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Sample records for prevalent cardiovascular disease

  1. The Prevalence of Cardiovascular Disease in the Lagos State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The analysis, which examines the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (ICD 9: 390-459) in Lagos State of Nigeria, was based on records obtained from the register of deaths in four Local Government Areas of the State. The result shows that there is general increase in death rates due to cardiovascular diseases over the ...

  2. Cardiovascular risks associated with incident and prevalent periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yau-Hua; Chasman, Daniel I; Buring, Julie E; Rose, Lynda; Ridker, Paul M

    2015-01-01

    While prevalent periodontal disease associates with cardiovascular risk, little is known about how incident periodontal disease influences future vascular risk. We compared effects of incident versus prevalent periodontal disease in developing major cardiovascular diseases (CVD), myocardial infarction (MI), ischaemic stroke and total CVD. In a prospective cohort of 39,863 predominantly white women, age ≥45 years and free of cardiovascular disease at baseline were followed for an average of 15.7 years. Cox proportional hazard models with time-varying periodontal status [prevalent (18%), incident (7.3%) versus never (74.7%)] were used to assess future cardiovascular risks. Incidence rates of all CVD outcomes were higher in women with prevalent or incident periodontal disease. For women with incident periodontal disease, risk factor adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were 1.42 (95% CI, 1.14-1.77) for major CVD, 1.72 (1.25-2.38) for MI, 1.41 (1.02-1.95) for ischaemic stroke and 1.27 (1.06-1.52) for total CVD. For women with prevalent periodontal disease, adjusted HRs were 1.14 (1.00-1.31) for major CVD, 1.27 (1.04-1.56) for MI, 1.12 (0.91-1.37) for ischaemic stroke and 1.15 (1.03-1.28) for total CVD. New cases of periodontal disease, not just those that are pre-existing, place women at significantly elevated risks for future cardiovascular events. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Prevalence and prevention of cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakumar, Pitchai; Maung-U, Khin; Jagadeesh, Gowraganahalli

    2016-11-01

    Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) have become important causes of mortality on a global scale. According to the report of World Health Organization (WHO), NCDs killed 38 million people (out of 56 million deaths that occurred worldwide) during 2012. Cardiovascular diseases accounted for most NCD deaths (17.5 million NCD deaths), followed by cancers (8.2 million NCD deaths), respiratory diseases (4.0 million NCD deaths) and diabetes mellitus (1.5 million NCD deaths). Globally, the leading cause of death is cardiovascular diseases; their prevalence is incessantly progressing in both developed and developing nations. Diabetic patients with insulin resistance are even at a greater risk of cardiovascular disease. Obesity, high cholesterol, hypertriglyceridemia and elevated blood pressure are mainly considered as major risk factors for diabetic patients afflicted with cardiovascular disease. The present review sheds light on the global incidence of cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. Additionally, measures to be taken to reduce the global encumbrance of cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus are highlighted. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors in Tallinn, Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margit Kaldmäe

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: The study established a high prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors in Estonian adults (20–65 years of age. Younger portion of the population and some extent ethnic considerations should be taken into account when designing future studies, health prevention activities and interventions.

  5. [Prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and cardiovascular risk factors in older than 65 years persons in an urban area: DERIVA study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Sánchez, Emiliano; García-Ortiz, Luis; Gómez-Marcos, Manuel A; Recio-Rodríguez, José I; Mora-Simón, Sara; Pérez-Arechaederra, Diana; Agudo-Conde, Cristina; Escribano-Hernández, Alfonso; Patino-Alonso, María C

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases, cardiovascular risk factors, and the psychosocial characteristics associated with them in an urban population aged 65 years and older. Descriptive cross-sectional study of the population. City of Salamanca (Spain). A total of 480 participants aged 65 and older were selected using a stratified randomized sampling method. A health questionnaire was completed in the participants' homes. Weight, height, waist circumference, arterial pressure, blood glucose and cholesterol, were measured, and the standardized prevalence for a European population was estimated. A total of 327 participants were interviewed (68.10% of those selected), mean age of participants was 76 (SD: 7.33). Of the total, 64.5% were women and 20.2% (15.8-24.5) had some cardiovascular disease. In males, the most prevalent cardiovascular disease was ischemic heart disease (12.1% [6.1-18]), while in females it was heart failure (10.4% [6.3-14.6]). Hypertension was the most frequent cardiovascular risk factor for males (63.8% [53.2-70.9]) and females (69.7%.[63.5-75.9]), followed by diabetes in males (36.2% [27.5-45]), and sedentary lifestyle in females (36.0% [29.5-42.5]). Those with cardiovascular diseases were more dependent and had a worse prognosis (Charlson's Comorbility Index). Ischemic heart disease is the most prevalent heart disease in males, while heart failure is the most prevalent disease for females. Almost 80% of the population aged 65 and older did not suffer any of the three cardiovascular diseases that are the main causes of mortality in this group of age. Participants who had a CVD were more dependent for activities of daily living. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  6. Cardiovascular Disease Prevalence and Risk Factors of Persons with Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draheim, Christopher C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the recent literature on cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevalence, CVD-related mortality, physiological CVD risk factors, and behavioral CVD risk factors in adults with mental retardation (MR). The literature on the potential influences of modifiable behavioral CVD risk factors and the physiological CVD risk factors are also…

  7. A multilevel model for cardiovascular disease prevalence in the US and its application to micro area prevalence estimates

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    Congdon Peter

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estimates of disease prevalence for small areas are increasingly required for the allocation of health funds according to local need. Both individual level and geographic risk factors are likely to be relevant to explaining prevalence variations, and in turn relevant to the procedure for small area prevalence estimation. Prevalence estimates are of particular importance for major chronic illnesses such as cardiovascular disease. Methods A multilevel prevalence model for cardiovascular outcomes is proposed that incorporates both survey information on patient risk factors and the effects of geographic location. The model is applied to derive micro area prevalence estimates, specifically estimates of cardiovascular disease for Zip Code Tabulation Areas in the USA. The model incorporates prevalence differentials by age, sex, ethnicity and educational attainment from the 2005 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey. Influences of geographic context are modelled at both county and state level, with the county effects relating to poverty and urbanity. State level influences are modelled using a random effects approach that allows both for spatial correlation and spatial isolates. Results To assess the importance of geographic variables, three types of model are compared: a model with person level variables only; a model with geographic effects that do not interact with person attributes; and a full model, allowing for state level random effects that differ by ethnicity. There is clear evidence that geographic effects improve statistical fit. Conclusion Geographic variations in disease prevalence partly reflect the demographic composition of area populations. However, prevalence variations may also show distinct geographic 'contextual' effects. The present study demonstrates by formal modelling methods that improved explanation is obtained by allowing for distinct geographic effects (for counties and states and for

  8. Prevalence of non-cardiovascular findings on CT angiography in children with congenital heart disease

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    Malik, Archana [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); St. Christopher' s Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Hellinger, Jeffrey C. [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); New York Cardiovascular Institute at Lenox Hill Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Servaes, Sabah; Keller, Marc S. [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Schwartz, Mathew C. [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Levine Children' s Hospital, Sanger Heart and Vascular Institute, Charlotte, NC (United States); Epelman, Monica [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Nemours Children' s Health System/Nemours Children' s Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging/Radiology, Orlando, FL (United States)

    2017-03-15

    CT angiography is gaining broader acceptance in the evaluation of children with known or suspected congenital heart disease. These studies include non-cardiovascular structures such as the mediastinum, lung parenchyma and upper abdominal organs. It is important to inspect all these structures for potential abnormalities that might be clinically important and, in some cases, may impact care plans. To determine the prevalence of non-cardiovascular findings in CT angiography of children with congenital heart disease. During 28 months, 300 consecutive children (170 males; mean age: 7.1 years, age range: 6 h-26 years), referred from a tertiary pediatric cardiology center, underwent clinically indicated CT angiography to evaluate known or suspected congenital heart disease. Slightly more than half (n = 169) of the patients were postoperative or post-intervention. Examinations were retrospectively reviewed, and non-cardiovascular findings were recorded and tabulated by organ system, congenital heart disease and operative procedure in conjunction with outcomes from medical charts. Non-cardiovascular findings were identified in 83% (n = 250 / 300) of the studies for a total of 857 findings. In 221 patients (n = 73.7% of 300) a total of 813 non-cardiovascular findings were clinically significant, while in 9.7% (n = 29 / 300) of patients, 5.1% (n = 44 / 857) of the findings were nonsignificant. In 38.3% (n = 115 / 300) of patients with significant non-cardiovascular pathology, the findings were unexpected and directly impacted patient care plans. Commonly involved organs with non-cardiovascular findings were the lungs with 280 non-cardiovascular findings in 176 / 300 (58.7%) of patients, the airway with 139 non-cardiovascular findings in 103 / 300 (34.3%) of patients and the liver with 108 non-cardiovascular findings in 72 / 300 (24.0%) of patients. Syndromic associations were noted in 22% (n = 66 / 300) of the patients. Non-cardiovascular findings are common in children with

  9. Prevalence of non-cardiovascular findings on CT angiography in children with congenital heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, Archana; Hellinger, Jeffrey C.; Servaes, Sabah; Keller, Marc S.; Schwartz, Mathew C.; Epelman, Monica

    2017-01-01

    CT angiography is gaining broader acceptance in the evaluation of children with known or suspected congenital heart disease. These studies include non-cardiovascular structures such as the mediastinum, lung parenchyma and upper abdominal organs. It is important to inspect all these structures for potential abnormalities that might be clinically important and, in some cases, may impact care plans. To determine the prevalence of non-cardiovascular findings in CT angiography of children with congenital heart disease. During 28 months, 300 consecutive children (170 males; mean age: 7.1 years, age range: 6 h-26 years), referred from a tertiary pediatric cardiology center, underwent clinically indicated CT angiography to evaluate known or suspected congenital heart disease. Slightly more than half (n = 169) of the patients were postoperative or post-intervention. Examinations were retrospectively reviewed, and non-cardiovascular findings were recorded and tabulated by organ system, congenital heart disease and operative procedure in conjunction with outcomes from medical charts. Non-cardiovascular findings were identified in 83% (n = 250 / 300) of the studies for a total of 857 findings. In 221 patients (n = 73.7% of 300) a total of 813 non-cardiovascular findings were clinically significant, while in 9.7% (n = 29 / 300) of patients, 5.1% (n = 44 / 857) of the findings were nonsignificant. In 38.3% (n = 115 / 300) of patients with significant non-cardiovascular pathology, the findings were unexpected and directly impacted patient care plans. Commonly involved organs with non-cardiovascular findings were the lungs with 280 non-cardiovascular findings in 176 / 300 (58.7%) of patients, the airway with 139 non-cardiovascular findings in 103 / 300 (34.3%) of patients and the liver with 108 non-cardiovascular findings in 72 / 300 (24.0%) of patients. Syndromic associations were noted in 22% (n = 66 / 300) of the patients. Non-cardiovascular findings are common in children with

  10. Prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular and kidney disease in Brazilian healthy preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    da Silva, Adriana C?ndida; de Sousa Tavares, Marcelo; Penido, Maria Goretti Moreira Guimar?es

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the prevalence of nutritional parameters of risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and kidney diseases in healthy preschool children. METHODS This is an observational cross-sectional study with 60 healthy children, of both genders, aged two to six years old and 56 mothers, in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Preschool children and their families with regular activities at public schools were invited to paticipate in the study. The following characteristics were assessed...

  11. The Prevalence of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors, and Metabolic Syndrome among Iranian Military Parachutists

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    Alireza Khoshdel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD is rapidly increasing worldwide. Occupation-related stress such as military parachuting has been considered to be a potentially important cardiovascular risk factor. The present study was performed to determine the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic syndrome among military parachutists which provides a guideline to prevent catastrophic cardiovascular events. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study among 96 military parachutists in southern IR Iran; who were evaluated in the military clinic in Shiraz, Southern IR Iran. Information regarding demographic and life style were obtained from each subject. Arterial blood pressure, weight, height, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC and hip circumference (HC, fasting blood glucose, lipid profile consisting of total cholesterol, LDL, HDL and triglyceride were measured by standard methods. Results: The mean age of participants was 37.4±6.4 years. There were 5 (5.2% cases under treatment for cardiovascular diseases, 4 (4.2% participants were pre-diabetics and 5 (5.2% suffered from diabetes mellitus. Hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia were seen in 23 (24% and 46 (47% military parachutists respectively. Conclusions: Although war-related stressors and high intensity physical activities are associated with both acute cardiac events and cardiac risk factors, our data is in favor of lower frequency of cardiovascular risk factors among military parachutists. However, routine monitoring of military parachutists is necessary to find the cardiovascular risk factors.

  12. Prevalence of subclinical Cardiovascular Disease in healthy HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We tested for subclinical CVD using 3 tools: Ankle Brachial Index (ABI) to measure for the presence of peripheral artery disease, 12 lead Electrocardiogram (ECG) for electrical abnormalities and transthoracic Echocardiography (ECHO), to measure abnormalities in cardiac structure and function. At analysis, patients where ...

  13. Prevalence of cardiovascular disease and evaluation of standard of care in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rungby, Jorgen; Schou, Morten; Warrer, Per

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) complicates type 2 diabetes. Empagliflozin and liraglutide have demonstrated improved survival in patients with type 2 diabetes and established CVD. We assessed prevalence and standard of care of patients with type 2 diabetes and established CVD managed......-density lipoprotein cholesterol was 2.0 mmol/l. Conclusion: In a nationwide database survey in primary care, the prevalence of CVD in patients with type 2 diabetes was high (21.4%). Standard of care was largely in accordance with national guidelines. Identification of eligible patients is possible with existing...... electronic patient record systems. Identifying this high-risk subgroup of patients with type 2 diabetes and optimizing their treatment might add further cardiovascular benefits as suggested by recent cardiovascular outcome trials....

  14. Increased Prevalence of Cardiovascular and Autoimmune Diseases in Periodontitis Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nesse, Willem; Dijkstra, P.U.; Abbas, Frank; Spijkervet, F.K.L.; Stijger, A.; Tromp, J.A.H.; van Dijk, J.L.; Vissink, A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Associations between periodontitis and cardiovascular and autoimmune diseases are most often assessed in patients with a particular cardiovascular or autoimmune disease. To prevent selection bias, this study assesses the existence of associations between periodontitis and cardiovascular

  15. Increased Prevalence of Cardiovascular and Autoimmune Diseases in Periodontitis Patients : A Cross-Sectional Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nesse, Willem; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Abbas, Frank; Spijkervet, Fred K. L.; Stijger, Astrid; Tromp, Jan A. H.; van Dijk, Johan L.; Vissink, Arjan

    2010-01-01

    Background: Associations between periodontitis and cardiovascular and autoimmune diseases are most often assessed in patients with a particular cardiovascular or autoimmune disease. To prevent selection bias, this study assesses the existence of associations between periodontitis and cardiovascular

  16. Prevalence and associated factors of resting electrocardiogram abnormalities among systemic lupus erythematosus patients without cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Al Rayes, Hanan; Harvey, Paula J.; Gladman, Dafna D.; Su, Jiandong; Sabapathy, Arthy; Urowitz, Murray B.; Touma, Zahi

    2017-01-01

    Background Electrocardiogram (ECG) cardiovascular disease (CVD) abnormalities (ECG-CVD) are predictive of subsequent CVD events in the general population. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients are vulnerable to CVD. We aimed to determine the prevalence of ECG-CVD in SLE patients and to examine the risk factors associated with ECG-CVD. Methods A 12-lead resting supine ECG was performed on consecutive adult patients attending the clinic. One cardiologist interpreted the ECGs. ECG-CVD were...

  17. The prevalence of natural health product use in patients with acute cardiovascular disease.

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    Aws Alherbish

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Natural health products (NHP use may have implications with respect to adverse effects, drug interactions and adherence yet the prevalence of NHP use by patients with acute cardiovascular disease and the best method to ascertain this information is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To identify the best method to ascertain information on NHP, and the prevalence of use in a population with acute cardiovascular disease. METHODS: Structured interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of consecutive patients admitted with acute cardiovascular disease to the University of Alberta Hospital during January 2009. NHP use was explored using structured and open-ended questions based on Health Canada's definition of NHP. The medical record was reviewed, and documentation of NHP use by physicians, nurses, and pharmacists, compared against the gold-standard structured interview. RESULTS: 88 patients were interviewed (mean age 62 years, standard deviation [SD 14]; 80% male; 41% admitted for acute coronary syndromes. Common co-morbidities included hypertension (59%, diabetes (26% and renal impairment (19%. NHP use was common (78% of patients and 75% of NHP users reported daily use. The category of NHP most commonly used was vitamins and minerals (73% followed by herbal products (20%, traditional medicines including Chinese medicines (9%, homeopathic preparations (1% and other products including amino acids, essential fatty acids and probiotics (35%. In a multivariable model, only older age was associated with increased NHP use (OR 1.5 per age decile [95%CI 1.03 to 2.2]. When compared to the interview, the highest rate of NHP documentation was the pharmacist history (41%. NHP were documented in 22% of patients by the physician and 19% by the nurse. CONCLUSIONS: NHP use is common in patients admitted with acute cardiovascular disease. However, health professionals do not commonly identify NHP as part of the medication profile despite its potential importance

  18. Sex differences in correlates of intermediate phenotypes and prevalent cardiovascular disease in the general population

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    Renate B. Schnabel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background-There are marked sex differences in cardiovascular disease [CVD] manifestation. It is largely unknown how the distribution of CVD risk factors or intermediate phenotypes explain sex-specific differences.Methods and Results-In 5000 individuals of the population-based Gutenberg Health Study, mean age 55±11 years, 51% males, we examined sex-specific associations of classical CVD risk factors with intima-media thickness, ankle-brachial index, flow-mediated dilation, peripheral arterial tonometry, echocardiographic and electrocardiographic variables. Intermediate cardiovascular phenotypes were related to prevalent CVD (coronary artery disease, heart failure, stroke, myocardial infarction, lower extremity artery disease [LEAD] N=561.We observed differential distributions of CVD risk factors with a higher risk factor burden in men. Manifest coronary artery disease, stroke, myocardial infarction and LEAD were more frequent in men; the proportion of heart failure was higher in women. Intermediate phenotypes showed clear sex differences with more beneficial values in women. Fairly linear changes towards less beneficial values with age were observed in both sexes. In multivariable-adjusted regression analyses age, systolic blood pressure and body mass index were consistently associated with intermediate phenotypes in both sexes with different ranking according to random forests, maximum model R² 0.43. Risk factor-adjusted associations with prevalent CVD showed some differences by sex. No interactions by menopausal status were observed. Conclusions-In a population-based cohort we observed sex differences in risk factors and a broad range of intermediate phenotypes of noninvasive cardiovascular structure and function. Their relation to prevalent CVD differed markedly. Our results indicate the need of future investigations to understand sex differences in CVD manifestation.

  19. [Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in community-dwelling elderly and associated cardiovascular risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almirall, J; Vaqueiro, M; Antón, E; Baré, M L; González, V; Jaimez, E; Gimeno, C

    2005-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease is a major public health problem in developed countries. The incidence of patients on dialysis is increasing progressively in the last years. The ageing population and increasing incidence of diabetes and hypertension are the main causes. Moreover, the level of kidney function is now recognised as a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, even in mild cases. There is a great unaware about the prevalence of mild to moderate chronic kidney disease in the general population. The aim of the present study was to know the kidney function level in our general population over 64 years old, and the associated cardiovascular risk. This is an epidemiological descriptive cross-sectional study, obtained by a representative random sampling of the population over 64 years living in the reference area of our Hospital. The glomerular filtration rate was estimated by the Cockroft-Gault formula and the MDRD equations. Kidney function has been classified by the K/DOQI stages. We examined the univariate and multivariate association between the estimated glomerular filtration rate and the presence of cardiovascular events. We analysed 253 subjects aged 65 to 93 years (mean 72 +/- 5.4). Present comorbidities were: HTA 64%, dislipemia 29%, diabetes 14%, active smokers: 10% of men, 1,5% of women. A previous cardiovascular event was present in 11% of patients (15% of men; 6,8% of women). A serum creatinin level over 1,3 and 1,5 mg/dl was present in 3,8% of women and 8% of men respectively. Nevertheless, chronic kidney insufficiency (estimated clreatinie clearance less than 60 mix') was present in 31-49% relying on the utilised formula. In addition to age, sex, and diabetes, an independent graded association was observed between reduced glomerular filtration rate and the existence of cardiovascular events. We have confirmed a high prevalence of renal insufficiency among elderly people, usually not detected by the isolated plasma creatinin concentration This

  20. PREVALENCE OF CARDIOVASCULAR RISK AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY LEVEL IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC RENAL DISEASE IN HEMODIALITIC TREATMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Danilo Rocha Santos Caracas; Daliane Barbosa Lima; Gleidson Ferreira Santos; Mariane Alves Sousa; Constança Margarida Sampaio Cruz

    2017-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease is a health problem that has reached more and more individuals due to the aging and increase of diseases such as hypertension and diabetes mellitus. The presence of chronic uremic syndrome along with aggravating factors such as sedentary lifestyle is directly associated with a high risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of cardiovascular risk and determine the levels of regular physical activity...

  1. The Prevalence of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Obesity in Firefighters

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    Denise L. Smith

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD mortality. CVD is the leading cause of duty-related death among firefighters, and the prevalence of obesity is a growing concern in the Fire Service. Methods. Traditional CVD risk factors, novel measures of cardiovascular health and a measurement of CVD were described and compared between nonobese and obese career firefighters who volunteered to participate in this cross-sectional study. Results. In the group of 116 men (mean age 43±8 yrs, the prevalence of obesity was 51.7%. There were no differences among traditional CVD risk factors or the coronary artery calcium (CAC score (criterion measure between obese and nonobese men. However, significant differences in novel markers, including CRP, subendocardial viability ratio, and the ejection duration index, were detected. Conclusions. No differences in the prevalence of traditional CVD risk factors between obese and nonobese men were found. Additionally, CAC was similar between groups. However, there were differences in several novel risk factors, which warrant further investigation. Improved CVD risk identification among firefighters has important implications for both individual health and public safety.

  2. Prevalence of Dietary Supplement Use in Patients with Proven or Suspected Cardiovascular Disease

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    Yu Sun Bin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Systematic search of bibliographic databases was conducted to describe the prevalence of dietary supplement use in cardiac patients. Included for review were studies that investigated supplement use in people with cardiovascular risk factors or proven cardiovascular disease. Databases searched were Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, Meditext, H&S and IPA. Over five hundred articles were retrieved and twenty studies met the criteria for this review. Dietary supplements were taken by a median 36% (interquartile range: 26–42% of cardiac patients; 36% (IQR 18–43% reported taking a vitamin/mineral supplement and 12% (IQR 7–21% used herbal supplements. Many users indicated that supplements were taken specifically for heart health and 16–64% of users reported using supplements alongside prescription medications. However 39–95% of treating physicians were unaware of patients’ supplement use. Dietary supplement use in patients with cardiovascular disease appears common, as does the concurrent use of supplements with prescription medicines. This information is often not communicated to doctors and treating physicians may need to be more proactive in asking about supplement use.

  3. Cardiovascular disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    risk factors. These associations involve obesity and. 37 may be modified by improving fitness . Sedentary lifestyle with its associated risk is increasing becoming rampant in Africa due to rural to urban migration. Injury to endothelium causes endothelial dysfunction. Cardiovascular disease: A Global Epidemic extending into.

  4. Prevalence of Cardiovascular disease risk among Medical Students in South India

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    Biswajit Paul

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs are global epidemic and contribute to double burden in developing countries. Individual’s dietary habits and risk behavior influence the onset and progression of CVDs. Medical students are future role models of the society and their knowledge, habits and behavior can influence their practice in prevention of CVDs in general population. Aims & Objectives: To assess the prevalence of common cardiovascular risk factors among a sample of medical students. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among the medical students of the four professional years.  An anonymous self-administered questionnaire was used to assess the prevalent cardiovascular risk factors, dietary habits and risk behavior among the medical students. Results: Family history of CVD, obesity and hypertension were highly prevalent among the medical students. Majority of them took <5 servings of fruit or vegetables per day (97.6%, ate junk foods (91.3% and had long sedentary activity (47.6%. Taking red meat intake (OR 4.79, junk foods (Odds Ratio, OR 2.59, and snacking habit (OR 1.73 was observed more among male students; no physical activity or sports was significantly more in females. Logistic regression analysis showed that a family history of CVD was strongly associated with hypertension and obesity among medical students while exercise was protective against hypertension. Conclusion: The medical students had very poor compliance to recommended dietary intake and physical activity. Generating awareness, incorporating healthy habits and introducing structured educational programs into medical curriculum will help in changing lifestyle.

  5. Prevalence of Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Diseases in Bangladesh: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatema, Kaniz; Zwar, Nicholas Arnold; Milton, Abul Hasnat; Ali, Liaquat; Rahman, Bayzidur

    2016-01-01

    Given the rising incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in Bangladesh, an improved understanding of the epidemiology of CVD risk factors is needed. Therefore, we reviewed published studies on CVD modifiable risk factors e.g., Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM), hypertension (HTN), dyslipidemia and smoking as well as studies on CVDs and conducted a meta-analysis of risk factors and disease prevalence. We searched the GLOBAL HEALTH, MEDLINE, EMBASE 'BanglaJol' databases for all studies in English on CVDs and its associated modifiable risk factors. Random effects meta-analysis methods were used to estimate pooled prevalence. There were 74 eligible studies (outcome: T2DM = 32, HTN = 24, dyslipidaemia = 8 and smoking = 25; CVDs = 10). Due to high between study heterogeneity (p 95%) in the prevalence of CVD risk factors, we presented median and interquartile range (IQR) instead of the pooled estimates as the summary measures. Median (IQR) prevalence of T2DM, HTN, dyslipidemia and smoking were 5.9% (1.97%-8.25%); 15.1% (10.52%-17.60%); 34.35% (10.66%-48.50%) and 40.56% (0.80%-55.95%), respectively. The prevalence of T2DM and dyslipidemia were significantly higher in urban compared to rural populations (13.5 vs 6%, purban areas. Ageing of the population may be a factor but urbanization seems to have an influence, possibly related to changes in dietary and physical activity patterns. Further research, in particular longitudinal studies, is needed to explore the complex interaction of these factors and to inform policies and programs for the prevention and management of CVDs in Bangladesh.

  6. HIV and Cardiovascular Disease

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    ... Select a Language: Fact Sheet 652 HIV and Cardiovascular Disease HIV AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE WHY SHOULD PEOPLE WITH HIV CARE ABOUT CVD? ... OF CVD? WHAT ABOUT CHANGING MEDICATIONS? HIV AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE Cardiovascular disease (CVD) includes a group of problems ...

  7. Obstructive sleep apnea combined dyslipidemia render additive effect on increasing atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhiyong; Zhang, Ping; He, Zhiqing; Yang, Jing; Liang, Chun; Ren, Yusheng; Wu, Zonggui

    2016-05-26

    Current study was designed to investigate the effects of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) combined dyslipidemia on the prevalence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (ASCVD). This was a cross-sectional study and subjects with documented dyslipidemia and without previous diagnosis of OSA were enrolled. Polysomnography was applied to evaluate apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). Based on AHI value, subjects were classified into four groups: without OSA, mild, moderate and severe OSA groups. Clinical characteristics and laboratory examination data were recorded. Relationship between AHI event and lipid profiles was analyzed, and logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the effects of OSA combined dyslipidemia on ASCVD prevalence. Totally 248 subjects with dyslipidemia were enrolled. Compared to the other 3 groups, subjects with severe OSA were older, male predominant and had higher smoking rate. In addition, subjects with severe OSA had higher body mass index, waist-hip ratio, blood pressure, and higher rates of overweight and obesity. Serum levels of fasting plasma glucose, glycated hemoglobin, LDL-C and CRP were all significantly higher. ASCVD prevalence was considerably higher in subjects with severe OSA. AHI event in the severe OSA group was up to 35.4 ± 5.1 events per hour which was significantly higher than the other groups (P dyslipidemia plus no-OSA group (reference group), OSA enhanced ASCVD risk in subjects with dyslipidemia, regardless of OSA severity. After extensively adjusted for confounding variables, the odds of dyslipidemia plus mild-OSA was reduced to insignificance. While the effects of moderate- and severe-OSA on promoting ASCVD risk in subjects with dyslipidemia remained significant, with severe-OSA most prominent (odds ratio: 1.52, 95% confidence interval: 1.13-2.02). OSA combined dyslipidemia conferred additive adverse effects on cardiovascular system, with severe-OSA most prominent.

  8. Prevalence and risk factors for the cardiovascular diseases in the population of municipal bus drivers

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    Renata Złotkowska

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of the study was to asses the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in the municipal bus drivers and to elaborate the individual recommendations for prevention from the risk factors like overweight and obesity, dyslipidaemia and hypertension. Materials and methods: The project was conducted in the Municipal Transport Enterprise in Sosnowiec in the two bus depots: Sosnowiec and Dąbrowa Górnicza. Municipal bus drivers participating in the project filled in the short questionnaire containing questions on the occurrence of circulatory symptoms and diseases and presence of their risk factors, information on smoking habit, methods to overcome the stress, knowledge on the risk factors for diseases of the circulatory system and family history towards cardiovascular diseases. The measurements of the body weight and height and blood pressure after at least 10 minutes of rest were performed. Participation in the project included also taking a blood specimen for laboratory assessments of glucose, total cholesterol and its fractions (HDL and LDL and triglyceride levels. After the completing of the project each participant received individual information on results of the medical and laboratory examinations with physician’s comments and recommendations. Results: Study population included 113 male municipal transport bus drivers. Mean age in the examined group was 46,159,2 years, mean work record 17,259,9 years. As the known risk factors for circulatory diseases obesity – in 37 (32,7%, stress – in 35 (31,2%, smoking in 33 (29,2%, excessive alcohol consumption in 17 (15,0%, and insufficient physical activity in 15 (13,3% study participants were given. The most frequent diseases reported in the questionnaire were arterial hypertension in 33 (29,2% and disturbances in blood lipid levels in 14 (12,4%. The prevalence of smoking habit was high – only 20,5% responded they have never been smoking in the past. The prevalence of symptoms

  9. The prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases among Polish surgical patients over 65 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kołtuniuk A

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aleksandra Kołtuniuk, Joanna Rosińczuk Department of Nervous System Diseases, Faculty of Health Science, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs are the leading cause of mortality among adults in Poland. A number of risk factors have significant influence on CVD incidence. Early identification of risk factors related to our lifestyle facilitates taking proper actions aiming at the reduction of their negative impact on health.Aim: The aim of the study was to compare the prevalence of CVD risk factors between patients aged over 65 years and patients of other age groups in surgical wards.Material and methods: The study was conducted for assessment and finding the distribution of major risk factors of CVD among 420 patients aged 18–84 years who were hospitalized in surgical wards. Interview, anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, and fasting blood tests for biochemical analysis were conducted in all subjects. Statistical analysis of the material was performed using Student’s t-test, chi-square test, Fisher’s exact test, Mann–Whitney U-test, and analysis of variance.Results: While abdominal obesity (83.3%, overweight and obesity (68%, hypertension (65.1%, hypercholesterolemia (33.3%, and low level of physical activity (29.1% were the most common CVD risk factors among patients over 65 years old, abdominal obesity (36.2%, overweight and obesity (36.1%, and current smoking were the most common CVD risk factors among patients up to the age of 35. In the age group over 65, the least prevalent risk factors for CVD were diabetes mellitus (14.8%, depressive episodes (13.6%, abuse of alcohol (11.4%, and smoking (7.8%. In the group under 35 years, we have not reported any cases of hypercholesterolemia and a lesser number of patients suffered from diabetes and HTN.Conclusion: Distribution of the major risk factors for CVD is quite high in the adult population, especially in the age group over 65

  10. Prevalence of cardiovascular risks factors and 10 year predictions of coronary heart disease in seafarers of Pertamina shipping (Indonesia)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Purnawarma, Irwin GNI; Jensen, Olaf Chresten; Canals, ML

    2011-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease is (CVD) is becoming a major health problem in the world and they have to be taken into account in shipping companies. Employees and Company management should be aware of the dangers and implications, CVD can bring. Objectives To obtain the prevalence of cardiova...

  11. PREVALENCE OF CARDIOVASCULAR RISK AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY LEVEL IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC RENAL DISEASE IN HEMODIALITIC TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Rocha Santos Caracas

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease is a health problem that has reached more and more individuals due to the aging and increase of diseases such as hypertension and diabetes mellitus. The presence of chronic uremic syndrome along with aggravating factors such as sedentary lifestyle is directly associated with a high risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of cardiovascular risk and determine the levels of regular physical activity in patients on hemodialysis. Cross-sectional analytical study with quantitative approach. A sociodemographic and anamnestic questionnaire was applied, followed by cardiovascular risk assessment using the Framingham scale; Of weekly energy expenditure related to daily activities, using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. The sample consisted of 113 individuals with a mean age of 54.13 years, the predominant male gender being 50.4%. 86.7% presented a moderate to high cardiovascular risk classification and 46% were classified as sedentary. From the analyzed data the present research obtained statistically significant value for the variables sedentarism x cardiovascular risk, time of hemodialysis x cardiovascular risk. It is concluded that patients are at risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, associated with sedentary lifestyle and the time the patient is exposed to dialysis.

  12. Prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors in a semi-urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of high blood pressure and other associated cardiovascular risk factors in a semi-urban Nigerian community ... A detailed questionnaire was administered to the subjects to ascertain their risk levels consequent upon life style and genetic disposition. Anthropometric parameters, systolic blood pressure (SBP) ...

  13. Higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases in gypsies than in non-gypsies in Slovakia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Courten, Barbora; de Courten, Maximilian; Hanson, Robert L

    2003-01-01

    Gypsies (or Roma) recently experienced a transition from a traditional to a Westernized lifestyle. Although mortality in this population is 4-fold higher compared with non-Gypsies, very limited information is available on their morbidity especially with regard to non-communicable diseases. Our aim...... was to determine the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases in Gypsies and non-Gypsies living in the same region of southern Slovakia....

  14. Higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases in gypsies than in non-gypsies in Slovakia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Courten, Barbora; de Courten, Maximilian; Hanson, Robert L

    2003-01-01

    Gypsies (or Roma) recently experienced a transition from a traditional to a Westernized lifestyle. Although mortality in this population is 4-fold higher compared with non-Gypsies, very limited information is available on their morbidity especially with regard to non-communicable diseases. Our ai...... was to determine the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases in Gypsies and non-Gypsies living in the same region of southern Slovakia....

  15. Prevalencia de enfermedad cardiovascular en personas recién diagnosticadas de diabetes mellitus tipo 2 Cardiovascular disease prevalence in recent diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Mata-Cases

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Conocer la prevalencia de la enfermedad cardiovascular en el momento del diagnóstico de la diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Métodos: Estudio observacional retrospectivo realizado en un centro de atención primaria urbano entre 1991 y 2000. Revisión de las características clínicas, factores de riesgo y enfermedad cardiovascular el año del diagnóstico de diabetes. Se excluyeron los pacientes sin glucemias previas al diagnóstico. Se realizó un análisis de regresión logística para identificar las variables asociadas a la presencia de eventos cardiovasculares. Resultados: De los 598 nuevos casos de diabetes diagnosticados se analizaron los 487 que tenían valores previos de glucemia (media de edad [desviación estándar]: 60,4 [10,9] años; un 53% eran mujeres. La prevalencia de factores de riesgo cardiovascular fue: obesidad 61,1%, hipertensión arterial 71,9%, hipercolesterolemia 52%, hipertrigliceridemia 35,3% y tabaquismo actual 24% o previo 16,6%. El 96,9% tenía algún factor de riesgo cardiovascular y el 53,4% tres o más. Un total de 78 pacientes presentaron enfermedad cardiovascular anterior o detectada durante el primer año de diagnóstico (16%; intervalo de confianza del 95%[IC95%]: 12,8-19,3; varones 21,4% y mujeres 11,2%. La prevalencia de enfermedad cardiovascular aumentó con el número de factores de riesgo cardiovascular. El análisis de regresión logística mostró una asociación de la enfermedad cardiovascular y la edad >55 años (odds ratio [OR]=2,91; IC95%: 1,46-5,80, el tabaquismo (OR=2,28; IC95%: 1,15-4,51 y los valores de hemoglobina glucosilada (HbA1c >7% (OR=1,85; IC95%: 1,10-3,1. Conclusiones: Se observa una elevada prevalencia de factores de riesgo y enfermedad cardiovascular en el momento del diagnóstico de la diabetes; la edad, el tabaquismo y la HbA1c son las variables relacionadas con la enfermedad cardiovascular.Objective: To determine the prevalence of cardiovascular disease at diagnosis of type 2

  16. Cardiovascular risk evaluation and prevalence of silent myocardial ischemia in subjects with asymptomatic carotid artery disease

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    Ciccone M

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Marco Matteo Ciccone1, Artor Niccoli-Asabella2, Pietro Scicchitano1, Michele Gesualdo1, Antonio Notaristefano2, Domenico Chieppa1, Santa Carbonara1, Gabriella Ricci1, Marco Sassara1, Corinna Altini2, Giovanni Quistelli1, Mario Erminio Lepera1, Stefano Favale1, Giuseppe Rubini21Cardiovascular Diseases Section, Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation (DETO, 2Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Internal Medicine and of Public Medicine, University of Bari, Bari, ItalyIntroduction: Silent ischemia is an asymptomatic form of myocardial ischemia, not associated with angina or anginal equivalent symptoms, which can be demonstrated by changes in ECG, left ventricular function, myocardial perfusion, and metabolism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of silent myocardial ischemia in a group of patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis.Methods: A total of 37 patients with asymptomatic carotid plaques, without chest pain or dyspnea, was investigated. These patients were studied for age, sex, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, smoking, and family history of cardiac disease, and underwent technetium-99 m sestamibi myocardial stress-rest scintigraphy and echo-color Doppler examination of carotid arteries.Results: A statistically significant relationship (P = 0.023 was shown between positive responders and negative responders to scintigraphy test when both were tested for degree of stenosis. This relationship is surprising in view of the small number of patients in our sample. Individuals who had a positive scintigraphy test had a mean stenosis degree of 35% ± 7% compared with a mean of 44% ± 13% for those with a negative test. Specificity of our detection was 81%, with positive and negative predictive values of 60% and 63%, respectively.Conclusion: The present study confirms that carotid atherosclerosis is associated with coronary atherosclerosis and highlights the importance of screening for ischemic heart disease in

  17. [Prevalence and extent of coronary artery calcification in an asymptomatic cardiovascular Mexican population: Genetics of Atherosclerotic Disease study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posadas-Romero, Carlos; López-Bautista, Fabiola; Rodas-Díaz, Marco A; Posadas-Sánchez, Rosalinda; Kimura-Hayama, Eric; Juárez-Rojas, Juan G; Medina-Urrutia, Aida X; Cardoso-Saldaña, Guillermo C; Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto; Jorge-Galarza, Esteban

    The prevalence of coronary artery calcification (CAC), a specific marker of atherosclerosis, is unknown in Mexico. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence and quantity of CAC and their association with cardiovascular risk factors in a Mexican population. CAC was measured by multidetector computed tomography in asymptomatic subjects who participated in the Genetics of Atherosclerotic Disease study. Cardiovascular risk factors and medication were recorded. The sample included 1,423 individuals (49.5% men), aged 53.7±8.4 years. Those with CAC showed a higher prevalence of dyslipidaemia, diabetes, hypertension, and other risk factors. The prevalence of CAC>0 Agatston units was significantly higher among men (40%) than among women (13%). Mean values of CAC score increased consistently with increasing age and were higher in men than women in each age group. Age and high low density lipoprotein cholesterol were independently associated with prevalence of CAC>0 in men and women, while increasing systolic blood pressure in women and age in both genders showed an independent association with CAC extension. In the Mexican population the prevalence and extent of CAC were much higher in men than in women, and strongly increased with age. Independent predictors of CAC prevalence were age and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Copyright © 2016 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular and kidney disease in Brazilian healthy preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Adriana Cândida; de Sousa Tavares, Marcelo; Penido, Maria Goretti Moreira Guimarães

    2016-11-06

    To investigate the prevalence of nutritional parameters of risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and kidney diseases in healthy preschool children. This is an observational cross-sectional study with 60 healthy children, of both genders, aged two to six years old and 56 mothers, in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Preschool children and their families with regular activities at public schools were invited to paticipate in the study. The following characteristics were assessed: Socio-demographic condictions, clinical health, anthropometric, biochemical, lifestyle and data on food consumption. The 56 healthy children were divided into two groups, overweight (C1) and non-overweight (C2), as well as their mothers, respectively, in overweight (M1) and non-overweight (M2). Nutritional status was defined according to results obtained through the Anthro ® Software for nutritional analysis. Thirty-five children were male, with mean age of 4.44 ± 1.0 years old. Eighty-nine percent of them were eutrophic, 86.7% were sedentary and they had five meals a day. Body mass index (BMI) for age and total cholesterol (TC) was higher on C1 ( P = 0.0001) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) was higher on C2. Mothers were 32.5 ± 7.1 years old, mostly married and employed. Eighty-six percent of them were sedentary and 62.5% were overweight with BMI = 26.38 ± 5.07 kg/m 2 . Eighteen percent of the overweight mothers had isolated total hypercholesterolemia (TC levels elevated) and 12.5% had low HDL-c levels. The present study showed an association between overweight and obesity during the preschool years and the correspondent mothers' nutritional status of overweight and obesity (OR = 4.96; 95%CI: 0.558-44.17). There was a positive correlation between the food risk associated with CVD by children and mothers when their consumption was 4 times/wk ( P = 0.049; r = 0.516) or daily ( P = 0.000008; r = 0.892). Analyzed children showed high rates of physical inactivity, high

  19. [Relationship between socioeconomic status and the prevalence of cardiovascular disease among retired residents living in a community, Shanghai].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chunyan; Qin, Chenxi; Wang, Geng; Yu, Canqing; Wang, Jin; Dai, Liqiang; Lyu, Jun; Gao, Wenjing; Wang, Shengfeng; Zhan, Siyan; Hu, Yonghua; Cao, Weihua; Li, Liming

    2014-05-01

    To explore the relationship between socioeconomic status and the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases in retirees from a community in Shanghai. Observational study involved 9 943 retirees aged 50 and over in Shanghai. Both single factor and multi-factor analyses methods were used to describe the correlation between factors as:educational level, marital status, annual household income and risk of hypertension, coronary heart disease, stroke etc. A new defined compound index was used to assess the relevance of socioeconomic status on the risk of cardiovascular diseases, based on logistic regression model. After adjusted for age, the risk of cardiovascular diseases in these retirees was influenced by socioeconomic status. In general, opponent correlations in education levels and prevalence of hypertension were found between female and male. Compared with those having received college or higher education, the risk of hypertension increased in females when the education level declined, with OR as 1.08 (95% CI:0.89-1.30). For those having had senior high school junior high school or elementary education, the risks of hypertension were 1.26 (95%CI:1.05-1.51), 1.34 (95%CI:1.08-1.65), 0.72 (95%CI:0.59-0.87),0.78 (95%CI:0.64-0.94), and 0.70 (95%CI:0.52-0.92) for males, respectively. The risk of cardiovascular diseases increased with annual household income. Compared with high level of socioeconomic status, lower socioeconomic status might decline the risk of cardiovascular diseases in males by approximately 30%, with OR for medium being 0.72 (95%CI:0.61-0.84) and for lower ones it was 0.70 (95% CI:0.57-0.87). However, similar correlations were not found in females. No significant relationship was found between marital status and the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in this study. The risks of cardiovascular diseases varied with different socioeconomic status, indicating that tailored interventions should be conducted in different socioeconomic groups.

  20. Prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and essential hypertension in the desert area of Thar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umedani, L.U.; Ahmad, U.; Frossard, P.M.; Aiwan, M.I.

    2010-01-01

    Globally essential hypertension and cardiovascular diseases are associated with high morbidity and mortality due to unhealthy life styles and lack of preventative measures. In some ethnicities these factors are insignificant due to genetic makeup favoring protection against these diseases. To study the prevalence of risk factors for essential hypertension in the Pakistani population of a desert area of Thar. A random cross sectional study was done from 2002 to 2008 on 276 subjects (126 males, 150 females) in Islamkot-Thar, the desert area of Sindh. Data for anthropometric, demographic, socioeconomic, dietary pattern, basal metabolic index, body fat content, antihypertensive use and psychosocial factors were recorded. Three consecutive readings for blood pressure were taken in 15 minutes. Any systolic blood pressure of over 140mm Hg and diastolic of over 90mm Hg in all 3 readings was taken as hypertension. Study population was divided in hypertensives (patients) and non hypertensives (controls). Data were analyzed in two steps clinically, descriptively and inferentially using SPSS version 14, first for entire population and second by breaking this population into two sub ethnicities having no consanguinity in them. Hypertension was seen in (10.9%) cases while 88.4 % were normotensive. Hypertensive group showed increased association of risk factors e.g. male gender, old age, marriage, moderately high monthly income, lack of exercise, low leisure time activity, prolonged tobacco exposure, parental history, high basal metabolic index profile, intermediate body fat content and stressful job. However, this group showed lack of association of factors like alcohol, extra salt, scarce education and stress. Decrease association with saturated fat was seen as compared to oil (20.7% versus 79.3%). Subethnicity analysis of the two communities, both having no consanguinity showed one group to be suffering from essential hypertension (17%) and its comorbids like diabetes mellitus

  1. Understanding cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000759.htm Understanding cardiovascular disease To use the sharing features on this page, ... lead to heart attack or stroke. Types of Cardiovascular Disease Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the most common ...

  2. Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Cardiovascular Disease & Diabetes Updated:Jan 29,2018 The following statistics ... clear that there is a strong correlation between cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes. At least 68 percent of ...

  3. Gender-related differences in the prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors and their correlates in urban Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finkelstein Julia L

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urban areas in Africa suffer a serious problem with dual burden of infectious diseases and emerging chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases (CVD and diabetes which pose a serious threat to population health and health care resources. However in East Africa, there is limited literature in this research area. The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors and their correlates among adults in Temeke, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Results of this study will help inform future research and potential preventive and therapeutic interventions against such chronic diseases. Methods The study design was a cross sectional epidemiological study. A total of 209 participants aged between 44 and 66 years were included in the study. A structured questionnaire was used to evaluate socioeconomic and lifestyle characteristics. Blood samples were collected and analyzed to measure lipid profile and fasting glucose levels. Cardiovascular risk factors were defined using World Health Organization criteria. Results The age-adjusted prevalence of obesity (BMI ≥ 30 was 13% and 35%, among men and women (p = 0.0003, respectively. The prevalence of abdominal obesity was 11% and 58% (p 0.9, women: >0.85 was 51% and 73% (p = 0.002 for men and women respectively. Women had 4.3 times greater odds of obesity (95% CI: 1.9–10.1, 14.2–fold increased odds for abdominal adiposity (95% CI: 5.8–34.6, and 2.8 times greater odds of high waist-hip-ratio (95% CI: 1.4–5.7, compared to men. Women had more than three-fold greater odds of having metabolic syndrome (p = 0.001 compared to male counterparts, including abdominal obesity, low HDL-cholesterol, and high fasting blood glucose components. In contrast, female participants had 50% lower odds of having hypertension, compared to men (95%CI: 0.3–1.0. Among men, BMI and waist circumference were significantly correlated with blood pressure, triglycerides

  4. Prevalence and predictors of aortic dilation as a novel cardiovascular complication in children with end-stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaddourah, Ahmad; Uthup, Susan; Madueme, Peace; O'Rourke, Matthew; Hooper, David K; Taylor, Michael D; Colan, Steven D; Jefferies, John L; Rao, Marepalli B; Goebel, Jens

    2015-05-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Isolated aortic dilation (AD) is rare in children. We aimed to determine the prevalence and the risk factors for AD in children with ESRD. We reviewed records of all ESRD patients followed mat our institution from January 2007 to October 2012. AD was defined as Z-score > 2 in the dimension of at least one of the following echocardiographic aortic parameters: annulus, root at the sinus, sino-tubular junction, or ascending aorta. The records of 78 patients on dialysis and 19 kidney transplant recipients were available. 30 patients (30.9%) had AD. Multivariate analysis revealed independent associations of AD with body mass index (BMI) Z-score (OR = 0.52, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.35 - 0.78) and ESRD secondary to glomerular disease (OR = 4.58, 95% CI: 1.45 - 14.46). We developed a classification and regression tree (CART) model to identify patients at low vs. high AD risk. Our model classified 62 patients of the cohort (64%) to be high- or lowrisk, with a positive predictive value of 89% and a negative predictive value of 100%. Our data suggest that AD, as a possible marker of aortopathy and early aneurysm formation, is a novel and prevalent cardiovascular complication in ESRD children. Glomerular disease and low BMI Zscore appear to be potent predictors. CART modeling helps identify high-risk children, potentially guiding decisions regarding targeted echocardiographic evaluations.

  5. [Birth cohort effect on prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in coronary artery disease. Experience in a Latin-american country].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiel, Marisol; Cepeda, Magda; Ochoa, Julián; Loaiza, John H; Velásquez, Jorge G

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of major risk factors associated to coronary artery disease has changed over time. Today, the frequency of dyslipidemia, hypertension and diabetes mellitus has increased, while smoking has decreased. The birth cohort effect for coronary artery disease in subjects as an approximation of the true prevalence over time has not been studied in Latin-America. To determine the trends in the prevalence of major risk factors for coronary artery disease by birth cohort effect in a high risk population. We estimate the prevalence of diabetes mellitus, smoking, hypertension and dyslipidemia from a prospective institutional registry (DREST registry) of patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention for acute coronary event. Birth cohort effect was defined as a statistical, epidemiological and sociological methodology to identify the influence of the environment in the lifetime from birth by each decade. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed adjusted by gender. Out of 3,056 subjects who were enrolled, 72% were male, with a median age of 61 years (interquartile range=53-69). Hypertension prevalence was 62.3%, for diabetes mellitus it was 48.8%, for smoking it was 18.8% and for dyslipidemia it was 48.8%. We observed an increase in prevalence for diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia in each cohort according to birth decade, while there was a reduction in prevalence for hypertension in the same decades. The prevalence of major cardiovascular risk factors has changed in time and the presence of time at birth effect is evident, possibly influenced by the environment's social conditions in each decade of life. Copyright © 2013 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  6. Prevalence, risk awareness and health beliefs of behavioural risk factors for cardiovascular disease among university students in nine ASEAN countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2018-02-13

    Understanding behavioural risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is of great importance for CVD prevention and control. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence, risk awareness and health beliefs of behavioural risk factors of cardiovascular disease among university students in Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) member states. In a cross-sectional survey 8806 (37.5% male and 62.5% female) university students (Mean age 20.6, SD = 2.0) from nine ASEAN countries responded to an anonymous questionnaire. Results indicate that across all nine countries, among men and women, 27.5% and 16.9%, respectively, were overweight or obese, 39.0% and 53.0% engaged in low physical activity, 6.9% and 2.5% were current tobacco users, 10.1% and 4.2% had engaged in binge drinking in the past month and 62.7% and 58.2%, respectively, did not avoid eating fat and cholesterol. After adjusting for socio-demographic factors, health status and health benefits, poor risk awareness was associated with tobacco use and binge drinking, and after adjusting for socio-demographic factors, health status and risk awareness, poorer health benefits beliefs predicted overweight, low physical activity, tobacco use, binge drinking and non-avoidance of fat and cholesterol. The study found a high prevalence of behavioural risk factors of CVD. Results may inform health promotion strategies among university students in ASEAN.

  7. Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) not diagnosed in a population with cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montserrat-Capdevila, Josep; Seminario, María Asunción; Godoy, Pere; Marsal, Josep Ramon; Ortega, Marta; Pujol, Jesús; Castañ, Maria Teresa; Alsedà, Miquel; Betriu, Àngels; Lecube, Albert; Portero, Manel; Purroy, Francisco; Valdivielso, José Manuel; Barbé, Ferran

    2018-03-07

    The magnitude of undiagnosed COPD in our population with cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) is unknown. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of undiagnosed COPD and its specific characteristics in a population with CVRF. Study the prevalence of COPD in patients with CVRF. Spirometry was performed between 01/01/2015 and 12/31/2016 and the percentage of patients with COPD, who had not previously been diagnosed, was determined. Each patient's variables of interest were recorded; the records of patients who had spirometry showing COPD were checked to confirm whether a diagnosis had been recorded or not. The association of undiagnosed COPD with different independent variables was determined with adjusted odds ratio (aOR) by non conditional logistic regression models. 2,295 patients with CVRF were studied. The overall prevalence of COPD was 14.5%. An underdiagnosis of 73.3% was observed. Newly diagnosed COPD vs. undiagnosed COPD showed to be higher in women (74.1% vs. 36.0%; P=.081), non-smokers (21.3% vs. 12.4%; P=.577), mild cases (GOLD1) (42.6% vs. 32.4%, P=.008) and cases with lower than average HbA1c (5.5% vs. 5.6%; P=.008) and uric acid (5.1mg/dL vs. 5.6mg/dL; P=.011). The variables associated with undiagnosed COPD were: women (aOR=1.27; 95%CI: 0.74-2.17; P=.383); age (aOR=0.94; 95%CI: 0.87-0.99; P=.018); smokers (smoker/non-smoker) (aOR=0.47; 95%CI: 0.22-1.01; P=.054) and HbA1c (%) (aOR=0.45; 95%CI: 0.23-0.88; P=.019). The under-diagnosis of COPD is very high. The contact patients aged between 50 and 65 years-old who have CVRF with their health system should be reassessed, and they need to ask for a spirometry. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. A prevalência cumulativa de fatores de risco para doença cardiovascular em adolescentes iranianos: IHHP-HHPC Cumulative prevalence of risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases in Iranian adolescents: IHHP-HHPC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Kelishadi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a prevalência cumulativa dos fatores de risco para a doença cardiovascular aterosclerótica numa amostra de adolescentes iranianos. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo transversal com 1000 meninas e 1000 meninos, com idade entre 11 e 18 anos, selecionados através de uma amostragem aleatória multietapas à base de conglomerados das áreas urbana e rural de três cidades iranianas. RESULTADOS: As taxas de prevalência de inatividade física, dislipidemia, tabagismo, pressão arterial alta e obesidade (índice de massa corporal >P95 foram 66,6, 23,7, 8,7, 5,7 e 2,2%, respectivamente. Dentre os indivíduos estudados, 79,1% apresentaram pelo menos um e 24,6% tiveram dois fatores de risco para doença cardiovascular. A prevalência de inatividade física foi significativamente menor entre os meninos que entre as meninas [53,9 contra 79,3%, respectivamente, OR IC95%, 0,44 (0,39-0,51]. A prevalência de tabagismo foi maior nos meninos que nas meninas [13,1 contra 4,2%, respectivamente, OR IC95%, 3,4 (2,4-4,9]. CONCLUSÃO: Considerando a alta prevalência de fatores de risco para doença cardiovascular em adolescentes, deve-se garantir intervenções que sejam adequadas à idade e sensíveis a aspectos culturais para que medidas preventivas possam ser tomadas em tempo hábil.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cumulative prevalence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk factors in a representative sample of Iranian adolescents. METHODS: The subjects of this cross-sectional study were 1,000 girls and 1,000 boys, ages 11-18 years, selected by multi stage-random cluster sampling from urban and rural areas of three cities in Iran. RESULTS: The prevalence of physical inactivity, dyslipidemia, smoking, high blood pressure and obesity (body mass index >95th percentile were 66.6, 23.7, 8.7, 5.7 and 2.2%, respectively. Of subjects studied, 79.1% had at least one and 24.6% had two cardiovascular disease risk factors. The prevalence of physical

  9. Psychosocial perspectives in cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne S.; von Känel, Roland; Tully, Phillip J

    2017-01-01

    Adaptation to living with cardiovascular disease may differ from patient to patient and is influenced not only by disease severity and limitations incurred by the disease but also by socioeconomic factors (e.g. health literacy), the patients' psychological make-up and susceptibility to distress. Co......-morbid depression and/or anxiety is prevalent in 20% of patients with cardiovascular disease, which may be either transient or chronic. Distress, such as depression, reduces adherence, serves as a barrier to behaviour change and the adoption of a healthy lifestyle, and increases the risk that patients drop out...

  10. Trends in Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factor Prevalence and Estimated 10-Year Cardiovascular Risk Scores in a Large Untreated French Urban Population: The CARVAR 92 Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carma Karam

    Full Text Available Surveys measuring effectiveness of public awareness campaigns in reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD incidence have yielded equivocal findings. The aim of this study was to describe cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs changes over the years in an untreated population-based study.Between 2007 and 2012, we conducted a screening campaign for CVRFs in men aged 40 to 65 yrs and women aged 50 to 70 yrs in the western suburbs of Paris. Data were complete for 20,324 participants of which 14,709 were untreated.The prevalence trend over six years was statistically significant for hypertension in men from 25.9% in 2007 to 21.1% in 2012 (p=0.002 and from 23% in 2007 to 12.7% in 2012 in women (p<0.0001. The prevalence trend of tobacco smoking decreased from 38.6% to 27.7% in men (p=0.0001 and from 22.6% to 16.8% in women (p=0.113. The Framingham 10-year risk for CVD decreased from 13.3 ± 8.2 % in 2007 to 11.7 ± 9.0 % in 2012 in men and from 8.0 ± 4.1 % to 5.9 ± 3.4 % in women. The 10-year risk of fatal CVD based on the European Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE decreased in men and in women (p <0.0001.Over a 6-year period, several CVRFs have decreased in our screening campaign, leading to decrease in the 10-year risk for CVD and the 10-year risk of fatal CVD. Cardiologists should recognize the importance of community prevention programs and communication policies, particularly tobacco control and healthier diets to decrease the CVRFs in the general population.

  11. Prevalence of Obesity and Its Association with Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Adolescent Girls from a College in Central Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Jenn-Yenn Lu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Although obesity is associated with important hemodynamic disturbances, little data exists on population-wide cardiovascular risk factors in obese adolescent girls in Taiwan. This study measured the prevalence of overweight/obesity and related cardiovascular disease risk factors in adolescent females. This was a school-based survey of a representative sample of 291 females aged 15 and 18 years in a public college in Central Taiwan. The main measures were height, body weight, systolic (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP, uric acid, cholesterol, triglyceride (TG and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C. Obese (body mass index [BMI]≥25.3 and overweight (22.7≤BMI≤25.2 individuals were combined and labeled as overweight (BMI ≥22.7 to make communication of results clearer. Data gleaned from freshmen's health examinations were analyzed. The prevalence of obesity (BMI≥25.3 was 9.28% and of overweight (BMI≥22.7 was 21.31%. Being overweight was associated with higher SBP, DBP, uric acid and TG, and lower levels of HDL-C, but was not associated with cholesterol. The 15-year-old group showed higher mean levels of uric acid, total cholesterol, TG and HDL-C than the 18-year-old group (p < 0.05. All told, 3.1%, 15.12% and 2.1% of the girls showed abnormally elevated levels of uric acid, cholesterol and TG, respectively. In addition, 5.84% had abnormally lower HDL-C levels, indicating that interventions should focus on reducing obesity and encouraging proper dietary habits and sufficient exercise, especially in subjects with lower HDL-C levels and higher levels of cholesterol, TG and uric acid.

  12. Prevalent Rate of Nonalbuminuric Renal Insufficiency and Its Association with Cardiovascular Disease Event in Korean Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Won Lee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundNonalbuminuric renal insufficiency is a unique category of diabetic kidney diseases. The objectives of the study were to evaluate prevalent rate of nonalbuminuric renal insufficiency and to investigate its relationship with previous cardiovascular disease (CVD event in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM.MethodsLaboratory and clinical data of 1,067 subjects with T2DM were obtained and reviewed. Study subjects were allocated into four subgroups according to the CKD classification. Major CVD events were included with coronary, cerebrovascular, and peripheral vascular events.ResultsNonalbuminuric stage ≥3 CKD group, when compared with albuminuric stage ≥3 CKD group, had shorter diabetic duration, lower concentrations of glycated hemoglobin, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, lower prevalent rates of retinopathy and previous CVD, and higher rate of treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers. Nonalbuminuric stage ≥3 CKD group showed a greater association with prior CVD events than no CKD group; however, albuminuric stage ≥3 CKD group made addition to increase prevalence of prior CVD events significantly when CKD categories were applied as covariates. Association of prior CVD events, when compared with normal estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR and nonalbuminuria categories, became significant for declined eGFR, which was higher for eGFR of <30 mL/min/1.73 m2, and albuminuria.ConclusionThe results show that subjects with nonalbuminuric stage ≥3 CKD is significantly interrelated with occurrence of prior CVD events than those with normal eGFR with or without albuminuria. Comparing with normal eGFR and nonalbuminuria categories, the combination of increased degree of albuminuria and declined eGFR is becoming significant for the association of prior CVD events.

  13. The Relationship Between Trimethylamine-N-Oxide and Prevalent Cardiovascular Disease in a Multiethnic Population Living in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mente, Andrew; Chalcraft, Kenneth; Ak, Handan; Davis, A Darlene; Lonn, Eva; Miller, Ruby; Potter, Murray A; Yusuf, Salim; Anand, Sonia S; McQueen, Matthew J

    2015-09-01

    Microflora-dependent trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) formation, which results from intake of choline and L-carnitine-rich food, shows promise as a predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, but these associations have not been examined in ethnically diverse populations. In a multiethnic population-based study of adults in Canada, we assessed the stability of TMAO and L-carnitine in stored serum samples and their association with intimal medial thickness, prevalent risk factors, and clinical events. In a randomly sampled cross-sectional study of 1286 Canadians, fasting serum samples were collected and stored. In 292 consecutive individuals (99 CVD cases and 193 unmatched control subjects), L-carnitine and TMAO concentrations were assessed using validated analytical approaches. The mean (± SD) TMAO level was 1.998 ± 3.13 μM and L-carnitine was 42.29 ± 11.35 μM. The relative levels of the samples did not appreciably change after 3 freeze-thaw cycles (coefficient of variation, 5.6% and 4.7%, respectively). No significant association between L-carnitine levels and prevalent CVD was found, with adjustment for covariates (odds ratio, 1.57; 95% confidence interval, 0.58-4.26; P trend = 0.65), for highest vs lowest quintile group. TMAO levels showed a significant, graded association with prevalent CVD (odds ratio, 3.17; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-9.51; P trend = 0.02). After further adjustment for diabetes status, meat, fish, and cholesterol intake, the association remained significant. No significant association between carotid intimal medial thickness and L-carnitine (P = 0.64) or TMAO (P = 0.18) was found. Serum TMAO and L-carnitine analysis on stored samples is reliable. Our findings support an association between TMAO with prevalent CVD in a multiethnic population. This finding requires replication in larger studies in which dietary intake and stored serum samples exist. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  14. Prevalence and determinants of cardiovascular disease risk factors among the residents of urban community housing projects in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Mohammadreza; Majid, Hazreen Abdul; Hairi, FarizahMohd; Thangiah, Nithiah; Bulgiba, Awang; Su, Tin Tin

    2014-01-01

    The objectives are to assess the prevalence and determinants of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among the residents of Community Housing Projects in metropolitan Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. By using simple random sampling, we selected and surveyed 833 households which comprised of 3,722 individuals. Out of the 2,360 adults, 50.5% participated in blood sampling and anthropometric measurement sessions. Uni and bivariate data analysis and multivariate binary logistic regression were applied to identify demographic and socioeconomic determinants of the existence of having at least one CVD risk factor. As a Result, while obesity (54.8%), hypercholesterolemia (51.5%), and hypertension (39.3%) were the most common CVD risk factors among the low-income respondents, smoking (16.3%), diabetes mellitus (7.8%) and alcohol consumption (1.4%) were the least prevalent. Finally, the results from the multivariate binary logistic model illustrated that compared to the Malays, the Indians were 41% less likely to have at least one of the CVD risk factors (OR = 0.59; 95% CI: 0.37 - 0.93). In Conclusion, the low-income individuals were at higher risk of developing CVDs. Prospective policies addressing preventive actions and increased awareness focusing on low-income communities are highly recommended and to consider age, gender, ethnic backgrounds, and occupation classes.

  15. Triglycerides and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, Børge G; Varbo, Anette

    2014-01-01

    cholesterol might not cause cardiovascular disease as originally thought has now generated renewed interest in raised concentrations of triglycerides. This renewed interest has also been driven by epidemiological and genetic evidence supporting raised triglycerides, remnant cholesterol, or triglyceride......-rich lipoproteins as an additional cause of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Triglycerides can be measured in the non-fasting or fasting states, with concentrations of 2-10 mmol/L conferring increased risk of cardiovascular disease, and concentrations greater than 10 mmol/L conferring increased risk...... of acute pancreatitis and possibly cardiovascular disease. Although randomised trials showing cardiovascular benefit of triglyceride reduction are scarce, new triglyceride-lowering drugs are being developed, and large-scale trials have been initiated that will hopefully provide conclusive evidence...

  16. Cardiovascular diseases in older patients with osteoporotic hip fracture: prevalence, disturbances in mineral and bone metabolism, and bidirectional links

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisher A

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A Fisher,1,3 W Srikusalanukul,1 M Davis,1,3 P Smith2,31Departments of Geriatric Medicine, 2Orthopaedic Surgery, The Canberra Hospital, 3Australian National University Medical School, Canberra, ACT, AustraliaBackground: Considerable controversy exists regarding the contribution of mineral/bone metabolism abnormalities to the association between cardiovascular diseases (CVDs and osteoporotic fractures.Aims and methods: To determine the relationships between mineral/bone metabolism biomarkers and CVD in 746 older patients with hip fracture, clinical data were recorded and serum concentrations of parathyroid hormone (PTH, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, calcium, phosphate, magnesium, troponin I, parameters of bone turnover, and renal, liver, and thyroid functions were measured.Results: CVDs were diagnosed in 472 (63.3% patients. Vitamin D deficiency was similarly prevalent in patients with (78.0% and without (82.1% CVD. The CVD group had significantly higher mean PTH concentrations (7.6 vs 6.0 pmol/L, P < 0.001, a higher prevalence of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SPTH (PTH > 6.8 pmol/L, 43.0% vs 23.3%, P < 0.001, and excess bone resorption (urinary deoxypyridinoline corrected by creatinine [DPD/Cr] > 7.5 nmol/µmol, 87.9% vs 74.8%, P < 0.001. In multivariate regression analysis, SHPT (odds ratio [OR] 2.6, P = 0.007 and high DPD/Cr (OR 2.8, P = 0.016 were independent indictors of CVD. Compared to those with both PTH and DPD/Cr in the normal range, multivariate-adjusted ORs for the presence of CVD were 17.3 (P = 0.004 in subjects with SHPT and 9.7 (P < 0.001 in patients with high DPD/Cr. CVD was an independent predicator of SHPT (OR 2.8, P = 0.007 and excess DPD/Cr (OR 2.5, P = 0.031. CVD was predictive of postoperative myocardial injury, while SHPT was also an independent predictor of prolonged hospital stay and in-hospital death.Conclusion: SHPT and excess bone resorption are independent pathophysiological mediators underlying the bidirectional associations

  17. Prevalence and treatment of atherogenic dyslipidemia in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in Europe: EURIKA, a cross-sectional observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halcox, Julian P; Banegas, José R; Roy, Carine; Dallongeville, Jean; De Backer, Guy; Guallar, Eliseo; Perk, Joep; Hajage, David; Henriksson, Karin M; Borghi, Claudio

    2017-06-17

    Atherogenic dyslipidemia is associated with poor cardiovascular outcomes, yet markers of this condition are often ignored in clinical practice. Here, we address a clear evidence gap by assessing the prevalence and treatment of two markers of atherogenic dyslipidemia: elevated triglyceride levels and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. This cross-sectional observational study assessed the prevalence of two atherogenic dyslipidemia markers, high triglyceride levels and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, in the study population from the European Study on Cardiovascular Risk Prevention and Management in Usual Daily Practice (EURIKA; N = 7641; of whom 51.6% were female and 95.6% were White/Caucasian). The EURIKA population included European patients, aged at least 50 years with at least one cardiovascular risk factor but no history of cardiovascular disease. Over 20% of patients from the EURIKA population have either triglyceride or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels characteristic of atherogenic dyslipidemia. Furthermore, the proportions of patients with one of these markers were higher in subpopulations with type 2 diabetes mellitus or those already calculated to be at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Approximately 55% of the EURIKA population who have markers of atherogenic dyslipidemia are not receiving lipid-lowering therapy. A considerable proportion of patients with at least one major cardiovascular risk factor in the primary cardiovascular disease prevention setting have markers of atherogenic dyslipidemia. The majority of these patients are not receiving optimal treatment, as specified in international guidelines, and thus their risk of developing cardiovascular disease is possibly underestimated. The present study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (ID: NCT00882336).

  18. Lifestyle in Cardiovascular Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.O. Younge (John)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Globally, the burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is still increasing. However, in recent decades, better treatment modalities have led to less cardiovascular related deaths. After years of research, we now generally accept that lifestyle factors are the most

  19. Gender and Cardiovascular Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Ruijter, Hester M.; Pasterkamp, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    More women than men die of cardiovascular disease (CVD) each year in every major developed country and most emerging economies. Nonetheless, CVD has often been considered as men’s disease due to the higher rates of coronary artery disease (CAD) of men at younger age. This has led to the

  20. Low prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among primary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Identification of obesity and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease in childhood is strongly recommended for prevention of the diseases in adulthood. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of the conventional cardiovascular risk factors among primary school children aged 6-15 years in Urban Dar es ...

  1. [Cancer and cardiovascular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahoz, Carlos; Valdivielso, Pedro; González-Alegre, María Teresa; García-Iglesias, María Francisca; Estirado, Eva; Mostaza, José M

    2015-01-01

    Survivors of cancer have a shorter survival in the long term partly due to the increase in cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Some chemotherapy drugs, thoracic and cranial radiotherapy and above all the transplantation of hematopoietic cells are associated with an increase in the incidence of cardiovascular events compared with general population. Some of these treatments favor the development of a metabolic syndrome that could be the intermediary between these treatments and the development of CVD. It is recommended for cancer survivors to promote healthy lifestyles and the strict control of cardiovascular risk factors. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  2. Vitamin D and Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin R. Grübler

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency, as well as cardiovascular diseases (CVD and related risk factors are highly prevalent worldwide and frequently co-occur. Vitamin D has long been known to be an essential part of bone metabolism, although recent evidence suggests that vitamin D plays a key role in the pathophysiology of other diseases, including CVD, as well. In this review, we aim to summarize the most recent data on the involvement of vitamin D deficiency in the development of major cardiovascular risk factors: hypertension, obesity and dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, chronic kidney disease and endothelial dysfunction. In addition, we outline the most recent observational, as well as interventional data on the influence of vitamin D on CVD. Since it is still an unresolved issue whether vitamin D deficiency is causally involved in the pathogenesis of CVD, data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs designed to assess the impact of vitamin D supplementation on cardiovascular outcomes are awaited with anticipation. At present, we can only conclude that vitamin D deficiency is an independent cardiovascular risk factor, but whether vitamin D supplementation can significantly improve cardiovascular outcomes is still largely unknown.

  3. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among police officers in Riyadh City and risk factors for cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Alghamdi, Abdullah S.; Yahya, Mohammed A.; Alshammari, Ghedeir M.; Osman, Magdi A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Despite the prevalence of overweight and obesity and increases in associated diseases such as diabetes and heart disease in the Saudi population, no studies have addressed the spread of obesity among Saudi police officers. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity and associations with biochemical parameters among the police in Riyadh. Method The study involved a cross-sectional survey of 160 police officers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Anthr...

  4. Prevalence of Hypertension and Diabetes and Coexistence of Chronic Kidney Disease and Cardiovascular Risk in the Population of the Republic of Moldova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codreanu, Igor; Sali, Vera; Gaibu, Sergiu; Suveica, Luminita; Popa, Sergiu; Perico, Norberto; Ene-Iordache, Bogdan; Carminati, Sergio; Feehally, John; Remuzzi, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    In 2005, the International Society of Nephrology (ISN) established the Global Outreach Program (GO) aimed at building a capacity for detecting and managing chronic kidney disease and its complications in low- and middle-income countries. Here we report data from the 2006-2007 screening program (1025 subjects from the general population) in the Republic of Moldova aimed to determine the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, and their coexistence with microalbuminuria. The likelihood of a serious cardiovascular (CV) event was also estimated. Hypertension and diabetes were very common among screened subjects. The prevalence of microalbuminuria was 16.9% and that of estimated GFR Moldova patients with hypertension and diabetes should be screened for the coexistence of renal abnormalities, with the intention of developing disease-specific health-care interventions with the primary goal to reduce CV morbidity and mortality and prevent renal disease progression to end stage renal disease. PMID:23251790

  5. Epigenetics and cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite advances in the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease (CVD), this group of multifactorial disorders remains a leading cause of mortality worldwide. CVD is associated with multiple genetic and modifiable risk factors; however, known environmental and genetic influences can only...

  6. Tea and Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deka, Apranta; Vita, Joseph A.

    2011-01-01

    There is increasing evidence for a protective effect of tea consumption against cardiovascular disease. This review summarizes the available epidemiological data providing evidence for and against such an effect. We also review observational and intervention studies that investigated an effect of tea and tea extracts on cardiovascular risk factors, including blood pressure, serum lipids, diabetes mellitus, and obesity. Finally, we review potential mechanisms of benefit, including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-proliferative effects, as well as favorable effects on endothelial function. Overall, the observational data suggest a benefit, but results are mixed and likely confounded by lifestyle and background dietary factors. The weight of evidence indicates favorable effects on risk factors and a number of plausible mechanisms have been elucidated in experimental and translational human studies. Despite the growing body evidence, it remains uncertain whether tea consumption should be recommended to the general population or to patients as a strategy to reduce cardiovascular risk. PMID:21477653

  7. Cardiovascular risk factors in childhood chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Midhat Elmacı

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases are the principal cause of morbidityand mortality among child and adults with chronicrenal disease. Recent data demonstrate a high incidenceand prevalence of traditional and uremia related cardiovascularrisk factors in children. This review summarizesthe current literature on cardiovascular risk factors, mortalityand morbidity in children with chronic kidney disease.Key words: Child, chronic kidney disease, cardiovascular

  8. Cold Weather and Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Cold Weather and Cardiovascular Disease Updated:Sep 16,2015 Th is winter season ... can affect your heart, especially if you have cardiovascular disease . Some people who are outdoors in cold weather ...

  9. Cisterna chyli in patients with malignancy-Influence of cardiovascular disease on the prevalence of the cisterna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feuerlein, Sebastian; Stolz, Jochen; Muche, Rainer; Hetzel, Martin; Klass, Oliver; Brambs, Hans-Juergen; Pauls, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential correlation between the presence and size of the cisterna chyli (CC) on computed tomography (CT) and the presence of cardiovascular disease. Materials and methods: Out of a 3000-patient cohort 2599 patients who received a CT examination of the chest and/or abdomen with measurable inferior vena cava and azygos vein were included in this retrospective study. To assess the presence of cardiovascular disease the following parameters were recorded from the PACS or clinical information system: diameter of vena cava and azygos vein, presence of ascitis, serum creatinine, history of congestive heart failure, coronary artery disease or arterial hypertension and medication (diuretics, beta-blocker). In addition the volume of the CC and the presence or absence of malignant disease were recorded. Mean values (vessel diameters, creatinine) or percentages were calculated and compared for the groups with (n = 416) and without (n = 2183) a cisterna. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed for all parameters to identify the potential association with the presence and size of a cisterna. In addition the simultaneous influence of the parameter malignancy, cardiovascular disease and age on presence and size of the CC was analyzed in a logistic regression model. Results: The presence or absence of a CC was not associated with any of the measured parameter. Regarding the size of the CC, there was a positive correlation with the diameter of the azygos vein, the presence of ascitis and diuretic medication. The influences of malignancy, elevated central venous pressure and age on the development of a CC proved to be highly significant but could not be separated or quantified. Conclusion: The volume of the cisterna chyli is influenced by pathologic states with an increased central venous pressure, while the presence or absence of the cisterna seems to be independent of those factors.

  10. Cisterna chyli in patients with malignancy-Influence of cardiovascular disease on the prevalence of the cisterna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feuerlein, Sebastian, E-mail: sfeuerlein@yahoo.com [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Ulm, Steinhoevelstrasse 9, 89075 Ulm (Germany); Stolz, Jochen [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Ulm, Steinhoevelstrasse 9, 89075 Ulm (Germany); Muche, Rainer [Institute of Biometry, University of Ulm (Germany); Hetzel, Martin [Dept. of Pulmonology, Red Cross Hospital Stuttgart (Germany); Klass, Oliver; Brambs, Hans-Juergen; Pauls, Sandra [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Ulm, Steinhoevelstrasse 9, 89075 Ulm (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential correlation between the presence and size of the cisterna chyli (CC) on computed tomography (CT) and the presence of cardiovascular disease. Materials and methods: Out of a 3000-patient cohort 2599 patients who received a CT examination of the chest and/or abdomen with measurable inferior vena cava and azygos vein were included in this retrospective study. To assess the presence of cardiovascular disease the following parameters were recorded from the PACS or clinical information system: diameter of vena cava and azygos vein, presence of ascitis, serum creatinine, history of congestive heart failure, coronary artery disease or arterial hypertension and medication (diuretics, beta-blocker). In addition the volume of the CC and the presence or absence of malignant disease were recorded. Mean values (vessel diameters, creatinine) or percentages were calculated and compared for the groups with (n = 416) and without (n = 2183) a cisterna. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed for all parameters to identify the potential association with the presence and size of a cisterna. In addition the simultaneous influence of the parameter malignancy, cardiovascular disease and age on presence and size of the CC was analyzed in a logistic regression model. Results: The presence or absence of a CC was not associated with any of the measured parameter. Regarding the size of the CC, there was a positive correlation with the diameter of the azygos vein, the presence of ascitis and diuretic medication. The influences of malignancy, elevated central venous pressure and age on the development of a CC proved to be highly significant but could not be separated or quantified. Conclusion: The volume of the cisterna chyli is influenced by pathologic states with an increased central venous pressure, while the presence or absence of the cisterna seems to be independent of those factors.

  11. Prevalencia de factores de riesgo para enfermedad cardiovascular en una muestra de pacientes con hipertensión arterial esencial: estudio descriptivo Prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease in a sample of patients with essential hypertension: descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solón Navarrete H

    2009-04-01

    increased prevalence of kidney diseases, left ventricular hypertrophy, coronary disease and peripheral vascular disease. Conclusions: in hypertensive patients is necessary to generate strategies for detection and effective reduction of cardiovascular risk factors beyond the control of blood pressure levels.

  12. Obesity is associated with race/sex disparities in diabetes and hypertension prevalence, but not cardiovascular disease, among HIV-infected adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willig, Amanda L; Westfall, Andrew O; Overton, E Turner; Mugavero, Michael J; Burkholder, Greer A; Kim, David; Chamot, Eric; Raper, James L; Crane, Heidi M; Saag, Michael S; Willig, James H

    2015-09-01

    Race/sex differences are observed in cardiometabolic disease (CMD) risk and prevalence in the context of treated, chronic HIV infection, and these differences could be exacerbated by disparities in obesity prevalence. We sought to determine the effect of obesity on these disparities among people living with HIV. Prevalence of CMD (dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disorders, hypertension, diabetes, chronic kidney disease) was determined for patients seen at the University of Alabama at Birmingham HIV clinic between 7/2010 and 6/2011. Staged logistic regression was used to examine the impact of race/sex on comorbidities adjusting for key confounders including/excluding obesity (body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2)). Of 1,800 participants, 77% were male, 54% were black, and 25% were obese. Obesity prevalence differed by race/sex: black women 49%, black men 24%, white women 24%, white men 15% (pdisease, while black women had a nearly 2-fold increased odds for diabetes and hypertension (all at pobesity was included in the models. Other group differences remained significant. Disparities in obesity prevalence do not explain race/sex differences in all CMD among people with HIV. Obesity accounted for associations with diabetes/hypertension for black women, who may benefit from weight reduction to decrease disease risk. Further investigations into the etiology and treatment of CMD in people living with HIV should consider unique race/sex treatment issues.

  13. Testosterone and Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloner, Robert A; Carson, Culley; Dobs, Adrian; Kopecky, Stephen; Mohler, Emile R

    2016-02-09

    Testosterone (T) is the principal male sex hormone. As men age, T levels typically fall. Symptoms of low T include decreased libido, vasomotor instability, and decreased bone mineral density. Other symptoms may include depression, fatigue, erectile dysfunction, and reduced muscle strength/mass. Epidemiology studies show that low levels of T are associated with more atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, and cardiovascular events. However, treating hypogonadism in the aging male has resulted in discrepant results in regard to its effect on cardiovascular events. Emerging studies suggest that T may have a future role in treating heart failure, angina, and myocardial ischemia. A large, prospective, long-term study of T replacement, with a primary endpoint of a composite of adverse cardiovascular events including myocardial infarction, stroke, and/or cardiovascular death, is needed. The Food and Drug Administration recently put additional restrictions on T replacement therapy labeling and called for additional studies to determine its cardiac safety. Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Asian & Pacific Islanders and Cardiovascular Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fact Sheet 2016 Update Asian & Pacific Islanders and Cardiovascular Diseases Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) (ICD 10 codes I00-I99, Q20- ... of na- tive Hawaiians or oth- A indicates cardiovascular disease plus congenital cardiovascular disease (ICD-10 I00- ...

  15. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in congenital heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cazacu, A.; Ciubotaru, A.

    2010-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of congenital heart disease can be attributed to major improvements in diagnosis and treatment. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging plays an important role in the clinical management strategy of patients with congenital heart disease. The development of new cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) techniques allows comprehensive assessment of complex cardiac anatomy and function and provides information about the long-term residual post-operative lesions and complications of surgery. It overcomes many of the limitations of echocardiography and cardiac catheterization. This review evaluates the role of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging modality in the management of subject with congenital heart disease (CHD). (authors)

  16. Nonfasting hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, B G; Langsted, A; Freiberg, J J

    2009-01-01

    , total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 all associate with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. These new data open the possibility that nonfasting rather than fasting lipid profiles can be used for cardiovascular risk prediction. If implemented, this would...... of cardiovascular disease and early death....

  17. Increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease and risk biomarkers in patients with unknown type 2 diabetes visiting cardiology specialists: results from the DIASPORA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöndorf, Thomas; Lübben, Georg; Karagiannis, Efstrathios; Erdmann, Erland; Forst, Thomas; Pfützner, Andreas

    2010-04-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus and IGT have a high risk for cardiovascular events. It is tempting to speculate that these patients are often first seen by cardiologists. This cross-sectional study investigates the diabetes prevalence in cardiology care units and the correlated metabolic conditions as assessed by several circulating biomarkers. Patients aged 55 or older with suspected or overt coronary heart disease were eligible for trial participation. Fasting blood samples were drawn from patients to determine HOMA score, glycaemic and lipid profile, and several risk biomarkers. An OGTT was performed in patients without known diabetes. We enrolled 530 patients (181 male, 349 female, mean age, 68+/-7 years) in this study from 22 German cardiology centres; 156 patients (29.4%) had known diabetes and OGTT revealed that 184 patients (34.7%) had no diabetes, 106 patients (20.0%) had IGT or IFG and 84 patients (15.9%) were newly diagnosed with diabetes. Increased cardiovascular risk as reflected by increased hsCRP, ICAM and MMP-9 values was observed in diabetes patients. A higher cardiovascular biomarkers risk profile was seen in the IGT/IFG cohort. This study confirms the observation that one third of patients of a cardiologic care unit suffer from impaired glucose regulation. Furthermore, the cardiology patients with previously unknown glucose homeostasis abnormalities had a higher prevalence of macrovacular disease and an impaired biomarker risk profile. This study underlines the importance of joint treatment efforts by cardiologists in concert with diabetologists for treatment of this patient group at high risk for cardiovascular events.

  18. Risk of cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gejl, Michael; Starup-Linde, Jakob; Scheel-Thomsen, Jan

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: Type 2 diabetes (DM) increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. We investigated the effects of antidiabetic drugs on the composite endpoint (CE) of ischemic heart disease, heart failure or stroke in DM patients. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study. Cases were DM patients who......% CI: 16.88-24.12), neuropathy (OR=1.39, 95% CI: 1.05-1.85) and peripheral artery disease (OR=1.31, 95% CI: 1.02-1.69) increased the risk of CE. Biguanides (OR=0.62 95% CI; 0.54-0.71) and liraglutide (OR=0.48 95% CI; 0.38-0.62) significantly decreased the risk of CE as did statin treatment (OR=0.63, 95...

  19. Genomics and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Lorraine; Johnson, Rolanda L; Sparks, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    To describe genetic knowledge and discovery in the area of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and to discuss how these new advances will influence the clinical care of affected people. A selective review of the literature is presented on the disease mechanism of both the Mendelian and multifactorial genetic cardiovascular conditions. A case study approach is used to illustrate how the genetic paradigm affects the healthcare experience of a family affected with familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The current state of CVD treatment remains complex. An understanding of genomic concepts and a genome-based approach is necessary to determine: (a) the risk of CVD susceptibility beyond traditional risk factors; (b) early detection of illness; (c) response to treatment; and (d) molecular taxonomy of the disease. The results of genetic research, education, and teaching will lead to a new understanding of genes and pathways, resulting in powerful new therapeutic approaches to CVD. The challenge is to translate genetic discoveries into clinical practice that ultimately leads to preventing CVD and reducing mortality.

  20. Associations of chronic stress burden, perceived stress, and traumatic stress with cardiovascular disease prevalence and risk factors in the HCHS/SOL Sociocultural Ancillary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Linda C.; Roesch, Scott C.; Fortmann, Addie L.; Carnethon, Mercedes R.; Penedo, Frank J.; Perreira, Krista; Birnbaum-Weitzman, Orit; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Castañeda, Sheila F.; Talavera, Gregory A.; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Daviglus, Martha L.; Schneiderman, Neil; Isasi, Carmen R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The current study examined multiple stress indicators (chronic, perceived, traumatic) in relation to prevalent coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, and major cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors (i.e., diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, current smoking) in the multi-site Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) Sociocultural Ancillary Study (2010–2011). Methods Participants were 5313 men and women, 18–74 years old, representing diverse Hispanic/Latino ethnic backgrounds, who underwent a comprehensive baseline clinical exam and sociocultural exam with measures of stress. Results Chronic stress burden was related to a higher prevalence of CHD after adjusting for sociodemographic, behavioral and biological risk factors [OR (95% CI) = 1.22, (1.10–1.36)] and related to stroke prevalence in the model adjusted for demographic and behavioral factors [OR (95% CI) = 1.26, (1.03–1.55∂)]. Chronic stress was also related to a higher prevalence of diabetes [OR=1.20, (1.11–1.31)] and hypertension [OR=1.10 (1.02–1.19)] in individuals free from CVD (N=4926). Perceived stress [OR=1.03 (1.01–1.05)] and traumatic stress [OR=1.15 (1.05–1.26)] were associated with a higher prevalence of smoking. Participants who reported a greater number of lifetime traumatic events also unexpectedly showed a lower prevalence of diabetes [OR=.89 (.83–.97)] and hypertension [OR=.88 (.82–.93)]. Effects were largely consistent across age and sex groups. Conclusions The study underscores the utility of examining multiple indicators of stress in relation to health, since the direction and consistency of associations may vary across distinct stress conceptualizations. In addition, the study suggests that chronic stress is related to higher CVD risk and prevalence in Hispanics/Latinos, the largest U.S. ethnic minority group. PMID:24979579

  1. Decreasing prevalence of no known major risk factors for cardiovascular disease among Mississippi adults, Mississippi Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2001 and 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent L. Mendy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the leading cause of death in Mississippi. However, the prevalence of no known CVD risk factors among Mississippi adults and the change of prevalence in the past 9 years have not been described. We assess changes in prevalence of no known CVD risk factors during 2001 and 2009. Methods Prevalence of high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, physical inactivity, smoking, and obesity were investigated. Survey respondents who reported having none of these factors were defined as having no known CVD risk factors. Differences in prevalence and 95% confidence intervals were determined using t-test analysis. Results Overall, age-standardized prevalence of having no known CVD risk factors significantly decreased from 17.3% in 2001 to 14.5% in 2009 (p = 0.0091. The age-standardized prevalence of no known CVD risk factors were significantly lower in 2009 than in 2001 among blacks (8.9% vs. 13.2%, p = 0.008; males (13.5% vs. 17.9%, p = 0.0073; individuals with a college degree (25.2%, vs. 30.8%, p = 0.0483; and those with an annual household income of $20,000–$34,999 (11.6% vs. 16.9%, p = 0.0147; and $35,000–$49,999 (15.2% vs. 23.3%, p = 0.0135. Conclusion The prevalence of no known CVD risk factors among Mississippi adults significantly decreased from 2001 to 2009 with observed differences by race, age group, sex, and annual household income.

  2. RIA in cardiovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hourani, M.H.

    1983-01-01

    When one discusses the management of chronic cardiac diseases, and in particular congestive heart failure (CHF), one cannot but think of digitalis and the important role it plays in the management of CHF. One also has to think about digitalis toxicity and the narrow margin between the therapeutic and toxic doses of digitalis and the important role that monitoring the serum level of the drug play in preventing and/or recognizing its toxic effects. Again, RIA has something to offer the clinician in this area. The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the radioassays for CPK-MB and digoxin mainly, as well as touch upon other assays of use in evaluating patients with cardiovascular disease

  3. Precision Medicine in Cardiovascular Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Liu; Jie Du

    2017-01-01

    Since President Obama announced the Precision Medicine Initiative in the United States, more and more attention has been paid to precision medicine. However, clinicians have already used it to treat conditions such as cancer. Many cardiovascular diseases have a familial presentation, and genetic variants are associated with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, which are the basis for providing precise care to patients with cardiovascular diseases. Large-scale c...

  4. Prevalence and economic burden of cardiovascular diseases in France in 2013 according to the national health insurance scheme database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuppin, Philippe; Rivière, Sébastien; Rigault, Alexandre; Tala, Stéphane; Drouin, Jérôme; Pestel, Laurence; Denis, Pierre; Gastaldi-Ménager, Christelle; Gissot, Claude; Juillière, Yves; Fagot-Campagna, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) constitute the second leading cause of death in France. The Système national d'information interrégimes de l'assurance maladie (SNIIRAM; national health insurance information system) can be used to estimate the national medical and economic burden of CVDs. To describe the rates, characteristics and expenditure of people reimbursed for CVDs in 2013. Among 57 million general health scheme beneficiaries (86% of the French population), people managed for CVDs were identified using algorithms based on hospital diagnoses either during the current year (acute phase) or over the previous 5 years (chronic phase) and long-term diseases. The reimbursed costs attributable to CVDs were estimated. A total of 3.5 million people (mean age, 71 years; 42% women) were reimbursed by the general health scheme for CVDs (standardized rate, 6.5%; coronary heart disease, 2.7%; arrhythmias/conduction disorders, 2.1%; stroke, 1.1%; heart failure, 1.1%). These frequencies increased with age and social deprivation, and were higher in Northern and Eastern France and Réunion Island. The total sum reimbursed by all schemes for CVDs was € 15.1 billion (50% for hospital care and 43% for outpatient care [including 15% for drugs and 12% for nurses/physiotherapists]); coronary heart disease accounted for € 4 billion, stroke for € 3.5 billion and heart failure for € 2.5 billion (i.e. 10% of the total expenditure reimbursed by all national health insurance schemes for all conditions). CVDs constitute the leading group in terms of numbers of patients reimbursed and total reimbursed expenditure, despite a probable underestimation of both numbers and expenditure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among police officers in Riyadh City and risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghamdi, Abdullah S; Yahya, Mohammed A; Alshammari, Ghedeir M; Osman, Magdi A

    2017-04-14

    Despite the prevalence of overweight and obesity and increases in associated diseases such as diabetes and heart disease in the Saudi population, no studies have addressed the spread of obesity among Saudi police officers. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity and associations with biochemical parameters among the police in Riyadh. The study involved a cross-sectional survey of 160 police officers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, lipid profiles and fasting blood sugar levels were measured for all individuals. According to the results, the average body mass index (BMI) was 27.5 ± 5.1, indicating an increase in overweight in this population and 66.9% were overweight or obese. Moreover, the mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure values were 119.5 and 79.4 mmHg, respectively, within normal limits. The mean total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglyceride (TG) levels were 187.5, 43.9, 119.5 and 124.5 mg/100 ml, respectively. These BMI and biochemical findings suggest a high proportion of overweight and obese individuals in the sample population, as well as an increase in the proportion of individuals with high levels of biochemical indicators who are therefore susceptible to heart disease and diabetes. The study recommends using preventive programs to combat obesity and overweight and related diseases and conducting further studies using measures other than BMI.

  6. Precision Medicine in Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Since President Obama announced the Precision Medicine Initiative in the United States, more and more attention has been paid to precision medicine. However, clinicians have already used it to treat conditions such as cancer. Many cardiovascular diseases have a familial presentation, and genetic variants are associated with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, which are the basis for providing precise care to patients with cardiovascular diseases. Large-scale cohorts and multiomics are critical components of precision medicine. Here we summarize the application of precision medicine to cardiovascular diseases based on cohort and omic studies, and hope to elicit discussion about future health care.

  7. Prevalence and cardiovascular disease risk of the metabolic syndrome using National Cholesterol Education Program and International Diabetes Federation definitions in the Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyung Mook; Kim, Seon Mee; Kim, Yeong-Eun; Choi, Dong Seop; Baik, Sei Hyun; Lee, Juneyoung

    2007-04-01

    To compare the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome using the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) definitions and to contrast the association between the prevalence of cardiovascular disease and the metabolic syndrome using both definitions in the Korean population, we used data from the 2001 Korean Nation Health and Nutrition Survey, which is a nationally representative survey of the noninstitutionalized civilian population. The age-adjusted prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 18.8%+/-0.5% (men, 17.8%+/-0.8%; women, 20.5%+/-0.7%) using the NCEP definition and 19.5%+/-0.5% (men 15.0%+/-0.8%, women 23.9%+/-0.7%) using the IDF definition among participants 20 years or older. The agreement rate, which is the percentage of participants who were classified as either having or not having the metabolic syndrome by both definitions of the metabolic syndrome, was 84.6%+/-0.5% (kappa=0.54). The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome using the NCEP definition was higher in participants with lower body mass index, whereas the prevalence using the IDF definition was higher in subjects with higher body mass index. The odds ratio (OR) for coronary artery disease was 3.5 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.0-6.1) for participants with the metabolic syndrome defined by the NCEP definition, whereas it was 2.8 (95% CI, 1.6-5.0) for those with the metabolic syndrome defined by the IDF definition. Similarly, the OR for stroke was higher using the NCEP definition (OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.7-5.2) compared with that of the IDF definition (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.3-4.0). However, the CIs by both definitions overlapped considerably. In conclusion, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome using the IDF definition was higher than that using the NCEP definition, whereas the NCEP definition was more closely associated with cardiovascular disease in the Korean population.

  8. ABO Blood Groups and Cardiovascular Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hanrui; Mooney, Ciarán J.; Reilly, Muredach P.

    2012-01-01

    ABO blood groups have been associated with various disease phenotypes, particularly cardiovascular diseases. Cardiovascular diseases are the most common causes of death in developed countries and their prevalence rate is rapidly growing in developing countries. There have been substantial historical associations between non-O blood group status and an increase in some cardiovascular disorders. Recent GWASs have identified ABO as a locus for thrombosis, myocardial infarction, and multiple cardiovascular risk biomarkers, refocusing attention on mechanisms and potential for clinical advances. As we highlight in this paper, more recent work is beginning to probe the molecular basis of the disease associations observed in these observational studies. Advances in our understanding of the physiologic importance of various endothelial and platelet-derived circulating glycoproteins are elucidating the mechanisms through which the ABO blood group may determine overall cardiovascular disease risk. The role of blood group antigens in the pathogenesis of various cardiovascular disorders remains a fascinating subject with potential to lead to novel therapeutics and prognostics and to reduce the global burden of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:23133757

  9. Cardiovascular diseases and diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, A.; Sortso, C.; Jensen, Peter Bjødstrup

    2016-01-01

    We present an investigation of the occurrence of cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes in Denmark 2000 through 2011. The Diabetes Impact Study 2013 is based on all registrants in the Danish National Diabetes Register as of July 3rd 2013 (n=497,232). Record linkage with the Danish...... of diabetes has been rather constant at higher level in males (around 16-18%) than in females (around 12-14%) during 2000-2011 (incl.). In contrast, the incidence rate of CVD after having diabetes diagnosis has declined from about 4.5 to less than 3 during the same period, with higher declining level...... for males than for females. Efforts to detect diabetes at an earlier stage have not resulted in a reduced occurrence of CVD at the diagnosis of diabetes in Denmark. However, the risk of developing CVD after the diagnosis of diabetes has been declining, possibly reflecting benefits of intensified treatment...

  10. High Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Among People with HIV on Stable ART in Southwestern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyanja, Daniel; Muzoora, Conrad; Muyingo, Anthony; Muyindike, Winnie; Siedner, Mark J

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the epidemiology and correlates of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among Ugandans on first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART). We conducted a cross-sectional study at an HIV clinic in southwestern Uganda. We enrolled adult patients on non-nucleoside-based ART regimens for a minimum of 2 years. We collected anthropometric and clinical measurements, smoking history, and blood for fasting lipid profile and blood sugar (FBS). Outcomes of interest were (1) presence of metabolic syndrome (at least two of the following: FBS >100 mg/dL, blood pressure of ≥130/85 mmHg, triglycerides ≥150 mg/dL, HDL 5% 10-year CVD risk. Of the 250 participants enrolled, metabolic syndrome was detected in 145/250 (58%) of participants (62% in females and 50% in males). Forty-three participants (17%) had a Framingham risk correlating to a 5% or greater risk for CVD within 10 years (26% in males and 13% in females). In multivariate analyses, being female (AOR 3.13; 95% CI: 1.0-9.70; p = 0.04) and over 40 years of age (AOR 1.78; 95% CI: 1.00-3.17; p = 0.05) was independently associated with having metabolic syndrome. We found no independent risk factors for a Framingham risk score 10-year risk exceeding 5%, or associations between ART regimen and CVD risk profiles. We conclude that metabolic abnormalities are common among patients on first-line ART in rural Uganda, and appear to be more common in women than men.

  11. The prevalence of the metabolically healthy obese phenotype in an aging population and its association with subclinical cardiovascular disease: The Brazilian study on healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, Lara; Shaharyar, Sameer; Aneni, Ehimen; Freitas, Wladimir; Blaha, Michael; Agatston, Arthur; Blumenthal, Roger; Santos, Raul D; Feiz, Hamid; Nasir, Khurram; Sposito, Andrei

    2014-01-01

    Current literature has elucidated a new phenotype, metabolically healthy obese (MHO), with risks of cardiovascular disease similar to that of normal weight individuals. Few studies have examined the MHO phenotype in an aging population, especially in association with subclinical CVD. This cross sectional study population consisted of 208 octogenarians and older. Anthropometrics, biochemical, and radiological parameters were measured to assess obesity, metabolic health (assessed by the National Cholesterol Education Program -Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP-ATP III) criteria), and subclinical measures of CVD. The prevalence of MHO was 13.5% (N = 28). No significant association with MHO was noted for age, coronary artery calcium score, cIMT, or hs-CRP > 3 mg/dl (p = NS). Our results suggest that the MHO phenotype exists in the elderly; however, subclinical CVD measures were not different in sub-group analysis suggesting traditional metabolic risk factor algorithms may not be accurate in the very elderly.

  12. Adrenomedullin and cardiovascular diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Hoi Kin; Cheung, Tommy Tsang; Cheung, Bernard M Y

    2012-01-01

    Summary The cardiovascular system is regulated by the autonomic nervous system, the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system, nitric oxide (NO) and other factors including neuropeptides. Research in neurohumoral factors has led to the development of many cardiovascular drugs. Adrenomedullin (ADM), initially isolated from the adrenal gland, has diverse physiological and pathophysiological functions in the cardiovascular system. It is produced in many organs and tissues including the vasculature. A...

  13. Adipokine serum concentrations, anthropometric measurements and socio-economic status in two ethnic groups with different prevalence levels for cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waisberg, R; Paiker, J E; Crowther, N J

    2011-08-01

    Obesity is more common in African than Asian-Indian populations and yet type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases are more common in the latter populations. The main purpose of the current study was therefore to determine whether ethnic differences in body fat distribution, adipokine levels, and socio-economic status may explain population differences in the prevalence of these metabolic disorders. Leptin, IL-6, CRP, visceral fat, education level, and socio-economic status were measured in 50 African and the same number of Indian women residing in Johannesburg, South Africa. Serum leptin levels were significantly higher in Indian than African subjects (41.3±2.0 and 34.2±2.9 ng/ml, respectively; pAfrican group, (5.22±0.86 vs. 2.54±0.52 pg/ml; peconomic status (pAfrican subjects, however, adjusting for these variables in ANCOVA did not attenuate differences in adipokine or visceral fat levels. We hypothesise that one of the reasons for the higher prevalence of obesity in the African than Indian population may be related to lower leptin levels, whilst ethnic differences in the prevalence of metabolic disorders cannot be explained by differences in adipokine levels, but maybe related to higher visceral adiposity in the Indian group. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · NewYork.

  14. Ageing, metabolism and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, Sarah; Paneni, Francesco; Cosentino, Francesco

    2016-04-15

    Age is one of the major risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). About one-fifth of the world population will be aged 65 or older by 2030, with an exponential increase in CVD prevalence. It is well established that environmental factors (overnutrition, smoking, pollution, sedentary lifestyles) may lead to premature defects in mitochondrial functionality, insulin signalling, endothelial homeostasis and redox balance, fostering early senescent features. Over the last few years, molecular investigations have unveiled common signalling networks which may link the ageing process with deterioration of cardiovascular homeostasis and metabolic disturbances, namely insulin resistance. These different processes seem to be highly interconnected and their interplay may favour adverse vascular and cardiac phenotypes responsible for myocardial infarction, stroke and heart failure. In the present review, we carefully describe novel molecular cues underpinning ageing, metabolism and CVD. In particular, we describe a dynamic interplay between emerging pathways such as FOXOs, AMPK, SIRT1, p66(Shc) , JunD and NF-kB. This overview will provide the background for attractive molecular targets to prevent age-driven pathology in the vasculature and the heart. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  15. Knowledge and awareness of risk factors for cardiovascular disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cardiovascular disease causes 30% of deaths globally. By comparison, infectious disease accounts for 10% of global mortality. As these statistics indicate, cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death in the world. In South Africa, through urbanisation and changes in lifestyle and dietary habits, the prevalence ...

  16. Prevalence of low HDL cholesterol, and relationship between serum HDL and cardiovascular disease in elderly Spanish population: the PREV-ICTUS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cea-Calvo, L; Lozano, J V; Fernández-Pérez, C; Llisterri, J L; Martí-Canales, J C; Aznar, J; Gil-Guillén, V; Redón, J

    2009-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of low serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration and the relationship between HDL-C and established cardiovascular disease (CVD) in an elderly Mediterranean population. Analysis of Prevención del Riesgo de Ictus, a population-based study on Spanish subjects aged > or = 60 years. Low HDL-C was defined following the European guidelines for cardiovascular prevention [men: 65 mg/dl (> 1.67 mmol/l)], adjusted OR for CVD were 1.39 (1.10-1.76), 1.41 (1.11-1.80), 1.49 (1.18-1.89) and 1.91 (1.52-2.39), respectively for those in the fourth [57-65 mg/dl (1.46-1.67 mmol/l)], third [51-56 mg/dl (1.31-1.45 mmol/l)], second [46-50 mg/dl (1.18-1.30 mmol/l)] and first [ or = 60 years had low HDL-C. We found a strong, independent and inverse association between HDL-C concentrations and established CVD, even at ranges of HDL-C considered as normal.

  17. Risk of cardiovascular disease following radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivedi, A.; Vlahovich, S.; Cornett, R.J.

    2001-01-01

    Excess radiation-induced cardiac mortalities have been reported among radiotherapy patients. Many case reports describe the occurrence of atherosclerosis following radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease and breast cancer. Some case reports describe the cerebral infarction following radiotherapy to neck region, and of peripheral vascular disease of the lower extremities following radiotherapy to the pelvic region. The association of atomic bomb radiation and cardiovascular disease has been examined recently by incidence studies and prevalence studies of various endpoints of atherosclerosis; all endpoints indicated an increase of cardiovascular disease in the exposed group. It is almost certain that the cardiovascular disease is higher among atomic bomb survivors. However, since a heavy exposure of 10-40 Gy is delivered in radiotherapy and the bomb survivors were exposed to radiation at high dose and dose-rate, the question is whether the results can be extrapolated to individuals exposed to lower levels of radiation. Some recent epidemiological studies on occupationally exposed workers and population living near Chernobyl have provided the evidence for cardiovascular disease being a significant late effect at relatively low doses of radiation. However, the issue of non-cancer mortality from radiation is complicated by lack of adequate information on doses, and many other confounding factors (e.g., smoking habits or socio-economic status). This presentation will evaluate possible radiobiological mechanisms for radiation-induced cardiovascular disease, and will address its relevance to radiation protection management at low doses and what the impact might be on future radiation risk assessments. (authors)

  18. Cheese and cardiovascular disease risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard; Tholstrup, Tine

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Currently, the effect of dairy products on cardiovascular risk is a topic with much debate and conflicting results. The purpose of this review is to give an overview of the existing literature regarding the effect of cheese intake and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Studies included...

  19. Prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors among a Nigerian adult population: relationship with income level and accessibility to CVD risks screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguoma, Victor Maduabuchi; Nwose, Ezekiel Uba; Skinner, Timothy Chas; Digban, Kester Awharentomah; Onyia, Innocent Chukwu; Richards, Ross Stuart

    2015-04-18

    In Nigeria, reports on the prevalence of modifiable cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors are scarce. In addition, socio-economic status (SES), an important component of the socioeconomic gradient in CVD and its risk factors has not been clearly elucidated. This study sought to assess the prevalence of CVD risk factors and how the difference in prevalence and accessibility to CVD risk screening across income levels and educational backgrounds contributes to disease diagnosis in rural and urban Nigerian adults. A cross sectional study was carried out on a sociocultural ethnic group of persons living in rural and urban settings. All participants were aged ≥ 18 years. The WHO STEPS questionnaire was used to document the demographics, history of previous medical check-up or screening, anthropometric and biochemical measurements of the participants. Average income level and educational status were indicators used to assess the impact of SES. Multivariate analyses were performed to assess any difference between the geographical locations and SES indicators, and prevalence of CVD risk factors and access to CVD risk screening. The 422 participants (273 females and 149 males) [corrected] had mean age (± standard deviation) of 38.3 ± 20.5 and 42.9 ± 20.7 years, respectively. Only total cholesterol (p = 0.001), triglyceride (p = 0.005), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) (p average income rate (p = 0.01) showed significant difference between gender groups. Overall prevalence of prediabetes (4.9%), diabetes (5.4%), hypertension (35.7%), low HDL (17.8%), hypertriglyceridemia (23.2%), hypercholesterolemia (38.1%) and central obesity of 52.2% was recorded. Except between total cholesterol (p = 0.042) and HDL (p = 0.017), other CVD risk factors did not show a statistical significance across income levels. Participants with 'university and postgraduate education' had higher access to blood pressure and blood glucose screening

  20. APOE Genotyping, Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it ordered? As a test to evaluate lipid metabolism or cardiovascular risk, APOE genotyping is ordered when someone has: Significantly elevated cholesterol and triglyceride levels that do not respond to dietary and ...

  1. High Level Physical Activity and Prevalence of Cardiovascular Disease Using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Data, 2007-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyounghoon Park

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The purpose of our study was to evaluate the association between the intensity of physical activity (PA and prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD using Korean representative data. Methods We analyzed 39 804 participant data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2013. Exposure variable was three levels of PA (low, medium, and high in a week, and outcome variable was prevalence of CVD based on patient self-recognition and doctor’s diagnosis. Complex logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between level of PA and CVD adjusted by body mass index, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes mellitus, stress recognition, household income, smoking, and current drinking. The indices of association w ere estimated as crude prevalence odds ratio (POR, adjusted POR, and their 95% confidence interval (CI. All statistical analyzes were performed using complex sample analysis procedure of the SPSS version 23.0. Results When all variables were adjusted, only high level PA in women showed a significant association with stroke (adjusted POR by patient’s self-recognition, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.32 to 0.99, adjusted POR by doctor’s diagnosis, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.34 to 0.87 and CVD (adjusted POR by doctor’s diagnosis, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.48 to 0.96. Conclusions High level PA in women has a significant reverse association with prevalence of stroke and CVD in Korea. Further study for elucidating the mechanism will be needed.

  2. Prevalence of cardiovascular disease and cancer during cross-sex hormone therapy in a large cohort of trans persons: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierckx, K; Elaut, E; Declercq, E; Heylens, G; De Cuypere, G; Taes, Y; Kaufman, J M; T'Sjoen, G

    2013-10-01

    This study evaluated the short- and long-term cardiovascular- and cancer-related morbidities during cross-sex hormone therapy in a large sample of trans persons. A specialist center cross-sectional study compared 214 trans women (male-to-female transsexual persons) and 138 trans men (female-to-male trans persons) with an age- and gender-matched control population (1-3 matching). The participants were on cross-sex hormone therapy for an average of 7.4 years. We assessed physical health and possible treatment-related adverse events using questionnaires. Five percent of trans women experienced venous thrombosis and/or pulmonary embolism during hormone therapy. Five of these adverse events occurred during the first year of treatment, while another three occurred during sex reassignment surgery. Trans women experienced more myocardial infarctions than the control women (P=0.001), but a similar proportion compared with control men. The prevalence of cerebrovascular disease (CVD) was higher in trans women than in the control men (P=0.03). The rates of myocardial infarction and CVD in trans men were similar to the control male and female subjects. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes was higher in both trans men and women than in their respective controls, whereas the rates of cancer were similar compared with the control men and women. Morbidity rate during cross-sex hormone therapy was relatively low, especially in trans men. We observed a higher prevalence of venous thrombosis, myocardial infarction, CVD, and type 2 diabetes in trans women than in the control population. Morbidity rates in trans men and controls were similar, with the exception of the increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes.

  3. Ceruloplasmin and cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, P. L.; Mazumder, B.; Ehrenwald, E.; Mukhopadhyay, C. K.

    2000-01-01

    Transition metal ion-mediated oxidation is a commonly used model system for studies of the chemical, structural, and functional modifications of low-density lipoprotein (LDL). The physiological relevance of studies using free metal ions is unclear and has led to an exploration of free metal ion-independent mechanisms of oxidation. We and others have investigated the role of human ceruloplasmin (Cp) in oxidative processes because it the principal copper-containing protein in serum. There is an abundance of epidemiological data that suggests that serum Cp may be an important risk factor predicting myocardial infarction and cardiovascular disease. Biochemical studies have shown that Cp is a potent catalyst of LDL oxidation in vitro. The pro-oxidant activity of Cp requires an intact structure, and a single copper atom at the surface of the protein, near His(426), is required for LDL oxidation. Under conditions where inhibitory protein (such as albumin) is present, LDL oxidation by Cp is optimal in the presence of superoxide, which reduces the surface copper atom of Cp. Cultured vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells also oxidize LDL in the presence of Cp. Superoxide release by these cells is a critical factor regulating the rate of oxidation. Cultured monocytic cells, when activated by zymosan, can oxidize LDL, but these cells are unique in their secretion of Cp. Inhibitor studies using Cp-specific antibodies and antisense oligonucleotides show that Cp is a major contributor to LDL oxidation by these cells. The role of Cp in lipoprotein oxidation and atherosclerotic lesion progression in vivo has not been directly assessed and is an important area for future studies.

  4. Prognostic Importance of Dyspnea for Cardiovascular Outcomes and Mortality in Persons without Prevalent Cardiopulmonary Disease: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Mario; Kitzman, Dalane W.; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Loehr, Laura; Sueta, Carla A.; Shah, Amil M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The relationship between dyspnea and incident heart failure (HF) and myocardial infarction (MI) among patients without previously diagnosed cardiopulmonary disease is unclear. We studied the prognostic relevance of self-reported dyspnea for cardiovascular outcomes and all-cause mortality in persons without previously diagnosed cardiopulmonary disease. Methods and Results We studied 10 881 community-dwelling participants (mean age 57±6, 56% women, 25% black) who were free of prevalent cardiopulmonary disease from Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Dyspnea status at study entry using the modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) scale. The primary outcomes were time to HF, MI or all-cause death. Dyspnea prevalence was 22%, and was mild (mMRC grade 1 or 2) in 21% and moderate-to-severe (mMRC 3 or 4) in 1%. The main correlates of dyspnea were older age, female sex, higher BMI and active smoking. Over a follow-up of 19±5 years, greater self-reported dyspnea severity was associated with worse prognosis. Mild dyspnea was associated with significantly heightened risk of HF (adjusted Hazard Ratio, HR,1.30; 95% CI: 1.16–1.46), MI (adjusted HR 1.34; 95%CI: 1.20–1.50), and death (adjusted HR 1.16; 95%CI: 1.06–1.26), with moderate/severe dyspnea associated with an even greater risk (adjusted HR 2.14, 95%CI: 1.59–2.89; 1.93, 95%CI: 1.41–2.56; 1.96, 95%CI: 1.55–2.48, respectively). Conclusion In community-dwelling persons free of previously diagnosed cardiopulmonary disease, self-reported dyspnea is common and, even when of mild intensity, it is independently associated with a greater risk of incident HF, MI, and death. Our data emphasize the prognostic importance of even mild self-reported dyspnea for cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:27780208

  5. Prevalence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in employees of Brazilian University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristela Sanches BERTASSO-BORGES

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases have been the main cause of death in Brazil and the identification of cardiovascular risk factors is crucial to effective prevention. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in employees of a University in São José do Rio Preto. This analysis was done by a study transverse and descriptive carried out from a questionnaire for the identification of cardiovascular risk factors, anthropometric measures and arterial blood pressure in employees. A total of 127 employees were assessed, being 84 (66.14% of them females. The age group most prevalent is 21 to 30 years (37%. Arterial hypertension was identified in 7.09% of the people and 17.32% of them were in the pre-hypertension range. Positive family history was reported by 82.68% of the employees. Approximately 50% of the population reported alcoholism, with prevalence in males (69.77%. The frequency of a sedentary lifestyle was high in females (73.81% and 52.76% of the total population was overweight. For females there was statistical significance for waist circumference in the analysis by age groups. Based on the results we conclude that hypertension, family history, alcoholism, overweight and a sedentary lifestyle are the main cardiovascular risk factors in this population of employees.

  6. Educational inequality in cardiovascular diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Grethe; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Mortensen, Laust Hvas

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: Educational inequality in diseases in the circulatory system (here termed cardiovascular disease) is well documented but may be confounded by early life factors. The aim of this observational study was to examine whether the associations between education and all cardiovascular diseases...... in conventional cohort and within-sibship analyses in which the association was examined within siblings discordant on education. Assuming that attenuation of associations in the within-sibship as compared with the cohort analyses would indicate confounding from factors shared within families. RESULTS: A lower...... educational status was associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease, ischaemic heart disease and stroke. All associations attenuated in the within-sibship analyses, in particular in the analyses on ischaemic heart disease before age 45 years. For instance, in the cohort analyses, the hazard rate...

  7. Psychosocial perspectives in cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pedersen, S.S.; von Kaenel, R.; Tully, P.J.; Denollet, J.

    Adaptation to living with cardiovascular disease may differ from patient to patient and is influenced not only by disease severity and limitations incurred by the disease but also by socioeconomic factors (e.g. health literacy), the patients’ psychological make-up and susceptibility to distress.

  8. Cardiovascular disease biomarkers across autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahearn, Joseph; Shields, Kelly J; Liu, Chau-Ching; Manzi, Susan

    2015-11-01

    Cardiovascular disease is increasingly recognized as a major cause of premature mortality among those with autoimmune disorders. There is an urgent need to identify those patients with autoimmune disease who are at risk for CVD so as to optimize therapeutic intervention and ultimately prevention. Accurate identification, monitoring and stratification of such patients will depend upon a panel of biomarkers of cardiovascular disease. This review will discuss some of the most recent biomarkers of cardiovascular diseases in autoimmune disease, including lipid oxidation, imaging biomarkers to characterize coronary calcium, plaque, and intima media thickness, biomarkers of inflammation and activated complement, genetic markers, endothelial biomarkers, and antiphospholipid antibodies. Clinical implementation of these biomarkers will not only enhance patient care but also likely accelerate the pharmaceutical pipeline for targeted intervention to reduce or eliminate cardiovascular disease in the setting of autoimmunity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Pharmacogenomics and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weeke, Peter; Roden, Dan M

    2013-01-01

    Variability in drug responsiveness is a sine qua non of modern therapeutics, and the contribution of genomic variation is increasingly recognized. Investigating the genomic basis for variable responses to cardiovascular therapies has been a model for pharmacogenomics in general and has established...... resulted in changes to the product labels but also have led to development of initial clinical guidelines that consider how to facilitate incorporating genetic information to the bedside. This review summarizes the state of knowledge in cardiovascular pharmacogenomics and considers how variants described...

  10. Anxiety Disorders and Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celano, Christopher M; Daunis, Daniel J; Lokko, Hermioni N; Campbell, Kirsti A; Huffman, Jeff C

    2016-11-01

    Anxiety and its associated disorders are common in patients with cardiovascular disease and may significantly influence cardiac health. Anxiety disorders are associated with the onset and progression of cardiac disease, and in many instances have been linked to adverse cardiovascular outcomes, including mortality. Both physiologic (autonomic dysfunction, inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, changes in platelet aggregation) and health behavior mechanisms may help to explain the relationships between anxiety disorders and cardiovascular disease. Given the associations between anxiety disorders and poor cardiac health, the timely and accurate identification and treatment of these conditions is of the utmost importance. Fortunately, pharmacologic and psychotherapeutic interventions for the management of anxiety disorders are generally safe and effective. Further study is needed to determine whether interventions to treat anxiety disorders ultimately impact both psychiatric and cardiovascular health.

  11. Relationship between diet and cardiovascular disease risk factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background:The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases is increasing in most developing countries, especially in urban settings. Despite this increasing trend, there is limited data on the association between diet and cardiovascular disease risk factors in Tanzania. Objective: To assess the frequency of intake of various ...

  12. Increased prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease in long-term survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and Wilms tumor treated with radiotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geenen, M. M.; Bakker, P. J. M.; Kremer, L. C. M.; Kastelein, J. J. P.; van Leeuwen, F. E.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Only a few studies have assessed cardiovascular risk factors (CRFs) in childhood cancer survivors. We determined the prevalence of CRFs in long-term survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and Wilms tumor. PROCEDURE: Adult survivors of ALL and Wilms tumor treated with

  13. Prevalence of Cardiovascular Disease and Associated Risk Factors among Adult Population in the Gulf Region: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najlaa Aljefree

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. CVD is a principal cause of mortality and disability globally. Objective. To analyse the epidemiological data on CHD, strokes, and the associated risk factors among adult population in the Gulf countries. Methods. A systematic review of published articles between 1990 and 2014 was conducted. Results. The analysis included 62 relevant studies. The prevalence of CHD was reported to be 5.5% in Saudi Arabia. The annual incidence of strokes ranged from 27.6 to 57 per 100 000 in the Gulf countries with ischaemic stroke being the most common subtype and hypertension and diabetes being the most common risk factors among stroke and ACS patients. The prevalence of overweight and obesity ranged from 31.2% to 43.3% and 22% to 34.1% in males and from 28% to 34.3% and 26.1% to 44% in females, respectively. In males, the prevalence of hypertension and diabetes ranged from 26.0% to 50.7% and 9.3% to 46.8%, respectively; in females these ranged from 20.9% to 57.2% and 6% to 53.2%, respectively. The prevalence of inactivity was from 24.3% to 93.9% and 56.7% to 98.1% in males and females, respectively. Relatively more males (13.4% to 37.4% than females (0.5% to 20.7% were current smokers. Available data indicate poor dietary habits with high consumption of snacks, fatty foods, sugar, and fast food. Conclusion. Effective preventative strategies and education programs are crucial in the Gulf region to reduce the risk of CVD mortality and morbidity in the coming years.

  14. Leptin, obesity and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Marcelo Lima de Gusmao; Haynes, William Geoffrey

    2004-03-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Leptin levels are increased in obesity and leptin exhibits cardiovascular actions that may contribute to increased cardiovascular risk. We review the sympathetic, renal and vascular actions of leptin and their relevance to cardiovascular disease. Leptin possesses cardio-renal actions potentially contributing to obesity-related hypertension including generalized sympathoactivation. However, given that leptin resistance occurs in obesity, it has been difficult to link hyperleptinemia with hypertension. One possibility is that leptin resistance is confined to the metabolic effects of leptin, with preservation of its sympathoexcitatory actions. Other mechanisms may contribute to the pressor effects of leptin. For instance, angiotensin II induces leptin generation. Leptin also potentiates the pressor effect of insulin. Therefore, interactions between angiotensin II and insulin with leptin could have deleterious cardiovascular effects in obesity. Additionally, leptin appears to stimulate vascular inflammation, oxidative stress and hypertophy. These actions may contribute to the pathogenesis of hypertension, atherosclerosis, and left ventricular hypertrophy. The potential actions of leptin in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular complications of obesity are diverse, despite evidence of leptin resistance to its metabolic actions. However, most information about cardiovascular actions of leptin derives from in-vitro and animal studies. Future research in humans is widely awaited.

  15. Dietary nutrients in preventing cardiovascular diseases: a narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijeh Saket

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Foods play an important role in preparing the health of body. Foods and nutrients are effective in increasing health and regulating the immune system as well as in prevention of different diseases such as cardiovascular diseases. In the past few years, the prevalence of cardiovascular disease is progressively increasing. Change in lifestyle and dietary pattern of the societies plays an important role in inducing cardiovascular diseases. Studies have shown that the risk of cardiovascular disease among people consuming more vegetables is lower. Recent findings suggest that foods rich in omega-3, vitamins, antioxidants and fibers are useful for the health of cardiovascular system and such nutrition, in addition to disease prevention, reduces the cost and side effects of chemical treatments. In this article, different clinical trials introducing beneficial dietary approaches in preventing cardiovascular diseases are reviewed

  16. Cardiovascular Disease in Women: Clinical Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Mariana; Mulvagh, Sharon L.; Merz, C. Noel Bairey; Buring, Julie E.; Manson, JoAnn E.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) continues to be the leading cause of death among women in the United States, accounting for approximately one of every three female deaths. Sex-specific data focused on CVD has been increasing steadily, yet is not routinely collected nor translated into practice. This comprehensive review focuses on novel and unique aspects of cardiovascular health in women and sex-differences as they relate to clinical practice in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of CVD. This review also provides current approaches to the evaluation and treatment of acute coronary syndromes that are more prevalent in women, including: myocardial infarction associated with non-obstructive coronary arteries, spontaneous coronary artery dissection, and stress-induced cardiomyopathy (Takotsubo Syndrome). Other CVD entities with higher prevalence or unique considerations in women, such as heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, peripheral arterial disease and abdominal aortic aneurysms, are also briefly reviewed. Lastly, recommendations for cardiac rehabilitation are addressed. PMID:27081110

  17. Association of physical activity on body composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, and prevalence of cardiovascular disease in the Korean population (from the fifth Korea national health and nutrition examination survey, 2008-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gwang-Sil; Im, Eui; Rhee, Ji-Hyuck

    2017-03-21

    Data regarding associations among physical activity (PA) level, body composition, and prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in Asian populations are rare. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was utilized to estimate PA levels and analyze the association of PA level with various body composition parameters and the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases by using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2008 to 2011. Moderate and high PA levels were associated with lower prevalence of hypertension and diabetes mellitus, and lower concentrations of serum ferritin, parathyroid hormone, and alkaline phosphatase. Sarcopenia (low vs. moderate vs. high PA group: 14.3% vs. 10.5% vs. 7.3%, p = 0.001), underweight (5.7% vs. 4.9% vs. 3.5%, p = 0.001), and central obesity (7.8% vs. 6.9% vs. 6.3%, p = 0.002) were more often observed in the low PA group. The prevalence rates of cardiovascular diseases were lower in the moderate (odds ratio [OR], 0.822; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.737-0.916; p = 0.001) and high activity groups (OR, 0.663; 95% CI, 0.589-0.748; p = 0.001) than in the low activity group, even after adjusting for age, sex, smoking, underlying disease, and general or abdominal obesity and muscle mass. Regular physical activity was associated with a low prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (stroke, myocardial infarction, stable angina, and chronic renal disease), which was independent of body composition and conventional risk factors in the Korean population, with a positive dose-response relationship.

  18. Association of physical activity on body composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, and prevalence of cardiovascular disease in the Korean population (from the fifth Korea national health and nutrition examination survey, 2008–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwang-Sil Kim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data regarding associations among physical activity (PA level, body composition, and prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in Asian populations are rare. Methods The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ was utilized to estimate PA levels and analyze the association of PA level with various body composition parameters and the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases by using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2008 to 2011. Results Moderate and high PA levels were associated with lower prevalence of hypertension and diabetes mellitus, and lower concentrations of serum ferritin, parathyroid hormone, and alkaline phosphatase. Sarcopenia (low vs. moderate vs. high PA group: 14.3% vs. 10.5% vs. 7.3%, p = 0.001, underweight (5.7% vs. 4.9% vs. 3.5%, p = 0.001, and central obesity (7.8% vs. 6.9% vs. 6.3%, p = 0.002 were more often observed in the low PA group. The prevalence rates of cardiovascular diseases were lower in the moderate (odds ratio [OR], 0.822; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.737–0.916; p = 0.001 and high activity groups (OR, 0.663; 95% CI, 0.589–0.748; p = 0.001 than in the low activity group, even after adjusting for age, sex, smoking, underlying disease, and general or abdominal obesity and muscle mass. Conclusion Regular physical activity was associated with a low prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (stroke, myocardial infarction, stable angina, and chronic renal disease, which was independent of body composition and conventional risk factors in the Korean population, with a positive dose-response relationship.

  19. Cardiovascular disease in immune-mediated inflammatory diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Gutiérrez, Benjamín; Perrotti, Pedro P.; Gisbert, Javier P.; Domènech, Eugeni; Fernández-Nebro, Antonio; Cañete, Juan D.; Ferrándiz, Carlos; Tornero, Jesús; García-Sánchez, Valle; Panés, Julián; Fonseca, Eduardo; Blanco, Francisco; Rodríguez-Moreno, Jesús; Carreira, Patricia; Julià, Antonio; Marsal, Sara; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Luis

    2017-01-01

    Abstract To analyze in several immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs) the influence of demographic and clinical-related variables on the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and compare their standardized prevalences. Cross-sectional study, including consecutive patients diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, psoriasis, systemic lupus erythematosus, Crohn disease, or ulcerative colitis, from rheumatology, gastroenterology, and dermatology tertiary care outpatient clinics located throughout Spain, between 2007 and 2010. Our main outcome was defined as previous diagnosis of angina, myocardial infarction, peripheral vascular disease, and/or stroke. Bivariate and multivariate logistic and mixed-effects logistic regression models were performed for each condition and the overall cohort, respectively. Standardized prevalences (in subjects per 100 patients, with 95% confidence intervals) were calculated using marginal analysis. We included 9951 patients. For each IMID, traditional cardiovascular risk factors had a different contribution to CVD. Overall, older age, longer disease duration, presence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, and male sex were independently associated with a higher CVD prevalence. After adjusting for demographic and traditional cardiovascular risk factors, systemic lupus erythematosus exhibited the highest CVD standardized prevalence, followed by rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, Crohn disease, psoriatic arthritis, and ulcerative colitis (4.5 [95% confidence interval (CI): 2.2, 6.8], 1.3 [95% CI: 0.8, 1.8], 0.9 [95% CI: 0.5, 1.2], 0.8 [95% CI: 0.2, 1.3], 0.6 [95% CI: 0.2, 1.0], and 0.5 [95% CI: 0.1, 0.8], respectively). Systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and psoriasis are associated with higher prevalence of CVD compared with other IMIDs. Specific prevention programs should be established in subjects affected with these conditions to prevent CVD. PMID:28658137

  20. Cardiovascular disease incidence and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byberg, Stine; Agyemang, Charles; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe

    2016-01-01

    Studies on cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence and survival show varying results between different ethnic groups. Our aim was to add a new dimension by exploring the role of migrant status in combination with ethnic background on incidence of-and survival from-CVD and more specifically acute...... of some types of cardiovascular disease compared to Danish-born. Family-reunified migrants on the other hand had lower rates of CVD. All migrants had better survival than Danish-born indicating that migrants may not always be disadvantaged in health....

  1. Employees' Modifiable Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Worksites have been identified as strategic locations for the delivery of interventions to decrease the prevalence of chronic diseases of lifestyle among adult populations. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of modifiable risks factors for cardiovascular diseases of employees at an urban university in Kigali, ...

  2. Cardiovascular calcification. An inflammatory disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New, S.E.P.; Aikawa, E.

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular calcification is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This disease of dysregulated metabolism is no longer viewed as a passive degenerative disease, but instead as an active process triggered by pro-inflammatory cues. Furthermore, a positive feedback loop of calcification and inflammation is hypothesized to drive disease progression in arterial calcification. Both calcific aortic valve disease and atherosclerotic arterial calcification may possess similar underlying mechanisms. Early histopathological studies first highlighted the contribution of inflammation to cardiovascular calcification by demonstrating the accumulation of macrophages and T lymphocytes in 'early' lesions within the aortic valves and arteries. A series of in vitro work followed, which gave a mechanistic insight into the stimulation of smooth muscle cells to undergo osteogenic differentiation and mineralization. The emergence of novel technology, in the form of animal models and more recently molecular imaging, has enabled accelerated progression of this field, by providing strong evidence regarding the concept of this disorder as an inflammatory disease. Although there are still gaps in our knowledge of the mechanisms behind this disorder, this review discusses the various studies that have helped form the concept of the inflammation-dependent cardiovascular calcification paradigm. (author)

  3. Laser therapy in cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindge, David

    2009-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the number one cause of death worldwide. It is broadly defined to include anything which adversely affects the heart or blood vessels. One-third of Americans have one or more forms of it. By one estimate, average human life expectancy would increase by seven years if it were eliminated. The mainstream medical model seeks mostly to "manage" cardiovascular disease with pharmaceuticals or to surgically bypass or reopen blocked vessels via angioplasty. These methods have proven highly useful and saved countless lives. Yet drug therapy may be costly and ongoing, and it carries the risk of side effects while often doing little or nothing to improve underlying health concerns. Similarly, angioplasty or surgery are invasive methods which entail risk. Laser therapy1 regenerates tissue, stimulates biological function, reduces inflammation and alleviates pain. Its efficacy and safety have been increasingly well documented in cardiovascular disease of many kinds. In this article we will explore the effects of laser therapy in angina, atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, myocardial infarction, stroke and other conditions. The clinical application of various methods of laser therapy, including laserpuncture and transcutaneous, supravascular and intravenous irradiation of blood will be discussed. Implementing laser therapy in the treatment of cardiovascular disease offers the possibility of increasing the health and wellbeing of patients while reducing the costs and enhancing safety of medical care.

  4. Cardiovascular disease: primary prevention, disease modulation and regenerative therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sultan, Sherif

    2012-10-01

    Cardiovascular primary prevention and regeneration programs are the contemporary frontiers in functional metabolic vascular medicine. This novel science perspective harnesses our inherent ability to modulate the interface between specialized gene receptors and bioavailable nutrients in what is labeled as the nutrient-gene interaction. By mimicking a natural process through the conveyance of highly absorbable receptor specific nutrients, it is feasible to accelerate cell repair and optimize mitochondrial function, thereby achieving cardiovascular cure. We performed a comprehensive review of PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Review databases for articles relating to cardiovascular regenerative medicine, nutrigenomics and primary prevention, with the aim of harmonizing their roles within contemporary clinical practice. We searched in particular for large-scale randomized controlled trials on contemporary cardiovascular pharmacotherapies and their specific adverse effects on metabolic pathways which feature prominently in cardiovascular regenerative programs, such as nitric oxide and glucose metabolism. Scientific research on \\'cardiovascular-free\\' centenarians delineated that low sugar and low insulin are consistent findings. As we age, our insulin level increases. Those who can decelerate the rapidity of this process are prompting their cardiovascular rejuvenation. It is beginning to dawn on some clinicians that contemporary treatments are not only failing to impact on our most prevalent diseases, but they may be causing more damage than good. Primary prevention programs are crucial elements for a better outcome. Cardiovascular primary prevention and regeneration programs have enhanced clinical efficacy and quality of life and complement our conventional endovascular practice.

  5. Cardiovascular disease in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naranjo, Antonio; Sokka, Tuulikki; Descalzo, Miguel

    2008-01-01

    hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, smoking, physical inactivity, and body mass index. Unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) (95% confidence interval [CI]) for CV morbidity were calculated using Cox proportional hazard regression models. RESULTS: Between January 2005 and October 2006......ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: We analyzed the prevalence of cardiovascular (CV) disease in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and its association with traditional CV risk factors, clinical features of RA, and the use of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) in a multinational cross......, the QUEST-RA project included 4,363 patients from 48 sites in 15 countries; 78% were female, more than 90% were Caucasian, and the mean age was 57 years. The prevalence for lifetime CV events in the entire sample was 3.2% for myocardial infarction, 1.9% for stroke, and 9.3% for any CV event. The prevalence...

  6. Risk factors and assessment for cardiovascular disease among HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: cardiovascular risk factors are prevalent in HIV-positive patients which places them at increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). We aimed to determine the risk factors and risk assessment for CVD in HIV-positive patients with and without antiretroviral therapy. Methods: this was a cross-sectional study of ...

  7. Vitamin E and cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijnen, J.; Knipschild, P.; ter Riet, G.

    1989-01-01

    Randomized clinical trials of the effects of Vitamin E on complaints of intermittent claudication and angina pectoris are reviewed, and their methodological shortcomings are considered. Mechanisms by which Vitamin E might act in cardiovascular disease are discussed. The evidence about the possible

  8. Peritoneal dialysis and cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balafa, O.; Krediet, R. T.

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) death is the most frequent cause of dying in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Risk factors include not only those that can be present in the general population, but also those related to the presence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and factors that are specific for PD

  9. NKT cells in cardiovascular diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puijvelde, van G.H.M.; Kuiper, J.

    2017-01-01

    Despite life-style advice and the prescription of cholesterol-lowering and anti-thrombotic drugs, cardiovascular diseases are still the leading cause of death worldwide. Therefore, there is an urgent need for new therapeutic strategies focussing on atherosclerosis, the major underlying pathology of

  10. NKT cells in cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Puijvelde, Gijs H M; Kuiper, Johan

    2017-12-05

    Despite life-style advice and the prescription of cholesterol-lowering and anti-thrombotic drugs, cardiovascular diseases are still the leading cause of death worldwide. Therefore, there is an urgent need for new therapeutic strategies focussing on atherosclerosis, the major underlying pathology of cardiovascular diseases characterized by an accumulation of lipids in an inflamed arterial/vessel wall. CD1d-restricted lipid-sensing natural killer T (NKT) cells, bridging the innate and adaptive immunity, and CD1d-expressing antigen-presenting cells are detected in atherosclerotic lesions of mice and humans. In this review we will summarize studies that point to a critical role for NKT cells in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases by the secretion of pro-atherogenic cytokines and cytotoxins. These pro-atherogenic NKT cells are potential targets for new therapeutic strategies in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Additionally, proteins transferring lipids during atherosclerosis, which are also important in the loading of lipids onto CD1d and possible endogenous ligands responsible for the activation of NKT cells during atherosclerosis will be discussed. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. SMOKING AS A RISK FACTOR OF CARDIOVASCULAR AND CEREBROVASCULAR DISEASES: PREVALENCE, IMPACT ON PROGNOSIS, POSSIBLE SMOKING CESSATION STRATEGIES AND THEIR EFFECTIVENESS. Part 1. Smoking Prevalence and Impact on Prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. D. Ostroumova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of smoking in the Russian Federation is 27.7%. Losses of potential years of life in working age associated with premature death due to smoking in Russia on average are 9 years for men, for women – 5.6 years. Tobacco use is a risk factor for 6 of 8 main causes of death in the world: ischemic heart disease (IHD; cerebral circulation disorders; lower respiratory tract infection; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; tuberculosis; trachea, bronchus, and lung cancer. The risk of developing IHD in smoking patients is increased by 2-4 times in men and women and in any age group. Myocardial infarction occurs in smoking patients at a younger age, and they have a similar risk of coronary events with patients of older age groups. The increased risk of recurrent coronary events persists with the continuation of smoking in the patient after myocardial infarction. Smoking is associated with a double risk of ischemic stroke and a 2-4-fold increase in the risk of subarachnoid hemorrhage. The risk of peripheral arteries diseases in smokers is increased 3-6 times than this in non-smokers. The mechanisms of development of acute cardiovascular events during smoking include the activation of inflammation, platelet aggregation/thrombogenesis, the sympathetic nervous system, and the development of endothelial dysfunction due to exposure to tobacco smoke components.

  12. Nanomedical Theranostics in Cardiovascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Jun; Lobatto, Mark E.; Read, Joanna C.; Mieszawska, Aneta J.; Fayad, Zahi A.; Mulder, Willem J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. New diagnostic and therapeutic strategies are needed to mitigate this public health issue. Advances in nanotechnology have generated innovative strategies for diagnosis and therapy in a variety of diseases, foremost in cancer. Based on these studies, a novel concept referred to as nanomedical theranostics, or the combinatory application of nanoparticulate agents to allow diagnostic therapy, is being explor...

  13. Contraception and cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos-Hesselink, JolienW.; Cornette, Jerome; Sliwa, Karen; Pieper, Petronella G.; Veldtman, Gruschen R.; Johnson, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    Contraceptive counselling should begin early in females with heart disease, preferably directly after the start of menstruation. In coming to a decision about the method of contraception, the following issues should be considered: (i) the risk of pregnancy for the mother and the consequences of an

  14. Dyslipidemia, Kidney Disease, and Cardiovascular Disease in Diabetic Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Szu-chi; Tseng, Chin-Hsiao

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the relationship between dyslipidemia, chronic kidney disease, and cardiovascular diseases in patients with diabetes. Diabetes mellitus is associated with complications in the cardiovascular and renal system, and is increasing in prevalence worldwide. Modification of the multifactorial risk factors, in particular dyslipidemia, has been suggested to reduce the rates of diabetes-related complications. Dyslipidemia in diabetes is a condition that includes hypertriglyceridemia, low high-density lipoprotein levels, and increased small and dense low-density lipoprotein particles. This condition is associated with higher cardiovascular risk and mortality in diabetic patients. Current treatment guidelines focus on lowering the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level; multiple trials have confirmed the cardiovascular benefits of treatment with statins. Chronic kidney disease also contributes to dyslipidemia, and dyslipidemia in turn is related to the occurrence and progression of diabetic nephropathy. Different patterns of dyslipidemia are associated with different stages of diabetic nephropathy. Some trials have shown that treatment with statins not only decreased the risk of cardiovascular events, but also delayed the progression of diabetic nephropathy. However, studies using statins as the sole treatment of hyperlipidemia in patients on dialysis have not shown benefits with respect to cardiovascular risk. Diabetic patients with nephropathy have a higher risk of cardiovascular events than those without nephropathy. The degree of albuminuria and the reduction in estimated glomerular filtration rate are also correlated with the risk of cardiovascular events. Treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers to reduce albuminuria in diabetic patients has been shown to decrease the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. PMID:24380085

  15. Cardiovascular disease after cancer therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aleman, Berthe M P; Moser, Elizabeth C; Nuver, Janine

    2014-01-01

    Improvements in treatment and earlier diagnosis have both contributed to increased survival for many cancer patients. Unfortunately, many treatments carry a risk of late effects including cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), possibly leading to significant morbidity and mortality. In this paper we......, and the mechanisms involved, as well as the extent to which treatments may increase CVD indirectly by increasing cardiovascular risk factors is also important. Systematic collection of data relating treatment details to late effects is needed, and great care is needed to obtain valid and generalisable results...

  16. Top 10 Myths about Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Top 10 Myths about Cardiovascular Disease Updated:Mar 16,2018 How much do you ... false assumptions can be dangerous to your heart. Cardiovascular disease kills more Americans each year than any other ...

  17. Sex steroids and cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bu Beng Yeap

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available As men grow older, testosterone (T levels decline and the significance of this change is debated. The evidence supporting a causal role for lower circulating T, or its metabolites dihydrotestosterone (DHT and estradiol, in the genesis of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD in men is limited. Observational studies associate low baseline T levels with carotid atherosclerosis, aortic and peripheral vascular disease, and with the incidence of cardiovascular events and mortality. Studies using mass spectrometry suggest that when total T is assayed optimally, calculation of free T might not necessarily improve risk stratification. There is limited evidence to support an association of estradiol with CVD. Interventional studies of T therapy in men with coronary artery disease have shown beneficial effects on exercise-induced myocardial ischemia. However, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials (RCTs of T therapy in men with the prespecified outcomes of cardiovascular events or deaths are lacking. Meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials of T published up to 2010 found no increase in cardiovascular events, mortality, or prostate cancer with therapy. Recently, in a trial of older men with mobility limitations, men randomized to receive a substantial dose of T reported cardiovascular adverse effects. This phenomenon was not reported from a comparable trial where men received a more conservative dose of T, suggesting a prudent approach should be adopted when considering therapy in frail older men with existing CVD. Adequately powered RCTs of T in middle-aged and older men are needed to clarify whether or not hormonal intervention would reduce the incidence of CVD.

  18. Prevalence of stroke/cardiovascular risk factors in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodo, M.; Sipos, K.; Thuroczy, G.; Panczel, G.; Ilias, L.; Szonyi, P.; Bodo, M., Jr.; Nebella, T.; Banyasz, A.; Nagy, Z.

    2010-04-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Hungary using the Cerberus system which includes: 1) a questionnaire addressing the risk factors for stroke/cardiovascular disease; 2) amplifiers to record the pulse waves of cerebral arteries (rheoencephalography) and peripheral arteries, electrocardiogram and electroencephalogram. Additionally, subjects were measured for carotid stenosis by Doppler ultrasound and 12-lead electrocardiogram; subjects were also screened for blood cholesterol, glucose, and triglyceride levels. Prevalence of the following stroke risk factors was identified: overweight, 63.25%; sclerotic brain arteries (by rheoencephalogram), 54.29%; heart disease, 37.92%; pathologic carotid flow, 34.24%; smoking, 30.55%; high blood cholesterol, 28.70%; hypertension, 27.83%; high triglyceride, 24.35%; abnormality in electrocardiogram, 20%; high glucose, 15.95%; symptoms of transient ischemic attack, 16.07%; alcohol abuse, 6.74%; and diabetes, 4.53%. The study demonstrates a possible model for primary cardiovascular disease/stroke prevention. This method offers a standardizable, cost effective, practical technique for mass screenings by identifying the population at high risk for cardiovascular disturbances, especially cerebrovascular disease (primary prevention). In this model, the rheoencephalogram can detect cerebrovascular arteriosclerosis in the susceptibility/presymptomatic phase, earlier than the Doppler ultrasound technique. The method also provides a model for storing analog physiological signals in a computer-based medical record and is a first step in applying an expert system to stroke prevention.

  19. Heart Disease, Stroke, or Other Cardiovascular Disease and Adult Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Adult Diseases Resources Heart Disease, Stroke, or Other Cardiovascular Disease and Adult Vaccination Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ... important step in staying healthy. If you have cardiovascular disease, talk with your doctor about getting your vaccinations ...

  20. Pregnancy disorders and cardiovascular disease risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heida, KY

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the most important cause of death in women in the Netherlands. Early identification of women at increased risk of cardiovascular disease and subsequent detection and treatment of risk factors contributes to the reduction of cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. A

  1. Cardiovascular disease in pregnancy: (women's health series).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickens, Myrna Alexander; Long, Robert Craig; Geraci, Stephen A

    2013-11-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death generally and the most common cause of death during pregnancy in industrialized countries. Improvement in early diagnosis and treatment of congenital heart disease has increased the number of women with such conditions reaching reproductive age. The growing prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, obesity, hyperlipidemia, and metabolic syndrome has concurrently added to the population of pregnant women with acquired heart disease, including coronary artery disease. Physiologic changes occurring during pregnancy can stress a compromised cardiovascular system, resulting in maternal morbidity, mortality, and compromised fetal outcomes. These risks complicate affected women's decisions to become pregnant, their ability to carry a pregnancy to term, and the complexity and risk benefit of cardiovascular treatments delivered during pregnancy. Risk assessment indices assist the obstetrician, cardiologist, and primary care provider in determining the general prognosis of the patient during pregnancy and although imperfect, can aid patients in making informed decisions. Treatments must be selected that ideally benefit the health of both mother and fetus and at a minimum limit risk to the fetus during gestation.

  2. Cocoa, chocolate, and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galleano, Monica; Oteiza, Patricia I; Fraga, Cesar G

    2009-12-01

    A significant body of evidence demonstrates that diets rich in fruits and vegetables promote health and attenuate, or delay, the onset of various diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, certain cancers, and several other age-related degenerative disorders. The concept that moderate chocolate consumption could be part of a healthy diet has gained acceptance in past years based on the health benefits ascribed to selected cocoa components. Specifically, cocoa as a plant and chocolate as food contain a series of chemicals that can interact with cell and tissue components, providing protection against the development and amelioration of pathological conditions. The most relevant effects of cocoa and chocolate have been related to cardiovascular disease. The mechanisms behind these effects are still under investigation. However, the maintenance or restoration of vascular NO production and bioavailability and the antioxidant effects are the mechanisms most consistently supported by experimental data. This review will summarize the most recent research on the cardiovascular effects of cocoa flavanols and related compounds.

  3. Genetic testing in cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Anne-Karin; MacRae, Calum A

    2014-05-01

    The review is designed to outline the major developments in genetic testing in the cardiovascular arena in the past year or so. This is an exciting time in genetic testing as whole exome and whole genome approaches finally reach the clinic. These new approaches offer insight into disease causation in families in which this might previously have been inaccessible, and also bring a wide range of interpretative challenges. Among the most significant recent findings has been the extent of physiologic rare coding variation in the human genome. New disease genes have been identified through whole exome studies in neonatal arrhythmia, congenital heart disease and coronary artery disease that were simply inaccessible with other techniques. This has not only shed light on the challenges of genetic testing at this scale, but has also sharply defined the limits of prior gene-panel focused testing. As novel therapies targeting specific genetic subsets of disease become available, genetic testing will become a part of routine clinical care. The pace of change in sequencing technologies has begun to transform clinical medicine, and cardiovascular disease is no exception. The complexity of such studies emphasizes the importance of real-time communication between the genetics laboratory and genetically informed clinicians. New efforts in data and knowledge management will be central to the continued advancement of genetic testing.

  4. Genome editing in cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Alanna; Musunuru, Kiran

    2017-01-01

    Genome-editing tools, which include zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated 9 (Cas9) systems, have emerged as an invaluable technology to achieve somatic and germline genomic manipulation in cells and model organisms for multiple applications, including the creation of knockout alleles, introducing desired mutations into genomic DNA, and inserting novel transgenes. Genome editing is being rapidly adopted into all fields of biomedical research, including the cardiovascular field, where it has facilitated a greater understanding of lipid metabolism, electrophysiology, cardiomyopathies, and other cardiovascular disorders, has helped to create a wider variety of cellular and animal models, and has opened the door to a new class of therapies. In this Review, we discuss the applications of genome-editing technology throughout cardiovascular disease research and the prospect of in vivo genome-editing therapies in the future. We also describe some of the existing limitations of genome-editing tools that will need to be addressed if cardiovascular genome editing is to achieve its full scientific and therapeutic potential.

  5. Coffee consumption is not associated with prevalent subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) or the risk of CVD events, in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: Results from the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherosclerosis and its clinical sequelae represent the leading cause of mortality among patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). While epidemiologic data support the hepatoprotective benefits of coffee in NAFLD, whether coffee improves NAFLD-associated Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) ri...

  6. Associations between life stress and subclinical cardiovascular disease are partly mediated by depressive and anxiety symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bomhof-Roordink, Hanna; Seldenrijk, Adrie; van Hout, Hein P. J.; van Marwijk, Harm W. J.; Diamant, Michaela; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    Background: Stress experienced during childhood or adulthood has been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), but it is not clear whether associations are already prevalent on a subclinical cardiovascular level. This study investigates associations between indicators of life stress and

  7. Cell Therapy in Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda Madani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available   Recently, cell therapy has sparked a revolution in ischemic heart disease that will in the future help clinicians to cure patients. Earlier investigations in animal models and clinical trials have suggested that positive paracrine effects such as neoangiogenesis and anti-apoptotic can improve myocardial function. In this regard the Royan cell therapy center designed a few trials in collaboration with multi hospitals such as Baqiyatallah, Shahid Lavasani, Tehran Heart Center, Shahid rajaee, Masih daneshvari, Imam Reza, Razavi and Sasan from 2006. Their results were interesting. However, cardiac stem cell therapy still faces great challenges in optimizing the treatment of patients. Keyword: Cardiovascular disease, Cell therapy.  

  8. Cardiovascular involvement in celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciaccio, Edward J; Lewis, Suzanne K; Biviano, Angelo B; Iyer, Vivek; Garan, Hasan; Green, Peter H

    2017-08-26

    Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune response to ingestion of gluten protein, which is found in wheat, rye, and barley grains, and results in both small intestinal manifestations, including villous atrophy, as well as systemic manifestations. The main treatment for the disease is a gluten-free diet (GFD), which typically results in the restoration of the small intestinal villi, and restoration of other affected organ systems, to their normal functioning. In an increasing number of recently published studies, there has been great interest in the occurrence of alterations in the cardiovascular system in untreated CD. Herein, published studies in which CD and cardiovascular terms appear in the title of the study were reviewed. The publications were categorized into one of several types: (1) articles (including cohort and case-control studies); (2) reviews and meta-analyses; (3) case studies (one to three patient reports); (4) letters; (5) editorials; and (6) abstracts (used when no full-length work had been published). The studies were subdivided as either heart or vascular studies, and were further characterized by the particular condition that was evident in conjunction with CD. Publication information was determined using the Google Scholar search tool. For each publication, its type and year of publication were tabulated. Salient information from each article was then compiled. It was determined that there has been a sharp increase in the number of CD - cardiovascular studies since 2000. Most of the publications are either of the type "article" or "case study". The largest number of documents published concerned CD in conjunction with cardiomyopathy (33 studies), and there have also been substantial numbers of studies published on CD and thrombosis (27), cardiovascular risk (17), atherosclerosis (13), stroke (12), arterial function (11), and ischemic heart disease (11). Based on the published research, it can be concluded that many types of cardiovascular issues

  9. [Cardiovascular disease and systemic inflammatory diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuende, José I; Pérez de Diego, Ignacio J; Godoy, Diego

    2016-01-01

    More than a century of research has shown that atherosclerosis is an inflammatory process more than an infiltrative or thrombogenic process. It has been demonstrated epidemiologically and by imaging techniques, that systemic inflammatory diseases (in particular, but not exclusively, rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus) increase the atherosclerotic process, and has a demonstrated pathophysiological basis. Furthermore, treatments to control inflammatory diseases can modify the course of the atherosclerotic process. Although there are no specific scales for assessing cardiovascular risk in patients with these diseases, cardiovascular risk is high. A number of specific risk scales are being developed, that take into account specific factors such as the degree of inflammatory activity. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  10. Apolipoprotein E and cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Moreno Valladares

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Apolipoprotein E is a polymorphic glycoprotein who interacts with the lipoprotein receptors (LRP-Receptor Related Protein and the receptors for low density lipoproteins of (LDL receptors. When lipoproteins bring up the receptors begins lipids captation and degradation which allows cholesterol utilization, taking place an intracellular auto regulation. The three isoforms of greater importance: Apo E2, E3 and E4 are product of three alleles e2, e3, e4 of one only gene. This factor is related with the amount of lipoproteins that contains ApoE for E/B receptors. A low concentration of lipoproteins with ApoE can increase the activity of LDL receptors and consequently downward the circulating LDL. In the other hand particles with Apo E3 or Apo E4, can cause a downward regulation of LDL and in this way produces a LDL plasma elevation. Many studies in human populations have concluded that this polymorphism of apoE and the plasma variation of lipoproteins are associated with cardiovascular risk. Cardiovascular disease is the result of different interaction between factors which are genetic factor specially ApoE polymorphism e4 allelic of ApoE can explain, in some degree, the greater frequency of cardiovascular disease in those who carries it.

  11. Oral disease in adults treated with hemodialysis: prevalence, predictors, and association with mortality and adverse cardiovascular events: the rationale and design of the ORAL Diseases in hemodialysis (ORAL-D) study, a prospective, multinational, longitudinal, observational, cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strippoli, Giovanni F M; Palmer, Suetonia C; Ruospo, Marinella; Natale, Patrizia; Saglimbene, Valeria; Craig, Jonathan C; Pellegrini, Fabio; Petruzzi, Massimo; De Benedittis, Michele; Ford, Pauline; Johnson, David W; Celia, Eduardo; Gelfman, Ruben; Leal, Miguel R; Torok, Marietta; Stroumza, Paul; Bednarek-Skublewska, Anna; Dulawa, Jan; Frantzen, Luc; Ferrari, Juan Nin; del Castillo, Domingo; Hegbrant, Jorgen; Wollheim, Charlotta; Gargano, Letitzia

    2013-04-19

    People with end-stage kidney disease treated with dialysis experience high rates of premature death that are at least 30-fold that of the general population, and have markedly impaired quality of life. Despite this, interventions that lower risk factors for mortality (including antiplatelet agents, epoetins, lipid lowering, vitamin D compounds, or dialysis dose) have not been shown to improve clinical outcomes for this population. Although mortality outcomes may be improving overall, additional modifiable determinants of health in people treated with dialysis need to be identified and evaluated. Oral disease is highly prevalent in the general population and represents a potential and preventable cause of poor health in dialysis patients. Oral disease may be increased in patients treated with dialysis due to their lower uptake of public dental services, as well as increased malnutrition and inflammation, although available exploratory data are limited by small sample sizes and few studies evaluating links between oral health and clinical outcomes for this group, including mortality and cardiovascular disease. Recent data suggest periodontitis may be associated with mortality in dialysis patients and well-designed, larger studies are now required. The ORAL Diseases in hemodialysis (ORAL-D) study is a multinational, prospective (minimum follow-up 12 months) study. Participants comprise consecutive adults treated with long-term in-center hemodialysis. Between July 2010 and February 2012, we recruited 4500 dialysis patients from randomly selected outpatient dialysis clinics in Europe within a collaborative network of dialysis clinics administered by a dialysis provider, Diaverum, in Europe (France, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Portugal, and Spain) and South America (Argentina). At baseline, dental surgeons with training in periodontology systematically assessed the prevalence and characteristics of oral disease (dental, periodontal, mucosal, and salivary) in all participants

  12. Oxidative stress in cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamal K Goswami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress caused by various oxygen containing free radicals and reactive species (collectively called "Reactive Oxygen Species" or ROS has long been attributed to cardiovascular diseases. In human body, major oxidizing species are super oxide, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical, peroxy nitrite etc. ROS are produced from distinct cellular sources, enzymatic and non-enzymatic; have specific physicochemical properties and often have specific cellular targets. Although early studies in nineteen sixties and seventies highlighted the deleterious effects of these species, later it was established that they also act as physiological modulators of cellular functions and diseases occur only when ROS production is deregulated. One of the major sources of cellular ROS is Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidases (Noxes that are expressed in almost all cell types. Superoxide and hydrogen peroxide generated from them under various conditions act as signal transducers. Due to their immense importance in cellular physiology, various Nox inhibitors are now being developed as therapeutics. Another free radical of importance in cardiovascular system is nitric oxide (a reactive nitrogen species generated from nitric oxide synthase(s. It plays a critical role in cardiac function and its dysregulated generation along with superoxide leads to the formation of peroxynitrite a highly deleterious agent. Despite overwhelming evidences of association between increased level of ROS and cardiovascular diseases, antioxidant therapies using vitamins and omega 3 fatty acids have largely been unsuccessful till date. Also, there are major discrepancies between studies with laboratory animals and human trials. It thus appears that the biology of ROS is far complex than anticipated before. A comprehensive understanding of the redox biology of diseases is thus needed for developing targeted therapeutics.

  13. Association between periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, M.M.; Salama, R.P.

    2004-01-01

    Studies have supported the notion that subjects with periodontitis and patients with multiple tooth extractions as a result of chronic advanced periodontal disease (PDD) have a greater risk of developing Cardiovascular disease (CVD) than those who had little or no periodontal infection. Periodontitis may predispose affected patients to CVD by elevating systemic C-reactive protein level and pro-inflammatory activity in atherosclerotic lesions and accelerate development of cardiovascular diseases, Oral health variables including loss of teeth, positive plaque Benzoyl-D-L-Arginine- Naphthyl Amide test (BANA) scores, and compliant of xerostomia may by considered as risk indicators for CVD. Exact mechanism which links PDD and CVD has not been firmly established. The link between PDD and CVD may be attributed to bacteria entering blood stream and attaching to the fatty plaque in coronary artery and contributing to clot formation which can lead to heart attack. Inflammation caused by PDD increases the plaque build up. The association between the two disease entities is cause for concern. However, dental and medical practitioners should be aware of these findings to move intelligently to interact with inquiring patients with periodontitis. They should be urged to maintain medical surveillance of their cardiovascular status, and work on controlling or reducing all known risk factors associated with CVD, including periodontal infection. (author)

  14. Lipid measures and cardiovascular disease prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijk, D.F.; Stroes, E.S.G.; Kastelein, J.J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Traditional lipid measures are the cornerstone of risk assessment and treatment goals in cardiovascular prevention. Whereas the association between total, LDL-, HDL-cholesterol and cardiovascular disease risk has been generally acknowledged, the rather poor capacity to distinguish between patients

  15. Prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors among a Nigerian adult population: Relationship with income level and accessibility to CVD risks screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oguoma, Victor Maduabuchi; Nwose, Ezekiel Uba; Nwose, Ezekiel Uba

    2015-01-01

    .01) showed significant difference between gender groups. Overall prevalence of prediabetes (4.9%), diabetes (5.4%), hypertension (35.7%), low HDL (17.8%), hypertriglyceridemia (23.2%), hypercholesterolemia (38.1%) and central obesity of 52.2% was recorded. Except between total cholesterol (p = 0.042) and HDL...... sought to assess the prevalence of CVD risk factors and how the difference in prevalence and accessibility to CVD risk screening across income levels and educational backgrounds contributes to disease diagnosis in rural and urban Nigerian adults. Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out...... level and educational status were indicators used to assess the impact of SES. Multivariate analyses were performed to assess any difference between the geographical locations and SES indicators, and prevalence of CVD risk factors and access to CVD risk screening. Results: The 422 participants (149...

  16. THE ROLE OF GENE IN CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES

    OpenAIRE

    Rafiya Begum1 , Syeda Zeba Hyder Zaidi2 , Nuha Rasheed3 and Abdul Saleem Mohammad 4

    2017-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-18 plays a key role in atherosclerosis and its complications. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels. Cardiovascular disease includes coronary artery diseases (CAD) such as angina and myocardial infarction (commonly known as a heart attack). Other CVDs include stroke, heart failure, hypertensive heart disease, rheumatic heart disease, cardiomyopathy, heart arrhythmia, congenital heart disease, valvular heart disease, cardit...

  17. Plausible mechanisms explaining the association of periodontitis with cardiovascular diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loos, B.G.; Teeuw, W.J.; Nicu, E.A.; Lynge Petersen, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The association between periodontitis and cardiovascular diseases is now well established. Cardiovascular diseases include atherosclerosis, coronary heart (artery) disease, cerebrovascular disease, and peripheral artery disease. Atherosclerosis is the underlying pathology of cardiovascular diseases.

  18. Pattern of cardiovascular disease admissions in the medical wards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akubudike Alikor

    Background: Cardiovascular disease as a leading contributor to global disease burden has shown an increase in its prevalence since the 19th century and was responsible for the global mortality of 17.5 million individuals in the year 2005. This has been linked to increasing urbanization and westernization of life style ...

  19. Smokeless tobacco and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asplund, Kjell

    2003-01-01

    Various forms of smokeless tobacco (mainly snuff and chewing tobacco) cause an immediate increase in heart rate and blood pressure, but regular users of smokeless tobacco do not have permanent changes of heart rate or blood pressure when not exposed to tobacco. Cardiac output during workload and maximal working capacity are unaffected. Users of smokeless tobacco usually do not have the biochemical stigmata that regular smokers have. Thus, the scientific literature suggests that they are similar to non-tobacco users in terms of levels of hemoglobin/hematocrit, leukocytes, antioxidant vitamins, fibrinogen, components of the fibrinolytic system, C-reactive protein, and thromboxane A2 production. Two studies have found that snuff users, as opposed to smokers, do not have increased intima-media thickness or atherosclerotic lesions when investigated by ultrasound. Results on the risk for myocardial infarction have provided conflicting evidence, 2 case-control studies showing the same risks as in non-tobacco users and one cohort study showing an increased risk for cardiovascular death. In all, the use of smokeless tobacco (with snuff being the most studied variant) involves a much lower risk for adverse cardiovascular effects than smoking does. Whether or not the apparent risk reduction is a useful strategy to help inveterate smokers to quit is a matter of debate, as are the public health effects of a high prevalence of snuff use in some populations. Copyright 2003, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  20. Cardiovascular disease among people with drug use disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thylstrup, Birgitte; Clausen, Thomas; Hesse, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To present the prevalence and incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a national cohort of patients seeking treatment for drug use disorders (DUD). Methods This is a longitudinal record linkage study of consecutive DUD treatment admissions between 2000 and 2006 from Denmark. Results...... treatment (SHR = 1.15, p = 0.022). The use of amphetamines was negatively associated with the risk of CVD within this cohort (SHR = 0.75, p = 0.001). Conclusions Patients injecting drugs using prescribed methadone were at elevated risk for cardiovascular disease and should be monitored for CVD. Opioid...... medications should be evaluated in terms of their cardiovascular sequelae....

  1. Aspirin desensitization for cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woessner, Katharine M

    2015-08-01

    The use of aspirin in coronary artery disease and address the unmet need of aspirin therapy in patients with history of hypersensitivity reactions to aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid; ASA) or other nonsteroidal inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Aspirin hypersensitivity is reported in 1.5% of patients with cardiovascular disease. However, many of those labeled as allergic to aspirin had experienced side-effects and could be safely treated with aspirin. Those with true hypersensitivity reactions were often not placed on appropriate antiplatelet therapy. A number of protocols of varying complexity exist in the literature for aspirin desensitization. The focus of this review is to identify the types of aspirin reactions that can occur and provide a rational approach to oral aspirin challenge and desensitization. In summary, with rare exceptions, patients with a history of 'aspirin/NSAID allergy' who need ASA for cardiovascular issues will be able to safely take aspirin either after a graded challenge or desensitization providing a central role of the allergist in the management of these patients.

  2. Marijuana Use and Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Christopher A; Frishman, William H

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana is currently the most used illicit substance in the world. With the current trend of decriminalization and legalization of marijuana in the US, physicians in the US will encounter more patients using marijuana recreationally over a diverse range of ages and health states. Therefore, it is relevant to review marijuana's effects on human cardiovascular physiology and disease. Compared with placebo, marijuana cigarettes cause increases in heart rate, supine systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and forearm blood flow via increased sympathetic nervous system activity. These actions increase myocardial oxygen demand to a degree that they can decrease the time to exercise-induced angina in patients with a history of stable angina. In addition, marijuana has been associated with triggering myocardial infarctions (MIs) in young male patients. Smoking marijuana has been shown to increase the risk of MI onset by a factor of 4.8 for the 60 minutes after marijuana consumption, and to increase the annual risk of MI in the daily cannabis user from 1.5% to 3% per year. Human and animal models suggest that this effect may be due to coronary arterial vasospasm. However, longitudinal studies have indicated that marijuana use may not have a significant effect on long-term mortality. While further research is required to definitively determine the impact of marijuana on cardiovascular disease, it is reasonable to recommend against recreational marijuana use, especially in individuals with a history of coronary artery disorders.

  3. Environmental Determinants of Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2017-07-07

    Many features of the environment have been found to exert an important influence on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, progression, and severity. Changes in the environment because of migration to different geographic locations, modifications in lifestyle choices, and shifts in social policies and cultural practices alter CVD risk, even in the absence of genetic changes. Nevertheless, the cumulative impact of the environment on CVD risk has been difficult to assess and the mechanisms by which some environment factors influence CVD remain obscure. Human environments are complex, and their natural, social, and personal domains are highly variable because of diversity in human ecosystems, evolutionary histories, social structures, and individual choices. Accumulating evidence supports the notion that ecological features such as the diurnal cycles of light and day, sunlight exposure, seasons, and geographic characteristics of the natural environment such as altitude, latitude, and greenspaces are important determinants of cardiovascular health and CVD risk. In highly developed societies, the influence of the natural environment is moderated by the physical characteristics of the social environments such as the built environment and pollution, as well as by socioeconomic status and social networks. These attributes of the social environment shape lifestyle choices that significantly modify CVD risk. An understanding of how different domains of the environment, individually and collectively, affect CVD risk could lead to a better appraisal of CVD and aid in the development of new preventive and therapeutic strategies to limit the increasingly high global burden of heart disease and stroke. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Age-related prevalence of diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and anticoagulation therapy use in a urolithiasis population and their effect on outcomes: the Clinical Research Office of the Endourological Society Ureteroscopy Global Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daels, F Pedro J; Gaizauskas, Andrius; Rioja, Jorge; Varshney, Anil K; Erkan, Erkan; Ozgok, Yasar; Melekos, Michael; de la Rosette, Jean J M C H

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the prevalence of risk factors for urological stone surgery and their possible influence on outcome and complications following ureteroscopy (URS). The Clinical Research Office of the Endourological Society Ureteroscopy Global Study collected prospective data on consecutive patients with urinary stones treated with URS at centers around the world for 1 year. The prevalence of common comorbidities and anticoagulation therapy and their relationship with complications and age were examined. Of 11,719 patients, 2,989 patients (25.8%) had cardiovascular disease, including 22.6% with hypertension, and 1,266 patients (10.9%) had diabetes mellitus. Approximately six percent of patients were receiving oral anticoagulation therapy, including aspirin (3.7%) and clopidogrel (0.8%). The prevalence of hypertension and diabetes mellitus and the proportion of patients receiving anticoagulant medication and/or antidiabetes treatment increased with age. Elderly were more likely to develop a postoperative complication when they had diabetes, a cardiovascular disease or received anticoagulation therapy. Post-operative bleeding was higher in patients receiving anticoagulants than those not receiving them (1.1 vs. 0.4%; p < 0.01). Patients with risk factors for stone formation had more complications than those without (4.9 vs. 3.0%, p < 0.001). This is the first study confirming in a global population that URS can effectively and safely be performed in a population with high comorbidity. The risk of a complication was highest among elderly patients presenting with comorbidities.

  5. Post-traumatic stress disorder and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, Donald; von Känel, Roland

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, a first in a Series of two, we look at the evidence for an association of post-traumatic stress disorder with incident cardiovascular disease risk and the mechanisms that might cause this association, as well as the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder due to cardiovascular disease events and its associated prognostic risk. We discuss research done after the publication of previous relevant systematic reviews, and survey currently funded research from the two most active funders in the field: the National Institutes of Health and the US Veterans Administration. We conclude that post-traumatic stress disorder is a risk factor for incident cardiovascular disease, and a common psychiatric consequence of cardiovascular disease events that might worsen the prognosis of the cardiovascular disease. There are many candidate mechanisms for the link between post-traumatic stress disorder and cardiovascular disease, and several ongoing studies could soon point to the most important behavioural and physiological mechanisms to target in early phase intervention development. Similarly, targets are emerging for individual and environmental interventions that might offset the risk of post-traumatic stress disorder after cardiovascular disease events. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Pro-resolution therapeutics for cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Justin; Marinello, Michael; Fredman, Gabrielle

    2017-09-01

    Studies over the last couple of decades suggest that failed resolution of a chronic inflammatory response is an important driving force in the progression of atherosclerosis. Resolution of inflammation is mediated in part by lipid-derived specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs) such as lipoxins, resolvins, protectins and maresins. The major functions of SPMs are to quell inflammation and repair tissue damage in a manner that does not compromise host defense. An imbalance between SPMs and pro-inflammatory mediators like leukotriene B 4 (LTB 4 ) are associated with several prevalent human diseases, including atherosclerosis. Because atherosclerosis is marked by persistent, unresolved inflammation and arterial tissue injury, SPMs have garnered immense interest as a potential treatment strategy. This mini review will highlight recent advances in the application of SPMs in atherosclerosis as well as the ability of SPMs to control several of the risk factors associated with cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Long-term trends in the prevalence of chronic kidney disease and the influence of cardiovascular risk factors in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallan, Stein I; Øvrehus, Marius A; Romundstad, Solfrid; Rifkin, Dena; Langhammer, Arnulf; Stevens, Paul E; Ix, Joachim H

    2016-09-01

    Surveillance of chronic kidney disease (CKD) prevalence over time and information on how changing risk factors influence this trend are needed to evaluate the effects of general practice and public health interventions. Because very few studies addressed this, we studied the total adult population of a demographically stable county representative of Norway using cross-sectional studies 10 years apart (Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT)2 and Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT)3, 65,237 and 50,586 participants, respectively). Thorough quality-control procedures and comparisons of methods over time excluded analytical drift, and multiple imputations of missing data combined with nonattendance weights contributed to unbiased estimates. CKD prevalence remained stable in Norway from 1995 through 1997 (11.3%) to 2006 through 2008 (11.1%). The association of survey period with CKD prevalence was modified by a strong decrease in blood pressure, more physical activity, and lower cholesterol levels. Without these improvements, a 2.8, 0.7, and 0.6 percentage points higher CKD prevalence could have been expected, respectively. In contrast, the prevalence of diabetes and obesity increased moderately, but the proportion of diabetic patients with CKD decreased significantly (from 33.4% to 28.6%). A CKD prevalence of 1 percentage point lower would have been expected without these changes. Thus, CKD prevalence remained stable in Norway for more than a decade in association with marked improvements in blood pressure, lipid levels, and physical activity and despite modest increases in diabetes and obesity. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Vitamin D, cardiovascular disease and risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaaby, Tea; Thuesen, Betina H.; Linneberg, Allan

    2017-01-01

    Observational studies have suggested a possible protective role of vitamin D on the cardiovascular system. The available evidence does not support either cardiovascular benefits or harms of vitamin D supplementation. This chapter provides an overview and discussion of the current knowledge...... of vitamin D effects from a cardiovascular health perspective. It focuses on vitamin D in relation to cardiovascular disease, i.e. ischemic heart disease, and stroke; the traditional cardiovascular risk factors hypertension, abnormal blood lipids, obesity; and the emerging risk factors hyperparathyroidism......, microalbuminuria, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Meta-analyses of observational studies have largely found vitamin D levels to be inversely associated with cardiovascular risk and disease. However, Mendelian randomization studies and randomized, controlled trials...

  9. Prevalence of obesity and associated cardiovascular risk: the DARIOS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix-Redondo, Francisco Javier; Grau, María; Baena-Díez, José Miguel; Dégano, Irene R; de León, Antonio Cabrera; Guembe, Maria Jesús; Alzamora, María Teresa; Vega-Alonso, Tomás; Robles, Nicolás R; Ortiz, Honorato; Rigo, Fernando; Mayoral-Sanchez, Eduardo; Tormo, Maria José; Segura-Fragoso, Antonio; Fernández-Bergés, Daniel

    2013-06-05

    To estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity in the Spanish population as measured with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist to height ratio (WHtR) and to determine the associated cardiovascular risk factors. Pooled analysis with individual data from 11 studies conducted in the first decade of the 21st century. Participants aged 35-74 years were asked about the history of cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, diabetes and hypercholesterolemia. Height, weight, WC, blood pressure, glycaemia, total cholesterol, low-density and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and coronary risk were measured. The prevalence of overweight (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m(2)), general obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)), suboptimal WC (≥ 80 cm and population. We included 28,743 individuals. The prevalence of overweight and suboptimal WC was 51% and 30% in men and 36% and 22% in women, respectively; general obesity was 28% in both sexes and abdominal obesity 36% in men and 55% in women. The prevalence of WHtR ≥0.5 was 89% and 77% in men and women, respectively. All cardiovascular risk factors were significantly associated with abnormal increased values of BMI, WC and WHtR. Hypertension showed the strongest association with overweight [OR = 1.99 (95% confidence interval 1.81-2.21) and OR = 2.10 (1.91-2.31)]; suboptimal WC [OR = 1.78 (1.60-1.97) and OR = 1.45 (1.26-1.66)], with general obesity [OR = 4.50 (4.02-5.04), and OR = 5.20 (4.70-5.75)] and with WHtR ≥0.5 [OR = 2.94 (2.52-3.43), and OR = 3.02 (2.66-3.42)] in men and women respectively, besides abdominal obesity in men only [OR = 3.51 (3.18-3.88)]. Diabetes showed the strongest association with abdominal obesity in women [OR = 3,86 (3,09-4,89). The prevalence of obesity in Spain was high. Overweight, suboptimal WC, general, abdominal obesity and WHtR ≥0.5 was significantly associated with diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and coronary risk. The use of lower cut-off points for both BMI and particularly WC

  10. Chronic kidney disease and 10-year risk of cardiovascular death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzmann, Martin J; Carlsson, Axel C; Hammar, Niklas; Ivert, Torbjörn; Walldius, Göran; Jungner, Ingmar; Wändell, Per; Ärnlöv, Johan

    2016-07-01

    In recent clinical guidelines, individuals with chronic kidney disease are considered to have a similar 10-year absolute risk of cardiovascular death as individuals with diabetes or established cardiovascular disease. There is limited evidence to support this claim. We investigated the 10-year risk for cardiovascular death in individuals with moderate or severe chronic kidney disease (glomerular filtration rate of 30-60 or disease. The inclusion criteria, exposure, study outcome and follow-up period adhered strictly to the definitions of the European Society of Cardiology guidelines. The absolute 10-year risk of cardiovascular death was 3.9% and 14.0% in individuals with moderate and severe chronic kidney disease, respectively, but was substantially lower in women and in younger individuals. The risk in individuals with prevalent diabetes and cardiovascular disease was approximately two and three times higher compared to the risk estimate for moderate chronic kidney disease (hazard ratio (HR) 4.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.8-4.5 and HR 6.2, 95% CI 5.7-6.7 vs. HR 2.3 95% CI 2.0-2.6, respectively) while the risk for individuals with severe chronic kidney disease appeared more congruent to that of diabetes and cardiovascular disease (HR 5.5, 95% CI 3.3-8.9). Although moderate chronic kidney disease is an independent predictor for an increased 10-year risk of cardiovascular death, only those with severe chronic kidney disease had similar risk to those with diabetes or cardiovascular disease. © The European Society of Cardiology 2015.

  11. Cardiovascular Involvement in Autoimmune Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya-Amaya, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases (AD) represent a broad spectrum of chronic conditions that may afflict specific target organs or multiple systems with a significant burden on quality of life. These conditions have common mechanisms including genetic and epigenetics factors, gender disparity, environmental triggers, pathophysiological abnormalities, and certain subphenotypes. Atherosclerosis (AT) was once considered to be a degenerative disease that was an inevitable consequence of aging. However, research in the last three decades has shown that AT is not degenerative or inevitable. It is an autoimmune-inflammatory disease associated with infectious and inflammatory factors characterized by lipoprotein metabolism alteration that leads to immune system activation with the consequent proliferation of smooth muscle cells, narrowing arteries, and atheroma formation. Both humoral and cellular immune mechanisms have been proposed to participate in the onset and progression of AT. Several risk factors, known as classic risk factors, have been described. Interestingly, the excessive cardiovascular events observed in patients with ADs are not fully explained by these factors. Several novel risk factors contribute to the development of premature vascular damage. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of how traditional and nontraditional risk factors contribute to pathogenesis of CVD in AD. PMID:25177690

  12. Vitamin D, cardiovascular disease and risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaaby, Tea; Thuesen, Betina H.; Linneberg, Allan

    2017-01-01

    of vitamin D effects from a cardiovascular health perspective. It focuses on vitamin D in relation to cardiovascular disease, i.e. ischemic heart disease, and stroke; the traditional cardiovascular risk factors hypertension, abnormal blood lipids, obesity; and the emerging risk factors hyperparathyroidism......, microalbuminuria, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Meta-analyses of observational studies have largely found vitamin D levels to be inversely associated with cardiovascular risk and disease. However, Mendelian randomization studies and randomized, controlled trials...... (RCTs) have not been able to consistently replicate the observational findings. Several RCTs are ongoing, and the results from these are needed to clarify whether vitamin D deficiency is a causal and reversible factor to prevent cardiovascular disease....

  13. Dairy products and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tholstrup, Tine

    2006-02-01

    Although it has often been postulated that the consumption of dairy products is associated with a high risk of coronary heart disease, study results have been conflicting. This review summarizes recent observational and human intervention trial findings on dairy products and cardiovascular disease. Results from more recent observational studies on dairy products and milk disagree. This may be because of the very different methods used combined with several methodological problems. A somewhat surprising beneficial association between the intake of dairy products and the metabolic syndrome was observed in some studies, although not in a single study of elderly women. Milk may have the same cholesterol-raising properties as butter, whereas cheese does not seem to increase plasma cholesterol. Some milk products fermented by specific bacterial strains have been shown to have rather moderate cholesterol-reducing properties. There is also good evidence that certain fermented products (especially by Lactobacillus helveticus) have a mildly decreasing effect on hypertension, probably because of bioactive peptides. When guiding principles such as balance, variety and moderation are stressed, there is no strong evidence that dairy products increase the risk of coronary heart disease in healthy men of all ages or young and middle-aged healthy women. Human studies should investigate the role of dairy products with respect to sex and age by including classic and novel risk markers of coronary heart disease. Specific fermented milks may be beneficial in the future prevention of hypertension. The beneficially neutral effect of cheese on coronary heart disease risk factors should be elucidated further.

  14. Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in an African, Urban inner ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The object of this community based study was to determine the prevalence of selected cardiovascular risk factors in an urban inner city community which had been followed up prospectively from 1993 to 1998. Results show that the prevalence of hypertension (Blood Pressure BP > 160/95 mm Hg) was 12.4 percent with an ...

  15. Depression: risk factor for cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuehl, L.K.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Otte, C.

    2012-01-01

    Major depression is an independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. In patients with existing cardiovascular disease, major depression has a large impact on the quality of life and is associated with a poor course and prognosis. Potential mechanisms responsible for this

  16. Incidence and Patterns of Cardiovascular Disease in North Western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been major problem in the developed and developing countries and its burden in these countries is overwhelming. There is a dearth of literature and data on the prevalence and patterns of CVD in developing countries, especially Nigeria. Objectives: This study was carried ...

  17. Comparability of total cardiovascular disease risk estimates using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To establish the prevalence and determinants of the 10-year risk of a cardiovascular disease (CVD) event in 25 - 74-year-old black Africans in Cape Town, South Africa, using Framingham laboratory- and non-laboratory-based and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) I ...

  18. Prescribing Errors in Cardiovascular Diseases in a Tertiary Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prescription errors are now known to be contributing to a large number of deaths during the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. However, there is paucity of information about these errors occurring in health facilities in Nigeria. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of prescribing errors in ...

  19. Cardiovascular disease: A Global Epidemic extending into Sub ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cardiovascular disease is a global epidemic; the prevalence is currently stable in the developed world but is on a rapid rise in the developing world particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. It is the commonest cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Its victims are older in the developed world but younger in Africa ...

  20. Cardiometabolic markers to identify cardiovascular disease risk in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. The prevalence of HIV is the highest in sub-Saharan Africa; South Africa (SA) is one of the most affected countries with the highest number of adults living with HIV infection in the world. Besides the traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the general population, in people living with HIV there ...

  1. Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Disease: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vivek; Kantipudi, Neha; Jones, Graham; Upton, Adrian; Kamath, Markad V

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution is comprised of different compounds and particulate matter (PM) of sizes 2.5 and 10 μm, with the former size posing the greatest danger to humans. Evidence suggests that the global rise in air pollution levels during the past century is correlated with the increased incidence of diseases of the cardiovascular system. On a global scale, 7 million individuals died as a result of the effects of air pollution in 2012. Air pollution leads to tremendous amounts of financial burden (in 2010, $16 trillion in the US and Europe) on the health-care system. The severity of effects experienced by varying populations due to air pollution can differ due to locale, length of exposure, weather conditions, residential proximity to major highways or factories, and soil aridity. Pollutants affect the heart, blood vessels, and blood at a molecular level through proinflammatory or oxidative stress response, autonomic nervous system imbalance, and the direct permeation of harmful compounds into the tissue. The dysfunction of cells and biological processes of the cardiovascular system due to PM leads to an increased prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, myocardial infarction, thrombosis, and restricted valve motion. Studies in countries such as China have shown an increase of 0.25% in ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality and a 0.27% increase in IHD morbidity due to a 10 μg/m3 increase in PM. In a study conducted in the US, PM2.5 concentrations ranged from 9.2-22.6 μg/m3, and every 5-μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 caused coronary calcification to increase by 4.1 Agatston units/yr. Studies on traffic-related air pollution found that nonhypertensive participants residing within 100 m of major roadways experienced an increase in systolic (0.35 mmHg) and diastolic (0.22 mmHg) blood pressure as a result of increases in traffic. The progression of CVD due to pollution has been found to fluctuate within individuals based on age, gender

  2. The gut microbiome in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jie, Zhuye; Xia, Huihua; Zhong, Shi-Long

    2017-01-01

    The gut microbiota has been linked to cardiovascular diseases. However, the composition and functional capacity of the gut microbiome in relation to cardiovascular diseases have not been systematically examined. Here, we perform a metagenome-wide association study on stools from 218 individuals...... with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD) and 187 healthy controls. The ACVD gut microbiome deviates from the healthy status by increased abundance of Enterobacteriaceae and Streptococcus spp. and, functionally, in the potential for metabolism or transport of several molecules important for cardiovascular......), with liver cirrhosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Our data represent a comprehensive resource for further investigations on the role of the gut microbiome in promoting or preventing ACVD as well as other related diseases.The gut microbiota may play a role in cardiovascular diseases. Here, the authors perform...

  3. Cardiovascular medication use and cardiovascular disease in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes : a population-based cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmadizar, Fariba; Fazeli Farsani, Soulmaz; Souverein, Patrick C; van der Vorst, Marja Mj; de Boer, Anthonius; Maitland-van der Zee, Anke H

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the 5-yr prevalence and incidence rates of cardiovascular medication and cardiovascular disease before and after onset of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in children and adolescents. METHODS: Children and adolescents (<19 yr) with T1D (n = 925), defined as those who received at

  4. Cardiovascular medication use and cardiovascular disease in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes: a population-based cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmadizar, Fariba; Fazeli Farsani, Soulmaz; Souverein, Patrick C.; van der Vorst, Marja Mj; de Boer, Anthonius; Maitland-van der Zee, Anke H.

    2016-01-01

    ObjectivesTo investigate the 5-yr prevalence and incidence rates of cardiovascular medication and cardiovascular disease before and after onset of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in children and adolescents. MethodsChildren and adolescents ( <19yr) with T1D (n=925), defined as those who received at least two

  5. Unravelling cardiovascular disease using four dimensional flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphuis, Vivian P; Westenberg, Jos J M; van der Palen, Roel L F; Blom, Nico A; de Roos, Albert; van der Geest, Rob; Elbaz, Mohammed S M; Roest, Arno A W

    2017-07-01

    Knowledge of normal and abnormal flow patterns in the human cardiovascular system increases our understanding of normal physiology and may help unravel the complex pathophysiological mechanisms leading to cardiovascular disease. Four-dimensional (4D) flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has emerged as a suitable technique that enables visualization of in vivo blood flow patterns and quantification of parameters that could potentially be of prognostic value in the disease process. In this review, current image processing tools that are used for comprehensive visualization and quantification of blood flow and energy distribution in the heart and great vessels will be discussed. Also, imaging biomarkers extracted from 4D flow CMR will be reviewed that have been shown to distinguish between normal and abnormal flow patterns. Furthermore, current applications of 4D flow CMR in the heart and great vessels will be discussed, showing its potential as an additional diagnostic modality which could aid in disease management and timing of surgical intervention.

  6. Analysis of Medical Tourism for Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Liliana Andrei

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Increasing costs of treatments have led to the apparition of the medical tourism. Patients in high-income countries seek to solve their health problems in developing countries where the cost of medical treatment is much lower. This cost difference has led to the medical tourism industry that is currently estimated with an annual growth rate of about 20%. Cardiovascular diseases are a leading cause of death worldwide. The high cost of treating these diseases cause many patients to seek treatment options abroad. This paper presents an analysis of the medical tourism industry highlighting the factors that led to its development, barriers to medical tourism, and the economic impact of this industry. Although Romania has highly appreciated doctors it hasn’t achieved yet the high level of other developing countries where medical tourism is more intense. Spa tourism is still far from Romania’s potential in this area due to the very small investments and the lack of necessary infrastructure. Using statistical and econometric techniques we examined key health indicators in Romania showing the lack of correlation between the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases, the development of the endowment of the health system in Romania, expenditures on health care and evolution of the number of foreign tourists coming to Romania to treat these diseases. We used statistical data series provided by N.S.I. that were processed using Eviews. We also tested whether there is a causal relationship in the Granger sense between the percentage of GDP allocated to the health care system and the number of nights spent by foreign tourists in resorts in Romania or the number of arrivals of foreign tourists.

  7. Cardiovascular Disease, Mitochondria, and Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies demonstrated that mitochondria play an important role in the cardiovascular system and mutations of mitochondrial DNA affect coronary artery disease, resulting in hypertension, atherosclerosis, and cardiomyopathy. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM has been used for thousands of years to treat cardiovascular disease, but it is not yet clear how TCM affects mitochondrial function. By reviewing the interactions between the cardiovascular system, mitochondrial DNA, and TCM, we show that cardiovascular disease is negatively affected by mutations in mitochondrial DNA and that TCM can be used to treat cardiovascular disease by regulating the structure and function of mitochondria via increases in mitochondrial electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation, modulation of mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis, and decreases in mitochondrial ROS. However further research is still required to identify the mechanism by which TCM affects CVD and modifies mitochondrial DNA.

  8. Testosterone and cardiovascular disease in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Paul D; Channer, Kevin S

    2012-01-01

    Despite regional variations in the prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD), men are consistently more at risk of developing and dying from CAD than women, and the gender-specific effects of sex hormones are implicated in this inequality. This ‘Perspectives' article reviews the current evidence regarding the cardiovascular effects of testosterone in men including an examination of the age-related decline in testosterone, the relationship between testosterone levels and coronary disease, coronary risk factors and mortality. We also review the vaso-active effects of testosterone, and discuss how these have been used in men with heart failure and angina. We discuss the ‘cause' versus ‘effect' controversy, regarding low testosterone levels in men with coronary heart disease, as well as concerns over the use of testosterone replacement therapy in middle aged and elderly men. The article concludes with a discussion regarding the future direction for work in this interesting area, including the relative merits of screening for, and treating hypogonadism with testosterone replacement therapy in men with heart disease. PMID:22522504

  9. Dietary sodium and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Andrew; O'Donnell, Martin; Mente, Andrew; Yusuf, Salim

    2015-06-01

    Although an essential nutrient, higher sodium intake is associated with increasing blood pressure (BP), forming the basis for current population-wide sodium restriction guidelines. While short-term clinical trials have achieved low intake (6 months). Guidelines assume that low sodium intake will reduce BP and reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD), compared to moderate intake. However, current observational evidence suggests a J-shaped association between sodium intake and CVD; the lowest risks observed with 3-5 g/day but higher risk with 5 g/day) and increased risk of CVD. Although lower intake may reduce BP, this may be offset by marked increases in neurohormones and other adverse effects which may paradoxically be adverse. Large randomised clinical trials with sufficient follow-up are required to provide robust data on the long-term effects of sodium reduction on CVD incidence. Until such trials are completed, current evidence suggests that moderate sodium intake for the general population (3-5 g/day) is likely the optimum range for CVD prevention.

  10. Globalization, Work, and Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnall, Peter L; Dobson, Marnie; Landsbergis, Paul

    2016-10-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD), a global epidemic, is responsible for about 30% of all deaths worldwide. While mortality rates from CVD have been mostly declining in the advanced industrialized nations, CVD risk factors, including hypertension, obesity, and diabetes, have been on the increase everywhere. Researchers investigating the social causes of CVD have produced a robust body of evidence documenting the relationships between the work environment and CVD, including through the mechanisms of psychosocial work stressors. We review the empirical evidence linking work, psychosocial stressors, and CVD. These work stressors can produce chronic biologic arousal and promote unhealthy behaviors and thus, increased CVD risk. We offer a theoretical model that illustrates how economic globalization influences the labor market and work organization in high-income countries, which, in turn, exacerbates job characteristics, such as demands, low job control, effort-reward imbalance, job insecurity, and long work hours. There is also a growing interest in "upstream" factors among work stress researchers, including precarious employment, downsizing/restructuring, privatization, and lean production. We conclude with suggestions for future epidemiologic research on the role of work in the development of CVD, as well as policy recommendations for prevention of work-related CVD. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Cardiovascular disease and the potential protective role of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-20

    Jul 20, 2009 ... paper reports on cardiovascular disease, its associated risk factors and the potential protective role of antioxidants in the ... Key words: antioxidants, cardiovascular disease, risk factors, preventative, epidemiology. INTRODUCTION AND ..... associated with reduced risk of developing cardiovascular disease.

  12. Global, Regional, and National Burden of Cardiovascular Diseases for 10 Causes, 1990 to 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roth, Gregory A; Johnson, Catherine; Abajobir, Amanuel

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) remains unclear in many regions of the world. OBJECTIVES: The GBD (Global Burden of Disease) 2015 study integrated data on disease incidence, prevalence, and mortality to produce consistent, up-to-date estimates for cardiovascular burden. M...

  13. The Prevalence of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and the Framingham Risk Score in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Intervention Over the Last 17 Years by Gender: Time-trend Analysis From the Mayo Clinic PCI Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moo-Sik Lee

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aims to investigate trends of cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factor profiles over 17 years in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI patients at the Mayo Clinic. Methods: We performed a time-trend analysis within the Mayo Clinic PCI Registry from 1994 to 2010. Results were the incidence and prevalence of CVD risk factors as estimate by the Framingham risk score. Results: Between 1994 and 2010, 25 519 patients underwent a PCI. During the time assessed, the mean age at PCI became older, but the gender distribution did not change. A significant trend towards higher body mass index and more prevalent hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, and diabetes was found over time. The prevalence of current smokers remained unchanged. The prevalence of ever-smokers decreased among males, but increased among females. However, overall CVD risk according to the Framingham risk score (FRS and 10-year CVD risk significantly decreased. The use of most of medications elevated from 1994 to 2010, except for β-blockers and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors decreased after 2007 and 2006 in both baseline and discharge, respectively. Conclusions: Most of the major risk factors improved and the FRS and 10-year CVD risk declined in this population of PCI patients. However, obesity, history of hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, diabetes, and medication use increased substantially. Improvements to blood pressure and lipid profile management because of medication use may have influenced the positive trends.

  14. Prevalência de fatores de risco para doenças cardiovasculares em hipertensos cadastrados em unidade de saúde da família - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v31i1.4492 Prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases among people with hypertension enrolled in a family health unit - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v31i1.4492

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Aparecido Sarriá Cabrera

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available As doenças crônicas não-transmissíveis, em especial as doenças cardiovasculares, têm-se revelado como importante causa de morbimortalidade no Brasil, principalmente na área urbana. Estes agravos apresentam inúmeros fatores de risco, entre os quais são reconhecidos a hereditariedade, a idade, a raça, o sexo, a hipertensão arterial, o tabagismo, as dislipidemias, a diabetes, a obesidade e o sedentarismo. Este estudo buscou estimar a prevalência de alguns fatores de risco para doenças cardiovasculares em indivíduos hipertensos, de 20 a 79 anos, cadastrados em uma Unidade de Saúde da Família de Londrina, Estado do Paraná. Os dados foram coletados em entrevista domiciliar, com questões referentes a aspectos socioeconômicos e demográficos, estilo de vida e condição de saúde. Entre os 385 pacientes entrevistados, foram observadas as seguintes prevalências: 28,6% com colesterol elevado; 16,9% de tabagistas; 5,5% de consumidores regulares de bebidas alcoólicas; 70,4% que não praticavam atividade física; 22,9% com diabetes; e 30,9% com história familiar de doenças cardiovasculares. Observou-se elevada prevalência de fatores de risco cardiovasculares, especialmente a inatividade física. O manejo adequado destes fatores com medidas educativas e preventivas é fundamental para a redução das complicações cardiovasculares no grupo de pacientes hipertensos.Non-transmissible diseases, particularly cardiovascular diseases, have emerged as important causes of morbidity and mortality in Brazil, mainly in urban areas. Heredity, age, race, gender, high blood pressure and lipids, smoking, diabetes, obesity and physical inactivity are recognized risk factors for these events. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of some risk factors for cardiovascular diseases among hypertensive patients aged 20 to 79 years who had been enrolled in a Health Family Unit in Londrina, Paraná State, Brazil. Data was collected during home

  15. New cardiovascular targets to prevent late onset Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claassen, Jurgen A H R

    2015-09-15

    The prevalence of dementia rises to between 20% and 40% with advancing age. The dominant cause of dementia in approximately 70% of these patients is Alzheimer disease. There is no effective disease-modifying pharmaceutical treatment for this neurodegenerative disease. A wide range of Alzheimer drugs that appeared effective in animal models have recently failed to show clinical benefit in patients. However, hopeful news has emerged from recent studies that suggest that therapeutic strategies aimed at reducing cardiovascular disease may also reduce the prevalence of dementia due to Alzheimer disease. This review summarizes the evidence for this link between cardiovascular disease and late onset Alzheimer dementia. Only evidence from human research is considered here. Longitudinal studies show an association between high blood pressure and pathological accumulation of the protein amyloid-beta42, and an even stronger association between vascular stiffness and amyloid accumulation, in elderly subjects. Amyloid-beta42 accumulation is considered to be an early marker of Alzheimer disease, and increases the risk of subsequent cognitive decline and development of dementia. These observations could provide an explanation for recent observations of reduced dementia prevalence associated with improved cardiovascular care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Thyroid disease and the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danzi, Sara; Klein, Irwin

    2014-06-01

    Thyroid hormones, specifically triiodothyronine (T3), have significant effects on the heart and cardiovascular system. Hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, subclinical thyroid disease, and low T3 syndrome each cause cardiac and cardiovascular abnormalities through both genomic and nongenomic effects on cardiac myocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells. In compromised health, such as occurs in heart disease, alterations in thyroid hormone metabolism may further impair cardiac and cardiovascular function. Diagnosis and treatment of cardiac disease may benefit from including analysis of thyroid hormone status, including serum total T3 levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Preeclampsia : At risk for remote cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harskamp, Ralf E.; Zeeman, Gerda G.

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiological data indicate that women with preeclampsia are more likely to develop cardiovascular disease (CVD) later in life. Population-based studies relate preeclampsia to an increased risk of later chronic hypertension (RR, 2.00 to 8.00) and cardiovascular morbidity/mortality (RR, 1.3 to

  18. Diabetes propels the risk for cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepen, van Janna A.; Thiem, Kathrin; Stienstra, Rinke; Riksen, Niels P.; Tack, Cees J.; Netea, Mihai G.

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes strongly predisposes to cardiovascular disease (CVD), the leading cause of mortality in these patients, as well as in the entire population. Hyperglycemia is an important cardiovascular risk factor as shown by the observation that even transient periods of hyperglycemia, despite return

  19. Coffee intake, cardiovascular disease and allcause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, Ask Tybjærg; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne

    2016-01-01

    Background: Coffee has been associated with modestly lower risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in meta-analyses; however, it is unclear whether these are causal associations. We tested first whether coffee intake is associated with cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality...... observationally; second, whether genetic variations previously associated with caffeine intake are associated with coffee intake; and third, whether the genetic variations are associated with cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Methods: First, we used multivariable adjusted Cox proportional hazard......- and age adjusted Cox proportional hazard regression models to examine genetic associations with cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in 112 509 Danes. Finally, we used sex and age-adjusted logistic regression models to examine genetic associations with ischaemic heart disease including...

  20. Estrogen in Cardiovascular Disease during Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Emily L.; Ryan, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease that disproportionately affects women during their childbearing years. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in this patient population at an age when women often have low cardiovascular risk. Hypertension is a major cardiovascular disease risk factor, and its prevalence is markedly increased in women with SLE. Estrogen has traditionally been implicated in SLE disease progression because of the prevalence of the disease in women; however, its role in cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension is unclear. The objective of this review is to discuss evidence for the role of estrogen in both human and murine SLE with emphasis on the effect of estrogen on cardiovascular risk factors, including hypertension. Methods PubMed was used to search for articles with terms related to estradiol and SLE. The references of retrieved publications were also reviewed. Findings The potential permissive role of estrogen in SLE development is supported by studies from experimental animal models of lupus in which early removal of estrogen or its effects leads to attenuation of SLE disease parameters, including autoantibody production and renal injury. However, data about the role of estrogens in human SLE are much less clear, with most studies not reaching firm conclusions about positive or negative outcomes after hormonal manipulations involving estrogen during SLE (ie, oral contraceptives, hormone therapy). Significant gaps in knowledge remain about the effect of estrogen on cardiovascular risk factors during SLE. Studies in women with SLE were not designed to determine the effect of estrogen or hormone therapy on blood pressure even though hypertension is highly prevalent, and risk of premature ovarian failure could necessitate use of hormone therapy in women with SLE. Recent evidence from an experimental animal model of lupus found that estrogen may protect against

  1. Screen-detected gallstone disease and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabanzadeh, Daniel Mønsted; Skaaby, Tea; Sørensen, Lars Tue

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge about temporal associations for screen-detected gallstone disease and cardiovascular disease is limited. The objective of this study was to determine if screen-detected gallstones or cholecystectomy was associated with development of cardiovascular disease. A cohort study of three...... of cardiovascular disease through nationwide registers until December 2014. Multivariable Cox regression analyses were performed including traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors and apolipoprotein E genotype. Gallstone disease was identified in 10% (591/5928) of participants at baseline of whom 6.8% had...... gallstones and 3.2% had cholecystectomy. The study population was followed for a period of 32 years with only 1% lost to follow-up. Gallstone disease was associated with all cardiovascular disease (hazard ratio (HR) 1.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) [1.17;1.59]) and to the subgroups coronary artery (HR 1...

  2. Cystatin C and Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Laan, Sander W.; Fall, Tove; Soumaré, Aicha; Teumer, Alexander; Sedaghat, Sanaz; Baumert, Jens; Zabaneh, Delilah; van Setten, Jessica; Isgum, Ivana; Galesloot, Tessel E.; Arpegård, Johannes; Amouyel, Philippe; Trompet, Stella; Waldenberger, Melanie; Dörr, Marcus; Magnusson, Patrik K.; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Larsson, Anders; Morris, Andrew P.; Felix, Janine F.; Morrison, Alanna C.; Franceschini, Nora; Bis, Joshua C.; Kavousi, Maryam; O’Donnell, Christopher; Drenos, Fotios; Tragante, Vinicius; Munroe, Patricia B.; Malik, Rainer; Dichgans, Martin; Worrall, Bradford B.; Erdmann, Jeanette; Nelson, Christopher P.; Samani, Nilesh J.; Schunkert, Heribert; Marchini, Jonathan; Patel, Riyaz S.; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Lind, Lars; Pedersen, Nancy L.; de Graaf, Jacqueline; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.L.M.; Baumeister, Sebastian E.; Franco, Oscar H.; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, André G.; Koenig, Wolfgang; Meisinger, Christa; Peters, Annette; Thorand, Barbara; Jukema, J. Wouter; Eriksen, Bjørn Odvar; Toft, Ingrid; Wilsgaard, Tom; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Debette, Stéphanie; Kumari, Meena; Svensson, Per; van der Harst, Pim; Kivimaki, Mika; Keating, Brendan J.; Sattar, Naveed; Dehghan, Abbas; Reiner, Alex P.; Ingelsson, Erik; den Ruijter, Hester M.; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Ärnlöv, Johan; Holmes, Michael V.; Asselbergs, Folkert W.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Epidemiological studies show that high circulating cystatin C is associated with risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), independent of creatinine-based renal function measurements. It is unclear whether this relationship is causal, arises from residual confounding, and/or is a consequence of reverse causation. OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to use Mendelian randomization to investigate whether cystatin C is causally related to CVD in the general population. METHODS We incorporated participant data from 16 prospective cohorts (n = 76,481) with 37,126 measures of cystatin C and added genetic data from 43 studies (n = 252,216) with 63,292 CVD events. We used the common variant rs911119 in CST3 as an instrumental variable to investigate the causal role of cystatin C in CVD, including coronary heart disease, ischemic stroke, and heart failure. RESULTS Cystatin C concentrations were associated with CVD risk after adjusting for age, sex, and traditional risk factors (relative risk: 1.82 per doubling of cystatin C; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.56 to 2.13; p = 2.12 × 10−14). The minor allele of rs911119 was associated with decreased serum cystatin C (6.13% per allele; 95% CI: 5.75 to 6.50; p = 5.95 × 10−211), explaining 2.8% of the observed variation in cystatin C. Mendelian randomization analysis did not provide evidence for a causal role of cystatin C, with a causal relative risk for CVD of 1.00 per doubling cystatin C (95% CI: 0.82 to 1.22; p = 0.994), which was statistically different from the observational estimate (p = 1.6 × 10−5). A causal effect of cystatin C was not detected for any individual component of CVD. CONCLUSIONS Mendelian randomization analyses did not support a causal role of cystatin C in the etiology of CVD. As such, therapeutics targeted at lowering circulating cystatin C are unlikely to be effective in preventing CVD. PMID:27561768

  3. Disease Human - MDC_CardiovascularMortality2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Polygon feature class based on Zip Code boundaries showing the rate of deaths due to major cardiovascular diseases per 1000 residents of Miami-Dade County in 2006.

  4. Translational Perspective on Epigenetics in Cardiovascular Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Harst, Pim; de Windt, Leon J.; Chambers, John C.

    2017-01-01

    A plethora of environmental and behavioral factors interact, resulting in changes in gene expression and providing a basis for the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases. Heterogeneity in gene expression responses among cells and individuals involves epigenetic mechanisms. Advancing

  5. [Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents of public and private schools. Salta City, Argentina, 2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotthelf, Susana Judith; Jubany, Lilian Laura

    2010-10-01

    South America is now at a stage of epidemiological transition, changing the condition of high prevalence of underweight and stunting, to a scene marked by increases in obesity that accompanies chronic diseases, such us cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer. Surveillance of risk factors associated with them is considered a priority. To establish the prevalence of risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease in adolescents in public and private schools in the city of Salta, and observe the socioeconomic characteristics and presence of cardiovascular risk factors in parents. Cross-sectional design, adolescents aged 16 to 20 years of public and private schools. Anthropometric, biochemical, food, social, lifestyle and family history variables. Adolescents of private schools had higher average values of cholesterol, LDL and glucose. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in public schools was 15% and 14.2% in private, and of hypertension 11.3% and 12.2%, respectively. It was noted higher consumption of sweets, sodas and juices; 35.1% and 42.5% of adolescents in public and private schools, did not perform physical activity, 14.2% and 27.1% smoked and 66.2% and 54.7%, respectively, consumed alcohol at weekend. The prevalence of obesity in mothers of public school students was significantly higher. There is evidence of the emergence of risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease in adolescents with different characteristics as belonging to public or private schools, but both groups involved in an unhealthy family environment.

  6. Relationship between Inflammation and Cardiovascular Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Riddhi Patel; Henish Patel; Rachana Sarawade

    2013-01-01

    Inflammation is a part of complex biological response of vascular tissue to harmful stimuli such as pathogens, damaged cells or irritants. Recent advance in basic science have established a fundamental role for inflammation immediating all stages of cardiovascular diseases from initiation, progression and complications. Inflammation is thread linking to cardiovascular diseases. Clinical studies have shown that this emerging biology of inflammation play important role in pathogenesis of acute ...

  7. Cardiovascular diseases in dental practice : Practical considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Margaix Muñoz, María; Jiménez Soriano, Yolanda; Poveda Roda, Rafael; Sarrión Pérez, María Gracia

    2008-01-01

    Coronary heart disease is the principal cause of death in the industrialized world. Its most serious expression, acute myocardial infarction, causes 7.2 million deaths each year worldwide, and it is estimated that 20% of all people will suffer heart failure in the course of their lifetime. The control of risk cardiovascular factors, including arterial hypertension, obesity and diabetes mellitus is the best way to prevent such diseases. The most frequent and serious cardiovascular emergenc...

  8. Diagnosis and management of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in chronic kidney disease: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Roy O; Bangalore, Sripal; Lavelle, Michael P; Pellikka, Patricia A; Sidhu, Mandeep S; Boden, William E; Asif, Arif

    2017-04-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a high prevalence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, likely reflecting the presence of traditional risk factors. A greater distinguishing feature of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in CKD is the severity of the disease, which is reflective of an increase in inflammatory mediators and vascular calcification secondary to hyperparathyroidism of renal origin that are unique to patients with CKD. Additional components of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease that are prominent in patients with CKD include microvascular disease and myocardial fibrosis. Therapeutic interventions that minimize cardiovascular events related to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in patients with CKD, as determined by well-designed clinical trials, are limited to statins. Data are lacking regarding other available therapeutic measures primarily due to exclusion of patients with CKD from major trials studying cardiovascular disease. Data from well-designed randomized controlled trials are needed to guide clinicians who care for this high-risk population in the management of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease to improve clinical outcomes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Cardiovascular disease in patients with end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis in a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila S. V. Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the main cause of death among patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD. The present study was undertaken to identify the main cardiovascular diseases and their risk factors in 160 patients with ESRD on hemodialysis (HD in Brazil. Their mean age was 47 ± 39 years. The main risk factors for cardiovascular diseases were arterial hypertension (89.4%, dyslipidemia (78.3%, low high-density lipoprotein levels (84.2% and low physical activity (64.1%. Family history of coronary insufficiency and high low-density lipoprotein levels were significantly associated with coronary artery disease (P = 0.005 and P = 0.029, respectively. Sedentary life style, diabetes mellitus, secondary hyperparathyroidism and hyperglycemia also showed a significant association with the underlying vascular disease (P = 0.017, P = 0.039, P = 0.037 and P = 0.030, respectively. Hypercalcemia, hypertension and black race were factors significantly associated with left ventricular systolic dysfunction (P = 0.01, P = 0.0013 and P = 0.024, respectively. Our study shows that the most prevalent cardiovascular diseases in patients with ESRD were left ventricular hypertrophy, atherosclerotic disease, valvular disease and coronary artery disease. Hypertension and dyslipidemia were the common risk factors associated with cardiovascular diseases. The present study was undertaken to identify the main cardiovascular diseases and their risk factors in 160 patients with ESRD on HD in a single center in Brazil.

  10. Multimorbidity in Older Patients with Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlay, Shannon M; Chamberlain, Alanna M

    2016-01-01

    Multimorbidity affects more than two thirds of older individuals and the vast majority of patients with chronic cardiovascular disease. Patients with multimorbidity have high resource utilization, poor mobility, and poor health status and are at an increased risk for death. The presence of multimorbidity imposes numerous management challenges in caring for patients with chronic cardiovascular disease. It complicates decision-making, promotes fragmented care, and imposes an immense burden on the patient and their social support system. Novel models of care, such as the cardiovascular patient-centered medical home, are needed to provide high-quality, efficient, effective care to this growing population.

  11. Role of Adipokines in Atherosclerosis: Interferences with Cardiovascular Complications in Rheumatic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotece, Morena; Conde, Javier; Gómez, Rodolfo; López, Verónica; Pino, Jesús; González, Antonio; Lago, Francisca; Gómez-Reino, Juan J.; Gualillo, Oreste

    2012-01-01

    Patients with rheumatic diseases have an increased risk of mortality by cardiovascular events. In fact, several rheumatic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and ankylosing spondylitis are associated with a higher prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Although traditional cardiovascular risk factors have been involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases in rheumatic patients, these alterations do not completely explain the enhanced cardiovascular risk in this population. Obesity and its pathologic alteration of fat mass and dysfunction, due to an altered pattern of secretion of proinflammatory adipokines, could be one of the links between cardiovascular and rheumatic diseases. Indeed, the incidence of CVDs is augmented in obese individuals with rheumatic disorders. Thus, in this paper we explore in detail the relationships among adipokines, rheumatic diseases, and cardiovascular complications by giving to the reader a holistic vision and several suggestions for future perspectives and potential clinical implications. PMID:22910888

  12. Cardiovascular Disease and Thyroid Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Jens; Selmer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid function has a profound effect on the heart, and both all-cause and cardiovascular mortality rates are increased in hyperthyroidism. New-onset atrial fibrillation carries a prolonged risk for the development of hyperthyroidism, suggesting altered availability of thyroid hormones at the ce......Thyroid function has a profound effect on the heart, and both all-cause and cardiovascular mortality rates are increased in hyperthyroidism. New-onset atrial fibrillation carries a prolonged risk for the development of hyperthyroidism, suggesting altered availability of thyroid hormones...... at the cellular level. Subclinical hyperthyroidism is associated with increased left ventricular mass of the heart, which reverts after obtaining euthyroidism. Mortality and risk of major cardiovascular events are increased. Subclinical hypothyroidism is also associated with subtle changes in the heart, e.g. its...

  13. Epidemiology of cardiovascular diseases in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromhout, D.

    2001-01-01

    Within Europe large differences exist in mortality from coronary heart disease and stroke. These diseases show a clear West-East gradient with high rates in Eastern Europe. In spite the decreasing trend in age-adjusted cardiovascular disease mortality in Western European countries an increase in the

  14. Cardiovascular disease after hodgkin lymphoma treatment: 40-year disease risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nimwegen, Frederika A.; Schaapveld, Michael; Janus, Cécile P. M.; Krol, Augustinus D. G.; Petersen, Eefke J.; Raemaekers, John M. M.; Kok, Wouter E. M.; Aleman, Berthe M. P.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.

    2015-01-01

    Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors are at increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. It is unclear, however, how long the increased risk persists and what the risk factors are for various cardiovascular diseases. To examine relative and absolute excess risk up to 40 years since HL treatment compared

  15. Cardiovascular disease after Hodgkin lymphoma treatment: 40-year disease risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nimwegen, F.A. van; Schaapveld, M.; Janus, C.P.; Krol, A.D.; Petersen, E.J.; Raemaekers, J.M.M.; Kok, W.E.; Aleman, B.M.; Leeuwen, F.E. van

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors are at increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. It is unclear, however, how long the increased risk persists and what the risk factors are for various cardiovascular diseases. OBJECTIVES: To examine relative and absolute excess risk up to 40 years since

  16. Racism and cardiovascular disease: implications for nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jennifer; McGibbon, Elizabeth; Waldron, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    The social determinants of health (SDH) are recognized as a prominent influence on health outcomes across the lifespan. Racism is identified as a key SDH. In this article, the authors describe the concept of racism as an SDH, its impact in discriminatory actions and inactions, and the implications for cardiovascular nurses. Although research in Canada on the links among racism, stress, and cardiovascular disease is limited, there is growing evidence about the stress of racism and its long-term impact on cardiovascular health. The authors discuss how cardiovascular nursing could be enhanced through an understanding of racism-related stress, and race-based differences in cardiovascular care. The authors conclude with strategies for action to address this nursing concern.

  17. The Intersection Between Aging and Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Brian J.; Sinclair, David A.

    2012-01-01

    The average lifespan of humans is increasing, and with it the percentage of people entering the 65 and older age group is growing rapidly and will continue to do so in the next 20 years. Within this age group, cardiovascular disease will remain the leading cause of death, and the cost associated with treatment will continue to increase. Aging is an inevitable part of life and unfortunately poses the largest risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Although numerous studies in the cardiovascular field have considered both young and aged humans, there are still many unanswered questions as to how the genetic pathways that regulate aging in model organisms influence cardiovascular aging. Likewise, in the molecular biology of aging field, few studies fully assess the role of these aging pathways in cardiovascular health. Fortunately, this gap is beginning to close, and these two fields are merging together. We provide an overview of some of the key genes involved in regulating lifespan and health span, including sirtuins, AMP-activated protein kinase, mammalian target of rapamycin, and insulin-like growth factor 1 and their roles regulating cardiovascular health. We then discuss a series of review articles that will appear in succession and provide a more comprehensive analysis of studies carried out linking genes of aging and cardiovascular health, and perspectives of future directions of these two intimately linked fields. PMID:22499900

  18. The intersection between aging and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Brian J; Sinclair, David A

    2012-04-13

    The average lifespan of humans is increasing, and with it the percentage of people entering the 65 and older age group is growing rapidly and will continue to do so in the next 20 years. Within this age group, cardiovascular disease will remain the leading cause of death, and the cost associated with treatment will continue to increase. Aging is an inevitable part of life and unfortunately poses the largest risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Although numerous studies in the cardiovascular field have considered both young and aged humans, there are still many unanswered questions as to how the genetic pathways that regulate aging in model organisms influence cardiovascular aging. Likewise, in the molecular biology of aging field, few studies fully assess the role of these aging pathways in cardiovascular health. Fortunately, this gap is beginning to close, and these two fields are merging together. We provide an overview of some of the key genes involved in regulating lifespan and health span, including sirtuins, AMP-activated protein kinase, mammalian target of rapamycin, and insulin-like growth factor 1 and their roles regulating cardiovascular health. We then discuss a series of review articles that will appear in succession and provide a more comprehensive analysis of studies carried out linking genes of aging and cardiovascular health, and perspectives of future directions of these two intimately linked fields.

  19. Comparison of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its association with diabetes and cardiovascular disease in the rural population of Bangladesh using the modified National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel Adult Treatment Panel III and International Diabetes Federation definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmik, Bishwajit; Afsana, Faria; Siddiquee, Tasnima; Munir, Sanjida B; Sheikh, Fareeha; Wright, Erica; Bhuiyan, Farjana R; Ashrafuzzaman, Sheikh Mohammad; Mahtab, Hajera; Azad Khan, Abul Kalam; Hussain, Akhtar

    2015-01-01

    Aims/Introduction To compare the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) using the modified National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Plan III (NCEP) and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) definitions and, using both definitions, determine and compare the association of MS, prediabetes, type 2 diabetes, hypertension (HTN) and cardiovascular disease risk (CVD). Materials and Methods A total of 2,293 randomly selected participants (aged ≥20 years) in a rural community in Bangladesh were investigated in a population-based cross-sectional study. Sociodemographic and anthropometric characteristics, blood pressure, blood glucose, and lipid profiles were studied. Age-adjusted data for MS and cardiometabolic risk factors were assessed, and their relationships were examined. Results The age-adjusted prevalence of MS was 30.7% (males 30.5%; females 30.5%) using the NCEP definition, and 24.5% (males 19.2%, females 27.5%) using the IDF definition. The prevalence of MS using the NCEP definition was also higher in study participants with prediabetes, type 2 diabetes, HTN and CVD risk. The agreement rate between both definitions was 92% (k = 0.80). The NCEP definition had a stronger association with type 2 diabetes and HTN (odds ratio 12.4 vs 5.2; odds ratio 7.0 vs 4.7, respectively) than the IDF definition. However, the odds ratios for prediabetes and CVD risk were not significantly different. Conclusions The prevalence of MS was higher using the NCEP definition, and was more strongly associated with prediabetes, type 2 diabetes, HTN and CVD in this Bangladeshi population. PMID:25969712

  20. Comparison of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its association with diabetes and cardiovascular disease in the rural population of Bangladesh using the modified National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel Adult Treatment Panel III and International Diabetes Federation definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmik, Bishwajit; Afsana, Faria; Siddiquee, Tasnima; Munir, Sanjida B; Sheikh, Fareeha; Wright, Erica; Bhuiyan, Farjana R; Ashrafuzzaman, Sheikh Mohammad; Mahtab, Hajera; Azad Khan, Abul Kalam; Hussain, Akhtar

    2015-05-01

    To compare the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) using the modified National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Plan III (NCEP) and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) definitions and, using both definitions, determine and compare the association of MS, prediabetes, type 2 diabetes, hypertension (HTN) and cardiovascular disease risk (CVD). A total of 2,293 randomly selected participants (aged ≥20 years) in a rural community in Bangladesh were investigated in a population-based cross-sectional study. Sociodemographic and anthropometric characteristics, blood pressure, blood glucose, and lipid profiles were studied. Age-adjusted data for MS and cardiometabolic risk factors were assessed, and their relationships were examined. The age-adjusted prevalence of MS was 30.7% (males 30.5%; females 30.5%) using the NCEP definition, and 24.5% (males 19.2%, females 27.5%) using the IDF definition. The prevalence of MS using the NCEP definition was also higher in study participants with prediabetes, type 2 diabetes, HTN and CVD risk. The agreement rate between both definitions was 92% (k = 0.80). The NCEP definition had a stronger association with type 2 diabetes and HTN (odds ratio 12.4 vs 5.2; odds ratio 7.0 vs 4.7, respectively) than the IDF definition. However, the odds ratios for prediabetes and CVD risk were not significantly different. The prevalence of MS was higher using the NCEP definition, and was more strongly associated with prediabetes, type 2 diabetes, HTN and CVD in this Bangladeshi population.

  1. A STUDY OF THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN SELENIUM AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE IN LAMPUNG, INDONESIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutakin; Rivai, Ida F; Setiawan, Andi; Abdulah, Rizky; Kobayashi, Kenji; Yamazaki, Chiho; Kameo, Satomi; Nakazawa, Minato; Koyama, Hiroshi

    2016-03-01

    Selenium deficient areas have been associated with a higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease in some countries. In this study, we investigated the correlation between cardiovascular disease prevalence and selenium concentration in paddy soil and rice grains, the main staple food in Lampung, Indonesia. Paddy soil and rice samples (n(s) = 35) from eight regencies (n(d) = 8) in Lampung were analyzed for selenium content. The prevalences of heart disease, stroke, and hypertension in those regencies were obtained from the Ministry of Health of Indonesia. The Shapiro-Wilk's test was used to examine the data distribution. The Pearson's correlation was used to examine the correlation between cardiovascular disease prevalence and selenium concentration in the paddy soil and rice grains. Heart disease prevalence was negatively correlated with the selenium concentration in the paddy soil (r = -0.77, p = 0.02) and rice grain (r = -0.71, p = 0.05). A negative correlation was seen for stroke prevalence and selenium concentration in paddy soil (r = -0.76, p = 0.02). Hypertension prevalence was negatively correlated with the selenium concentration in the rice grains (r = -0.83, p = 0.01). These findings suggest that the selenium concentration in paddy soil and rice grains in the Lampung area may play a role in the fact the area has the lowest cardiovascular disease prevalence in Indonesia. Keywords: selenium, cardiovascular diseases, paddy soil, rice grain, Indonesia

  2. Association between alcohol and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmes, Michael V; Dale, Caroline E; Zuccolo, Luisa

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To use the rs1229984 variant in the alcohol dehydrogenase 1B gene (ADH1B) as an instrument to investigate the causal role of alcohol in cardiovascular disease. DESIGN: Mendelian randomisation meta-analysis of 56 epidemiological studies. PARTICIPANTS: 261 991 individuals of European...... descent, including 20 259 coronary heart disease cases and 10 164 stroke events. Data were available on ADH1B rs1229984 variant, alcohol phenotypes, and cardiovascular biomarkers. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Odds ratio for coronary heart disease and stroke associated with the ADH1B variant in all individuals...... disease than those without the genetic variant. This suggests that reduction of alcohol consumption, even for light to moderate drinkers, is beneficial for cardiovascular health....

  3. Oral health and cardiovascular care: Perceptions of people with cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamonson, Yenna; Ajwani, Shilpi; Bhole, Sameer; Bishop, Joshua; Lintern, Karen; Nolan, Samantha; Rajaratnam, Rohan; Redfern, Julie; Sheehan, Maria; Skarligos, Fiona; Spencer, Lissa; Srinivas, Ravi

    2017-01-01

    Main objective The aim of this study was to explore the perception of patients with cardiovascular disease towards oral health and the potential for cardiac care clinicians to promote oral health. Method A needs assessment was undertaken with twelve patients with cardiovascular disease attending cardiac rehabilitation between 2015 and 2016, in three metropolitan hospitals in Sydney, Australia. These patients participated in face-to-face semi-structured interviews. Data was analysed using thematic analysis. Results Results suggested that while oral health was considered relevant there was high prevalence of poor oral health among participants, especially those from socioeconomic disadvantaged background. Awareness regarding the importance of oral health care its impact on cardiovascular outcomes was poor among participants. Oral health issues were rarely discussed in the cardiac setting. Main barriers deterring participants from seeking oral health care included lack of awareness, high cost of dental care and difficulties in accessing the public dental service. Findings also revealed that participants were interested in receiving further information about oral health and suggested various mediums for information delivery. The concept of cardiac care clinicians, especially nurses providing education, assessment and referrals to ongoing dental care was well received by participants who felt the post-acute period was the most appropriate time to receive oral health care advice. The issues of oral health training for non-dental clinicians and how to address existing barriers were highlighted by participants. Relevance to clinical practice The lack of oral health education being provided to patients with cardiovascular disease offers an opportunity to improve care and potentially, outcomes. In view of the evidence linking poor oral health with cardiovascular disease, cardiac care clinicians, especially nurses, should be appropriately trained to promote oral health in

  4. Oral health and cardiovascular care: Perceptions of people with cardiovascular disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Sanchez

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore the perception of patients with cardiovascular disease towards oral health and the potential for cardiac care clinicians to promote oral health.A needs assessment was undertaken with twelve patients with cardiovascular disease attending cardiac rehabilitation between 2015 and 2016, in three metropolitan hospitals in Sydney, Australia. These patients participated in face-to-face semi-structured interviews. Data was analysed using thematic analysis.Results suggested that while oral health was considered relevant there was high prevalence of poor oral health among participants, especially those from socioeconomic disadvantaged background. Awareness regarding the importance of oral health care its impact on cardiovascular outcomes was poor among participants. Oral health issues were rarely discussed in the cardiac setting. Main barriers deterring participants from seeking oral health care included lack of awareness, high cost of dental care and difficulties in accessing the public dental service. Findings also revealed that participants were interested in receiving further information about oral health and suggested various mediums for information delivery. The concept of cardiac care clinicians, especially nurses providing education, assessment and referrals to ongoing dental care was well received by participants who felt the post-acute period was the most appropriate time to receive oral health care advice. The issues of oral health training for non-dental clinicians and how to address existing barriers were highlighted by participants.The lack of oral health education being provided to patients with cardiovascular disease offers an opportunity to improve care and potentially, outcomes. In view of the evidence linking poor oral health with cardiovascular disease, cardiac care clinicians, especially nurses, should be appropriately trained to promote oral health in their practice. Affordable and accessible

  5. Oral health and cardiovascular care: Perceptions of people with cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Paula; Everett, Bronwyn; Salamonson, Yenna; Ajwani, Shilpi; Bhole, Sameer; Bishop, Joshua; Lintern, Karen; Nolan, Samantha; Rajaratnam, Rohan; Redfern, Julie; Sheehan, Maria; Skarligos, Fiona; Spencer, Lissa; Srinivas, Ravi; George, Ajesh

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the perception of patients with cardiovascular disease towards oral health and the potential for cardiac care clinicians to promote oral health. A needs assessment was undertaken with twelve patients with cardiovascular disease attending cardiac rehabilitation between 2015 and 2016, in three metropolitan hospitals in Sydney, Australia. These patients participated in face-to-face semi-structured interviews. Data was analysed using thematic analysis. Results suggested that while oral health was considered relevant there was high prevalence of poor oral health among participants, especially those from socioeconomic disadvantaged background. Awareness regarding the importance of oral health care its impact on cardiovascular outcomes was poor among participants. Oral health issues were rarely discussed in the cardiac setting. Main barriers deterring participants from seeking oral health care included lack of awareness, high cost of dental care and difficulties in accessing the public dental service. Findings also revealed that participants were interested in receiving further information about oral health and suggested various mediums for information delivery. The concept of cardiac care clinicians, especially nurses providing education, assessment and referrals to ongoing dental care was well received by participants who felt the post-acute period was the most appropriate time to receive oral health care advice. The issues of oral health training for non-dental clinicians and how to address existing barriers were highlighted by participants. The lack of oral health education being provided to patients with cardiovascular disease offers an opportunity to improve care and potentially, outcomes. In view of the evidence linking poor oral health with cardiovascular disease, cardiac care clinicians, especially nurses, should be appropriately trained to promote oral health in their practice. Affordable and accessible dental care services

  6. Pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in South Asians : effects of dietary interventions on metabolism and cardiovascular function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Leontine Erica Henriëtte

    2015-01-01

    People of South Asian origin have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared to people of Western European descent. Not only is the prevalence of these diseases higher in South Asians, they also occur at a younger age and lower BMI, and have a

  7. Cardiovascular disease in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkestad, Lars; Hald, Jannie Dahl; Gram, Jeppe

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a hereditary connective tissue disease often due to mutations in genes coding for type 1 collagen. Collagen type 1 is important in the development of the heart and vasculature. Little is known about the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in OI...

  8. [Air pollution and cardiovascular disease in Trondheim].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannsåker, Bård; Vikan, Torkel; Holme, Jonas

    2004-05-20

    There is some evidence linking air pollution to cardiovascular morbidity. Our aim was to examine whether there is a correlation between air pollution and cardiovascular morbidity in the city of Trondheim, Norway. We compared the mean daily number of admissions for cardiovascular disease to the St. Olav University hospital on days with relatively low and high levels of PM10 (1993-2001), PM2,5, NO, NO2, SO2, O3, toluene and paraxylene (1998-2001). A time series analysis was carried out to see how day-to-day variations in concentrations of air pollutants correlated with the number of hospitalizations for cardiovascular disease. In the bivariate analysis, the mean daily number of hospitalizations was found to be significantly higher (p < 0.05) on days with NO and NO2 levels above the 80 th percentile (57.6 microg/m3 and 43.1 microg/m3, respectively) than on days with pollutant levels below the 20th percentile (11.3 microg/m3 and 16.9 microg/m3, respectively). Time series analysis did not show any statistically significant correlation between day-to-day variations in air pollution and hospital admissions for cardiovascular disease. The findings regarding NO2 and NO indicate that exposure to gases and/or ultra-small particles from diesel exhaust may influence cardiovascular morbidity.

  9. Cardiovascular Disease Susceptibility and Resistance in Circumpolar Inuit Populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvermosegaard, Maria; Dahl-Petersen, Inger K; Nielsen, Nina Odgaard

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major public health issue in indigenous populations in the Arctic. These diseases have emerged concomitantly with profound social changes over the past 60 years. The aim of this study was to summarize the literature on CVD risk among Arctic Inuit. Literature...... on prevalence, incidence, and time trends for CVD and its risk factors in Arctic Inuit populations was reviewed. Most evidence supports a similar incidence of coronary heart disease and a higher incidence of cerebrovascular disease among Arctic Inuit than seen in western populations. Factors that may increase...... intake (at least documented in Greenland), and contaminant levels are declining. Although there have been marked socioeconomic and dietary changes, it remains unsolved and to some extent controversial how this may have influenced cardiovascular risk among Arctic Inuit. The increase in life expectancy...

  10. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in carotid atherosclerotic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Huijun

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Atherosclerosis is a chronic, progressive, inflammatory disease affecting many vascular beds. Disease progression leads to acute cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction, stroke and death. The diseased carotid alone is responsible for one third of the 700,000 new or recurrent strokes occurring yearly in the United States. Imaging plays an important role in the management of atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR of the carotid vessel wall is one promising modality in the evaluation of patients with carotid atherosclerotic disease. Advances in carotid vessel wall CMR allow comprehensive assessment of morphology inside the wall, contributing substantial disease-specific information beyond luminal stenosis. Although carotid vessel wall CMR has not been widely used to screen for carotid atherosclerotic disease, many trials support its potential for this indication. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding carotid vessel wall CMR and its potential clinical application for management of carotid atherosclerotic disease.

  11. Cardiovascular diseases and risk factors among Chinese immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhizhong; Zhao, Dong

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and major CVD risk factors, including diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity and smoking among Chinese immigrants by a systematic review of studies from various countries. PubMed and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases were searched for studies of the prevalence of major CVDs and risk factors, and of CVD mortality among Chinese immigrants. The search identified 386 papers, 16 of which met the inclusion criteria for this review. In mainland China, there is a pattern of high stroke prevalence but low coronary heart disease (CHD) prevalence. Among Chinese immigrants, there is a much lower prevalence and mortality of stroke, but a higher prevalence and mortality of CHD, even though these are lower than the rates in immigrants of other ethnicities in the host country. The prevalence of CVD risk factors is also markedly different in immigrants. Compared with mainland Chinese, Chinese immigrants have a higher prevalence of diabetes and hypertension, higher serum cholesterol, poorer dietary patterns, and higher prevalence of obesity and smoking. Thus, the epidemiological pattern of CVD among Chinese immigrants changes compared with resident mainland Chinese. The less healthy environmental factor after immigration may be a major trigger in the adverse CVD status of Chinese immigrants. It is important for policy-makers to pay more attention to specific minority immigrant groups, and to implement more effective preventive measures to improve the health of immigrant populations.

  12. The importance of sleep-disordered breathing in cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linz, Dominik; Woehrle, Holger; Bitter, Thomas; Fox, Henrik; Cowie, Martin R; Böhm, Michael; Oldenburg, Olaf

    2015-09-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea and central sleep apnoea/Cheyne-Stokes respiration are collectively referred to as sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). Rapidly accumulating evidence suggests that both forms of SDB, and often a combination of both, are highly prevalent in patients with a wide variety of cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension, heart failure, arrhythmias, coronary artery disease, acute coronary syndrome and stroke. The presence of SDB in these patients is independently associated with worse cardiac function and exercise tolerance, recurrent arrhythmias, infarct expansion, decreased quality of life and increased mortality. Recent data suggest positive effects of positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy on quality of life and cardiovascular function. In addition, ongoing clinical trials may soon provide first definitive data on PAP therapy of SDB on hard outcomes such as mortality. This review presents current data highlighting links between SDB and a variety of cardiovascular conditions, the importance of recognising and diagnosing SDB in patients with cardiovascular disease, and the effects of effective SDB treatment on cardiovascular endpoints.

  13. Effect of environmental air pollution on cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meo, S A; Suraya, F

    2015-12-01

    Environmental air pollution has become a leading health concern especially in the developing countries with more urbanization, industrialization and rapidly growing population. Prolonged exposure to air pollution is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of environmental air pollution on progression of cardiovascular problems. In this study, we identified 6880 published articles through a systematic database including ISI-Web of Science, PubMed and EMBASE. The allied literature was searched by using the key words such as environmental pollution, air pollution, particulate matter pollutants PM 2.5 μm-PM 10 μm. Literature in which environmental air pollution and cardiac diseases were discussed was included. Descriptive information was retrieved from the selected literature. Finally, we included 67 publications and remaining studies were excluded. Environmental pollution can cause high blood pressure, arrhythmias, enhanced coagulation, thrombosis, acute arterial vasoconstriction, atherosclerosis, ischemic heart diseases, myocardial infarction and even heart failure. Environmental air pollution is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Environmental pollution exerts its detrimental effects on the heart by developing pulmonary inflammation, systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction and prothrombotic changes. Environmental protection officials must take high priority steps to minimize the air pollution to decrease the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases.

  14. [Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cardiovascular system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürgün, Alev; Gürgün, Cemil

    2008-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide killing nearly 3 million people annually. Even the most optimistic estimates suggest that COPD mortality rates will increase by 50% over the next 15 years. Individuals with COPD are at increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), lung cancer, osteoporosis and muscle wasting. Smoking is a well-described risk factor for both COPD and CVD, but CVD in patients with COPD is likely to be due to other factors in addition to smoking. Systemic inflammation may be an important common etiological cause between COPD and CVD, being well described in both diseases. This paper reviews the close relationship between COPD and cardiovascular diseases, principally atherosclerosis. The common pathogenetic mechanisms, relation between cardiovascular comorbidities and pulmonary function parameters, the treatment of pulmonary and systemic inflammation, the role medications in the treatment of both disorders, the effect of cardiovascular comorbidities on the prognosis of COPD and prediction of mortality is discussed. The anti-inflammatory effects of inhaled corticosteroids and statins, their effects on cardiovascular endpoints, all-cause mortality, and survival of COPD patients are reviewed as a new perspective to the treatment.

  15. LOCAL ANESTHETICS IN PATIENTS WITH CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    risto Daskalov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A significant problem in the dental medicine is pain alleviation. Many studies in the dental anesthesiology result in the production of new agents for locoregional anesthesia. Objective: This article aim to present the results of the last studies on the effect of the local anesthetics used in the oral surgery on patients with cardiovascular diseases. Material: A general review of the existing literature on the effect of the adrenaline, included as vasoconstrictor in the local anesthetics, used in patients with cardiovascular diseases is made. The benefits of vasoconstrictors for the quality of the anesthetic effect are proven. Conclusion: A small amount of adrenaline in the anesthetic solution does not result in complications development in patients with controlled cardiovascular diseases. Articaine is recommended agent of first choice for local anesthesia in the oral surgery.

  16. Social networks in cardiovascular disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaya, Fadia T; Yan, Xia; Farshid, Maryam; Barakat, Samer; Jung, Miah; Low, Sara; Fedder, Donald

    2010-12-01

    Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death in the USA. Social networks have a positive association with obesity, smoking cessation and weight loss. This article summarizes studies evaluating the impact of social networks on the management of cardiovascular disease. The 35 studies included in the article describe the impact of social networks on a decreased incidence of cardiovascular disease, depression and mortality. In addition, having a large-sized social network is also associated with better outcomes and improved health. The role of pharmacists is beginning to play an important role in the patient-centered medical home, which needs to be incorporated into social networks. The patient-centered medical home can serve as an adaptive source for social network evolvement.

  17. Therapeutic Angiogenesis for Treating Cardiovascular Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deveza, Lorenzo; Choi, Jeffrey; Yang, Fan

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide and is often associated with partial or full occlusion of the blood vessel network in the affected organs. Restoring blood supply is critical for the successful treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Therapeutic angiogenesis provides a valuable tool for treating cardiovascular diseases by stimulating the growth of new blood vessels from pre-existing vessels. In this review, we discuss strategies developed for therapeutic angiogenesis using single or combinations of biological signals, cells and polymeric biomaterials. Compared to direct delivery of growth factors or cells alone, polymeric biomaterials provide a three-dimensional drug-releasing depot that is capable of facilitating temporally and spatially controlled release. Biomimetic signals can also be incorporated into polymeric scaffolds to allow environmentally-responsive or cell-triggered release of biological signals for targeted angiogenesis. Recent progress in exploiting genetically engineered stem cells and endogenous cell homing mechanisms for therapeutic angiogenesis is also discussed. PMID:22916079

  18. Microparticles as Potential Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    França, Carolina Nunes, E-mail: carolufscar24@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de São Paulo - UNIFESP - UNISA, SP, São Paulo (Brazil); Universidade de Santo Amaro - UNISA, SP, São Paulo (Brazil); Izar, Maria Cristina de Oliveira; Amaral, Jônatas Bussador do; Tegani, Daniela Melo; Fonseca, Francisco Antonio Helfenstein [Universidade Federal de São Paulo - UNIFESP - UNISA, SP, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2015-02-15

    Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease is a choice of great relevance because of its impact on health. Some biomarkers, such as microparticles derived from different cell populations, have been considered useful in the assessment of cardiovascular disease. Microparticles are released by the membrane structures of different cell types upon activation or apoptosis, and are present in the plasma of healthy individuals (in levels considered physiological) and in patients with different pathologies. Many studies have suggested an association between microparticles and different pathological conditions, mainly the relationship with the development of cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, the effects of different lipid-lowering therapies have been described in regard to measurement of microparticles. The studies are still controversial regarding the levels of microparticles that can be considered pathological. In addition, the methodologies used still vary, suggesting the need for standardization of the different protocols applied, aiming at using microparticles as biomarkers in clinical practice.

  19. Association between alcohol and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmes, Michael V; Dale, Caroline E; Zuccolo, Luisa

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To use the rs1229984 variant in the alcohol dehydrogenase 1B gene (ADH1B) as an instrument to investigate the causal role of alcohol in cardiovascular disease. DESIGN: Mendelian randomisation meta-analysis of 56 epidemiological studies. PARTICIPANTS: 261 991 individuals of European...... descent, including 20 259 coronary heart disease cases and 10 164 stroke events. Data were available on ADH1B rs1229984 variant, alcohol phenotypes, and cardiovascular biomarkers. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Odds ratio for coronary heart disease and stroke associated with the ADH1B variant in all individuals...... subtypes of stroke, carriers of the A-allele had lower odds of ischaemic stroke (odds ratio 0.83 (0.72 to 0.95)). CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with a genetic variant associated with non-drinking and lower alcohol consumption had a more favourable cardiovascular profile and a reduced risk of coronary heart...

  20. Cardiovascular risk factors prevalence among patients with dyslipidemia in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Machado-Alba, Jorge E.; Grupo de investigación en fármacoepidemiología y farmacovigilancia, Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira. Pereira, Colombia. Audifarma S. A., Pereira, Colombia. Médico cirujano, máster en fármacoepidemiología.; Machado-Duque, Manuel E.; Grupo de investigación en fármacoepidemiología y farmacovigilancia, Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira. Pereira, Colombia. Asociación Científica de Estudiantes de Medicina de Risaralda, ACEMRIS, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira. Colombia. estudiante de medicina.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To determine the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and the ten years risk of cardio-cerebrovascular event in patients with dyslipidemia who were affiliated to the Colombian health system. Materials and methods. A retrospective study was carried out in a random and stratified sample of 551 patients with dyslipidemia, from a population of 41 201 people with lipid-lowering therapy in ten Colombian cities between January 1, 2010 and June 30, 2011. Sociodemographic, anthrop...

  1. Prevalencia de factores de riesgo para enfermedad cardiovascular en una muestra de pacientes con hipertensión arterial esencial: estudio descriptivo Prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease in a sample of patients with essential hypertension: descriptive study

    OpenAIRE

    Solón Navarrete H; Diego Huertas R; Luis E Rozo M; Jorge E Ospina

    2009-01-01

    Introducción: la valoración del riesgo cardiovascular permite identificar los grupos en los cuales se debe dar prioridad a las actividades de prevención (primaria y secundaria) dirigidas a reducir la morbimortalidad cardiovascular. Metodología: se incluyeron 2.167 pacientes hipertensos colombianos (edad media: 62,6 años; de los cuales 56,4% eran mujeres y 43,6% hombres) a quienes su médico realizó una encuesta estructurada y registró los resultados del examen físico y de las determinaciones b...

  2. Artrite reumatóide e doenças cardiovasculares Rheumatoid arthritis and cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawton Yukito Torigoe

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A maior prevalência das doenças cardiovasculares, particularmente da doença coronária, está bem estabelecida na artrite reumatóide (AR. Este trabalho, envolvendo uma revisão extensa da literatura, analisa as evidências epidemiológicas apontando as doenças cardiovasculares como a maior causa de mortalidade prematura na AR, os fatores de risco para doença coronária, a relação entre aterosclerose e AR, os mecanismos fisiopatológicos desta associação, incluindo o papel direto e indireto do processo inflamatório sistêmico e as características da doença coronária na AR. Finalmente, é destacada a importância dos cuidados preventivos para este paciente reumatóide com alto risco de eventos cardiovasculares.The increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD in rheumatoid arthrtis (RA patients is by now largely recognized. The purpose of this extensive literature review is to analyze the epidemiological evidences of CVD, particularly coronary heart disease (CHD, as the leading cause of early death in RA, the presence of coronary risk factors, the relationship between RA and atherosclerosis, the shared physiopathology mechanisms, including the systemic inflammatory process and the peculiarities of CHD in the rheumatoid population. Lastly, given the burden of cardiovascular disease in this population, it is emphasized the importance of preventive care in these high risk patients.

  3. Sortilin and Its Multiple Roles in Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goettsch, Claudia; Kjølby, Mads Fuglsang; Aikawa, Elena

    2018-01-01

    of sortilin's contributions to cardiovascular and metabolic diseases but focuses particularly on atherosclerosis. We summarize recent clinical findings that suggest that sortilin may be a cardiovascular risk biomarker and also discuss sortilin as a potential drug target.......Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the Western world. Studies of sortilin's influence on cardiovascular and metabolic diseases goes far beyond the genome-wide association studies that have revealed an association between cardiovascular diseases and the 1p13...

  4. Impact of obesity on cardiovascular disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Zalesin, Kerstyn C

    2012-02-01

    Obesity promotes a cascade of secondary pathologies including diabetes, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, inflammation, thrombosis, hypertension, the metabolic syndrome, and OSA, which collectively heighten the risk for cardiovascular disease. Obesity may also be an independent moderator of cardiac risk apart from these comorbid conditions. Rates of obesity and cardiac disease continue to rise in a parallel and exponential manner. Because obesity is potentially one of the most modifiable mediators of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, effective treatment and prevention interventions should have a profound and favorable impact on public health.

  5. Abnormal ankle brachial indices may predict cardiovascular disease among diabetic patients without known heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Jeffrey J; Hopkins, Christie B; Hall, Patrick Ax

    2005-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease remains the primary cause of diabetes-associated morbidity and mortality. Previous studies have failed to provide accurate, inexpensive, screening techniques to detect cardiovascular disease in diabetics. Ankle brachial indices (ABI) testing may be an effective screening technique for diabetics. The aim of this 100-subject clinical study was to determine cardiovascular disease prevalence, via perfusion stress testing, in diabetic patients having abnormal ABI (<0.90) and without known heart disease who were referred to the South Carolina Heart Center, Columbia, SC for nuclear perfusion stress testing. Study data were analyzed using frequency and descriptive statistics and 2-sample T-testing. Mean subject age was 62+/-11 years, ABI 0.76+/-13, and ejection fraction 60+/-12%. Perfusion stress testing detected 49 abnormal electrocardiograms, 36 subjects with coronary ischemia, 20 with diminished left ventricular function, and 26 subjects having significant thinning of the myocardium. There were 71 subjects who tested positive for at least one form of cardiovascular disease. The sole predictive variable reaching significance for the presence of cardiovascular disease was an ABI score <0.90 (p< or =0.0001). Cardiovascular disease may be predicted among diabetic patients via ABI scores and confirmed by nuclear perfusion testing.

  6. The Association between Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Cardiovascular Risk in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Di Sessa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The rising prevalence of childhood obesity in the past decades has made Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD the most common cause of pediatric chronic liver disease worldwide. Currently, a growing body of evidence links NAFLD with cardiovascular disease (CVD even at an early age. Data on the pediatric population have shown that NAFLD could represent an independent risk factor not only for cardiovascular events but also for early subclinical abnormalities in myocardial structure and function. Briefly, we review the current knowledge regarding the relationship between pediatric NAFLD and cardiovascular risk in an attempt to clarify our understanding of NAFLD as a possible cardiovascular risk factor in childhood.

  7. Dietary Patterns and Cardiovascular Disease Risk in People with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archundia Herrera, M Carolina; Subhan, Fatheema B; Chan, Catherine B

    2017-12-01

    The primary objective of this review is to identify dietary patterns with beneficial effects on cardiovascular health of adults with type 2 diabetes. The prevalence of diabetes is increasing globally. People with diabetes have a greater risk for cardiovascular disease. Mediterranean diet, dietary approaches to stop hypertension diet, vegetarian diet, traditional Korean diet, Japanese diet, and low-glycemic-index diet can reduce cardiovascular disease risk in people with diabetes. Dietary intake is a key modifiable factor in the management of diabetes and plays a significant role in limiting the incidence of cardiovascular diseases.

  8. [Prevalence survey of cardiovascular risk factors in the general population in St. Louis (Senegal)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessinaba, S; Mbaye, A; Yabéta, G A D; Harouna, H; Sib, A E; Kane, A D; Bodian, M; Ndiaye, M B; Mbaye-Ndour, M; Niang, K; Diagne-Sow, D; Diack, B; Kane, M; Diao, M; Mathieu, J-B S; Kane, A

    2013-08-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are becoming with their risk factors a real health problem in Africa. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in the general population in Saint-Louis, Senegal. This is a cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical made in May 2010, in the Senegalese aged 15, residing in the city of Saint-Louis, Senegal. A systematic random sampling and stratified cluster has been achieved. Cardiovascular risk factors for research were: hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, smoking, obesity, physical inactivity and metabolic syndrome. The survey involved 1424 individuals with 983 women (69%). The average age was 43.4±17.8years. The prevalence of risk factors was: hypertension (46%), diabetes (10.4%), total cholesterol (36.3%), hyperLDLcholesterol (20.6%), obesity (body mass index≥30kg/m(2)) (23%), abdominal obesity (48.7% according to International Diabetes Federation and 33.2% according to National Cholesterol Education Program) physical inactivity (64.7%), smoking (5.8%) and metabolic syndrome (15.7%). There was predominance in women of risk factors except for smoking and diabetes. The overall cardiovascular risk was high in 24.9% according to the Framingham model, 28.8% (European Society of Hypertension) and 6.1% (SCORE). This survey found a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in a general population in Senegal, predominant in women. This should lead to better develop a strategy to prevent cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevalence of Chronic Diseases in the Elderly in Ilam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Peiman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Extra weight and obesity are the most important preventable risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD, especially in the elderly. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of obesity and hypertension (HTN as well as cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus (MD amongst the elderly population in Ilam. Methods & Materials: Using cluster sampling, a random sample of 121 elderly people (62.4% male with a mean age of 70.4±11.0 years were recruited through a cross-sectional study in the city of Ilam. The height, weight and blood pressure of all samples were measured by an experienced nurse. Results: Mean BMI was 25.3±4.2 Kg/m2. More than half the women (56.1% and 46.2% of men were affected by either extra weight or obesity. The prevalence of medically-diagnosed CVD, hypertension and diabetes mellitus were 53%, 36.8% and 17.4%, respectively. There was no significant relationship between obesity and extra weight and CVD, HTN and DM. Conclusion: The prevalence of chronic diseases in the studied elderly is associated with aging, literacy and too much time watching TV. In the present study, the prevalence of obesity and being overweight was similar to that of other studies done nationally, but the cardiovascular diseases and hypertension prevalence was higher. In order to decrease the prevalence of chronic diseases in the elderly population, screening and health education programs are suggested.

  10. Platelets, aspirin, and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwood, P C; Hughes, C; O'Brien, J R

    1998-10-01

    Aspirin was first synthesised 100 years ago and its preparation and marketing is generally reckoned to have been the foundation of the pharmaceutical industry. For most of the time since then it has been used for the relief of pain and fever. The modern phase of aspirin use commenced with the reporting in 1974 of a randomised controlled trial in the secondary prevention of death by low-dose aspirin given to patients who had suffered a myocardial infarct. Reports of other trials followed and an overview of the first six trials was presented to the inaugural meeting of the Society for Clinical Trials in Philadelphia in 1980. There have been two further major overviews and the most recent, based on 145 trials, established that low-dose aspirin reduces vascular events by around one third. It has been estimated that, used appropriately, aspirin could prevent 100,000 premature deaths each year worldwide, at a cost of about 250 Pounds ($400) per life saved, and about 80 Pounds ($130) per cardiovascular event prevented. The evidence indicates that it is seriously underused at present. The aspirin story continues and trials are in progress to test other possible uses of aspirin, in vascular dementia, colorectal cancer, and cataract.

  11. The predictive value of vitamin B12 concentrations and hyperhomocysteinaemia for cardiovascular disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oijen, M.G.H. van; Laheij, R.J.F.; Jansen, J.B.M.J.; Verheugt, F.W.A.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease has been associated with both homocysteine and vitamin B12 levels. However, little information is available about the mutual relation in cardiovascular patients. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in patients with

  12. The predictive value of vitamin B12 concentrations and hyperhomocysteinaemia for cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oijen, M. G. H.; Laheij, R. J. F.; Jansen, J. B. M. J.; Verheugt, F. W. A.

    2007-01-01

    Background. Cardiovascular disease has been associated with both homocysteine and vitamin B 12 levels. However, little information is available about the mutual relation in cardiovascular patients. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in patients with

  13. Vascular risk factors, cardiovascular disease and restless legs syndrome in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Anke C.; Berger, Klaus; Glynn, Robert J; Buring, Julie E.; Gaziano, J. Michael; Schürks, Markus; Kurth, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    Background Prevalences of vascular risk factors, cardiovascular disease and restless legs syndrome increase with age. Prior studies analyzing the associations between vascular risk factors, cardiovascular disease, and restless legs syndrome found controversial results. We therefore aim to evaluate the association between prevalent vascular risk factors, prevalent cardiovascular disease and restless legs syndrome. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study among 22,786 participants of the US Physicians’ Health Studies I and II. Restless legs syndrome was classified according to the four minimal diagnostic criteria. Vascular risk factors and restless legs syndrome symptoms were self-reported. Prevalent cardiovascular disease events including major cardiovascular disease, stroke and myocardial infarction were confirmed by medical record review. Age- and multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between vascular risk factors, prevalent cardiovascular disease events and restless legs syndrome. Results The mean age of the cohort 67.8 years. Restless legs syndrome prevalence was 7.5% and increased significantly with age. Diabetes significantly increased the odds (OR: 1.41, 95%CI: 1.21–1.65), while frequent exercise (OR: 0.78, 95%CI: 0.67–0.91) and alcohol consumption of one or more drinks per day (OR: 0.80, 95%CI: 0.69–0.92) significantly reduced the odds of restless legs syndrome in multivariable-adjusted models. Prevalent stroke showed an increased multivariable-adjusted OR of 1.40 (1.05–1.86) while men with prevalent myocardial infarction had a decreased OR of 0.73 (0.55–0.97) for restless legs syndrome. Conclusions The restless legs syndrome prevalence among US male physicians is similar to men of the same age group in other western countries. A history of diabetes is the most consistent risk factor associated with restless legs syndrome. Prevalent stroke and myocardial infarction are related to restless legs

  14. Association between alcohol and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmes, Michael V; Dale, Caroline E; Zuccolo, Luisa

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To use the rs1229984 variant in the alcohol dehydrogenase 1B gene (ADH1B) as an instrument to investigate the causal role of alcohol in cardiovascular disease. DESIGN: Mendelian randomisation meta-analysis of 56 epidemiological studies. PARTICIPANTS: 261 991 individuals of European des...

  15. Total cardiovascular disease risk assessment: a review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooney, Marie Therese

    2011-09-01

    The high risk strategy for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) requires an assessment of an individual\\'s total CVD risk so that the most intensive risk factor management can be directed towards those at highest risk. Here we review developments in the assessment and estimation of total CVD risk.

  16. Preventing Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors through Aerobic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focused on the reduction of cardiovascular disease risk factors, through aerobic exercises. The central argument here is that through exercise there is the tendency for increased strength of the heart muscles. When this is the case, what follows is a reduction in body weight and ultimately less risk on the ...

  17. Lifestyle factors and risk of cardiovascular diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoevenaar-Blom, M.P.

    2013-01-01

    Background

    Evidence is accumulating that lifestyle factors influence the incidence of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular diseases (CVD). A healthy diet, being physically active, moderate alcohol consumption and not smoking are associated with a lower CVD risk. In

  18. Future of Pharmacogenetics in Cardiovascular Diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.F.M. van Schie (Rianne); T.I. Verhoef (Talitha); A-H. Maitland-van der Zee (Anke-Hilse); A.C. de Boer (Anthonius); F.J.M. van der Meer (Felix); W.K. Redekop (Ken); R. Thariani (Rahber)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Pharmacogenetics is the study of variations in DNA sequence as related to drug response (European Medicines Agency [EMA], 2007). Several gene-drug interactions have been discovered in the field of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). These gene-drug interactions can help to

  19. Positron Emission Tomography in inflammatory cardiovascular diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felix, Renata Christian Martins; Gouvea, Clecio Maria, E-mail: renatafelix@cardiol.br, E-mail: renata.felix@inc.saude.gov.br [Instituto Nacional de Cardiologia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Carneiro, Michel Pontes [Instituto Nacional de Cancer (INCA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mesquita, Claudio Tinoco [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-10-15

    Many articles have demonstrated the role of PET-CT in the evaluation of inflammatory and infectious diseases of the cardiovascular system. The purpose of this article is to provide a review of the literature on this topic to identify clinical situations in which there is evidence of the usefulness of PET-CT in diagnostic and therapeutic evaluation.

  20. Lifestyle factors and risk of cardiovascular diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoevenaar-Blom, M.P.

    2013-01-01

     Background Evidence is accumulating that lifestyle factors influence the incidence of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular diseases (CVD). A healthy diet, being physically active, moderate alcohol consumption and not smoking are associated with a lower CVD risk. In addition to

  1. MACD - an imaging marker for cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganz, Melanie; de Bruijne, Marleen; Nielsen, Mads

    2010-01-01

    Despite general acceptance that a healthy lifestyle and the treatment of risk factors can prevent the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), CVD are the most common cause of death in Europe and the United States. It has been shown that abdominal aortic calcifications (AAC) correlate strong...

  2. The Prevalence and Awareness of Cardiovascular Diseases Risk Factors among the Lebanese Population: A Prospective Study Comparing Urban to Rural Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqbal Fahs

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. CVDs are largely driven by modifiable risk factors. This study sought to determine the awareness and prevalence of the modifiable CVDs risk factors among the Lebanese population. Methods. In a cross-sectional survey, 1000 participants aged ≥ 45 years were randomly selected from pharmacies and interviewed. The data was analyzed with SPSS version 21.0 software. Results. Differences between urban and rural areas include alcohol consumption (2.8% versus 1.7%; p=0.0001, cardioprotective vegetable servings (6.1% versus 2.3%; p=0.016, sedentary hours per day (18.6% versus 15.1%; p=0.002, and hypertension (38.5% versus 25.4%; p=0.001. The prevalence of overweight and obesity (77.3% versus 75.2%; p=0.468, smoking (39.3% versus 43.3%; p=0.232, diabetes (25.4% versus 21.4%; p=0.173, and dyslipidemia (25 versus 21.2% was reported. Measurements revealed 19.3% of undiagnosed hypertension (12.4% versus 22.4%, p=0.001, 61.7% of hypertension (59.8% versus 62.6%; p=0.203, and 7.9% of undiagnosed diabetes (6.6% versus 8.6%; p=0.323. The declared awareness of CVDs risk factors was highest for smoking (91.5% versus 89.7%; p=0.339 and lowest for diabetes (54.4 versus 55.7%; p=0.692. Conclusion. This study has shown a high prevalence of modifiable CVDs risk factors in the Lebanese population ≥ 45 years, among which hypertension is the most prominent.

  3. Cardiovascular disease in immune-mediated inflammatory diseases: A cross-sectional analysis of 6 cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Gutiérrez, Benjamín; Perrotti, Pedro P; Gisbert, Javier P; Domènech, Eugeni; Fernández-Nebro, Antonio; Cañete, Juan D; Ferrándiz, Carlos; Tornero, Jesús; García-Sánchez, Valle; Panés, Julián; Fonseca, Eduardo; Blanco, Francisco; Rodríguez-Moreno, Jesús; Carreira, Patricia; Julià, Antonio; Marsal, Sara; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Luis

    2017-06-01

    To analyze in several immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs) the influence of demographic and clinical-related variables on the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and compare their standardized prevalences.Cross-sectional study, including consecutive patients diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, psoriasis, systemic lupus erythematosus, Crohn disease, or ulcerative colitis, from rheumatology, gastroenterology, and dermatology tertiary care outpatient clinics located throughout Spain, between 2007 and 2010. Our main outcome was defined as previous diagnosis of angina, myocardial infarction, peripheral vascular disease, and/or stroke. Bivariate and multivariate logistic and mixed-effects logistic regression models were performed for each condition and the overall cohort, respectively. Standardized prevalences (in subjects per 100 patients, with 95% confidence intervals) were calculated using marginal analysis.We included 9951 patients. For each IMID, traditional cardiovascular risk factors had a different contribution to CVD. Overall, older age, longer disease duration, presence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, and male sex were independently associated with a higher CVD prevalence. After adjusting for demographic and traditional cardiovascular risk factors, systemic lupus erythematosus exhibited the highest CVD standardized prevalence, followed by rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, Crohn disease, psoriatic arthritis, and ulcerative colitis (4.5 [95% confidence interval (CI): 2.2, 6.8], 1.3 [95% CI: 0.8, 1.8], 0.9 [95% CI: 0.5, 1.2], 0.8 [95% CI: 0.2, 1.3], 0.6 [95% CI: 0.2, 1.0], and 0.5 [95% CI: 0.1, 0.8], respectively).Systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and psoriasis are associated with higher prevalence of CVD compared with other IMIDs. Specific prevention programs should be established in subjects affected with these conditions to prevent CVD.

  4. Cardiovascular disease and cognitive dysfunction in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Sara G; Yazdany, Jinoos; Kaiser, Rachel; Criswell, Lindsey A; Trupin, Laura; Yelin, Edward H; Katz, Patricia P; Julian, Laura J

    2012-09-01

    Cognitive dysfunction and cardiovascular disease are common and debilitating manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In this study, we evaluated the relationship between cardiovascular events, traditional cardiovascular risk factors, and SLE-specific risk factors as predictors of cognitive dysfunction in a large cohort of participants with SLE. Subjects included 694 participants from the Lupus Outcomes Study (LOS), a longitudinal study of SLE outcomes based on an annual telephone survey querying demographic and clinical variables. The Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised and the Controlled Oral Word Association Test were administered to assess cognitive function. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction, stroke), traditional cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, obesity, smoking), and SLE-specific risk factors (antiphospholipid antibodies [aPL], disease activity, disease duration) associated with cognitive impairment in year 7 of the LOS. The prevalence of cognitive impairment as measured by verbal memory and verbal fluency metrics was 15%. In adjusted multiple logistic regression analyses, aPL (odds ratio [OR] 2.10, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.3-3.41), hypertension (OR 2.06, 95% CI 1.19-3.56), and a history of stroke (OR 2.27, 95% CI 1.16-4.43) were significantly associated with cognitive dysfunction. In additional analyses evaluating the association between these predictors and severity of cognitive impairment, stroke was significantly more prevalent in participants with severe impairment when compared to those with mild or moderate impairment (P = 0.036). These results suggest that the presence of aPL, hypertension, and stroke are key variables associated with cognitive impairment, which may aid in identification of patients at greatest risk. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  5. Prevalence and characterization of exercise oscillatory ventilation in apparently healthy individuals at variable risk for cardiovascular disease: A subanalysis of the EURO-EX trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guazzi, Marco; Arena, Ross; Pellegrino, Marta; Bandera, Francesco; Generati, Greta; Labate, Valentina; Alfonzetti, Eleonora; Villani, Simona; Gaeta, Maddalena M; Halle, Martin; Haslbauer, Robert; Phillips, Shane A; Cahalin, Lawrence P

    2016-02-01

    There has been a greater appreciation of several variables obtained by cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX). Exercise oscillatory ventilation (EOV) is a CPX pattern that has gained recognition as an ominous marker of poor prognosis in cardiac patients. The purpose of the present study is to characterize whether such an abnormal ventilatory pattern may also be detected in apparently healthy subjects and determine its clinical significance. The study involved 510 subjects (mean age 60 ± 14 years; 49% male) with a broad cardiovascular (CV) risk factor profile who underwent CPX. The population was divided into two groups according to the presence (17%) or absence of EOV. Subjects with EOV were significantly older and a higher percentage was female. Risk factor profile and medication use was significantly different between subgroups, indicating subjects with EOV had a worse CV risk factor profile and were prescribed CV-focused preventive medications at a significantly higher frequency. Subjects with EOV had comparatively poorer CPX performance and gas exchange phenotype. Multivariate binary logistic regression analysis found being female was the strongest predictor of EOV (odds ratio: 2.77, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.66-4.61, p healthy persons with results supporting an in-depth definition of abnormal exercise phenotypes. © The European Society of Cardiology 2015.

  6. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, association with cardiovascular disease and treatment (II). The treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brea, Ángel; Pintó, Xavier; Ascaso, Juan F; Blasco, Mariano; Díaz, Ángel; González-Santos, Pedro; Hernández-Mijares, Antonio; Mantilla, Teresa; Millán, Jesús; Pedro-Botet, Juan

    Disease nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) comprises a series of histologically similar to those induced by alcohol consumption in people with very little or no liver damage same. The importance of NAFLD is its high prevalence in our Western societies, from the point of view liver in its progressive evolution from steatosis to steatohepatitis, cirrhosis and liver cancer. During the last decade it has been observed that NAFLD leads to an increased cardiovascular risk with accelerated atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events, the leading cause of morbidity and mortality. This updated January 2016 revision consists of two parts. In this second part, the treatment of NAFLD and its influence on cardiovascular disease and drugs used in the control of cardiovascular risk factors showing a beneficial effect on the liver disease will be reviewed. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Leptin : a risk marker for cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Söderberg, Stefan

    1999-01-01

    A major cause of morbidity and early death in the Western societies is cardiovascular disease (CVD) secondary to atherosclerotic disease. Metabolic aberrations have been linked to CVD. Particular combinations of these so-called risk markers are common and (central) obesity, Type 2 diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance, hypertension, dyslipidemia, dysfibrinolysis and hyperinsulinemia are often associated. This has been entitled the Insulin Resistance Syndrome (1RS), due to underlying insulin re...

  8. The global epidemic of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Salim; Ounpuu, Stephanie; Anand, Sonia

    2002-01-01

    Of the 50 million deaths that occur in the world, 40 million occur in developing countries. Already a substantial proportion of these deaths are due to cardiovascular diseases. It is projected that by the year 2025 well over 80-90% of all the cardiovascular diseases in the world will be occurring in low income and middle income countries. This increase in cardiovascular disease is due to a number of causes which include the following: (1) conquest of deaths in childhood and infancy from nutritional deficiencies and infection; (2) urbanization with increasing levels of obesity; (3) increasing longevity of the population so that a higher proportion of individuals reach the age when they are subject to chronic diseases, and (4) increasing use of tobacco worldwide. In most countries in the world other than those in the West, the burden of disease is still due to a combination of infections and nutritional disorders as well as those due to chronic diseases. This double burden of disease poses a challenge that is not only medical and epidemiological, but also social and political. Tackling this projected global epidemic of cardiovascular disease therefore needs policies that combine sound knowledge of prevention, good clinical care, but also deals with the allocation of resources for both individual level and community level preventive strategies. The former involves dealing with high-risk individuals through appropriate medical and therapeutic interventions. The latter involves societal level changes including laws that curb the use of tobacco, and strategies that promote physical activities, and appropriate nutrition. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  9. Impact of Diabetes on Cardiovascular Disease: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Saldanha de Mattos Matheus

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases are the most prevalent cause of morbidity and mortality among patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. The proposed mechanisms that can link accelerated atherosclerosis and increased cardiovascular risk in this population are poorly understood. It has been suggested that an association between hyperglycemia and intracellular metabolic changes can result in oxidative stress, low-grade inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction. Recently, epigenetic factors by different types of reactions are known to be responsible for the interaction between genes and environment and for this reason can also account for the association between diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The impact of clinical factors that may coexist with diabetes such as obesity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension are also discussed. Furthermore, evidence that justify screening for subclinical atherosclerosis in asymptomatic patients is controversial and is also matter of this review. The purpose of this paper is to describe the association between poor glycemic control, oxidative stress, markers of insulin resistance, and of low-grade inflammation that have been suggested as putative factors linking diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

  10. The assessment of changes in cardiovascular diseases trend in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceyda Şahan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective: The aims of this study are to determine the community-based studies on coronary heart disease (CHD and cerebrovascular disease (CVD prevalence in Turkey, critical appraisal of methodological appropriateness of these studies, and analyze the yearly trends using the research findings which have comparable data. Methods: The studies in this systematic review were selected by searching MEDLINE, ULAKBIM, Higher Education Thesis databases. The inclusion criteria were; to be 1 conducted in Turkey and 2 community-based, and cross-sectional, 3 providing at least one morbidity (prevalence or incidence rate of either coronary heart disease or cerebrovascular disease, 4 not to be conducted in hospital or nursing setting. A total of 23 studies were selected for critical evaluation, two researchers evaluated the studies using checklists. Results: According to the regression equations created by using five study data that had the same definition for the diseases, and provided CHD and CVD prevalence by age and sex, the estimated prevalence of CHD in 2008, for above the age of 35 was 10.7% in men, 12.7% in women while in 2012 it was 6.6% in men, 7.0% in women. In 2008, the estimated prevalence of CVD in men over the age 35 was 1.6%, 2.0% in women, while it was 1.3 in men and women in 2012, respectively. Conclusions: Most of the studies examining cardiovascular disease epidemiology in Turkey are either regional or do not provide comparable data as an appropriate method has not been used. Further studies should be nationwide, represent all regions, provide comparable data, and be conducted using valid diagnostic methods.Key Words: Prevalence, frequency, trend, coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease.

  11. A clinical perspective of obesity, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thang S Han

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic syndrome is a condition characterized by a special constellation of reversible major risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The main, diagnostic, components are reduced HDL-cholesterol, raised triglycerides, blood pressure and fasting plasma glucose, all of which are related to weight gain, specifically intra-abdominal/ectopic fat accumulation and a large waist circumference. Using internationally adopted arbitrary cut-off values for waist circumference, having metabolic syndrome doubles the risk of cardiovascular disease, but offers an effective treatment approach through weight management. Metabolic syndrome now affects 30–40% of people by age 65, driven mainly by adult weight gain, and by a genetic or epigenetic predisposition to intra-abdominal/ectopic fat accumulation related to poor intra-uterine growth. Metabolic syndrome is also promoted by a lack of subcutaneous adipose tissue, low skeletal muscle mass and anti-retroviral drugs. Reducing weight by 5–10%, by diet and exercise, with or without, anti-obesity drugs, substantially lowers all metabolic syndrome components, and risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Other cardiovascular disease risk factors such as smoking should be corrected as a priority. Anti-diabetic agents which improve insulin resistance and reduce blood pressure, lipids and weight should be preferred for diabetic patients with metabolic syndrome. Bariatric surgery offers an alternative treatment for those with BMI ≥ 40 or 35–40 kg/m 2 with other significant co-morbidity. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease is expected to rise along with the global obesity epidemic: greater emphasis should be given to effective early weight-management to reduce risk in pre-symptomatic individuals with large waists.

  12. Register-based studies of cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildstrøm, Steen Z; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Madsen, Mette

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The use of the unique personal identification number in the Nordic database systems enables the researchers to link the registers at the individual level. The registers can be used for both defining specific patient populations and to identify later events during follow-up. This rev...... the hospitalisation rate and treatment of cardiovascular disease. The risk of unmeasured factors affecting the results calls for cautious interpretation of the results.......-up. This review gives three examples within cardiovascular epidemiology to illustrate the use of the national administrative registers available to all researchers upon request. Research topics: The hospitalisation rate of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was expected to be increased and case-fatality rate......-based treatment increased significantly over time and adherence to treatment was high. Finally, use of specific nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs by healthy subjects was associated with a dose-dependent increase in cardiovascular risk. CONCLUSION: The nationwide registers have proven very useful in monitoring...

  13. Periodontal Disease and Cardiovascular Disease: An Extreme Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz Rodríguez, Mayerlin; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana; Cárdenas, Sebastián; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana; Moreno, Freddy; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana; Moreno, Sandra; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana

    2015-01-01

    Periodontitis is a multifactorial and complex chronic inflammatory and infectious disease which has been linked to various systemic complications, including cardiovascular disease. This association has been difficult to prove because epidemiological studies are biased or classic risk factors that are difficult to control, cardiovascular disease also includes a variety of multifactorial diseases also making it even more difficult to determine the cause-effect. The studies reported in the liter...

  14. Therapeutic angiogenesis for cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D'Amore Patricia A

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The identification of angiogenic growth factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor and fibroblast growth factor, has fueled interest in using such factors to induce therapeutic angiogenesis. The results of numerous animal studies and clinical trials have offered promise for new treatment strategies for various ischemic diseases. Increased understanding of the cellular and molecular biology of vessel growth has, however, prompted investigators and clinicians alike to reconsider the complexity of therapeutic angiogenesis. The realization that formation of a stable vessel is a complex, multistep process may provide useful insights into the design of the next generation of angiogenesis therapy.

  15. Extracellular vesicles: new players in cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaceb, Abderahim; Martinez, Maria Carmen; Andriantsitohaina, Ramaroson

    2014-05-01

    Extracellular vesicles, particles released by all cell types, represent a new way to convey information between cells such as proteins, second messengers, and genetic information to modify the phenotype and function of the target cells. Recent data suggest that extracellular vesicles play a crucial role in both physiology and pathology, including coagulation, angiogenesis, cell survival, modulation of the immune response, and inflammation. Thus extracellular vesicles participate in the processes of cardiovascular diseases from atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction to heart failure. Consequently, extracellular vesicles can potentially be exploited for therapy, prognosis, and biomarkers for health and disease. This review focuses on the role of extracellular vesicles in the development of cardiovascular diseases, as well as the deleterious and beneficial effects that they may provide in vascular cells and myocardium. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Premature cardiovascular disease in young women with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Graaf, Anouk; Hutten, Barbara A.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Vissers, Maud N.

    2006-01-01

    Heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia is associated with elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and the development of premature cardiovascular disease. Despite this general statement, data regarding the incidence of cardiovascular disease in young women with familial

  17. Cardiovascular disease in late survivors of tetralogy of fallot: a tertiary care center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Elisa; Parker, Jeff; Novak, Eric; Ludbrook, Philip; Billadello, Joseph; Cedars, Ari

    2013-01-01

    Patients with tetralogy of Fallot can survive to late adulthood; however, there are few data on cardiovascular outcomes in this population. We conducted a single-center retrospective analysis of cardiovascular outcomes and risk factors in 208 patients with tetralogy of Fallot to better evaluate the burden of cardiovascular disease in this group. Descriptive statistics were used to determine the prevalence of relevant cardiovascular risk factors and outcomes, including a composite analysis of cardiovascular disease. Rates and mean values from the American Heart Association 2011 Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics Update were used as population estimates for comparison. In tetralogy of Fallot patients, cardiovascular disease prevalence was not different from that found in the general population (40% vs. 36%, P=0.3). However, there was significantly more cardiovascular disease in tetralogy of Fallot men aged 20 to 39 years (30% vs. 14%, P tetralogy of Fallot men aged 40 to 59 years (63% vs. 29%, P tetralogy of Fallot men aged 20 to 59 years. These data support the need to routinely screen young adult male survivors of tetralogy of Fallot for asymptomatic heart failure. Further studies are needed to determine the incidence, severity, and long-term effects of cardiovascular disease in the adult congenital heart disease population.

  18. Prevalence of cardiovascular conditions and health services utilization in Puerto Rico, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Palmieri, Mario R; Pérez-Perdomo, Rosa; Colón, Samira Rosa

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the prevalence of cardiovascular conditions and health services utilization in Puerto Rico, 2001. METHODS All medical claims for coronary heart disease (ICD-9 410-414), hypertension (ICD-9 401-405), congestive heart failure (ICD-9 428) and cerebrovascular accidents and transient ischemia (ICD-9:430-438.9) submitted for reimbursement purposes to an insurance company (private and public sector) in Puerto Rico in 2001 were identified. Prevalence and medical care utilization concerning cardiovascular conditions was estimated with 95% confidence. RESULTS Overall prevalence of cardiovascular conditions was 13.5% (95% CI: 11.68%-15.44%), being larger in the private sector (16.0%; 95% CI: 15.98%-16.08% vs. 11.7%; 95% CI: 11.62%-11.77%). Although in both sectors prevalence increased with age, at same age groups was two times higher in the private sector. Hypertension was the most prevalent condition (9.7; 95% CI: 8.14%-11.41%) being higher in females (10.4; 95% CI: 10.37%-10.51%) than in males (8.9; 95% CI: 8.81%-8.96%). The health service utilization (physician's office visits, emergency room visits, and hospital admissions) was higher in males. However, it varies by sectors. CONCLUSIONS Significant difference exists in the prevalence of cardiovascular conditions and health services utilization among private and public sectors in Puerto Rico. The observed differences among the private and public populations imply that there are factors such as socioeconomic status, education, lifestyles, environmental hazards in neighborhoods, and health habits that could be involved in the differences.

  19. Cardiovascular disease risk and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease among patients with low health literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaik, T M; Jørstad, H T; Twickler, T B; Peters, R J G; Tijssen, J P G; Essink-Bot, M L; Fransen, M P

    2017-07-01

    To explore the association between health literacy and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and to assess the differential effects by health literacy level of a nurse-coordinated secondary prevention program (NCPP) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Data were collected in two medical centres participating in the RESPONSE trial (Randomised Evaluation of Secondary Prevention by Outpatient Nurse SpEcialists). CVD risk profiles were assessed at baseline and 12-month follow-up using the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE). Health literacy was assessed by the short Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM-D) and the Newest Vital Sign (NVS-D); self-reported health literacy was evaluated by the Set of Brief Screening Questions (SBSQ-D). Among 201 CAD patients, 18% exhibited reading difficulties, 52% had difficulty understanding and applying written information, and 5% scored low on self-reported health literacy. Patients with low NVS-D scores had a higher CVD risk [mean SCORE 5.2 (SD 4.8) versus 3.3 (SD 4.1), p literacy levels without significant differences. Inadequate health literacy is prevalent in CAD patients in the Netherlands, and is associated with less favourable CVD risk profiles. Where many other forms of CVD prevention fail, nurse-coordinated care seems to be effective among patients with inadequate health literacy.

  20. Role of gamma-glutamyltransferase in cardiovascular diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Shengyang; Jiang, Donglin; Tao, Yijia

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are threatening human health with rising morbidity and mortality rates. Gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) has been found to be involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases, especially coronary artery disease, and the prognosis of cardiovascular disease may be predicted by increasing GGT levels. GGT levels are related to cardiovascular emergencies of chronic heart failure, and an elevated GGT level has been shown to be an independent predictive maker for cardia...

  1. Cross sectional study of childhood obesity and prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes in children aged 11–13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brophy Sinead

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity levels are rising with estimates suggesting that around one in three children in Western countries are overweight. People from lower socioeconomic status and ethnic minority backgrounds are at higher risk of obesity and subsequent CVD and diabetes. Within this study we examine the prevalence of risk factors for CVD and diabetes (obesity, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension and examine factors associated with the presence of these risk factors in school children aged 11–13. Methods and design Participants will be recruited from schools across South Wales. Schools will be selected based on catchment area, recruiting those with high ethnic minority or deprived catchment areas. Data collection will take place during the PE lessons and on school premises. Data will include: anthropometrical variables (height, weight, waist, hip and neck circumferences, skinfold thickness at 4 sites, physiological variables (blood pressure and aerobic fitness (20 metre multi stage fitness test (20 MSFT, diet (self-reported seven-day food diary, physical activity (Physical Activity Questionnire for Adolescents (PAQ-A, accelerometery and blood tests (fasting glucose, insulin, lipids, fibrinogen (Fg, adiponectin (high molecular weight, C-reactive protein (CRP and interleukin-6 (IL-6. Deprivation at the school level will be measured via information on the number of children receiving free school meals. Townsend deprivation scores will be calculated based on the individual childs postcode and self assigned ethnicity for each participating child will be collected. It is anticipated 800 children will be recruited. Multilevel modeling will be used to examine shared and individual factors associated with obesity, stratified by ethnic background, deprivation level and school. Discussion This study is part of a larger project which includes interviews with older children regarding health behaviours and analysis of existing cohort studies

  2. Garlic for Cardiovascular Disease: Prevention or Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alali, Feras Q; El-Elimat, Tamam; Khalid, Lila; Hudaib, Reema; Al-Shehabi, Tuqa Saleh; Eid, Ali H

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of global mortality with a substantial economic impact. The annual deaths are expected to increase in the next decade. An array of dietary supplements is being used by people worldwide to ameliorate cardiovascular risk factors. Garlic (Allium sativum L.), a top-selling herbal dietary supplement, is renowned for its wide range beneficial effects, particularly in the treatment and prevention of CVD. This review aims to present a thorough discussion of the available evidence-based data which support the use of garlic in the treatment or prevention of cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. The molecular mechanisms underlying these effects are dissected as well. This review supports the notion that garlic has the potential to treat mild hypertension, to decrease hypercholesterolemia, and to prevent atherosclerosis. More clinical studies are essential to unequivocally understand the mechanisms underlying treatment or prevention of these cardiovascular conditions. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Iron hypothesis of cardiovascular disease: still controversial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aursulesei, Viviana; Cozma, A; Krasniqi, A

    2014-01-01

    Iron hypothesis has been a controversial subject for over 30 years as many studies support its role as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, while other studies found no evidence to support it. The conflicting results are accounted for by the non-homogeneity of trial design in terms of population inclusion criteria and different endpoints, non-uniform use of parameters for assessing iron role, and incomplete understanding of the mechanisms of action. The nature of iron is dual, being of crucial importance for the human body, but also toxic as "free iron" induces oxidative stress. Under physiological conditions, there are efficient and complex mechanisms against iron-induced oxidative stress, which could be reproduced for creating new, intelligent antioxidants. Iron depletion improves the cardiovascular prognosis only if serum concentration is at the lowest limit of normal ranges. However, low iron levels and the type of dietary iron intake correlate with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, influence the ischemic endpoints in the elderly, and exert negative impact on heart failure prognosis. So far, the causal relation and involved mechanisms are not fully elucidated. Iron overload is a difficult and frequent condition, involving the cardiovascular system by specific pathogenic pathways, therefore determining a particular form of restrictive cardiomyopathy and vaso-occlusive arterial damage.

  4. Estimating Cardiovascular Risk in Spain by the European Guidelines on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amor, Antonio Jesús; Masana, Luis; Soriguer, Federico; Goday, Albert; Calle-Pascual, Alfonso; Gaztambide, Sonia; Rojo-Martínez, Gemma; Valdés, Sergio; Gomis, Ramón; Ortega, Emilio

    2015-05-01

    There are no nationwide, population-based studies in Spain assessing overall cardiovascular risk. We aimed to describe cardiovascular risk and achievement of treatment goals following the 2012 European Guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention strategy. We also investigated clinical characteristics (non-classical risk factors) associated with moderate risk. Participants (n=2310, 58% women) aged 40 to 65 years from a national population-based study (Di@bet.es Study) were identified. First, a priori high/very-high risk individuals were identified. Next, total cardiovascular risk (Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation equation including high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) was used to assess risk of a priori non-high risk individuals. Variables independently associated with moderate versus low-risk were investigated by multiple logistic regression analysis. Age-and-sex standardized (direct method) percentages of high/very-high, moderate, and low-risk were 22.8%, 43.5%, and 33.7%, respectively. Most men were at moderate (56.2%), while 55.4% of women were at low risk. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (< 70,<100, < 115 mg/dL) and blood pressure (<140/90 mmHg) goals for very-high, high and moderate risk were met in 15%, 26% and 46%, and 77%, 68% and 85% of the individuals, respectively. Body mass index, high triglycerides concentrations, diastolic blood pressure, and low Mediterranean diet adherence (in women) were independently associated with moderate (versus low) risk. Cardiovascular risk in Spain is mainly moderate in men and low in women. Achievement of treatment goals in high-risk individuals should be improved. The prevalence of non-classical cardiovascular risk factors is elevated in subjects at moderate risk, an important aspect to consider in a population-based strategy to decrease cardiovascular disease in the most prevalent group. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Oral hygiene status of individuals with cardiovascular diseases and associated risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Shetty

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Dentist and oral health screening may be the latest weapon in identifying persons at risk of cardiovascular disease. Oral infections, specifically periodontitis, may confer independent risks for different systemic conditions. The risk factors associated with cardiovascular diseases also suggest that the relationship between periodontal disease and diabetes works in both ways. The aim of this study was to support and strengthen the association and relationship between oral hygiene status of individuals with cardiovascular diseases and its associated risk factors. A simple random sampling was carried out in 200 inhabitants of Western Utter Pradesh, India. An oral health visit and examination was made for an equal number of males and females of different age groups with cardiovascular diseases. Evaluation of the oral status was made by means of an oral hygiene index, community periodontal index of treatment needs and loss of attachment. Evaluation of oral status in patients with cardiovascular diseases and in the control group has shown a statistically significant low level of oral health in patients with cardiovascular diseases as compared to control. Prevalence of systemic diseases in different age groups significantly correlated with the prevalence of severe periodontal diseases. Treating gum disease may reduce the risk of heart disease and improve health outcomes for patients with periodontal disease and vascular heart problems.

  6. Cardiovascular Disease in Relation to Placental Abruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ananth, Cande V.; Hansen, Anne Vinkel; Williams, Michelle A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular (CVD) complications stemming from vascular dysfunction have been widely explored in the setting of preeclampsia. However, the impact of abruption, a strong indicator of microvascular disturbance, on the risk of CVD mortality and morbidity remains poorly characterised...... person-years, respectively (HR 1.5, 95% CI 1.4, 1.8). The increased risks were evident for ischaemic heart disease, acute myocardial infarction, hypertensive heart disease, non-rheumatic valvular disease, and congestive heart failure. Conclusions: This study shows increased hazards of CVD morbidity...

  7. Association of Relationship between Periodontal Disease and Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johar, N; Dhodapkar, S V; Kumar, R; Verma, T; Jajoo, A

    2017-04-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the relationship between periodontal and cardiovascular disease. Previous studies have shown some co-relation between the two conditions. We included 186 patients divided into four groups. First two Groups (A1 & A2) were the patients with cardiac disease (100 in numbers) whilst Groups (B1 & B2) (86 in numbers) were treated as controls (without cardiac disease). Following markers of periodontal disease were assessed - plaque index, calculus index, gingival and periodontal index. Markers of cardiovascular disease included were LDL, HDL, total cholesterol and CRP. Ramfjords periodontal index was used to assess the extent of periodontal disease. In the present study there was a significant increase in CRP levels in Group A1 (CVD + PD) compared to controls and overall the two cardiac groups showed a significant increase in CRP compared to controls. There was a non-significant change in lipid profile markers (LDL, HDL and total cholesterol). Periodontal Disease Index (PDI) was also increased in Group A1 compared to other groups except Group B1 and overall in cardiac groups compared to non-cardiac (PD) groups. In this study no correlation between periodontal and cardiovascular disease was found. This may be due intake of statins by few patients in Group A with a confirmed diagnosis of cardiovascular disease.

  8. Noninvasive Test Detects Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    At NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), NASA-developed Video Imaging Communication and Retrieval (VICAR) software laid the groundwork for analyzing images of all kinds. A project seeking to use imaging technology for health care diagnosis began when the imaging team considered using the VICAR software to analyze X-ray images of soft tissue. With marginal success using X-rays, the team applied the same methodology to ultrasound imagery, which was already digitally formatted. The new approach proved successful for assessing amounts of plaque build-up and arterial wall thickness, direct predictors of heart disease, and the result was a noninvasive diagnostic system with the ability to accurately predict heart health. Medical Technologies International Inc. (MTI) further developed and then submitted the technology to a vigorous review process at the FDA, which cleared the software for public use. The software, patented under the name Prowin, is being used in MTI's patented ArterioVision, a carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) test that uses ultrasound image-capturing and analysis software to noninvasively identify the risk for the major cause of heart attack and strokes: atherosclerosis. ArterioVision provides a direct measurement of atherosclerosis by safely and painlessly measuring the thickness of the first two layers of the carotid artery wall using an ultrasound procedure and advanced image-analysis software. The technology is now in use in all 50 states and in many countries throughout the world.

  9. Agreement among cardiovascular disease risk calculators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, G Michael; Nouri, Faeze; Korownyk, Christina; Kolber, Michael R; Vandermeer, Ben; McCormack, James

    2013-05-14

    Use of cardiovascular disease risk calculators is often recommended by guidelines, but research on consistency in risk assessment among calculators is limited. A search of PubMed and Google was performed. Five clinicians selected 25 calculators by independent review. Hypothetical patients were created with the use of 7 risk factors (age, sex, smoking, blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein, total cholesterol, and diabetes mellitus) dichotomized to high and low, generating 2(7) patients (128 total). These patients were assessed by each calculator by 2 clinicians. Risk estimates (and assigned risk categories) were compared among calculators. Selected calculators were from 8 countries, used 5- or 10-year predictions, and estimated either cardiovascular disease or coronary heart disease. With the use of 3 risk categories (low, medium, and high), the 25 calculators categorized each patient into a mean of 2.2 different categories, and 41% of unique patients were assigned across all 3 risk categories. Risk category agreement between pairs of calculators was 67%. This did not improve when analysis was limited to just the 10-year cardiovascular disease calculators. In nondiabetics, the highest calculated risk estimate from a calculator averaged 4.9 times higher (range, 1.9-13.3) than the lowest calculated risk estimate for the same patient. This did not change meaningfully for diabetics or when the analysis was limited to 10-year cardiovascular disease calculators. The decision as to which calculator to use for risk estimation has an important impact on both risk categorization and absolute risk estimates. This has broad implications for guidelines recommending therapies based on specific calculators.

  10. Genetic variation associated with cardiovascular risk in autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrotti, Pedro P; Aterido, Adrià; Fernández-Nebro, Antonio; Cañete, Juan D; Ferrándiz, Carlos; Tornero, Jesús; Gisbert, Javier P; Domènech, Eugeni; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Benjamín; Gomollón, Fernando; García-Planella, Esther; Fernández, Emilia; Sanmartí, Raimon; Gratacós, Jordi; Martínez-Taboada, Víctor Manuel; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Luís; Palau, Núria; Tortosa, Raül; Corbeto, Mireia L; Lasanta, María L; Marsal, Sara; Julià, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases have a higher prevalence of cardiovascular events compared to the general population. The objective of this study was to investigate the genetic basis of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in autoimmunity. We analyzed genome-wide genotyping data from 6,485 patients from six autoimmune diseases that are associated with a high socio-economic impact. First, for each disease, we tested the association of established CVD risk loci. Second, we analyzed the association of autoimmune disease susceptibility loci with CVD. Finally, to identify genetic patterns associated with CVD risk, we applied the cross-phenotype meta-analysis approach (CPMA) on the genome-wide data. A total of 17 established CVD risk loci were significantly associated with CVD in the autoimmune patient cohorts. From these, four loci were found to have significantly different genetic effects across autoimmune diseases. Six autoimmune susceptibility loci were also found to be associated with CVD risk. Genome-wide CPMA analysis identified 10 genetic clusters strongly associated with CVD risk across all autoimmune diseases. Two of these clusters are highly enriched in pathways previously associated with autoimmune disease etiology (TNFα and IFNγ cytokine pathways). The results of this study support the presence of specific genetic variation associated with the increase of CVD risk observed in autoimmunity.

  11. Genetic variation associated with cardiovascular risk in autoimmune diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro P Perrotti

    Full Text Available Autoimmune diseases have a higher prevalence of cardiovascular events compared to the general population. The objective of this study was to investigate the genetic basis of cardiovascular disease (CVD risk in autoimmunity. We analyzed genome-wide genotyping data from 6,485 patients from six autoimmune diseases that are associated with a high socio-economic impact. First, for each disease, we tested the association of established CVD risk loci. Second, we analyzed the association of autoimmune disease susceptibility loci with CVD. Finally, to identify genetic patterns associated with CVD risk, we applied the cross-phenotype meta-analysis approach (CPMA on the genome-wide data. A total of 17 established CVD risk loci were significantly associated with CVD in the autoimmune patient cohorts. From these, four loci were found to have significantly different genetic effects across autoimmune diseases. Six autoimmune susceptibility loci were also found to be associated with CVD risk. Genome-wide CPMA analysis identified 10 genetic clusters strongly associated with CVD risk across all autoimmune diseases. Two of these clusters are highly enriched in pathways previously associated with autoimmune disease etiology (TNFα and IFNγ cytokine pathways. The results of this study support the presence of specific genetic variation associated with the increase of CVD risk observed in autoimmunity.

  12. National trends in screening, prevalence, and treatment of cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Sundar; Nietert, Paul J

    2003-04-01

    Few studies have documented national trends in screening, awareness, and treatment of cardiovascular risk factors. We evaluated trends in screening, prevalence, and treatment of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and smoking. Data were analyzed from the 1984-1998 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a series of yearly cross-sectional population-based surveys of U.S. adults. Unadjusted and adjusted time trends (age-, gender-, ethnicity-, education-, and income-adjusted) in screening, prevalence, and treatment were evaluated. From 1984 to 1998, a larger proportion of U.S. adults were older, more educated, richer, and Hispanic. Hypertension screening was >97% (1988-1998), prevalence ranged from 21 to 24% (1984-1998), and approximately 58% (1984-1992) were prescribed blood-pressure-lowering medications. Hypercholesterolemia screening increased from 47 to 67% (1987-1998), prevalence from 18 to 31% (1987-1998), and cholesterol-lowering prescriptions from 22 to 25% (1988-1990). Smoking prevalence remained around 28% (1984-1998), while quit attempts declined from 63 to 47% (1990-1998). Although screening for hypertension and hypercholesterolemia has increased, a substantial proportion of cases were not being prescribed medications. While the prevalence of smoking remains constant, quit attempts have fallen. Continuing challenges for cardiovascular disease prevention include identification of individuals with hypercholesterolemia, appropriate prescription (initiation and/or maintenance) of antihypertensive and lipid-lowering medications, and intensifying smoking cessation efforts.

  13. Grapes and Cardiovascular Disease1–3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohadwala, Mustali M.; Vita, Joseph A.

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that consumption of wine, grape products, and other foods containing polyphenols is associated with decreased risk for cardiovascular disease. The benefits of wine consumption appear to be greater than other alcoholic beverages. Experimental studies indicate that grape polyphenols could reduce atherosclerosis by a number of mechanisms, including inhibition of oxidation of LDL and other favorable effects on cellular redox state, improvement of endothelial function, lowering blood pressure, inhibition of platelet aggregation, reducing inflammation, and activating novel proteins that prevent cell senescence, e.g. Sirtuin 1. Translational studies in humans support these beneficial effects. More clinical studies are needed to confirm these effects and formulate dietary guidelines. The available data, however, strongly support the recommendation that a diet rich in fruits and vegetables, including grapes, can decrease the risk for cardiovascular disease. PMID:19625699

  14. Population prevalence and control of cardiovascular risk factors: what electronic medical records tell us.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalán-Ramos, Arantxa; Verdú, Jose M; Grau, María; Iglesias-Rodal, Manuel; del Val García, José L; Consola, Alicia; Comin, Eva

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the prevalence, control, and management of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2). Cross-sectional analysis of all individuals attended in the Catalan primary care centers between 2006 and 2009. History of cardiovascular diseases, diagnosis and treatment of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, DM2, lipid profile, glycemia and blood pressure data were extracted from electronic medical records. Age-standardized prevalence and levels of management and control were estimated. Individuals aged 35-74 years using primary care databases. A total of 2,174,515 individuals were included (mean age 52 years [SD 11], 47% men). Hypertension was the most prevalent cardiovascular risk factor (39% in women, 41% in men) followed by hypercholesterolemia (38% and 40%) and DM2 (12% and 16%), respectively. Diuretics and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors were most often prescribed for hypertension control (women treated). Hypercholesterolemia was controlled (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol women with no history of cardiovascular disease, despite lipid-lowering treatment, primarily (90%) with statins. The percentage of women and men with DM2 and with glycated hemoglobin DM2 were adequately controlled; hypercholesterolemia control was particularly low. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  15. Therapy of obese patient with Cardiovascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Jindal, Ankur; Whaley-Connell, Adam; Brietzke, Stephen; Sowers, James R

    2013-01-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic proportions and is a significant public health concern. Obesity is associated with increased diabetes, cardiovascular and kidney disease, and associated morbidity and mortality. Despite the increasing public health problem of obesity, there is a dearth of effective treatment options. Following the FDA mandated withdrawal of sibutramine, the treatment options for obesity were limited to orlistat as the only pharmacological treatment option for long term management ...

  16. Nutritional Recommendations for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Eilat-Adar, Sigal; Sinai, Tali; Yosefy, Chaim; Henkin, Yaakov

    2013-01-01

    Lifestyle factors, including nutrition, play an important role in the etiology of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD). This position paper, written by collaboration between the Israel Heart Association and the Israel Dietetic Association, summarizes the current, preferably latest, literature on the association of nutrition and CVD with emphasis on the level of evidence and practical recommendations. The nutritional information is divided into three main sections: dietary patterns, individual food it...

  17. OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNOEA SYNDROME AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Anichkov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS is observed in the population with a frequency of 5–15 %. The importance of OSAS is due to its close relationship with cardiovascular diseases. OSAS increases a risk for sudden cardiac death and is an independent predictor of chronic heart failure in males. OSAS is shown to be associated with the preclinical forms of atherosclerosis and left ventricular dysfunction.

  18. Antistress activation therapy for cardiovascular diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Miroshnik E.V.; Yeliseyeva N.A.

    2016-01-01

    The cohort pilot study had been done. Aim: to study the effectiveness of an antistress activation therapy on the functional state of human with the purpose of formation of adaptive reactions of activation and training high levels of reactivity among the two groups of patients with cardiovascular problems, ranks first among causes of death population: arterial hypertension (AH) and coronary heart disease (CHD). Material and methods. From the sub-sample of the Moscow population (396) were alloc...

  19. Gut Microbiota in Cardiovascular Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, W H Wilson; Kitai, Takeshi; Hazen, Stanley L

    2017-03-31

    Significant interest in recent years has focused on gut microbiota-host interaction because accumulating evidence has revealed that intestinal microbiota play an important role in human health and disease, including cardiovascular diseases. Changes in the composition of gut microbiota associated with disease, referred to as dysbiosis, have been linked to pathologies such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, heart failure, chronic kidney disease, obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In addition to alterations in gut microbiota composition, the metabolic potential of gut microbiota has been identified as a contributing factor in the development of diseases. Recent studies revealed that gut microbiota can elicit a variety of effects on the host. Indeed, the gut microbiome functions like an endocrine organ, generating bioactive metabolites, that can impact host physiology. Microbiota interact with the host through many pathways, including the trimethylamine/trimethylamine N -oxide pathway, short-chain fatty acids pathway, and primary and secondary bile acids pathways. In addition to these metabolism-dependent pathways, metabolism-independent processes are suggested to also potentially contribute to cardiovascular disease pathogenesis. For example, heart failure-associated splanchnic circulation congestion, bowel wall edema, and impaired intestinal barrier function are thought to result in bacterial translocation, the presence of bacterial products in the systemic circulation and heightened inflammatory state. These are thought to also contribute to further progression of heart failure and atherosclerosis. The purpose of the current review is to highlight the complex interplay between microbiota, their metabolites, and the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases. We will also discuss the roles of gut microbiota in normal physiology and the potential of modulating intestinal microbial inhabitants as novel therapeutic targets. © 2017 American Heart

  20. Association between metabolic syndrome and 10-year risk of developing cardiovascular disease in a Nigerian population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oguoma, Victor M.; Nwose, Ezekiel U.; Skinner, Timothy C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and consequential cardiovascular disease (CVD) events are on the increase in Nigeria. The study aimed to identify the prevalence of 10-year CVD risk in a Nigerian population and assess its relationship with different indices of MetS. Method: A c...

  1. Platelet-Derived Microvesicles in Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria T. K. Zaldivia

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Microvesicles (MVs circulating in the blood are small vesicles (100–1,000 nm in diameter derived from membrane blebs of cells such as activated platelets, endothelial cells, and leukocytes. A growing body of evidence now supports the concept that platelet-derived microvesicles (PMVs, the most abundant MVs in the circulation, are important regulators of hemostasis, inflammation, and angiogenesis. Compared with healthy individuals, a large increase of circulating PMVs has been observed, particularly in patients with cardiovascular diseases. As observed in MVs from other parent cells, PMVs exert their biological effects in multiple ways, such as triggering various intercellular signaling cascades and by participating in transcellular communication by the transfer of their “cargo” of cytoplasmic components and surface receptors to other cell types. This review describes our current understanding of the potential role of PMVs in mediating hemostasis, inflammation, and angiogenesis and their consequences on the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, and venous thrombosis. Furthermore, new developments of the therapeutic potential of PMVs for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases will be discussed.

  2. Phytochemicals from plants to combat cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasanthi, H R; ShriShriMal, N; Das, D K

    2012-01-01

    For many decades, the use of synthetic chemicals as drugs has been effective in the treatment of most diseases. Moreover, from ancient to modern history, many traditional plant based medicines are playing an important role in health care. Phytochemicals are natural bioactive compounds found in vegetables, fruits, medicinal plants, aromatic plants, leaves, flowers and roots which act as a defense system to combat against diseases. The phytochemicals from natural products cover a diverse range of chemical entities such as polyphenols, flavonoids, steroidal saponins, organosulphur compounds and vitamins. A number of bioactive compounds generally obtained from terrestrial plants such as isoflavones, diosgenin, resveratrol, quercetin, catechin, sulforaphane, tocotrienols and carotenoids are proven to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases and aid in cardioprotection which is the leading cause of death globally. The cardioprotective effects of the various phytochemicals are perhaps due to their antioxidative, antihypercholesteroemic, antiangiogenic, anti-ischemic, inhibition of platelet aggregation and anti inflammatory activities that reduce the risk of cardiovascular disorders. The multi-faceted role of the phytochemicals is mediated by its structure-function relationship and can be considered as leads for cardiovascular drug design in future. This review summarizes the findings of recent studies on selected phytochemicals as prophylactic and therapeutic agents in cardioprotection.

  3. Sleep-disordered breathing and cardiovascular disease: an outcome-based definition of hypopneas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punjabi, Naresh M; Newman, Anne B; Young, Terry B; Resnick, Helaine E; Sanders, Mark H

    2008-05-15

    Epidemiologic studies on the consequences of sleep-disordered breathing invariably use the apnea-hypopnea index as the primary measure of disease severity. Although hypopneas constitute a majority of disordered breathing events, significant controversy remains about the best criteria used to define these events. The current investigation sought to assess the most appropriate definition for hypopneas that would be best correlated with cardiovascular disease. A community sample of middle-aged and older adults was recruited as part of the Sleep Heart Health Study. Full-montage polysomnography was conducted and hypopneas were defined using different thresholds of oxyhemoglobin desaturation with and without arousals. Prevalent cardiovascular disease was assessed based on self-report. Logistic regression analysis was used to characterize the independent association between the hypopnea index and prevalent cardiovascular disease. Using a sample of 6,106 adults with complete data on cardiovascular disease status and polysomnography, the current study found that hypopneas associated with an oxyhemoglobin desaturation of 4% or more were associated with prevalent cardiovascular disease independent of confounding covariates. The adjusted prevalent odds ratios for quartiles of the hypopnea index using a 4% desaturation criterion were as follows: 1.00 (7.69 events/h). Hypopnea measures based on less than 4% oxyhemoglobin desaturation or presence of arousals showed no association with cardiovascular disease. Hypopneas comprise a significant component of sleep-disordered breathing in the general community. By varying the criteria for defining hypopneas, this study demonstrates that hypopneas with a desaturation of at least 4% are independently associated with cardiovascular disease. In contrast, no association was observed between cardiovascular disease and hypopneas associated with milder desaturations or arousals.

  4. Association of Family History With Cardiovascular Disease in Hypertensive Individuals in a Multiethnic Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, Luca; Peters, Ron J; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; Pinto-Sietsma, Sara-Joan

    2016-12-21

    Hypertension alone is a poor predictor of the individual risk of cardiovascular disease. Hereditary factors of which hypertension is merely a marker may explain why some hypertensive individuals appear more susceptible to cardiovascular disease, and why some ethnicities have more often seemingly hypertension-related cardiovascular disease than others. We hypothesize that, in hypertensive individuals, a positive family history of cardiovascular disease identifies a high-risk subpopulation. Healthy Life in Urban Settings (HELIUS) is a cohort study among participants of Dutch, South-Asian Surinamese, African Surinamese, Ghanaian, Turkish, and Moroccan origin aged 70 years and younger. In participants with hypertension (n=6467), we used logistic regression to assess the association of family history of cardiovascular disease with prevalent stroke and nonstroke cardiovascular disease, adjusting for sex, age, education, and smoking. To detect ethnic differences, we tested for interaction between family history and ethnicity and stratified the analysis by ethnicity. A positive family history was associated with a higher prevalence of nonstroke cardiovascular disease (odds ratio [OR], 2.05; 95% CI, 1.65-2.54) and stroke (OR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.19-2.20). The strongest association of family history with nonstroke cardiovascular disease was found among the Dutch (OR, 2.47; 95% CI, 1.37-4.44) and with stroke among the African Surinamese (OR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.32-3.57). The interaction between family history and African Surinamese origin for stroke was statistically significant. In multiethnic populations of hypertensive patients, a positive family history of cardiovascular disease may be used clinically to identify individuals at high risk for nonstroke cardiovascular disease regardless of ethnic origin and African Surinamese individuals at high risk for stroke. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  5. Sleep duration, cardiovascular disease, and proinflammatory biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grandner MA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Michael A Grandner,1,2 Megan R Sands-Lincoln,3 Victoria M Pak,2,4 Sheila N Garland1,5 1Behavioral Sleep Medicine Program, Department of Psychiatry, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, PA, USA; 2Center for Sleep and Circadian Neurobiology, University of Pennsylvania, PA, USA; 3Center for Evidence Based Medicine, Elsevier Inc, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 4Division of Sleep Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, PA, USA; 5Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, PA, USA Abstract: Habitual sleep duration has been associated with cardiometabolic disease, via several mechanistic pathways, but few have been thoroughly explored. One hypothesis is that short and/or long sleep duration is associated with a proinflammatory state, which could increase risk for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. This hypothesis has been largely explored in the context of experimental sleep deprivation studies which have attempted to demonstrate changes in proinflammatory markers following acute sleep loss in the laboratory. Despite the controlled environment available in these studies, samples tend to lack generalization to the population at large and acute sleep deprivation may not be a perfect analog for short sleep. To address these limitations, population based studies have explored associations between proinflammatory markers and habitual sleep duration. This review summarizes what is known from experimental and cross-sectional studies about the association between sleep duration, cardiovascular disease, and proinflammatory biomarkers. First, the association between sleep duration with both morbidity and mortality, with a focus on cardiovascular disease, is reviewed. Then, a brief review of the potential role of proinflammatory markers in cardiovascular disease is presented. The majority of this review details specific findings related to specific

  6. Chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-08-16

    stage renal disease (ESRD) worldwide and accounts for approximately 30 - 50% of all deaths. It is a sobering fact that the risk for premature CVD in a 30-year-old patient with. ESRD is similar to that of a 70 - 80-year-old without ...

  7. Prevalencia de factores de riesgo cardiovascular en ingresantes universitarios Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in first year university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Girotto

    1996-12-01

    édico obrigatório. A prevalência de antecedentes familiares de hipercolesterolemia, hipertensão, diabetes mellitus, obesidade, doenças cárdio-vasculares foi de 27,5%, 42,1%, 26,9%, 27,2% e 42,1%, respectivamente. Oitenta por cento dos alunos reportaram, ao menos, um dos antecedentes familiares estudados. A prevalência de hipertensão (pressão arterial sistólica > 140 mmhg e/ou pressão arterial diastólica 90 mmhg e de hipercolesterolemia ( 210 mg/dl, nos participantes, foi de 7,0% e 14,4%. Observaram-se associações de hipertenasão com índice de massa corporal (IMC, sexo masculino e idade. A prevalência do hábito de fumar foi de 27,1%, não apresentando diferenças entre sexos. O hábito correlacionou-se positivamente com idade e observaram-se diferentes prevalências segundo a carreira escohida. A presença de colesterolemia aumentada correlacionou-se com a idade. O IMC e os antecedentes familiares de obesidade (OR=1,32 IC95%= 1,06 a 1,64 e hipercolesterolemia (OR= 1,38 IC95%= 1,10-1,69. Detectaram-se 3,7% anormalidades no aparelho cardiovascular. Observou-se associação com antecedentes de doença cardíaca familiar. A prevalência de fatores de risco-vasculares representa uma advertência, dada a juventude da população considerada, e mostra a necessidade de insistir em medidas educativas e de promoção de condutas preventivas.The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and their relation to a self-reported family history of disease was examined in 3,357 first year university students of Mar del Plata University (Argentine. The prevalence of family disease was 27.5% for hypercholesterolemia, 42.1% for hypertension, 26.9% for diabetes mellitus, 27.2% for obesity and 42.1% for cardiovascular disease. The percentual of 80.7% of the population surveyed showed at least one of these diseases in their previous family history. The prevalence of hypertension (systolic blood pressure levels 140 mmHg or/and diastolic blood pressure levels 90 mmHg was 7

  8. [New populations at increased cardiovascular risk: Cardiovascular disease in dermatological diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy-Gijón, Elena; Meseguer-Yebra, Carmen; Palacio-Aller, Lucía; Godoy-Rocati, Diego Vicente; Lahoz-Rallo, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The increased cardiovascular risk in some dermatological diseases has been demonstrated in recent decades. Diseases such as psoriasis and systemic lupus erythematosus are currently included in the guidelines for prevention of cardiovascular disease. Other diseases such as androgenic alopecia, polycystic ovary syndrome, hidradenitis suppurativa or lichen planus have numerous studies that point to an increased risk, however, they have not been included in these guidelines. In this article we review the evidence supporting this association, in order to alert the clinician to the need for greater control in cardiovascular risk factors in these patients. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  9. Family aggregation of cardiovascular disease mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silventoinen, Karri; Hjelmborg, Jacob; Möller, Sören

    2017-01-01

    Background: Familial factors play an important role in the variation of risk factors of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), but less is known about how they affect the risk of death from CVD. We estimated familial aggregation of CVD mortality for twins offering the maximum level of risk due to genetic...... and other familial factors. Methods: Altogether, 132 771 twin individuals, including 65 196 complete pairs from Denmark, Finland and Sweden born in 1958 or earlier, participated in this study. During the register-based follow-up, 11 641 deaths occurred from coronary heart disease (CHD), including 6280...

  10. Coffee consumption is not associated with prevalent subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) or the risk of CVD events, in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: results from the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Tracey G; Trejo, Maria Esther Perez; Zeb, Irfan; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C; McClelland, Robyn L; Chung, Raymond T; Budoff, Matthew J

    2017-10-01

    Atherosclerosis and its clinical sequelae represent the leading cause of mortality among patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). While epidemiologic data support the hepatoprotective benefits of coffee in NAFLD, whether coffee improves NAFLD-associated CVD risk is unknown. We examined 3710 ethnically-diverse participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) cohort, without history of known liver disease, and with available coffee data from a validated 120-item food frequency questionnaire. All participants underwent baseline non-contrast cardiac CT from which NAFLD was defined by liver:spleen ratio (L:S0. Major CVD events were defined by the first occurrence of myocardial infarction, cardiac arrest, angina, stroke, or CVD death. We used log-binomial regression to calculate the adjusted prevalence ratio (PR) for CAC>0 by coffee intake and NAFLD status, and events were compared between groups using frequency of events within adjusted Cox proportional hazard regression models. Seventeen percent (N=637) of participants met criteria for NAFLD. NAFLD participants were more likely to have elevated BMI (mean 31.1±5.5kg/m 2 vs. 28.0±5.2kg/m 2 , pcoffee consumption (p=0.97). Among NAFLD participants, coffee consumption was not associated with prevalent, baseline CAC>0 (PR=1.02 [0.98-1.07]). Over 12.8years of follow-up, 93 NAFLD and 415 non-NAFLD participants experienced a CV event. However, coffee intake was not associated with incident CVD events, in either NAFLD (HR=1.05 [0.91-1.21]) or non-NAFLD participants (HR=1.03 [0.97-1.11]). In a large, population-based cohort, coffee consumption was not associated with the prevalence of subclinical CVD, nor did coffee impact the future risk of major CVD events, regardless of underlying NAFLD status. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Exosomes-Based Biomarkers for the Prognosis of Cardiovascular Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bei, Yihua; Yu, Pujiao; Cretoiu, Dragos; Cretoiu, Sanda Maria; Xiao, Junjie

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) have a high prevalence and annually increasing incidence with high mortality and morbidity. Identification of biomarkers with high sensitivity and specificity for assessing the prognosis of CVDs is necessary for optimizing personalized treatment and reducing mortality. Exosomes have been proved to be accessible in nearly all body fluids and they can reflect disease stage or progression. Here we summarized exosomes-based biomarkers for the prognosis of coronary artery diseases, heart failure, stroke, hypertension, cardiac arrhythmia, cardiomyopathy, valvular heart diseases and pulmonary arterial hypertension. If exosome-based biomarkers can achieve additionally benefits as compared to the present prognostic biomarkers remains to be determined and multicenter studies with large cohorts of patients are highly needed.

  12. Cardiovascular disease risk and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease among patients with low health literacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schaik, T. M.; Jørstad, H. T.; Twickler, T. B.; Peters, R. J. G.; Tijssen, J. P. G.; Essink-Bot, M. L.; Fransen, M. P.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To explore the association between health literacy and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and to assess the differential effects by health literacy level of a nurse-coordinated secondary prevention program (NCPP) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods Data were

  13. Heavy Metal Poisoning and Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman M. Alissa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD is an increasing world health problem. Traditional risk factors fail to account for all deaths from CVD. It is mainly the environmental, dietary and lifestyle behavioral factors that are the control keys in the progress of this disease. The potential association between chronic heavy metal exposure, like arsenic, lead, cadmium, mercury, and CVD has been less well defined. The mechanism through which heavy metals act to increase cardiovascular risk factors may act still remains unknown, although impaired antioxidants metabolism and oxidative stress may play a role. However, the exact mechanism of CVD induced by heavy metals deserves further investigation either through animal experiments or through molecular and cellular studies. Furthermore, large-scale prospective studies with follow up on general populations using appropriate biomarkers and cardiovascular endpoints might be recommended to identify the factors that predispose to heavy metals toxicity in CVD. In this review, we will give a brief summary of heavy metals homeostasis, followed by a description of the available evidence for their link with CVD and the proposed mechanisms of action by which their toxic effects might be explained. Finally, suspected interactions between genetic, nutritional and environmental factors are discussed.

  14. The epidemiology of cardiovascular disease in the UK 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Prachi; Wickramasinghe, Kremlin; Williams, Julianne; Rayner, Mike; Townsend, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) presents a significant burden to the UK. This review presents data from nationally representative datasets to provide up-to-date statistics on mortality, prevalence, treatment and costs. Data focus on CVD as a whole, coronary heart disease (International Classification of Diseases (ICD):I20–25) and cerebrovascular disease (ICD:I60–69); however, where available, other cardiovascular conditions are also presented. In 2012, CVD was the most common cause of death in the UK for women (28% of all female deaths), but not for men, where cancer is now the most common cause of death (32% of all male deaths). Mortality from CVD varies widely throughout the UK, with the highest age-standardised CVD death rates in Scotland (347/100 000) and the North of England (320/100 000 in the North West). Prevalence of coronary heart disease is also highest in the North of England (4.5% in the North East) and Scotland (4.3%). Overall, around three times as many men have had a myocardial infarction compared with women. Treatment for CVD is increasing over time, with prescriptions and operations for CVD having substantially increased over the last two decades. The National Health Service in England spent around £6.8 billion on CVD in 2012/2013, the majority of which came from spending on secondary care. Despite significant declines in mortality in the UK, CVD remains a considerable burden, both in terms of health and costs. Both primary and secondary prevention measures are necessary to reduce both the burden of CVD and inequalities in CVD mortality and prevalence. PMID:26041770

  15. An international model to predict recurrent cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Peter W F; D'Agostino, Ralph; Bhatt, Deepak L; Eagle, Kim; Pencina, Michael J; Smith, Sidney C; Alberts, Mark J; Dallongeville, Jean; Goto, Shinya; Hirsch, Alan T; Liau, Chiau-Suong; Ohman, E Magnus; Röther, Joachim; Reid, Christopher; Mas, Jean-Louis; Steg, Ph Gabriel

    2012-07-01

    Prediction models for cardiovascular events and cardiovascular death in patients with established cardiovascular disease are not generally available. Participants from the prospective REduction of Atherothrombosis for Continued Health (REACH) Registry provided a global outpatient population with known cardiovascular disease at entry. Cardiovascular prediction models were estimated from the 2-year follow-up data of 49,689 participants from around the world. A developmental prediction model was estimated from 33,419 randomly selected participants (2394 cardiovascular events with 1029 cardiovascular deaths) from the pool of 49,689. The number of vascular beds with clinical disease, diabetes, smoking, low body mass index, history of atrial fibrillation, cardiac failure, and history of cardiovascular event(s) <1 year before baseline examination increased risk of a subsequent cardiovascular event. Statin (hazard ratio 0.75; 95% confidence interval, 0.69-0.82) and acetylsalicylic acid therapy (hazard ratio 0.90; 95% confidence interval, 0.83-0.99) also were significantly associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular events. The prediction model was validated in the remaining 16,270 REACH subjects (1172 cardiovascular events, 494 cardiovascular deaths). Risk of cardiovascular death was similarly estimated with the same set of risk factors. Simple algorithms were developed for prediction of overall cardiovascular events and for cardiovascular death. This study establishes and validates a risk model to predict secondary cardiovascular events and cardiovascular death in outpatients with established atherothrombotic disease. Traditional risk factors, burden of disease, lack of treatment, and geographic location all are related to an increased risk of subsequent cardiovascular morbidity and cardiovascular mortality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease after preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes van Balen, Veronica Agatha; Spaan, Julia Jeltje; Cornelis, Tom; Spaanderman, Marc Erich August

    2017-06-01

    Preeclampsia (PE), an endothelial disease that affects kidney function during pregnancy, is correlated to an increased future risk of cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease. The Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) 2012 guideline emphasizes the combined role of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and albuminuria in determining the frequency of monitoring of kidney function. In this study we evaluated the prevalence of CKD in women with a history of PE. We investigated how many seemingly healthy women required monitoring of kidney function according to the KDIGO guideline. We included 775 primiparous women with a history of PE. They were at least 4 months postpartum, and had no pre-existing hypertension, diabetes or kidney disease. We estimated GFR by the CKD-Epidemiology equation and urinary albumin loss by albumin creatinine ratio in a 24-h urine collection. Most women, 669 (86.3 %), had a normal GFR and absent albuminuria. Based on the KDIGO guideline, 13.7 % would require at least yearly monitoring of kidney function. Only 1.4 % were classified to be at high risk for kidney function deterioration. Monitoring of kidney function seems relevant for about one in seven women with a history of PE, mainly due to albuminuria. Albuminuria should be evaluated postpartum to identify those women that need further monitoring of kidney function.

  17. Physiological Changes to the Cardiovascular System at High Altitude and Its Effects on Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Callum James; Gavin, Matthew

    2017-06-01

    Riley, Callum James, and Matthew Gavin. Physiological changes to the cardiovascular system at high altitude and its effects on cardiovascular disease. High Alt Med Biol. 18:102-113, 2017.-The physiological changes to the cardiovascular system in response to the high altitude environment are well understood. More recently, we have begun to understand how these changes may affect and cause detriment to cardiovascular disease. In addition to this, the increasing availability of altitude simulation has dramatically improved our understanding of the physiology of high altitude. This has allowed further study on the effect of altitude in those with cardiovascular disease in a safe and controlled environment as well as in healthy individuals. Using a thorough PubMed search, this review aims to integrate recent advances in cardiovascular physiology at altitude with previous understanding, as well as its potential implications on cardiovascular disease. Altogether, it was found that the changes at altitude to cardiovascular physiology are profound enough to have a noteworthy effect on many forms of cardiovascular disease. While often asymptomatic, there is some risk in high altitude exposure for individuals with certain cardiovascular diseases. Although controlled research in patients with cardiovascular disease was largely lacking, meaning firm conclusions cannot be drawn, these risks should be a consideration to both the individual and their physician.

  18. Vascular Aging: Implications for Cardiovascular Disease and Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghebre, Yohannes T; Yakubov, Eduard; Wong, Wing Tak; Krishnamurthy, Prasanna; Sayed, Nazish; Sikora, Andrew G; Bonnen, Mark D

    2017-01-01

    The incidence and prevalence of cardiovascular disease is highest among the elderly, in part, due to deleterious effects of advancing age on the heart and blood vessels. Aging, a known cardiovascular risk factor, is progressively associated with structural and functional changes to the vasculature including hemodynamic disturbance due to increased oxidative stress, premature cellular senescence and impairments in synthesis and/or secretion of endothelium-derived vasoactive molecules. These molecular and physiological changes lead to vessel wall stiffening and thickening, as well as other vascular complications that culminate to loss of vascular tone regulation and endothelial function. Intriguingly, the vessel wall, a biochemically active structure composed of collagen, connective tissue, smooth muscle and endothelial cells, is adversely affected by processes involved in premature or normal aging. Notably, the inner most layer of the vessel wall, the endothelium, becomes senescent and dysfunctional with advancing age. As a result, its ability to release vasoactive molecules such as acetylcholine (ACh), prostacyclin (PGI2), endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF), and nitric oxide (NO) is reduced and the cellular response to these molecules is also impaired. By contrast, the vascular endothelium increases its generation and release of reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen (RNS) species, vasoconstrictors such as endothelin (ET) and angiotensin (AT), and endogenous inhibitors of NO synthases (NOSs) to block NO. This skews the balance of the endothelium in favor of the release of highly tissue reactive and harmful molecules that promote DNA damage, telomere erosion, senescence, as well as stiffened and hardened vessel wall that is prone to the development of hypertension, diabetes, atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular risk factors. This Review discusses the impact of advancing age on cardiovascular health, and highlights the cellular and molecular mechanisms

  19. [Ischemic stroke. Prevalence of cardiovascular causes documented by an extensive cardiovascular workup in 110 patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendriss, L; Khatouri, A

    2012-08-01

    The ischemic cerebrovascular accidents (I CVA) correspond to a pathology widely dominated by atherosclerosis and embolic cardiopathies. Our work aimed to determine the frequency of the cardiovascular diseases among the patients who were previously victims of an I CVA and the interest of the cardiovascular assessment in the etiologic inquest. We led a retrospective study in the cardiology service of the Avicenne military hospital of Marrakech about 110 cases of I CVA between January 2005 and August 2008. The electrocardiogram (ECG), Holter ECG, transthoracic echocardiography and Doppler echography of the cervical vessels were systematically made for all the patients. The transesophageal echocardiography was practice in a few patients. The average age of the patients was 60.8 years old (±12.14) with a male predominance (72%). Ninety-one percent of the patients presented at least one cardiovascular risk factor: hypertension (66.45%), diabetes (41.8%), smoking (35.45%). Cardiovascular antecedents were noted among 18.2% of the patients, the continuous atrial fibrillation comes first (9%). A carotid atheromatous excess was noted in 74 cases of which 24 with a significant plaque. The transesophageal echocardiography made to 13 patients showed a spontaneous echo contrast with a left atrial thrombus in four cases and a left atrial myxoma in one patient. Penetrating artery disease occupies 39%, large artery atherosclerosis 28% and cardiogenic stroke 18%. The cardiovascular assessment is indispensable, and the echocardiography is more interesting in presence of cardiopathy. Its therapeutic repercussion is modest. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  20. Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease: Have all risk factors the same strength?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Timón, Iciar; Sevillano-Collantes, Cristina; Segura-Galindo, Amparo; del Cañizo-Gómez, Francisco Javier

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition that occurs when the body cannot produce enough or effectively use of insulin. Compared with individuals without diabetes, patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have a considerably higher risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and are disproportionately affected by cardiovascular disease. Most of this excess risk is it associated with an augmented prevalence of well-known risk factors such as hypertension, dyslipidaemia and obesity in these patients. However the improved cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients can not be attributed solely to the higher prevalence of traditional risk factors. Therefore other non-traditional risk factors may be important in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cardiovascular disease is increased in type 2 diabetes mellitus subjects due to a complex combination of various traditional and non-traditional risk factors that have an important role to play in the beginning and the evolution of atherosclerosis over its long natural history from endothelial function to clinical events. Many of these risk factors could be common history for both diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease, reinforcing the postulate that both disorders come independently from “common soil”. The objective of this review is to highlight the weight of traditional and non-traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease in the setting of type 2 diabetes mellitus and discuss their position in the pathogenesis of the excess cardiovascular disease mortality and morbidity in these patients. PMID:25126392

  1. Diabetic Cardiovascular Disease Induced by Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosuke Kayama

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among patients with diabetes mellitus (DM. DM can lead to multiple cardiovascular complications, including coronary artery disease (CAD, cardiac hypertrophy, and heart failure (HF. HF represents one of the most common causes of death in patients with DM and results from DM-induced CAD and diabetic cardiomyopathy. Oxidative stress is closely associated with the pathogenesis of DM and results from overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS. ROS overproduction is associated with hyperglycemia and metabolic disorders, such as impaired antioxidant function in conjunction with impaired antioxidant activity. Long-term exposure to oxidative stress in DM induces chronic inflammation and fibrosis in a range of tissues, leading to formation and progression of disease states in these tissues. Indeed, markers for oxidative stress are overexpressed in patients with DM, suggesting that increased ROS may be primarily responsible for the development of diabetic complications. Therefore, an understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms mediated by oxidative stress is crucial to the prevention and treatment of diabetes-induced CVD. The current review focuses on the relationship between diabetes-induced CVD and oxidative stress, while highlighting the latest insights into this relationship from findings on diabetic heart and vascular disease.

  2. Screening for Peripheral Artery Disease and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment with Ankle Brachial Index in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Force Recommendations Screening for Peripheral Artery Disease and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment with Ankle Brachial Index in Adults ... on Screening for Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) and Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Risk Assessment with Ankle Brachial Index (ABI) ...

  3. Prevalence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in the Population of the Area I in the Municipality of Cienfuegos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda María Delgado Acosta

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: since the beginning of the epidemiological transition, there was a prevalence of morbidity and mortality from non communicable diseases, mainly cardiovascular disease. Objective: to identify the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in the population of the Area I in the municipality of Cienfuegos during 2010-2011. Methods: a descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in the population of the Area I in Cienfuegos by means of a complex three-stage equal probability sample of 581 people. The sampling units consisted of districts, areas and sections containing the dwellings where the subjects were chosen. A survey with the following variables was applied: age, sex, marital status, skin color, history of hypertension and diabetes mellitus, smoking, physical activity, food intake (fruits, vegetables and fat, body mass index and waist circumference. Results: 35-44-year age group and female sex predominated, as well as white married individuals. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus and smoking was 6.4% and 28.6%, respectively. Only 26.2% of the respondents were engaged in adequate physical activity. Consumption of fruits was 61.3%. Prevalence of hypertension was 33.8%. Conclusions: The risk factors were more prevalent in females, except for smoking and hypertension; they were more evident with increasing age. Role of hypertension as a tracer condition closely related to cardiovascular risk factors was demonstrated.

  4. Comprehensive metabolomic profiling and incident cardiovascular disease: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Metabolomics is a promising tool of cardiovascular biomarker discovery. We systematically reviewed the literature on comprehensive metabolomic profiling in association with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods and Results: We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE from inception to Janua...

  5. [Cerebral vascular accidents and embolic cardiovascular diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damorou, F; Togbossi, E; Pessinaba, S; Klouvi, Y; Balogou, A; Belo, M; Soussou, B

    2008-01-01

    The cardiopathies occupy a place of choice in CVA (cerebro vascular accident) but in Togo no work have been done in this sector to realize it. Our work had for an objective to determine the prevalence of the association of cardiopathy and CVA (cerebro vascular accident). To determine the prevalence of embologenic cardiopathies. It was about a retrospective study on 91 files on 1102 cases of CVA (cerebro vascular accident) admitted from 1st January 2001 to 31st December 2005 in cardiological and neurological units in CHU Campus Lomé. The prevalence was of 8,25%, the average age was 59,19 years +/- 11,45. The sex ratio was 1,06. The principal affections found were embologenic cardiopathies 89,01% among which we can note troubles of the rhythm (41,75%), Ischaemia cardiopathies (27,47%), The valvulopathies (23,07%), The endocarditis (8,87%). The principal cardiovascular risk factors was arterial hypertension (60,43%), dyslipidémia (51,65%) and alcool (31,87%). The mortality rate was 27,47% and the morbidity rate was (50,55%), The association of the cardiopathies and C.V.A (cerebro vascular accident) constitute a public health problem in Togo. The embologenic cardiopathies occupy in this sector a preponderant place. The early prevention of this association must have for a target surely rhumatismal cardiopathy than arterial hypertension and its risk factors.

  6. Prevalência de fatores de risco para doenças cardiovasculares entre homens de uma população urbana do Sudeste do Brasil Prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in an urban male population in Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Beatriz Braga Dell'Orto Van Eyken

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O monitoramento dos fatores de risco para as doenças cardiovasculares vem sendo indicado em todo o mundo. Nesse sentido, o objetivo do estudo foi estimar a prevalência de tabagismo, sobrepeso/obesidade, atividade física insuficiente, hipertensão arterial e pressão arterial limítrofe entre homens adscritos à Estratégia Saúde da Família em área urbana de Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Região Sudeste do Brasil. Foi realizado um inquérito domiciliar com 217 homens, entre 20 e 49 anos, selecionados por meio de amostragem sistemática baseada em listagem de moradores desta faixa etária. O sobrepeso/obesidade foi o fator de risco de maior freqüência (43,3%; IC95%: 36,6-50,2. Os sedentários e irregularmente ativos fisicamente totalizaram 28% (IC95%: 22,2-34,6. O consumo de cigarros era hábito de 25,3% (IC95%: 19,7-31,7 da população. Foram classificados como hipertensos 24% (IC95%: 18,4-30,2 dos entrevistados e 19,4% (IC95%: 14,3-25,2 com pressão arterial limítrofe. A simultaneidade de dois ou mais fatores de risco foi encontrada em 45,2% da população. A magnitude das prevalências sugere que é preciso intensificar as estratégias de promoção de saúde voltadas para a população masculina.Surveillance of cardiovascular risk factors has been recommended worldwide. The current study aimed to estimate the prevalence of smoking, overweight/obesity, insufficient physical activity, arterial hypertension, and pre-hypertension among men covered by the Family Health Program in urban Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais State, in Southeast Brazil. A household survey was performed with a systematic sample of 217 men 20 to 49 years of age, from a list of residents within this age range. Prevalence of risk factors was high, with overweight/obesity the most frequent (43.3%; 95%CI: 36.6-50.2. Men classified as sedentary or with irregular physical activity totaled 28% (95%CI: 22.2-34.6. Smoking was reported by 25.3% (95%CI: 19.7-31.7. Overt hypertension

  7. Aspirin for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Pignone, Michael; Williams, Craig D.

    2010-01-01

    Aspirin is effective for the prevention of cardiovascular events in patients with a history of vascular disease, as so-called secondary prevention. In general populations with no history of previous myocardial infarction or stroke, aspirin also seems useful for primary prevention of cardiovascular events, although the absolute benefits are smaller than those seen in patients with previous cardiovascular disease. Patients with diabetes mellitus are at an increased risk of cardiovascular events...

  8. Cardiovascular disease in Latin America: the growing epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Lanas; Pamela, Serón; Alejandra, Lanas

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) produce almost a million deaths a year in Latin America (LA), becoming the main cause of death in the last years, and it is estimated that the number of deaths in the region attributable to CVD will increase in the near future. This new epidemic is a consequence of the demographic, economic and social changes observed in LA in recent years. Coronary heart disease and stroke causes 42.5% and 28.8%, respectively of the CVD mortality in the region. Chagas heart involvement and rheumatic heart disease, once a major health problem, are responsible of only 1% of the mortality each. Improving in socioeconomic status, increased life expectancy and high prevalence of risk factors for atherosclerosis have been the major determinants of this marked epidemiologic change. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Cardiovascular disease prevention and life style modifications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudet, M; Daugareil, C; Ferrieres, J

    2012-04-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are mainly caused by atherosclerosis, the development of which is highly dependent on our Western lifestyle. Slowing this pathology depends on the reduction of risk factors such as hypercholesterolemia, high blood pressure, smoking, lack of physical activity, excess weight and diabetes. Drug treatment exists and is very effective, but too often they treat the immediate abnormality such as diabetes, high blood pressure and hypercholesterolemia and not the underlying causes: poor eating habits, lack of physical activity and excess weight. These have a negative impact on endothelial function, oxidative stress, and can trigger inflammation, arrythmias and thrombosis. Cardiovascular prevention must therefore target sedentary lifestyle, excess weight, and favor low-calorie, low-salt food and Mediterranean diet. The way this diet works begins to be understood and goes beyond simple cardiovascular prevention. Therapeutic education holds a growing and complementary role in the Public Health system which should call upon the strengths of all healthcare professionals. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  10. Menopause and cardiovascular disease: the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosano, G M C; Vitale, C; Marazzi, G; Volterrani, M

    2007-02-01

    Menopause is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) because estrogen withdrawal has a detrimental effect on cardiovascular function and metabolism. The menopause compounds many traditional CVD risk factors, including changes in body fat distribution from a gynoid to an android pattern, reduced glucose tolerance, abnormal plasma lipids, increased blood pressure, increased sympathetic tone, endothelial dysfunction and vascular inflammation. Many CVD risk factors have different impacts in men and women. In postmenopausal women, treatment of arterial hypertension and glucose intolerance should be priorities. Observational studies and randomized clinical trials suggest that hormone replacement therapy (HRT) started soon after the menopause may confer cardiovascular benefit. In contrast to other synthetic progestogens used in continuous combined HRTs, the unique progestogen drospirenone has antialdosterone properties. Drospirenone can therefore counteract the water- and sodium-retaining effects of the estrogen component of HRT via the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, which may otherwise result in weight gain and raised blood pressure. As a continuous combined HRT with 17beta-estradiol, drospirenone has been shown to significantly reduce blood pressure in postmenopausal women with elevated blood pressure, but not in normotensive women. Therefore, in addition to relieving climacteric symptoms, drospirenone/17beta-estradiol may offer further benefits in postmenopausal women, such as improved CVD risk profile.

  11. Polypills for the prevention of Cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolte, Dhaval; Aronow, Wilbert S; Banach, Maciej

    2016-11-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) remain the leading cause of death worldwide with an estimated 17.5 million deaths per year. Since its initial conception over a decade ago, the use of cardiovascular polypills has gained increasing momentum as a strategy to lower risk factor levels and prevent CVD. Several new data have emerged including the recent publication of the first outcomes trial using polypills. Areas covered: In this review, the authors summarize the current literature on the safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness of polypills for primary and secondary prevention of CVD, describe the current controversies in this field, and identify important areas for future research. The authors searched PubMed, CENTRAL, and ClinicalTrials.gov from inception till 25 June 2016 using the search term 'polypill.' Expert opinion: Cardiovascular polypills containing aspirin, statin, and one or more anti-hypertensive medications, along with lifestyle interventions, represent an attractive, safe, and cost-effective strategy for primary and secondary prevention of CVD. Future research efforts should focus on identifying patients who will benefit the most from the use of polypills, marketing several polypills with different components and doses, and developing novel regulatory strategies for making polypills more readily available in all countries worldwide.

  12. Targeting the aldosterone pathway in cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Finn; Azizi, Michel; Bauersachs, Johann

    2012-01-01

    Accumulated evidence has demonstrated that aldosterone is a key player in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular (CV) disease. Multiple clinical trials have documented that intervention in the aldosterone pathway can reduce blood pressure and lower albuminuria and improve outcome in patients with heart...... failure or myocardial infarction. Recent studies have unraveled details about the role of aldosterone at the cellular level in CV disease. The relative importance of glucocorticoids and aldosterone in terms of mineralocorticoid receptor activation is currently being debated. Also, studies are addressing...... which aldosterone modulator to use, which timing of treatment to aim for, and in which population to intervene. This review provides an overview of recent developments in the understanding of the role of aldosterone in CV disease, with particular reference to mechanisms and potential targets...

  13. Extracellular vesicles in cardiovascular homeostasis and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutcheson, Joshua D; Aikawa, Elena

    2018-05-01

    Extracellular vesicles have emerged as one of the most important means through which cells interact with each other and the extracellular environment, but extracellular vesicle research remains challenging due to their small size, limited amount of material required for traditional molecular biology assays and inconsistency in the methods of their isolation. The advent of new technologies and standards in the field, however, have led to increased mechanistic insight into extracellular vesicle function. Herein, the latest studies on the role of extracellular vesicles in cardiovascular physiology and disease are discussed. Extracellular vesicles help control cardiovascular homeostasis and remodelling by mediating communication between cells and directing alterations in the extracellular matrix to respond to changes in the environment. The message carried from the parent cell to extracellular space can be intended for both local (within the same tissue) and distal (downstream of blood flow) targets. Pathological cargo loaded within extracellular vesicles could further result in various diseases. On the contrary, new studies indicate that injection of extracellular vesicles obtained from cultured cells into diseased tissues can promote restoration of normal tissue function. Extracellular vesicles are an integral part of cell and tissue function, and harnessing the properties inherent to extracellular vesicles may provide a therapeutic strategy to promote tissue regeneration.

  14. Proteomic and genomic analysis of cardiovascular disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Van Eyk, Jennifer; Dunn, M. J

    2003-01-01

    ... to cardiovascular disease. By exploring the various strategies and technical aspects of both, using examples from cardiac or vascular biology, the limitations and the potential of these methods can be clearly seen. The book is divided into three sections: the first focuses on genomics, the second on proteomics, and the third provides an overview of the importance of these two scientific disciplines in drug and diagnostic discovery. The goal of this book is the transfer of their hard-earned lessons to the growing num...

  15. Cardiovascular metabolic syndrome - an interplay of, obesity, inflammation, diabetes and coronary heart disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rana, J. S.; Nieuwdorp, M.; Jukema, J. W.; Kastelein, J. J. P.

    2007-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is currently one of the biggest causes of morbidity and mortality facing humanity. Such a paradigm shift of disease pattern over the last century has only worsened due to the alarming global prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes. In recent years there is increasing focus

  16. Correlates of preclinical cardiovascular disease in Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Australians: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaw A Andrew

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The high frequency of premature death from cardiovascular disease in indigenous Australians is often attributed to the high prevalence of risk factors, especially type II diabetes mellitus (DM. We evaluated the relationship of ethnicity to atherosclerotic burden, as evidenced by carotid intima-media thickness (IMT, independent of risk factor status. Methods We studied 227 subjects (147 men; 50 ± 13 y: 119 indigenous subjects with (IDM, n = 54, and without DM (InDM, n = 65, 108 Caucasian subjects with (CDM, n = 52, and without DM (CnDM, n = 56. IMT was measured according to standard methods and compared with clinical data and cardiovascular risk factors. Results In subjects both with and without DM, IMT was significantly greater in indigenous subjects. There were no significant differences in gender, body mass index (BMI, systolic blood pressure (SBP, or diastolic blood pressure (DBP between any of the groups, and subjects with DM showed no difference in plasma HbA1c. Cardiovascular risk factors were significantly more prevalent in indigenous subjects. Nonetheless, ethnicity (β = -0.34; p Conclusion Ethnicity appears to be an independent correlate of preclinical cardiovascular disease, even after correction for the high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in indigenous Australians. Standard approaches to control currently known risk factors are vital to reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease, but in themselves may be insufficient to fully address the high prevalence in this population.

  17. SMOKING AS A RISK FACTOR FOR CARDIOVASCULAR AND CEREBROVASCULAR DISEASES: PREVALENCE, IMPACT ON PROGNOSIS, POSSIBLE SMOKING CESSATION STRATEGIES AND THEIR EFFECTIVENESS. Part 2. Advantages of quitting smoking. Strategies to quit smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. D. Ostroumova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The immediate and remote benefits of smoking cessation are considered. Within one year after quitting smoking the ischemic heart disease (IHD risk will be 2 folds lower than the risk in smoking patient. Within 15 years the IHD risk declines to non-smoking population level. After 5-15 years after quitting smoking the risk of stroke also declines to non-smoker risk. Smoking cessation prior to cardio surgical intervention leads to reduction of complications incidence by 41%. Smoking cessation significantly reduces the risk of developing stable and unstable angina, acute myocardial infarction, cardiovascular death, transient ischemic attack, ischemic stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage, peripheral arterial diseases, abdominal aortic aneurysm at any age, in both sexes in comparison to patients who continue to smoke. Smoking cessation is the most cost-effective strategy of cardiovascular disease prevention. Today, the most effective smoking cessation strategy is the identification of smokers and continuous advice on smoking cessation, and offer of the appropriate medication, primarily varenicline. The article contains data from a number of studies showing that varenicline is an effective and safe drug for tobacco dependence treatment, in particular, in patients with acute and chronic cardiovascular disease

  18. Association of peripheral arterial and cardiovascular diseases in familial hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Carolina; Miname, Marcio; Makdisse, Marcia; Kalil Filho, Roberto; Santos, Raul D

    2014-08-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant genetic disease characterized by an elevation in the serum levels of total cholesterol and of low-density lipoproteins (LDL- c). Known to be closely related to the atherosclerotic process, FH can determine the development of early obstructive lesions in different arterial beds. In this context, FH has also been proposed to be a risk factor for peripheral arterial disease (PAD). This observational cross-sectional study assessed the association of PAD with other manifestations of cardiovascular disease (CVD), such as coronary artery and cerebrovascular disease, in patients with heterozygous FH. The diagnosis of PAD was established by ankle-brachial index (ABI) values ≤ 0.90. This study assessed 202 patients (35% of men) with heterozygous FH (90.6% with LDL receptor mutations), mean age of 51 ± 14 years and total cholesterol levels of 342 ± 86 mg /dL. The prevalences of PAD and previous CVD were 17% and 28.2 %, respectively. On multivariate analysis, an independent association between CVD and the diagnosis of PAD was observed (OR = 2.50; 95% CI: 1.004 - 6.230; p = 0.049). Systematic screening for PAD by use of ABI is feasible to assess patients with FH, and it might indicate an increased risk for CVD. However, further studies are required to determine the role of ABI as a tool to assess the cardiovascular risk of those patients.

  19. Association of Peripheral Arterial and Cardiovascular Diseases in Familial Hypercholesterolemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Carolina [Instituto do Coração HCFMUSP, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Miname, Marcio [Instituto do Coração HCFMUSP, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Makdisse, Marcia [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Kalil, Roberto Filho [Instituto do Coração HCFMUSP, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Santos, Raul D., E-mail: rdsf@cardiol.br [Instituto do Coração HCFMUSP, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant genetic disease characterized by an elevation in the serum levels of total cholesterol and of low-density lipoproteins (LDL- c). Known to be closely related to the atherosclerotic process, FH can determine the development of early obstructive lesions in different arterial beds. In this context, FH has also been proposed to be a risk factor for peripheral arterial disease (PAD). This observational cross-sectional study assessed the association of PAD with other manifestations of cardiovascular disease (CVD), such as coronary artery and cerebrovascular disease, in patients with heterozygous FH. The diagnosis of PAD was established by ankle-brachial index (ABI) values ≤ 0.90. This study assessed 202 patients (35% of men) with heterozygous FH (90.6% with LDL receptor mutations), mean age of 51 ± 14 years and total cholesterol levels of 342 ± 86 mg /dL. The prevalences of PAD and previous CVD were 17% and 28.2 %, respectively. On multivariate analysis, an independent association between CVD and the diagnosis of PAD was observed (OR = 2.50; 95% CI: 1.004 - 6.230; p = 0.049). Systematic screening for PAD by use of ABI is feasible to assess patients with FH, and it might indicate an increased risk for CVD. However, further studies are required to determine the role of ABI as a tool to assess the cardiovascular risk of those patients.

  20. Association of Peripheral Arterial and Cardiovascular Diseases in Familial Hypercholesterolemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Carolina; Miname, Marcio; Makdisse, Marcia; Kalil, Roberto Filho; Santos, Raul D.

    2014-01-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant genetic disease characterized by an elevation in the serum levels of total cholesterol and of low-density lipoproteins (LDL- c). Known to be closely related to the atherosclerotic process, FH can determine the development of early obstructive lesions in different arterial beds. In this context, FH has also been proposed to be a risk factor for peripheral arterial disease (PAD). This observational cross-sectional study assessed the association of PAD with other manifestations of cardiovascular disease (CVD), such as coronary artery and cerebrovascular disease, in patients with heterozygous FH. The diagnosis of PAD was established by ankle-brachial index (ABI) values ≤ 0.90. This study assessed 202 patients (35% of men) with heterozygous FH (90.6% with LDL receptor mutations), mean age of 51 ± 14 years and total cholesterol levels of 342 ± 86 mg /dL. The prevalences of PAD and previous CVD were 17% and 28.2 %, respectively. On multivariate analysis, an independent association between CVD and the diagnosis of PAD was observed (OR = 2.50; 95% CI: 1.004 - 6.230; p = 0.049). Systematic screening for PAD by use of ABI is feasible to assess patients with FH, and it might indicate an increased risk for CVD. However, further studies are required to determine the role of ABI as a tool to assess the cardiovascular risk of those patients

  1. Association of Peripheral Arterial and Cardiovascular Diseases in Familial Hypercholesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Pereira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH is an autosomal dominant genetic disease characterized by an elevation in the serum levels of total cholesterol and of low-density lipoproteins (LDL- c. Known to be closely related to the atherosclerotic process, FH can determine the development of early obstructive lesions in different arterial beds. In this context, FH has also been proposed to be a risk factor for peripheral arterial disease (PAD. Objective: This observational cross-sectional study assessed the association of PAD with other manifestations of cardiovascular disease (CVD, such as coronary artery and cerebrovascular disease, in patients with heterozygous FH. Methods: The diagnosis of PAD was established by ankle-brachial index (ABI values ≤ 0.90. This study assessed 202 patients (35% of men with heterozygous FH (90.6% with LDL receptor mutations, mean age of 51 ± 14 years and total cholesterol levels of 342 ± 86 mg /dL. Results: The prevalences of PAD and previous CVD were 17% and 28.2 %, respectively. On multivariate analysis, an independent association between CVD and the diagnosis of PAD was observed (OR = 2.50; 95% CI: 1.004 - 6.230; p = 0.049. Conclusion: Systematic screening for PAD by use of ABI is feasible to assess patients with FH, and it might indicate an increased risk for CVD. However, further studies are required to determine the role of ABI as a tool to assess the cardiovascular risk of those patients.

  2. Cardiovascular Risk Stratification in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome Without Diabetes or Cardiovascular Disease: Usefulness of Metabolic Syndrome Severity Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Walter; Epstein, Teo; Huerín, Melina; Lobo, Lorenzo Martín; Molinero, Graciela; Angel, Adriana; Masson, Gerardo; Millán, Diana; De Francesca, Salvador; Vitagliano, Laura; Cafferata, Alberto; Losada, Pablo

    2017-09-01

    The estimated cardiovascular risk determined by the different risk scores, could be heterogeneous in patients with metabolic syndrome without diabetes or vascular disease. This risk stratification could be improved by detecting subclinical carotid atheromatosis. To estimate the cardiovascular risk measured by different scores in patients with metabolic syndrome and analyze its association with the presence of carotid plaque. Non-diabetic patients with metabolic syndrome (Adult Treatment Panel III definition) without cardiovascular disease were enrolled. The Framingham score, the Reynolds score, the new score proposed by the 2013 ACC/AHA Guidelines and the Metabolic Syndrome Severity Calculator were calculated. Prevalence of carotid plaque was determined by ultrasound examination. A Receiver Operating Characteristic analysis was performed. A total of 238 patients were enrolled. Most patients were stratified as "low risk" by Framingham score (64%) and Reynolds score (70.1%). Using the 2013 ACC/AHA score, 45.3% of the population had a risk ≥7.5%. A significant correlation was found between classic scores but the agreement (concordance) was moderate. The correlation between classical scores and the Metabolic Syndrome Severity Calculator was poor. Overall, the prevalence of carotid plaque was 28.2%. The continuous metabolic syndrome score used in our study showed a good predictive power to detect carotid plaque (area under the curve 0.752). In this population, the calculated cardiovascular risk was heterogenic. The prevalence of carotid plaque was high. The Metabolic Syndrome Severity Calculator showed a good predictive power to detect carotid plaque.

  3. Cardiovascular Disease and Risk in Primary Care Settings in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Ndumele, Chima D.; Baer, Heather J.; Shaykevich, Shimon; Lipsitz, Stuart; Hicks, LeRoi S.

    2011-01-01

    Primary care site may play an important role in cardiovascular disease prevalence; however, the distribution of risk factors and outcomes across care sites is not known. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 21,778 adult participants from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (99-08) using multivariable logistic regression to assess the relationship between site of usual care and disease prevalence. We examine patients’ self-reported history of several chronic conditions (...

  4. Age- and sex-specific prevalence and ten-year risk for cardiovascular disease of all 16 risk factor combinations of the metabolic syndrome - A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moebus Susanne

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Based on the AHA/NHLBI-definition three out of five cardiometabolic traits must be present for the diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome (MetS, resulting in 16 different combination types. The associated cardiovascular risk may however be different and specific combination may be indicative of an increased risk, furthermore little is known to which extent these 16 combinations contribute to the overall prevalence of MetS. Here we assessed the prevalence of all 16 combination types of MetS, analyzed the impact of age and gender on prevalence rates, and estimated the 10-year risk of fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI of each MetS combination type. Methods We used data of the German Metabolic and Cardiovascular Risk Project (GEMCAS, a cross-sectional study, performed during October 2005, including 35,869 participants (aged 18-99 years, 61% women. Age-standardized prevalence and 10-year PROCAM and ESC risk scores for MI were calculated. Results In both men and women the combination with elevated waist-circumference, blood pressure and glucose (WC-BP-GL was the most frequent combination (28%, however a distinct unequal distribution was observed regarding age and sex. Any combination with GL was common in the elderly, whereas any combination with dyslipidemia and without GL was frequent in the younger. Men without MetS had an estimated mean 10-year risk of 4.7% (95%-CI: 4.5%-4.8% for MI (PROCAM, whereas the mean 10-year risk of men with MetS was clearly higher (age-standardized 7.9%; 7.8-8.0%. In women without MetS the mean 10-year risk for MI was 1.1%, in those with MetS 2.3%. The highest impact on an estimated 10-year risk for MI (PROCAM was observed with TG-HDL-GL-BP in both sexes (men 14.7%, women 3.9%. However, we could identify combinations with equal risks of non-fatal and fatal MI compared to participants without MetS. Conclusions We observed large variations in the prevalence of all 16 combination types and their

  5. Childhood antecedents to adult cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfon, Neal; Verhoef, Philip A; Kuo, Alice A

    2012-02-01

    Through research in the prevention and treatment of adult diseases, it has become clear that many adult diseases have their origins in childhood. As illustrated in this review, these antecedents are largely a function of the nutrition, physical activity, and habits of developing children. There is also increasing evidence that chronic and toxic levels of stress can play a significant role not only in the development of mental and behavioral conditions but in the developmental pathways that lead to a number of chronic physical health conditions. Internists, family medicine physicians, and medicine-pediatrics physicians generally are comfortable managing patients with a number of cardiovascular risk factors or conditions. Although pediatric clinical guidelines have recommended universal screening for hypertension since 1977 and targeted screening for dyslipidemia since 1992 and type 2 DM since 2000, this screening is not yet common practice in general pediatrics. As the population of children and youth with risk factors for metabolic syndrome--hypertension, dyslipidemia, and type 2 DM--increases as a result of the obesity epidemic, pediatricians will have to screen routinely, and diagnose and treat these conditions in the primary care setting. Pediatric residency programs and continuing medical education programs will have to provide knowledge and clinical training in the management of these conditions before primary care pediatricians are comfortable treating children and youth with multiple cardiovascular conditions.

  6. Vascular risk factors, cardiovascular disease and restless legs syndrome in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Anke C.; Schürks, Markus; Glynn, Robert J; Buring, Julie E.; Gaziano, J. Michael; Berger, Klaus; Kurth, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies evaluating the association between cardiovascular disease and vascular risk factors with restless legs syndrome showed inconsistent results, especially for the potential relation between various vascular risk factors and restless legs syndrome. We therefore aimed to analyze the relationship between vascular risk factors, prevalent cardiovascular disease and restless legs syndrome. Methods This is a cross-sectional study of 30,262 female health professionals participating in the Women's Health Study (WHS). Restless legs syndrome was defined according to diagnostic criteria of the International Restless Legs Study Group. Information on vascular risk factors (diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, body mass index, alcohol, smoking, exercise, family history of myocardial infarction) was self-reported. Cardiovascular disease events (coronary revascularization, myocardial infarction, stroke) were confirmed by medical record review. Prevalent major cardiovascular disease was defined as non-fatal stroke or non-fatal myocardial infarction. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between vascular risk factors, prevalent cardiovascular disease and restless legs syndrome. Results Of the 30,262 participants (mean age: 63.6 years), 3,624 (12.0%) reported restless legs syndrome. In multivariable-adjusted models, body mass index (OR for BMI ≥35kg/m2: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.17–1.56), diabetes (OR: 1.19, 95%CI: 1.04–1.35), hypercholesterolemia (OR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.09–1.26), smoking status (OR for ≥15 cigarettes/day: 1.41, 95%CI: 1.19–1.66) and exercise (OR for exercise ≥ 4 times/week: 0.84, 95%CI: 0.74–0.95) were associated with restless legs syndrome prevalence. We found no association between prevalent cardiovascular disease (major cardiovascular disease, myocardial infarction, stroke) and restless legs syndrome prevalence. Women who underwent coronary revascularization had a multivariable-adjusted OR of 1.39 (1

  7. Adipose tissue, the skeleton and cardiovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiklund, Peder

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the Western World, although the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) has declined over the last decades. However, obesity, which is one of the most important risk factors for CVD, is increasingly common. Osteoporosis is also on the rise because of an aging population. Based on considerable overlap in the prevalence of CVD and osteoporosis, a shared etiology has been proposed. Furthermore, the possibility of interplay between the skeleton and adipose tissue has received increasing attention the last few years with the discovery that leptin can influence bone metabolism and that osteocalcin can influence adipose tissue. A main aim of this thesis was to investigate the effects of fat mass distribution and bone mineral density on the risk of MI. Using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) we measured 592 men and women for regional fat mass in study I. In study II this was expanded to include 3258 men and women. In study III 6872 men and women had their bone mineral density measured in the total hip and femoral neck using DEXA. We found that a fat mass distribution with a higher proportion of abdominal fat mass was associated with both an adverse risk factor profile and an increased risk of MI. In contrast, a higher gynoid fat mass distribution was associated with a more favorable risk factor profile and a decreased risk of MI, highlighting the different properties of abdominal and gynoid fat depots (study I-II). In study III, we investigated the association of bone mineral density and risk factors shared between CVD and osteoporosis, and risk of MI. We found that lower bone mineral density was associated with hypertension, and also tended to be associated to other CVD risk factors. Low bone mineral density was associated with an increased risk of MI in both men and women, apparently independently of the risk factors studied (study III). In study IV, we investigated 50 healthy, young men to determine if

  8. Adipose tissue, the skeleton and cardiovascular disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiklund, Peder

    2011-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the Western World, although the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) has declined over the last decades. However, obesity, which is one of the most important risk factors for CVD, is increasingly common. Osteoporosis is also on the rise because of an aging population. Based on considerable overlap in the prevalence of CVD and osteoporosis, a shared etiology has been proposed. Furthermore, the possibility of interplay between the skeleton and adipose tissue has received increasing attention the last few years with the discovery that leptin can influence bone metabolism and that osteocalcin can influence adipose tissue. A main aim of this thesis was to investigate the effects of fat mass distribution and bone mineral density on the risk of MI. Using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) we measured 592 men and women for regional fat mass in study I. In study II this was expanded to include 3258 men and women. In study III 6872 men and women had their bone mineral density measured in the total hip and femoral neck using DEXA. We found that a fat mass distribution with a higher proportion of abdominal fat mass was associated with both an adverse risk factor profile and an increased risk of MI. In contrast, a higher gynoid fat mass distribution was associated with a more favorable risk factor profile and a decreased risk of MI, highlighting the different properties of abdominal and gynoid fat depots (study I-II). In study III, we investigated the association of bone mineral density and risk factors shared between CVD and osteoporosis, and risk of MI. We found that lower bone mineral density was associated with hypertension, and also tended to be associated to other CVD risk factors. Low bone mineral density was associated with an increased risk of MI in both men and women, apparently independently of the risk factors studied (study III). In study IV, we investigated 50 healthy, young men to determine if

  9. Prevalence and Cardiovascular Associations of Diabetic Retinopathy and Maculopathy: Results from the Gutenberg Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raum, Philipp; Lamparter, Julia; Ponto, Katharina A; Peto, Tunde; Hoehn, René; Schulz, Andreas; Schneider, Astrid; Wild, Philipp S; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Mirshahi, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of blindness in people of working age. The purpose of this paper is to report the prevalence and cardiovascular associations of diabetic retinopathy and maculopathy (DMac) in Germany. The Gutenberg Health Study (GHS) is a population-based study with 15,010 participants aged between 35 at 74 years from the city of Mainz and the district of Mainz-Bingen. We determined the weighted prevalence of DR and DMac by assessing fundus photographs of persons with diabetes from the GHS data base. Diabetes was defined as HbA1c ≥ 6.5%, known diagnosis diabetes mellitus or known diabetes medication. Furthermore, we analysed the association between DR and cardiovascular risk factors and diseases. Overall, 7.5% (1,124/15,010) of the GHS cohort had diabetes. Of these, 27.7% were unaware of their disease and thus were newly diagnosed by their participation in the GHS. The prevalence of DR and DMac was 21.7% and 2.3%, respectively among patients with diabetes. Vision-threatening disease was present in 5% of the diabetic cohort. In the multivariable analysis DR (all types) was associated with age (Odds Ratio [95% confidence interval]: 0.97 [0.955-0.992]; p = 0.006) arterial hypertension (1.90 [1.190-3.044]; p = 0.0072) and vision-threatening DR with obesity (3.29 [1.504-7.206]; p = 0.0029). DR (all stages) and vision-threatening DR were associated with duration of diabetes (1.09 [1.068-1.114]; pdiabetic retinal disease in Germany [corrected].Prevalence of DR was lower in the GHS compared to East-Asian studies. Associations were found with age, arterial hypertension, obesity, and duration of diabetes mellitus.

  10. Effects of Vegetables on Cardiovascular Diseases and Related Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Yi Tang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have shown that vegetable consumption is inversely related to the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, research has indicated that many vegetables like potatoes, soybeans, sesame, tomatoes, dioscorea, onions, celery, broccoli, lettuce and asparagus showed great potential in preventing and treating cardiovascular diseases, and vitamins, essential elements, dietary fibers, botanic proteins and phytochemicals were bioactive components. The cardioprotective effects of vegetables might involve antioxidation; anti-inflammation; anti-platelet; regulating blood pressure, blood glucose, and lipid profile; attenuating myocardial damage; and modulating relevant enzyme activities, gene expression, and signaling pathways as well as some other biomarkers associated to cardiovascular diseases. In addition, several vegetables and their bioactive components have been proven to protect against cardiovascular diseases in clinical trials. In this review, we analyze and summarize the effects of vegetables on cardiovascular diseases based on epidemiological studies, experimental research, and clinical trials, which are significant to the application of vegetables in prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  11. Obstructive sleep apnea and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, James M; Somers, Virend K

    2004-08-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common medical condition that occurs in approximately 5% to 15% of the population. The pathophysiology of OSA is characterized by repetitive occlusions of the posterior pharynx during sleep that obstruct the airway, followed by oxyhemoglobin desaturation, persistent inspiratory efforts against the occluded airway, and termination by arousal from sleep. Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with daytime sleepiness and fatigue, likely due to fragmented sleep from recurrent arousals. Substantial evidence shows that patients with OSA have an increased incidence of hypertension compared with individuals without OSA and that OSA is a risk factor for the development of hypertension. Recent studies show that OSA may be implicated in stroke and transient ischemic attacks. Obstructive sleep apnea appears to be associated with coronary heart disease, heart failure, and cardiac arrhythmias. Pulmonary hypertension may be associated with OSA, especially in patients with preexisting pulmonary disease. Although the exact cause that links OSA with cardiovascular disease is unknown, there is evidence that OSA is associated with a group of proinflammatory and prothrombotic factors that have been identified to be important in the development of atherosclerosis. Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with increased daytime and nocturnal sympathetic activity. Autonomic abnormalities seen in patients with OSA include increased resting heart rate, decreased R-R interval variability, and increased blood pressure variability. Both atherosclerosis and OSA are associated with endothelial dysfunction, increased C-reactive protein, interleukin 6, fibrinogen, and plasminogen activator inhibitor, and reduced fibrinolytic activity. Obstructive sleep apnea has been associated with enhanced platelet activity and aggregation. Leukocyte adhesion and accumulation on endothelial cells are common in both OSA and atherosclerosis. Clinicians should be aware that OSA may be

  12. Anti-inflammatory Nanomedicine for Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunsuke Katsuki

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery disease, in the development of which inflammation mediated by innate immune cells plays a critical role, is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins are a widely used lipid-lowering drug that has lipid-independent vasculoprotective effects, such as improvement of endothelial dysfunction, antioxidant properties, and inhibitory effects on inflammation. Despite recent advances in lipid-lowering therapy, clinical trials of statins suggest that anti-inflammatory therapy beyond lipid-lowering therapy is indispensible to further reduce cardiovascular events. One possible therapeutic option to the residual risk is to directly intervene in the inflammatory process by utilizing a nanotechnology-based drug delivery system (nano-DDS. Various nano-sized materials are currently developed as DDS, including micelles, liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles, dendrimers, carbon nanotubes, and metallic nanoparticles. The application of nano-DDS to coronary artery disease is a feasible strategy since the inflammatory milieu enhances incorporation of nano-sized materials into mononuclear phagocytic system and permeability of target lesions, which confers nano-DDS on “passive-targeting” property. Recently, we have developed a polymeric nanoparticle-incorporating statin to maximize its anti-inflammatory property. This statin nanoparticle has been tested in various disease models, including plaque destabilization and rupture, myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, and ventricular remodeling after acute myocardial infarction, and its clinical application is in progress. In this review, we present current development of DDS and future perspective on the application of anti-inflammatory nanomedicine to treat life-threatening cardiovascular diseases.

  13. Patients with psoriasis have an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlehoff, Ole; Gislason, Gunnar; Lindhardsen, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic immunoinflammatory disease that affects 2-3% of the population and shares pathophysiologic mechanisms and risk factors with cardiovascular diseases. Studies have suggested psoriasis as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and Danish guidelines...... on cardiovascular risk factor modification in patients with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis have recently been published. We provide a short review of the current evidence and the Danish guidelines....

  14. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in pericardial diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francone Marco

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The pericardium and pericardial diseases in particular have received, in contrast to other topics in the field of cardiology, relatively limited interest. Today, despite improved knowledge of pathophysiology of pericardial diseases and the availability of a wide spectrum of diagnostic tools, the diagnostic challenge remains. Not only the clinical presentation may be atypical, mimicking other cardiac, pulmonary or pleural diseases; in developed countries a shift for instance in the epidemiology of constrictive pericarditis has been noted. Accurate decision making is crucial taking into account the significant morbidity and mortality caused by complicated pericardial diseases, and the potential benefit of therapeutic interventions. Imaging herein has an important role, and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR is definitely one of the most versatile modalities to study the pericardium. It fuses excellent anatomic detail and tissue characterization with accurate evaluation of cardiac function and assessment of the haemodynamic consequences of pericardial constraint on cardiac filling. This review focuses on the current state of knowledge how CMR can be used to study the most common pericardial diseases.

  15. Cardiovascular Diseases in HIV-infected Subjects (HIV-HEART Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    Detection of Frequency, Severity and Progression of Cardiovascular Diseases in Patients With HIV-infection.; Effect on Cardiovascular Risk and Life Quality by Age, Gender, Classic Cardiovascular Risk Factors,; HIV-specific Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Cardiovascular Medication, Antiretroviral Medication

  16. Reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease in older women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-09-12

    Sep 12, 2005 ... as regards the younger woman in early menopause. Until more data is available in this regard, the main focus of prevention should be on interventions to decrease risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Introduction. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) includes hypertension, coronary heart disease. (CHD) ...

  17. Diet, nutrition and the prevention of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reddy, K.S.; Katan, M.B.

    2004-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are growing contributors to global disease burdens, with epidemics of CVD advancing across many regions of the world which are experiencing a rapid health transition. Diet and nutrition have been extensively investigated as risk factors for major cardiovascular diseases

  18. Endemic Cardiovascular Diseases of the Poorest Billion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Gene F; Mayosi, Bongani M; Mocumbi, Ana O; Miranda, J Jaime; Ezzati, Majid; Jain, Yogesh; Robles, Gisela; Benjamin, Emelia J; Subramanian, S V; Bukhman, Gene

    2016-06-14

    The poorest billion people are distributed throughout the world, though most are concentrated in rural sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) data can be sparse in low- and middle-income countries beyond urban centers. Despite this urban bias, CVD registries from the poorest countries have long revealed a predominance of nonatherosclerotic stroke, hypertensive heart disease, nonischemic and Chagas cardiomyopathies, rheumatic heart disease, and congenital heart anomalies, among others. Ischemic heart disease has been relatively uncommon. Here, we summarize what is known about the epidemiology of CVDs among the world's poorest people and evaluate the relevance of global targets for CVD control in this population. We assessed both primary data sources, and the 2013 Global Burden of Disease Study modeled estimates in the world's 16 poorest countries where 62% of the population are among the poorest billion. We found that ischemic heart disease accounted for only 12% of the combined CVD and congenital heart anomaly disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in the poorest countries, compared with 51% of DALYs in high-income countries. We found that as little as 53% of the combined CVD and congenital heart anomaly burden (1629/3049 DALYs per 100 000) was attributed to behavioral or metabolic risk factors in the poorest countries (eg, in Niger, 82% of the population among the poorest billion) compared with 85% of the combined CVD and congenital heart anomaly burden (4439/5199 DALYs) in high-income countries. Further, of the combined CVD and congenital heart anomaly burden, 34% was accrued in people under age 30 years in the poorest countries, while only 3% is accrued under age 30 years in high-income countries. We conclude although the current global targets for noncommunicable disease and CVD control will help diminish premature CVD death in the poorest populations, they are not sufficient. Specifically, the current framework (1) excludes deaths of

  19. New insights about vitamin d and cardiovascular disease: a narrative review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGreevy, Cora

    2012-02-01

    The worsening worldwide trend toward nutritional insufficiency and the emerging knowledge of the nonhormonal actions of vitamin D and its metabolites have increased interest in the synthesis, metabolism, and action of vitamin D. Vitamin D deficiency has been linked with hypertension, myocardial infarction, and stroke, as well as other cardiovascular-related diseases, such as diabetes, congestive heart failure, peripheral vascular disease, atherosclerosis, and endothelial dysfunction. This review discusses the physiology and definition of vitamin D deficiency, evaluates the worldwide prevalence of vitamin D deficiency, and discusses recent evidence for the association between hypovitaminosis D and cardiovascular disease. Few randomized, controlled trials have evaluated the effect of vitamin D replacement on cardiovascular outcomes, and the results have been inconclusive or contradictory. Carefully designed randomized, controlled trials are essential to evaluate the role of vitamin D supplementation in reducing cardiovascular disease.

  20. Clinical, Diagnostic, and Therapeutic Implications in Psoriasis Associated With Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanad, C; González-Parra, E; Rivera, R; Carrascosa, J M; Daudén, E; Olveira, A; Botella-Estrada, R

    2017-11-01

    In recent years the concept of psoriasis as a systemic disease has gained acceptance due to its association with numerous comorbid conditions, particularly atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Several studies have shown that patients with psoriasis, especially younger patients and those with more severe forms of psoriasis or with psoriatic arthritis, have a higher prevalence of risk factors and metabolic syndrome, as well as an increased risk of major cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular disease, and peripheral arterial disease. Furthermore, it remains unclear which of the current treatments might be more effective in reducing cardiovascular risk in these patients. It is therefore important for dermatologists to be aware of this increased risk, to be able to detect modifiable risk factors early and, when appropriate, refer patients to other specialists for the prevention of major cardiovascular events. Copyright © 2017 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Women in Saudi Arabia and the Prevalence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshaikh, Mashael K; Filippidis, Filippos T; Baldove, Juren P; Majeed, Azeem; Rawaf, Salman

    2016-01-01

    Background . Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of death in Saudi Arabia. Saudi women in particular are more susceptible as there are sociocultural restrictions on female physical activities that may lead to high prevalence of CVD risks, especially obesity, and physical inactivity. This study aims to systematically review the published articles related to the prevalence of CVD risk among women in Saudi Arabia. The search strategy covers all published articles that assess the risk factor of CVD in Saudi Arabia from January 2000 to December 2015, using the following sources: Medline, Embase, and PsycINFO. A total of 61 studies were included. Results. Prevalence among Saudi women of smoking ranged from 1.1% to 9.1%, hypertension was 21.8%, diabetes ranged from 9.6% to 27.6%, overweight was 27%, and obesity was 40.23%, and physical inactivity ranged from 53.2% to 98.1%. Hypercholesterolemia prevalence on Saudi women on average was 24.5%, while metabolic syndrome ranged from 13.6% to 40.3%. Conclusion . The prevalence of CVD risk factors is high among women in Saudi Arabia especially in obesity and physical inactivity. Public health authorities must implement solutions from a gender specific aspect to reverse the trend and decrease the prevalence of CVDs among Saudi women.

  2. Plasma proteomics to identify biomarkers - Application to cardiovascular diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Hans Christian; Overgaard, Martin; Melholt Rasmussen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    There is an unmet need for new cardiovascular biomarkers. Despite this only few biomarkers for the diagnosis or screening of cardiovascular diseases have been implemented in the clinic. Thousands of proteins can be analysed in plasma by mass spectrometry-based proteomics technologies. Therefore......, this technology may therefore identify new biomarkers that previously have not been associated with cardiovascular diseases. In this review, we summarize the key challenges and considerations, including strategies, recent discoveries and clinical applications in cardiovascular proteomics that may lead...... to the discovery of novel cardiovascular biomarkers....

  3. The North Karelia lessons for prevention of cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiina Laatikainen

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: As a result of the high cardiovascular disease (CVD rates in Finland in late 1960’s, which became a source of national concern, a major community based programme for CVD prevention called the North Karelia project was established. Aim: The aim of the project was to carry out a programme of comprehensive community based interventions to reduce coronary heart disease (CHD mortality and morbidity.

    Methods: Using lifestyle modification methods and strategies for environmental change the programme aimed to reduce three main risk factors: smoking, elevated blood cholesterol and blood pressure. Several intervention settings and strategies in the community were used.

    Results: Since the 1970’s the CHD mortality in North Karelia has declined by more than 80%. Major reductions have been seen across the main three cardiovascular risk factors. Among both men and women, total serum cholesterol levels within the population declined by almost 20% and systolic blood pressure by about 10%. Smoking among men decreased from 52% to 33%, while among women a slight increase in smoking prevalence was recorded.

    Conclusions: The North Karelia project has shown that a comprehensive, determined, theory-based community program can have a meaningful and positive effect on risk factors and lifestyles. Furthermore, these changes are associated with favorable changes in chronic disease rates and the health of the population.

  4. [Association between metabolic syndrome and the 10 years mortality of cerebro-cardiovascular diseases in the senile population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Meng-meng; Pan, Chang-Yu; Tian, Hui; Liu, Min; Su, Hai-yan

    2008-02-01

    To assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) and its association with mortality of cerebro-cardiovascular diseases in senile population. Data were collected from 1926 people aged 60 and over, who took part in routine health examination in our hospital from 1996 to 1997. All subjects were followed up for 10 years. MS was diagnosed by using the definition recommended by Chinese Diabetic Society in 2004. Cox-proportional hazards models were used in survival analyses and to calculate the relative risk (RR) of cerebro-cardiovascular diseases mortality. The prevalence of MS was 25.03% (n = 482, Group 2) in this population. The 10 year mortality of cerebro-cardiovascular diseases was significantly higher (6.82/1000-person year vs. 2.55/1000-person year, P cerebro-cardiovascular diseases mortality was 2.52 (95% CI 1.367 - 4.661, P cerebro-cardiovascular diseases.

  5. Controversies and evidence for cardiovascular disease in the diverse Hispanic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Palma M; Chandra, Venita; Escobar, Guillermo A; Robbins, Nicholas; Rowe, Vincent; Macsata, Robyn

    2018-03-01

    Hispanics account for approximately 17% of the U.S. They are one of the fastest growing racial/ethnic groups, second only to Asians. This heterogeneous population has diverse socioeconomic conditions, making the prevention, diagnosis, and management of vascular disease difficult. This paper discusses the cultural, racial, and social aspects of the Hispanic community in the United States and assesses how they affect vascular disease within this population. Furthermore, it explores risk factors, medical and surgical treatments, and outcomes of vascular disease in the Hispanic population; generational evolution of these conditions; and the phenomenon called the Hispanic paradox. A systematic search of the literature was performed to identify all English-language publications from 1991 to 2014 using PubMed, which draws from the National Institutes of Health and U.S. National Library of Medicine, with the words "cardiovascular disease," "prevalence," "vascular," and "Hispanic." An additional search was performed using "cardiovascular disease and Mexico," "cardiovascular disease and Cuba," "cardiovascular disease and Puerto Rico," and "cardiovascular disease and Latin America" as well as for complications, management, outcomes, surgery, vascular disease, and Hispanic paradox. The resulting publications were queried for generational data (spanning multiple well-defined age groups) regarding cardiovascular disease, and cross-references were obtained from their bibliographies. Results are segmented by country of origin. Compared with non-Hispanic whites, Hispanics face higher risks of cardiovascular diseases because of a high prevalence of high blood pressure, obesity, diabetes mellitus, and ischemic stroke. However, the incidence of peripheral arterial disease and carotid disease appears to be significantly lower than in whites. The Hispanic paradox (lower mortality in spite of higher cardiovascular risk factors) may relate to challenges in ascribing life expectancy and

  6. risk factors for cardiovascular diseases among diabetic patients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    BACKGROUND: Studies on cardiovascular risk factors among diabetic persons in Ethiopia are lacking. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of the cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, obesity, physical inactivity .... 30 patients, training was given to data collectors and supervisors on the data ...

  7. Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Diseases among Diabetic Patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Studies on cardiovascular risk factors among diabetic persons in Ethiopia are lacking. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of the cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, obesity, physical inactivity, dyslipidemia and smoking) among diabetic patients at the diabetic clinic of Jimma ...

  8. Prevalence of periodontal disease, its association with systemic diseases and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazir, Muhammad Ashraf

    2017-01-01

    Periodontal diseases are prevalent both in developed and developing countries and affect about 20-50% of global population. High prevalence of periodontal disease in adolescents, adults, and older individuals makes it a public health concern. Several risk factors such as smoking, poor oral hygiene, diabetes, medication, age, hereditary, and stress are related to periodontal diseases. Robust evidence shows the association of periodontal diseases with systemic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Periodontal disease is likely to cause 19% increase in the risk of cardiovascular disease, and this increase in relative risk reaches to 44% among individuals aged 65 years and over. Type 2 diabetic individuals with severe form of periodontal disease have 3.2 times greater mortality risk compared with individuals with no or mild periodontitis. Periodontal therapy has been shown to improve glycemic control in type 2 diabetic subjects. Periodontitis is related to maternal infection, preterm birth, low birth weight, and preeclampsia. Oral disease prevention strategies should be incorporated in chronic systemic disease preventive initiatives to curtail the burden of disease in populations. The reduction in the incidence and prevalence of periodontal disease can reduce its associated systemic diseases and can also minimize their financial impact on the health-care systems. It is hoped that medical, dental practitioners, and other health-care professionals will get familiar with perio-systemic link and risk factors, and need to refer to the specialized dental or periodontal care. PMID:28539867

  9. Prevalence of periodontal disease, its association with systemic diseases and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazir, Muhammad Ashraf

    2017-01-01

    Periodontal diseases are prevalent both in developed and developing countries and affect about 20-50% of global population. High prevalence of periodontal disease in adolescents, adults, and older individuals makes it a public health concern. Several risk factors such as smoking, poor oral hygiene, diabetes, medication, age, hereditary, and stress are related to periodontal diseases. Robust evidence shows the association of periodontal diseases with systemic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Periodontal disease is likely to cause 19% increase in the risk of cardiovascular disease, and this increase in relative risk reaches to 44% among individuals aged 65 years and over. Type 2 diabetic individuals with severe form of periodontal disease have 3.2 times greater mortality risk compared with individuals with no or mild periodontitis. Periodontal therapy has been shown to improve glycemic control in type 2 diabetic subjects. Periodontitis is related to maternal infection, preterm birth, low birth weight, and preeclampsia. Oral disease prevention strategies should be incorporated in chronic systemic disease preventive initiatives to curtail the burden of disease in populations. The reduction in the incidence and prevalence of periodontal disease can reduce its associated systemic diseases and can also minimize their financial impact on the health-care systems. It is hoped that medical, dental practitioners, and other health-care professionals will get familiar with perio-systemic link and risk factors, and need to refer to the specialized dental or periodontal care.

  10. Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease in the Elderly in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herng-Chia Chiu

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The major objective of the present study was to identify biologic and behavioral risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD in the elderly population in Taiwan. It is hypothesized that the selected risk factors are significantly associated with the prevalence of CVD. Data came from a nationwide geriatric survey in 1991. Stratified proportional sampling was used to recruit 2,600 subjects. These were evaluated by family physicians working for the Departments of Family Medicine at four medical centers in four major cities in Taiwan. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations between risk factors and the prevalence of CVD. The prevalence of CVD was 38.31%. Patients with CVD consistently had higher values for each selected risk factor except high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C and glucose concentrations. The findings also indicated that hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL-C concentration, ex-drinking status, and overweight were significantly associated with the prevalence of CVD among the elderly in Taiwan. The findings not only confirm the risk factors for CVD, but also invite more attention to be given to the importance of biologic and behavioral risk factors in CVD.

  11. Knowledge of cardiovascular disease in Turkish undergraduate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badir, Aysel; Tekkas, Kader; Topcu, Serpil

    2015-10-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the number one cause of death worldwide. However, there is not enough data exploring student nurses' understanding, knowledge, and awareness of cardiovascular disease. To investigate knowledge of cardiovascular disease and its risk factors among undergraduate nursing students, with an emphasis on understanding of cardiovascular disease as the primary cause of mortality and morbidity, both in Turkey and worldwide. This cross-sectional survey assessed 1138 nursing students enrolled in nursing schools in Istanbul, Turkey. Data were collected using the Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Knowledge Level (CARRF-KL) scale and questions from the Individual Characteristics Form about students' gender, age, level of education, and family cardiovascular health history, as well as smoking and exercise habits. Respondents demonstrated a high level of knowledge about cardiovascular disease, with years of education (p students were not aware that cardiovascular disease is the primary cause of mortality and morbidity in Turkey and worldwide. The majority of the respondents' body mass index (87%) and waist circumference values (females: 90.3%, males: 94.7%) were in the normal range and most were non-smokers (83.7%). However, more than half of the students did not exercise regularly and had inadequate dietary habits. Although students were knowledgeable about cardiovascular disease and associated risk factors, there were significant gaps in their knowledge; these should be addressed through improved nursing curricula. While students were generally healthy, they could improve their practice of health-promoting behaviors. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  12. Thyroid functional disease: an under-recognized cardiovascular risk factor in kidney disease patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Connie M.; Brent, Gregory A.; Kovesdy, Csaba P.; Soldin, Offie P.; Nguyen, Danh; Budoff, Matthew J.; Brunelli, Steven M.; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid functional disease, and in particular hypothyroidism, is highly prevalent among chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. In the general population, hypothyroidism is associated with impaired cardiac contractility, endothelial dysfunction, atherosclerosis and possibly higher cardiovascular mortality. It has been hypothesized that hypothyroidism is an under-recognized, modifiable risk factor for the enormous burden of cardiovascular disease and death in CKD and ESRD, but this has been difficult to test due to the challenge of accurate thyroid functional assessment in uremia. Low thyroid hormone levels (i.e. triiodothyronine) have been associated with adverse cardiovascular sequelae in CKD and ESRD patients, but these metrics are confounded by malnutrition, inflammation and comorbid states, and hence may signify nonthyroidal illness (i.e. thyroid functional test derangements associated with underlying ill health in the absence of thyroid pathology). Thyrotropin is considered a sensitive and specific thyroid function measure that may more accurately classify hypothyroidism, but few studies have examined the clinical significance of thyrotropin-defined hypothyroidism in CKD and ESRD. Of even greater uncertainty are the risks and benefits of thyroid hormone replacement, which bear a narrow therapeutic-to-toxic window and are frequently prescribed to CKD and ESRD patients. In this review, we discuss mechanisms by which hypothyroidism adversely affects cardiovascular health; examine the prognostic implications of hypothyroidism, thyroid hormone alterations and exogenous thyroid hormone replacement in CKD and ESRD; and identify areas of uncertainty related to the interplay between hypothyroidism, cardiovascular disease and kidney disease requiring further investigation. PMID:24574542

  13. Cardiovascular profile in critically ill elderly medical patients: prevalence, mortality and length of stay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchades, Ramón; González, Begoña; Contreras, Mar; Gullón, Alejandra; de Miguel, Rosa; Martín, Daniel; Gutiérrez, Carlos; Navarro, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Data are demonstrating the increase in utilization of critical care by the elderly. Around 11% of ICU patients are ≥80years-old. An observational retrospective study was conducted between 2003 and 2011, including elderly patients (≥80years old) admitted from medical services to the intensive care unit (ICU) in a tertiary university hospital. The final sample size was N=202. Mortality rates were: ICU 34.1%, in-hospital 44% and 1-year cumulative mortality 55.4% (20.4% for hospital survivors). Multivariate analysis showed that APACHE II score: OR 1.10, 95% CI (1.03-1.18), SAPS II score: OR 1.03, 95% CI (1.01-1.06), a score Cruz Roja Hospital mental scale: 0.51 OR, 95% CI (0.01-0.57) and ICU admission for cardiovascular disease: OR 5.05, 95% CI (1.98-12.84) were independently associated with mortality ICU. Factors independently associated with 1-year mortality were: dyslipidemia OR 7.25 (1.47-35.60), chronic kidney failure OR 13.23, 95% CI (2.28-76.6), stroke OR 10.44, 95% CI (2.26-48.25) and antihypertensive treatment OR 0.08, 95% CI (0.01-0.48). In multiple linear regression, ICU length of stay was associated with mechanical ventilation B coefficient 6.41, 95% CI (1.18-11.64) and in-hospital length of stay was related to age: B coefficient -2.17, 95% CI (-4.02 to -0.33). Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular disease was high, and basal cardiovascular treatment was underused. Primary diagnosis for cardiovascular disease at ICU admission should be assessed as predictor of ICU mortality. Intensifying cardiovascular basal treatment could decrease 1-year mortality. Cardiovascular profile did not show an effect on in-hospital mortality and length of stay. Copyright © 2014 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Nutritional recommendations for cardiovascular disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilat-Adar, Sigal; Sinai, Tali; Yosefy, Chaim; Henkin, Yaakov

    2013-09-17

    Lifestyle factors, including nutrition, play an important role in the etiology of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD). This position paper, written by collaboration between the Israel Heart Association and the Israel Dietetic Association, summarizes the current, preferably latest, literature on the association of nutrition and CVD with emphasis on the level of evidence and practical recommendations. The nutritional information is divided into three main sections: dietary patterns, individual food items, and nutritional supplements. The dietary patterns reviewed include low carbohydrate diet, low-fat diet, Mediterranean diet, and the DASH diet. Foods reviewed in the second section include: whole grains and dietary fiber, vegetables and fruits, nuts, soy, dairy products, alcoholic drinks, coffee and caffeine, tea, chocolate, garlic, and eggs. Supplements reviewed in the third section include salt and sodium, omega-3 and fish oil, phytosterols, antioxidants, vitamin D, magnesium, homocysteine-reducing agents, and coenzyme Q10.

  15. Nutritional Recommendations for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaakov Henkin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Lifestyle factors, including nutrition, play an important role in the etiology of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD. This position paper, written by collaboration between the Israel Heart Association and the Israel Dietetic Association, summarizes the current, preferably latest, literature on the association of nutrition and CVD with emphasis on the level of evidence and practical recommendations. The nutritional information is divided into three main sections: dietary patterns, individual food items, and nutritional supplements. The dietary patterns reviewed include low carbohydrate diet, low-fat diet, Mediterranean diet, and the DASH diet. Foods reviewed in the second section include: whole grains and dietary fiber, vegetables and fruits, nuts, soy, dairy products, alcoholic drinks, coffee and caffeine, tea, chocolate, garlic, and eggs. Supplements reviewed in the third section include salt and sodium, omega-3 and fish oil, phytosterols, antioxidants, vitamin D, magnesium, homocysteine-reducing agents, and coenzyme Q10.

  16. Nutritional Recommendations for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilat-Adar, Sigal; Sinai, Tali; Yosefy, Chaim; Henkin, Yaakov

    2013-01-01

    Lifestyle factors, including nutrition, play an important role in the etiology of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD). This position paper, written by collaboration between the Israel Heart Association and the Israel Dietetic Association, summarizes the current, preferably latest, literature on the association of nutrition and CVD with emphasis on the level of evidence and practical recommendations. The nutritional information is divided into three main sections: dietary patterns, individual food items, and nutritional supplements. The dietary patterns reviewed include low carbohydrate diet, low-fat diet, Mediterranean diet, and the DASH diet. Foods reviewed in the second section include: whole grains and dietary fiber, vegetables and fruits, nuts, soy, dairy products, alcoholic drinks, coffee and caffeine, tea, chocolate, garlic, and eggs. Supplements reviewed in the third section include salt and sodium, omega-3 and fish oil, phytosterols, antioxidants, vitamin D, magnesium, homocysteine-reducing agents, and coenzyme Q10. PMID:24067391

  17. [Psychopharmacotherapy in patients with cardiovascular diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, J; Lange-Asschenfeldt, C; Hiemke, C; Kahl, K G

    2012-11-01

    Increased cardiometabolic morbidity and increased overall mortality has been observed in patients with severe mental disorders. Therefore, cardiometabolic safety is an important issue in the treatment of patients with psychiatric disorders, in particular in patients with comorbid cardiometabolic diseases. Frequent adverse side effects include disturbances of lipid and glucose metabolism, body weight changes and alterations of the QTc interval. Dependent on the particular substance used and on factors concerning individual vulnerability, these side effects vary in relative frequency. Therefore, regular monitoring is recommended including ECG. Furthermore, interactions between different medicaments may occur, either leading to enhanced or decreased drug concentrations. Prior to psychopharmacological treatment, proper cardiological treatment is recommended. The management of cardiovascular risks under psychopharmacology requires interdisciplinary cooperation between the cardiologist, general practitioner and psychiatrist.

  18. Hp: an inflammatory indicator in cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Karen L; Vigerust, David J

    2016-07-01

    Over the past decade significant advancement has occurred in the biological and pathological role that Hp has in cardiovascular disease. Hp is an acute-phase protein with a role in the neutralization and clearance of free heme. Iron has tremendous potential for initiating vascular oxidation, inflammation and exacerbating coronary atherosclerosis. Hp genotype has been linked as a prognostic biomarker of acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, restenosis and cardiac transplant rejection. The increased understanding of Hp as a biomarker has provided new insights into the mechanisms of inflammation after cardiac injury and support the concept that Hp is not only an important antioxidant in vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis, but also an enhancer of inflammation in cardiac transplant.

  19. Does first line antiretroviral therapy increase the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in Indian patients?: A cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, R A B; Rupali, P; Abraham, O C; Kattula, D

    2013-01-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is associated with a myriad of metabolic complications which are potential cardiovascular risk factors. Early detection of these risk factors could help in alleviating morbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients on ART. To study the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in patients on a combination of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and non-NRTIs (NNRTIs) - the standard combination first line ART regimen used in tertiary referral center. The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in HIV infected subjects with stage 1t disease on standard first line ART for at least 1 year, HIV infected subjects with stage 1 disease and not on ART and HIV negative subjects was assessed. The study was a cross-sectional study design. Basic demographic data was collected and patients were examined for anthropometric data and blood was collected for analysis of blood glucose, serum lipids, and fasting insulin levels. Chi-square test was used to calculate significance. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 16.0 was used for data analysis. The prevalence of hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia was higher in the patients on ART when compared to patients not on ART (PART and those not on ART. First line ART is associated with increased prevalence of dyslipidemia. Early detection and treatment of dyslipidemia should help in reducing the cardiovascular morbidity in patients on ART.

  20. DETERMINING CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE RISK IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CHILDREN:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate E. Reed

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available At least 50% of children have one or more cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factor. We aimed to 1 determine the prevalence of CVD risk factors in a sample of Canadian children, and 2 create a Healthy Heart Score that could be used in a school setting, to identify children with a greater number and severity of CVD risk factors. Children (n = 242, 122M, 120F, aged 9-11 years were assessed for cardiovascular fitness, physical activity, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, and body mass index (BMI. Biological values were converted to age and sex specific percentiles and allocated a score. Healthy Heart Scores could range between 5 and 18, with lower scores suggesting a healthier cardiovascular profile. Seventy-seven children volunteered for blood samples in order to assess the relationship between the Healthy Heart Score and (total cholesterol (TC, high and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL, LDL and triglycerides (TG. Fifty eight percent of children had elevated scores for at least 1 risk factor. The group mean Healthy Heart Score was 8 (2.2. The mean score was significantly higher in boys (9 (2.2 compared with girls (8 (2.1, p < 0.01. A high score was significantly associated with a low serum HDL, a high TC:HDL and a high TG concentration. Our results support other studies showing a high prevalence of CVD risk factors in children. Our method of allocation of risk score, according to percentile, allows for creation of an age and sex specific CVD risk profile in children, which takes into account the severity of the elevated risk factor

  1. Coronary artery calcification and cardiovascular disease in children with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, Sara; Mitsnefes, Mark M

    2014-04-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in children and young adults with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). As adults, children with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) have extremely high prevalence of traditional and uremia-related cardiovascular risk factors. Coronary artery calcification is one of the earliest cardiovascular markers detected in children with ESRD. The purpose of this review is to examine the new developments in pathogenesis of coronary artery calcification and to describe recently published studies on this topic in children with CKD. There is growing evidence that fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) and Klotho factor play a key role in the development of coronary artery calcification in ESRD. Recent studies have shown that induction of vascular calcification begins in early normophosphatemic CKD by the reduction of vascular Klotho and increased FGF23 secretion. Pediatric studies confirmed the presence of abnormal FGF23 and Klotho metabolism and the association of increased circulating FGF23 with coronary artery calcification in children with CKD. New developments in our understanding of the mechanisms of vascular calcification in patients with early CKD require further investigation of whether control of FGF23/Klotho metabolism will prevent or delay the development of coronary artery calcification and other cardiovascular outcomes.

  2. Trends and heterogeneity of cardiovascular disease and risk factors across Latin American and Caribbean countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Andrade, Alvaro; Luna, Max A

    2014-01-01

    Aging, globalization and urbanization in Latina America and the Caribbean (LAC) have made cardiovascular disease (CVD) the number one cause of death and disability, while communicable diseases have decreased. This epidemiological transition has been more heterogeneous than in other areas of the world. While countries like Argentina, Chile, Brazil and Colombia have seen a significant decrease in CVD mortality, the rest of the countries have seen an increase, particularly Central American and Caribbean countries. These latter countries have now coexisting high prevalence of communicable and non-communicable diseases, threatening the socioeconomic development. Recent multinational cross sectional studies have provided a better perspective of the prevalence and distribution of cardiovascular risk factors in the region. While there has been a decrease in prevalence of smoking in the region, obesity, diabetes and physical inactivity continue to increase the CVD disease burden in LAC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Coronary Artery Calcification and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and Death Among Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Budoff, Matthew J; Reilly, Muredach P; Yang, Wei; Rosas, Sylvia E; Rahman, Mahboob; Zhang, Xiaoming; Roy, Jason A; Lustigova, Eva; Nessel, Lisa; Ford, Virginia; Raj, Dominic; Porter, Anna C; Soliman, Elsayed Z; Wright, Jackson T; Wolf, Myles; He, Jiang

    2017-06-01

    Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is highly prevalent in dialysis-naive patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, there are sparse data on the association of CAC with subsequent risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in this population. To study the prospective association of CAC with risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality among dialysis-naive patients with CKD. The prospective Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort study recruited adults with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 20 to 70 mL/min/1.73 m2 from 7 clinical centers in the United States. There were 1541 participants without cardiovascular disease at baseline who had CAC scores. Coronary artery calcification was assessed using electron-beam or multidetector computed tomography. Incidence of cardiovascular disease (including myocardial infarction, heart failure, and stroke) and all-cause mortality were reported every 6 months and confirmed by medical record adjudication. During an average follow-up of 5.9 years in 1541 participants aged 21 to 74 years, there were 188 cardiovascular disease events (60 cases of myocardial infarction, 120 heart failures, and 27 strokes; patients may have had >1 event) and 137 all-cause deaths. In Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for age, sex, race, clinical site, education level, physical activity, total cholesterol level, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, systolic blood pressure, use of antihypertensive treatment, current cigarette smoking, diabetes status, body mass index, C-reactive protein level, hemoglobin A1c level, phosphorus level, troponin T level, log N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide level, fibroblast growth factor 23 level, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and proteinuria, the hazard ratios associated with per 1 SD log of CAC were 1.40 (95% CI, 1.16-1.69; P cardiovascular disease, 1.44 (95% CI, 1.02-2.02; P = .04) for myocardial infarction, 1.39 (95% CI, 1.10-1.76; P = .006

  4. YKL-40--an emerging biomarker in cardiovascular disease and diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathcke, Camilla N; Vestergaard, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Several inflammatory cytokines are involved in vascular inflammation resulting in endothelial dysfunction which is the earliest event in the atherosclerotic process leading to manifest cardiovascular disease. YKL-40 is an inflammatory glycoprotein involved in endothelial dysfunction by promoting...... with all-cause as well as cardiovascular mortality. Finally, YKL-40 levels are elevated both in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, known to be at high risk for the development of cardiovascular diseases, when compared to non-diabetic persons. A positive association between elevated circulating YKL...... dysfunction, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease and diabetes and look ahead on future perspectives of YKL-40 research....

  5. Management of cardiovascular diseases with micro systems and nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, L X; Peng, Z; Sugumar, D

    2006-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death and morbidity in industrialized nations and are becoming an urgent health problem for all nations due to the unstoppable trend of an ageing and obese population. Due to the rapid development of micro total analysis systems (microTAS) and nanotechnology in recent years, they will play an important role in the diagnosis, management, and therapy of cardiovascular diseases. It is envisaged that the micro and nanotechnologies developed for treating other diseases shall be explored for cardiovascular applications to reduce the research effort required for commercializing the devices and drugs to meet the increasing demand of the cardiovascular patients.

  6. Atrial Fibrillation and Non-cardiovascular Diseases: A Systematic Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Cátia, E-mail: catiaspferreira@hotmail.com; Providência, Rui; Ferreira, Maria João; Gonçalves, Lino Manuel [Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal); Serviço de Cardiologia - Centro Hospitalar e Universitário de Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal)

    2015-11-15

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia and is associated with an unfavorable prognosis, increasing the risk of stroke and death. Although traditionally associated with cardiovascular diseases, there is increasing evidence of high incidence of AF in patients with highly prevalent noncardiovascular diseases, such as cancer, sepsis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, obstructive sleep apnea and chronic kidney disease. Therefore, considerable number of patients has been affected by these comorbidities, leading to an increased risk of adverse outcomes. The authors performed a systematic review of the literature aiming to better elucidate the interaction between these conditions. Several mechanisms seem to contribute to the concomitant presence of AF and noncardiovascular diseases. Comorbidities, advanced age, autonomic dysfunction, electrolyte disturbance and inflammation are common to these conditions and may predispose to AF. The treatment of AF in these patients represents a clinical challenge, especially in terms of antithrombotic therapy, since the scores for stratification of thromboembolic risk, such as the CHADS{sub 2} and CHA{sub 2}DS{sub 2}VASc scores, and the scores for hemorrhagic risk, like the HAS-BLED score have limitations when applied in these conditions. The evidence in this area is still scarce and further investigations to elucidate aspects like epidemiology, pathogenesis, prevention and treatment of AF in noncardiovascular diseases are still needed.

  7. Atrial Fibrillation and Non-cardiovascular Diseases: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cátia Ferreira

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation (AF is the most common cardiac arrhythmia and is associated with an unfavorable prognosis, increasing the risk of stroke and death. Although traditionally associated with cardiovascular diseases, there is increasing evidence of high incidence of AF in patients with highly prevalent noncardiovascular diseases, such as cancer, sepsis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, obstructive sleep apnea and chronic kidney disease. Therefore, considerable number of patients has been affected by these comorbidities, leading to an increased risk of adverse outcomes.The authors performed a systematic review of the literature aiming to better elucidate the interaction between these conditions.Several mechanisms seem to contribute to the concomitant presence of AF and noncardiovascular diseases. Comorbidities, advanced age, autonomic dysfunction, electrolyte disturbance and inflammation are common to these conditions and may predispose to AF.The treatment of AF in these patients represents a clinical challenge, especially in terms of antithrombotic therapy, since the scores for stratification of thromboembolic risk, such as the CHADS2 and CHA2DS2VASc scores, and the scores for hemorrhagic risk, like the HAS-BLED score have limitations when applied in these conditions.The evidence in this area is still scarce and further investigations to elucidate aspects like epidemiology, pathogenesis, prevention and treatment of AF in noncardiovascular diseases are still needed.

  8. Cardiovascular medication use and cardiovascular disease in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadizar, Fariba; Fazeli Farsani, Soulmaz; Souverein, Patrick C; van der Vorst, Marja Mj; de Boer, Anthonius; Maitland-van der Zee, Anke H

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the 5-yr prevalence and incidence rates of cardiovascular medication and cardiovascular disease before and after onset of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in children and adolescents. Children and adolescents (cardiovascular medication use was substantially higher in the T1D cohort before (2.2 vs. 1.0%, p cardiovascular medications in the T1D cohort. The highest incidence rate of cardiovascular medication use was observed in the first year after the index date [28.1 per 1000 person years (PY)]. Furthermore, three type 1 diabetic patients were hospitalized due to cardiomyopathy (n = 2) and heart failure (n = 1) and one child from the reference group was hospitalized due to cardiomyopathy in the 5 yr after the index date. Children with T1D were more likely to use cardiovascular medications in the years before and after the onset of diabetes. Our study emphasizes the importance of routine screening tests and timely treatment of CVD risk factors in the pediatric population with diabetes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Homocyst(e)ine and cardiovascular disease: a critical review of the epidemiologic evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikelboom, J W; Lonn, E; Genest, J; Hankey, G; Yusuf, S

    1999-09-07

    To review epidemiologic studies on the association between homocyst(e)ine level and risk for cardiovascular disease and the potential benefits of homocysteine-decreasing therapies. Computerized and manual searches of the literature on total homocysteine levels and cardiovascular disease. Prospective studies and major retrospective epidemiologic studies evaluating the association between homocyst(e)ine levels and cardiovascular disease and the association between blood levels or dietary intake of folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 and cardiovascular disease. Relevant data on patient population, plasma homocyst(e)ine levels, duration of follow-up, and main results were extracted from studies that met the inclusion criteria. The designs and results of studies included in this review are summarized. A formal meta-analysis was not performed because the studies were heterogeneous in method and design. Results of epidemiologic studies suggest that moderately elevated plasma or serum homocyst(e)ine levels are prevalent in the general population and are associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease, independent of classic cardiovascular risk factors. Simple, inexpensive, nontoxic therapy with folic acid, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 reduces plasma homocyst(e)ine levels. Although the association between homocyst(e)ine levels and cardiovascular disease is generally strong and biologically plausible, the data from the prospective studies are less consistent. In addition, epidemiologic observations of an association between hyperhomocyst(e)inemia and cardiovascular risk do not prove the existence of a causal relation. Therefore, the effectiveness of folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 in reducing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality requires rigorous testing in randomized clinical trials. Several such trials are under way; their results may greatly affect cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, given the simplicity and low cost of vitamin therapy.

  10. Cardiovascular disease in children and adolescents with diabetes: where are we, and where are we going?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Uyen T; Maahs, David M; Daniels, Stephen R

    2012-06-01

    The increasing prevalence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus combined with advancement in early detection of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has placed CVD as a significant concern for preventative pediatric medicine. The public health burden of type 2 diabetes is predicted to parallel increasing obesity in children with a projected increase of early CVD in adulthood. In this article, we review practice guidelines for cardiovascular health in children and adolescents with diabetes and data on which they are based. We then focus on imaging modalities that are promising tools to expand our understanding of the cardiovascular risk imposed on youths with diabetes.

  11. Socioeconomic inequalities in the prevalence of nine established cardiovascular risk factors in a southern European population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Alves

    Full Text Available The evaluation of the gender-specific prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors across socioeconomic position (SEP categories may unravel mechanisms involved in the development of coronary heart disease. Using a sample of 1704 community dwellers of a Portuguese urban center aged 40 years or older, assessed in 1999-2003, we quantified the age-standardized prevalence of nine established cardiovascular risk factors (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, sedentariness, abdominal obesity, poor diet, excessive alcohol intake and depression across SEP and gender categories. Data on individual education and occupation were collected by questionnaire and used to characterize SEP. The prevalence of seven out of nine well-established risk factors was higher in men. Among women, the prevalence of most of the studied risk factors was higher in lower SEP groups. The main exception was smoking, which increased with education and occupation levels. Among men, socioeconomic gradients were less clear, but lower SEP was associated with a higher prevalence of diabetes, excessive alcohol intake and depression in a graded mode. The historical cultural beliefs and practices captured throughout the lifecourse frame the wide socioeconomic gradients discernible in our study conducted in an unequal European developed population. While men were more exposed to most risk factors, the clearer associations between SEP and risk factors among women support that their adoption of particular healthy behaviors is more dependent on material and symbolic conditions. To fully address the issue of health inequalities, interventions within the health systems should be complemented with population-based policies specifically designed to reduce socioeconomic gradients.

  12. Diet-sensitive prognostic markers for cardiovascular and renal disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riphagen, Ineke Jowanna

    2016-01-01

    Diet plays a relevant role in the development and progression of lifestyle-related diseases like hypertension and type 2 diabetes and the subsequent risk of cardiovascular and renal disease. Riphagen used several diet-sensitive biomarkers to further explore the effects of diet on cardiovascular and

  13. Quantifying cardiovascular disease risk factors in patients with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, I M; Skaaby, T; Ellervik, C

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In a previous meta-analysis on categorical data we found an association between psoriasis and cardiovascular disease and associated risk factors. OBJECTIVES: To quantify the level of cardiovascular disease risk factors in order to provide additional data for the clinical management...

  14. Marital History and the Burden of Cardiovascular Disease in Midlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenmei

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the effects of marital history on the burden of cardiovascular disease in midlife. With use of data from the 1992 Health and Retirement Study, a series of nested logistic regression models was used to estimate the association between marital history and the likelihood of cardiovascular disease. Results suggest that, in midlife,…

  15. Hispanics/Latinos & Cardiovascular Disease: Statistical Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statistical Fact Sheet 2013 Update Hispanics/Latinos & Cardiovascular Diseases Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) (ICD/10 codes I00-I99, Q20-Q28) (ICD/9 codes 390-459, 745-747)  Among Mexican-American adults age 20 ...

  16. Secretory Phospholipase A2-IIA and Cardiovascular Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmes, Michael V; Simon, Tabassome; Exeter, Holly J

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to investigate the role of secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2)-IIA in cardiovascular disease.......This study sought to investigate the role of secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2)-IIA in cardiovascular disease....

  17. New approaches to the implementation of cardiovascular disease prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jørstad, H.T.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is one of the biggest contemporary health problems worldwide. To aid preventive measures, risk calculators have been developed to estimate the risk of dying of cardiovascular disease within 10 years, for use in healthy individuals. Decisions to initiate preventive measures are

  18. [Occupational factors and a risk of cardiovascular diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strizhakov, L A; Lebedeva, M V; Fomin, V V; Muhin, N A

    2016-01-01

    The paper gives Russian and foreign authors' data on a relationship between occupational factors and cardiovascular diseases. It considers the impact of psychosocial stress on the risk of hypertension, coronary heart disease, and cardiovascular events in representatives of different professional groups.

  19. Towards microRNA-based therapeutics for cardiovascular diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lei, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are still one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The major risk factors currently associated with cardiovascular diseases will continuously increase these numbers, especially in developing countries, which will lead to a steep increase in mortality

  20. Effects of physical activity on life expectancy with cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.H. Franco (Oscar); C.E.D. de Laet (Chris); A. Peeters (Andrea); J. Jonker (Joost); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan); W.J. Nusselder (Wilma)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Physical inactivity is a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, little is known about the effects of physical activity on life expectancy with and without cardiovascular disease. Our objective was to calculate the consequences of different physical

  1. Clopidogrel plus aspirin versus aspirin alone for preventing cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Squizzato, Alessandro; Keller, Tymen; Romualdi, Erica; Middeldorp, Saskia

    2011-01-01

    Aspirin is the prophylactic antiplatelet drug of choice for people with cardiovascular disease. Adding a second antiplatelet drug to aspirin may produce additional benefit for those at high risk and those with established cardiovascular disease. To quantify the benefit and harm of adding clopidogrel

  2. Is vitamin B12 deficiency a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in vegetarians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, Roman

    2015-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to describe the role of vitamin B12 deficiency in cardiovascular disease development among vegetarians. Vegetarians have a high prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency. Deficiency of this vitamin is associated with a variety of atherogenic processes that are mainly, but not exclusively, due to vitamin B12 deficiency-induced hyperhomocysteinemia. Each 5-μmol/L increase above 10 μmol/L of serum homocysteine is associated with a 20% increased risk of circulatory health problems. Mean homocysteine concentration >10 μmol/L among vegetarians was reported in 32 of 34 reports. Macrocytosis associated with vitamin B12 deficiency is also associated with fatal and non-fatal coronary disease, myocardial infarction, stroke, and other circulatory health problems. Compared with non-vegetarians, vegetarians have an improved profile of the traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors, including serum lipids, blood pressure, serum glucose concentration, and weight status. However, not all studies that assessed cardiovascular disease incidence among vegetarians reported a protective effect. Among studies that did show a lower prevalence of circulatory health problems, the effect was not as pronounced as expected, which may be a result of poor vitamin B12 status due to a vegetarian diet. Vitamin B12 deficiency may negate the cardiovascular disease prevention benefits of vegetarian diets. In order to further reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, vegetarians should be advised to use vitamin B12 supplements. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Disturbed tryptophan metabolism in cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangge, H; Stelzer, I; Reininghaus, E Z; Weghuber, D; Postolache, T T; Fuchs, D

    2014-06-01

    Atherosclerosis (AS), a major pathologic consequence of obesity, is the main etiological factor of cardiovascular disease (CVD), which is the most common cause of death in the western world. A systemic chronic low grade immune- mediated inflammation (scLGI) is substantially implicated in AS and its consequences. In particular, proinflammatory cytokines play a major role, with Th1-type cytokine interferon-γ (IFN-γ) being a key mediator. Among various other molecular and cellular effects, IFN-γ activates the enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) in monocyte-derived macrophages, dendritic, and other cells, which, in turn, decreases serum levels of the essential amino acid tryptophan (TRP). Thus, people with CVD often have increased serum kynurenine to tryptophan ratios (KYN/TRP), a result of an increased TRP breakdown. Importantly, increased KYN/TRP is associated with a higher likelihood of fatal cardiovascular events. A scLGI with increased production of the proinflammatory adipokine leptin, in combination with IFN-γ and interleukin-6 (IL-6), represents another central link between obesity, AS, and CVD. Leptin has also been shown to contribute to Th1-type immunity shifting, with abdominal fat being thus a direct contributor to KYN/TRP ratio. However, TRP is not only an important source for protein production but also for the generation of one of the most important neurotransmitters, 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), by the tetrahydrobiopterin-dependent TRP 5-hydroxylase. In prolonged states of scLGI, availability of free serum TRP is strongly diminished, affecting serotonin synthesis, particularly in the brain. Additionally, accumulation of neurotoxic KYN metabolites such as quinolinic acid produced by microglia, can contribute to the development of depression via NMDA glutamatergic stimulation. Depression had been reported to be associated with CVD endpoints, but it most likely represents only a secondary loop connecting excess adipose tissue, scLGI and

  4. Trends in the epidemiology of cardiovascular disease in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Prachi; Wickramasinghe, Kremlin; Wilkins, Elizabeth; Townsend, Nick

    2016-12-15

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in the UK is declining; however, CVD burden comes not only from deaths, but also from those living with the disease. This review uses national datasets with multiple years of data to present secular trends in mortality, morbidity, and treatment for all CVD and specific subtypes within the UK. We produced all-ages and premature age-standardised mortality rates by gender, standardised to the 2013 European Standard Population, using data from the national statistics agencies of the UK. We obtained data on hospital admissions from the National Health Service records, using the main diagnosis. Prevalence data come from the Quality and Outcome Framework and national surveys. Total CVD mortality declined by 68% between 1980 and 2013 in the UK. Similar decreases were seen for coronary heart disease and stroke. Coronary heart disease prevalence has remained constant at around 3% in England and 4% in Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland. Hospital admissions for all CVD increased by over 46 000 between 2010/2011 and 2013/2014, with more than 36 500 of these increased admissions for men. Hospital admission trends vary by country and CVD condition. CVD prescriptions and operations have increased over the last decade. CVD mortality has declined notably for both men and women while hospital admissions have increased. CVD prevalence shows little evidence of change. This review highlights that improvements in the burden of CVD have not occurred equally between the four constituent countries of the UK, or between men and women. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Obesity and cardiovascular disease risk factors among the indigenous and immigrant Pakistani population : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raza, Qaisar; Doak, Colleen M; Khan, Aroosa; Nicolaou, Mary; Seidell, Jaap C

    2013-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to systematically describe the gender and ethnic differences regarding the prevalence of general/central obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors such as diabetes mellitus type 2, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia among the indigenous and immigrant

  6. Risk of death from cardiovascular disease following breast cancer : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gernaat, S. A.M.; Ho, P. J.; Rijnberg, N.; Emaus, M. J.; Baak, L. M.; Hartman, M.; Grobbee, D. E.; Verkooijen, H. M.

    Purpose: Breast cancer incidence and survival is high, which results in high prevalence of breast cancer survivors. The risk of (death from) cardiovascular disease (CVD) is higher in patients exposed to cardiotoxic treatments, in particular if they have pre-existing CVD risk factors. This study

  7. Parity and cardiovascular disease risk among older women: how do pregnancy complications mediate the association?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Catov, J.M.; Newman, A.B.; Sutton-Tyrrell, K.; Harris, T.B.; Tylavsky, F.; Visser, M.; Ayonayon, H.N.; Ness, R.B.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether parity is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) after accounting for perinatal complications. Methods: CVD prevalence, number of births, and a history of preeclampsia, term low birth weight, preterm or stillbirth were evaluated among 540 women

  8. Lipoprotein(a in Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Malaguarnera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipoprotein(a (Lp(a is an LDL-like molecule consisting of an apolipoprotein B-100 (apo(B-100 particle attached by a disulphide bridge to apo(a. Many observations have pointed out that Lp(a levels may be a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Lp(a inhibits the activation of transforming growth factor (TGF and contributes to the growth of arterial atherosclerotic lesions by promoting the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells and the migration of smooth muscle cells to endothelial cells. Moreover Lp(a inhibits plasminogen binding to the surfaces of endothelial cells and decreases the activity of fibrin-dependent tissue-type plasminogen activator. Lp(a may act as a proinflammatory mediator that augments the lesion formation in atherosclerotic plaques. Elevated serum Lp(a is an independent predictor of coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction. Furthermore, Lp(a levels should be a marker of restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, saphenous vein bypass graft atherosclerosis, and accelerated coronary atherosclerosis of cardiac transplantation. Finally, the possibility that Lp(a may be a risk factor for ischemic stroke has been assessed in several studies. Recent findings suggest that Lp(a-lowering therapy might be beneficial in patients with high Lp(a levels. A future therapeutic approach could include apheresis in high-risk patients in order to reduce major coronary events.

  9. Cardiovascular Imaging Techniques in Systemic Rheumatic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola Atzeni

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The risk of cardiovascular (CV events and mortality is significantly higher in patients with systemic rheumatic diseases than in the general population. Although CV involvement in such patients is highly heterogeneous and may affect various structures of the heart, it can now be diagnosed earlier and promptly treated. Various types of assessments are employed for the evaluation of CV risk such as transthoracic or transesophageal echocardiography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, and computed tomography (CT to investigate valve abnormalities, pericardial disease, and ventricular wall motion defects. The diameter of coronary arteries can be assessed using invasive quantitative coronarography or intravascular ultrasound, and coronary flow reserve can be assessed using non-invasive transesophageal or transthoracic ultrasonography (US, MRI, CT, or positron emission tomography (PET after endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Finally, peripheral circulation can be measured invasively using strain-gauge plethysmography in an arm after the arterial infusion of an endothelium-dependent vasodilator or non-invasively by means of US or MRI measurements of flow-mediated vasodilation of the brachial artery. All of the above are reliable methods of investigating CV involvement, but more recently, introduced use of speckle tracking echocardiography and 3-dimensional US are diagnostically more accurate.

  10. Dietary phosphorus, serum phosphorus, and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Madhav C; Ix, Joachim H

    2013-10-01

    Recent epidemiologic studies have linked higher serum phosphorus concentrations to cardiovascular disease (CVD) events and mortality. This association has been identified in the general population and in those with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The risk of adverse outcomes appears to begin with phosphorus concentrations within the upper limit of the normal reference range. Multiple experimental studies have suggested pathogenetic mechanisms that involve direct and indirect effects of high phosphorus concentrations to explain these associations. Drawing from these observations, guideline-forming agencies have recommended that serum phosphorus concentrations be maintained within the normal reference range in patients with CKD and that dietary phosphorus restriction or use of intestinal phosphate binders should be considered to achieve this goal. However, outside the dialysis population, the links between dietary phosphorus intake and serum phosphorus concentrations, and dietary phosphorus intake and CVD events, are uncertain. With specific reference to the nondialysis populations, this review discusses the available data linking dietary phosphorus intake with serum phosphorus concentrations and CVD events. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  11. Cardiovascular diseases among patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Muhammad Chanchal; Shoesmith, Wendy Diana; Al Mamun, Mohammad; Abdullah, Ahmad Faris; Naing, Daw Khin Saw; Phanindranath, Mahadasa; Turin, Tanvir Chowdhury

    2016-02-01

    The presence of comorbid physical illnesses especially, cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in schizophrenia is a growing area of concern in recent years. In order to reduce disease burden, to improve quality of life and to provide holistic care, it is important to know about the relationship between schizophrenia and CVD. The objective of this review is to explore the extent of CVD problems, relevant risk factors and potential measures for early diagnosis and prevention of CVD among patients with schizophrenia. Worldwide studies show that patients with schizophrenia have a higher mortality and lower life expectancy than the general population. CVD is the leading cause of increased mortality in schizophrenia. Common CVD risk factors in schizophrenia include metabolic syndrome, sedentary behaviour, tobacco smoking, effects of antipsychotics, long chain omega-3 fatty acid deficiency and shared genetics between CVD and schizophrenia. The potential methods for early detection and prevention of CVD in schizophrenia are also discussed. Though the patients with schizophrenia form a high risk group for CVD, consensus guidelines for early detection and prevention of CVD in schizophrenia are lacking. Comorbidity of CVD in schizophrenia needs more serious attention by clinicians and researchers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Role for periodontal bacteria in cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramitsu, H K; Qi, M; Kang, I C; Chen, W

    2001-12-01

    Several epidemiological studies as well as a recent animal model approach have suggested a role for periodontal diseases in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This relationship could be mediated by inflammatory responses induced by periodontal pathogens as well as direct interaction of these organisms with cardiac tissue. In order to explore these possibilities, the effects of the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis on cellular events proposed to play a role in CVD were investigated. P. gingivalis, as well as its outer membrane vesicles (OMV), was able to induce foam cell formation (an important characteristic of CVD) in the murine macrophage cell line J774 A.1. This property appears to be mediated by the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) fraction of the cells. Several other oral bacteria were also able to induce foam cell formation. Furthermore, since the rupture of the fibrous cap of plaque appears to be an important factor in acute coronary syndrome, it was demonstrated that P. gingivalis 381 degraded fibrous caps isolated from autopsy samples. In addition, it was observed that strain 381 strongly induced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 protease activity, implicated in plaque rupture, from the J774 A.1 macrophages. Finally, strain 381 was able to enhance monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and NADH oxidase expression from endothelial cells. Therefore, P. gingivalis exhibits several properties which could play a role in CVD as mediators of LDL oxidation, foam cell formation, and rupture of atherosclerotic plaque.

  13. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and obstructive sleep apnea: overlaps in pathophysiology, systemic inflammation, and cardiovascular disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNicholas, Walter T

    2012-02-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome represent two of the most prevalent chronic respiratory disorders in clinical practice, and cardiovascular diseases represent a major comorbidity in each disorder. The two disorders coexist (overlap syndrome) in approximately 1% of adults but asymptomatic lower airway obstruction together with sleep-disordered breathing is more prevalent. Although obstructive sleep apnea syndrome has similar prevalence in COPD as the general population, and vice versa, factors such as body mass index and smoking influence relationships. Nocturnal oxygen desaturation develops in COPD, independent of apnea\\/hypopnea, and is more severe in the overlap syndrome, thus predisposing to pulmonary hypertension. Furthermore, upper airway flow limitation contributes to nocturnal desaturation in COPD without apnea\\/hypopnea. Evidence of systemic inflammation in COPD and sleep apnea, involving C-reactive protein and IL-6, in addition to nuclear factor-kappaB-dependent pathways involving tumor necrosis factor-alpha and IL-8, provides insight into potential basic interactions between both disorders. Furthermore, oxidative stress develops in each disorder, in addition to activation and\\/or dysfunction of circulating leukocytes. These findings are clinically relevant because systemic inflammation may contribute to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases and the cell\\/molecular pathways involved are similar to those identified in COPD and sleep apnea. However, the pathophysiological and clinical significance of systemic inflammation in COPD and sleep apnea is not proven, and thus, studies of patients with the overlap syndrome should provide insight into the mechanisms of systemic inflammation in COPD and sleep apnea, in addition to potential relationships with cardiovascular disease.

  14. Association of age-related macular degeneration and reticular macular disease with cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Neelesh; Smith, R Theodore

    2016-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration is the leading cause of adult blindness in the developed world. Thus, major endeavors to understand the risk factors and pathogenesis of this disease have been undertaken. Reticular macular disease is a proposed subtype of age-related macular degeneration correlating histologically with subretinal drusenoid deposits located between the retinal pigment epithelium and the inner segment ellipsoid zone. Reticular lesions are more prevalent in females and in older age groups and are associated with a higher mortality rate. Risk factors for developing age-related macular degeneration include hypertension, smoking, and angina. Several genes related to increased risk for age-related macular degeneration and reticular macular disease are also associated with cardiovascular disease. Better understanding of the clinical and genetic risk factors for age-related macular degeneration and reticular macular disease has led to the hypothesis that these eye diseases are systemic. A systemic origin may help to explain why reticular disease is diagnosed more frequently in females as males suffer cardiovascular mortality at an earlier age, before the age of diagnosis of reticular macular disease and age-related macular degeneration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cardiovascular Disease and Chronic Inflammation in End Stage Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Zyga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD is one of the most severe diseases worldwide. In patients affected by CKD, a progressive destruction of the nephrons is observed not only in structuralbut also in functional level. Atherosclerosis is a progressive disease of large and medium-sized arteries. It is characterized by the deposition of lipids and fibrous elements and is a common complication of the uremic syndrome because of the coexistence of a wide range of risk factors. High blood pressure, anaemia, insulin resistance, inflammation, high oxidative stress are some of the most common factors that cause cardiovascular disease and atherogenesis in patients suffering from End Stage Kidney Disease (ESRD. At the same time, the inflammatory process constitutes a common element in the apparition and development of CKD. A wide range of possible causes can justify the development of inflammation under uremic conditions. Such causes are oxidative stress, oxidation, coexistentpathological conditions as well as factors that are due to renal clearance techniques. Patients in ESRD and coronary disease usually show increased acute phase products. Pre-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6 and TNF-a, and acute phase reactants, such as CRP and fibrinogen, are closely related. The treatment of chronic inflammation in CKD is of high importance for the development ofthe disease as well as for the treatment of cardiovascular morbidity.Conclusions: The treatment factors focus on the use of renin-angiotensic system inhibitors, acetylsalicylic acid, statins and anti-oxidant treatment in order to prevent the action of inflammatorycytokines that have the ability to activate the mechanisms of inflammation.

  16. [Achievement of cardiovascular goals in patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes with and without cardiovascular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzón, Gerardo; Gil, Ángel; Herrero, Ana María; Jiménez, Fernando; Cerezo, María José; Domínguez, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    To determine the proportion of patients with type 2 diabetes with and without cardiovascular disease achieving the main cardiovascular goals. Cross-sectional study. A regional health district in a European country, Spain. Year: 2013. Adult patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes with and without cardiovascular disease. Study using secondary data obtained from electronic records of clinical history. Haemoglobin A1c, blood pressure, LDL cholesterol, smoking and medication were covered. n=49,658 RESULTS: The proportion of patients with diabetes achieving cardiovascular goals (among those with recent measurement) was: haemoglobin A1c 68.8% (CI95%:68.2%-69.4%), blood pressure 74.3% (CI95%:73.9%-74.7%), LDL cholesterol 59.8% (CI95%:59.0%-60.6%), tobacco 80.2% (CI95%:79.6%-80.8%). Only 40%-67% of patients has recent measurement. Only 48.0% (CI95%: 46.6%-49.4%) of patients who needed statins were receiving them. Higher proportion of patients with cardiovascular disease were achiving goals. Differences were small but significant. Cardiovascular goals were measured in around half of patients with diabetes. Proportion of patients achiving cardiovascular goals were similar to published and best in patients with cardiovascular disease but it could improve. This points to prioritising interventions in this group of patients at very high risk, improving the implementation of guidelines and patient adherence. Copyright © 2015 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. [Statins in primary prevention of cardiovascular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adham, S; Miranda, S; Doucet, J; Lévesque, H; Benhamou, Y

    2018-01-01

    Cardiovascular events are the second leading cause of death in France. The assessment of overall cardiovascular risk using a personalized assessment with weighting risk factors can predict the risk of cardiovascular events in ten years. The validated treatments to reduce cardiovascular mortality in primary prevention are few. The use of statins in primary prevention is discussed. We report in this review the updated conclusions from clinical trials regarding the treatment with statins in primary prevention. Copyright © 2017 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevention of cardiovascular disease in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollan, I; Dessein, P H; Ronda, N; Wasko, M C; Svenungsson, E; Agewall, S; Cohen-Tervaert, J W; Maki-Petaja, K; Grundtvig, M; Karpouzas, G A; Meroni, P L

    2015-10-01

    The increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been recognized for many years. However, although the characteristics of CVD and its burden resemble those in diabetes, the focus on cardiovascular (CV) prevention in RA has lagged behind, both in the clinical and research settings. Similar to diabetes, the clinical picture of CVD in RA may be atypical, even asymptomatic. Therefore, a proactive screening for subclinical CVD in RA is warranted. Because of the lack of clinical trials, the ideal CVD prevention (CVP) in RA has not yet been defined. In this article, we focus on challenges and controversies in the CVP in RA (such as thresholds for statin therapy), and propose recommendations based on the current evidence. Due to the significant contribution of non-traditional, RA-related CV risk factors, the CV risk calculators developed for the general population underestimate the true risk in RA. Thus, there is an enormous need to develop adequate CV risk stratification tools and to identify the optimal CVP strategies in RA. While awaiting results from randomized controlled trials in RA, clinicians are largely dependent on the use of common sense, and extrapolation of data from studies on other patient populations. The CVP in RA should be based on an individualized evaluation of a broad spectrum of risk factors, and include: 1) reduction of inflammation, preferably with drugs decreasing CV risk, 2) management of factors associated with increased CV risk (e.g., smoking, hypertension, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, kidney disease, depression, periodontitis, hypothyroidism, vitamin D deficiency and sleep apnea), and promotion of healthy life style (smoking cessation, healthy diet, adjusted physical activity, stress management, weight control), 3) aspirin and influenza and pneumococcus vaccines according to current guidelines, and 4) limiting use of drugs that increase CV risk. Rheumatologists should take responsibility for the education of

  19. The Mediterranean diet, its components, and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmer, R Jay; Flammer, Andreas J; Lerman, Lilach O; Lerman, Amir

    2015-03-01

    One of the best-studied diets for cardiovascular health is the Mediterranean diet. This consists of fish, monounsaturated fats from olive oil, fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes/nuts, and moderate alcohol consumption. The Mediterranean diet has been shown to reduce the burden, or even prevent the development, of cardiovascular disease, breast cancer, depression, colorectal cancer, diabetes, obesity, asthma, erectile dysfunction, and cognitive decline. This diet is also known to improve surrogates of cardiovascular disease, such as waist-to-hip ratio, lipids, and markers of inflammation, as well as primary cardiovascular disease outcomes such as death and events in both observational and randomized controlled trial data. These enhancements easily rival those seen with more established tools used to fight cardiovascular disease such as aspirin, beta-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and exercise. However, it is unclear if the Mediterranean diet offers cardiovascular disease benefit from its individual constituents or in aggregate. Furthermore, the potential benefit of the Mediterranean diet or its components is not yet validated by concrete cardiovascular disease endpoints in randomized trials or observational studies. This review will focus on the effects of the whole and parts of the Mediterranean diet with regard to both population-based and experimental data highlighting cardiovascular disease morbidity or mortality and cardiovascular disease surrogates when hard outcomes are not available. Our synthesis will highlight the potential for the Mediterranean diet to act as a key player in cardiovascular disease prevention, and attempt to identify certain aspects of the diet that are particularly beneficial for cardioprotection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of bad habits as risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in Sarajevo Canton

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    Suada Branković

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cardiovascular diseases by its frequency, epidemic expenditure, socio-medical consequences and with high mortality are becoming the biggest problem of modern medicine. Mortality from cardiovascular diseases declines due to prevention measures in developed countries, in developing countries and countries in transition it increases. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of harmful habits and connection as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in economically active population in the Canton of Sarajevo.Methods: The study was conducted among the active population of Sarajevo Canton. Randomly selected 443 respondents from different groups of workers aged 18-65 years, who voluntarily joined the study. Weperformed a study intersection descriptive method of research. Instrument for conducting research was a set of questionnaires, designed for research purposes.Results: The results study showed that the study group, current smokers occupy 45%, 1.8% occasional smokers who smoke and the rest of nonsmokers. It was shown that subjects who consume alcohol in biggestpercentage 73.4% consumed the same day, while the smallest percentage 2.7% comprise the same subjects who consumed annually.Conclusions: The prevalence of harmful habits as risk factors for cardiovascular disease among subjects in the Sarajevo Canton is evident represented. It is a significant development of the country, because it affects the health promotion strategy, which consequently changes the behavior based on individual needs. Health education and promotion of health can be reduced or completely prevented by a number of risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

  1. Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Cardiovascular Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laratta, Cheryl R.; van Eeden, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic, progressive lung disease resulting from exposure to cigarette smoke, noxious gases, particulate matter, and air pollutants. COPD is exacerbated by acute inflammatory insults such as lung infections (viral and bacterial) and air pollutants which further accelerate the steady decline in lung function. The chronic inflammatory process in the lung contributes to the extrapulmonary manifestations of COPD which are predominantly cardiovascular in nature. Here we review the significant burden of cardiovascular disease in COPD and discuss the clinical and pathological links between acute exacerbations of COPD and cardiovascular disease. PMID:24724085

  2. The Impact of Autophagy on Cardiovascular Senescence and Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Yuichi; Ikeda, Yoshiyuki; Iwabayashi, Masaaki; Akasaki, Yuichi; Ohishi, Mitsuru

    2017-10-21

    The risk of cardiovascular disease increases with age, causing chronic disability, morbidity, and mortality in the elderly. Cardiovascular aging and disease are characterized by heart failure, cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury, cardiomyopathy, hypertension, arterial stiffness, and atherosclerosis. As a cell ages, damaged organelles and abnormal proteins accumulate. A system for removing these cytoplasmic substrates is essential for maintaining homeostasis. Autophagy assists tissue homeostasis by forming a pathway by which these substances are degraded. Growing evidence suggests that autophagy plays a role in age-related and disease states of the cardiovascular system, and it may even be effective in preventing or treating cardiovascular disease. On the other hand, overexpression of autophagy in the heart and arteries can produce detrimental effects. We summarize the current understanding of the close relationship between autophagy and cardiovascular senescence.

  3. Population prevalence and control of cardiovascular risk factors: What electronic medical records tell us

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    Arantxa Catalán-Ramos

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Hypertension was the most prevalent cardiovascular risk factor in the Catalan population attended at primary care centers. About two thirds of individuals with hypertension or DM2 were adequately controlled; hypercholesterolemia control was particularly low.

  4. Ácidos graxos e doenças cardiovasculares: uma revisão Fatty acids and cardiovascular diseases: a review

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    Flávia Emília Leite de LIMA

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Nas últimas décadas a prevalência de doenças cardiovasculares tem aumentado progressivamente, tornando-se um grave problema de saúde pública. Alguns estudos têm demonstrado haver uma associação positiva entre a ingestão de gordura saturada e a prevalência dessas doenças, bem como uma associação negativa com a ingestão de gorduras insaturadas. Esses conhecimentos motivaram uma evolução nas recomendações dos ácidos graxos, visando melhor utilização destes e respeitando-se uma proporção adequada na dieta, a fim de diminuir a prevalência das doenças cardiovasculares. Este trabalho tem como objetivo realizar uma revisão da literatura médica sobre os estudos desenvolvidos com ácidos graxos e seus possíveis efeitos em doenças cardiovasculares, bem como evolução de suas recomendações através do tempo, tendências de consumo e perspectivas futuras.During the last decades the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases has increased progressively, becoming a serious public health problem. Some studies have shown a positive association between saturated fatty acid intake and the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases, and a negative association with unsaturated fatty acids intake. These studies indicate a need to evaluate the different kinds of fatty acids (saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated and their effects, aiming at a better utilization and maintaining a suitable proportion in the diet in order to diminish the incidence of cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this paper is to accomplish a review of the medical literature regarding fatty acids and their effects on cardiovascular diseases, as well as the evolution of their requirements through time, consumption trends and future perspectives.

  5. Complementary and Alternative Medicine and Cardiovascular Disease: An Evidence-Based Review

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    Matthew J. Rabito

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM plays a significant role in many aspects of healthcare worldwide, including cardiovascular disease (CVD. This review describes some of the challenges of CAM in terms of scientific research. Biologically-based therapies, mind-body therapies, manipulative and body-based therapies, whole medical systems, and energy medicine are reviewed in detail with regard to cardiovascular risk factors and mediation or modulation of cardiovascular disease pathogenesis. CAM use among patients with CVD is prevalent and in many instances provides positive and significant effects, with biologically-based and mind-body therapies being the most commonly used treatment modalities. More rigorous research to determine the precise physiologic effects and long-term benefits on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality with CAM usage, as well as more open lines of communication between patients and physicians regarding CAM use, is essential when determining optimal treatment plans.

  6. Skin autofluorescence is a predictor of cardiovascular disease in chronic kidney disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, Fumihiko; Shimura, Hiroki; Takahashi, Kazuya; Akiyama, Daiichiro; Motosugi, Ai; Ikegishi, Yukinobu; Haraguchi, Kazutaka; Kobayashi, Tetsuro

    2015-02-01

    Accelerated formation and tissue accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), reflecting cumulative glycemic and oxidative stress, occurs in age-related and chronic diseases like diabetes mellitus (DM) and renal failure, and contributes to vascular damage. Skin autofluorescence (AFR), a noninvasive measurement method, reflects tissue accumulation of AGEs. AFR has been reported to be an independent predictor of mortality in Caucasian hemodialysis patients. We assessed the relationship between levels of AFR and the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and clarified the prognostic usefulness of skin AFR levels in Asian (non-Caucasian) hemodialysis (HD) patients. AFR was measured with an autofluorescence reader in 64 HD patients. Overall and cardiovascular mortality was monitored prospectively during the 3-year follow-up. During follow-up, CVD events occurred in 21 patients. The deaths of 10 HD patients were associated with CVD. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that initial AFR was an independent risk factor for de novo CVD in HD patients with or without diabetes. When patients were classified on the basis of AFR tertiles, Cochran-Armitage analysis demonstrated that the highest tertile of AFR level showed an increased odds ratio for the prevalence of CVD. These findings suggest that AFR levels can be used to detect the prevalence of CVD in HD patients with or without diabetes. © 2014 The Authors. Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis © 2014 International Society for Apheresis.

  7. Estimating multimorbidity prevalence with the Canadian Chronic Disease Surveillance System

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    Allison Feely

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Public Health Agency of Canada’s Canadian Chronic Disease Surveillance System (CCDSS uses a validated, standardized methodology to estimate prevalence of individual chronic diseases, such as diabetes. Expansion of the CCDSS for surveillance of multimorbidity, the co-occurrence of two or more chronic diseases, could better inform health promotion and disease prevention. The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of using the CCDSS to estimate multimorbidity prevalence. Methods: We used administrative health data from seven provinces and three territories and five validated chronic conditions (i.e. cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease, mental illness, hypertension and diabetes to estimate multimorbidity prevalence. We produced age-standardized (using Canada’s 1991 population and age-specific estimates for two multimorbidity definitions: (1 two or more conditions, and (2 three or more conditions from the five validated conditions, by sex, fiscal year and geography. Results: Among Canadians aged 40 years and over in the fiscal year 2011/12, the prevalence of two or more and three or more chronic conditions was 26.5% and 10.2%, respectively, which is comparable to other estimates based on administrative health data. The increase in multimorbidity prevalence with increasing age was similar across provinces. The difference in prevalence for males and females varied by province and territory. We observed substantial variation in estimates over time. Results were consistent for the two definitions of multimorbidity. Conclusion: The CCDSS methodology can produce comparative estimates of multimorbidity prevalence across provinces and territories, but there are challenges in using it to estimate temporal trends. Further expansion of the CCDSS in the number and breadth of validated case definitions will improve the accuracy of multimorbidity surveillance for the Canadian population.

  8. Childhood obesity and cardiovascular disease: links and prevention strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Kristen J.; Maahs, David M.; Daniels, Stephen R.; Eckel, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence and severity of pediatric obesity have dramatically increased since the late 1980s, raising concerns about a subsequent increase in cardiovascular outcomes. Strong evidence, particularly from autopsy studies, supports the concept that precursors of adult cardiovascular disease (CVD) begin in childhood, and that pediatric obesity has an important influence on overall CVD risk. Lifestyle patterns also begin early and impact CVD risk. In addition, obesity and other CVD risk factors tend to persist over time. However, whether childhood obesity causes adult CVD directly, or does so by persisting as adult obesity, or both, is less clear. Regardless, sufficient data exist to warrant early implementation of both obesity prevention and treatment in youth and adults. In this Review, we examine the evidence supporting the impact of childhood obesity on adult obesity, surrogate markers of CVD, components of the metabolic syndrome, and the development of CVD. We also evaluate how obesity treatment strategies can improve risk factors and, ultimately, adverse clinical outcomes. PMID:21670745

  9. Improving risk stratification for cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijk, Diederik F.; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs

    2010-01-01

    Evaluation of: Heslop CL, Frohlich JJ, Hill JS. Myeloperoxidase and C-reactive protein have combined utility for long-term prediction of cardiovascular mortality after coronary angiography. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 55(11), 1102-1109 (2010). Identifying people at high risk of cardiovascular events is

  10. Fine Particulate Matter and Cardiovascular Disease ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background Adverse cardiovascular events have been linked with PM2.5 exposure obtained primarily from air quality monitors, which rarely co-locate with participant residences. Modeled PM2.5 predictions at finer resolution may more accurately predict residential exposure; however few studies have compared results across different exposure assessment methods. Methods We utilized a cohort of 5679 patients who had undergone a cardiac catheterization between 2002–2009 and resided in NC. Exposure to PM2.5 for the year prior to catheterization was estimated using data from air quality monitors (AQS), Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) fused models at the census tract and 12 km spatial resolutions, and satellite-based models at 10 km and 1 km resolutions. Case status was either a coronary artery disease (CAD) index >23 or a recent myocardial infarction (MI). Logistic regression was used to model odds of having CAD or an MI with each 1-unit (μg/m3) increase in PM2.5, adjusting for sex, race, smoking status, socioeconomic status, and urban/rural status. Results We found that the elevated odds for CAD>23 and MI were nearly equivalent for all exposure assessment methods. One difference was that data from AQS and the census tract CMAQ showed a rural/urban difference in relative risk, which was not apparent with the satellite or 12 km-CMAQ models. Conclusions

  11. Sexual counseling and cardiovascular disease: practical approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine E Steinke

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Patients with cardiovascular disease and their partners expect health care providers to provide sexual counseling to assist them in maintaining sexual quality of life. Evidence suggests however, that there is a gap in integrating evidence into practice and that relatively few cardiac patients receive sexual counseling. This can result in negative psychological, physical, and quality of life outcomes for couples who may needlessly decide sexual activity is too risky and cease all sexual activity. Two scientific statements now exist that provide ample guidance to health care providers in discussing this important topic. Using a team approach that includes physicians, nurses, physical therapists, rehabilitation staff, and others is important to ensure that sexual counseling occurs throughout recovery. In addition, several trials using interventional approaches for sexual counseling provide insight into successful approaches for sexual counseling in practice. This article provides practical strategies and evidence-based approaches for assessment and sexual counseling for all cardiac patients and their partners, and specific counseling for those with ischemic conditions, heart failure, and implanted devices.

  12. Projected impact of urbanization on cardiovascular disease in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Faye; Adamo, Susana; Coxson, Pamela; Goldman, Lee; Gu, Dongfeng; Zhao, Dong; Chen, Chung-Shiuan; He, Jiang; Mara, Valentina; Moran, Andrew

    2012-10-01

    The Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) Policy Model-China, a national scale cardiovascular disease computer simulation model, was used to project future impact of urbanization. Populations and cardiovascular disease incidence rates were stratified into four submodels: North-Urban, South-Urban, North-Rural, and South-Rural. 2010 was the base year, and high and low urbanization rate scenarios were used to project 2030 populations. Rural-to-urban migration, population growth, and aging were projected to more than double cardiovascular disease events in urban areas and increase events by 27.0-45.6% in rural areas. Urbanization is estimated to raise age-standardized coronary heart disease incidence by 73-81 per 100,000 and stroke incidence only slightly. Rural-to-urban migration will likely be a major demographic driver of the cardiovascular disease epidemic in China.

  13. Genetic risk factors and Mendelian randomization in cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swerdlow, Daniel I; Hingorani, Aroon D; Humphries, Steve E

    2015-05-01

    Cardiovascular disease encompasses several diverse pathological states that place a heavy burden on individual and population health. The aetiological basis of many cardiovascular disorders is not fully understood. Growing knowledge of the genetic architecture underlying coronary heart disease, stroke, cardiac arrhythmias and peripheral vascular disease has confirmed some suspected causal pathways in these conditions but also uncovered many previously unknown mechanisms. Here, we consider the contribution of genetics to the understanding of cardiovascular disease risk. We evaluate the utility and relevance of findings from genome-wide association studies and explore the role that Mendelian randomisation has to play in exploiting these. Mendelian randomisation permits robust causal inference in an area of research where this has been hampered by bias and confounding in observational studies. In doing so, it provides evidence for causal processes in cardiovascular disease that could represent novel targets for much-needed new drugs for disease prevention and treatment.

  14. Whole body cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging to stratify symptomatic and asymptomatic atherosclerotic burden in patients with isolated cardiovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weir-McCall, Jonathan R.; Duce, Suzanne L.; Gandy, Stephen J.; Matthew, Shona Z.; Martin, Patricia; Cassidy, Deirdre B.; McCormick, Lynne; Belch, Jill J. F.; Struthers, Allan D.; Colhoun, Helen M.; Houston, J. Graeme

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to use whole body cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (WB CVMR) to assess the heart and arterial network in a single examination, so as to describe the burden of atherosclerosis and subclinical disease in participants with symptomatic single site vascular disease. 64 patients with a history of symptomatic single site vascular disease (38 coronary artery disease (CAD), 9 cerebrovascular disease, 17 peripheral arterial disease (PAD)) underwent whole body angiogram and cardiac MR in a 3 T scanner. The arterial tree was subdivided into 31 segments and each scored according to the degree of stenosis. From this a standardised atheroma score (SAS) was calculated. Cine and late gadolinium enhancement images of the left ventricle were obtained. Asymptomatic atherosclerotic disease with greater than 50 % stenosis in arteries other than that responsible for their presenting complain was detected in 37 % of CAD, 33 % of cerebrovascular and 47 % of PAD patients. Unrecognised myocardial infarcts were observed in 29 % of PAD patients. SAS was significantly higher in PAD patients 24 (17.5-30.5) compared to CAD 4 (2–11.25) or cerebrovascular disease patients 6 (2-10) (ANCOVA p < 0.001). Standardised atheroma score positively correlated with age (β 0.36 p = 0.002), smoking status (β 0.34 p = 0.002), and LV mass (β -0.61 p = 0.001) on multiple linear regression. WB CVMR is an effective method for the stratification of cardiovascular disease. The high prevalence of asymptomatic arterial disease, and silent myocardial infarctions, particularly in the peripheral arterial disease group, demonstrates the importance of a systematic approach to the assessment of cardiovascular disease

  15. Applications of 3D printing in cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Mitsouras, Dimitris; Yoo, Shi-Joon; Liu, Peter P; Chatzizisis, Yiannis S; Rybicki, Frank J

    2016-12-01

    3D-printed models fabricated from CT, MRI, or echocardiography data provide the advantage of haptic feedback, direct manipulation, and enhanced understanding of cardiovascular anatomy and underlying pathologies. Reported applications of cardiovascular 3D printing span from diagnostic assistance and optimization of management algorithms in complex cardiovascular diseases, to planning and simulating surgical and interventional procedures. The technology has been used in practically the entire range of structural, valvular, and congenital heart diseases, and the added-value of 3D printing is established. Patient-specific implants and custom-made devices can be designed, produced, and tested, thus opening new horizons in personalized patient care and cardiovascular research. Physicians and trainees can better elucidate anatomical abnormalities with the use of 3D-printed models, and communication with patients is markedly improved. Cardiovascular 3D bioprinting and molecular 3D printing, although currently not translated into clinical practice, hold revolutionary potential. 3D printing is expected to have a broad influence in cardiovascular care, and will prove pivotal for the future generation of cardiovascular imagers and care providers. In this Review, we summarize the cardiovascular 3D printing workflow, from image acquisition to the generation of a hand-held model, and discuss the cardiovascular applications and the current status and future perspectives of cardiovascular 3D printing.

  16. Cardiovascular disease in China: an urgent need to enhance the nursing role to improve health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yingjuan; Davidson, Patricia M; DiGiacomo, Michelle

    2009-03-01

    This paper reviews the role of cardiac nursing in China and the potential of this professional group to take an important role in secondary and tertiary prevention initiatives. China is undergoing unprecedented economic growth, yet globalisation of Chinese society has caused an increase in the prevalence of chronic conditions, particularly cardiovascular disease. Studies recognise that health providers and members of the public are not fully aware of the risks associated with cardiovascular disease and consequently are not equipped to deal with this looming epidemic. Position paper. This position paper summarises and discusses the burden of cardiovascular disease in China within the context of evidence for nurse-coordinated interventions. Barriers and facilitators to developing the nursing role in contemporary China are discussed. A key strategy for promoting the role of nurse-led programmes in China is increasing research skills among Chinese nurses to promote independent, collaborative interdisciplinary research. Promoting doctoral education in China, increasing the status of nursing in interdisciplinary teams, collaborating with cardiovascular nurses internationally and increasing the public's awareness of cardiovascular disease are critical steps in promoting nurse-led programmes to improve the health and well-being of the community. Given the positive relationship between knowledge and skill levels of nurses and clinical outcomes, China's investment in the education and training of its nursing workforce is critical in improving practice and outcomes in cardiovascular disease.

  17. MAGNESIUM, DRINKING WATER HARDNESS AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Nikic

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Many different countries suggest and justify an integrated laboratory and epidemiological research program with an aim to reject or accept the magnesium – CVD (cardiovascular disease hypothesis. The studies shown in this paper that have investigated the relationship between water hardness, especially magnesium and CVD indicate that, even though there has been an ongoing research for nearly half a century (1957-2004, it has not been completed yet. Different study designs (obductional, clinical, ecological, case-control and cohort restrict an adequate comparison of their results as well as the deduction of results applicable on each territorial level.The majority of researchers around the world, using populational and individual studies, have found an inverse (protective association between mortality and morbidity from CVD and the increase in water hardness, especially the increase in the concentration of magnesium. The most frequent benefit of the water with an optimal mineral composition is the reduction of mortality from ischemic heart disease.It was suggested that Mg from water is a supplementary source of Mg of high biological value, because magnesium from water is absorbed around 30% better than Mg in a diet. The vast majority of studies consider lower concentrations of Mg in the water, in the range of 10% of the total daily intake of Mg.Future research efforts must give better answers to low Mg concentrations in the drinking water, before any concrete recommendations are given to the public. Moreover, the researchers must also determine which chemical form of Mg is most easily absorbed and has the greatest impact.Additional research is necessary in order to further investigate the interrelation between different water and food components as well as individual risk factors in the pathogenesis of CVD.

  18. Antistress activation therapy for cardiovascular diseases

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    Miroshnik E.V.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The cohort pilot study had been done. Aim: to study the effectiveness of an antistress activation therapy on the functional state of human with the purpose of formation of adaptive reactions of activation and training high levels of reactivity among the two groups of patients with cardiovascular problems, ranks first among causes of death population: arterial hypertension (AH and coronary heart disease (CHD. Material and methods. From the sub-sample of the Moscow population (396 were allocated to 2 groups of patients of 30 people in each (a control group and a group for anti-stress therapy for persons with hypertension and coronary artery disease that within 1 month took adaptogens (tincture of ginseng, Eleutherococcus, etc. is minimized by a specially developed algorithm. For stress diagnosis international integrated questionnaire Perceived Stress (PSS; as well as Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS were used. Blood pressure, heart rate, body mass index, waist circumference were measured. In addition we used new methods "Antistress activation health improvement". Results. The average age in the intervention group was 59.4 years, and in the control group was 58.3 years, p>0.05. In compliance with results of the study has been marked that persons who were treated by methods "Antistress activation health improvement" sensed general and "internal" dumping, improving of duration and quality of sleeping. Irritability, level of stress, depression, and fatigability became rather less. Dynamics of emotions locked in psychometric scales showed distinct improvement of mood, decrease of fear, sorrow, anxiety, anger, emotional instability, increase of self-reliance, activity. Conclusion. The treatment of stress, anxiety, and depression must be complexes based on biological and psychological approaches.

  19. Cardiovascular Disease in Central and East Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Kozela

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD contributes greatly to inequalities in health in Europe. The CVD death rate in Ukraine (the highest is seven fold higher than in France (the lowest. There is also a striking difference in CVD mortality between European Union (EU members before the enlargement in 2004 and Central and East European (CEE countries that joined the EU in 2004 and non-EU countries. The difference in CVD mortality between West and East Europe grew during the 1970s and 1980s when rates declined in the West and either remained the same or rose in the CEE countries. Political reforms at the beginning of the 1990s, which were followed by great socio-economic changes coincided with further diversification in CVD mortality in CEE countries. Diverse trends in CVD mortality were followed by larger gaps in life expectancy between West and East Europe and within the CEE.Rapid development of high technology treatment procedures, which followed the economic recovery of the CEE countries, would have only limited influence on the overall control of CVD. Exposure to classic risk factors might largely explain the longitudinal trend in falling CVD mortality in some countries, but it is unlikely that it could explain rapid changes in the others. Still, large potential to control the disease lies in developing effective preventive policies with targets to lower exposure to the classic CVD risk factors. The recent history of CVD in CEE countries makes the “alcohol hypothesis” less convincing as an explanation for CVD mortality trends and differences between East and West Europe. The hypothesis that dynamic changes in CVD mortality in CEE countries are triggered and explained largely by psychosocial factors is attractive. However, if confirmed, transforming such knowledge into a practical health policy would be a great challenge.

  20. Behavior of the Cardiovascular Diseases in Women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineda Tovar, M. A.; Ortega Ramirez, A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Coronary artery disease (CAD) remains the leading cause of death in Mexico and Western world. Symptoms in women are more subtle. Women usually feel general tiredness and lack of energy, in contrast to men having chest pain. This implies that women do not receive a timely and early diagnosis. According to the National Health Information System, 20 of 100 Mexican women die of cardiovascular disease, 68.5% of Mexicans have problems of obesity, overweight, diabetes, high blood pressure, conditions that increase the risk of CAD. SPECT myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) is currently appropriate for diagnosis, risk assessment, stratification, myocardial viability, evaluation of left ventricular function. The Objective of this investigation is to show that SPECT MPS is a noninvasive diagnostic test that identify women with increased CAD risk. Method: A 60 years old female patient with diabetes, high blood pressure and overweight was referred for a cardiac scan, for suspicion of ischemia. Her symptoms were general tiredness, lack of energy and occasionally light chest pain. A SPECT-gated myocardial perfusion test was done. The images where acquired with a gamma camera after the injection of 10 mCi (stress) and 20 mCi (Rest) of 99 mTc-Tetrofosmin. Images were reconstructed using Emory toolbox. Results: The images showed light hypoperfusion septal and inferior walls, and a small left ventricular chamber size with thickened walls. Angiography showed significant diffuse coronary stenosis in the three vessels. Conclusion: Women suffering CAD constitute a high-risk group that potentially poses a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Cardiac SPECT MPS is a noninvasive diagnostic and prognostic test that identify women with high CAD risk and establish timely and early the therapeutic interventions. (author)

  1. Suboptimal primary and secondary cardiovascular disease prevention in HIV-positive individuals on antiretroviral therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zoest, Rosan A; van der Valk, Marc; Wit, Ferdinand W N M; Vaartjes, Ilonca; Kooij, Katherine W.; Hovius, Joppe W.; Prins, Maria; Reiss, Peter

    Background We aimed to identify the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, and investigate preventive cardiovascular medication use and achievement of targets as per Dutch cardiovascular risk management guidelines among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and HIV-negative individuals.

  2. Suboptimal primary and secondary cardiovascular disease prevention in HIV-positive individuals on antiretroviral therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zoest, Rosan A.; van der Valk, Marc; Wit, Ferdinand W.; Vaartjes, Ilonca; Kooij, Katherine W.; Hovius, Joppe W.; Prins, Maria; Reiss, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Background: We aimed to identify the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, and investigate preventive cardiovascular medication use and achievement of targets as per Dutch cardiovascular risk management guidelines among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and HIV-negative individuals.

  3. Role of mitochondrial dysfunction and altered autophagy in cardiovascular aging and disease: from mechanisms to therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzetti, Emanuele; Csiszar, Anna; Dutta, Debapriya; Balagopal, Gauthami; Calvani, Riccardo; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan

    2013-08-15

    Advanced age is associated with a disproportionate prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Intrinsic alterations in the heart and the vasculature occurring over the life course render the cardiovascular system more vulnerable to various stressors in late life, ultimately favoring the development of CVD. Several lines of evidence indicate mitochondrial dysfunction as a major contributor to cardiovascular senescence. Besides being less bioenergetically efficient, damaged mitochondria also produce increased amounts of reactive oxygen species, with detrimental structural and functional consequences for the cardiovascular system. The age-related accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondrial likely results from the combination of impaired clearance of damaged organelles by autophagy and inadequate replenishment of the cellular mitochondrial pool by mitochondriogenesis. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about relevant mechanisms and consequences of age-related mitochondrial decay and alterations in mitochondrial quality control in the cardiovascular system. The involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular conditions especially prevalent in late life and the emerging connections with neurodegeneration are also illustrated. Special emphasis is placed on recent discoveries on the role played by alterations in mitochondrial dynamics (fusion and fission), mitophagy, and their interconnections in the context of age-related CVD and endothelial dysfunction. Finally, we discuss pharmacological interventions targeting mitochondrial dysfunction to delay cardiovascular aging and manage CVD.

  4. Prevalence of maternal chronic diseases during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jølving, Line Riis; Nielsen, Jan; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There is substantial evidence of a negative impact of maternal chronic disease during pregnancy on reproductive outcomes. Knowledge of the prevalence of chronic diseases during pregnancy is limited, but essential for a focused preventive effort regarding optimal disease control during...... pregnancy. We aimed to analyze the prevalence of chronic diseases during pregnancy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This register-based cohort study included all women giving birth in Denmark between 1989 and 2013 based on data from Danish health registers. Maternal chronic diseases included 23 disease categories...... of both physical and mental health conditions recorded within a period of 10 years before childbirth. RESULTS: We included 1 362 200 childbirths during the study period. The overall prevalence of maternal chronic disease increased from 3.71% in 1989 to 15.76% in 2013. The most frequently registered...

  5. Oral health and cardiovascular care: Perceptions of people with cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez, Paula; Everett, Bronwyn; Salamonson, Yenna; Ajwani, Shilpi; Bhole, Sameer; Bishop, Joshua; Lintern, Karen; Nolan, Samantha; Rajaratnam, Rohan; Redfern, Julie; Sheehan, Maria; Skarligos, Fiona; Spencer, Lissa; Srinivas, Ravi; George, Ajesh

    2017-01-01

    Main objective The aim of this study was to explore the perception of patients with cardiovascular disease towards oral health and the potential for cardiac care clinicians to promote oral health. Method A needs assessment was undertaken with twelve patients with cardiovascular disease attending cardiac rehabilitation between 2015 and 2016, in three metropolitan hospitals in Sydney, Australia. These patients participated in face-to-face semi-structured interviews. Data was analysed using them...

  6. High prevalence of peripheral arterial disease in patients with previous cerebrovascular or coronary event

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, Jesper; Wiinberg, Niels; Joergensen, Bjarne S

    2010-01-01

    The presence of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in patients with other manifestations of cardiovascular disease identifies a population at increased risk of complications both during acute coronary events and on a long-term basis and possibly a population in whom secondary prevention...... of cardiovascular events should be addressed aggressively. The present study was aimed at providing a valid estimate on the prevalence of PAD in patients attending their general practitioner and having previously suffered a cardio- or cerebrovascular event....

  7. Lipoprotein Apheresis for Lipoprotein(a)-Associated Cardiovascular Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roeseler, Eberhard; Julius, Ulrich; Heigl, Franz

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Lipoprotein(a)-hyperlipoproteinemia (Lp(a)-HLP) along with progressive cardiovascular disease has been approved as indication for regular lipoprotein apheresis (LA) in Germany since 2008. We aimed to study the long-term preventive effect of LA and to assess hypothetical clinical...... correlations of apolipoprotein(a) (apo(a)) by analyzing genotypes and phenotypes. APPROACH AND RESULTS: This prospective observational multicenter study included 170 patients with Lp(a)-HLP and progressive cardiovascular disease (48.9 years median age at diagnosis) despite other cardiovascular risk factors......-nucleotide polymorphisms rs10455872 or rs3798220. CONCLUSIONS: Results of 5 years of prospective follow-up confirm that LA has a lasting effect on prevention of cardiovascular events in patients with Lp(a)-HLP. Patients clinically selected by progressive cardiovascular disease were characterized by a highly frequent...

  8. [Risk factors for the occurrence of cardiovascular system diseases in students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanović, Dusica; Visnjić, Aleksandar; Mitrović, Vladimir; Stojanović, Miodrag

    2009-06-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are a leading cause of death in the majority of developed, as well as in many developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine cardiovascular risk factors in student population and to suggest possible measures for prevention. The study was carried out during 2007-2008 at the School of Medicine, University of Nis. It included 824 students in their final year (220 males, 604 females). There was no significant difference in prevalence of hypertension among the male (1.81%) and female students (0%). The prevalence of obesity (Body Mass Index - BMI > 30 kg/m2) was significantly higher (p cardiovascular risk factors, it was determined that in the male student population systolic blood pressure correlated significantly with diastolic blood pressure, BMI and waist size, whereas age correlated with sistolic blood pressure, waist size and smoking. In the female students sistolic blood pressure correlated with diastolic blood pressure, BMI and waist size; diastolic blood pressure correlated with BMI and physical inactivity; cigarette smoking correlated with alcohol consumption and age. Cardiovascular risk factors are present in the final-year students of the School of Medicine, University of Nis. It is necessary to insist on decreasing obesity prevalence, cigarette and alcohol consumption, and on increasing physical activity of students in order to prevent cardiovascular diseases.

  9. Twitter as a Potential Data Source for Cardiovascular Disease Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnenberg, Lauren; DiSilvestro, Christie L; Mancheno, Christina; Dailey, Karl; Tufts, Christopher; Buttenheim, Alison M; Barg, Fran; Ungar, Lyle; Schwartz, H; Brown, Dana; Asch, David A; Merchant, Raina M

    2016-12-01

    As society is increasingly becoming more networked, researchers are beginning to explore how social media can be used to study person-to-person communication about health and health care use. Twitter is an online messaging platform used by more than 300 million people who have generated several billion Tweets, yet little work has focused on the potential applications of these data for studying public attitudes and behaviors associated with cardiovascular health. To describe the volume and content of Tweets associated with cardiovascular disease as well as the characteristics of Twitter users. We used Twitter to access a random sample of approximately 10 billion English-language Tweets originating from US counties from July 23, 2009, to February 5, 2015, associated with cardiovascular disease. We characterized each Tweet relative to estimated user demographics. A random subset of 2500 Tweets was hand-coded for content and modifiers. The volume of Tweets about cardiovascular disease and the content of these Tweets. Of 550 338 Tweets associated with cardiovascular disease, the terms diabetes (n = 239 989) and myocardial infarction (n = 269 907) were used more frequently than heart failure (n = 9414). Users who Tweeted about cardiovascular disease were more likely to be older than the general population of Twitter users (mean age, 28.7 vs 25.4 years; P Twitter offers promise for studying public communication about cardiovascular disease.

  10. Secretory Phospholipase A(2)-IIA and Cardiovascular Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holmes, Michael V.; Simon, Tabassome; Exeter, Holly J.; Folkersen, Lasse; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Guardiola, Montse; Cooper, Jackie A.; Palmen, Jutta; Hubacek, Jaroslav A.; Carruthers, Kathryn F.; Horne, Benjamin D.; Brunisholz, Kimberly D.; Mega, Jessica L.; Van Iperen, Erik P. A.; Li, Mingyao; Leusink, Maarten; Trompet, Stella; Verschuren, Jeffrey J. W.; Hovingh, G. Kees; Dehghan, Abbas; Nelson, Christopher P.; Kotti, Salma; Danchin, Nicolas; Scholz, Markus; Haase, Christiane L.; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Swerdlow, Daniel I.; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B.; Staines-Urias, Eleonora; Goel, Anuj; van 't Hooft, Ferdinand; Gertow, Karl; de Faire, Ulf; Panayiotou, Andrie G.; Tremoli, Elena; Baldassarre, Damiano; Veglia, Fabrizio; Holdt, Lesca M.; Beutner, Frank; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Navis, Gerjan J.; Mateo Leach, Irene; Breitling, Lutz P.; Brenner, Hermann; Thiery, Joachim; Dallmeier, Dhayana; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Boer, Jolanda M. A.; Stephens, Jeffrey W.; Hofker, Marten H.; Tedgui, Alain; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Adamkova, Vera; Pitha, Jan; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Cramer, Maarten J.; Nathoe, Hendrik M.; Spiering, Wilko; Klungel, Olaf H.; Kumari, Meena; Whincup, Peter H.; Morrow, David A.; Braund, Peter S.; Hall, Alistair S.; Olsson, Anders G.; Doevendans, Pieter A.; Trip, Mieke D.; Tobin, Martin D.; Hamsten, Anders; Watkins, Hugh; Koenig, Wolfgang; Nicolaides, Andrew N.; Teupser, Daniel; Day, Ian N. M.; Carlquist, John F.; Gaunt, Tom R.; Ford, Ian; Sattar, Naveed; Tsimikas, Sotirios; Schwartz, Gregory G.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Morris, Richard W.; Sandhu, Manjinder S.; Poledne, Rudolf; Maitland-van der Zee, Anke H.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Keating, Brendan J.; van der Harst, Pim; Price, Jackie F.; Mehta, Shamir R.; Yusuf, Salim; Witteman, Jaqueline C. M.; Franco, Oscar H.; Jukema, J. Wouter; de Knijff, Peter; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Rader, Daniel J.; Farrall, Martin; Samani, Nilesh J.; Kivimaki, Mika; Fox, Keith A. A.; Humphries, Steve E.; Anderson, Jeffrey L.; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs; Palmer, Tom M.; Eriksson, Per; Pare, Guillaume; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Sabatine, Marc S.; Mallat, Ziad; Casas, Juan P.; Talmud, Philippa J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study sought to investigate the role of secretory phospholipase A(2) (sPLA(2))-IIA in cardiovascular disease. Background Higher circulating levels of sPLA(2)-IIA mass or sPLA(2) enzyme activity have been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events. However, it is not

  11. Cardiovascular risk factors and non-communicable diseases in Abia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria.3Department of ... burden of non-communicable diseases as well as associated cardiovascular risk factors in the state using the World ...... related IEC/BCC materials, training of health care providers, provision of ...

  12. YKL-40: a new biomarker in cardiovascular disease?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, Anders Bruun; Henningsen, Kristoffer Mads Aaris; Harutyunyan, Marina Jurjevna

    2010-01-01

    . But in spite of improved treatments, many patients are still plagued by a high frequency of angina symptoms, hospitalizations and a poor prognosis. There is a need for new independent or supplementary biomarkers that can help to predict cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular events earlier and more...

  13. Vitamin D and cardiovascular disease: Update and outlook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pilz, S.; Kienreich, K.; Tomaschitz, A.; Lerchbaum, E.; Meinitzer, A.; Marz, W.; Zittermann, A.; Dekker, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that vitamin D may play a role for cardiovascular health. Expression of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and enzymes for vitamin D metabolism have been identified in the vasculature as well as in the heart. VDR knock-out mice suffer from cardiovascular disease (CVD) and

  14. Psoriasis: cardiovascular risk factors and other disease comorbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying; Mills, Douglas; Bala, Mohan

    2008-04-01

    The risk factors of cardiovascular disease and other disease comorbidities appear to be more common in patients with psoriasis compared with the general population. To support this concept, the association between psoriasis and cardiovascular disease and other comorbidities was analyzed using data collected from 40 730 patients in the National Health and Wellness Survey (NHWS) during May and June 2004. A case-control study was conducted with data from 1127 patients with psoriasis and a matched cohort of nonpsoriasis patients. Psoriasis patients were significantly more likely to have cardiovascular comorbidities, including hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes, compared with nonpsoriasis patients. Other comorbidities significantly associated with psoriasis were arthritis, depression, sleep disorder/insomnia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and gastroesophageal reflux disease. Responses to this large survey confirm that patients with psoriasis have a higher rate of cardiovascular risk factors and other comorbidities compared with patients without psoriasis.

  15. Chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular risk : epidemiology, mechanisms, and prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gansevoort, Ron T.; Correa-Rotter, Ricardo; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R.; Jafar, Tazeen H.; Heerspink, Hiddo J. Lambers; Mann, Johannes F.; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Wen, Chi Pang

    2013-01-01

    Since the first description of the association between chronic kidney disease and heart disease, many epidemiological studies have confirmed and extended this finding. As chronic kidney disease progresses, kidney-specific risk factors for cardiovascular events and disease come into play. As a

  16. Prevalence and Cardiovascular Associations of Diabetic Retinopathy and Maculopathy: Results from the Gutenberg Health Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Raum

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy (DR is the leading cause of blindness in people of working age. The purpose of this paper is to report the prevalence and cardiovascular associations of diabetic retinopathy and maculopathy (DMac in Germany.The Gutenberg Health Study (GHS is a population-based study with 15,010 participants aged between 35 at 74 years from the city of Mainz and the district of Mainz-Bingen. We determined the weighted prevalence of DR and DMac by assessing fundus photographs of persons with diabetes from the GHS data base. Diabetes was defined as HbA1c ≥ 6.5%, known diagnosis diabetes mellitus or known diabetes medication. Furthermore, we analysed the association between DR and cardiovascular risk factors and diseases.Overall, 7.5% (1,124/15,010 of the GHS cohort had diabetes. Of these, 27.7% were unaware of their disease and thus were newly diagnosed by their participation in the GHS. The prevalence of DR and DMac was 21.7% and 2.3%, respectively among patients with diabetes. Vision-threatening disease was present in 5% of the diabetic cohort. In the multivariable analysis DR (all types was associated with age (Odds Ratio [95% confidence interval]: 0.97 [0.955-0.992]; p = 0.006 arterial hypertension (1.90 [1.190-3.044]; p = 0.0072 and vision-threatening DR with obesity (3.29 [1.504-7.206]; p = 0.0029. DR (all stages and vision-threatening DR were associated with duration of diabetes (1.09 [1.068-1.114]; p<0.0001 and 1.18 [1.137-1.222]; p<0.0001, respectively.Our calculations suggest that approximately 142 000 persons aged between 35 and 74 years have vision threatening diabetic retinal disease in Germany [corrected].Prevalence of DR was lower in the GHS compared to East-Asian studies. Associations were found with age, arterial hypertension, obesity, and duration of diabetes mellitus.

  17. Prevalence and Cardiovascular Associations of Diabetic Retinopathy and Maculopathy: Results from the Gutenberg Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raum, Philipp; Lamparter, Julia; Ponto, Katharina A.; Peto, Tunde; Hoehn, René; Schulz, Andreas; Schneider, Astrid; Wild, Philipp S.; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Mirshahi, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Objective Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of blindness in people of working age. The purpose of this paper is to report the prevalence and cardiovascular associations of diabetic retinopathy and maculopathy (DMac) in Germany. Research Design and Methods The Gutenberg Health Study (GHS) is a population-based study with 15,010 participants aged between 35 at 74 years from the city of Mainz and the district of Mainz-Bingen. We determined the weighted prevalence of DR and DMac by assessing fundus photographs of persons with diabetes from the GHS data base. Diabetes was defined as HbA1c ≥ 6.5%, known diagnosis diabetes mellitus or known diabetes medication. Furthermore, we analysed the association between DR and cardiovascular risk factors and diseases. Results Overall, 7.5% (1,124/15,010) of the GHS cohort had diabetes. Of these, 27.7% were unaware of their disease and thus were newly diagnosed by their participation in the GHS. The prevalence of DR and DMac was 21.7% and 2.3%, respectively among patients with diabetes. Vision-threatening disease was present in 5% of the diabetic cohort. In the multivariable analysis DR (all types) was associated with age (Odds Ratio [95% confidence interval]: 0.97 [0.955–0.992]; p = 0.006) arterial hypertension (1.90 [1.190–3.044]; p = 0.0072) and vision-threatening DR with obesity (3.29 [1.504–7.206]; p = 0.0029). DR (all stages) and vision-threatening DR were associated with duration of diabetes (1.09 [1.068–1.114]; p<0.0001 and 1.18 [1.137–1.222]; p<0.0001, respectively). Conclusions Our calculations suggest that more than a quarter-million persons have vision-threatening diabetic retinal disease in Germany. Prevalence of DR was lower in the GHS compared to East-Asian studies. Associations were found with age, arterial hypertension, obesity, and duration of diabetes mellitus. PMID:26075604

  18. [Effects of anti-diabetic therapy on cardiovascular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avogaro, Angelo

    2013-12-01

    It is debatable whether metabolic control in patients with type 2 diabetes is followed by a commensurate reduction in cardiovascular risk. Large clinical outcome trials have shown that lowering glucose is a poor predictor of cardiovascular outcome; rather a too tight metabolic control exposes patients, particularly those at risk for hypoglycemia, and with renal failure, to severe adverse events. This article reviews the specific effects of the most commonly used glucose-lowering agents on the cardiovascular system, and specifies which drug is best suited for a given clinical condition related to cardiovascular disease.

  19. Awareness of cardiovascular disease in eastern Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadira A Al-Baghli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the awareness of cardiovascular disease (CVD and their determinants in a screening campaign in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: All national residents in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia aged 30 years and above, were invited to participate in a screening campaign for the early detection of diabetes and hypertension at more than 300 examination posts throughout the eastern province. A pre-structured questionnaire was designed to collect data on age, gender, marital status, education level, occupation, lifestyle habits, and history of heart attack, angina, arterial disease, stroke, and transient ischemic attack. Weight, height, blood pressure, and glucose concentration were measured. Results: Out of 197,681 participants, 5372 (2.7% were aware of a history of a CVD. The prevalence correlated well with age. It was higher in women, widows, and subjects with lower level of education. More than 75% of affected subjects had two or more risk factors. Conclusion: A substantial proportion of those with a history of CVD had multiple risk factors, necessitating an effective, focused policy for the prevention and treatment. Increased effort is required to promote an awareness of cardiac disease and also probably target primary care providers involved in the screening process.

  20. Cardiovascular comorbidity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the Canary Islands (CCECAN study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueira Gonçalves, Juan Marco; Dorta Sánchez, Rafael; Rodri Guez Pérez, María Del Cristo; Viña Manrique, Pedro; Díaz Pérez, David; Guzmán Saenz, Cristina; Palmero Tejera, Juan Manuel; Pérez Rodríguez, Alicia; Pérez Negrín, Lorenzo

    Numerous studies have shown a high prevalence of cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and comorbidity in a Canary Islands population diagnosed with COPD, and compared it with data from the general population. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 300 patients with COPD and 524 subjects without respiratory disease (control group). The two groups were compared using standard bivariate methods. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the cardiovascular risks in COPD patients compared to control group. Patients with COPD showed a high prevalence of hypertension (72%), dyslipidaemia (73%), obesity (41%), diabetes type 2 (39%), and sleep apnoea syndrome (30%) from mild stages of the disease (GOLD 2009). There was a 22% prevalence of cardiac arrhythmia, 16% of ischaemic heart disease, 16% heart failure, 12% peripheral vascular disease, and 8% cerebrovascular disease. Compared to the control group, patients with COPD had a higher risk of dyslipidaemia (OR 3.24, 95% CI; 2.21-4.75), diabetes type 2 (OR 1.52, 95% CI; 1.01-2,28), and ischaemic heart disease (OR 2.34, 95% CI; 1.22-4.49). In the case of dyslipidaemia, an increased risk was obtained when adjusted for age, gender, and consumption of tobacco (OR 5.04, 95% CI; 2.36-10.74). Patients with COPD resident in the Canary Islands have a high prevalence of hypertension, dyslipidaemia, ischaemic heart disease, and cardiac arrhythmia. Compared to general population, patients with COPD have a significant increase in the risk of dyslipidaemia. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Update: systemic diseases and the cardiovascular system (i): obesity and the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Jiménez, Francisco; Cortés-Bergoderi, Mery

    2011-02-01

    Excess weight is the most prevalent cardiovascular risk factor and certainly the factor that improves the least over time among those with established cardiovascular disease. The association between obesity and cardiovascular disease is complex and not limited to the standard risk factors like hypertension, dyslipidemia, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In recent years, multiple studies have shown that obesity may cause cardiovascular diseases via multiple disease mechanisms like subclinical inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, increased sympathetic tone, atherogenic lipid profiles, enhanced thrombogenic factors and also through obstructive sleep apnea. Despite the overwhelming data linking obesity to cardiovascular disease, several studies have shown a paradoxical association between obesity and prognosis among those with coronary disease and heart failure, which may be due to limitations of the way we currently define obesity. There is abundant data suggesting that measuring central obesity or total body fat content might be more appropriate than using the body mass index alone. The management of obesity is challenging and studies using lifestyle modification alone or with pharmacologic agents generally have limited success and high levels of weight regain. Bariatric surgery has proven to be an effective and safe way to induce and maintain significant weight loss but is limited to those with medically complicated obesity or people who are severely obese. Copyright © 2010 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among workers at a private tertiary center in Angola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paquissi FC

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Feliciano Chanana Paquissi,1 Valdano Manuel,2 Ana Manuel,2 Guiomar Lote Mateus,1 Bruna David,2 Gertrudes Béu,3 Anselmo Castela3 1Department of Medicine, 2Cardio-Thoracic Center, 3Service of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Clínica Girassol, Luanda, Angola Background: The burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVD is increasing in most countries of sub-Saharan Africa. However, as there is a scarcity of data, little is known about CVD in Angola. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of prehypertension, hypertension, prediabetes, diabetes, overweight, and obesity among workers at a private tertiary center in Angola. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 781 workers of Clínica Girassol, a tertiary health care center in Angola, during the month of November 2013. Demographic, anthropometric, and clinical variables were analyzed. Results: Of the 781 participants studied, 50.44% were males and 78.11% were under 40 years old. The prevalence of hypertension and prehypertension was 17.93% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 15.24%–20.74% and 54.03% (95% CI: 50.58%–57.62%, respectively. Among hypertensive subjects, 83.57% (117 were unaware of the diagnosis. Hypertension was associated with age (≥40 years (odds ratio [OR]: 6.21; 95% CI: 4.18–9.24; P<0.001 and with overweight and obesity (OR: 2.32; 95% CI: 1.56–3.44; P<0.001. The prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes was 2.69% (95% CI: 1.54%–3.97% and 7.94% (95% CI: 6.02%–9.99%, respectively. The prevalence of overweight was 34.44% (95% CI: 31.11%–37.90% and 19.85% (95% CI: 17.03%–22.79% for obesity. There was an association between overweight and obesity and the female sex (OR: 1.71; 95% CI: 1.29–2.28; P<0.001. The prevalence of family history of CVD, smoking, and alcoholism was 52.24%, 4.87%, and 45.33%, respectively. Conclusion: There was a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in apparently healthy workers at the private tertiary center in Angola

  3. Cardiovascular Disease in Survivors of Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rugbjerg, Kathrine; Mellemkjaer, Lene; Boice, John D

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease has emerged as a serious late effect in survivors of adolescent and young adult cancer, but risk has not been quantified comprehensively in a population-based setting. METHODS: In the Danish Cancer Registry, we identified 43153 1-year survivors of cancer diagnosed...... at ages 15 to 39 years (1943-2009) and alive in 1977; from the Danish Civil Registration System, we randomly selected a comparison cohort of the same age and sex. Subjects were linked to the Danish Patient Register, and observed numbers of first hospitalizations for cardiovascular disease (International......-sided. RESULTS: During follow-up, 10591 survivors (24.5%) were discharged from the hospital with cardiovascular disease, whereas 8124 were expected (RR = 1.30; 95% confidence interval [CI)] = 1.28 to 1.33; P cardiovascular disease per 100000...

  4. Current European guidelines for management of cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Johan L; Jacobsen, Rikke K; Jørgensen, Torben

    2017-01-01

    treatment and lifestyle intervention were applied to a general population using information on previous cardiovascular diseases, known diabetes, urinalbumin, smoking, total cholesterol, systolic and diabolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and a multifactor risk score (SCORE). Results...

  5. Cardiovascular risk factors and non-communicable diseases in Abia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cardiovascular risk factors and non-communicable diseases in Abia state, Nigeria: report of a community-based survey. OS Ogah, OO Madukwe, UU Onyeonoro, II Chukwuonye, AU Ukegbu, MO Akhimien, IG Okpechi ...

  6. Sexual Health Concerns in Patients with Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... result of cardiovascular disease. Table 3 describes the advantages and disadvantages of each treatment. Talk to your ... Follow Circulation on Google Plus Follow Circulation on Instagram Follow Circulation on Pinterest Follow Circulation on YouTube ...

  7. Cystatin C and Cardiovascular Disease: A Mendelian Randomization Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.W. Van Der Laan (Sander W.); M. Fall (Magnus); A. Soumaré (Aicha); A. Teumer (Alexander); S. Sedaghat (Sanaz); J. Baumert (Jens); D. Zabaneh (Delilah); J. van Setten (Jessica); I. Isgum (Ivana); T.E. Galesloot (Tessel); J. Arpegård (Johannes); P. Amouyel (Philippe); S. Trompet (Stella); M. Waldenberger (Melanie); M. Dörr (Marcus); P.K. Magnusson (Patrik); V. Giedraitis (Vilmantas); A. Larsson (Anders); A.P. Morris (Andrew); J.F. Felix (Janine); A.C. Morrison (Alanna C.); N. Franceschini (Nora); J.C. Bis (Joshua); M. Kavousi (Maryam); C.J. O'Donnell (Christopher); F. Drenos (Fotios); V. Tragante (Vinicius); P. Munroe (Patricia); R. Malik (Rainer); C. Kubisch (Christian); B.B. Worrall (Bradford B.); J. Erdmann (Jeanette); C.P. Nelson (Christopher P.); N.J. Samani (Nilesh); H. Schunkert (Heribert); J. Marchini (Jonathan); R.S. Patel (Riyaz); A. Hingorani (Aroon); W.H.L. Kao (Wen); N.L. Pedersen (Nancy); J. de Graaf (Jacqueline); L.A.L.M. Kiemeney (Bart); S.E. Baumeister (Sebastian); O.H. Franco (Oscar); A. Hofman (Albert); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); W. Koenig (Wolfgang); C. Meisinger (Christa); A. Peters (Annette); B. Thorand (Barbara); J.W. Jukema (Jan Wouter); B.O. Eriksen (Bjørn Odvar); I. Toft (Ingrid); T. Wilsgaard (Tom); N.C. Onland-Moret (N. Charlotte); Y.T. van der Schouw (Yvonne); S. Debette (Stéphanie); M. Kumari (Meena); P. Svensson (Per); P. van der Harst (Pim); M. Kivimaki (Mika); J. Keating (John); N. Sattar (Naveed); A. Dehghan (Abbas); A. Reiner (Alexander); E. Ingelsson (Erik); H.M. den Ruijter (Hester ); P.I.W. de Bakker (Paul); G. Pasterkamp (Gerard); J. Ärnlöv (Johan); M.V. Holmes (Michael); F.W. Asselbergs (Folkert)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstract__Background__ Epidemiological studies show that high circulating cystatin C is associated with risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), independent of creatinine-based renal function measurements. It is unclear whether this relationship is causal, arises from residual confounding,

  8. Economic Burden of Cardiovascular Disease in the Southwest of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Emamgholipour

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: CVDs are the first cause of death globally. About 50% of annual deaths are related to this group of diseases in Iran; however, the economic cost of CVD on Iranian society has not been conducted. Objectives: The aim of this study was to estimate the economic burden of CVDs in the southwest of Iran in 2016 from the social perspective. Materials and Methods: This study is a cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study conducted using the cost of illness (COI framework. The prevalence top-down method was used to quantify the annual cardiovascular costs. Productivity losses were estimated using the human capital approach and the friction cost method, with the discount rate of 3% to convert all future lifetime earnings into the present value. Results: In 2016, the average total cost per patient was $1881.4 and the total costs resulted in 1159.62 $million. Direct costs accounted for 60% and indirect costs for 40% of the total costs. The results were robust to a 20% change in the average unit price of all medical and non- medical direct costs and to discount rate of 2% and 10%. Conclusions: The total cardiovascular disease costs in 2016 represented approximately 6.7% of the Iran gross domestic product. The results of this study would be of special help for policymakers to evaluate the cost-effectiveness and outcomes of health care programs to allocate health care resources efficiently. Primordial Prevention of CVD including lifestyle modifications and dietary interventions resulted in substantial financial savings and is strongly recommended.

  9. A novel risk score to predict cardiovascular disease risk in national populations (Globorisk)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajifathalian, Kaveh; Ueda, Peter; Lu, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    data from three cohorts that were not used to create the equations. We then used the risk prediction equation and data from recent (2006 or later) national health surveys to estimate the proportion of the population at different levels of cardiovascular disease risk in 11 countries from different world...... regions (China, Czech Republic, Denmark, England, Iran, Japan, Malawi, Mexico, South Korea, Spain, and USA). FINDINGS: The risk score discriminated well in internal and external validations, with C statistics generally 70% or more. At any age and risk factor level, the estimated 10 year fatal....... Conversely, the proportion of people at high risk of fatal cardiovascular disease was largest in China and Mexico. In China, 33% of men and 28% of women had a 10-year risk of fatal cardiovascular disease of 10% or more, whereas in Mexico, the prevalence of this high risk was 16% for men and 11% for women...

  10. Inflammatory Mechanisms Linking Periodontal Diseases to Cardiovascular Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenkein, Harvey A.; Loos, Bruno G.

    2015-01-01

    Aims In this paper, inflammatory mechanisms that link periodontal diseases to cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are reviewed. Materials and Methods and Results This paper is a literature review. Studies in the literature implicate a number of possible mechanisms that could be responsible for increased inflammatory responses in atheromatous lesions due to periodontal infections. These include increased systemic levels of inflammatory mediators stimulated by bacteria and their products at sites distant from the oral cavity, elevated thrombotic and hemostatic markers that promote a prothrombotic state and inflammation, cross-reactive systemic antibodies that promote inflammation and interact with the atheroma, promotion of dyslipidemia with consequent increases in proinflammatory lipid classes and subclasses, and common genetic susceptibility factors present in both disease leading to increased inflammatory responses. Conclusions Such mechanisms may be thought to act in concert to increase systemic inflammation in periodontal disease and to promote or exacerbate atherogenesis. However, proof that the increase in systemic inflammation attributable to periodontitis impacts inflammatory responses during atheroma development, thrombotic events, or myocardial infarction or stroke is lacking. PMID:23627334

  11. Lipoprotein (a) as a cause of cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, Børge G; Langsted, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Human epidemiologic and genetic evidence using the Mendelian randomization approach in large-scale studies now strongly supports that elevated lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] is a causal risk factor for cardiovascular disease, that is, for myocardial infarction, atherosclerotic stenosis, and aortic valve...... with very high concentrations to reduce cardiovascular disease are awaited. Recent genetic evidence documents elevated Lp(a) as a cause of myocardial infarction, atherosclerotic stenosis, and aortic valve stenosis....

  12. Iron: Protector or Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Disease? Still Controversial

    OpenAIRE

    Mu?oz-Bravo, Carlos; Guti?rrez-Bedmar, Mario; G?mez-Aracena, Jorge; Garc?a-Rodr?guez, Antonio; Fern?ndez-Crehuet Navajas, Joaqu?n

    2013-01-01

    Iron is the second most abundant metal in the Earth’s crust. Despite being present in trace amounts, it is an essential trace element for the human body, although it can also be toxic due to oxidative stress generation by the Fenton reaction, causing organic biomolecule oxidation. This process is the basis of numerous pathologies, including cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The relationship between iron and cardiovascular disease was proposed in 1981 by Jerome Sullivan. Since then, numerous epid...

  13. Clinical Syndromes Associated with Cardiovascular Diseases: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Sheng Yang, MD, PhD, FACC, FAHA

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In clinical practice, a variety of syndromes are associated with cardiovascular disease and have characteristic findings. Most of them are an autosomal dominant genetic disorder and have different types of cardiovascular abnormalities, including electrocardiographic conduction defects, arrhythmias, cardiomyopathy, vascular and valvular diseases, cardiac septal defects, and pulmonary problems. There is a growing need for physicians to pay more attention to these syndromes.

  14. Mechanisms Linking Red Blood Cell Disorders and Cardiovascular Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Mozos, Ioana

    2015-01-01

    The present paper aims to review the main pathophysiological links between red blood cell disorders and cardiovascular diseases, provides a brief description of the latest studies in this area, and considers implications for clinical practice and therapy. Anemia is associated with a special risk in proatherosclerotic conditions and heart disease and became a new therapeutic target. Guidelines must be updated for the management of patients with red blood cell disorders and cardiovascular dise...

  15. [Risk factors for cardiovascular system damage in chronic kidney disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutyrina, I M; Rudenko, T E; Savel'eva, S A; Shvetsov, M Iu; Vasil'eva, M P

    2013-01-01

    To study the prevalence of and risk factors (RF) associated with cardiovascular system damage in patients with predialysis diabetic and nondiabetic chronic kidney disease (CKD). The investigation enrolled 317 patients with CKD of various etiologies. In Group 1 (165 patients with CKD: 54% of men, 46% of women; mean age 46 +/- 15 years), the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was 37.2 ml/min; the serum creatinine level was 2.9 mg/dl. Group 2 included 152 (41%) patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) (41% of men and 59% of women; mean age 57.3 +/- 7.1 years). The duration of DM averaged 10.4 +/- 7.1 years. All the patients underwent physical examination; the levels of glycated hemoglobin and adipose tissue hormones, urinary albumin excretion were additionally determined in the diabetic patients. Echocardiography was performed in 172 patients. The influence of populationwide and renal failure-associated RFs on the cardiovascular system was evaluated in CKD. Clinical and instrumental examinations of 165 patients with Stages II-IV nondiabetic CKD revealed atherosclerosis of the aorta and the vessels of the heart, brain, kidney, and lower extremities in 60 (37%), 35 (24%), 30 (18%), 23 (14%), and 8 (5%), respectively. As atherosclerotic vascular lesion progressed, the incidence of cardiovascular events (CVE) increased. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) was diagnosed in 37.3% of the patients with nondiabetic CKD. Along with traditional cardiovascular RFs (age, smoking, gender, arterial hypertension), the renal dysfunction-related factors (anemia, diminished glomerular filtration rate, elevated creatitine levels, and abnormal phosphorus and calcium metabolism) are of importance. An association was found between LVH, atherosclerotic vascular lesion, and heart valve calcification. According to EchoCG data, 36% of the patients with type 2 DM were diagnosed as having LVH. The RFs of the latter were albuminuria, obesity, and abnormal carbohydrate and purine metabolisms. There

  16. Increased risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases in individuals with ankylosing spondylitis: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Shelagh M; Levy, Adrian R; Rao, Sumati R; Kirbach, Stephanie E; Lacaille, Diane; Cifaldi, Mary; Maksymowych, Walter P

    2011-11-01

    To estimate the excess risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases among individuals with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) in Quebec compared with the general population of Quebec. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using population-based administrative data from Quebec. The cohort included all adult individuals with at least 1 AS diagnosis on physician billing or hospital discharge records between 1996 and 2006. A comparison cohort was generated using a 1% random sample of individuals without AS. Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, and associated hospitalizations, were classified into 1 of 6 subcategories: congestive heart failure, valvular (aortic or nonaortic) heart disease, ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, or "other" cardiovascular disease. The age- and sex-stratified prevalence estimates, and standardized prevalence ratios, of cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease in patients with AS, compared to that in the general population, were calculated. The AS cohort included 8,616 individuals diagnosed over the period 1996-2006. The prevalence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases increased with increasing age for all cardiovascular disease subgroups, and was similar for individuals of both sexes. Age- and sex-stratified prevalence ratios were highest in younger individuals with AS. The age- and sex-standardized prevalence ratios comparing the risk among those with AS to the risk in the general population were as follows: for aortic valvular heart disease 1.58 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.31-1.91), for nonaortic valvular heart disease 1.58 (95% CI 1.43-1.74), for ischemic heart disease 1.37 (95% CI 1.31-1.44), for congestive heart failure 1.34 (95% CI 1.26-1.42), for "other" cardiovascular disease 1.36 (95% CI 1.29-1.44), for cerebrovascular disease 1.25 (95% CI 1.15-1.35), and for any hospitalization for a cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease 1.31 (95% CI 1.22-1.41). Compared with the general population

  17. Randomised intervention study to assess the prevalence of subclinical vascular disease and hidden kidney disease and its impact on morbidity and mortality: The ILERVAS project

    OpenAIRE

    Àngels Betriu; Cristina Farràs; María Abajo; Montserrat Martinez-Alonso; David Arroyo; Ferran Barbé; Miquel Buti; Albert Lecube; Manuel Portero; Francisco Purroy; Gerard Torres; José Manuel Valdivielso; Elvira Fernández

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and atherosclerosis are 2 interrelated diseases that increase the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The objectives of the ILERVAS project are: (1) to determine the prevalence of subclinical arterial disease and hidden kidney disease; (2) to assess the impact of early diagnosis of both diseases on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and also on the progression of CKD; (3) to have a platform of data and biological samples....

  18. Vascular and Biochemical Effects of Moderate Alcohol Consumption: Mechanisms of Protection Against Cardiovascular Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierksma, A.; Grobbee, D.E.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2004-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the vascular and biochemical effects of moderate alcohol consumption and the mechanisms of protection against cardiovascular disease. Cardiovascular disease (CVD), including coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and peripheral vascular disease, is the leading cause

  19. Comparison of cardiovascular disease risk calculators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, G Michael; Garrison, Scott; McCormack, James

    2014-08-01

    The cardiovascular benefit of many preventive interventions (like statins) is strongly dependent on the baseline cardiovascular risk of the patient. Many lipid and vascular primary prevention guidelines advocate for the use of cardiovascular risk calculators. There are over 100 cardiovascular risk prediction models, and some of these models have spawned scores of calculators. Only about 25 of these models/calculators have been externally validated. The ability to identify who will have events frequently varies little (calculators is common with one in three paired comparisons disagreeing on risk category. In part, this disagreement is because calculators vary according to the database they are derived from, choice of clinical endpoints and risk interval duration upon which the estimate is based. Additional risk factors do little to improve the basic risk predictions performance, except perhaps coronary artery calcium which still requires further study before regular use. The estimates provided by cardiovascular risk calculators are ballpark approximations and have a margin of error. Physicians should use models derived from, or calibrated for, populations similar to theirs and understand the endpoints, duration, and special features of their selected calculator.

  20. Sleep Deficiency and Deprivation Leading to Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Kohansieh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep plays a vital role in an individual’s mental, emotional, and physiological well-being. Not only does sleep deficiency lead to neurological and psychological disorders, but also the literature has explored the adverse effects of sleep deficiency on the cardiovascular system. Decreased quantity and quality of sleep have been linked to cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors, such as hypertension, obesity, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. We explore the literature correlating primary sleep deficiency and deprivation as a cause for cardiovascular disease and cite endothelial dysfunction as a common underlying mechanism.

  1. Barriers to lifestyle changes for prevention of cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Leppin, Anja; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Elimination of modifiable risk factors including unhealthy lifestyle has the potential for prevention of 80% of cardiovascular disease cases. The present study focuses on disclosing barriers for maintaining specific lifestyle changes by exploring associations between perceiving...... inequality even in populations with equal and cost-free access to health care. Our study suggests supplementing traditional public campaigns to counter cardiovascular disease by using individualized and targeted initiatives....... these barriers and various sociodemographic and health-related characteristics. METHODS: Data were collected through a web-based questionnaire survey and included 962 respondents who initially accepted treatment for a hypothetical cardiovascular risk, and who subsequently stated that they preferred lifestyle...

  2. Musculoskeletal comorbidities in cardiovascular disease, diabetes and respiratory disease: the impact on activity limitations; a representative population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perruccio Anthony V

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to quantify the contribution of comorbidity to activity limitations in populations with chronic cardiovascular disease, diabetes or respiratory disease (index conditions, with emphasis on musculoskeletal comorbidity (arthritis or back problems. Methods Analysis of the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey 3.1 (age 20+ years, n = 115,915. Prevalence ratios for activity limitations in people with the index conditions and co-occurring musculoskeletal disease, adjusted for age, gender, and socioeconomic factors, were used to estimate population associated fractions (PAF. Results Comorbid arthritis and back problems significantly increased the risk of activity limitations across all index conditions with prevalence ratios of 1.60 and 1.46 for cardiovascular disease, 1.51 and 1.36 for diabetes, and 1.38 and 1.44 for respiratory disease for arthritis and back problems respectively. Arthritis and back problems accounted for at least 13% and 9% of activity limitations in the index populations. Conclusions While chronic musculoskeletal conditions are not always considered priorities in chronic disease prevention, they account for a substantial proportion of activity restrictions seen in people with cardiovascular disease, diabetes and respiratory disease, with implications for prevention and control strategies.

  3. [Resting heart rate and cardiovascular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito Díaz, Buenaventura; Alemán Sánchez, José Juan; Cabrera de León, Antonio

    2014-07-07

    Heart rate reflects autonomic nervous system activity. Numerous studies have demonstrated that an increased heart rate at rest is associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality as an independent risk factor. It has been shown a link between cardiac autonomic balance and inflammation. Thus, an elevated heart rate produces a micro-inflammatory response and is involved in the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction. In turn, decrease in heart rate produces benefits in congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation, obesity, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, and atherosclerosis. Alteration of other heart rate-related parameters, such as their variability and recovery after exercise, is associated with risk of cardiovascular events. Drugs reducing the heart rate (beta-blockers, calcium antagonists and inhibitors of If channels) have the potential to reduce cardiovascular events. Although not recommended in healthy subjects, interventions for reducing heart rate constitute a reasonable therapeutic goal in certain pathologies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  4. Flavonoid intake and cardiovascular disease mortality in a prospective cohort of US adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Flavonoids are plant-based phytochemicals with cardiovascular protective properties. Few studies have comprehensively examined flavonoid classes in relation to cardiovascular disease mortality. We examined the association between flavonoid intake and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortalit...

  5. The glycocalyx-linking albuminuria with renal and cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rabelink, Ton J.; de Zeeuw, Dick

    2015-01-01

    Albuminuria is commonly used as a marker of kidney disease progression, but some evidence suggests that albuminuria also contributes to disease progression by inducing renal injury in specific disease conditions. Studies have confirmed that in patients with cardiovascular risk factors, such as

  6. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance findings in a case of Danon disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosieradzka Agnieszka

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Danon disease is a rare X-linked dominant lysosomal glycogen storage disease that can lead to severe ventricular hypertrophy and heart failure. We report a case of Danon disease with cardiac involvement evaluated with cardiovascular magnetic resonance, including late gadolinium enhancement and perfusion studies.

  7. Prevalence and overlap of Disease Management Program diseases in older hospitalized patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul-Larsen, Helle Gybel; Petersen, Janne; Sivertsen, Ditte Maria

    2017-01-01

    defined by several ICD-10 codes predefined in the DMPs. Of these patients, 904 (19.4%) had 2 + PDs, and there were 47 different combinations of the six different PDs. The most prevalent pair of PDs was type 2 diabetes with cardiovascular disease in 203 (22.5%) patients, of whom 40.4% had an additional PD......Many countries, like Denmark, have tailored Disease Management Programs (DMPs) based on patients having single chronic diseases [defined institutionally as "program diseases" (PDs)], which can complicate treatment for those with multiple chronic diseases. The aims of this study were (a) to assess...... the prevalence and overlap among acutely hospitalized older medical patients of PDs defined by the DMPs, and (b) to examine transitions between different departments during hospitalization and mortality and readmission within two time intervals among patients with the different PDs. We conducted a registry study...

  8. Prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors among staff of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: The aim was to describe the frequency of occurrence of traditional cardiovascular (CV) risk factors among selected university workers in Ladoke Akintola University of Technology (LAUTECH) Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A cross‑sectional study of 206 staff of LAUTECH, Ogbomoso, Nigeria had an assessment for ...

  9. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cardiovascular co-morbidities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Panuccio

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD is the fourth largest cause of death worldwide. However, most patients with COPD die from cardiovascular causes (CVD. COPD is an independent risk factor for CVD and a predictor of long-term mortality. There is a high prevalence of traditional risk factors in this patient group, including smoking, sedentary behaviour and low socio-economic class. COPD is now recognized to having both local lung and systemic effects. The mechanism of such systemic effects is not completely known, but it is supposed to be related to enhanced systemic inflammation and to oxidative stress, both implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic process. CONCLUSIONS COPD is frequently associated with congestive heart failure (CHF. It is also a confounding factor for the diagnosis of CHF. In fact, some studies demonstrate that about 20% of patients diagnosed with COPD had also or only CHF. Patients with CHF and associated COPD have less frequently β-blockers prescription than CHF patients without COPD. COPD is a heavy negative prognostic factor for CHF hospitalization and mortality. Pulmonary Embolism (PE in patients with COPD is generally underdiagnosed, and this last disease is a risk factor for a complicated course of PE, with increased mortality.

  10. Prevalence of genetic renal disease in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jeffery; McDonald, Stephen; Alexander, Stephen I

    2013-02-01

    Genetic etiology comprises a significant proportion of renal disease in childhood. Completion of the Human Genome Project and increased genetic testing has assisted with the increased recognition of a genetic basis to many renal disorders. Australia and New Zealand have a relatively stable but diverse population, with eight major pediatric nephrology referral centers, which allow ascertainment of disease frequency. To determine prevalence, pediatric nephrologists at the eight centers in Australia and New Zealand were surveyed on their estimated number of patients with renal disease of genetic etiology over a 10-year period. Disease prevalence was calculated using combined national population data. The overall prevalence of genetic kidney disease in children in Australia and New Zealand is 70.6 children per million age-representative population. Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) and steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) are the most frequent, with a prevalence of 16.3 and 10.7, respectively, per million children. We find a similar prevalence of genetic renal disorders in Australia and New Zealand to those reported in other countries. This is likely to be due to inclusion of children with all forms of renal disease rather than being limited to those with renal impairment.

  11. Metabolic syndrome, chronic kidney, and cardiovascular diseases: role of adipokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesauro, Manfredi; Canale, Maria Paola; Rodia, Giuseppe; Di Daniele, Nicola; Lauro, Davide; Scuteri, Angelo; Cardillo, Carmine

    2011-03-07

    Obesity is a chronic disease, whose incidence is alarmingly growing. It is associated with metabolic abnormalities and cardiovascular complications. These complications are clustered in the metabolic syndrome (MetS) leading to high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Obesity predisposes to diabetic nephropathy, hypertensive nephrosclerosis, and focal and segmental glomerular sclerosis and represents an independent risk factor for the development and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Albuminuria is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Microalbuminuria has been described as early manifestation of MetS-associated kidney damage and diabetic nephropathy. Obesity and MetS affect renal physiology and metabolism through mechanisms which include altered levels of adipokines such as leptin and adiponectin, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Secretory products of adipose tissue also deeply and negatively influence endothelial function. A better understanding of these interactions will help in designing more effective treatments aimed to protect both renal and cardiovascular systems.

  12. Metabolic Syndrome, Chronic Kidney, and Cardiovascular Diseases: Role of Adipokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfredi Tesauro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a chronic disease, whose incidence is alarmingly growing. It is associated with metabolic abnormalities and cardiovascular complications. These complications are clustered in the metabolic syndrome (MetS leading to high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Obesity predisposes to diabetic nephropathy, hypertensive nephrosclerosis, and focal and segmental glomerular sclerosis and represents an independent risk factor for the development and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD. Albuminuria is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs. Microalbuminuria has been described as early manifestation of MetS-associated kidney damage and diabetic nephropathy. Obesity and MetS affect renal physiology and metabolism through mechanisms which include altered levels of adipokines such as leptin and adiponectin, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Secretory products of adipose tissue also deeply and negatively influence endothelial function. A better understanding of these interactions will help in designing more effective treatments aimed to protect both renal and cardiovascular systems.

  13. [Serum albumin and cardiovascular diseases: A comprehensive review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arques, S

    2018-03-12

    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide. Conceptually, endothelial dysfunction, inflammatory status and oxidative stress are at the forefront in the onset and development of most cardiovascular diseases, particularly coronary artery disease and heart failure. Serum albumin, the most abundant plasma protein, has many physiological properties, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antiplatelet aggregation activity. It also plays an essential role in the fluid exchange across the capillary membrane. Definite evidence is that hypo-albuminemia is a powerful prognostic marker in the general population as well as in many pathological settings. In the more specific context of cardiovascular diseases, serum albumin is independently associated with the development of a variety of deleterious conditions such as coronary artery disease, heart failure, atrial fibrillation and stroke. Serum albumin has also emerged as a powerful prognostic parameter in patients with coronary artery disease, heart failure, congenital heart disease, infective endocarditis, cardiovascular surgery and stroke, regardless of usual prognostic markers. This prognostic value probably refers mainly to the malnutrition-inflammation syndrome and the severity of comorbidities. Nevertheless, hypo-albuminemia may act as an unknown and modifiable risk factor that contributes to the emergence and the pejorative evolution of cardiovascular diseases, mainly by exacerbation of inflammation, oxidative stress and platelet aggregation, and by pulmonary and myocardial edema. This article provides an overview of the physiological properties of serum albumin, the prevalence, causes, prognostic value and potential contribution to the emergence and aggravation of cardiovascular disease of hypoalbuminemia, as well as its clinical implications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Risk factors for cardiovascular disease in the Ga-Rankuwa community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.Q. Li

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the most common and yet one of the most preventable causes of death in the world. Rapid urbanization in South Africa is accompanied by rapid changes in lifestyle and environmental exposure that increase the burden of chronic cardiovascular diseases. Risk factors, modifiable or nonmodifiable, exist that increases a person’s chances of developing cardiovascular disease. Though some knowledge is