among factors shaping the latter behaviour (job insecurity, unstable partnership relationships, expensive housing, and profound changes in norms, values and attitudes were the following: increasing proportions of young people were acquiring advanced education, a majority of women were gainfully employed, yet women were performing most household maintenance and childrearing duties. Two theories prevailed to explain what caused changes in family formation and fertility trends. One argues that the economic and social crises were the principal causes. The other considered the diffusion of western norms, values and attitudes as the prime factors of change. Neither reveals the root cause: the replacement of state socialist regimes with economic and political institutions of contemporary capitalism. The extraordinarily low period TFRs around 2000 were the result of low fertility of older women born around 1960 overlapping with low fertility of young women born during the 1970s.

  18. Methylmercury risk and awareness among American Indian women of childbearing age living on an inland northwest reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuntz, Sandra W.; Hill, Wade G.; Linkenbach, Jeff W.; Lande, Gary; Larsson, Laura

    2009-01-01

    American Indian women and children may be the most overrepresented among the list of disparate populations exposed to methylmercury. American Indian people fish on home reservations where a state or tribal fishing license (a source of advisory messaging) is not required. The purpose of this study was to examine fish consumption, advisory awareness, and risk communication preferences among American Indian women of childbearing age living on an inland Northwest reservation. For this cross-sectional descriptive study, participants (N=65) attending a Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinic were surveyed between March and June 2006. An electronic questionnaire adapted from Anderson et al. (2004) was evaluated for cultural acceptability and appropriateness by tribal consultants. Regarding fish consumption, approximately half of the women surveyed (49%) indicated eating locally caught fish with the majority signifying they consumed medium- and large-size fish (75%) that could result in exposure to methylmercury. In addition, a serendipitous discovery indicated that an unanticipated route of exposure may be fish provided from a local food bank resulting from sportsman's donations. The majority of women (80%) were unaware of tribal or state fish advisory messages; the most favorable risk communication preference was information coming from doctors or healthcare providers (78%). Since the population consumes fish and has access to locally caught potentially contaminated fish, a biomonitoring study to determine actual exposure is warranted.

  19. Poor thiamin and riboflavin status is common among women of childbearing age in rural and urban Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Kyly C; Karakochuk, Crystal D; Liu, Yazheng; McCann, Adrian; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Kroeun, Hou; Ward, Mary; McNulty, Helene; Lynd, Larry D; Kitts, David D; Li-Chan, Eunice C Y; McLean, Judy; Green, Timothy J

    2015-03-01

    Thiamin deficiency in infancy is the underlying cause of beriberi, which can be fatal without rapid treatment. Reports of thiamin deficiency are common in Cambodia; however, population representative data are unavailable. Because B-complex vitamin deficiencies commonly occur in combination, riboflavin was also investigated. We determined the biomarker status of thiamin and riboflavin in women of childbearing age in rural and urban Cambodia. We measured thiamin (erythrocyte thiamin diphosphate; TDP) and riboflavin (erythrocyte glutathione reductase activity coefficient; EGRac) status in a representative sample of Cambodian women (aged 20-45 y) in urban Phnom Penh (n = 146) and rural Prey Veng (n = 156), Cambodia, and, for comparison purposes, in a convenience sample of women in urban Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada (n = 49). Thiamin insufficiency (TDP ≤ 90 nmol/L) was common among both urban (39%) and rural (59%) Cambodian women (P Cambodia. The unexpected finding of high riboflavin inadequacy status in Vancouver women warrants further investigation. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. Advertising exposure and use of e-cigarettes among female current and former tobacco users of childbearing age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashford, Kristin; Rayens, Emily; Wiggins, Amanda T; Rayens, Mary Kay; Fallin, Amanda; Sayre, Molly Malany

    2017-09-01

    The study examined the relationship between exposure to e-cigarette advertising and e-cigarette use by pregnancy status, including use of flavored e-cigarette products, among women of childbearing age. A cross-sectional, correlational design was used. Female current or former tobacco users in Central and Eastern Kentucky, 18-45 years old (N = 194, 52% pregnant). Demographics, pregnancy status, cigarette and e-cigarette use, and exposure to e-cigarette advertising. Younger age, white non-Hispanic race, and greater exposure to e-cigarette advertising were associated with a higher likelihood of ever using e-cigarettes (p advertisements or information about e-cigarettes on social media, compared to those who used unflavored e-cigarettes only (p = .016). There is a link between advertising exposure and ever use of e-cigarettes. Pregnancy status is not significantly associated with ever use. Use of flavored e-cigarettes is associated with younger age. E-cigarette users with greater exposure to advertising on social media were more likely to use flavored products. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Investigation into the prevalence and antibacterial susceptibility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigation into the prevalence and antibacterial susceptibility patterns of aeromonas and plesiomonas species isolated from children with diarrhoea in Amuwo-Odofin and Surulere Local Government areas of Lagos, Nigeria.

  2. Blood cadmium levels in women of childbearing age vary by race/ethnicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mijal, Renee S., E-mail: rmijal@epi.msu.edu; Holzman, Claudia B. [Department of Epidemiology, Michigan State University, B601 W. Fee Hall, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    The heavy metal cadmium (Cd) is long-lived in the body and low-level cumulative exposure, even among non-smokers, has been associated with changes in renal function and bone metabolism. Women are more susceptible to the adverse effects of Cd and have higher body burdens. Due to increased dietary absorption of Cd in menstruating women and the long half-life of the metal, reproductive age exposures are likely important contributors to overall body burden and disease risk. We examined blood Cd levels in women of reproductive age in the US and assessed variation by race/ethnicity. Blood Cd concentrations were compared among female NHANES participants aged 20-44, who were neither pregnant nor breastfeeding. Sample size varied primarily based on inclusion/exclusion of smokers (n=1734-3121). Mean Cd concentrations, distributions and odds ratios were calculated using SUDAAN. For logistic regression Cd was modeled as high (the upper 10% of the distribution) vs. the remainder. Overall, Mexican Americans had lower Cd levels than other groups due to a lower smoking prevalence, smoking being an important source of exposure. Among never-smokers, Mexican Americans had 1.77 (95% CI: 1.06-2.96) times the odds of high Cd as compared to non-Hispanic Whites after controlling for age and low iron (ferritin). For non-Hispanic Blacks, the odds were 2.96 (CI: 1.96-4.47) times those of non-Hispanic Whites in adjusted models. Adjustment for relevant reproductive factors or exposure to environmental tobacco smoke had no effect. In this nationally representative sample, non-smoking Mexican American and non-Hispanic Black women were more likely to have high Cd than non-Hispanic White women. Additional research is required to determine the underlying causes of these differences.

  3. Blood cadmium levels in women of childbearing age vary by race/ethnicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mijal, Renee S.; Holzman, Claudia B.

    2010-01-01

    The heavy metal cadmium (Cd) is long-lived in the body and low-level cumulative exposure, even among non-smokers, has been associated with changes in renal function and bone metabolism. Women are more susceptible to the adverse effects of Cd and have higher body burdens. Due to increased dietary absorption of Cd in menstruating women and the long half-life of the metal, reproductive age exposures are likely important contributors to overall body burden and disease risk. We examined blood Cd levels in women of reproductive age in the US and assessed variation by race/ethnicity. Blood Cd concentrations were compared among female NHANES participants aged 20-44, who were neither pregnant nor breastfeeding. Sample size varied primarily based on inclusion/exclusion of smokers (n=1734-3121). Mean Cd concentrations, distributions and odds ratios were calculated using SUDAAN. For logistic regression Cd was modeled as high (the upper 10% of the distribution) vs. the remainder. Overall, Mexican Americans had lower Cd levels than other groups due to a lower smoking prevalence, smoking being an important source of exposure. Among never-smokers, Mexican Americans had 1.77 (95% CI: 1.06-2.96) times the odds of high Cd as compared to non-Hispanic Whites after controlling for age and low iron (ferritin). For non-Hispanic Blacks, the odds were 2.96 (CI: 1.96-4.47) times those of non-Hispanic Whites in adjusted models. Adjustment for relevant reproductive factors or exposure to environmental tobacco smoke had no effect. In this nationally representative sample, non-smoking Mexican American and non-Hispanic Black women were more likely to have high Cd than non-Hispanic White women. Additional research is required to determine the underlying causes of these differences.

  4. Hemoglobin correction factors for estimating the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in pregnant women residing at high altitudes in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Hadary Cohen

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available This study had two primary objectives: 1 to derive a method to determine hemoglobin cutoffs that could be used to better estimate the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy at high altitudes and 2 to estimate the prevalence of anemia in a sample of pregnant women residing in two cities in Bolivia, La Paz (3 600 meters and El Alto (4 000 meters. We derived a hemoglobin-altitude curve from previously published data on the mean hemoglobin concentrations of nonanemic women of childbearing age at various altitudes. In addition, we abstracted data on hemoglobin concentration during pregnancy from medical records of women from La Paz and El Alto who had given birth at a maternity hospital in La Paz between January and June of 1996. Using our approach and two other previously published, currently used methods, we calculated and compared prevalences of iron deficiency anemia in this population using hemoglobin cutoffs determined from a hemoglobin-altitude curve corrected for pregnancy. The hemoglobin-altitude curve derived in this study provided a better fit to data for women of childbearing age than the two other models. Those models used cutoffs based on non-iron-replete populations of children or men, both of which were residing below 4 000 m, and then extrapolated to women and higher altitudes. The estimated prevalences of iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy using the hemoglobin cutoffs determined in this study were higher than those estimated by the two other approaches.

  5. Prevalence of Pattern of Risky Behaviors for Reproductive and Sexual Health Among Middle- and High-School Students Prevalencia de patrón de comportamiento de riesgo para la salud sexual y reproductiva en estudiantes adolescentes Prevalência do padrão de comportamento de risco para a saúde sexual e reprodutiva em estudantes adolescentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalberto Campo-Arias

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to establish the prevalence and factors associated with the pattern of risky behavior for reproductive and sexual health (PRBRSH among secondary education students in Santa Marta, Colombia. A cross-sectional study was done. The PRBRSH was defined as having had two or more out of four possible risky sexual practices across the lifetime. Logistic regression was calculated to control for confounding variables. In total, 804 students reported lifetime sexual intercourse. PRBRSH was reported by 36.1% of the sample. Illegal substance use (OR=11.4, alcohol drinking (OR=2.5, being a middle-school student (OR=1.7 and middle or high socioeconomic status (1.4 were associated with PRBRSH. Around one out of three adolescent students is at high risk for HIV infection or unwanted pregnancy. Safe sex practices need to be promoted in this population.El objetivo de esta investigación fue establecer la prevalencia y factores asociados al patrón de comportamiento de riesgo para la salud sexual y reproductiva (PCRSSR en estudiantes de secundaria de Santa Marta, Colombia. Se realizó un estudio transversal. Se definió como PCRSSR la suma de dos o más, de cuatro posibles, comportamientos sexuales de riesgo durante la vida. Se usó la regresión logística para controlar variables de confusión. Un grupo de 804 estudiantes informó haber tenido relaciones sexuales. El 36,1% mostró el estándar de comportamiento de riesgo para la salud sexual y reproductiva. Se relacionaron con el PCRSSR el consumo de una sustancia ilegal (OR=11,4, el consumo de alcohol (OR=2,5, el ser estudiante de educación media vocacional (OR=1,7 y el pertenecer al estrato socioeconómico medio o alto (1,4. Aproximadamente uno de cada tres estudiantes adolescentes presenta alto riesgo de ser infectado por el VIH o de sufrir un embarazo no planificado. Se recomienda promover prácticas sexuales seguras.O objetivo desta pesquisa foi estimar a prevalência e alguns fatores

  6. On low fertility from the aspect of the economic activity of female population: Possibilities and restrictions in encouragement of childbearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šobot Ankica

    2014-01-01

    (Ignjatović, et al., 2011. The gender inequality on the micro level represents an unfavorable social framework for making childbearing decisions due to relatively high economic activity of women. Apart from that, high unemployment of both female and male population in Serbia is yet another adverse circumstance for forming a family and making decisions on births. Also, a challenge in reversal of low birth rates are regional differences of socio-economic characteristics of the female population. In that sense, the share of economically inactive among women of reproductive age in Vojvodina and two regions in Central Serbia area (excluding the region of Belgrade, as well as lower fertility of employed and unemployed women in the Belgrade region, are imposed. Economic activity and employment of female population form a positive framework in reproductive behavior, if the conditions regarding the characteristics of gender regime are fulfilled. In such circumstances fertility is around the replacement rate, which represents the highest birth rate values in European welfare states. Having in mind high valuation of family and parenthood on one hand, and economic characteristics of the female population in Serbia on the other, the question is whether the economic activity of women is the area where encouragement of childbearing to more than two children could be influenced. The reply requires more in-depth analysis of relevant data, as well as more concrete empirical and better quality research.

  7. Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis in women of reproductive age at a family health clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glehn, Mateus De Paula von; Sá, Lana Cristina Evangelista Ferreira; Silva, Hian Delfino Ferreira da; Machado, Eleuza Rodrigues

    2017-03-31

    Trichomonas vaginalis is considered the most prevalent curable sexually transmitted infection, and its occurrence exceeds that of gonococcal and chlamydia infections. This parasite has been identified as responsible for the increased risk of transmission of HIV and has also been associated with prostate and cervical cancer. Many carriers of T. vaginalis are asymptomatic and, when experiencing a health problem, they most often have nonspecific symptoms. The aim of this research was to estimate the presence of T. vaginalis and the associated factors in women of childbearing age at a primary health care clinic in the Federal District of Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted with consecutive sampling of an outpatient population of women of childbearing age (excluding minors and pregnant women). The women answered a questionnaire and were examined. After vaginal pH measurement and whiff testing, a vaginal secretion sample was obtained for inoculation in TYM, a specific T. vaginalis culture medium. The presence of T. vaginalis was identified in 16% of the sample. Fewer lifetime sexual partners and consistent condom use were identified as factors of protection against the infection. Complaints of dyspareunia were proportionally higher among women with positive cultures for T. vaginalis. The prevalence of T. vaginalis infection was high in the sample studied. The infection was positively associated with the number of lifetime sexual partners, and consistent condom use was a protective factor. Vaginal complaints were more common among women with T. vaginalis, but only dyspareunia had significant association.

  8. Food fortification knowledge in women of child-bearing age at Nkowankowa township in Mopani District, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selekane A. Motadi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Globally, there is evidence that three micronutrients deficiencies are of public health concern among children. They are vitamin A, iodine and iron deficiencies. Communities particularly affected are those in situations where poverty, unemployment, civil unrest, war and exploitation remain endemic. Malnutrition is an impediment to productivity, economic growth and poverty eradication. It is estimated that 32% of the global burden would be removed by eliminating malnutrition, including micronutrients deficiencies. Setting: The study was carried out in NkowaNkowa township of Mopani District, Limpopo Province, South Africa. Aim: The main objective was to determine the women’s knowledge on food fortification. Methods: The study design was descriptive. The snowballing method was used to identify women of child-bearing age. Data were collected from 120 participants using a questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of socio-demographic, general questions on women’s knowledge on food fortification. The questionnaire was administered by the researcher using the local language Xitsonga. Results: The findings of the study revealed that a majority of 204 (57.0% of the participants were able to define food fortification correctly while 257 (72.0% of the participants knew which foods are fortified as well as the benefits of a food fortification programme. The majority (252 [70.0%] of the participants knew that maize meal is one of the food vehicle used for fortification in South Africa. Conclusion: Most of the questions were answered correctly by more than 50.0% of the participants. The researcher deduced that the study participants are knowledgeable about food fortification based on the response given in relation to the programme.

  9. Anti-thyrotropin receptor antibody levels after radioiodine therapy in patients of childbearing age with Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Mizuho; Tojo, Katsuyoshi; Tajima, Naoko; Yoshimura, Hiroshi; Ito, Koichi

    2006-01-01

    Following radioiodine therapy for Graves' disease, transient elevation of anti-thyrotropin receptor antibody (TRAb) is observed. Elevation of TRAb causes neonatal hyperthyroidism. Serum TRAb levels before radioiodine therapy, 2 months to 1 year, 1 to 2 years, 2 to 3 years, and 3 to 4 years after radioiodine therapy were retrospectively analyzed in 25 women of childbearing age with Graves' disease. The normal range for TRAb is ≤15%. The one patient with serum TRAb levels <10% before radioiodine therapy did not have TRAb levels ≥50% after radioiodine therapy. However, in patients with serum TRAb levels of 10% to 30% before radioiodine therapy (n=8), TRAb were ≥50% in 75.0% 2 months to 1 year after radioiodine therapy, in 25.0% 1 to 2 years after, and in 37.5% 2 to 4 years after. In patients with serum TRAb levels of 30% to 50% before radioiodine therapy (n=3), TRAb levels were ≥50% in 33.3% 2 months to 1 year after radioiodine therapy and in 0.0% 1 to 4 years after. In patients with serum TRAb levels of 50% to 70% before radioiodine therapy (n=6), TRAb were ≥50% in 83.3% 2 months to 1 year after radioiodine therapy, in 66.6% 1 to 2 years after, and in 33.3% 2 to 4 years after. In patients with serum TRAb levels ≥70% before radioiodine therapy (n=7), TRAb levels were ≥50% in 100% 2 months to 1 year after radioiodine therapy, in 85.7% 1 to 2 years after, in 71.4% 2 to 3 years after, and in 57.1% 3 to 4 years after. Serum TRAb levels are more likely to be ≥50% after radioiodine therapy in patients with high serum TRAb levels before radioiodine therapy. (author)

  10. Impact of parental ages and other characteristics at childbearing on congenital anomalies: Results for the Czech Republic, 2000-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka Rychtarikova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND If the impact of maternal age at childbearing on congenital anomalies is well-known for the occurrence of Down syndrome, less is known concerning its effects on other major anomalies. Information is even scarcer for the possible effects of other maternal characteristics and of age of the father. OBJECTIVE We present new results on the associations between parental ages and other maternal characteristics, on the one hand, and congenital anomalies, on the other hand, using data linkage between three Czech registries on mother, newborn, and malformations, for the period 2000-2007. METHODS As the variables are in categorical format, binary logistic regression is used in order to investigate the relationship between presence/absence of a congenital anomaly, for each of the eleven types of anomalies considered, and the set of predictors. RESULTS This research confirms the impact of a higher age of the mother on Down syndrome and on other chromosomal anomalies. Paternal age is not associated with chromosomal anomalies and, in this Czech population, has a rather slight effect on some of the congenital anomalies examined. Another finding of the present study is the possible role of various other maternal characteristics on congenital malformations. CONCLUSIONS Based on a large data set, this study concludes that both parental ages can be associated with congenital anomalies of the child, and that maternal characteristics other than age have also to be considered. COMMENTS Risk factors can be tentatively proposed if they are based on a plausible and suitably tested explanatory mechanism. Unfortunately, in the majority of individual cases of congenital anomaly, the cause of the condition is still unknown and suspected to be an interaction of multiple environmental and genetic factors.

  11. Screening of Toxoplasma gondii infection among childbearing age females and assessment of nurses' role in prevention and control of toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Ahmed Megahed Ahmed; Ali, Hisham abd El-Raouf; Ahmed, Salwa Abdalla Mohamed; Hosny, Samah Mostafa; Morsy, Tosson A

    2014-08-01

    Toxoplasmosis, caused by Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular zoonotic protozoan parasite, with a worldwide distribution particularly in Arab countries including Egypt. The study evaluated toxoplasmosis infection among childbearing age Egyptian females and assessed the military nursing staff knowledge, attitude and compliance to toxoplasmosis prevention and control measures. The study was conductedin a general military hospital. CROSS-section descriptive research design was used to conduct this study. The subjects consisted of 14 young females (11 were in-patients undergoing gynecological treatment in a military hospital and 3 were staff nurses. On the other hand, 44 staff nurses were available for assessment who met the inclusion criteria. 4 tools were used for data collection: first consisted of self-administered questionnaires to assess nurses' socio-demographic data and knowledge, second rating scale to assess nurses' attitude towards toxoplasmosis infection and its prevention, third performance check list to measure nurses' compliance to infection control measures, and fourth measured the anti-Toxoplasma antibodies by commercial indirect hemagglutination test (IHAT). The results showed that almost half of the nurses had satisfactory levels of knowledge, attitude, and compliance to toxoplasmosis infection control measures. 22.2% of the pregnant women and 20% of non-pregnant ones showed antibodies against T. gondii. Thus health education about toxoplasmosis should be tailored to women whether married or single to help in avoiding the risk of infection. Frequent periodic IHAT should be done for people who continuously contact with cats. Adherence to strict infection prevention measures is a must to eliminate exposure to toxoplasmosis infection. Training intervention should be implemented to achieve successful improvement in knowledge, attitude, and compliance of toxoplasmosis control measures.

  12. Educational differences in timing and quantum of childbearing in Britain: A study of cohorts born 1940−1969

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    Ann Berrington

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increased postponement of fertility, especially among higher-educated women, means it is important to know whether women recuperate births at older ages, but evidence for the UK is lacking. The extent to which the timing and quantum of mothers' fertility underlie the strong educational gradient in completed family size is also unclear. Objective: We investigate the relative contributions of childlessness, timing, and quantum to educational differences in completed fertility within cohorts born between 1940 and 1969. Methods: We analyse retrospective fertility histories from 44,351 women, born 1940-1969, interviewed in the British General Household Survey (1979-2009 and the UK Household Longitudinal Study (2009-2010. After describing educational differences in the timing of first birth and parity distributions, we quantify the relative contributions of childlessness, delayed entry into motherhood, and fertility rates conditional upon age at entry into motherhood, to educational differences in completed family size. Results: Within each cohort, the educational gradient in completed family size is explained, in demographic accounting terms, almost entirely by educational differences in the proportions remaining childless and the age distribution of mothers at entry into motherhood. Conditional upon age at entry into motherhood, subsequent fertility rates are similar across educational groups and across cohorts. Conclusions: Unlike for some other European countries, the postponement of motherhood to later ages in Britain has not resulted in a significant increase in childbearing among more-educated women who enter motherhood at later ages. The stability of aggregate measures of completed fertility in Britain is not the result of a straightforward process of postponement followed by recuperation.

  13. The relation of the dynamics of anthropometric data in obese women of childbearing age with treatment type

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