WorldWideScience

Sample records for prevalent cancer worldwide

  1. Worldwide prevalence of hypospadias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, A; van den Heijkant, M; Baumann, S

    2016-06-01

    Hypospadias is a common congenital malformation. Surgical repair and management of the long-term consequences require a substantial amount of socioeconomic resources. It is generally accepted that genetic and environmental factors play a major role in the etiology of hypospadias. There have been contradictory reports on rising hypospadias rates, and regional and ethnical differences. The exact prevalence of hypospadias is of major interest for healthcare providers, clinical medicine, and research. To review the literature regarding the worldwide prevalence of hypospadias. Pubmed, EMBASE and Google were systematically screened for: hypospadias, congenital malformation, anomaly, incidence, prevalence, and epidemiology. Exclusion criteria were surgical and risk-factor studies. To give an additional comprehensive overview, prevalence data were harvested from the Annual Report of the International Clearinghouse Centre for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research. Prevalence was reported as per 10,000 live births. Data were available from 1910 to 2013. The median study period was 9 years (range: 1-36 years). Approximately 90,255,200 births have been screened in all studies. The mean prevalence were: Europe 19.9 (range: 1-464), North America 34.2 (6-129.8), South America 5.2 (2.8-110), Asia 0.6-69, Africa 5.9 (1.9-110), and Australia 17.1-34.8. There were major geographical, regional, and ethnical differences, with an extreme heterogeneity of published studies. Numerous studies showed an increasing prevalence; on the other hand, there were a lot of contradictory data on the prevalence of hypospadias. The summary table shows contradictory data from the five largest international studies available. There was huge literature available on the prevalence of hypospadias. Most data derived from Europe and North America. Many methodological factors influenced the calculation of an accurate prevalence, and even more of the true changes in prevalence over time (no generally accepted

  2. Worldwide esophageal cancer collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, T W; Rusch, V W; Apperson-Hansen, C; Allen, M S; Chen, L-Q; Hunter, J G; Kesler, K A; Law, S; Lerut, T E M R; Reed, C E; Salo, J A; Scott, W J; Swisher, S G; Watson, T J; Blackstone, E H

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to report assemblage of a large multi-institutional international database of esophageal cancer patients, patient and tumor characteristics, and survival of patients undergoing esophagectomy alone and its correlates. Forty-eight institutions were approached and agreed to participate in a worldwide esophageal cancer collaboration (WECC), and 13 (Asia, 2; Europe, 2; North America, 9) submitted data as of July 1, 2007. These were used to construct a de-identified database of 7884 esophageal cancer patients who underwent esophagectomy. Four thousand six hundred and twenty-seven esophagectomy patients had no induction or adjuvant therapy. Mean age was 62 +/- 11 years, 77% were men, and 33% were Asian. Mean tumor length was 3.3 +/- 2.5 cm, and esophageal location was upper in 4.1%, middle in 27%, and lower in 69%. Histopathologic cell type was adenocarcinoma in 60% and squamous cell in 40%. Histologic grade was G1 in 32%, G2 in 33%, G3 in 35%, and G4 in 0.18%. pT classification was pTis in 7.3%, pT1 in 23%, pT2 in 16%, pT3 in 51%, and pT4 in 3.3%. pN classification was pN0 in 56% and pN1 in 44%. The number of lymph nodes positive for cancer was 1 in 12%, 2 in 8%, 3 in 5%, and >3 in 18%. Resection was R0 in 87%, R1 in 11%, and R2 in 3%. Overall survival was 78, 42, and 31% at 1, 5, and 10 years, respectively. Unlike single-institution studies, in this worldwide collaboration, survival progressively decreases and is distinctively stratified by all variables except region of the world. A worldwide esophageal cancer database has been assembled that overcomes problems of rarity of this cancer. It reveals that survival progressively (monotonically) decreased and was distinctively stratified by all variables except region of the world. Thus, it forms the basis for data-driven esophageal cancer staging. More centers are needed and encouraged to join WECC.

  3. Tamoxifen therapy in breast cancer control worldwide.

    OpenAIRE

    Love, R. R.; Koroltchouk, V.

    1993-01-01

    In most developed and many developing countries, breast cancer is the most frequent cancer and the leading cause of cancer death among women. At least 50% of all breast cancer patients worldwide would survive longer, however, if public awareness about and early detection of the condition were increased and greater use were made of efficient treatment of proven value. With early-stage, localized breast cancer, local treatment combined with adjuvant hormonal therapy with tamoxifen, a synthetic ...

  4. Worldwide burden of colorectal cancer: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favoriti, Pasqualino; Carbone, Gabriele; Greco, Marco; Pirozzi, Felice; Pirozzi, Raffaele Emmanuele Maria; Corcione, Francesco

    2016-03-01

    Colorectal cancer is a major public health problem, being the third most commonly diagnosed cancer and the fourth cause of cancer death worldwide. There is wide variation over time among the different geographic areas due to variable exposure to risk factors, introduction and uptake of screening as well as access to appropriate treatment services. Indeed, a large proportion of the disparities may be attributed to socioeconomic status. Although colorectal cancer continues to be a disease of the developed world, incidence rates have been rising in developing countries. Moreover, the global burden is expected to further increase due to the growth and aging of the population and because of the adoption of westernized behaviors and lifestyle. Colorectal cancer screening has been proven to greatly reduce mortality rates that have declined in many longstanding as well as newly economically developed countries. Statistics on colorectal cancer occurrence are essential to develop targeted strategies that could alleviate the burden of the disease. The aim of this paper is to provide a review of incidence, mortality and survival rates for colorectal cancer as well as their geographic variations and temporal trends.

  5. Worldwide Esophageal Cancer Collaboration: clinical staging data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, T W; Apperson-Hansen, C; DiPaola, L M; Semple, M E; Lerut, T E M R; Orringer, M B; Chen, L-Q; Hofstetter, W L; Smithers, B M; Rusch, V W; Wijnhoven, B P L; Chen, K N; Davies, A R; D'Journo, X B; Kesler, K A; Luketich, J D; Ferguson, M K; Räsänen, J V; van Hillegersberg, R; Fang, W; Durand, L; Allum, W H; Cecconello, I; Cerfolio, R J; Pera, M; Griffin, S M; Burger, R; Liu, J-F; Allen, M S; Law, S; Watson, T J; Darling, G E; Scott, W J; Duranceau, A; Denlinger, C E; Schipper, P H; Ishwaran, H; Blackstone, E H

    2016-10-01

    To address uncertainty of whether clinical stage groupings (cTNM) for esophageal cancer share prognostic implications with pathologic groupings after esophagectomy alone (pTNM), we report data-simple descriptions of patient characteristics, cancer categories, and non-risk-adjusted survival-for clinically staged patients from the Worldwide Esophageal Cancer Collaboration (WECC). Thirty-three institutions from six continents submitted data using variables with standard definitions: demographics, comorbidities, clinical cancer categories, and all-cause mortality from first management decision. Of 22,123 clinically staged patients, 8,156 had squamous cell carcinoma, 13,814 adenocarcinoma, 116 adenosquamous carcinoma, and 37 undifferentiated carcinoma. Patients were older (62 years) men (80%) with normal body mass index (18.5-25 mg/kg 2 , 47%), little weight loss (2.4 ± 7.8 kg), 0-1 ECOG performance status (67%), and history of smoking (67%). Cancers were cT1 (12%), cT2 (22%), cT3 (56%), cN0 (44%), cM0 (95%), and cG2-G3 (89%); most involved the distal esophagus (73%). Non-risk-adjusted survival for squamous cell carcinoma was not distinctive for early cT or cN; for adenocarcinoma, it was distinctive for early versus advanced cT and for cN0 versus cN+. Patients with early cancers had worse survival and those with advanced cancers better survival than expected from equivalent pathologic categories based on prior WECC pathologic data. Thus, clinical and pathologic categories do not share prognostic implications. This makes clinically based treatment decisions difficult and pre-treatment prognostication inaccurate. These data will be the basis for the 8th edition cancer staging manuals following risk adjustment for patient characteristics, cancer categories, and treatment characteristics and should direct 9th edition data collection. © 2016 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  6. Worldwide Esophageal Cancer Collaboration: pathologic staging data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, T W; Chen, L-Q; Hofstetter, W L; Smithers, B M; Rusch, V W; Wijnhoven, B P L; Chen, K L; Davies, A R; D'Journo, X B; Kesler, K A; Luketich, J D; Ferguson, M K; Räsänen, J V; van Hillegersberg, R; Fang, W; Durand, L; Cecconello, I; Allum, W H; Cerfolio, R J; Pera, M; Griffin, S M; Burger, R; Liu, J-F; Allen, M S; Law, S; Watson, T J; Darling, G E; Scott, W J; Duranceau, A; Denlinger, C E; Schipper, P H; Lerut, T E M R; Orringer, M B; Ishwaran, H; Apperson-Hansen, C; DiPaola, L M; Semple, M E; Blackstone, E H

    2016-10-01

    We report data-simple descriptions of patient characteristics, cancer categories, and non-risk-adjusted survival-for patients with pathologically staged cancer of the esophagus and esophagogastric junction after resection or ablation with no preoperative therapy from the Worldwide Esophageal Cancer Collaboration (WECC). Thirty-three institutions from six continents submitted de-identified data using standard definitions: demographics, comorbidities, clinical cancer categories, and all-cause mortality from first management decision. Of 13,300 patients, 5,631 had squamous cell carcinoma, 7,558 adenocarcinoma, 85 adenosquamous carcinoma, and 26 undifferentiated carcinoma. Patients were older (62 years) men (80%) with normal body mass index (51%), little weight loss (1.8 kg), 0-2 ECOG performance status (83%), and a history of smoking (70%). Cancers were pT1 (24%), pT2 (15%), pT3 (50%), pN0 (52%), pM0 (93%), and pG2-G3 (78%); most involved distal esophagus (71%). Non-risk-adjusted survival for both squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma was monotonic and distinctive across pTNM. Survival was more distinctive for adenocarcinoma than squamous cell carcinoma when pT was ordered by pN. Survival for pTis-1 adenocarcinoma was better than for squamous cell carcinoma, although monotonic and distinctive for both. WECC pathologic staging data is improved over that of the 7th edition, with more patients studied and patient and cancer variables collected. These data will be the basis for the 8th edition cancer staging manuals following risk adjustment for patient, cancer, and treatment characteristics, and should direct 9th edition data collection. However, the role of pure pathologic staging as the principal point of reference for esophageal cancer staging is waning. © 2016 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  7. Aflatoxin, hepatitis and worldwide liver cancer risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Sara H; Bosch, F Xavier; Bowers, J C

    2002-01-01

    Aflatoxins are among the most potent mutagenic and carcinogenic substances known. Differential potency of aflatoxin among species can be partially attributed to differences in metabolism; however, current information on competing aspects of metabolic activation and detoxification of aflatoxin in various species does not identify an adequate animal model for humans. Risk of liver cancer is influenced by a number of factors, most notably carriage of hepatitis B virus as determined by the presence in serum of the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg+ or HBsAg-). About 50 to 100% of liver cancer cases are estimated to be associated with persistent infection of hepatitis B (or C) virus. The potency of aflatoxin in HBsAg+ individuals is substantially higher (about a factor of 30) than the potency in HBsAg- individuals. Thus, reduction of the intake of aflatoxins in populations with a high prevalence of HBsAg+ individuals will have greater impact on reducing liver cancer rates than reductions in populations with a low prevalence of HbsAg+ individuals. The present analysis suggests that vaccination against hepatitis B (or protection against hepatits C), which reduces prevalence of carriers, would reduce the potency of the aflatoxins in vaccinated populations and reduce liver cancer risk.

  8. Worldwide prevalence and risk factors for feline hyperthyroidism: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne L. McLean

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Since first reported in the late 1970s, there has been a steady but dramatic increase in the worldwide prevalence of hyperthyroidism in cats. It is now regarded as the most common feline endocrine disorder, with diabetes mellitus coming a close second. Not only is there evidence for an increased worldwide prevalence of feline hyperthyroidism, but also for geographical variation in the prevalence of the disease. Despite its frequency, the underlying cause(s of this common disease is or are not known, and therefore prevention of the disease is not possible. Due to the multiple risk factors that have been described for feline hyperthyroidism, however, it is likely that more than one factor is involved in its pathogenesis. Continuous, lifelong exposure to environmental thyroid-disruptor chemicals or goitrogens in food or water, acting together or in an additive fashion, may lead to euthyroid goitre and ultimately to autonomous adenomatous hyperplasia, thyroid adenoma and hyperthyroidism. This review aims to summarise the available published evidence for the changes observed in the worldwide prevalence of the disease, as well as risk factors that may contribute to development of hyperthyroidism in susceptible cats.

  9. Worldwide prevalence and risk factors for feline hyperthyroidism: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne L. McLean

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Since first reported in the late 1970s, there has been a steady but dramatic increase in the worldwide prevalence of hyperthyroidism in cats. It is now regarded as the most common feline endocrine disorder, with diabetes mellitus coming a close second. Not only is there evidence for an increased worldwide prevalence of feline hyperthyroidism, but also for geographical variation in the prevalence of the disease. Despite its frequency, the underlying cause(s of this common disease is or are not known, and therefore prevention of the disease is not possible. Due to the multiple risk factors that have been described for feline hyperthyroidism, however, it is likely that more than one factor is involved in its pathogenesis. Continuous, lifelong exposure to environmental thyroid-disruptor chemicals or goitrogens in food or water, acting together or in an additive fashion, may lead to euthyroid goitre and ultimately to autonomous adenomatous hyperplasia, thyroid adenoma and hyperthyroidism. This review aims to summarise the available published evidence for the changes observed in the worldwide prevalence of the disease, as well as risk factors that may contribute to development of hyperthyroidism in susceptible cats.

  10. Prevalence of scabies and impetigo worldwide: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romani, Lucia; Steer, Andrew C; Whitfeld, Margot J; Kaldor, John M

    2015-08-01

    Scabies is a skin disease that, through secondary bacterial skin infection (impetigo), can lead to serious complications such as septicaemia, renal disease, and rheumatic heart disease. Yet the worldwide prevalence of scabies is uncertain. We undertook a systematic review, searching several databases and the grey literature, for population-based studies that reported on the prevalence of scabies and impetigo in a community setting. All included studies were assessed for quality. 2409 articles were identified and 48 studies were included. Data were available for all regions except North America. The prevalence of scabies ranged from 0·2% to 71·4%. All regions except for Europe and the Middle East included populations with a prevalence greater than 10%. Overall, scabies prevalence was highest in the Pacific and Latin American regions, and was substantially higher in children than in adolescents and adults. Impetigo was common, particularly in children, with the highest prevalence in Australian Aboriginal communities (49·0%). Comprehensive scabies control strategies are urgently needed, such as a community-based mass drug administration approach, along with a more systematic approach to the monitoring of disease burden. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevalence and causes of low vision and blindness worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O . Oduntan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A recent review of the causes and prevalence of low vision and blindness world wide is lack-ing. Such review is important for highlighting the causes and prevalence of visual impairment in the different parts of the world. Also, it is important in providing information on the types and magnitude of eye care programs needed in different parts of the world. In this article, the causes and prevalence of low vision and blind-ness in different parts of the world are reviewed and  the  socio-economic  and  psychological implications are briefly discussed. The review is based on an extensive review of the litera-ture using computer data bases combined with review of available national, regional and inter-national journals. Low vision and blindness are more prevalent in the developing countries than in the developed ones. Generally, the causes and prevalence of the conditions vary widely in different parts of the world and even within the same country. World wide, cataract is the most common cause of blindness and low vision among adults and elderly. Infectious diseases such as trachoma and onchocerciasis result-ing in low vision and blindness are peculiar to Africa, Asia and South America. Hereditary and congenital conditions are the most common causes of low vision and blindness among chil-dren worldwide.

  12. Prevalence and causes of low vision and blindness worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O . Oduntan

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A recent review of the causes and prevalence of low vision and blindness world wide is lack-ing. Such review is important for highlighting the causes and prevalence of visual impairment in the different parts of the world. Also, it is important in providing information on the types and magnitude of eye care programs needed in different parts of the world. In this article, the causes and prevalence of low vision and blind-ness in different parts of the world are reviewed and  the  socio-economic  and  psychological implications are briefly discussed. The review is based on an extensive review of the litera-ture using computer data bases combined with review of available national, regional and inter-national journals. Low vision and blindness are more prevalent in the developing countries than in the developed ones. Generally, the causes and prevalence of the conditions vary widely in different parts of the world and even within the same country. World wide, cataract is the most common cause of blindness and low vision among adults and elderly. Infectious diseases such as trachoma and onchocerciasis result-ing in low vision and blindness are peculiar to Africa, Asia and South America. Hereditary and congenital conditions are the most common causes of low vision and blindness among chil-dren worldwide.

  13. Prevalence and species of Cryptosporidium in human populations worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    A high prevalence of cryptosporidiosis has been reported in children under 5 years of age in sub-Saharan Africa, especially, but not exclusively, the malnourished and those positive for HIV infection. Infection rates are highest during the rainy season. Cryptosporidium hominis, which is transmitted ...

  14. Prevalence and distribution of principal periodontal pathogens worldwide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rylev, Mette; Kilian, Mogens

    2008-01-01

    putative periodontal pathogens and particular subsets of these species vary between ethnic groups. Few of these differences can, with the limited information available, be directly related to differences in periodontal disease prevalence. Asian populations are regularly colonized with Actinobacillus...... actinomycetemcomitans serotype c with questionable pathogenic potential. Conversely, the JP2 clone of A. actinomycetemcomitans has enhanced virulence and causes significantly higher prevalence of aggressive periodontitis in adolescents whose descent can be traced back to the Mediterranean and Western parts of Africa....... Some genetically distinct types of Porphyromonas gingivalis are more associated with disease than others, but additional work is required to relate this to clinical differences. CONCLUSIONS: Studies that take into account differences linked to the genetics of both patients and potential pathogens...

  15. Worldwide Esophageal Cancer Collaboration: neoadjuvant pathologic staging data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, T W; Lerut, T E M R; Orringer, M B; Chen, L-Q; Hofstetter, W L; Smithers, B M; Rusch, V W; van Lanschot, J; Chen, K N; Davies, A R; D'Journo, X B; Kesler, K A; Luketich, J D; Ferguson, M K; Räsänen, J V; van Hillegersberg, R; Fang, W; Durand, L; Allum, W H; Cecconello, I; Cerfolio, R J; Pera, M; Griffin, S M; Burger, R; Liu, J-F; Allen, M S; Law, S; Watson, T J; Darling, G E; Scott, W J; Duranceau, A; Denlinger, C E; Schipper, P H; Ishwaran, H; Apperson-Hansen, C; DiPaola, L M; Semple, M E; Blackstone, E H

    2016-10-01

    To address uncertainty of whether pathologic stage groupings after neoadjuvant therapy (ypTNM) for esophageal cancer share prognostic implications with pathologic groupings after esophagectomy alone (pTNM), we report data-simple descriptions of patient characteristics, cancer categories, and non-risk-adjusted survival-for pathologically staged cancers after neoadjuvant therapy from the Worldwide Esophageal Cancer Collaboration (WECC). Thirty-three institutions from six continents submitted data using variables with standard definitions: demographics, comorbidities, clinical cancer categories, and all-cause mortality from first management decision. Of 7,773 pathologically staged neoadjuvant patients, 2,045 had squamous cell carcinoma, 5,686 adenocarcinoma, 31 adenosquamous carcinoma, and 11 undifferentiated carcinoma. Patients were older (61 years) men (83%) with normal (40%) or overweight (35%) body mass index, 0-1 Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (96%), and a history of smoking (69%). Cancers were ypT0 (20%), ypT1 (13%), ypT2 (18%), ypT3 (44%), ypN0 (55%), ypM0 (94%), and G2-G3 (72%); most involved the distal esophagus (80%). Non-risk-adjusted survival for yp categories was unequally depressed, more for earlier categories than later, compared with equivalent categories from prior WECC data for esophagectomy-alone patients. Thus, survival of patients with ypT0-2N0M0 cancers was intermediate and similar regardless of ypT; survival for ypN+ cancers was poor. Because prognoses for ypTNM and pTNM categories are dissimilar, prognostication should be based on separate ypTNM categories and groupings. These data will be the basis for the 8th edition cancer staging manuals following risk adjustment for patient, cancer, and treatment characteristics and should direct 9th edition data collection. © 2016 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  16. Birth prevalence of congenital heart disease worldwide: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linde, Denise; Konings, Elisabeth E M; Slager, Maarten A; Witsenburg, Maarten; Helbing, Willem A; Takkenberg, Johanna J M; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W

    2011-11-15

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) accounts for nearly one-third of all major congenital anomalies. CHD birth prevalence worldwide and over time is suggested to vary; however, a complete overview is missing. This systematic review included 114 papers, comprising a total study population of 24,091,867 live births with CHD identified in 164,396 individuals. Birth prevalence of total CHD and the 8 most common subtypes were pooled in 5-year time periods since 1930 and in continent and income groups since 1970 using the inverse variance method. Reported total CHD birth prevalence increased substantially over time, from 0.6 per 1,000 live births (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.4 to 0.8) in 1930 to 1934 to 9.1 per 1,000 live births (95% CI: 9.0 to 9.2) after 1995. Over the last 15 years, stabilization occurred, corresponding to 1.35 million newborns with CHD every year. Significant geographical differences were found. Asia reported the highest CHD birth prevalence, with 9.3 per 1,000 live births (95% CI: 8.9 to 9.7), with relatively more pulmonary outflow obstructions and fewer left ventricular outflow tract obstructions. Reported total CHD birth prevalence in Europe was significantly higher than in North America (8.2 per 1,000 live births [95% CI: 8.1 to 8.3] vs. 6.9 per 1,000 live births [95% CI: 6.7 to 7.1]; p facilities, probably accounting for differences in reported birth prevalence between high- and low-income countries. Observed differences may also be of genetic, environmental, socioeconomical, or ethnic origin, and there needs to be further investigation to tailor the management of this global health problem. Copyright © 2011 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Prevalence of homeopathy use by the general population worldwide: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relton, Clare; Cooper, Katy; Viksveen, Petter; Fibert, Philippa; Thomas, Kate

    2017-05-01

    To systematically review surveys of 12-month prevalence of homeopathy use by the general population worldwide. Studies were identified via database searches to October 2015. Study quality was assessed using a six-item tool. All estimates were in the context of a survey which also reported prevalence of any complementary and alternative medicine use. A total of 36 surveys were included. Of these, 67% met four of six quality criteria. Twelve-month prevalence of treatment by a homeopath was reported in 24 surveys of adults (median 1.5%, range 0.2-8.2%). Estimates for children were similar to those for adults. Rates in the USA, UK, Australia and Canada all ranged from 0.2% to 2.9% and remained stable over the years surveyed (1986-2012). Twelve-month prevalence of all use of homeopathy (purchase of over-the-counter homeopathic medicines and treatment by a homeopath) was reported in 10 surveys of adults (median 3.9%, range 0.7-9.8%) while a further 11 surveys which did not define the type of homeopathy use reported similar data. Rates in the USA and Australia ranged from 1.7% to 4.4% and remained stable over the years surveyed. The highest use was reported by a survey in Switzerland where homeopathy is covered by mandatory health insurance. This review summarises 12-month prevalence of homeopathy use from surveys conducted in eleven countries (USA, UK, Australia, Israel, Canada, Switzerland, Norway, Germany, South Korea, Japan and Singapore). Each year a small but significant percentage of these general populations use homeopathy. This includes visits to homeopaths as well as purchase of over-the-counter homeopathic medicines. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Environmental scan of anal cancer screening practices: worldwide survey results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Jigisha; Salit, Irving E; Berry, Michael J; Pokomandy, Alexandra de; Nathan, Mayura; Fishman, Fred; Palefsky, Joel; Tinmouth, Jill

    2014-01-01

    Anal squamous cell carcinoma is rare in the general population but certain populations, such as persons with HIV, are at increased risk. High-risk populations can be screened for anal cancer using strategies similar to those used for cervical cancer. However, little is known about the use of such screening practices across jurisdictions. Data were collected using an online survey. Health care professionals currently providing anal cancer screening services were invited to complete the survey via email and/or fax. Information was collected on populations screened, services and treatments offered, and personnel. Over 300 invitations were sent; 82 providers from 80 clinics around the world completed the survey. Fourteen clinics have each examined more than 1000 patients. Over a third of clinics do not restrict access to screening; in the rest, eligibility is most commonly based on HIV status and abnormal anal cytology results. Fifty-three percent of clinics require abnormal anal cytology prior to performing high-resolution anoscopy (HRA) in asymptomatic patients. Almost all clinics offer both anal cytology and HRA. Internal high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) is most often treated with infrared coagulation (61%), whereas external high-grade AIN is most commonly treated with imiquimod (49%). Most procedures are performed by physicians, followed by nurse practitioners. Our study is the first description of global anal cancer screening practices. Our findings may be used to inform practice and health policy in jurisdictions considering anal cancer screening

  19. Worldwide Prevalence and Trends in Unintentional Drug Overdose: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Silvia S; Sampson, Laura; Cerdá, Magdalena; Galea, Sandro

    2015-11-01

    Drug overdose is an important, yet an inadequately understood, public health problem. Global attention to unintentional drug overdose has been limited by comparison with the scope of the problem. There has been a substantial increase in drug overdose incidence and prevalence in several countries worldwide over the past decade, contributing to both increased costs and mortality. The aim of this study was to systematically synthesize the peer-reviewed literature to document the global epidemiological profile of unintentional drug overdoses and the prevalence, time trends, mortality rates, and correlates of drug overdoses. We searched different combinations of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms in PubMed for articles published from 1980 until July 2013, and we organized these results in tabular spreadsheets and compared them. We restricted the search to English-language articles that deal with unintentional overdose, focusing on 1 or more of the following key constructs: prevalence, time trends, mortality rates, and correlates. The term "overdose" as a MeSH major topic yielded 1076 publications. In addition, we searched the following combinations of nonmajor MeSH terms: "street drugs" and "overdose" yielded 180, "death" and "overdose" yielded 114, and "poisoning" and "drug users" yielded 17. There was some overlap among the searches. Based on the search and inclusion and exclusion criteria, we selected a total of 169 relevant articles for this article based on a close review of abstracts. We found wide variability in lifetime prevalence of experiencing a nonfatal overdose or witnessing an overdose, and in mortality rates attributable to overdose. Lifetime prevalence of witnessed overdose among drug users (n = 17 samples) ranged from 50% to 96%, with a mean of 73.3%, a median of 70%, and a standard deviation of 14.1%. Lifetime prevalence of drug users personally experiencing a nonfatal overdose (n = 27 samples), ranged from 16.6% to 68.0% with a mean of 45

  20. Cancer classification using the Immunoscore: a worldwide task force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galon, Jérôme; Pagès, Franck; Marincola, Francesco M; Angell, Helen K; Thurin, Magdalena; Lugli, Alessandro; Zlobec, Inti; Berger, Anne; Bifulco, Carlo; Botti, Gerardo; Tatangelo, Fabiana; Britten, Cedrik M; Kreiter, Sebastian; Chouchane, Lotfi; Delrio, Paolo; Arndt, Hartmann; Asslaber, Martin; Maio, Michele; Masucci, Giuseppe V; Mihm, Martin; Vidal-Vanaclocha, Fernando; Allison, James P; Gnjatic, Sacha; Hakansson, Leif; Huber, Christoph; Singh-Jasuja, Harpreet; Ottensmeier, Christian; Zwierzina, Heinz; Laghi, Luigi; Grizzi, Fabio; Ohashi, Pamela S; Shaw, Patricia A; Clarke, Blaise A; Wouters, Bradly G; Kawakami, Yutaka; Hazama, Shoichi; Okuno, Kiyotaka; Wang, Ena; O'Donnell-Tormey, Jill; Lagorce, Christine; Pawelec, Graham; Nishimura, Michael I; Hawkins, Robert; Lapointe, Réjean; Lundqvist, Andreas; Khleif, Samir N; Ogino, Shuji; Gibbs, Peter; Waring, Paul; Sato, Noriyuki; Torigoe, Toshihiko; Itoh, Kyogo; Patel, Prabhu S; Shukla, Shilin N; Palmqvist, Richard; Nagtegaal, Iris D; Wang, Yili; D'Arrigo, Corrado; Kopetz, Scott; Sinicrope, Frank A; Trinchieri, Giorgio; Gajewski, Thomas F; Ascierto, Paolo A; Fox, Bernard A

    2012-10-03

    Prediction of clinical outcome in cancer is usually achieved by histopathological evaluation of tissue samples obtained during surgical resection of the primary tumor. Traditional tumor staging (AJCC/UICC-TNM classification) summarizes data on tumor burden (T), presence of cancer cells in draining and regional lymph nodes (N) and evidence for metastases (M). However, it is now recognized that clinical outcome can significantly vary among patients within the same stage. The current classification provides limited prognostic information, and does not predict response to therapy. Recent literature has alluded to the importance of the host immune system in controlling tumor progression. Thus, evidence supports the notion to include immunological biomarkers, implemented as a tool for the prediction of prognosis and response to therapy. Accumulating data, collected from large cohorts of human cancers, has demonstrated the impact of immune-classification, which has a prognostic value that may add to the significance of the AJCC/UICC TNM-classification. It is therefore imperative to begin to incorporate the 'Immunoscore' into traditional classification, thus providing an essential prognostic and potentially predictive tool. Introduction of this parameter as a biomarker to classify cancers, as part of routine diagnostic and prognostic assessment of tumors, will facilitate clinical decision-making including rational stratification of patient treatment. Equally, the inherent complexity of quantitative immunohistochemistry, in conjunction with protocol variation across laboratories, analysis of different immune cell types, inconsistent region selection criteria, and variable ways to quantify immune infiltration, all underline the urgent requirement to reach assay harmonization. In an effort to promote the Immunoscore in routine clinical settings, an international task force was initiated. This review represents a follow-up of the announcement of this initiative, and of the J

  1. Cancer classification using the Immunoscore: a worldwide task force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galon Jérôme

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Prediction of clinical outcome in cancer is usually achieved by histopathological evaluation of tissue samples obtained during surgical resection of the primary tumor. Traditional tumor staging (AJCC/UICC-TNM classification summarizes data on tumor burden (T, presence of cancer cells in draining and regional lymph nodes (N and evidence for metastases (M. However, it is now recognized that clinical outcome can significantly vary among patients within the same stage. The current classification provides limited prognostic information, and does not predict response to therapy. Recent literature has alluded to the importance of the host immune system in controlling tumor progression. Thus, evidence supports the notion to include immunological biomarkers, implemented as a tool for the prediction of prognosis and response to therapy. Accumulating data, collected from large cohorts of human cancers, has demonstrated the impact of immune-classification, which has a prognostic value that may add to the significance of the AJCC/UICC TNM-classification. It is therefore imperative to begin to incorporate the ‘Immunoscore’ into traditional classification, thus providing an essential prognostic and potentially predictive tool. Introduction of this parameter as a biomarker to classify cancers, as part of routine diagnostic and prognostic assessment of tumors, will facilitate clinical decision-making including rational stratification of patient treatment. Equally, the inherent complexity of quantitative immunohistochemistry, in conjunction with protocol variation across laboratories, analysis of different immune cell types, inconsistent region selection criteria, and variable ways to quantify immune infiltration, all underline the urgent requirement to reach assay harmonization. In an effort to promote the Immunoscore in routine clinical settings, an international task force was initiated. This review represents a follow-up of the announcement of

  2. Annual Research Review: A Meta-Analysis of the Worldwide Prevalence of Mental Disorders in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanczyk, Guilherme V.; Salum, Giovanni A.; Sugaya, Luisa S.; Caye, Arthur; Rohde, Luis A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The literature on the prevalence of mental disorders affecting children and adolescents has expanded significantly over the last three decades around the world. Despite the field having matured significantly, there has been no meta-analysis to calculate a worldwide-pooled prevalence and to empirically assess the sources of…

  3. Alpha-1 antitrypsin Pi*SZ genotype: estimated prevalence and number of SZ subjects worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanco I

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ignacio Blanco,1 Patricia Bueno,2 Isidro Diego,3 Sergio Pérez-Holanda,4 Beatriz Lara,5 Francisco Casas-Maldonado,6 Cristina Esquinas,7 Marc Miravitlles7,8 1Alpha1-Antitrypsin Deficiency Spanish Registry (REDAAT, Lung Foundation Breathe, Spanish Society of Pneumology (SEPAR, Barcelona, Spain; 2Internal Medicine Department, County Hospital of Jarrio, Principality of Asturias, Spain; 3Materials and Energy Department, School of Mining Engineering, Oviedo University, Principality of Asturias, Spain; 4Surgical Department, University Central Hospital of Asturias, Oviedo, Spain; 5Respiratory Medicine Department, Coventry and Warwickshire University Hospital, Coventry, UK; 6Pneumology Department, University Hospital San Cecilio, Granada, Spain; 7Pneumology Department, Hospital Universitari Vall d’Hebron, Barcelona, Spain; 8CIBER de Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERES, Barcelona, Spain Abstract: The alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT haplotype Pi*S, when inherited along with the Pi*Z haplotype to form a Pi*SZ genotype, can be associated with pulmonary emphysema in regular smokers, and less frequently with liver disease, panniculitis, and systemic vasculitis in a small percentage of people, but this connection is less well established. Since the detection of cases can allow the application of preventive measures in patients and relatives with this congenital disorder, the objective of this study was to update the prevalence of the SZ genotype to achieve accurate estimates of the number of Pi*SZ subjects worldwide, based on studies performed according to the following criteria: 1 samples representative of the general population, 2 AAT phenotyping characterized by adequate methods, and 3 selection of studies with reliable results assessed with a coefficient of variation calculated from the sample size and 95% confidence intervals. Studies fulfilling these criteria were used to develop tables and maps with an inverse distance-weighted (IDW interpolation method, to

  4. An Emerging Natural History in the Development, Mechanisms and Worldwide Prevalence of Major Mental Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pediaditakis, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Conciliating recent findings from molecular genetics, evolutionary biology, and clinical observations together point to new understandings regarding the mechanism, development and the persistent worldwide prevalence of major mental disorders (MMDs), which should be considered the result of an evolutionary downside trade off. Temperamental/trait variability, by facilitating choices for individual and group responses, confers robustness flexibility and resilience crucial to success of our species. Extreme temperamental variants, originating evolutionarily from the asocial aspect of human nature, also constitute the premorbid personality of the disorders. The latter create vulnerable individuals out of whom some will develop MMDs but at much higher rate to that of the general population. Significantly, similar temperamental "lopsidedness" enables many of these vulnerable individuals, if intelligent, tenacious, and curious, to be creative and contribute to our survival while some may also develop MMDs. All have a common neural-developmental origin and share characteristics in their clinical expression and pharmacological responses also expressed as mixed syndromes or alternating ones over time. Over-pruning of synaptic neurons may be considered the trigger of such occurrences or conversely, the failure to prevent them in spite of it. The symptoms of the major mental disorders are made up of antithetical substitutes as an expression of a disturbed over-all synchronizing property of brain function for all higher faculties previously unconsidered in their modeling. The concomitant presence of psychosis is a generic common occurrence.

  5. Less overdiagnosis of kidney cancer? an age-period-cohort analysis of incidence trends in 16 populations worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Znaor, Ariana; Laversanne, Mathieu; Bray, Freddie

    2017-09-01

    The increasing rates of kidney cancer incidence, reported in many populations globally, have been attributed both to increasing exposures to environmental risk factors, as well as increasing levels of incidental diagnosis due to widespread use of imaging. To better understand these trends, we examine long-term cancer registry data worldwide, focusing on the roles of birth cohort and calendar period, proxies for changes in risk factor prevalence and detection practice respectively. We used an augmented version of the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents series to analyze kidney cancer incidence rates 1978-2007 in 16 geographically representative populations worldwide by sex for ages 30-74, using age-period-cohort (APC) analysis. The full APC model provided the best fit to the data in most studied populations. While kidney cancer incidence rates have been increasing in successive generations born from the early twentieth century in most countries, equivalent period-specific rises were observed from the late-1970s, although these have subsequently stabilized in certain European countries (the Czech Republic, Lithuania, Finland, Spain) as well as Japan from the mid-1990s, and from the mid-2000s, in Colombia, Costa Rica and Australia. Our results indicate that the effects of both birth cohort and calendar period contribute to the international kidney cancer incidence trends. While cohort-specific increases may partly reflect the rising trends in obesity prevalence and the need for more effective primary prevention policies, the attenuations in period-specific increases (observed in 8 of the 16 populations) highlight a possible change in imaging practices that could lead to mitigation of overdiagnosis and overtreatment. © 2017 UICC.

  6. Annual research review: A meta-analysis of the worldwide prevalence of mental disorders in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanczyk, Guilherme V; Salum, Giovanni A; Sugaya, Luisa S; Caye, Arthur; Rohde, Luis A

    2015-03-01

    The literature on the prevalence of mental disorders affecting children and adolescents has expanded significantly over the last three decades around the world. Despite the field having matured significantly, there has been no meta-analysis to calculate a worldwide-pooled prevalence and to empirically assess the sources of heterogeneity of estimates. We conducted a systematic review of the literature searching in PubMed, PsycINFO, and EMBASE for prevalence studies of mental disorders investigating probabilistic community samples of children and adolescents with standardized assessments methods that derive diagnoses according to the DSM or ICD. Meta-analytical techniques were used to estimate the prevalence rates of any mental disorder and individual diagnostic groups. A meta-regression analysis was performed to estimate the effect of population and sample characteristics, study methods, assessment procedures, and case definition in determining the heterogeneity of estimates. We included 41 studies conducted in 27 countries from every world region. The worldwide-pooled prevalence of mental disorders was 13.4% (CI 95% 11.3-15.9). The worldwide prevalence of any anxiety disorder was 6.5% (CI 95% 4.7-9.1), any depressive disorder was 2.6% (CI 95% 1.7-3.9), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder was 3.4% (CI 95% 2.6-4.5), and any disruptive disorder was 5.7% (CI 95% 4.0-8.1). Significant heterogeneity was detected for all pooled estimates. The multivariate metaregression analyses indicated that sample representativeness, sample frame, and diagnostic interview were significant moderators of prevalence estimates. Estimates did not vary as a function of geographic location of studies and year of data collection. The multivariate model explained 88.89% of prevalence heterogeneity, but residual heterogeneity was still significant. Additional meta-analysis detected significant pooled difference in prevalence rates according to requirement of funcional impairment for the

  7. The Evolving Scale and Profile of Cancer Worldwide: Much Ado About Everything.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Freddie

    2016-01-01

    Today, cancer is responsible for one in three premature deaths from noncommunicable diseases worldwide, and the number of annual cancer diagnoses will rise to well over 20 million by the year 2030. That cancer is of profound importance to future global health reflects both recent gains in human development as well as mortality transitions that are centuries old. Still, cancer is complex, and the extensive geographical and temporal heterogeneity alerts us to the need for targeted, local approaches to cancer control. The study of trends in specific cancer types remains essential in monitoring and evaluating such strategies and as a descriptive tool for hypothesizing possible contributory factors. Of greatest necessity is an expansion of the availability of high-quality data. To improve the limited cancer incidence data available in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), the Global Initiative for Cancer Registry Development (http://gicr.iarc.fr) is an international partnership supporting countries to redraw the surveillance map. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  8. Prevalence and characteristics of prostate cancer among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and characteristics of prostate cancer among participants of a communitybased screening in Nigeria using serum prostate specific antigen and digital rectal examination. SO Ikuerowo, OA Omisanjo, MJ Bioku, MO Ajala, VPN Mordi, JO Esho ...

  9. Systematic review of published data on the worldwide prevalence of John Cunningham virus (JCV) in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Sonia Castedo; Branco, Luciana Prats; Pereira, Marina Alves Camargo; Spessotto, Caroline Vieira; Fragoso, Yara Dadalti

    2018-01-05

    The John Cunningham virus (JCV) is a polyoma virus that infects humans mainly in childhood or adolescence, and presents no symptomatic manifestations. JCV can cause progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in immunosuppressed individuals, including those undergoing treatment for multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica (NMO). PML is a severe and potentially fatal disease of the brain. The prevalence of JCV antibodies has been described to be between 50% and 90% in human serum. The aim of the present study was to review worldwide data on populations of patients with MS and NMO in order to establish real-life values of JCV seropositivity in these individuals. The present review followed the PRISMA guidelines using the following search terms: "JCV" OR "JC virus" AND "multiple sclerosis" OR "MS" OR "NMO" OR "neuromyelitis optica" AND "prevalence". These terms were searched for both in smaller and in larger clusters of words. The databases searched included PubMed, Medline, SciELO, LILACS, Google Scholar and EMBASE. After initial selection, 18 papers were included in the review. These articles reported on the prevalence of JCV antibodies in serum of patients with MS or NMO living in 26 countries. The systematic review identified data on over 29,000 patients with MS/NMO and found overall that 57% of them (16,730 individuals) were seropositive for anti-JCV (range 40% to 69.5%). The median worldwide prevalence of JCV among adults with MS or NMO was 57%.

  10. Cost-Effective Screening for Breast Cancer Worldwide: Current State and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sarvazyan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Affordability of healthcare is highly limited by its skyrocketing cost. Access to screening and diagnostic medical equipment and medicine in developing countries is inadequate for the majority of the population. There is a tremendous worldwide need to detect breast cancer at its earliest stage. These needs must be balanced by the ability of countries to provide breast cancer screening technology to their populations. We reviewed the diagnostic accuracy, procedure cost and cost-effectiveness of currently available technique for breast screening and diagnosis including clinical breast examination, mammography, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, biopsy and a new modality for cancer diagnostics termed elasticity imaging that has emerged in the last decade. Clinical results demonstrate that elasticity imaging even in its simplest and least sophisticated versions, like tactile imaging, has significant diagnostic potential comparable and exceeding that of conventional imaging techniques. In view of many countries with limited resources, effective yet less expensive modes of screening must be considered worldwide. The tactile imaging is one method that has the potential to provide cost-effective breast cancer screening and diagnostics.

  11. Nutritional determinants of worldwide diabetes: an econometric study of food markets and diabetes prevalence in 173 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Sanjay; Stuckler, David; McKee, Martin; Galea, Gauden

    2013-01-01

    Ageing and urbanization leading to sedentary lifestyles have been the major explanations proposed for a dramatic rise in diabetes worldwide and have been the variables used to predict future diabetes rates. However, a transition to Western diets has been suggested as an alternative driver. We sought to determine what socio-economic and dietary factors are the most significant population-level contributors to diabetes prevalence rates internationally. Multivariate regression models were used to study how market sizes of major food products (sugars, cereals, vegetable oils, meats, total joules) corresponded to diabetes prevalence, incorporating lagged and cumulative effects. The underlying social determinants of food market sizes and diabetes prevalence rates were also studied, including ageing, income, urbanization, overweight prevalence and imports of foodstuffs. Data were obtained from 173 countries. Population-based survey recipients were the basis for diabetes prevalence and food market data. We found that increased income tends to increase overall food market size among low- and middle-income countries, but the level of food importation significantly shifts the content of markets such that a greater proportion of available joules is composed of sugar and related sweeteners. Sugar exposure statistically explained why urbanization and income have been correlated with diabetes rates. Current diabetes projection methods may estimate future diabetes rates poorly if they fail to incorporate the impact of nutritional factors. Imported sugars deserve further investigation as a potential population-level driver of global diabetes.

  12. Perspective: What Makes It So Difficult to Mitigate Worldwide Anemia Prevalence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schümann, Klaus; Solomons, Noel W

    2017-05-01

    Anemia can be related to decreased production or increased loss of erythrocytes, or both, leading to many underlying and often overlapping causes. A largely cereal-based diet with plenty of phytates, polyphenols, and other ligands that inhibit intestinal iron absorption predominated in preindustrial Europe and predominates in present-day developing countries alike. In both situations, we find poor hygienic conditions, which frequently lead to anemia of inflammation. The large number of possible causes and their interaction shows why it is so difficult to mitigate anemia prevalence. Diagnostic biomarkers are required to differentiate the different types of anemia and to treat them appropriately. Some of them are well established in adults [e.g., concentrations of serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), and serum iron or the ratio of sTfR to log ferritin]. Others, such as serum hepcidin, hold considerable promise, although they are not yet widely used. A particular issue is to establish reference values for biomarkers in infants and children at different ages. The fact that resource-rich postindustrial societies have a very low prevalence of iron-deficiency anemia offers hope that common types of anemia can be eliminated. In contrast, inborn forms of anemia, such as thalassemia, and anemias related to underlying diseases (e.g., bleeding tumors or peptic ulcers, gynecologic blood losses, or renal diseases) require an operational health system to be addressed appropriately. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. Mycotoxins in pet food: a review on worldwide prevalence and preventative strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Maxwell C K; Díaz-Llano, Gabriel; Smith, Trevor K

    2006-12-27

    Mycotoxins contaminate cereal grains worldwide, and their presence in pet food has been a potential health threat to companion animals. Aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, and Fusarium mycotoxins have been found in both raw ingredients and final products of pet food around the globe. Aflatoxin, a hepatotoxin and carcinogen, has caused several food poisoning outbreaks in dogs, and aflatoxin content is regulated in pet food in many countries. Ochratoxin A and Fusarium mycotoxins including trichothecenes, zearalenone, and fumonisins may have chronic effects on the health of companion animals. Grain processing, sampling error, analytical methods, conjugated mycotoxins, storage conditions, and synergistic interactions are common challenges faced by the pet food industry. Food-processing techniques such as sieving, washing, pearling, ozonation, and acid-based mold inhibition reduce the mycotoxin content of cereal grains. Dietary supplementation with large neutral amino acids, antioxidants, and omega-3 polysaturated fatty acids as well as inclusion of mycotoxin-sequestering agents and detoxifying microbes may ameliorate the harmful effects of mycotoxins in contaminated pet food.

  14. Cancer prevalence in a metropolitan HIV clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Eleanor; Saxon, Cara; Ahmad, Sameena

    2014-01-01

    Morbidity and mortality rates from AIDs defining cancers have fallen significantly since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Patients are now living longer with HIV and are at a greater risk of other HIV- and non-HIV related malignancies. We report what we believe to be the first UK cancer prevalence study in the modern HAART era. A retrospective review of electronic clinic letters was performed for all patients currently receiving, and those who had died whilst receiving, their HIV care at our centre. Demographics of patients with pre-cancerous changes, an active or previous cancer were recorded. There were 438 active patients (369 male, 69 female) and 18 deceased patients (12 male, 6 female) in April 2014. Thirty-six out of four hundred fifty-six (8%) cancer diagnoses were found overall. Thirty-one out of four hundred thirty-eight (7%) diagnoses in active patients and 5/18 (28%) in deceased patients. More than half of those diagnosed with cancer were aged 50 or over (17/31 [55%]). In active patients 17/31 (55%) were AIDs defining cancers, with the most common type of cancer diagnosis overall being Kaposi's sarcoma (12/31 [39%]). There were 5/31 (16%) cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The most common non-AIDs defining cancer was basal cell carcinoma of which there were 5/31 (16%) cases, followed by squamous cell carcinoma (3/31 [10%]) and testicular cancer (3/31 [10%]). Other cancers included colorectal (2/31 [6%]) and prostate cancer (1/31 [3%]). In all five deceased patients, cancer was the cause of death. There were four acute presentations with an aggressive glioma, Burkitt's lymphoma, an undiagnosed primary lung malignancy and a late diagnosed cervical cancer. The fifth patient died following the recurrence of a transitional cell cancer of the bladder after an initial diagnosis of seven years earlier. Eighteen out of sixty-nine (26%) of females were found to have at least mild dyskariosis on cervical screening. Anal

  15. The Global Prevalence of Infections in Urology Study: A Long-Term, Worldwide Surveillance Study on Urological Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Wagenlehner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Global Prevalence of Infections in Urology (GPIU study is a worldwide-performed point prevalence study intended to create surveillance data on antibiotic resistance, type of urogenital infections, risk factors and data on antibiotic consumption, specifically in patients at urological departments with healthcare-associated urogenital infections (HAUTI. Investigators registered data through a web-based application (http://gpiu.esiu.org/. Data collection includes the practice and characteristics of the hospital and urology ward. On a certain day in November, each year, all urological patients present in the urological department at 8:00 a.m. are screened for HAUTI encompassing their full hospital course from admission to discharge. Apart from the GPIU main study, several side studies are taking place, dealing with transurethral resection of the prostate, prostate biopsy, as well as urosepsis. The GPIU study has been annually performed since 2003. Eight-hundred fifty-six urology units from 70 countries have participated so far, including 27,542 patients. A proxy for antibiotic consumption is reflected by the application rates used for antibiotic prophylaxis for urological interventions. Resistance rates of most uropathogens against antibiotics were high, especially with a note of multidrug resistance. The severity of HAUTI is also increasing, 25% being urosepsis in recent years.

  16. European Union pediatric legislation jeopardizes worldwide, timely future advances in the care of children with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Klaus

    2014-02-01

    into long-term commitments to clinical trials before efficacy in adults has been demonstrated. Pediatric clinical oncology trials are being driven by regulatory "tunnel vision" and not by therapeutic benevolence, epidemiologic data, or feasibility. As a result, children with cancer are being monopolized for PDCO-triggered, often unfeasible trials that are not always in their best interests and seldom produce useful therapies. Because clinical trials are global, this affects children with cancer worldwide. Until now, carefully worded concerns about these negative consequences have been published in specialty journals. It is time to start a broader debate on how to move forward. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison between established and the Worldwide Esophageal Cancer Collaboration staging systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Puja; Hofstetter, Wayne L; Bekele, B Nebiyou; Correa, Arlene M; Mehran, Reza J; Rice, David C; Roth, Jack A; Vaporciyan, Ara A; Rice, Thomas W; Swisher, Stephen G

    2010-06-01

    Controversy exists regarding the optimal staging system for patients with gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma (GEJA). The Worldwide Esophageal Cancer Collaboration (WECC) has organized a multi-institutional database from which a novel esophageal staging system has been organized. We used a single institution experience to validate the hypothesis that the WECC system more accurately predicts survival in GEJA patients than both the American Joint Commission on Cancer 6th edition esophageal and gastric systems. We reviewed 449 GEJA patients (Siewert I-III) treated with neoadjuvant therapy followed by surgery or surgery-alone between 1990 and 2007. A blinded statistician performed a head-to-head comparison regarding the ability of each staging system to predict survival. A subgroup analysis of patients who underwent surgery only (n = 176) was also performed. All three systems predicted survival of patients with GEJA. However, a Bayesian variable selection model found that the WECC system was better than both American Joint Commission on Cancer esophageal and gastric systems (probability 0.99 and 0.98, respectively). Subset analysis suggested that the WECC staging was also optimum for predicting survival in surgery-alone patients. While the esophageal staging system is better at predicting survival than the gastric staging system, the WECC system may be the most favorable single-system predictor of survival for patients with resected GEJA. As suggested by the WECC system, incorporating the number of positive lymph nodes within the staging system may present an advantage in predicting survival. 2010 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Correlation Analysis of Cocoa Consumption Data with Worldwide Incidence Rates of Testicular Cancer and Hypospadias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Giannandrea

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The underlying reasons for the increasing occurrence of male reproductive diseases (MRD such as hypospadias, cryptorchidism, and testicular cancer (TC over the last decades are still unknown. It has been hypothesized that the risk of MRD is determined in utero and that pregnancy dietary intake could also affect MRD risk in the offspring. Various studies in animals reported that cocoa and theobromine, the main stimulant of cocoa, exert toxic effects on the testis, inducing testicular atrophy and impaired sperm quality. A correlation analysis was conducted to examine the possible role of cocoa consumption on the occurrence of selected MRD during the prenatal and early life period of cases. The incidence rates between 1998-2002 of TC in 18 countries obtained from Cancer Incidence in Five Continents were correlated with the average per-capita consumption of cocoa (kg/capita/year (FAOSTAT-Database in these countries from 1965 to 1980, i.e. the period corresponding to the early life of TC cases. In order to test the above correlation in the case of hypospadias, the mean prevalence at birth in 20 countries (1999-2003 with average per-capita consumption of cocoa in these countries in the same period corresponding to pregnancy were used. The consumption of cocoa in the period 1965–80, was most closely correlated with the incidence of TC in young adults (r=0.859; p<0.001. An analogous significant correlation was also observed between early cocoa consumption and the prevalence rates of hypospadias in the period 1999-2003 (r=0.760; p<0.001. Although the ecological approach used in this study cannot provide an answer on the causal relationship between consumption of cocoa in early life and TC and hypospadias, the results are suggestive and indicate the need of further analytic studies to investigate the role of individual exposure to cocoa, particularly during the prenatal and in early life of the patients.

  19. Worldwide Oesophageal Cancer Collaboration guidelines for lymphadenectomy predict survival following neoadjuvant therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, Brendon M; Nasar, Abu; Mirza, Farooq A; Lee, Paul C; Paul, Subroto; Port, Jeffrey L; Altorki, Nasser K

    2012-10-01

    The Worldwide Oesophageal Cancer Collaboration (WECC) reported recommendations regarding the optimum number of lymph nodes to be removed during oesophagectomy based upon patients undergoing surgery alone. We sought to determine whether these recommendations are relevant in the case of oesophageal cancer (EC) patients receiving neoadjuvant therapy. Patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by transthoracic en bloc oesophagectomy were reviewed. Patients were grouped by optimal versus suboptimal lymphadenectomy per WECC recommendations (pTis/T0/T1 ≥ 10; pT2 ≥ 20; pT3/T4 ≥ 30). Cohorts were compared for factors predicting optimal lymphadenectomy and for overall survival (OS). During the time period, 135 patients (adeno = 100, squamous = 35) met the study criteria, of whom 94 patients (70%) had optimal lymphadenectomy. Optimal lymphadenectomy was more likely for tumours with lower ypT (P ≤ 0.001). Optimal lymphadenectomy predicted the OS (0.50, confidence intervals 0.29-0.85, P = 0.011), although it was collinear with ypT classification, which was also predictive. Patients not down-staged in ypT (n = 66, 49%) particularly experienced a trend towards improved 3-year survival with optimal lymphadenectomy (51 versus 29%, P = 0.144). Similarly, of patients with persistent nodal disease (n = 79, 59%), those who had optimal lymphadenectomy (n = 51) experienced improved 3-year OS compared with those with suboptimal lymphadenectomy (n = 28), (55 versus 36%, P = 0.087). WECC recommendations regarding lymphadenectomy for EC may be applicable to patients undergoing oesophagectomy following neoadjuvant therapy, particularly those who are not down-staged by pathological tumour depth (T) classification and those with persistent nodal metastases. Techniques to enhance the extent of LAN should be pursued in this patient population.

  20. Cancer incidence and mortality among young adults aged 20-39 years worldwide in 2012: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, Miranda M; Gupta, Sumit; Soerjomataram, Isabelle; Ferlay, Jacques; Steliarova-Foucher, Eva; Bray, Freddie

    2017-12-01

    To date, the burden of cancer among young adults has rarely been studied in depth. Our aim was to describe the scale and profile of cancer incidence and mortality worldwide among 20-39 year-olds, highlighting major patterns by age, sex, development level, and geographical region. We did a population-based study to quantify the burden of young adult cancers worldwide. We defined young adult cancers as those occurring between the ages of 20 and 39 years because these individuals will have passed puberty and adolescence, but not yet experienced the effects of hormonal decline, immune response deterioration, or organ dysfunction associated with chronic health conditions. Global, regional, and country-specific (n=184) data estimates of the number of new cancer cases and cancer-associated deaths that occurred in 2012 among young adults were extracted in four 5-year bands from the International Agency for Research on Cancer's GLOBOCAN 2012 for all cancers combined and for 27 major types as defined by the International Classification of Disease, tenth revision. We report the number of new cancer cases and cancer-associated deaths overall and by sex alongside corresponding age-standardised rates (ASR) per 100 000 people per year. We also present results using four levels of the Human Development Index (HDI; low [least developed], medium, high, and very high [most developed]), which is a composite indicator for socioeconomic development comprising life expectancy, education, and gross national income. 975 396 new cancer cases and 358 392 cancer-associated deaths occurred among young adults worldwide in 2012, which equated to an ASR of 43·3 new cancer cases per 100 000 people per year and 15·9 cancer-associated deaths per 100 000 people per year. The burden was disproportionally greater among women and the most common cancer types overall in terms of new cases were female breast cancer, cervical cancer, thyroid cancer, leukaemia, and colorectal cancer; in terms of

  1. Public health surveillance of cancer survival in the United States and worldwide: The contribution of the CONCORD programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allemani, Claudia; Coleman, Michel P

    2017-12-15

    CONCORD is a programme for the global surveillance of cancer survival. In 2015, the second cycle of the program (CONCORD-2) established long-term surveillance of cancer survival worldwide, for the first time, in the largest cancer survival study published to date. CONCORD-2 provided cancer survival trends for 25,676,887 patients diagnosed during the 15-year period between 1995 and 2009 with 1 of 10 common cancers that collectively represented 63% of the global cancer burden in 2009. Herein, the authors summarize the past, describe the present, and outline the future of the CONCORD programme. They discuss the difference between population-based studies and clinical trials, and review the importance of international comparisons of population-based cancer survival. This study will focus on the United States. The authors explain why population-based survival estimates are crucial for driving effective cancer control strategies to reduce the wide and persistent disparities in cancer survival between white and black patients, which are likely to be attributable to differences in access to early diagnosis and optimal treatment. Cancer 2017;123:4977-81. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  2. Human papillomavirus genotype prevalence in invasive penile cancers from a registry-based United States population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Y Hernandez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Human papillomavirus (HPV is estimated to play an etiologic role in 40%-50% of penile cancers worldwide. Estimates of HPV prevalence in U.S. penile cancer cases are limited. Methods. HPV DNA was evaluated in tumor tissue from 79 invasive penile cancer patients diagnosed in 1998-2005 within the catchment areas of 7 U.S. cancer registries. HPV was genotyped using PCR-based Linear Array and INNO-LiPA assays and compared by demographic, clinical, and pathologic characteristics and survival. Histological classification was also obtained by independent pathology review. Results. HPV DNA was present in 50 of 79 (63% of invasive penile cancer cases. Sixteen viral genotypes were detected. HPV 16, found in 46% (36/79 of all cases (72% of HPV-positive cases was the most prevalent genotype followed equally by HPV 18, 33, and 45, which each comprised 5% of all cases. Multiple genotypes were detected in 18% of viral positive cases. HPV prevalence did not significantly vary by age, race/ethnicity, population size of geographic region, cancer stage, histology, grade, penile subsite, or prior cancer history. Penile cases diagnosed in more recent years were more likely to be HPV positive. Overall survival did not significantly vary by HPV status. Conclusions. The relatively high prevalence of HPV in our study population provides limited evidence of a more prominent and, possibly, increasing role of infection in penile carcinogenesis in the U.S. compared to other parts of the world.

  3. CDC Activities for Improving Implementation of Human Papillomavirus Vaccination, Cervical Cancer Screening, and Surveillance Worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senkomago, Virginia; Duran, Denise; Loharikar, Anagha; Hyde, Terri B; Markowitz, Lauri E; Unger, Elizabeth R; Saraiya, Mona

    2017-12-01

    Cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates are high, particularly in developing countries. Most cervical cancers can be prevented by human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination, screening, and timely treatment. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) provides global technical assistance for implementation and evaluation of HPV vaccination pilot projects and programs and laboratory-related HPV activities to assess HPV vaccines. CDC collaborates with global partners to develop global cervical cancer screening recommendations and manuals, implement screening, create standardized evaluation tools, and provide expertise to monitor outcomes. CDC also trains epidemiologists in cancer prevention through its Field Epidemiology Training Program and is working to improve cancer surveillance by supporting efforts of the World Health Organization in developing cancer registry hubs and assisting countries in estimating costs for developing population-based cancer registries. These activities contribute to the Global Health Security Agenda action packages to improve immunization, surveillance, and the public health workforce globally.

  4. PREVALENCE OF BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA AND PROSTATE CANCER IN AFRICANS AND AFRICANS IN THE DIASPORA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeboah, E D

    2016-01-01

    There have been several publications on population or community prevalence of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer from various countries and races but few reports are from Africa on Africans. A review on the prevalence of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer in Africans and other races. The current literature on prevalence of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), prostate cancer (PC), and benign prostatic hyperplasia co-existing with prostate cancer in Africans and other races is reviewed. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) prevalence in Ghana is responsible for 60% acute retention of urine and 28.6% of haematuria. Worldwide prevalence of BPH varies from 20 - 62% in men over 50 years and this includes USA, UK, Japan and Ghana. Reports from South Africa indicate prevalence of over 50% in adult males of 60 years. BPH co-existing with PC - Reports from USA, UK and Japan and Ghana reveal moderate association of BPH and PC. The co-existence of PC in patients being treated for BPH is 3 - 20% Prostate Cancer prevalence - There is high prevalence in USA, Scandinavian Countries, African Americans (AA) and Caribbean blacks. Ghana, Trinidad & Tobago have reported high prevalence of 6 -10% in men aged 50 years and above but others reported low prevalence in Africans from Africa. The low reporting from Africa of 10 - 40:100,000 is attributable to under reporting, absence of PSA screening/testing, lack of reliable cancer registries and poor medical facilities. Economic Costs of BPH and PC: BPH in the USA national direct costs are estimated at U$4Billion and individual costs of US$1536 annually. In Ghana, individual costs for BPH medications range from US$300 - 550 per year and cost for simple prostatectomy/TURP is estimated at US$1100. For prostate cancer, individual direct costs from Europe range from 6,575 - 12,000 euros, £2818.00 UK and over U$12,000 - 20,000 in USA per annum. In Ghana, individual direct costs ranges, for radical prostatectomy and

  5. Prevalence and outcome of patients with cancer and acute coronary syndrome undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: a BleeMACS substudy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iannaccone, Mario; D'Ascenzo, Fabrizio; Vadalà, Paolo; Wilton, Stephen B.; Noussan, Patrizia; Colombo, Francesco; Raposeiras Roubín, Sergio; Abu Assi, Emad; González-Juanatey, José Ramón; Henriques, Jose Paulo Simao; Saucedo, Jorge; Kikkert, Wouter J.; Nuñez-Gil, Iván; Ariza-Sole, Albert; Song, Xian-Tao; Alexopoulos, Dimitrios; Liebetrau, Christoph; Kawaji, Tetsuma; Moretti, Claudio; Garbo, Roberto; Huczek, Zenon; Nie, Shao-Ping; Fujii, Toshiharu; Correia, Luis Cl; Kawashiri, Masa-Aki; García Acuña, José María; Southern, Danielle; Alfonso, Emilio; Terol, Belén; Garay, Alberto; Zhang, Dongfeng; Chen, Yalei; Xanthopoulou, Ioanna; Osman, Neriman; Möllmann, Helge; Shiomi, Hiroki; Giordana, Francesca; Kowara, Michal; Filipiak, Krzysztof; Wang, Xiao; Yan, Yan; Fan, Jing-Yao; Ikari, Yuji; Nakahashi, Takuya; Sakata, Kenji; Gaita, Fiorenzo; Yamagishi, Masakazu; Kalpak, Oliver; Kedev, Sasko

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence and outcome of patients with cancer that experience acute coronary syndrome (ACS) have to be determined. The BleeMACS project is a multicentre observational registry enrolling patients with acute coronary syndrome undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention worldwide in 15

  6. Estimating cancer incidence, prevalence, and the number of cancer patients treated with antitumor therapy in 2015 and 2020 -  analysis of the Czech National Cancer Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusek, L; Pavlík, T; Májek, O; Büchler, T; Muzik, J; Maluskova, D; Koptíková, J; Bortlicek, Z; Abrahámová, J

    2015-01-01

    Cancer burden in the Czech population ranks among the highest worldwide, which introduces a strong need for a prospective modelling of cancer incidence and prevalence rates. Moreover, a prediction of number of cancer patients requiring active antitumor therapy is also an important issue. This paper presents the stage-specific predictions of cancer incidence and prevalence, and the stage- and region-specific patients requiring active antitumor therapy for the most common cancer diagnoses in the Czech Republic for years 2015 and 2020. The stage-specific estimates are also presented with regard to the treatment phase as newly diagnosed patients, patients treated for non-terminal recurrence, and patients treated for terminal recurrence. Data of the Czech National Cancer Registry from 1977 to 2011 has been used for the analysis, omitting the records of patients diagnosed as death certificate only or at autopsy. In total, 1,777,775 incidences have been considered for the estimation using a statistical model utilizing solely the population-based cancer registry data. All estimates have been calculated with respect to the changing demographic structure of the Czech population and the clinical stage at diagnosis. Considering year 2011 as the baseline, we predict 89%, 15%, 31% and 32% increase in prostate, colorectal, female breast and lung cancer incidence, respectively, in 2020 resulting in 13,153, 9,368, 8,695, and 8,604 newly dia-g--nosed cancer patients in that year, respectively. Regarding cancer prevalence in 2020, the estimated increase is 140%, 40%, 51%, and 17% for prostate, colorectal, female breast and lung cancer, respectively, meaning that more than 100,000 prevalent female breast cancer patients as well as more than 100,000 prevalent prostate cancer patients are expected in the Czech Republic. The estimated numbers of patients requiring active antitumor therapy for prostate, colorectal, female breast and lung cancer in the Czech Republic in 2020 are 23,652, 14

  7. Prevalence and detection of psychosocial problems in cancer genetic counseling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijzenga, W.; Bleiker, E.M.A.; Hahn, D.E.E.; van der Kolk, L.E.; Sidharta, G.N.; Aaronson, N.K.

    2015-01-01

    Only a minority of individuals who undergo cancer genetic counseling experience heightened levels of psychological distress, but many more experience a range of cancer genetic-specific psychosocial problems. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of such psychosocial problems, and to

  8. Prevalence and occurrence rate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Haarlem family multi-drug resistant in the worldwide population: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Ramazanzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis can occur in different ways. Furthermore, drug resistant in M. tuberculosis family is a major problem that creates obstacles in treatment and control of tuberculosis (TB in the world. One of the most prevalent families of M. tuberculosis is Haarlem, and it is associated with drug resistant. Our objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and occurrence rate of M. tuberculosis Haarlem family multi-drug resistant (MDR in the worldwide using meta-analysis based on a systematic review that performed on published articles. Materials and Methods: Data sources of this study were 78 original articles (2002-2012 that were published in the literatures in several databases including PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, Biological abstracts, ISI web of knowledge and IranMedex. The articles were systematically reviewed for prevalence and rate of MDR. Data were analyzed using meta-analysis and random effects models with the software package Meta R, Version 2.13 (P < 0.10. Results: Final analysis included 28601 persons in 78 articles. The highest and lowest occurrence rate of Haarlem family in M. tuberculosis was in Hungary in 2006 (66.20% with negative MDR-TB and in China in 2010 (0.8%, respectively. From 2002 to 2012, the lowest rate of prevalence was in 2010, and the highest prevalence rate was in 2012. Also 1.076% were positive for MDR and 9.22% were negative (confidence interval: 95%.0020. Conclusion: Many articles and studies are performed in this field globally, and we only chose some of them. Further studies are needed to be done in this field. Our study showed that M. tuberculosis Haarlem family is prevalent in European countries. According to the presence of MDR that was seen in our results, effective control programs are needed to control the spread of drug-resistant strains, especially Haarlem family.

  9. Prevalence of Telomerase Activity in Human Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Hau Chen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Telomerase activity has been measured in a wide variety of cancerous and non-cancerous tissue types, and the vast majority of clinical studies have shown a direct correlation between it and the presence of cancerous cells. Telomerase plays a key role in cellular immortality and tumorigenesis. Telomerase is activated in 80–90% of human carcinomas, but not in normal somatic cells, therefore, its detection holds promise as a diagnostic marker for cancer. Measurable levels of telomerase have been detected in malignant cells from various samples: tissue from gestational trophoblastic neoplasms; squamous carcinoma cells from oral rinses; lung carcinoma cells from bronchial washings; colorectal carcinoma cells from colonic luminal washings; bladder carcinoma cells from urine or bladder washings; and breast carcinoma or thyroid cancer cells from fine needle aspirations. Such clinical tests for telomerase can be useful as non-invasive and cost-effective methods for early detection and monitoring of cancer. In addition, telomerase activity has been shown to correlate with poor clinical outcome in late-stage diseases such as non-small cell lung cancer, colorectal cancer, and soft tissue sarcomas. In such cases, testing for telomerase activity can be used to identify patients with a poor prognosis and to select those who might benefit from adjuvant treatment. Our review of the latest medical advances in this field reveals that telomerase holds great promise as a biomarker for early cancer detection and monitoring, and has considerable potential as the basis for developing new anticancer therapies.

  10. Prevalence of stomach cancer in Shiraz, Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Mehrabani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Worldwide, cancer of stomach is still the fourth common cancer and the second cause of mortality among all cancers affecting annually 870,000 subjects. This study aims to determine the frequency and the characteristics of gastric cancer in southern Iran. Materials and Methods: 10,800 of all cancers registered in Fars Hospital-based Cancer Registry were surveyed among which 574 cases were gastric cancer in both genders and all age groups. From January 2002 to December 2007, all hospital-based data were recorded according to International Classification of Disease for Oncology (ICD-O and registered cases included all invasive cancers in ICD-10 categories of C-00 to C-80 and all duplicate cases were eliminated. Results: Among all registered cancers, there were 574 cases of gastric cancer including 69.3% males. The mean age of patients was 58.1 ± 14.8 years, 25.4% with a history of in their first relatives and most of them were smokers (50.9% and from low socioeconomic class (45.5%. Metastasis was visible in 182 patients and majority of them underwent surgery (64.3%. The majority of gastric cancer patients were older than 50 years, smokers, low socioeconomic class, and female in favor of adenocarcinoma. Conclusion: Our results showed that in our area, treatment programs and health plans should focus on men, patients older than 50 years and with adenocarcinoma, smokers, and those in a low income level.

  11. Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus in endometrial cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Tina Bech; Svahn, Malene Frøsig; Faber, Mette Tuxen

    2014-01-01

    HPV is a common sexually transmitted infection and is considered to be a necessary cause of cervical cancer. The anatomical proximity to the cervix has led researchers to investigate whether Human Papillomavirus (HPV) has a role in the etiology of endometrial cancer....

  12. Survivor identity after colorectal cancer: antecedents, prevalence and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Suzanne K; Baade, Peter; Meng, Xingqiong; Youl, Pip; Aitken, Joanne; Dunn, Jeff

    2012-09-01

    Cancer survivor identity has become a dominant paradigm in describing people with cancer and in driving the focus of programmes and research in supportive care. This study investigated antecedents of survivor identity adoption and population-based prevalence. A prospective survey of a population-based sample of 1966 (57% response) patients with colorectal cancer assessed socio-demographic variables, health behaviours, optimism, benefit finding, cancer threat appraisal, psychological distress and satisfaction with life at 5 months post-diagnosis as predictors of survivor identity 5 years subsequently. Prevalence of survivor identity at 5 years post-diagnosis and psychological and lifestyle outcomes (n = 786) were later assessed. Fifty-five per cent of people identified as a cancer survivor, 39.4% as a person who had had (or has) cancer, 1.4% as a cancer patient and 1.2% as a cancer victim. People who were older and who reported higher personal growth after diagnosis were more likely to assume a survivor identity at 5 years. At 5 years, survivors had higher benefit finding and better satisfaction with life. Cancer survivors uniquely reported a significant decrease in somatization and acceptance, and increases in satisfaction with life and physical activity over time. For patients with colorectal cancer, the cancer survivor identity is common but not universal 5 years after diagnosis; and may evolve from looking for benefit after cancer through personal growth. People who adopt a cancer survivor identity report more positive adjustment outcomes after cancer and this has implications for the design of clinical and community support interventions. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Cancer prevalence in 129 breast-ovarian cancer families tested for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As expected, female breast and ovarian cancer was significantly increased in all three groups. Furthermore, male breast cancer was significantly elevated in the BRCA2-positive and BRCA-negative groups. Stomach cancer prevalence was significantly elevated in the BRCA2-positive families compared with the general ...

  14. Worldwide construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, M.

    1994-01-01

    The paper lists major construction projects in worldwide processing and pipelining, showing capacities, contractors, estimated costs, and time of construction. The lists are divided into refineries, petrochemical plants, sulfur recovery units, gas processing plants, pipelines, and related fuel facilities. This last classification includes cogeneration plants, coal liquefaction and gasification plants, biomass power plants, geothermal power plants, integrated coal gasification combined-cycle power plants, and a coal briquetting plant

  15. Prostate cancer trends in Latvia during 1990-2012: incidence, prevalence, mortality, and survival rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plonis, Juris; Bokums, Kristaps; Cauce, Vinita; Miklasevics, Edvins; Vaganovs, Peteris; Irmejs, Arvids; Gardovskis, Janis; Vjaters, Egils

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most common form of cancer in males worldwide. One of the highest PCa-related mortality rates in the world is observed in Latvia. Our study included male patients diagnosed with PCa between 1990 and 2012. We analyzed incidence, prevalence and mortality trends using joinpoint analysis. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed for 5-, 10-, 15- and 20-year overall survival and cancer-specific survival rates. A total of 14,083PCa patients with a mean age of initial PCa diagnosis being 70.1 (SD 8.6) was registered. The standardized incidence rates (per 100,000) increased from 18.9 in 1990 to 74.7 in 2012, while the standardized prevalence rates (per 100,000) increased from 69.9 in 1990 to 437.6 in 2012. Standardized PCa mortality rates (per 100,000) also rose from 13.2 in 1990 to 27.2 in 2006 followed by statistically insignificant decrease continuing up to 2012. The mean 5-year cancer-specific survival rates increased from 43.6% in 1990 to 70.7% in 2007, and the mean 10-year cancer-specific survival rates from 32.9% in 1990 to 40.5% in 2001. This study revealed that the incidence, prevalence and mortality rates increased between 1990 and 2012, and although the 5- and 10-year overall and cancer-specific survival rates improved over the reviewed period they still needed to get better. Copyright © 2014 Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  16. High prevalence of abdominal obesity increases the risk of the metabolic syndrome in Nigerian type 2 diabetes patients: using the International Diabetes Federation worldwide definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezenwaka, Chidum E; Okoye, Osita; Esonwune, Chibuike; Onuoha, Philip; Dioka, Chudi; Osuji, Charles; Oguejiofor, Celestine; Meludu, Samuel

    2014-06-01

    Some Nigerian studies have reported cases of the metabolic syndrome in the population. This study aims to assess the prevalence of the components of the metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients using the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) worldwide definition. Eighty-nine T2DM patients were studied after an overnight fast. The patients' blood pressure, anthropometric indices, and biochemical parameters were measured. The components of the metabolic syndrome-raised blood pressure, waist circumference, triglycerides (TGs), and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)-were calculated using the IDF definition for the European ethnic group. About 25% of the patients had raised blood pressure (>130/85 mmHg), with the male patients having higher prevalence of raised systolic blood pressure (SBP>130 mmHg) than the female patients (73.3 vs. 52.3%, P0.05), abdominal obesity predominates significantly in female patients (97.7 vs. 68.9%, Prisk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We recommend that diabetes education emphasizing the risk of CVD in patients with increased abdominal fat should be intensified in the developing countries.

  17. Prevalence and trends in breast cancer in Lagos state, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the trends in the prevalence of breast cancer in Lagos State, Nigeria. A sample of 1000 subjects was taken from a population consisting of women between the ages of 15 and 60 years spread across the 20 Local Government Areas (LGAs) of the State. Fifty questionnaires were distributed in each LGA.

  18. Prevalence and Trends in Breast Cancer in Lagos State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    Abstract. The study examined the trends in the prevalence of breast cancer in Lagos. State, Nigeria. A sample of 1000 subjects was taken from a population consisting of women between the ages of 15 and 60 years spread across the. 20 Local Government Areas (LGAs) of the State. Fifty questionnaires were distributed in ...

  19. Prevalence of Neurological Manifestations of Lung Cancer among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective: is to study the prevalence of neurological manifestations among adults Sudanese patients with lung cancer seen in the Radiation and Isotope Centre in Khartoum. Methods: This is a prospective cross sectional hospital based study, conducted at Radiation and Isotope Centre in Khartoum. Sample of 52 adults ...

  20. Prevalence and detection of psychosocial problems in cancer genetic counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eijzenga, W; Bleiker, E M A; Hahn, D E E; Van der Kolk, L E; Sidharta, G N; Aaronson, N K

    2015-12-01

    Only a minority of individuals who undergo cancer genetic counseling experience heightened levels of psychological distress, but many more experience a range of cancer genetic-specific psychosocial problems. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of such psychosocial problems, and to identify possible demographic and clinical variables associated significantly with them. Consenting individuals scheduled to undergo cancer genetic counseling completed the Psychosocial Aspects of Hereditary Cancer (PAHC) questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Distress Thermometer (DT) prior to or immediately following their counseling session. More than half of the 137 participants reported problems on three or more domains of the PAHC, most often in the domains 'living with cancer' (84%), 'family issues' (46%), 'hereditary predisposition' (45%), and 'child-related issues' (42%). Correlations between the PAHC, the HADS and the DT were low. Previous contact with a psychosocial worker, and having a personal history of cancer were associated significantly with HADS scores, but explained little variance (9%). No background variables were associated significantly with the DT. Previous contact with a psychosocial worker, and having children were significantly associated with several PAHC domains, again explaining only a small percentage of the variance (2-14%). The majority of counselees experience specific cancer genetic counseling-related psychosocial problems. Only a few background variables are associated significantly with distress or psychosocial problems. Thus we recommend using the PAHC or a similar problem-oriented questionnaire routinely in cancer genetic counseling to identify individuals with such problems.

  1. Prevalence of pre-cancerous lesions and cervical cancer in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To describe the age-specific prevalence rates of cancer of the cervix in South African women presenting for screening. Design. A multicentre prevalence survey in 10 geographically defined areas following a common core protocol. Services were located in existing service sites, with the exception of ...

  2. Prevalence of delirium among patients at a cancer ward

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandahl, Mia Gall; Nielsen, Svend Erik; Kørner, Ejnar Alex

    2016-01-01

    Background Delirium is a frequent psychiatric complication to cancer, but rarely recognized by oncologists. Aims 1. To estimate the prevalence of delirium among inpatients admitted at an oncological cancer ward 2. To investigate whether simple clinical factors predict delirium 3. To examine...... the value of cognitive testing in the assessment of delirium. Methods On five different days, we interviewed and assessed patients admitted to a Danish cancer ward. The World Health Organization International Classification of Diseases Version 10, WHO ICD-10 Diagnostic System and the Confusion Assessment...... Method (CAM) were used for diagnostic categorization. Clinical information was gathered from medical records and all patients were tested with Mini Cognitive Test, The Clock Drawing Test, and the Digit Span Test. Results 81 cancer patients were assessed and 33% were diagnosed with delirium. All delirious...

  3. A Five-year Survey of Cancer Prevalence in Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Mohamed E M; Cao, Jingming; Fadul, Babikir; Kadioglu, Onat; Khalid, Hassan E; Yassin, Zahir; Mustafa, Siddig M; Saeed, Elfatih; Efferth, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    While cancer epidemiology is well-investigated in developed countries, the cancer burden in Africa is less well documented. We provide cancer statistics of 33,201 patients from all Sudan diagnosed at the Radiation and Isotope Centre in Khartoum (RICK). This hospital covers approximately 80% of patients with cancer in Sudan and is, therefore, considered representative for the situation in this country. Data from 2009-2013 were collected at RICK. Cancer diagnoses were made by standard pathological and radiological methods. Epidemiological data were categorized by age, gender, resident state, marital status etc. and subjected to statistical analyses by SPSS 21v. The cancer prevalence rate per year was 5,000-7,000 among adults and 300-400 among children, with increasing tendency for adults. Male:female ratios were 1:1.18 for adults and 1.46:1 for children. The five most frequent tumour types were breast cancer, leukaemia, prostatic carcinoma, lymphoma and colorectal carcinoma in adults and leukaemia, lymphoma, eye tumours, sarcoma and brain tumours in children. Remarkably, the median age of cancer diagnosis was 10-20 years higher in men than in women, mainly due to earlier onset of gender-related tumours in females (cancer of breast, cervix, or ovary) than in men (prostatic carcinoma). Chronic myeloid leukaemia was the most frequent haematopoietic malignancy in adults and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in children. Comparing cancer cases with population numbers of Sudanese states, Northern Sudan, River Nile and Khartoum revealed up to 8-fold higher cancer incidence rates than Al Gedarif, Southern Dafur and Blue Nile. The other states had intermediate incidence rates. Interestingly, oesophageal carcinoma occurred proportionally more frequently in Kassala (rank 3) than in the entire Sudan (rank 7) or other states. This is the largest survey on cancer burden in Sudan. It may serve as basis for governmental programmes for assessing risk factors, improving cancer prevention

  4. Worldwide epidemiology of fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Luiz Paulo

    2013-08-01

    Studying the epidemiology of fibromyalgia (FM) is very important to understand the impact of this disorder on persons, families and society. The recent modified 2010 classification criteria of the American College of Rheumatology (ACR), without the need of tender points palpation, allows that larger and nationwide surveys may be done, worldwide. This article reviews the prevalence and incidence studies done in the general population, in several countries/continents, the prevalence of FM in special groups/settings, the association of FM with some sociodemographic characteristics of the population, and the comorbidity of FM with others disorders, especially with headaches.

  5. Molecular portrait of breast cancer in China reveals comprehensive transcriptomic likeness to Caucasian breast cancer and low prevalence of luminal A subtype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Xiaoyan; Dugo, Matteo; Callari, Maurizio; Sandri, Marco; De Cecco, Loris; Valeri, Barbara; Carcangiu, Maria Luisa; Xue, Jingyan; Bi, Rui; Veneroni, Silvia; Daidone, Maria Grazia; Ménard, Sylvie; Tagliabue, Elda; Shao, Zhimin; Wu, Jiong; Orlandi, Rosaria

    2015-01-01

    The recent dramatic increase in breast cancer incidence across China with progressive urbanization and economic development has signaled the urgent need for molecular and clinical detailing of breast cancer in the Chinese population. Our analyses of a unique transethnic collection of breast cancer frozen specimens from Shanghai Fudan Cancer Center (Chinese Han) profiled simultaneously with an analogous Caucasian Italian series revealed consistent transcriptomic data lacking in batch effects. The prevalence of Luminal A subtype was significantly lower in Chinese series, impacting the overall prevalence of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive disease in a large cohort of Chinese/Caucasian patients. Unsupervised and supervised comparison of gene and microRNA (miRNA) profiles of Chinese and Caucasian samples revealed extensive similarity in the comprehensive taxonomy of transcriptional elements regulating breast cancer biology. Partition of gene expression data using gene lists relevant to breast cancer as “intrinsic” and “extracellular matrix” genes identified Chinese and Caucasian subgroups with equivalent global gene and miRNA profiles. These findings indicate that in the Chinese and Caucasian groups, breast neoplasia and the surrounding stromal characteristics undergo the same differentiation and molecular processes. Transcriptional similarity across transethnic cohorts may simplify translational medicine approaches and clinical management of breast cancer patients worldwide

  6. Prevalence of human papillomavirus and Epstein-Barr virus DNA in penile cancer cases from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Alves Afonso

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Penile cancer is a potentially mutilating disease. Although its occurrence is relatively rare worldwide, penile cancer rates can be high in developing countries. A few studies have been conducted on the involvement of human papillomavirus (HPV in penile carcinoma, which have found HPV present in 30-70% of penile malignant lesions, with a higher prevalence of HPV 16 and 18. It has been assumed that cofactors, such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV infections, may play a role in the progression of penile neoplasia. The aim of this study was to determine HPV and EBV prevalence in 135 penile malignant lesions from Brazilian men through the use of MY09/11 polymerase chain reaction (PCR, type-specific PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. HPV prevalence among the men tested was 60.7%. Of the men who tested positive, 27 presented with HPV 16 (29.7%, five with HPV 18 (5.5%, 21 with HPV 45 (23.1% and nine with HPV 6 (9.9%. Seven mixed infections were detected (9.2%, while 11 cases remained untyped (13.4%. Regarding EBV positivity, 46.7% of the samples contained EBV DNA with EBV-1 as the most prevalent type (74.6%. More than 23% of the men were co-infected with both HPV and EBV, while 35% presented exclusively with HPV DNA and 20% presented only with EBV DNA. Penile carcinoma aetiology has not been fully elucidated and the role of HPV and EBV infections individually or synergistically is still controversial. Hence, more studies are needed to determine their possible role in carcinogenesis.

  7. High Radon Areas and lung cancer prevalence: Evidence from Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Seraphim; Lyons, Seán; Nolan, Anne

    2018-02-01

    This paper examined the relationship between radon risk and lung cancer prevalence using a novel dataset combining spatially-coded survey data with a radon risk map. A logit model was employed to test for significant associations between a high risk of indoor radon and lung cancer prevalence using data on 5590 people aged 50+ from The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA) and radon risk data from Ireland's Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The use of data at the individual level allowed a wide range of potentially confounding factors (such as smoking) to be included. Results indicate that those who lived in an area in which 10%-20% of households were above the national reference level (200 Bq/m 3 ) were 2.9-3.1 times more likely to report a lung cancer diagnosis relative to those who lived in areas in which less than 1% of households were above the national reference level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Low dose CT in early lung cancer diagnosis: prevalence data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardinale, Luciano; Cortese, Giancarlo; Ferraris, Fabrizio; Perotto, Fabio; Fava, Cesare; Borasio, Piero; Dogliotti, Luigi; Novello, Silvia; Scagliotti, Giorgio

    2005-01-01

    Purpose. Lung cancer has a high mortality rate and its prognosis largely depends on early detection. We report the prevalence data of the study on early detection of lung cancer with low-dose spiral CT underway at our hospital. Materials and methods. Since the beginning of 2001, 519 asymptomatic volunteers have undergone annual blood tests, sputum tests, urinalyses and low-dose spiral CT. The inclusion criteria were age (55 years old), a history of cigarette smoking and a negative history for previous neoplastic disease. The diagnostic workup varied depending on the size and CT features of the nodules detected. Results. At baseline, the CT scan detected nodules> 5 mm in 22% of subjects; the nodules were single in 42 and multiple in 71. In 53% of cases the findings were completely negative, while in 122 (23.4%) nodules with a diameter [it

  9. The Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus in Cervical Cancer in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, SH; Zali, MR; Raoufi, M; Nadji, M; Kowsarian, P; Nowroozi, A

    2002-01-01

    Background: The human papiloma virus (HPV), which is sexually transmitted, and most commonly causes genital warts, has been linked to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive carcinoma. Of ninety plus types of HPV, HPV-16 is the most prevalent in cervical cancer, followed by HPV-18, and HPV-33. As HPV's implication has not been assessed in the Middle East the main focus of this retrospective study was to determine the prevalence of HPV -16,18, and 33 in cases of cervical cancer from Iran. Material and Methods: This retrospective study covered 100 patients with uterine cervical carcinomas who were referred to two referral centers for cancer in Tehran-Iran. Pathological blocks were collected for these cases and initial review of the blocks showed poor specimens in 18 cases, which left 82 cases for the study. These samples were histologically examined to verify the presence and the type of carcinoma. The next step was in situ hybridzation for the detection of HPV common DNA. In Situ hybridization was preformed on all samples. Finally, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was preformed for the HPV types 16, 18, and 33. PCR amplification of exon 5 of the p53 gene was used as an internal control for the integrity of DNA. Takara PCR Human papilloma Detection method was used which includes primer for HPV 16, 18, and 33. Three primers were used alone, or in combination, in order to increase the sensitivity of the detection. Results: The majority of tumors were squamous cell carcinomas (87%). The rest were adenosquamous carcinoma and adenocarcinomas. None of the 82 different cervical carcinoma tissue samples were found to be positive by in situ hybridization. In the PCR samples, amplification of DNA was observed for 69 tumor specimens. In the remainning13 cases, the DNA in fixed tissue was degraded, as verified by the absence of an internal control band (p53). Out of the total 69 tumors (85.5%) with adequate DNA contained HPV band on PCR. The majority (73.9%) of HPV

  10. Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanesse Scerri

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is a major nosocomial pathogen worldwide. Malta is one of the countries with the highest MRSA prevalence in Europe, as identified from hospital blood cultures [1]. However, community prevalence of MRSA has never previously been investigated. This study aimed at establishing the prevalence of community MRSA nasal colonization in Maltese individuals and identifying the clonal characteristics of the detected isolates. Nasal swabs were collected from 329 healthy individuals who were also asked to complete a brief questionnaire about risk factors commonly associated with MRSA carriage and infection. The swabs were transported and enriched in a nutrient broth supplemented with NaCl. The presence of MRSA was then determined by culturing on MRSA Select chromogenic agar and then confirming by several assays, including catalase, coagulase and PBP2a agglutination tests. The isolates were assayed for antibiotic susceptibilities and typed by microarray analysis to determine the clonal characteristics of each strain. The prevalence of MRSA nasal colonization in the healthy Maltese population was found to be 8.81% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.75–11.87%, much higher than that found in other studies carried out in several countries. No statistical association was found between MRSA carriage and demographics or risk factors; however, this was hindered by the small sample size. Almost all the isolates were fusidic-acid resistant. The majority were found to belong to a local endemic clone (CC5 which seems to be replacing the previously prevalent European clone UK-EMRSA-15 in the country. A new clone (CC50-MRSA-V was also characterized. The presence of such a significant community reservoir of MRSA increases the burdens already faced by the local healthcare system to control the MRSA epidemic. Colonization of MRSA in otherwise healthy individuals may represent a risk for endogenous infection and transmission to

  11. Prevalence of photoprotection and its associated factors in risk group for skin cancer in Teresina, Piauí.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Fernanda Ayres de Morais E Silva; Mesquita, Gerardo Vasconcelos; Campelo, Viriato; Martins, Maria do Carmo de Carvalho E; Almeida, Camila Aparecida Pinheiro Landim; Rabelo, Regina Silva; Rocha, Amanda Eugênia Almeida; Santos, Jadson Lener Oliveira Dos

    2017-01-01

    The incidence of skin cancer has increased worldwide, particularly melanoma rates, which had a mean development of 2.6 % a year in the last 10 years. The agreement on the relation between long-term or chronic exposure to the sun and the emergence of these neoplasias has made several workers who perform activities exposed to solar radiation to form a risk group for the development of skin cancer, community health agents included. To analyze the prevalence of sunscreen-use-related factors to skin cancer in a labor risk group. Cross-sectional study with community health agents selected through simple random sampling. After collecting data using semi-structured interviews, a descriptive analysis was performed for the qualitative variables, bivariate analysis was employed for checking the association between sunscreen use and sociodemographic, occupational and knowledge about skin variables, and multivariate analysis was conducted to check independent variables associated to sunscreen use. A 5% significance level was used. Of 261 health gents selected, 243 were able to participate in the study. The prevalence rate of sunscreen use was 34.2% (95% CI: 28.2-40.2). Factors associated with sunscreen use were female sex, advanced age, use of sunscreen in situations when the skin got burnt, knowledge of the negative effects of the sun on the skin and skin cancer history. The prevalence found reveals that there is a need for implementing educational strategies in health services regarding photoprotection.

  12. Prevalence of photoprotection and its associated factors in risk group for skin cancer in Teresina, Piauí*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Fernanda Ayres de Morais e Silva; Mesquita, Gerardo Vasconcelos; Campelo, Viriato; Martins, Maria do Carmo de Carvalho e; Almeida, Camila Aparecida Pinheiro Landim; Rabelo, Regina Silva; Rocha, Amanda Eugênia Almeida; dos Santos, Jadson Lener Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    Background The incidence of skin cancer has increased worldwide, particularly melanoma rates, which had a mean development of 2.6 % a year in the last 10 years. The agreement on the relation between long-term or chronic exposure to the sun and the emergence of these neoplasias has made several workers who perform activities exposed to solar radiation to form a risk group for the development of skin cancer, community health agents included. OBJECTIVES To analyze the prevalence of sunscreen-use-related factors to skin cancer in a labor risk group. METHODOLOGY Cross-sectional study with community health agents selected through simple random sampling. After collecting data using semi-structured interviews, a descriptive analysis was performed for the qualitative variables, bivariate analysis was employed for checking the association between sunscreen use and sociodemographic, occupational and knowledge about skin variables, and multivariate analysis was conducted to check independent variables associated to sunscreen use. A 5% significance level was used. Results Of 261 health gents selected, 243 were able to participate in the study. The prevalence rate of sunscreen use was 34.2% (95% CI: 28.2-40.2). Factors associated with sunscreen use were female sex, advanced age, use of sunscreen in situations when the skin got burnt, knowledge of the negative effects of the sun on the skin and skin cancer history. Conclusions The prevalence found reveals that there is a need for implementing educational strategies in health services regarding photoprotection. PMID:28538880

  13. Skin cancer risks avoided by the Montreal Protocol--worldwide modeling integrating coupled climate-chemistry models with a risk model for UV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Arjan; Slaper, Harry; den Outer, Peter N; Morgenstern, Olaf; Braesicke, Peter; Pyle, John A; Garny, Hella; Stenke, Andrea; Dameris, Martin; Kazantzidis, Andreas; Tourpali, Kleareti; Bais, Alkiviadis F

    2013-01-01

    The assessment model for ultraviolet radiation and risk "AMOUR" is applied to output from two chemistry-climate models (CCMs). Results from the UK Chemistry and Aerosols CCM are used to quantify the worldwide skin cancer risk avoided by the Montreal Protocol and its amendments: by the year 2030, two million cases of skin cancer have been prevented yearly, which is 14% fewer skin cancer cases per year. In the "World Avoided," excess skin cancer incidence will continue to grow dramatically after 2030. Results from the CCM E39C-A are used to estimate skin cancer risk that had already been inevitably committed once ozone depletion was recognized: excess incidence will peak mid 21st century and then recover or even super-recover at the end of the century. When compared with a "No Depletion" scenario, with ozone undepleted and cloud characteristics as in the 1960s throughout, excess incidence (extra yearly cases skin cancer per million people) of the "Full Compliance with Montreal Protocol" scenario is in the ranges: New Zealand: 100-150, Congo: -10-0, Patagonia: 20-50, Western Europe: 30-40, China: 90-120, South-West USA: 80-110, Mediterranean: 90-100 and North-East Australia: 170-200. This is up to 4% of total local incidence in the Full Compliance scenario in the peak year. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2012 The American Society of Photobiology.

  14. Prevalence of human papillomavirus in epithelial ovarian cancer tissue. A meta-analysis of observational studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svahn, Malene F; Faber, Mette Tuxen; Christensen, Jane

    2014-01-01

    The role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer is controversial, and conflicting results have been published. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the prevalence of HPV in epithelial ovarian cancer tissue.......The role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer is controversial, and conflicting results have been published. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the prevalence of HPV in epithelial ovarian cancer tissue....

  15. Prevalence of renal insufficiency in elderly cancer patients in a tertiary cancer center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, Lucíola de Barros; Antunes, Yuri Philippe Pimentel Vieira; Bugano, Diogo Diniz Gomes; Karnakis, Theodora; del Giglio, Auro; Kaliks, Rafael Aliosha

    2014-01-01

    Objective To estimate the prevalence of abnormal glomerular filtration rate in elderly patients with solid tumors. Methods A retrospective study with patients aged >65 years diagnosed with solid tumors between January 2007 and December 2011 in a cancer center. The following data were collected: sex, age, serum creatinine at the time of diagnosis and type of tumor. Renal function was calculated using abbreviated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) formulae and then staged in accordance with the clinical practice guidelines published by the Working Group of the National Kidney Foundation. Results A total of 666 patients were included and 60% were male. The median age was 74.2 years (range: 65 to 99 years). The most prevalent diagnosis in the study population were colorectal (24%), prostate (20%), breast (16%) and lung cancer (16%). The prevalence of elevated serum creatinine (>1.0mg/dL) was 30%. However, when patients were assessed using abbreviated MDRD formulae, 66% had abnormal renal function, stratified as follows: 45% with stage 2, 18% with stage 3, 3% with stage 4 and 0.3% with stage 5. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this was the first study to estimate the frequency of renal insufficiency in elderly cancer patients in Brazil. The prevalence of abnormal renal function among our cohort was high. As suspected, the absolute creatinine level does underestimate renal function impairment and should not be used as predictor of chemotherapy metabolism, excretion and consequent toxicity. PMID:25295449

  16. A systematic review of the incidence and prevalence of cancer in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marrie, Ruth Ann; Reider, Nadia; Cohen, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies of cancer incidence and prevalence in multiple sclerosis (MS) have produced conflicting results. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence and prevalence of cancer in persons with MS and review the quality of included studies. METHODS: We searched the PUBMED, SCOPUS, Web of Knowledge...

  17. Prevalence of EGFR Mutations in Lung Cancer in Uruguayan Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Berois

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Incorporation of molecular analysis of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR gene into routine clinical practice represents a milestone for personalized therapy of the non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC. However, the genetic testing of EGFR mutations has not yet become a routine clinical practice in developing countries. In view of different prevalence of such mutations among different ethnicities and geographic regions, as well as the limited existing data from Latin America, our aim was to study the frequency of major types of activating mutations of the EGFR gene in NSCLC patients from Uruguay. Methods. We examined EGFR mutations in exons 18 through 21 in 289 NSCLC Uruguayan patients by PCR-direct sequencing. Results. EGFR mutations were detected in 53 of the 289 (18.3% patients, more frequently in women (23.4% than in men (14.5%. The distribution by exon was similar to that generally reported in the literature. Conclusions. This first epidemiological study of EGFR mutations in Uruguay reveals a wide spectrum of mutations and an overall prevalence of 18.3%. The background ethnic structure of the Uruguayan population could play an important role in explaining our findings.

  18. Review article: the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori and the incidence of gastric cancer across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, S E; Morrison-Rees, S; Samuel, D G; Thorne, K; Akbari, A; Williams, J G

    2016-02-01

    There is little up-to-date review evidence on the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori across Europe. To establish regional and national patterns in H. pylori prevalence across Europe. Secondly, to establish trends over time in H. pylori prevalence and gastric cancer incidence and, thirdly, to report on the relationship between H. pylori prevalence and age group across Europe. A review of H. pylori prevalence from unselected surveys of adult or general populations across 35 European countries and four European regions since 1990. Secondly, an analysis of trends over time in H. pylori prevalence and in gastric cancer incidence from cancer registry data. Helicobacter pylori prevalence was lower in northern and western Europe than in eastern and southern Europe (P Europe from 1993 to 2007 was 2.1% with little variation regionally across Europe (north 2.2%, west 2.3%, east 1.9% and south 2.0%). Sharp increases in age-related prevalence of H. pylori often levelled off for middle age groups of about 50 years onwards, especially in areas with high prevalence. This review shows that H. pylori prevalence is much higher in less affluent regions of Europe and that age-related increases in prevalence are confined to younger age groups in some areas. There were sharp reductions in both H. pylori prevalence and gastric cancer incidence throughout Europe. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Breast Cancer Prevalence and Mortality among Hispanic Subgroups in the United States, 2009?2013

    OpenAIRE

    Hunt, Bijou R.

    2016-01-01

    Background. This paper presents data on breast cancer prevalence and mortality among US Hispanics and Hispanic subgroups, including Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, Central American, and South American. Methods. Five-year average annual female breast cancer prevalence and mortality rates for 2009–2013 were examined using data from the National Health Interview Survey (prevalence) and the National Center for Health Statistics and the American Community Survey (mortality rates). Results. Overall b...

  20. Prevalence of JC virus in Chinese patients with colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaozhou Mou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: JCV is a DNA polyomavirus very well adapted to humans. Although JCV DNA has been detected in colorectal cancers (CRC, the association between JCV and CRC remains controversial. In China, the presence of JCV infection in CRC patients has not been reported. Here, we investigated JCV infection and viral DNA load in Chinese CRC patients and to determine whether the JCV DNA in peripheral blood (PB can be used as a diagnostic marker for JCV-related CRC. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Tumor tissues, non-cancerous tumor-adjacent tissues and PB samples were collected from 137 CRC patients. In addition, 80 normal colorectal tissue samples from patients without CRC and PB samples from 100 healthy volunteers were also harvested as controls. JCV DNA was detected by nested PCR and glass slide-based dot blotting. Viral DNA load of positive samples were determined by quantitative real-time PCR. JCV DNA was detected in 40.9% (56/137 of CRC tissues at a viral load of 49.1 to 10.3×10(4 copies/µg DNA. Thirty-four (24.5% non-cancerous colorectal tissues (192.9 to 4.4×10(3 copies/µg DNA and 25 (18.2% PB samples (81.3 to 4.9×10(3 copies/µg DNA from CRC patients were positive for JCV. Tumor tissues had higher levels of JCV than non-cancerous tissues (P = 0.003 or PB samples (P<0.001. No correlation between the presence of JCV and demographic or medical characteristics was observed. The JCV prevalence in PB samples was significantly associated with the JCV status in tissue samples (P<0.001. Eleven (13.8% normal colorectal tissues and seven (7.0% PB samples from healthy donors were positive for JCV. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: JCV infection is frequently present in colorectal tumor tissues of CRC patients. Although the association between JCV presence in PB samples and JCV status in tissue samples was identified in this study, whether PB JCV detection can serve as a marker for JCV status of CRC requires further study.

  1. The Burden of Cancer in Korea during 2012: Findings from a Prevalence-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Cancer causes a significant deterioration in health and premature death and is a national socioeconomic burden. This study aimed to measure the burden of cancer using the disability-adjusted life year (DALY) metric based on the newly adopted methodology from the Global Burden of Disease Study in 2010. This study was conducted based on data from the Korean National Cancer Registry. The DALYs were calculated using a prevalence-based method instead of the incidence-based method used by previous studies. The total burden of cancer in 2012 was 3,470.79 DALYs per 100,000 persons. Lung cancer was the most prevalent cancer burden, followed by liver, stomach, colorectal, and breast cancer. The DALYs for lung, liver, stomach, colon and rectum, and pancreatic cancer were high in men, whereas the DALYs for breast, lung, stomach, colorectal, and liver cancer were high in women. Health loss from leukemia and cancer of the brain and nervous system was prevalent for those younger than age 20; from stomach, breast, and liver for those aged 30–50; and from lung, colon and rectum, and pancreas for a large proportion of individuals over the age of 60. The most important differences were that the DALYs were calculated by prevalence and that other components of the DALYs were measured by a population-based perspective. Thus, prevalence-based DALYs could provide more suitable data for decision making in the healthcare field. PMID:27775254

  2. Prevalence of anxiety and depression and their risk factors in Chinese cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jin Sheng; Tian, Jun

    2014-02-01

    This paper aimed to obtain information on the levels of anxiety and depression among cancer patients in China. The factors influencing these psychological problems were also analyzed. A total of 1,217 cancer patients were interviewed, and each participant was asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire. The anxiety status, depression status, disease stage, tumor site, pain status, and performance status of the patients during the week prior to the interview were assessed. The anxiety and depression prevalence rates were 6.49 and 66.72 %, respectively. The prevalence rates of depression were 60.62 % for head and neck cancer, 77.19 % for lung cancer, 57.9 % for breast cancer, 75.81 % for esophagus cancer, 63.40 % for stomach cancer, 68.42 % for liver cancer, 54.37 % for colorectal cancer, and 71.13 % for cervix cancer. The factors influencing depression of patients were performance status (P anxiety were performance status (P = 0.0007), age (P anxiety in cancer patients. Compared with 3.8 % of the prevalence of depression in normal population, depression level was high among Chinese cancer patients. Patients with lung, esophagus, and cervix cancers were the high-risk groups for depression. Poor performance status, pain, old age, and low-level education were the predicting factors for depression.

  3. Worldwide Incidence of Colorectal Cancer, Leukemia, and Lymphoma in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelle L. Wheat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC. In addition, there may be an association between leukemia and lymphoma and IBD. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the IBD literature to estimate the incidence of CRC, leukemia, and lymphoma in adult IBD patients. Methods. Studies were identified by a literature search of PubMed, Cochrane Library, Medline, Web of Science, Scopus, EMBASE, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. Pooled incidence rates (per 100,000 person-years [py] were calculated through use of a random effects model, unless substantial heterogeneity prevented pooling of estimates. Several stratified analyses and metaregression were performed to explore potential study heterogeneity and bias. Results. Thirty-six articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria. For CRC, the pooled incidence rate in CD was 53.3/100,000 py (95% CI 46.3–60.3/100,000. The incidence of leukemia was 1.5/100,000 py (95% CI −0.06–3.0/100,000 in IBD, 0.3/100,000 py (95% CI −1.0–1.6/100,000 in CD, and 13.0/100,000 py (95% CI 5.8–20.3/100,000 in UC. For lymphoma, the pooled incidence rate in CD was 0.8/100,000 py (95% CI −0.4–2.1/100,000. Substantial heterogeneity prevented the pooling of other incidence estimates. Conclusion. The incidence of CRC, leukemia, and lymphoma in IBD is low.

  4. Definition, prevalence and burden of oropharyngeal dysphagia: a serious problem among older adults worldwide and the impact on prognosis and hospital resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichero, Julie A Y; Altman, Kenneth W

    2012-01-01

    Oropharyngeal dysphagia describes difficulty with eating and drinking. This benign statement does not reflect the personal, social, and economic costs of the condition. Dysphagia has an insidious nature in that it cannot be 'seen' like a hemiplegia or a broken limb. It is often a comorbid condition, most notably of stroke, and many other neurodegenerative disorders. Conservative estimates of annual hospital costs associated with dysphagia run to USD 547 million. Length of stay rises by 1.64 days. The true prevalence of dysphagia is difficult to determine as it has been reported as a function of care setting, disease state and country of investigation. However, extrapolating from the literature, prevalence rises with admission to hospital and affects 55% of those in aged care settings. Consequences of dysphagia include malnutrition, dehydration, aspiration pneumonia and potentially death. The mean cost for an aspiration pneumonia episode of care is USD 17,000, rising with the number of comorbid conditions. Whilst financial costs can be objectively counted, the despair, depression, and social isolation are more difficult to quantify. Both sufferers and their families bear the social and psychological burden of dysphagia. There may be a cost-effective role for screening and early identification of dysphagia, particularly in high-risk populations. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Prevalence of incidental prostate cancer: A systematic review of autopsy studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Katy JL; Del Mar, Chris; Wright, Gordon; Dickinson, James; Glasziou, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer screening may detect nonprogressive cancers, leading to overdiagnosis and overtreatment. The potential for overdiagnosis can be assessed from the reservoir of prostate cancer in autopsy studies that report incidental prostate cancer rates in men who died of other causes. We aimed to estimate the age-specific incidental cancer prevalence from all published autopsy studies. We identified eligible studies by searches of Medline and Embase, forward and backward citation searches and contacting authors. We screened the titles and abstracts of all articles; checked the full-text articles for eligibility and extracted clinical and pathology data using standardized forms. We extracted mean cancer prevalence, age-specific cancer prevalence and validity measures and then pooled data from all studies using logistic regression models with random effects. The 29 studies included in the review dated from 1948 to 2013. Incidental cancer was detected in all populations, with no obvious time trends in prevalence. Prostate cancer prevalence increased with each decade of age, OR = 1.7 (1.6–1.8), and was higher in studies that used the Gleason score, OR = 2.0 (1.1–3.7). No other factors were significantly predictive. The estimated mean cancer prevalence increased in a nonlinear fashion from 5% (95% CI: 3–8%) at age 79 years. There was substantial variation between populations in estimated cancer prevalence. There is a substantial reservoir of incidental prostate cancer which increases with age. The high risk of overdiagnosis limits the usefulness of prostate cancer screening. What’s new? Before symptoms of prostate cancer manifest clinically, many men die of other causes. Yet, prostate screening, particularly in older men, frequently turns out positive, resulting in overdiagnosis and overtreatment. This meta-analysis of published autopsy studies shows that incidental prostate cancer increases with age and with the use of sensitive screening strategies

  6. Prevalence of anxiety may not be elevated in thai ovarian cancer patients following treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittrakul, Saranya; Charoenkwan, Kittipat; Wongpakaran, Nahathai

    2015-01-01

    To compare prevalence of anxiety in ovarian cancer patients following primary treatment to that of normal women and to examine predicting factor. In this cross-sectional study, 56 ovarian cancer patients who had primary surgical treatment within the past five years (cancer group) and 56 age-matched women who attended an outpatient clinic for check-ups (non-cancer group) were recruited from June 2013 to January 2014. The hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS), was used to determine anxiety level of the participants with the score of ≥11 suggestive of anxiety. The prevalence of anxiety symptoms and mean HADS scores for anxiety were compared between the study groups. For those with ovarian cancer, associations of demographic and clinical factors with anxiety was examined. A p-value of cancer group had higher rate of medical comorbidity, higher salary, and more frequent university education. The prevalence of anxiety was not different between the groups, at 7.1% each. The mean HADS scores for anxiety subscale were not significantly different between the groups, 5.0 in the cancer group vs 6.1 in the non-cancer group (p=0.09). On multivariable analysis, no demographic or clinical factors significantly associated with anxiety were identified. For the cancer group, no association between any particular factors and anxiety was demonstrated. The prevalence of anxiety in women with ovarian cancer following primary treatment was comparable to that of normal women seeking routine check-up.

  7. The synchronous prevalence of colorectal neoplasms in patients with stomach cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Su; Jung, Woon Tae; Kim, Cha Young; Ha, Chang Yoon; Min, Hyun Ju; Kim, Hyun Jin; Kim, Tae Hyo

    2011-10-01

    The association between stomach cancer and colorectal cancer is controversial. The purpose of this study was to determine the synchronous prevalence of colorectal neoplasms in patients with stomach cancer. A total of 123 patients with stomach cancer (86 male) and 246 consecutive, age- and sex-matched persons without stomach cancer were analyzed from July 2005 to June 2010. All of them underwent colonoscopy within 6 months after undergoing gastroscopy. The prevalence of colorectal neoplasms was significantly higher in the stomach cancer group (35.8%) than in the control group (17.9%) (P stomach cancer (odds ratio [OR], 3.10; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.71 to 5.63). In particular, the difference in the prevalence of colorectal neoplasms was more prominent in the patients above 50 years old (OR, 3.54; 95% CI, 1.80 to 6.98). The results showed that the synchronous prevalence of colorectal neoplasms was higher in patients with stomach cancer than in those without stomach cancer. Therefore, patients with stomach cancer should be regarded as a high-risk group for colorectal neoplasms, and colonoscopy should be recommended for screening.

  8. Clinicopathological aspects and prevalence of human papillomavirus in anal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Tayla Mesquita Aguiar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Anal cancer is relatively rare; however, its incidence has increased in recent years. Several risk factors are associated with the development of anal cancer, including age older than 50 years, low-fiber diet, chronic anal fistulas, smoking, multiple partners, anal intercourse practice, Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection and immunosuppression. However, the presence of human papillomavirus represents the main risk factor for the development of anal cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinicopathological aspects of a series of patients with anal carcinomas diagnosed in Hospital Araújo Jorge, Goiânia-Goiás, as well as the prevalence of human papillomavirus genome in these tumors. Clinical, pathological and socio-demographic data were collected from the respective medical files and paraffin blocks containing anal carcinomas specimens were used for DNA extraction and detection of human papillomavirus, by means of polymerase chain reaction, using short PCR fragment primers. Forty-three cases were selected and had the data analyzed, while 38 cases were tested for human papillomavirus genome detection. Among the evaluated patients, 62.8% were women; 53.4% of tumors were squamous cell carcinoma and 46.5% of the patients were aged between 60 and 75 years. Risk factors, such as smoking (39.5% and alcoholism (20.9% were recorded in the studied group. Lymph node metastases were detected in 30.2% of cases and 7.0% had distant metastasis. The detection of human papillomavirus DNA was positive in 76% of cases assessed and this was significantly associated with squamous cell carcinomas. Aggressive behavior and advanced stage of anal cancer described in this study highlight the need for preventive measures that contemplate these tumors, including vaccination against human papillomavirus. Resumo: O câncer anal é relativamente raro, entretanto, sua incidência aumentou nos últimos anos. Vários fatores de risco são associados ao

  9. Association of thyroid, breast and renal cell cancer: a population-based study of the prevalence of second malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Fossen, Victoria L; Wilhelm, Scott M; Eaton, Jennifer L; McHenry, Christopher R

    2013-04-01

    Analysis of the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data has shown that the incidence of thyroid cancer is higher in patients with a preexisting malignancy and that the incidence of other malignancies is higher in patients with thyroid cancer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of a second malignancy in patients treated for thyroid, breast or renal cell cancer and determine what associations, if any, exist between these cancers. This study utilized the novel data system, Explorys, as its population base. Patient cohorts were constructed using ICD-9 codes, and prevalence rates were obtained for each cancer. Rates of second malignancy were obtained and compared to the baseline prevalence for a particular malignancy. Female thyroid cancer patients had a 0.67- and twofold increase in prevalence of a subsequent breast and renal cell cancer. Female breast and renal cell cancer patients had a twofold and 1.5-fold increase in the prevalence of thyroid cancer, respectively. Male patients with thyroid cancer had a 29- and 4.5-fold increase in prevalence of subsequent breast and renal cell cancer. Male patients with breast and renal cell cancer had an increased prevalence of subsequent thyroid cancer, 19- and threefold, respectively. Our study demonstrated a bidirectional association between thyroid, breast and renal cancer in both male and female patients. This may have important implications for patient follow-up and screening after treatment of a primary cancer.

  10. Cancer Statistics in Korea: Incidence, Mortality, Survival, and Prevalence in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kyu-Won; Won, Young-Joo; Kong, Hyun-Joo; Lee, Eun Sook

    2018-04-01

    This study presents the 2015 nationwide cancer statistics in Korea, including the incidence, survival, prevalence, and mortality. Cancer incidence data from 1999 to 2015 was obtained from the Korea National Cancer Incidence Database and followed until December 31, 2016. Mortality data from 1983 to 2015 were obtained from Statistics Korea. The prevalence was defined as the number of cancer patients alive on January 1, 2016, among all cancer patients diagnosed since 1999. Crude and age-standardized rates (ASRs) for incidence, mortality and prevalence and 5-year relative survivals were also calculated. Herein, 214,701 and 76,855 Koreans were newly diagnosed and died from cancer in 2015, respectively. The ASRs for cancer incidence and mortality in 2015 were 258.9 and 82.0 per 100,000, respectively. The overall cancer incidence rate has increased significantly by 3.4% annually from 1999 to 2012, and started to decrease after 2012 (2012-2015, annual percent change, -6.1%). However, the overall cancer mortality has decreased 2.7% annually since 2002. The 5-year relative survival rate for patients diagnosed with cancer between 2011 and 2015 was 70.7%, an improvement from the 41.2% for patients diagnosed between 1993 and 1995. Age-standardized cancer incidence rates have decreased since 2012 and mortality rates have declined since 2002; however, the 5-year survival rates have improved remarkably from 1993-1995 to 2011-2015 in Korea.

  11. Exploring Geographic Variability in Cancer Prevalence in Eastern Morocco: A Retrospective Study over Eight Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elidrissi Errahhali, Manal; Elidrissi Errahhali, Mounia; Abda, Naima; Bellaoui, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Malignant diseases have been believed to be more common in some areas of Eastern Morocco, but until now, cancer patterns have not been reported for this region. In this paper we present for the first time the cancer prevalence analysis in Eastern Morocco. Cross-sectional study carried out among all patients diagnosed and/or treated with cancer at the Hassan II Regional Oncology Center (ROC) since it was established in October 2005 until December 2012. The ROC is the only hospital specialized in cancer care in Eastern Morocco. A total of 8,508 cases of cancer were registered among residents in Eastern Morocco, with a female to male ratio of 2.1. The mean age at diagnosis was 53.9 ± 15.2 years (median age = 53 years). Thus, unlike in Western countries, cancer in Eastern Morocco afflicts younger population. The areas of Eastern Morocco did not differ significantly by mean age at diagnosis (p = 0.061). However, these regions differed significantly by sex ratio (p Morocco was observed, both in males and females (p Morocco differed significantly by cancer prevalence (p Morocco. Our study illustrates substantial differences in cancer patterns between areas of Eastern Morocco. These findings are important for cancer control and highlight the need to develop program aiming at controlling and preventing the spread of major cancer sites in Eastern Morocco, particularly in areas with increased cancer prevalence rates.

  12. Prevalence of gastric cancer precursor lesions in patients with dyspepsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Aygün

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In Southeastern cities of Turkey, high prevalencesof Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric cancerare seen. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequencyof the precancerous gastric lesions in patientswith dyspeptic symptoms who underwent upper gastrointestinalendoscopy in Adıyaman State Hospital.Materials and methods: We analyzed gastric biopsiestaken from corpus and antrum of 234 consecutive patientswho underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopybetween January 2009 and May 2009. According to Sydneysystem, chronic gastritis, gastric atrophy, intestinalmetaplasia and dysplasia were diagnosed by histologicalexamination.Results: The mean age of patients was 46±15 (16- 82years. Helicobacter pylori infection was seen in 66.7% ofpatients. Normal mucosa, chronic gastritis, gastric atrophy,intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia were diagnosedin 2.7%, 78.6%, 3.4%, 11.5% and 3.8% of gastric biopsyspecimens, respectively. Helicobacter pylori infected patientsshowed a significantly higher prevalence of intestinalmetaplasia compared with that of the non infectedsubjects (9.8% vs 1.7% p=0.021. Although prevalenceof gastric atrophy and dysplasia were higher among Helicobacterpylori infected patients, the difference did notreached to a statistically significant level (3.0% vs 0.4%p=0.19 and 3.0% vs 0.8% p=0.37 respectively.Conclusion: Our findings suggested that the prevalenceof gastric precancerous lesions such as gastric atrophy,intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia and Helicobacter pyloriinfection were high in dyspeptic patients. This may be relatedto actual high incidence of gastric cancer in southeasternregion of Turkey.

  13. Prevalence of Cancer Screening Among Adults With Disabilities, United States, 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Steele, C. Brooke; Townsend, Julie S.; Courtney-Long, Elizabeth A.; Young, Monique

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Many studies on cancer screening among adults with disabilities examined disability status only, which masks subgroup differences. We examined prevalence of receipt of cancer screening tests by disability status and type. Methods We used 2013 National Health Interview Survey data to assess prevalence of 1) guideline-concordant mammography, Papanicolaou (Pap) tests, and endoscopy and stool tests; 2) physicians? recommendations for these tests; and 3) barriers to health-care access...

  14. Malnutrition in childhood cancer patients : A review on its prevalence and possible causes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinksma, Aeltsje; Huizinga, Gea; Sulkers, Esther; Kamps, Willem; Roodbol, Petrie; Tissing, Wim

    Purpose: To perform a systematic literature review for critical evaluation of prevalence and factors contributing to malnutrition in childhood cancer. Methods: A systematic search resulting in 46 suitable articles. Results: Due to lack of uniform criteria and adequate studies, the prevalence rates

  15. Prevalence of Medication-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw in Patients with Breast Cancer, Prostate Cancer, and Multiple Myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Rugani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw is a known side-effect of antiresorptive therapy in patients with malignant diseases. Nevertheless, the exact pathogenesis is still unknown and published prevalences show a significant range. The aim of the presented paper was to assess the prevalence of osteonecrosis (ONJ in breast cancer, prostate cancer, and multiple myeloma patients receiving parenteral antiresorptive therapy. For this reason a PubMed search was performed and 69 matching articles comprising 29,437 patients were included in the analysis. Nine-hundred fifty-one cases of jaw necrosis were described. The overall ONJ-prevalence was 2.09% in the breast cancer group, 3.8% in the prostate cancer group, and 5.16% for multiple myeloma patients.

  16. Prevalence of Specific Types of Human Papiloma Virus in Cervical Intraepithelial Lesions and Cervical Cancer in Macedonian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksioska-Papestiev, Irena; Chibisheva, Vesna; Micevska, Megi; Dimitrov, Goran

    2018-02-01

    Cervical cancer is a malignancy originating in the transformation zone of the cervix, most commonly in the squamous cells. It is the fourth most common cancer in women worldwide, and the third most common cause of female cancer death. Genital human papilloma viruses (HPV) are sexually transmitted and approximately 630 milion people worldwide are infected. More than 200 genotypes, subtypes and variants have been reported, 13-15 being oncogenic type, which could be responsible for cervical intraepithelial lesions (CIN) or cancer. Aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of this infection and to identify specific types of human papiloma virus in cervical intraepithelial lesions and cervical cancer in Macedonian women. The study was conducted at the University Clinic for Obstetrics and Gynecology, Skopje, Macedonia, in a period of four years. The study was performed on a cohort of 1895, 18 - 73 year old patients who during primary examination had already abnormal PAP smear test. Cervical cells were collected in the lithotomy gynecological position of the patient, using endocervical cytobrush and cotton-tipped swab, and both were placed in sterile test tube with phosphate buffered saline. Samples were stored at temperature of 2 - 8 °C and Human Pappiloma Virus (HPV) genotyping was analyzed within 7 days by multiple Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) methods. The mean age of enrolled women was 40,8 years±10.36 SD(minimum of 18 and maximum 73 years. Among the patients, the presence of HPV by using PCR was detected in 40,68 % (769 patients) and was highly associated with cervical abnormalities. The prevalence of HPV was highest (82,1%) in women aged 20-years or less and it decreased with age and was lowest (19,9%) among patients older than 50 years. The prevalence of oncogenic types of the virus was higher if the cytologic diagnosis is CIN 3/Carcinoma in situ (CIS). In these patients detection of high risk HPV was in 79,1% females with CIN 3 and 97,5 % in females

  17. Prevalence of HIV/AIDS among Breast Cancer Patients and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: There is uncertainty as to the exact interaction between HIV and Breast Cancer. Available studies are inconclusive about any relation whether causal or protective and the number of patients in these studies small. Objective: To determine the prevalence of HIV among confirmed incident breast cancer cases and ...

  18. Prevalence of potential drug-drug interactions in cancer patients treated with oral anticancer drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, R. van; Brundel, D.H.; Neef, C.; Gelder, T. van; Mathijssen, R.H.; Burger, D.M.; Jansman, F.G.A.

    2013-01-01

    Background:Potential drug-drug interactions (PDDIs) in patients with cancer are common, but have not previously been quantified for oral anticancer treatment. We assessed the prevalence and seriousness of potential PDDIs among ambulatory cancer patients on oral anticancer treatment.Methods:A search

  19. Prevalence of potential drug-drug interactions in cancer patients treated with oral anticancer drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.W.F. van Leeuwen (Roelof); D.H.S. Brundel (D. H S); C. Neef (Cees); T. van Gelder (Teun); A.H.J. Mathijssen (Ron); D.M. Burger (David); F.G.A. Jansman (Frank)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Potential drug-drug interactions (PDDIs) in patients with cancer are common, but have not previously been quantified for oral anticancer treatment. We assessed the prevalence and seriousness of potential PDDIs among ambulatory cancer patients on oral anticancer treatment.

  20. The prevalence of endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial cancer in women with polycystic ovary syndrome or hyperandrogenism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Nina Sofie Lillegaard; Glintborg, Dorte; Andersen, Marianne Skovsager

    2012-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome may be associated with an increased risk of endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial cancer, but substantial evidence for this remains to be established. We investigated the prevalence of endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial cancer in a well characterized group of women...... with polycystic ovary syndrome and/or clinical/biochemical hyperandrogenism....

  1. Prevalence of potential drug-drug interactions in cancer patients treated with oral anticancer drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, R. W. F.; Brundel, D. H. S.; Neef, C.; van Gelder, T.; Mathijssen, R. H. J.; Burger, D. M.; Jansman, F. G. A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Potential drug-drug interactions (PDDIs) in patients with cancer are common, but have not previously been quantified for oral anticancer treatment. We assessed the prevalence and seriousness of potential PDDIs among ambulatory cancer patients on oral anticancer treatment. Methods: A

  2. Neuropathic Pain Components in Patients with Cancer: Prevalence, Treatment, and Interference with Daily Activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterling, A.; Boveldt, N.D. te; Verhagen, C.A.; Graaf, W.T. van der; Ham, M.A.P.C. van; Drift, M.A. van der; Vissers, K.; Engels, Y.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pain and neuropathic symptoms impact quality of life of patients with cancer. To obtain more insight in the prevalence, severity, and treatment of neuropathic symptoms in patients with cancer and their interference with daily activities, we conducted a cross-sectional study at the

  3. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with lung cancer: prevalence, impact and management challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Spyratos, Dionisios; Papadaki, Eleni; Lampaki, Sofia; Kontakiotis, Theodoros

    2017-01-01

    Dionisios Spyratos, Eleni Papadaki, Sofia Lampaki, Theodoros Kontakiotis Pulmonary Department, Lung Cancer Oncology Unit, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, G. Papanicolaou Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece Abstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer share a common etiological factor (cigarette smoking) and usually coexist in everyday clinical practice. The prevalence of COPD among newly diagnosed patients with lung cancer sometimes exceed...

  4. The Moreau Strain of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) for High-Risk Non-Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer: An Alternative during Worldwide BCG Shortage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofbauer, Sebastian L; Shariat, Shahrokh F; Chade, Daher C; Sarkis, Alvaro S; Ribeiro-Filho, Leopoldo A; Nahas, Willian C; Klatte, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is the standard of care for adjuvant intravesical instillation therapy for intermediate- and high-risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) after complete transurethral resection. Increasing evidence suggests that there are marked differences in outcomes according to BCG substrains. BCG-Moreau was recently introduced to the European market to cover the issue of BCG shortage, but there are little data regarding the oncologic efficacy. We retrospectively analyzed 295 consecutive patients, who received adjuvant intravesical instillation therapy with BCG-Moreau for intermediate- and high-risk NMIBC between October 2007 and April 2013 at a single institution. The end points of this study were time to first recurrence and progression to muscle-invasive disease. Median age was 66 years (interquartile range 59-74, mean 65.9 years). According to the EAU risk group, 76 patients presented with intermediate-risk and 219 patients with high-risk NMIBC. The 5-year recurrence-free survival and progression-free survival rate was 64.8% (95% CI 52.8-74.4) and 81.4% (95% CI 65.2-90.2), respectively. BCG-Moreau is an effective substrain for adjuvant instillation therapies of NMIBC, and outcomes appear to be comparable to series using other substrains. During worldwide shortage of BCG-TICE, Connaught and RIVM, BCG-Moreau may serve as an equally effective alternative. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. The impact on clinical outcome of high prevalence of diabetes mellitus in Taiwanese patients with colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Ching-Wen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both colorectal cancer (CRC and diabetes mellitus (DM are important public health problems worldwide. As there are controversies about survival impact on CRC patients with preexisting DM, the purpose of the present study is to evaluate the incidence and the survival impact of preexisting DM on the long-term outcomes of patients with CRC in Taiwan. Methods From January 2002 to December 2008, 1,197 consecutive patients with histologically proven primary CRC, who received surgical treatment at a single institution, were enrolled. The clinicopathologic features between these patients with and without DM were retrospectively investigated. Moreover, we intended to analyze the impact of DM on overall survival (OS and cancer-specific survival (CSS rates. Results Of 1,197 CRC patients, 23.6% of patients had either a reported history of DM or were currently taking one or more diabetes-controlling medications. CRC patients with DM were significantly older than those without DM (P P vs 6.01%, P = 0.040. Conclusions A considerably high prevalence of DM in CRC patients but no significant impact of DM on survival was observed in the single-institution retrospective study, regardless of cancer stages and tumor locations. Therefore, treatment strategies for CRC patients with DM should be the same as patients without DM.

  6. Prevalence of depression in breast cancer patients and its association with their quality of life: A cross-sectional observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debasweta Purkayastha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among women worldwide. In India, the incidence rate of breast cancer is found to be 25.8/10,000 females. The statistics for Kerala, India, is 30.5 in urban areas and 19.8 in rural areas. Cancer and treatment-related symptoms are major stressors in patients with breast cancer undergoing treatment for the disease. Depression is a prevalent psychological symptom perceived by breast cancer patients, and it also impacts the quality of life (QOL in these patients. We aimed to assess the prevalence of depression and its association with QOL of patients with breast cancer undergoing treatment for breast cancer. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study enrolled 270 patients diagnosed with breast cancer (>18 years and undergoing active treatment in a tertiary care center in Kerala, India. Depression was assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 and International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Edition Research guidelines. We measured the QOL and its domains using the WHOQOL-BREF. Results: The average age of women in research was 53.56 years. Of the 270 patients, 21.5% had depression. Among patients with depression, 22% had moderately severe to severe depression. Patients with depression experienced overall a poor QOL. Twenty-two patients reported their overall QOL was “poor” and 34 patients reported to be dissatisfied with their health. There was an association between depression and domains of QOL. Patients with depression had lower scores in all domains when compared to those without depression. Conclusion: Depression and poor QOL is common among breast cancer patients.

  7. Higher prevalence of KRAS mutations in colorectal cancer in Saudi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Talha Bader

    2014-02-07

    Feb 7, 2014 ... Medical Oncology Comprehensive Cancer Centre, King Fahd Medical City, P.O. Box 59046, Riyadh 11525, Saudi Arabia. Received 29 December ..... of 35, (P < 0.016). These three types account for 88.5% of all. Table 1 Baseline characteristics of patients with colorectal cancer. Characteristics. Value. N. %.

  8. Prevalence of Complementary Medicine Use in Patients With Cancer: A Turkish Comprehensive Cancer Center Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suayib Yalcin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM has been popular among patients with cancer for several decades. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of CAM use and to identify the factors affecting CAM use in a large patient cohort seen at a comprehensive cancer center in Turkey. Patients and Methods: An investigator-designed survey was completed by volunteer patients who visited the outpatient clinic in the medical oncology department. CAM use encompassed pharmacologic agents including vitamins, dietary supplements, and herbal products or nonpharmacologic methods like prayer, meditation, hypnosis, massage, or acupuncture. Results: Of 1,499 patients who answered the survey, 1,433 (96% used nonpharmacologic CAM and 60 (4% used pharmacologic CAM (pCAM. The most frequent types of CAM used were prayer (n = 1,433 followed by herbal products (n = 42. pCAM use was not significantly associated with age (P = .63, sex (P = .15, diagnosis (P = .15, or income level (P = .09. However, it was significantly associated with the level of education (P = .0067 and employment status (P < .001. Patients with higher education levels used more pCAM products (P = .025. Among 60 pCAM users, six patients (10% used pCAM for more than 2 years and 22 (36% did not consult their physicians about their pCAM use. Only nine patients (15% reported unpleasant adverse effects related to pCAM. Conclusion: Although CAM use was high among our patients, prevalence of pCAM use was lower than expected. Patients with higher education levels tended to use more pCAM.

  9. Population prevalence of hereditary breast cancer phenotypes and implementation of a genetic cancer risk assessment program in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edenir I. Palmero

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2004, a population-based cohort (the Núcleo Mama Porto Alegre - NMPOA Cohort was started in Porto Alegre, southern Brazil and within that cohort, a hereditary breast cancer study was initiated, aiming to determine the prevalence of hereditary breast cancer phenotypes and evaluate acceptance of a genetic cancer risk assessment (GCRA program. Women from that cohort who reported a positive family history of cancer were referred to GCRA. Of the 9218 women enrolled, 1286 (13.9% reported a family history of cancer. Of the 902 women who attended GCRA, 55 (8% had an estimated lifetime risk of breast cancer ³ 20% and 214 (23.7% had pedigrees suggestive of a breast cancer predisposition syndrome; an unexpectedly high number of these fulfilled criteria for Li-Fraumeni-like syndrome (122 families, 66.7%. The overall prevalence of a hereditary breast cancer phenotype was 6.2% (95%CI: 5.67-6.65. These findings identified a problem of significant magnitude in the region and indicate that genetic cancer risk evaluation should be undertaken in a considerable proportion of the women from this community. The large proportion of women who attended GCRA (72.3% indicates that the program was well-accepted by the community, regardless of the potential cultural, economic and social barriers.

  10. Population prevalence of hereditary breast cancer phenotypes and implementation of a genetic cancer risk assessment program in southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    In 2004, a population-based cohort (the Núcleo Mama Porto Alegre - NMPOA Cohort) was started in Porto Alegre, southern Brazil and within that cohort, a hereditary breast cancer study was initiated, aiming to determine the prevalence of hereditary breast cancer phenotypes and evaluate acceptance of a genetic cancer risk assessment (GCRA) program. Women from that cohort who reported a positive family history of cancer were referred to GCRA. Of the 9218 women enrolled, 1286 (13.9%) reported a family history of cancer. Of the 902 women who attended GCRA, 55 (8%) had an estimated lifetime risk of breast cancer ≥ 20% and 214 (23.7%) had pedigrees suggestive of a breast cancer predisposition syndrome; an unexpectedly high number of these fulfilled criteria for Li-Fraumeni-like syndrome (122 families, 66.7%). The overall prevalence of a hereditary breast cancer phenotype was 6.2% (95%CI: 5.67-6.65). These findings identified a problem of significant magnitude in the region and indicate that genetic cancer risk evaluation should be undertaken in a considerable proportion of the women from this community. The large proportion of women who attended GCRA (72.3%) indicates that the program was well-accepted by the community, regardless of the potential cultural, economic and social barriers. PMID:21637504

  11. Prevalence of esophageal cancer during the pretreatment of hypopharyngeal cancer patients: Routinely performed esophagogastroduodenoscopy and FDG-PET/CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakaminato, Shuichiro; Toriihara, Akira; Makino, Tomoko; Shibuya, Hitoshi [Dept. of Radiology, Tokyo Medical and Dental Univ., Tokyo (Japan)], Email: S.Nakaminato@gmail.com; Kawano, Tatsuyuki [Dept. of Surgery, Tokyo Medical and Dental Univ., Tokyo (Japan); Kishimoto, Seiji [Dept. of Head and Neck Surgery, Tokyo Medical and Dental Univ., Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-05-15

    Background. The prevalence of esophageal cancer accompanied by hypopharyngeal cancer (HPC) is high and increasing rapidly in Asia. The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate the prevalence of esophageal cancer during the pretreatment of HPC patients who were routinely examined using esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) and to discuss the utility of these examinations. Material and methods. Between September 2005 and September 2010, 33 patients with newly diagnosed HPC (all with squamous cell carcinoma) underwent EGD (after a conventional endoscopy, iodine staining was performed) and FDG-PET/CT examinations. We evaluated the prevalence of esophageal cancer among HPC patients according to the EGD findings and determined the sensitivity of FDG-PET/CT for the detection of esophageal primary tumors for each clinical T classification. Results. In 17 of the 33 patients (51.5%), 29 biopsy-proven esophageal squamous cell carcinomas were diagnosed using EGD. In eight of the 17 (47.1%) patients, two or more esophageal cancer lesions were diagnosed. Twenty-four of the 29 (82.8%) lesions were superficial esophageal cancers, and the remaining five (17.2%) lesions were advanced esophageal cancers. In six of the 29 (20.7%) esophageal cancer lesions that were detected using FDG-PET/CT, only one of the 29 (3.4%) lesions was evaluated as being equivocal; the remaining 22 (75.9%) lesions were not detected. The distribution of the clinical T classifications detected using FDG-PET/CT was as follows: T1a, 0/21 (0%); T1b, 1/3 (33%); and T3, 5/5 (100%). Conclusions. The prevalence of esophageal cancer during the pretreatment of HPC patients was 51.5%; this prevalence was higher than that in previous reports. We believe that the increasing proportion of superficial lesions (82.8%) detected using iodine staining and EGD may have led to the relatively high prevalence. FDG-PET/CT detected only 20.7% of the esophageal cancers

  12. Prevalence of esophageal cancer during the pretreatment of hypopharyngeal cancer patients: Routinely performed esophagogastroduodenoscopy and FDG-PET/CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakaminato, Shuichiro; Toriihara, Akira; Makino, Tomoko; Shibuya, Hitoshi; Kawano, Tatsuyuki; Kishimoto, Seiji

    2012-01-01

    Background. The prevalence of esophageal cancer accompanied by hypopharyngeal cancer (HPC) is high and increasing rapidly in Asia. The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate the prevalence of esophageal cancer during the pretreatment of HPC patients who were routinely examined using esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) and to discuss the utility of these examinations. Material and methods. Between September 2005 and September 2010, 33 patients with newly diagnosed HPC (all with squamous cell carcinoma) underwent EGD (after a conventional endoscopy, iodine staining was performed) and FDG-PET/CT examinations. We evaluated the prevalence of esophageal cancer among HPC patients according to the EGD findings and determined the sensitivity of FDG-PET/CT for the detection of esophageal primary tumors for each clinical T classification. Results. In 17 of the 33 patients (51.5%), 29 biopsy-proven esophageal squamous cell carcinomas were diagnosed using EGD. In eight of the 17 (47.1%) patients, two or more esophageal cancer lesions were diagnosed. Twenty-four of the 29 (82.8%) lesions were superficial esophageal cancers, and the remaining five (17.2%) lesions were advanced esophageal cancers. In six of the 29 (20.7%) esophageal cancer lesions that were detected using FDG-PET/CT, only one of the 29 (3.4%) lesions was evaluated as being equivocal; the remaining 22 (75.9%) lesions were not detected. The distribution of the clinical T classifications detected using FDG-PET/CT was as follows: T1a, 0/21 (0%); T1b, 1/3 (33%); and T3, 5/5 (100%). Conclusions. The prevalence of esophageal cancer during the pretreatment of HPC patients was 51.5%; this prevalence was higher than that in previous reports. We believe that the increasing proportion of superficial lesions (82.8%) detected using iodine staining and EGD may have led to the relatively high prevalence. FDG-PET/CT detected only 20.7% of the esophageal cancers

  13. Prevalence of germline TP53 mutations in HER2+ breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Michelle G; Masciari, Serena; Gelman, Rebecca; Miron, Alexander; Miron, Penelope; Foley, Kathleen; Richardson, Andrea L; Krop, Ian E; Verselis, Sigitas J; Dillon, Deborah A; Garber, Judy E

    2013-05-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent tumor in Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS), a rare inherited cancer syndrome associated with germline mutations in the TP53 gene. Recent data show that breast cancer in germline TP53 mutation carriers is commonly HER2+ (63-83 %). We assessed the prevalence of germline TP53 mutations in a cohort of women with HER2+ breast cancer diagnosed age ≤50 years. We identified blood specimens from 213 women with primary invasive HER2+ breast cancer age ≤50 years from a single center. Exon grouping analysis sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification techniques were used to screen for germline TP53 mutations. Among 213 women with HER2+ breast cancer age ≤50 years, 3 (ages at diagnosis 23, 32, 44 years) were found to carry a TP53 mutation (1.4 %, 95 % CI 0.3-4.1 %). ER/PR status was not uniform. Two TP53 carriers met Chompret criteria for LFS; none met classic LFS criteria. Although two-thirds of breast cancers in women with TP53 mutations are HER2+, we observed a low prevalence of germline TP53 mutations among unselected young women with HER2+ breast cancer. Given the potential clinical impact, consideration of germline TP53 testing should be given to young women with HER2+ breast cancer, especially if family cancer history is notable.

  14. Prevalence of germline TP53 mutations in HER2-positive Breast Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Michelle G.; Masciari, Serena; Gelman, Rebecca; Miron, Alexander; Miron, Penelope; Foley, Kathleen; Richardson, Andrea L.; Krop, Ian E.; Verselis, Sigitas J.; Dillon, Deborah A.; Garber, Judy E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the most frequent tumor in Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS), a rare inherited cancer syndrome associated with germline mutations in the TP53 gene. Recent data show that breast cancer in germline TP53 mutation carriers is commonly HER2-positive (63–83%). We assessed the prevalence of germline TP53 mutations in a cohort of women with HER2+ breast cancer diagnosed age ≤ 50 years. Material & Methods We identified blood specimens from 213 women with primary invasive HER2+ breast cancer age ≤ 50 years from a single center. EGAN sequencing and MLPA techniques were used to screen for germline TP53 mutations. Results Among 213 women with HER2+ breast cancer age ≤ 50 years, 3 (ages at diagnosis 23, 32, 44 years) were found to carry a TP53 mutation (1.4%, 95%CI 0.3%–4.1%). ER/PR status was not uniform. Two TP53-carriers met Chompret criteria for LFS; none met classic LFS criteria. Conclusion Although two-thirds of breast cancers in women with TP53 mutations are HER2+, we observed a low prevalence of germline TP53 mutations among unselected young women with HER2+ breast cancer. Given the potential clinical impact, consideration of germline TP53 testing should be given to young women with HER2+ breast cancer, especially if family cancer history is notable. PMID:23580068

  15. Helicobacter pylori and gastric carcinoma. Serum antibody prevalence in populations with contrasting cancer risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, P; Fox, J; Fontham, E; Ruiz, B; Lin, Y P; Zavala, D; Taylor, N; Mackinley, D; de Lima, E; Portilla, H

    1990-12-15

    This investigation examined the correlation between Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection, as reflected in immunoglobulin G serum antibodies, and the risk of gastric cancer. Serum samples were obtained from populations with contrasting gastric cancer risks. The highest prevalence of HP infection, 93%, was observed in the adult population at highest gastric cancer risk, the residents of Pasto, Colombia. In the lower risk Colombian city of Cali, a 63% overall prevalence rate was found. Both children and adults were sampled in New Orleans, Louisiana, where gastric cancer rates are high for blacks but not for whites. The prevalence of HP infection was significantly higher in black than in white adults, 70% versus 43%, P = 0.0001. A higher prevalence was also detected in black compared with white children, 49% versus 32%, P = 0.01; however, an even greater disparity was noted when comparing children from two hospitals, regardless of race, which serve different socioeconomic groups. A prevalence rate of 54% was found at Charity Hospital compared with 24% (P = 0.0001) at Children's Hospital. Our findings indicate that socioeconomic conditions, known to influence gastric cancer risk, are also important determinants of HP infection.

  16. Worldwide effort against smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    The 39th World Health Assembly, which met in May 1986, recognized the escalating health problem of smoking-related diseases and affirmed that tobacco smoking and its use in other forms are incompatible with the attainment of "Health for All by the Year 2000." If properly implemented, antismoking campaigns can decrease the prevalence of smoking. Nations as a whole must work toward changing smoking habits, and governments must support these efforts by officially stating their stand against smoking. Over 60 countries have introduced legislation affecting smoking. The variety of policies range from adopting a health education program designed to increase peoples' awareness of its dangers to increasing taxes to deter smoking by increasing tobacco prices. Each country must adopt an antismoking campaign which works most effectively within the cultural parameters of the society. Other smoking policies include: printed warnings on cigarette packages; health messages via radio, television, mobile teams, pamphlets, health workers, clinic walls, and newspapers; prohibition of smoking in public areas and transportation; prohibition of all advertisement of cigarettes and tobacco; and the establishment of upper limits of tar and nicotine content in cigarettes. The tobacco industry spends about $2000 million annually on worldwide advertising. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), controlling this overabundance of tobacco advertisements is a major priority in preventing the spread of smoking. Cigarette and tobacco advertising can be controlled to varying degrees, e.g., over a dozen countries have enacted a total ban on advertising on television or radio, a mandatory health warning must accompany advertisements in other countries, and tobacco companies often are prohibited from sponsoring sports events. Imposing a substantial tax on cigarettes is one of the most effective means to deter smoking. However, raising taxes and banning advertisements is not enough because

  17. Editor’s Pick: Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease – Changing the Prevalence of Liver Cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetta Campana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to its increasing prevalence, exceeding 25% of the Western population, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD merits recognition as one of the most frequent chronic liver diseases (CLD and requires consideration of the associated disease-related complications and their consequences for the surveillance and treatment of patients and the socio-economy worldwide. Along with the increasing incidence of NAFLD-related cirrhosis and end-stage liver disease, the frequency of NAFLD-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is rising and expected to surpass HCC related to chronic hepatitis C in the upcoming future. These epidemiologic changes will impact on the overall mortality of CLD and the requirement of organs for transplantation. Although the risk of HCC in NAFLD, similar to other CLD, is related to fibrosis (advanced fibrosis increases the risk of HCC 25-fold, there are reports suggesting a considerable rate of HCC also developing in simple hepatic steatosis. Moreover, HCC is nowadays the leading cause of obesity-related cancer mortality; cancers of other origin such as colorectal cancer are more prevalent in patients with NAFLD and obesity. The pathophysiology of HCC has mainly been studied in models of viral hepatitis. Given the expected raise in NAFLD-related HCC, a better understanding of the pathophysiology of carcinogenesis in NAFLD and obesity is desired in order to better define chemopreventive strategies. Here we review the epidemiology, aetiology, and pathogenesis of HCC on the background of NAFLD and deduce potential consequences for the management of patients in respect to the NAFLD epidemic.

  18. Prevalence of cervical cancer and associated mortality in Grenada, 2000–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bahadoor-Yetman

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To assess cervical cancer prevalence and associated mortality in Grenada, West Indies during 2000–2010. Methods Records of visits to hospital and clinical facilities were obtained from the histopathology laboratory of the Grenada General Hospital. Records were de-identified and electronically compiled. Cervical cancer prevalence was assessed via cross-sectional analysis of this secondary data. Of a total 12 012 records, 2 527 were selected for analysis using sampling without replacement. Cases were matched to corresponding patient data from death registries, where possible, and used to calculate associated mortality rates. Results The observed prevalence of cervical cancer was 52.4 per 100 000 women (ages 15 and above. The highest rates of cervical cancer occurred in the 35–44 age group, with the second highest among 45–64-year-olds. A total of 65 deaths were attributable to cervical cancer during 2000–2010, more than 50% of which were among women > 65 years old. The observed mortality rate was 16.7 per 100 000, almost twice the rate estimated by WHO for the region. Conclusions This study demonstrates the need for a comprehensive cervical cancer-screening program in Grenada. Results should contribute to informing future studies on how to appropriately generate and execute public health policy for education, screening, prevention, and control of cervical cancer in Grenada.

  19. Prevalence and Penetrance of Major Genes and Polygenes for Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Win, Aung Ko; Jenkins, Mark A.; Dowty, James G.; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Lee, Andrew; Giles, Graham G.; Buchanan, Daniel D.; Clendenning, Mark; Rosty, Christophe; Ahnen, Dennis J.; Thibodeau, Stephen N.; Casey, Graham; Gallinger, Steven; Le Marchand, Loïc; Haile, Robert W.; Potter, John D.; Zheng, Yingye; Lindor, Noralane M.; Newcomb, Polly A.; Hopper, John L.; MacInnis, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Background While high-risk mutations in identified major susceptibility genes (DNA mismatch repair genes and MUTYH) account for some familial aggregation of colorectal cancer, their population prevalence and the causes of the remaining familial aggregation are not known. Methods We studied the families of 5,744 colorectal cancer cases (probands) recruited from population cancer registries in the USA, Canada and Australia and screened probands for mutations in mismatch repair genes and MUTYH. We conducted modified segregation analyses using the cancer history of first-degree relatives, conditional on the proband’s age at diagnosis. We estimated the prevalence of mutations in the identified genes, the prevalence of and hazard ratio for unidentified major gene mutations, and the variance of the residual polygenic component. Results We estimated that 1 in 279 of the population carry mutations in mismatch repair genes (MLH1= 1 in 1946, MSH2= 1 in 2841, MSH6= 1 in 758, PMS2= 1 in 714), 1 in 45 carry mutations in MUTYH, and 1 in 504 carry mutations associated with an average 31-fold increased risk of colorectal cancer in unidentified major genes. The estimated polygenic variance was reduced by 30–50% after allowing for unidentified major genes and decreased from 3.3 for age colorectal cancer. Impact Our findings could aid gene discovery and development of better colorectal cancer risk prediction models. PMID:27799157

  20. Lung cancer prevalence associated with radon exposure in Norwegian homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassfjell, Christina Søyland; Grimsrud, Tom Kristian; Standring, William J F; Tretli, Steinar

    2017-08-22

    Radioactive radon gas is generated from uranium and thorium in underlying rocks and seeps into buildings. The gas and its decay products emit carcinogenic radiation and are regarded as the second most important risk factor for lung cancer after active tobacco smoking. The average radon concentration in Norwegian homes is higher than in most other Western countries. From a health and cost perspective, it is important to be able to quantify the risk of lung cancer posed by radon exposure. We estimated the radon-related risk of lung cancer in Norway based on risk estimates from the largest pooled analysis of European case-control studies, combined with the hitherto largest set of data on radon concentration measurements in Norwegian homes. Based on these estimates, we calculate that radon is a contributory factor in 12 % of all cases of lung cancer annually, assuming an average radon concentration of 88 Bq/m3 in Norwegian homes. For 2015, this accounted for 373 cases of lung cancer, with an approximate 95 % confidence interval of 145 – 682. Radon most likely contributes to a considerable number of cases of lung cancer. Since most cases of radon-associated lung cancer involve smokers or former smokers, a reduction of the radon concentration in homes could be a key measure to reduce the risk, especially for persons who are unable to quit smoking. The uncertainty in the estimated number of radon-associated cases can be reduced through a new national radon mapping study with an improved design.

  1. Prevalence and correlates of anxiety and depression among family carers of cancer patients in a cancer care and treatment facility in Uganda: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Katende, Godfrey; Nakimera, Lillian

    2017-01-01

    Background The process of caregiving may cause emotional distress in form of anxiety and depression among family carers of cancer patients. Little is known about the prevalence of anxiety and depression among family carers of cancer patients in Uganda. Objectives To determine the prevalence of anxiety and depression and related factors associated with abnormal levels of anxiety and depression among family carers of cancer patients in a cancer care and treatment facility in Uganda. Methods Aft...

  2. Geographic association of Helicobacter pylori antibody prevalence and gastric cancer mortality in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, D; Sitas, F; Newell, D G; Stacey, A R; Boreham, J; Peto, R; Campbell, T C; Li, J; Chen, J

    1990-10-15

    To examine the geographic association between Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric cancer, we have assessed the prevalence of IgG antibodies to H. pylori in plasma samples taken in 1983 from 1882 men, aged 35-64 years, in 46 rural counties of the People's Republic of China. The gastric cancer mortality rates in these countries in 1973-75 varied from 3 per 1,000 (cumulative rate, 0-64 years) to 69 per 1,000, while the proportions of the population positive for H. pylori antibodies (based on an average of about 41 men per county) varied from 28% to 96%. After correction for the limited number of blood samples per county, the estimated correlation between H. pylori antibody prevalence and gastric cancer mortality was 40% (p = 0.02). No other type of cancer showed a significant association with H. pylori.

  3. Breast Cancer Prevalence and Mortality among Hispanic Subgroups in the United States, 2009–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijou R. Hunt

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This paper presents data on breast cancer prevalence and mortality among US Hispanics and Hispanic subgroups, including Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, Central American, and South American. Methods. Five-year average annual female breast cancer prevalence and mortality rates for 2009–2013 were examined using data from the National Health Interview Survey (prevalence and the National Center for Health Statistics and the American Community Survey (mortality rates. Results. Overall breast cancer prevalence among US Hispanic women was 1.03%. Although the estimates varied slightly by Hispanic subgroup, these differences were not statistically significant. The breast cancer mortality rate for Hispanics overall was 17.71 per 100,000 women. Higher rates were observed among Cubans (17.89, Mexicans (18.78, and Puerto Ricans (19.04, and a lower rate was observed among Central and South Americans (10.15. With the exception of the rate for Cubans, all Hispanic subgroup rates were statistically significantly different from the overall Hispanic rate. Additionally, all Hispanic subgroups rates were statistically significantly higher than the Central and South American rate. Conclusion. The data reveal significant differences in mortality across Hispanic subgroups. These data enable public health officials to develop targeted interventions to help lower breast cancer mortality among the highest risk populations.

  4. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with lung cancer: prevalence, impact and management challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyratos, Dionisios; Papadaki, Eleni; Lampaki, Sofia; Kontakiotis, Theodoros

    2017-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer share a common etiological factor (cigarette smoking) and usually coexist in everyday clinical practice. The prevalence of COPD among newly diagnosed patients with lung cancer sometimes exceeds 50%. COPD is an independent risk factor (2-4 times higher than non-COPD subjects) for lung cancer development. The presence of emphysema in addition to other factors (e.g., smoking history, age) could be incorporated into risk scores in order to define the most appropriate target group for lung cancer screening using low-dose computed tomography. Clinical management of patients with coexistence of COPD and lung cancer requires a multidisciplinary oncology board that includes a pulmonologist. Detailed evaluation (lung function tests, cardiopulmonary exercise test) and management (inhaled drugs, smoking cessation, pulmonary rehabilitation) of COPD should be taken into account for lung cancer treatment (surgical approach, radiotherapy).

  5. Is prevalence of colorectal polyps higher in patients with family history of colorectal cancer?

    OpenAIRE

    Murad-Regadas, Sthela Maria; Bezerra, Carla Camila Rocha; Peixoto, Ana Ligia Rocha; Regadas, Francisco Sérgio Pinheiro; Rodrigues, Lusmar Veras; Siebra, José Airton Gonçalves; da Silva Fernandes, Graziela Olivia; Vasconcelos, Rafael Aragão

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTObjectives:To assess the prevalence of polyps in patients with a family history of colorectal cancer, in comparison to asymptomatic individuals with indication for screening.Methods:A prospective study in a group of patients who underwent colonoscopy between 2012 and 2014. Patients were divided into two groups: Group I: no family history of colorectal cancer, and Group II: with a family history in first-degree relatives. Demographic characteristics, findings on colonoscopy...

  6. Prevalence of Basal-like Breast Cancer among Indigenous Black ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Breast cancer comprises a group of very diverse diseases, which can be demonstrated at the molecular, histopathological and clinical levels. Gene expression studies using RNA microarray studies have categorised breast carcinomas into several classes. Of these basal-like tumour class has showed poor ...

  7. Social stratification, risk factor prevalence and cancer screening attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisinger, François; Viguier, Jérôme; Touboul, Chantal; Coscas, Yvan; Pivot, Xavier; Blay, Jean-Yves; Lhomel, Christine; Morère, Jean-François

    2015-06-01

    This analysis aimed to assess the extent to which exposure to cancer risk factors and attendance of screening programmes are influenced by social characteristics. The validated Evaluation of deprivation and health inequalities in public health centres (EPICES) index was used to measure social deprivation. A sample of the general population (N=1603) was assessed to search for potential correlations between screening attendance, risk factors and any components of the EPICES score. In 2011, 33% of the population studied was classified as 'vulnerable'. Sex had no significant impact on this rating (32% men, 35% women), whereas occupational status did. Vulnerable individuals were more likely already to have cancer (10 vs. 7%; nonsignificant difference; odds ratio 1.43 [0.98-2.10]). The mean BMI was 26.0 kg/m (SD 4.9) for the vulnerable population versus 24.8 kg/m (SD 3.9) in the nonvulnerable population (PSocial indicators of vulnerable populations are associated with increased rates of risk factors for cancer, but not with screening attendance. Our data support the previously reported marked impact of organized programmes that reduce or even remove inequalities in access to cancer screening. However, although the organized programmes have indeed enabled population-wide, nonselective access to screening, primary prevention as it stands today remains inadequate in the underserved population and further improvements are warranted.

  8. Incidental venous thromboembolism in cancer patients: prevalence and consequence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, Renée A.; Kok, Maayke G.M.; Verberne, Lisa M.; Kamphuisen, Pieter W.; Büller, Harry R.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Careful re-evaluation of CT-scans for cancer staging frequently reveals unsuspected venous thromboembolism (VTE) on CT-scans. However, it is unknown how often these findings lead to anticoagulant treatment in daily clinical practice. Methods: Reports from thoracic and/or abdominal

  9. Systematic review of sleep disorders in cancer patients: can the prevalence of sleep disorders be ascertained?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otte, Julie L; Carpenter, Janet S; Manchanda, Shalini; Rand, Kevin L; Skaar, Todd C; Weaver, Michael; Chernyak, Yelena; Zhong, Xin; Igega, Christele; Landis, Carol

    2015-02-01

    Although sleep is vital to all human functioning and poor sleep is a known problem in cancer, it is unclear whether the overall prevalence of the various types of sleep disorders in cancer is known. The purpose of this systematic literature review was to evaluate if the prevalence of sleep disorders could be ascertained from the current body of literature regarding sleep in cancer. This was a critical and systematic review of peer-reviewed, English-language, original articles published from 1980 through 15 October 2013, identified using electronic search engines, a set of key words, and prespecified inclusion and exclusion criteria. Information from 254 full-text, English-language articles was abstracted onto a paper checklist by one reviewer, with a second reviewer randomly verifying 50% (k = 99%). All abstracted data were entered into an electronic database, verified for accuracy, and analyzed using descriptive statistics and frequencies in SPSS (v.20) (North Castle, NY). Studies of sleep and cancer focus on specific types of symptoms of poor sleep, and there are no published prevalence studies that focus on underlying sleep disorders. Challenging the current paradigm of the way sleep is studied in cancer could produce better clinical screening tools for use in oncology clinics leading to better triaging of patients with sleep complaints to sleep specialists, and overall improvement in sleep quality. © 2014 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed E. Mansour

    2013-07-01

    Conclusion: The prevalence of spontaneous bacterial pleuritis in the studied group of patients with hepatic hydrothorax was 14.3%. Patients with advanced liver disease, low pleural fluid protein, or SBP are at risk for spontaneous bacterial pleuritis.

  11. Prevalence of hypercalcemia of malignancy among cancer patients in the UK: analysis of the Clinical Practice Research Datalink database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jick, Susan; Li, Lin; Gastanaga, Victor M; Liede, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    The reported proportion of cancer patients who experience hypercalcemia of malignancy (HCM) ranges between 3% and 30%. HCM can be observed with any type of tumor and occurs most commonly in lung cancer, breast cancer and multiple myeloma. While HCM is a potentially fatal condition, the prevalence of HCM is not well defined. Using the United Kingdom Clinical Practice Research Datalink, we identified adult cancer patients with recorded corrected serum calcium (CSC). Hypercalcemic patients (CSC ≥ 10.8 mg/dL) were classified into 4 CSC levels. We estimated annual prevalence of HCM overall, stratified by cancer type, and in patients with stage IV cancer. Among 37,442 cancer patients in 2003-2012 the prevalence of grade 1 HCM increased from 0.13% to 0.45% and the prevalence of HCM overall (grade 1 or higher) increased from 0.20% to 0.67% over the study period. Prevalence estimates varied across cancer type and were highest for lung cancer, multiple myeloma and patients with stage IV cancer. We provide the first systematic analysis using a UK population-based data source to estimate number of cancer patients affected with HCM by grade. The increase in HCM prevalence over the 10-year study period is likely due to the increased recording of laboratory values, particularly comparing more recent data to 2003. Our findings suggest that HCM in general is not a common condition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevalence, sources, and predictors of soy consumption in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lis Christopher G

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of components in soy appear to have anticancer properties, including the isoflavones, genistein and daidzein. The use of soy by women with breast cancer is now being questioned because of the estrogen-like effects of isoflavones and possible interactions with tamoxifen. Clinicians providing nutrition counseling to these women are concerned because the availability of soy foods has increased dramatically in the past few years. The goal of this study was to quantify the intake of isoflavones in women with breast cancer. Methods A cross-sectional study of 100 women with breast cancer treated at Cancer Treatment Centers of America® between 09/03 and 02/04. Each patient completed a soy food frequency questionnaire (FFQ that was scored by Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center. Demographic and clinical predictors of soy intake were evaluated using one-way non-parametric Mann Whitney test and non-parametric spearman's rank correlation. Results Mean age was 50.5 years (std. dev. = 9.4; range 31–70 and mean BMI was 27.3 kg/m2 (std. dev. = 6.75; range 17–59. Genistein and Daidzein consumption was limited to 65 patients with a mean intake of 11.6 mg/day (std. dev. = 21.9; range 0–97.4 and 7.6 mg/day (std. dev. = 14.1; range 0–68.9 respectively. Soy milk (37% and pills containing soy, isoflavones, or "natural" estrogen (24% were the two biggest contributors to isoflavone intake. Conclusion Our study suggests that the isoflavone intake of breast cancer patients at our hospital was quite variable. Thirty-five patients reported no soy intake. The mean daily intake of 11.6 mg genistein and 7.4 mg daidzein, is the equivalent of less than 1/4 cup of tofu per day. This amount is higher than what has been previously reported in non-Asian American women.

  13. Prevalence and Penetrance of Major Genes and Polygenes for Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Win, Aung Ko; Jenkins, Mark A; Dowty, James G; Antoniou, Antonis C; Lee, Andrew; Giles, Graham G; Buchanan, Daniel D; Clendenning, Mark; Rosty, Christophe; Ahnen, Dennis J; Thibodeau, Stephen N; Casey, Graham; Gallinger, Steven; Le Marchand, Loïc; Haile, Robert W; Potter, John D; Zheng, Yingye; Lindor, Noralane M; Newcomb, Polly A; Hopper, John L; MacInnis, Robert J

    2017-03-01

    Background: Although high-risk mutations in identified major susceptibility genes (DNA mismatch repair genes and MUTYH ) account for some familial aggregation of colorectal cancer, their population prevalence and the causes of the remaining familial aggregation are not known. Methods: We studied the families of 5,744 colorectal cancer cases (probands) recruited from population cancer registries in the United States, Canada, and Australia and screened probands for mutations in mismatch repair genes and MUTYH We conducted modified segregation analyses using the cancer history of first-degree relatives, conditional on the proband's age at diagnosis. We estimated the prevalence of mutations in the identified genes, the prevalence of HR for unidentified major gene mutations, and the variance of the residual polygenic component. Results: We estimated that 1 in 279 of the population carry mutations in mismatch repair genes ( MLH1 = 1 in 1,946, MSH2 = 1 in 2,841, MSH6 = 1 in 758, PMS2 = 1 in 714), 1 in 45 carry mutations in MUTYH , and 1 in 504 carry mutations associated with an average 31-fold increased risk of colorectal cancer in unidentified major genes. The estimated polygenic variance was reduced by 30% to 50% after allowing for unidentified major genes and decreased from 3.3 for age <40 years to 0.5 for age ≥70 years (equivalent to sibling relative risks of 5.1 to 1.3, respectively). Conclusions: Unidentified major genes might explain one third to one half of the missing heritability of colorectal cancer. Impact: Our findings could aid gene discovery and development of better colorectal cancer risk prediction models. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(3); 404-12. ©2016 AACR . ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  14. Worldwide Airfield Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Worldwide Airfield Summary contains a selection of climatological data produced by the U.S. Air Force, Air Weather Service. The reports were compiled from dozens...

  15. Prevalence of emotional distress in caregiver’s of cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Santre Manjeet S, Rathod Jyoti, Maidapwad Sainath

    2014-01-01

    Background: A diagnosis of cancer is an intensely stressful experience for patients. How much it affects the caregiver’s is not apparent as it leads to hidden Co morbidity in the persons involved in the care giving process. Cancer can not only affect the patients, but can equally evoke emotional distress in the caregiver’s. Aims: We carried out a study to evaluate the prevalence of anxiety and depression as well as effects of socio demographic & cancer characteristics on emotions of caregiver...

  16. Prevalence of malnutrition and current use of nutrition support in patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébuterne, Xavier; Lemarié, Etienne; Michallet, Mauricette; de Montreuil, Claude Beauvillain; Schneider, Stéphane Michel; Goldwasser, François

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate on 1 day the prevalence of malnutrition in different types of cancer and the use of nutrition support in patients with cancer. A 1-day prevalence survey was carried out in 154 French hospital wards. Malnutrition was defined as a body mass index (BMI) 10% since disease onset. Oral food intake was measured using a visual analog scale. Nutrition status was collected for 1903 patients (1109 men and 794 women, 59.3 ± 13.2 years). Cancer was local in 25%, regional in 31%, and metastatic in 44% of patients. Performance status was 0 or 1 in 49.8%, 2 in 23.7%, 3 or 4 in 19.6% and not available in 6.5% of patients. Overall, 39% of patients were malnourished. The prevalence of malnutrition by disease site was as follows: head and neck, 48.9%; leukemia/lymphoma, 34.0%; lung, 45.3%; colon/rectum, 39.3%; esophagus and/or stomach, 60.2%; pancreas, 66.7%; breast, 20.5%; ovaries/uterus, 44.8%; and prostate, 13.9%. Regional cancer (odds ratio, 1.96; 95% confidence interval, 1.42-2.70), metastatic cancer (2.97; 2.14-4.12), previous chemotherapy (1.41; 1.05-1.89), and previous radiotherapy (1.53; 1.21-1.92) were associated with malnutrition. Only 28.4% of non-malnourished patients and 57.6% of malnourished patients received nutrition support. In all, 55% of patients stated that they were eating less than before the cancer, while 41.4% of patients stated that they had received nutrition counseling. The prevalence of malnutrition is high in patients with cancer, and systematic screening for and treatment of malnutrition is necessary.

  17. Smokeless tobacco (paanandgutkha) consumption, prevalence, and contribution to oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaz, Kamal; Maqbool, Faheem; Khan, Fazlullah; Bahadar, Haji; Ismail Hassan, Fatima; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Smokeless tobacco consumption, which is widespread throughout the world, leads to oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF), which is a long-lasting and devastating condition of the oral cavity with the potential for malignancy. In this review, we mainly focus on the consumption of smokeless tobacco, such as paan and gutkha , and the role of these substances in the induction of OSMF and ultimately oral cancer. The list of articles to be examined was established using citation discovery tools provided by PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar. The continuous chewing of paan and swallowing of gutkha trigger progressive fibrosis in submucosal tissue. Generally, OSMF occurs due to multiple risk factors, especially smokeless tobacco and its components, such as betel quid, areca nuts, and slaked lime, which are used in paan and gutkha . The incidence of oral cancer is higher in women than in men in South Asian countries. Human oral epithelium cells experience carcinogenic and genotoxic effects from the slaked lime present in the betel quid, with or without areca nut. Products such as 3-(methylnitrosamino)-proprionitrile, nitrosamines, and nicotine initiate the production of reactive oxygen species in smokeless tobacco, eventually leading to fibroblast, DNA, and RNA damage with carcinogenic effects in the mouth of tobacco consumers. The metabolic activation of nitrosamine in tobacco by cytochrome P450 enzymes may lead to the formation of N-nitrosonornicotine, a major carcinogen, and micronuclei, which are an indicator of genotoxicity. These effects lead to further DNA damage and, eventually, oral cancer.

  18. Prevalence and correlates of strength exercise among breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Cynthia C; Blanchard, Chris M; Mummery, W Kerry; Courneya, Kerry

    2015-03-01

    To identify and compare the prevalence and correlates of strength exercise among breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer survivors.
 Cross-sectional, descriptive survey.
 Nova Scotia, Canada.
 741 breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer survivors.
. A stratified sample of 2,063 breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer survivors diagnosed from 2003-2011 were identified and mailed a questionnaire. Descriptive, chi-square, and logistic regression analyses were used to determine any correlations among the main research variables. 
 Strength exercise behavior; medical, demographic, and motivational correlates using the Theory of Planned Behavior.
 Of 741 respondents, 23% were meeting the strength exercise guidelines of two or more days per week. Cancer survivors were more likely to meet guidelines if they were younger, more educated, had a higher income, better perceived general health, fewer than two comorbidities, and a healthy body weight. In addition, those meeting guidelines had significantly more favorable affective attitude, instrumental attitude, injunctive norm, perceived behavioral control, planning, and intention. The correlates of strength exercise did not differ by cancer site.
 The prevalence of strength exercise is low among breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer survivors in Nova Scotia and the correlates are consistent across those survivor groups. 
. Nurses should take an active role in promoting strength exercise among cancer survivors using the Theory of Planned Behavior, particularly among those survivors at higher risk of not performing strength exercise. 


  19. Prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea following head and neck cancer treatment : A cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nesse, W; Hoekema, A; Stegenga, B; van der Hoeven, JH; de Bont, LGM; Roodenburg, JLN

    The obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea syndrome (OSAHS) is a sleep-related breathing disorder characterised by repetitive pharyngeal collapse. OSAHS is associated with a reduced quality of life. A high OSAHS prevalence has been reported in patients treated for head and neck cancer (HNC). The aim of

  20. Prevalence and predictors of cognitive dysfunction in opioid-treated patients with cancer: a multinational study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurita, Geana P; Sjøgren, Per; Ekholm, Ola

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE To identify prevalence and associated factors of cognitive dysfunction in opioid-treated patients with cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS EPOS (European Pharmacogenetic Opioid Study) is a prospective cross-sectional multicenter study in which adult patients with cancer who received treatment...... with opioids for moderate or severe pain for at least 3 days were included. Cognitive function was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). MMSE scores were categorized into definite cognitive dysfunction (scores ...-treated patients with cancer had possible or definite cognitive dysfunction. Lung cancer, daily opioid doses of 400 mg or more (oral morphine equivalents), older age, low KPS, shorter time since cancer diagnosis, and absence of BTP were predictors for cognitive dysfunction....

  1. Systematic review of sleep disorders in cancer patients: can the prevalence of sleep disorders be ascertained?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otte, Julie L; Carpenter, Janet S; Manchanda, Shalini; Rand, Kevin L; Skaar, Todd C; Weaver, Michael; Chernyak, Yelena; Zhong, Xin; Igega, Christele; Landis, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Although sleep is vital to all human functioning and poor sleep is a known problem in cancer, it is unclear whether the overall prevalence of the various types of sleep disorders in cancer is known. The purpose of this systematic literature review was to evaluate if the prevalence of sleep disorders could be ascertained from the current body of literature regarding sleep in cancer. This was a critical and systematic review of peer-reviewed, English-language, original articles published from 1980 through 15 October 2013, identified using electronic search engines, a set of key words, and prespecified inclusion and exclusion criteria. Information from 254 full-text, English-language articles was abstracted onto a paper checklist by one reviewer, with a second reviewer randomly verifying 50% (k = 99%). All abstracted data were entered into an electronic database, verified for accuracy, and analyzed using descriptive statistics and frequencies in SPSS (v.20) (North Castle, NY). Studies of sleep and cancer focus on specific types of symptoms of poor sleep, and there are no published prevalence studies that focus on underlying sleep disorders. Challenging the current paradigm of the way sleep is studied in cancer could produce better clinical screening tools for use in oncology clinics leading to better triaging of patients with sleep complaints to sleep specialists, and overall improvement in sleep quality

  2. Estimation and Projection of Prevalence of Colorectal Cancer in Iran, 2015–2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Molavi Vardanjani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Population aging and more prevalent westernized lifestyle would be expected to result in a markedly rising burden of colorectal cancer (CRC in the future years. The aim of this study is to estimate the limited-time prevalence of CRC in Iran between 2015 and 2020. Materials and Methods: Aggregated CRC incidence data were extracted from the Iranian national cancer registry (IR.NCR reports for 2003–2009 and from GLOBOCAN-2012 database for 2012. Incidence trends were analyzed by age groups, genders, histopathologic, and topographic subtypes to estimate annual percentage changes. Incidence was projected for 2020. The prevalence was estimated applying an adopted version of a previously introduced equation to estimate limited–time prevalence based on the incidence and survival data. Monte Carlo sensitivity analyses were applied to estimate 95% uncertainty levels (ULs. In each scenario, incidence, survival, annual percentage changes, and completeness of case ascertainment at IR.NCR were replaced under pre-assumed distributions. Results: Number of estimated within 1, 2-3 and 4-5-year CRC patients in 2015 were 13676 (95% UL: 10051–18807, 20964 (15835–28268, and 14485 (11188–19293, respectively. Estimated 5-year prevalence for 2020 (99463; 75150–134744 was 2.03 times of that for 2015. Highest 5-year prevalence was estimated in ages 55–59 for females and 75 + for males. Adenocarcinoma (41376; 31227 55898 was the most prevalent histologic subtype. The most prevalent tumor location was colon (30822, 23262–41638. Conclusion: A substantial growth in the prevalence of CRC survivors is highly expected for future years in Iran. Establishment of specialized institutes is highly recommended to provide medical and especially social supports for Iranian CRC survivors.

  3. Estimation and Projection of Prevalence of Colorectal Cancer in Iran, 2015-2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardanjani, Hossein Molavi; Haghdoost, AliAkbar; Bagheri-Lankarani, Kamran; Hadipour, Maryam

    2018-01-01

    Population aging and more prevalent westernized lifestyle would be expected to result in a markedly rising burden of colorectal cancer (CRC) in the future years. The aim of this study is to estimate the limited-time prevalence of CRC in Iran between 2015 and 2020. Aggregated CRC incidence data were extracted from the Iranian national cancer registry (IR.NCR) reports for 2003-2009 and from GLOBOCAN-2012 database for 2012. Incidence trends were analyzed by age groups, genders, histopathologic, and topographic subtypes to estimate annual percentage changes. Incidence was projected for 2020. The prevalence was estimated applying an adopted version of a previously introduced equation to estimate limited-time prevalence based on the incidence and survival data. Monte Carlo sensitivity analyses were applied to estimate 95% uncertainty levels (ULs). In each scenario, incidence, survival, annual percentage changes, and completeness of case ascertainment at IR.NCR were replaced under pre-assumed distributions. Number of estimated within 1, 2-3 and 4-5-year CRC patients in 2015 were 13676 (95% UL: 10051-18807), 20964 (15835-28268), and 14485 (11188-19293), respectively. Estimated 5-year prevalence for 2020 (99463; 75150-134744) was 2.03 times of that for 2015. Highest 5-year prevalence was estimated in ages 55-59 for females and 75 + for males. Adenocarcinoma (41376; 31227 55898) was the most prevalent histologic subtype. The most prevalent tumor location was colon (30822, 23262-41638). A substantial growth in the prevalence of CRC survivors is highly expected for future years in Iran. Establishment of specialized institutes is highly recommended to provide medical and especially social supports for Iranian CRC survivors.

  4. Estimation and Projection of Prevalence of Colorectal Cancer in Iran, 2015–2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardanjani, Hossein Molavi; Haghdoost, AliAkbar; Bagheri-Lankarani, Kamran; Hadipour, Maryam

    2018-01-01

    Background: Population aging and more prevalent westernized lifestyle would be expected to result in a markedly rising burden of colorectal cancer (CRC) in the future years. The aim of this study is to estimate the limited-time prevalence of CRC in Iran between 2015 and 2020. Materials and Methods: Aggregated CRC incidence data were extracted from the Iranian national cancer registry (IR.NCR) reports for 2003–2009 and from GLOBOCAN-2012 database for 2012. Incidence trends were analyzed by age groups, genders, histopathologic, and topographic subtypes to estimate annual percentage changes. Incidence was projected for 2020. The prevalence was estimated applying an adopted version of a previously introduced equation to estimate limited–time prevalence based on the incidence and survival data. Monte Carlo sensitivity analyses were applied to estimate 95% uncertainty levels (ULs). In each scenario, incidence, survival, annual percentage changes, and completeness of case ascertainment at IR.NCR were replaced under pre-assumed distributions. Results: Number of estimated within 1, 2-3 and 4-5-year CRC patients in 2015 were 13676 (95% UL: 10051–18807), 20964 (15835–28268), and 14485 (11188–19293), respectively. Estimated 5-year prevalence for 2020 (99463; 75150–134744) was 2.03 times of that for 2015. Highest 5-year prevalence was estimated in ages 55–59 for females and 75 + for males. Adenocarcinoma (41376; 31227 55898) was the most prevalent histologic subtype. The most prevalent tumor location was colon (30822, 23262–41638). Conclusion: A substantial growth in the prevalence of CRC survivors is highly expected for future years in Iran. Establishment of specialized institutes is highly recommended to provide medical and especially social supports for Iranian CRC survivors. PMID:29456991

  5. Prevalence of ATM Sequence Variants in Northern Plains American Indian Cancer Patients

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    Daniel Grant Petereit

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To identify sequence variants of the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM gene and establish their prevalence rate among American Indian (AI as compared with non-AI cancer patients. Materials and Methods: DNA was isolated from blood samples collected from 100 AI and 100 non-AI cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy, and a blinded assessment of the ATM sequence was conducted. Quantitative PCR assessment of copy number for each exon was also performed. The main outcome measure was the prevalence of ATM variants in the two patient populations. Results: No statistically significant differences for total prevalence of ATM variants among AI and non-AI patients were found. Of the 25 variants identified, five variants had a prevalence of >2%, of which 4 occurred at a rate of >5% in one or both groups. The prevalence of these four variants could meaningfully be compared between the two groups. The only statistically significant difference among the groups was the c.4138C>T variant which is predicted not to affect protein function, seen in 8% of AI versus 0% of non-AI patients (P=0.007. No exonic copy number changes were found in these patients. Conclusions: This study is the first to determine the prevalence of ATM variants in AIs.

  6. Prevalence

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    Mohammed Al-Darwish

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Results indicated that dental caries prevalence among school children in Qatar has reached critical levels, and is influenced by socio-demographic factors. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth values obtained in this study were the second highest detected in the Eastern Mediterranean region.

  7. Glomerular hyperfiltration in children with cancer: prevalence and a hypothesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwatra, Neha S. [Children' s National Medical Center, Division of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiology, Washington, DC (United States); Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Meany, Holly J. [Children' s National Medical Center, Department of Hematology/Oncology, Washington, DC (United States); Ghelani, Sunil J. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Boston, MA (United States); Zahavi, David [The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Pandya, Nayan; Majd, Massoud [Children' s National Medical Center, Division of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiology, Washington, DC (United States)

    2017-02-15

    Glomerular hyperfiltration has recently been reported in children with malignancies and has been attributed to increased solute from breakdown of tumor tissues. To evaluate the prevalence of hyperfiltration in the pediatric oncology population and explore its pathophysiological mechanism. Tc-99 m diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) glomerular filtration rate (GFR) examinations (437 studies) and medical records of 177 patients <21 years of age diagnosed with a malignancy between January 2005 and October 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Hyperfiltration was defined as a GFR ≥ 160 ml/min/1.73 m{sup 2}. Seventy-seven (43.5%) patients had hyperfiltration in at least one GFR exam. A significantly higher percentage of patients with central nervous system (CNS) tumors (63.6%) had hyperfiltration when compared to other tumor types (27.3%, P < 0.001). No association was found between hyperfiltration and age, gender, race or bone marrow involvement. There was a significant trend toward decreasing hyperfiltration after the second cycle of chemotherapy (P = 0.006) and a significant increase in subjects with low GFR (<100 ml/min/1.73 m{sup 2}) with increasing number of cycles of chemotherapy (P = 0.005). Glomerular hyperfiltration is common in children with malignancies at diagnosis and during initial cycles of chemotherapy. It is particularly prevalent in patients with central nervous tumors, which are frequently smaller in volume. Therefore, the pathophysiological mechanism of hyperfiltration cannot be explained solely on the basis of large tumor volume and subsequent cell breakdown. We hypothesize that host hypermetabolic state plays an important role in pathophysiology of hyperfiltration. (orig.)

  8. Prevalence of BRCA1 mutations in familial and sporadic greek ovarian cancer cases.

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    Alexandra V Stavropoulou

    Full Text Available Germline mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes contribute to approximately 18% of hereditary ovarian cancers conferring an estimated lifetime risk from 15% to 50%. A variable incidence of mutations has been reported for these genes in ovarian cancer cases from different populations. In Greece, six mutations in BRCA1 account for 63% of all mutations detected in both BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of BRCA1 mutations in a Greek cohort of 106 familial ovarian cancer patients that had strong family history or metachronous breast cancer and 592 sporadic ovarian cancer cases. All 698 patients were screened for the six recurrent Greek mutations (including founder mutations c.5266dupC, p.G1738R and the three large deletions of exon 20, exons 23-24 and exon 24. In familial cases, the BRCA1 gene was consequently screened for exons 5, 11, 12, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24. A deleterious BRCA1 mutation was found in 43/106 (40.6% of familial cancer cases and in 27/592 (4.6% of sporadic cases. The variant of unknown clinical significance p.V1833M was identified in 9/698 patients (1.3%. The majority of BRCA1 carriers (71.2% presented a high-grade serous phenotype. Identifying a mutation in the BRCA1 gene among breast and/or ovarian cancer families is important, as it enables carriers to take preventive measures. All ovarian cancer patients with a serous phenotype should be considered for genetic testing. Further studies are warranted to determine the prevalence of mutations in the rest of the BRCA1 gene, in the BRCA2 gene, and other novel predisposing genes for breast and ovarian cancer.

  9. Prevalence and relationship between major depressive disorder and lung cancer: a cross-sectional study

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    Maneeton B

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Benchalak Maneeton,1 Narong Maneeton,1 Jirayu Reungyos,1 Suthi Intaprasert,1 Samornsri Leelarphat,1 Sumitra Thongprasert21Department of Psychiatry, 2Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, ThailandObjective: The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence and examine the factors associated with major depressive disorder (MDD in lung cancer patients.Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in the oncology clinic of the University Hospital, Chiang Mai University, Thailand. Patients with all stages of lung cancer were included in this study. Demographic data of eligible patients were gathered. The Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, Thai version 5.0.0 was used to identify MDD. The Thai version of the Personal Health Questionnaire Depression Scale was used to assess depression severity.Results: A total of 146 lung cancer patients from the outpatient clinic from July to December 2012 were approached. The 104 patients were included and analyzed in this study. Based on the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, 14.4% of them were defined as having MDD. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that Chalder Fatigue Scale, Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy – Lung, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores were significantly correlated with MDD in lung cancer patients.Conclusion: The results suggest that MDD is more prevalent in lung cancer patients. In addition, fatigue, poor quality of life, and sleep disturbance may increase associated MDD. Because of the small sample size, further studies should be conducted to confirm these results.Keywords: lung cancer, major depressive disorder, prevalence

  10. Effect of axillary lymph node dissection on prevalence and intensity of chronic and phantom pain after breast cancer surgery.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steegers, M.A.H.; Wolters, B.; Evers, A.W.; Strobbe, L.; Wilder-Smith, O.H.G.

    2008-01-01

    Chronic pain after breast cancer surgery is a major problem and is expected to increase in the coming years because of an increased prevalence of breast cancer coupled with better survival. Axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) in patients with breast cancer is associated with nerve damage. The

  11. Cancer as a Criterion A Traumatic Stressor for Veterans: Prevalence and Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Elizabeth A.; Wachen, Jennifer Schuster; Naik, Aanand D.; Gosian, Jeffrey; Moye, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of cancer is an uncontrollable stressor posing the threat of death and disfigurement, often followed by repeated exposure to aversive reminders in the form of noxious treatments, persisting side effects, reengagement at times of surveillance, and the threat of recurrence. The phenomenon of cancer as a traumatic stressor is explored in this study, with a focus on the prevalence and correlates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Criterion A in a sample of 170 mostly male adults who received health care at VA Medical Centers in Boston or Houston. Participants were interviewed 6 months after diagnosis with head and neck, gastro-esophageal, or colorectal cancers. Approximately half–42.9% to 65.9% depending on cut-score used—perceived cancer to be a traumatic stressor involving actual/threatened death or injury or threat to physical integrity as well as fear, helplessness, or horror. Younger veterans and those with current combat PTSD symptoms were more likely to perceive cancer as a traumatic stressor, as were those who perceived their prognosis as uncertain; 12% had PTSD symptoms above a PCLC cut score of 50, which is similar to incidence rates of PTSD associated with other traumatic stressors. Cancer, therefore, appears to be a serious and for some, traumatic stressor, suggesting the importance of screening for cancer related PTSD in cancer survivors, particularly those most at risk. PMID:25741406

  12. Prevalence of Precancerous Conditions and Gastric Cancer Based upon the National Cancer Screening Program in Korea for 7 Years, Single Center Experience

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    Ji Hyuk Kang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Gastric cancer is the second most prevalent cancer and the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths in Korea. The National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP has implemented esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD biennially for all Koreans starting in their 40s. This study was conducted to estimate the clinical relevance of NCSP through identifying the prevalence of gastric disease, including cancer. Materials and Methods. Data from 40,821 subjects who received the screening EGD in the single center for 7 years were retrospectively investigated. Results. The overall prevalence of nonatrophic/atrophic/metaplastic gastritis, peptic ulcer, adenoma, early gastric cancer (EGC, and advanced gastric cancer (AGC was 44.28%, 27.97%, 14.95%, 0.59%, 0.43%, 0.21%, and 0.09%, respectively. The prevalence of metaplastic gastritis, peptic ulcer, adenoma, EGC, and AGC was significantly higher in men than in women. The prevalence of preneoplastic/neoplastic disease significantly increased with age. Judged from the ratio of EGC to AGC, the proportion of EGC made up to 70% of all cancers. Conclusions. Screening endoscopy starting for people in their 40s should be strongly recommended for the elderly. Through the NCSP, the early detection of gastric cancer might contribute to the decreased mortality rate due to gastric cancer in Korea.

  13. Psychological morbidity in family caregivers of people living with terminal cancer: Prevalence and predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areia, Neide P; Fonseca, Gabriela; Major, Sofia; Relvas, Ana P

    2018-02-26

    The issues surrounding a patient's terminal phase of cancer and the imminent death of the individual represent a major family crisis affecting all its members. The goal of this study was to assess the prevalence of psychological morbidity in family caregivers of persons with terminal cancer in terms of psychological distress, depression, anxiety, somatization, and complicated anticipatory grief, and to determine which factors may influence these responses. One hundred and twelve family caregivers of individuals with terminal cancer completed an assessment protocol comprising the Brief Symptom Inventory (depression, anxiety, somatization, and a computed score for global distress), the Marwit-Meuser Caregiver Grief Inventory - Short Form (anticipatory grief), the Family Inventory of Needs (importance and satisfaction of needs), and the Systemic Clinical Outcome Routine Evaluation -15 (family functioning). Prevalence of psychological morbidity was determined through descriptive and frequency statistics. Predictors of psychological morbidity were ascertained through structural equation modelling methods. Result Regarding the prevalence of psychological morbidity in family caregivers, 66.1% reported high levels of distress, 68.8% showed high risk of depression, 72.3% showed high risk of anxiety, 50.9% reported high levels of somatization, and 25.9% showed high risk of complicated anticipatory grief. It was found that the predictors of age, gender, relationship to the family member with terminal cancer, the caregiving role played (i.e., primary vs. nonprimary), the satisfaction of needs by healthcare professionals, and family functioning play an important role in terms of one's risk of developing psychological morbidity. Significance of results This study revealed an alarming prevalence of psychological morbidity in family caregivers of individuals living with terminal cancer, making it crucial to move forward from a patient-centered approach to a family-centrad approach

  14. [Prevalence of condyloma acuminata in women who went to opportune detection of cervicouterine cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Vieyra, Carlos Ramón

    2010-02-01

    It has been considered the incidence and the prevalence of the disease of sexual transmission with base in the different data banks. Unfortunately, each of these sources has limitations. To evaluate annual prevalence of genital condiloma acuminate in the women who go to opportune detection of cervicouterine cancer. Study realized in a first level of attention, the Zaragoza clinic of the System of Collective Transport Metro of Mexico City; of January of the year 2000 to June of year 2009. All the patients included themselves in the study that went to opportune detection of cervicouterine cancer. 3,232 cervicovaginal cytologist were realized of which 106 cases presented condylomata acuminata genital confirmed by clinic and biopsy, settling down an annual prevalence of 3.2%; the prevalence by ages the greater number of cases appear between the 30 and 34 years with rate of 21.6%. The prevalence of the infection by human virus papailoma varies in the different regions from the world; usually they reach from 20 to 30% in the women of 20 to 24 years of age and falls later to 3 to 10% in the women majors of 30 years. It is important to establish measures of prevention directed to prevent the contagion, exhorting to the adolescent population men and women to have a responsible sexuality.

  15. Comparison of Prevalence and Types of Mutations in Lung Cancers Among Black and White Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Joshua D; Lathan, Christopher; Sholl, Lynette; Ducar, Matthew; Vega, Mikenah; Sunkavalli, Ashwini; Lin, Ling; Hanna, Megan; Schubert, Laura; Thorner, Aaron; Faris, Nicholas; Williams, David R; Osarogiagbon, Raymond U; van Hummelen, Paul; Meyerson, Matthew; MacConaill, Laura

    2017-06-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States in all ethnic and racial groups. The overall death rate from lung cancer is higher in black patients than in white patients. To compare the prevalence and types of somatic alterations between lung cancers from black patients and white patients. Differences in mutational frequencies could illuminate differences in prognosis and lead to the reduction of outcome disparities by more precisely targeting patients' treatment. Tumor specimens were collected from Baptist Cancer Center (Memphis, Tennessee) over the course of 9 years (January 2004-December 2012). Genomic analysis by massively parallel sequencing of 504 cancer genes was performed at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (Boston, Massachusetts). Overall, 509 lung cancer tumors specimens (319 adenocarcinomas; 142 squamous cell carcinomas) were profiled from 245 black patients and 264 white patients. The frequencies of genomic alterations were compared between tumors from black and white populations. Overall, 509 lung cancers were collected and analyzed (273 women [129 black patients; 144 white patients] and 236 men [116 black patients; 120 white patients]). Using 313 adenocarcinomas and 138 squamous cell carcinomas with genetically supported ancestry, overall mutational frequencies and copy number changes were not significantly different between black and white populations in either tumor type after correcting for multiple hypothesis testing. Furthermore, specific activating alterations in members of the receptor tyrosine kinase/Ras/Raf pathway including EGFR and KRAS were not significantly different between populations in lung adenocarcinoma. These results demonstrate that lung cancers from black patients are similar to cancers from white patients with respect to clinically actionable genomic alterations and suggest that clinical trials of targeted therapies could significantly benefit patients in both groups.

  16. Lifetime prevalence of non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancer in Australian recreational and competitive surfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climstein, Mike; Furness, James; Hing, Wayne; Walsh, Joe

    2016-07-01

    Surfing is one of the most popular outdoor aquatic activities in Australia with an estimated 2.7 million recreational surfers; however, Australia has long been recognized as having the highest incidence of melanoma in the world, and it is the most common type of cancer in young Australians. The aim of this study was to investigate the lifetime prevalence of non-melanoma [basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)] and melanoma skin cancers in Australian recreational and competitive surfers. Australian surfers were invited to complete an online surveillance survey to determine the lifetime prevalence of non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancers. A total of 1348 surfers (56.9% recreational) participated in this study, of which 184 surfers reported a skin cancer (competitive n = 96, recreational n = 87). Of non-melanoma and melanoma cancers reported, BCC was the most common (6.8%), followed by melanoma (1.4%) and SCC (0.6%). The relative risk was higher (P skin cancers reported on the face (23.5%), back (16.4%) and arms (12.4%). There were significant trends (P skin cancers between competitive and recreational surfers, as well as significantly (P skin cancers reported in males (14.6%) than females (9.4%). Based upon these findings, individuals who surf are advised to regularly utilize sun protection strategies (avoid peak ultraviolet radiation (10 am-3 pm), rashvest, hat and sunscreen) and primary care physicians are recommended to regularly screen their patients who surf. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Predictors and Prevalence of Pain and Its Management in Four Regional Cancer Hospitals in India

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    Katherine E. Doyle

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: More than 1 million new occurrences of cancer are diagnosed in India annually. Among patients with cancer, pain is a common and persistent symptom of the disease and its treatment. However, few studies to date have evaluated the prevalence of pain and the adequacy of pain management in Indian hospitals. This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the prevalence and sociodemographic patterns of cancer pain and pain management among a sample of inpatients and newly registered outpatients at four large regional cancer centers in India. Methods: A sample of 1,600 patients with cancer who were current inpatients or newly registered outpatients were recruited and administered a questionnaire that was based on the Brief Pain Inventory. The survey tool included questions on demographics, medical history, and extent of clinical pain experienced. In addition, a pain management index score was created to link the severity of cancer pain with medication prescribed to treat it. Results: A total of 88% of patients reported pain in the past 7 days, and approximately 60% reported that their worst pain was severe. Several demographic and medical characteristics of the study population predicted severe pain, including the following: lower educational level, outpatient status, and debt incurred as a result of illness. A total of 67% of patients were inadequately treated with analgesics. Inadequate pain management was associated with both treatment hospital and patient type, and patients who reported debt as a result of their illness were more likely to have inadequate pain management. Conclusion: A majority of Indian patients with cancer experience significant pain and receive inadequate pain management. Improvement of pain management for Indian patients with cancer is needed urgently.

  18. Prevalence of bile duct cancer among printing industry workers in comparison with other industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Etsuji; Kikuchi, Kiyotaka; Endo, Ginji

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the risk of developing bile duct cancer among workers in the other printing industry in comparison with workers in all industries in general. Prevalence of bile duct cancer was compared between workers in the printing industry and age-standardized controls in all other industries using the claims database of the Japan Health Insurance Association, which insures workers of small-medium sized employers of all industries. Young (aged 30-49) male workers in the printing industry showed an elevated but insignificant standardized prevalence rate ratio (SPRR) for bile duct cancer in comparison with workers in all other industries (SPRR: 1.78; 95%CI: 0.63-5.00). The risk was higher for intrahepatic bile duct cancer but remained insignificant (SPRR: 3.03; 95%CI: 0.52-17.56). The sharply elevated risk of bile duct cancer observed among proof-printing workers of a printing factory in Osaka may not be generalizable to workers in the printing industry nationwide.

  19. Prevalence of oral mucositis, dry mouth, and dysphagia in advanced cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercadante, Sebastiano; Aielli, Federica; Adile, Claudio; Ferrera, Patrizia; Valle, Alessandro; Fusco, Flavio; Caruselli, Amanda; Cartoni, Claudio; Massimo, Pizzuto; Masedu, Francesco; Valenti, Marco; Porzio, Giampiero

    2015-11-01

    Oral symptoms can be a sign of an underlying systemic condition and have a significant impact on quality of life, nutrition, and cost of care, while these lesions are often studied in the context of cancer treatment. However, information regarding oral symptoms in advanced cancer patients is poor. The aim of this multicenter study was to determine the prevalence and the characteristics of oral symptoms in a large population of advanced cancer patients. A consecutive sample of patients with advanced cancer for a period of 6 months was prospectively assessed for an observational study. At time of admission, the epidemiological characteristics, surgery-radiotherapy of head and neck, and oncologic treatments in the last month were recorded. The presence of mucositis, dry mouth, and dysphagia was assessed by clinical examination and patients' report and their intensity recorded. Patients were also asked whether they had limitation on nutrition of hydration due to the local condition. Six hundred sixty-nine patients were surveyed in the period taken into consideration. The mean age was 72.1 years (SD 12.3), and 342 patients were males. The primary tumors are listed in Table 1. The prevalence of mucositis was 22.3 %. The symptom relevantly reduced the ingestion of food or fluids and was statistically associated with the Karnofsky level and head and neck cancer. The prevalence of dry mouth was 40.4 %, with a mean intensity of 5.4 (SD 2.1). Several drugs were concomitantly given, particularly opioids (78 %), corticosteroids (75.3 %), and diuretics (70.2 %). Various and nonhomogeneous treatments were given for dry mouth, that was statistically associated with current or recent chemotherapy, and hematological tumors. The prevalence of dysphagia was 15.4 % with a mean intensity of 5.34 (SD 3). Dysphagia for liquids was observed in 52.4 % of cases. A high level of limitation for oral nutrition due to dysphagia was found, and in 53.4 % of patients, alternative routes to the oral

  20. Prevalence and psychosocial factors of anxiety and depression in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueboonthavatchai, Peeraphon

    2007-10-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. It is seen as a terrifying disease due to a high mortality rate, its impacts on self-image, and the sexual relationship. Many patients experience psychological reactions, and may have psychiatric morbidities, especially anxiety and depressive disorders. Although anxiety and depressive disorders are common in breast cancer and worsen the disease course and treatment outcomes, these psychiatric disorders are ignored and left untreated. Understanding these common psychiatric disorders and associated psychosocial factors can help to plan for treatment and may result in more treatment success. The present study was aimed to identify the prevalence and associated psychosocial factors of anxiety and depressive disorders in breast cancer patients. The psychosocial factors in the present study focused on social support, family relationship and functioning, and problem and conflict solving. Three hundred female breast cancer patients, aged above 18 years old from the Surgical Outpatient Department, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, were recruited into the study from December 2006 to May 2007. All samples completed five questionnaires; 1) Demographic data and history form, 2) Thai Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (Thai HADS), 3) Social Support Questionnaire, 4) Family Relationship and Functioning Questionnaire, 5) Problem and Conflict Solving Questionnaire. The prevalence of anxiety and depressive disorders was reported in percentage. The association between psychosocial, demographic, and clinical factors and anxiety and depression was analyzed by ANOVA test (for continuous data) and chi-square test (for categorical data). Logistic regression was performed to identify the potential predictors of anxiety and depression. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The prevalence of anxiety disorder was 16.0%, and that of anxiety symptoms was 19.0%. The prevalence of depressive disorder was 9

  1. Prevalence of emotional distress in caregiver’s of cancer patients

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    Santre Manjeet S, Rathod Jyoti, Maidapwad Sainath

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: A diagnosis of cancer is an intensely stressful experience for patients. How much it affects the caregiver’s is not apparent as it leads to hidden Co morbidity in the persons involved in the care giving process. Cancer can not only affect the patients, but can equally evoke emotional distress in the caregiver’s. Aims: We carried out a study to evaluate the prevalence of anxiety and depression as well as effects of socio demographic & cancer characteristics on emotions of caregiver’s. Methods and Material: This is a cross sectional study of 100 consecutive consenting caregiver’s of diagnosed cancer patients attending an oncology department of a tertiary care hospital. Caregiver’s are those who have willfully taken the responsibility of care giving to the ailing cancer patients. Hospital Anxiety, Depression Scale (HADS a well validated questionnaire based scale to evaluate the prevalence of anxiety, depression and emotional distress. It has 14 items 07 related to anxiety & 07 related depressions. Results: 100 caregiver’s were studied to assess the anxiety and depression levels during their care giving task. The mean anxiety & depression score of subjects were 8.28 (SD-3.45 & 8.79 (SD-3.94 respectively. 34% caregiver’s were having score between moderate to severe category with a cutoff of (>10 on both the subscales of HADS. 53% of the subjects showed emotional distress as seen in high score above cutoff of (>15 on total HADS score. The data was compiled, tabulated and analyzed by using SPSS 16 .0 v. P < 0.05 is taken as statistically significant in our study. Conclusion: There are multiple factors involved in the emotional distress of the caregiver’s. A holistic treatment approach that encompasses both medical and psychological measures for reducing the hidden morbidity in co sufferers of cancer patients to be adapted in treatment of cancer patients.

  2. Towards improved bladder cancer diagnosis using fluorescence imaging and Raman spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimbergen, M.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    Bladder cancer is the fourth most common type of cancer worldwide. Its high recurrence rate makes bladder cancer one of the most prevalent types of cancer in the western world and the most costly type of cancer over the patient’s lifetime. In the Netherlands, each year 5,400 new patients with

  3. Development of HER2-targeted nanobodies for molecular optical imaging and therapy of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kijanka, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is a complex disease and the most prevalent cancer in women worldwide. It has been estimated that 1 in 8 women and 1 in 1,000 men will develop breast cancer. Surgical-, chemical- and radiation based therapies are available to breast cancer patients. Early detection of cancer is crucial

  4. An internal pilot design for prospective cancer screening trials with unknown disease prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinton, John T; Ringham, Brandy M; Glueck, Deborah H

    2015-10-13

    For studies that compare the diagnostic accuracy of two screening tests, the sample size depends on the prevalence of disease in the study population, and on the variance of the outcome. Both parameters may be unknown during the design stage, which makes finding an accurate sample size difficult. To solve this problem, we propose adapting an internal pilot design. In this adapted design, researchers will accrue some percentage of the planned sample size, then estimate both the disease prevalence and the variances of the screening tests. The updated estimates of the disease prevalence and variance are used to conduct a more accurate power and sample size calculation. We demonstrate that in large samples, the adapted internal pilot design produces no Type I inflation. For small samples (N less than 50), we introduce a novel adjustment of the critical value to control the Type I error rate. We apply the method to two proposed prospective cancer screening studies: 1) a small oral cancer screening study in individuals with Fanconi anemia and 2) a large oral cancer screening trial. Conducting an internal pilot study without adjusting the critical value can cause Type I error rate inflation in small samples, but not in large samples. An internal pilot approach usually achieves goal power and, for most studies with sample size greater than 50, requires no Type I error correction. Further, we have provided a flexible and accurate approach to bound Type I error below a goal level for studies with small sample size.

  5. Prevalence of cancer risk factors among women radiologists and radiology assistants in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samerdokiene, V.; Kurtinaitis, J.; Atkocius, V. and others

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the work was to study potential cancer risk factors among radiologists and non-radiologists in Lithuania. Cancer risk factors were investigated among female medical staff at the departments of ionizing (243, 33.33%) and non-ionizing environment (486, 66.67%). The questionnaire covered the diet, lifestyle, reproductive factors as well as the demographic and physical characteristics. Univariate analysis was done separately for physicians and nurses. Each of risk factors was evaluated in stratified analysis for unequal ORs using Mantel-Haenszel estimate control for age and occupation. Evaluation of features of risk factors among radiologists vs. non-radiologists has shown that smoking was most the prevalent risk factor among radiologists and radiology assistants. Despite the relatively low prevalence, the questionnaire data showed the higher frequency of smoking among radiologists (OR = 2.78, 95% CI 1.12-6.87) and radiology assistants (OR = 2.25, 95% 1.38-3.66) compared to non-radiologists. The prevalence of non-users and occasional users was 74% to 66%, respectively. Alcohol use by smoking among radiologists was influenced insignificantly. The cohort of radiologists in Lithuania offer an opportunity for obtaining direct observational evidence on health effects associated with chronic low-dose radiation exposure. The data on possible cancer risk factors can be helpful for validation of the risks in future. (author)

  6. Prevalence and Treatment Management of Oropharyngeal Candidiasis in Cancer Patients: Results of the French Candidoscope Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gligorov, Joseph; Bastit, Laurent; Gervais, Honorine; Henni, Mehdi; Kahila, Widad; Lepille, Daniel; Luporsi, Elisabeth; Sasso, Giuseppe; Varette, Charles; Azria, David

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this pharmaco-epidemiological study was to evaluate the prevalence of oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) in cancer patients treated with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Signs and symptoms of OPC were noted for all patients. Antifungal therapeutic management was recorded in OPC patients. Patients receiving local antifungal treatments were monitored until the end of treatment. Results: Enrolled in the study were 2,042 patients with solid tumor and/or lymphoma treated with chemotherapy and/or another systemic cancer treatment and/or radiotherapy. The overall prevalence of OPC was 9.6% (95% confidence interval, 8.4%-11.0%] in this population. It was most frequent in patients treated with combined chemoradiotherapy (22.0%) or with more than two cytotoxic agents (16.9%). Local antifungal treatments were prescribed in 75.0% of OPC patients as recommended by guidelines. The compliance to treatment was higher in patients receiving once-daily miconazole mucoadhesive buccal tablet (MBT; 88.2%) than in those treated with several daily mouthwashes of amphotericin B (40%) or nystatin (18.8%). Conclusion: OPC prevalence in treated cancer patients was high. Local treatments were usually prescribed as per guidelines. Compliance to local treatments was better with once-daily drugs.

  7. HPV Prevalence in Colombian Women with Cervical Cancer: Implications for Vaccination in a Developing Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, Raúl; Molano, Mónica; Martínez, Gilberto; Mejía, Juan-Carlos; Gamboa, Oscar

    2009-01-01

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines have been considered potentially cost-effective for the reduction of cervical cancer burden in developing countries; their effectiveness in a public health setting continues to be researched. We conducted an HPV prevalence survey among Colombian women with invasive cancer. Paraffin-embedded biopsies were obtained from one high-risk and one low-middle-risk regions. GP5+/GP6+ L1 primers, RLB assays, and E7 type specific PCR were used for HPV-DNA detection. 217 cases were analyzed with 97.7% HPV detection rate. HPV-16/18 prevalence was 63.1%; HPV-18 had lower occurrence in the high-risk population (13.8% versus 9.6%) allowing for the participation of less common HPV types; HPV-45 was present mainly in women under 50 and age-specific HPV type prevalence revealed significant differences. Multiple high-risk infections appeared in 16.6% of cases and represent a chance of replacement. Age-specific HPV prevalence and multiple high-risk infections might influence vaccine impact. Both factors highlight the role of HPVs other than 16/18, which should be considered in cost-effectiveness analyses for potential vaccine impact. PMID:20052389

  8. HPV Prevalence in Colombian Women with Cervical Cancer: Implications for Vaccination in a Developing Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Murillo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Human Papillomavirus (HPV vaccines have been considered potentially cost-effective for the reduction of cervical cancer burden in developing countries; their effectiveness in a public health setting continues to be researched. We conducted an HPV prevalence survey among Colombian women with invasive cancer. Paraffin-embedded biopsies were obtained from one high-risk and one low-middle-risk regions. GP5+/GP6+ L1 primers, RLB assays, and E7 type specific PCR were used for HPV-DNA detection. 217 cases were analyzed with 97.7% HPV detection rate. HPV-16/18 prevalence was 63.1%; HPV-18 had lower occurrence in the high-risk population (13.8% versus 9.6% allowing for the participation of less common HPV types; HPV-45 was present mainly in women under 50 and age-specific HPV type prevalence revealed significant differences. Multiple high-risk infections appeared in 16.6% of cases and represent a chance of replacement. Age-specific HPV prevalence and multiple high-risk infections might influence vaccine impact. Both factors highlight the role of HPVs other than 16/18, which should be considered in cost-effectiveness analyses for potential vaccine impact.

  9. Small area mapping of domestic radon, smoking prevalence and lung cancer incidence – A case study in Northamptonshire, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denman, Antony R.; Rogers, Stephen; Ali, Akeem; Sinclair, John; Phillips, Paul S.; Crockett, Robin G.M.; Groves-Kirkby, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Smoking and radon both cause lung cancer, and together the risk is significantly higher. UK public health campaigns continue to reduce smoking prevalence, and other initiatives identify houses with raised radon (radon-222) levels and encourage remedial action. Smoking prevalence and radon levels in the UK have been mapped at Primary Care Trust level. This paper extends that work, using a commercial socio-demographic database to estimate smoking prevalence at the postcode sector level, and to predict the population characteristics at postcode sector level for 87 postcode sectors in Northamptonshire. Likely smoking prevalence in each postcode sector is then modelled from estimates of the smoking prevalence in the different socio-economic groups used by the database. Mapping estimated smoking prevalence, radon potential and average lung cancer incidence for each postcode sector suggested that there was little correlation between smoking prevalence and radon levels, as radon potential was generally lower in urban areas in Northamptonshire, where the estimates of smoking prevalence were highest. However, the analysis demonstrated some sectors where both radon potential and smoking prevalence were moderately raised. This study showed the potential of this methodology to map estimated smoking prevalence and radon levels to inform locally targeted public health campaigns to reduce lung cancer incidence. - Highlights: • We use a commercial socio-demographic database to estimate smoking prevalence in small areas in Northamptonshire, UK. • We map the estimated smoking prevalence and average domestic radon levels in these small areas. • We estimate annual average lung cancer incidence in these small areas. • The methodology is useful to evaluate and plan localised public health campaigns to reduce lung cancer incidence.

  10. Prevalence of epithelial ovarian cancer stem cells correlates with recurrence in early-stage ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, Karina Dahl; Alvero, Ayesha B; Yang, Yingkui

    2011-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer stem cells (EOC stem cells) have been associated with recurrence and chemoresistance. CD44 and CK18 are highly expressed in cancer stem cells and function as tools for their identification and characterization. We investigated the association between the number of CD44+ ...

  11. Human papillomavirus genotype prevalence in cervical biopsies from women diagnosed with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or cervical cancer in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Law, Irwin; Buadromo, Eka; Stevens, Matthew P; Fong, James; Samuela, Josaia; Patel, Mahomed; Mulholland, E Kim; Russell, Fiona M; Garland, Suzanne M

    2011-09-01

    There is currently limited information about human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype distribution in women in the South Pacific region. This study's objective was to determine HPV genotypes present in cervical cancer (CC) and precancers (cervical intraepithelial lesion (CIN) 3) in Fiji. Cross-sectional analysis evaluated archival CC and CIN3 biopsy samples from 296 women of Melanesian Fijian ethnicity (n=182, 61.5%) and Indo-Fijian ethnicity (n=114, 38.5%). HPV genotypes were evaluated using the INNO-LiPA assay in archival samples from CC (n=174) and CIN3 (n=122) among women in Fiji over a 5-year period from 2003 to 2007. Overall, 99% of the specimens tested were HPV DNA-positive for high-risk genotypes, with detection rates of 100%, 97.4% and 100% in CIN3, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenosquamous carcinoma biopsies, respectively. Genotypes 16 and 18 were the most common (77%), followed by HPV 31 (4.3%). Genotype HPV 16 was the most common identified (59%) in CIN3 specimens, followed by HPV 31 (9%) and HPV 52 (6.6%). Multiple genotypes were detected in 12.5-33.3% of specimens, depending on the pathology. These results indicated that the two most prevalent CC-associated HPV genotypes in Fiji parallel those described in other regions worldwide, with genotype variations thereafter. These data suggest that the currently available bivalent and quadrivalent HPV vaccines could potentially reduce cervical cancers in Fiji by over 80% and reduce precancers by at least 60%.

  12. Prevalence of extra-esophageal cancers in patients with Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, Anjan; Chak, Amitabh; Lee, Tommy; Fang, Xiang; Watson, Patrice; Lynch, Henry; Mittal, Sumeet

    2012-01-01

    To compare the prevalence of extra-esophageal cancers in patients diagnosed with Barrett's esophagus (BE) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) with SEER database. Patients with BE and EAC are part of a NIH supported Familial Barrett's investigation involving personal and family history and pathology correlation recorded in the database. Data pertaining to extra-esophageal cancers in the proband was extracted into an excel datasheet for analysis. Expected prevalence obtained from SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results) NIH database (1973-2006) for the general population, matched for age, was compared with our cohort. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. There were 1091 probands in the database of whom 876 had complete personal history. The mean age was 57.6 (5-84 years) with 807 Caucasians and 710 males. Overall incidence of extra-esophageal cancers was higher in our cohort when compared with the general population. There is a strong association of certain cancer types in patients with BE and EAC. However, further epidemiologic and genetic research is needed for investigation and development of genetic fingerprints.

  13. High prevalence of human anti-mouse antibodies in the serum of colorectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Maki; Kuribayashi, Kageaki; Umemori, Yoshifumi; Ohe, Yui; Asanuma, Koichi; Tanaka, Maki; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Watanabe, Naoki

    2010-10-01

    Monoclonal antibody treatment induces the expression of human anti-mouse antibodies (HAMA), which in turn interfere with the therapy. However, whether HAMAs are expressed before the initiation of antibody therapy in patients with colorectal cancer remains unknown. Serum samples were collected from 40 patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer. Serum samples from 157 individuals without cancer were used as controls. None of the patients received imaging or therapeutic antibodies before the study. The expression of HAMAs was evaluated by ELISA with murine immunoglobulin G1 (mIgG)1, mIgG2a and mIgG2b as the antigen. Of the 40 colorectal cancer patients, 9 (22.5%) expressed either IgG- or IgM-type HAMAs while only 13/157 (8.2%) of the individuals without cancer expressed the HAMAs (pHAMAs are prevalent in the serum of colorectal cancer patients even before antibody administration. Medical practitioners should be alert to the possibility of HAMA expression when administering antibody therapy.

  14. Prevalence and severity of sleep disturbances among patients with early breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami Fakih

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Data regarding health-related quality of life in breast cancer patients in the Middle East are limited with fatigue and sleep disturbance being the most distressing symptoms reported by patients treated for early breast cancer. Aims: The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and incidence of insomnia among patients with early-stage breast cancer patients treated with chemotherapy. Subjects and Methods: This was a prospective cohort study. We enrolled patients with stage I-III breast cancer patients treated with chemotherapy at the American University of Beirut Medical Center. At three different time points (prior to, during, and following chemotherapy, we assessed the severity of sleep disturbances using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Insomnia Severity Index. The Institution Review Board approved the study. Results: Fifty-two patients were recruited. There was a significant increase in sleep disturbances during chemotherapy which improved to below baseline levels on completion of therapy. Prior to chemotherapy, 36% of patients reported poor sleep versus 58% during chemotherapy. The percentage of patients reporting clinical insomnia rose from 11% pretreatment to 36% during chemotherapy reflecting a significant symptomatic burden that is poorly documented and managed in routine clinical practice. Conclusions: Patients with nonmetastatic breast cancer experience an increase in sleep disturbances during the treatment phase. Physicians should be aware of the need to routinely screen for sleep disturbance in breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy.

  15. The Prevalence and Impact of Urinary Marker Testing in Patients with Bladder Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Vikram M; Adejoro, Oluwakayode; Schwartz, Ian; Ziegelmann, Matthew; Elliott, Sean; Konety, Badrinath R

    2018-01-01

    Novel urinary tumor markers for bladder cancer may permit early detection and improved oncologic outcomes but data on use is limited. We sought to identify trends in the application of urinary markers and long-term outcomes of urinary tumor marker use in patients with bladder cancer. Data from the SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results)-Medicare database from 2001 to 2011 were used to identify a cohort of 64,450 patients with bladder cancer who underwent urinary marker testing with UroVysion® fluorescence in situ hybridization, or the NMP22® or BTA Stat® test. We assessed the prevalence of urinary marker testing and urine cytology. Characteristics of patients who did and did not undergo urinary marker testing were analyzed by the chi-square test. Urinary marker testing predictors were analyzed with a multivariable logistic regression model and Cox proportional hazards were used to determine unadjusted cancer specific and overall mortality risks. The rate of urinary marker testing increased from 17.8% to a peak of 28.2% during the study years (p testing. Increased urinary marker testing was documented over all stages and grades of bladder cancer, and in certain patient and provider variables. This increase may have contributed to improved overall and cancer specific survival. Additional investigation is necessary to further characterize this benefit. Copyright © 2018 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Ambient particulate pollution and the world-wide prevalence of asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis and eczema in children: Phase One of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, H.R.; Ruggles, R.; Pandey, K.D.; Kapetanakis, V.; Brunekreef, B.; Lai, C.K.; Strachan, D.P.; Weiland, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of ambient particulate matter on variation in childhood prevalence of asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis and eczema. METHODS: Prevalences of asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis and eczema obtained in Phase One of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood

  17. Worldwide installed geothermal power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laplaige, P.

    1995-01-01

    Worldwide electric energy production data are easy to compile, according to the informations given by individual countries. On the contrary, thermal applications of geothermics are difficult to quantify due to the variety of applications and the number of countries concerned. Exhaustive informations sometimes cannot be obtained from huge countries (China, Russia..) because of data centralization problems or not exploitable data transmission. Therefore, installed power data for geothermal heat production are given for 26 countries over the 57 that have answered the International Geothermal Association questionnaire. (J.S.). 1 fig., 2 tabs., 1 photo

  18. Worldwide nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royen, J.

    1981-01-01

    Worldwide nuclear power (WNP) is a companion volume to UPDATE. Our objective in the publication of WNP is to provide factual information on nuclear power programs and policies in foreign countries to U.S. policymakers in the Federal Government who are instrumental in defining the direction of nuclear power in the U.S. WNP is prepared by the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Energy from reports obtained from foreign Embassies in Washington, U.S. Embassies overseas, foreign and domestic publications, participation in international studies, and personal communications. Domestic nuclear data is included only where its presence is needed to provide easy and immediate comparisons with foreign data

  19. Prevalence and Spectrum of Germline Cancer Susceptibility Gene Mutations Among Patients With Early-Onset Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlman, Rachel; Frankel, Wendy L.; Swanson, Benjamin; Zhao, Weiqiang; Yilmaz, Ahmet; Miller, Kristin; Bacher, Jason; Bigley, Christopher; Nelsen, Lori; Goodfellow, Paul J.; Goldberg, Richard M.; Paskett, Electra; Shields, Peter G.; Freudenheim, Jo L.; Stanich, Peter P; Lattimer, Ilene; Arnold, Mark; Liyanarachchi, Sandya; Kalady, Matthew; Heald, Brandie; Greenwood, Carla; Paquette, Ian; Prues, Marla; Draper, David J.; Lindeman, Carolyn; Kuebler, J. Philip; Reynolds, Kelly; Brell, Joanna M.; Shaper, Amy A.; Mahesh, Sameer; Buie, Nicole; Weeman, Kisa; Shine, Kristin; Haut, Mitchell; Edwards, Joan; Bastola, Shyamal; Wickham, Karen; Khanduja, Karamjit S.; Zacks, Rosemary; Pritchard, Colin C.; Shirts, Brian H.; Jacobson, Angela; Allen, Brian; de la Chapelle, Albert; Hampel, Heather

    2017-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Hereditary cancer syndromes infer high cancer risks and require intensive cancer surveillance, yet the prevalence and spectrum of these conditions among unselected patients with early-onset colorectal cancer (CRC) is largely undetermined. OBJECTIVE To determine the frequency and spectrum of cancer susceptibility gene mutations among patients with early-onset CRC. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Overall, 450 patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer younger than 50 years were prospectively accrued from 51 hospitals into the Ohio Colorectal Cancer Prevention Initiative from January 1, 2013, to June 20, 2016. Mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency was determined by microsatellite instability and/or immunohistochemistry. Germline DNA was tested for mutations in 25 cancer susceptibility genes using next-generation sequencing. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Mutation prevalence and spectrum in patients with early-onset CRC was determined. Clinical characteristics were assessed by mutation status. RESULTS In total 450 patients younger than 50 years were included in the study, and 75 gene mutations were found in 72 patients (16%). Forty-eight patients (10.7%) had MMR-deficient tumors, and 40 patients (83.3%) had at least 1 gene mutation: 37 had Lynch syndrome (13, MLH1 [including one with constitutional MLH1 methylation]; 16, MSH2; 1, MSH2/monoallelic MUTYH; 2, MSH6; 5, PMS2); 1 patient had the APC c.3920T>A, p.I1307K mutation and a PMS2 variant; 9 patients (18.8%) had double somatic MMR mutations (including 2 with germline biallelic MUTYH mutations); and 1 patient had somatic MLH1 methylation. Four hundred two patients (89.3%) had MMR-proficient tumors, and 32 patients (8%) had at least 1 gene mutation: 9 had mutations in high-penetrance CRC genes (5, APC; 1, APC/PMS2; 2, biallelic MUTYH; 1, SMAD4); 13 patients had mutations in high- or moderate-penetrance genes not traditionally associated with CRC (3, ATM; 1, ATM/CHEK2; 2, BRCA1; 4, BRCA2; 1, CDKN2A; 2, PALB2); 10

  20. Presumed prevalence analysis on suspected and highly suspected breast cancer lesions in São Paulo using BIRADS criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Vivian; Goldman, Suzan Menasce; Finguerman, Flora; Pinotti, Marianne; Ribeiro, Celso Scazufka; Abdalla, Nitamar; Szejnfeld, Jacob

    2007-07-05

    Breast cancer screening programs are critical for early detection of breast cancer. Early detection is essential for diagnosing, treating and possibly curing breast cancer. Since there are no data on the incidence of breast cancer, nationally or regionally in Brazil, our aim was to assess women by means of mammography, to determine the prevalence of this disease. The study protocol was designed in collaboration between the Department of Diagnostic Imaging (DDI), Institute of Diagnostic Imaging (IDI) and São Paulo Municipal Health Program. A total of 139,945 Brazilian women were assessed by means of mammography between April 2002 and September 2004. Using the American College of Radiology (ACR) criteria (Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System, BIRADS), the prevalence of suspected and highly suspected breast lesions were determined. The prevalence of suspected (BIRADS 4) and highly suspected (BIRADS 5) lesions increased with age, especially after the fourth decade. Accordingly, BIRADS 4 and BIRADS 5 lesions were more prevalent in the fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh decades. The presumed prevalence of suspected and highly suspected breast cancer lesions in the population of São Paulo was 0.6% and it is similar to the prevalence of breast cancer observed in other populations.

  1. Presumed prevalence analysis on suspected and highly suspected breast cancer lesions in São Paulo using BIRADS® criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Milani

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Breast cancer screening programs are critical for early detection of breast cancer. Early detection is essential for diagnosing, treating and possibly curing breast cancer. Since there are no data on the incidence of breast cancer, nationally or regionally in Brazil, our aim was to assess women by means of mammography, to determine the prevalence of this disease. DESIGN AND SETTING: The study protocol was designed in collaboration between the Department of Diagnostic Imaging (DDI, Institute of Diagnostic Imaging (IDI and São Paulo Municipal Health Program. METHODS: A total of 139,945 Brazilian women were assessed by means of mammography between April 2002 and September 2004. Using the American College of Radiology (ACR criteria (Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System, BIRADS®, the prevalence of suspected and highly suspected breast lesions were determined. RESULTS: The prevalence of suspected (BIRADS® 4 and highly suspected (BIRADS® 5 lesions increased with age, especially after the fourth decade. Accordingly, BIRADS® 4 and BIRADS® 5 lesions were more prevalent in the fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh decades. CONCLUSION: The presumed prevalence of suspected and highly suspected breast cancer lesions in the population of São Paulo was 0.6% and it is similar to the prevalence of breast cancer observed in other populations.

  2. Mismatch Repair Polymorphisms as Markers of Breast Cancer Prevalence in the Breast Cancer Family Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappil, Maya; Terry, Mary Beth; Delgado-Cruzata, Lissette; Liao, Yuyan; Santella, Regina M

    2016-09-01

    Major breast cancer susceptibility genes involved in DNA repair, including BRCA1 and BRCA2, have been identified. However, mutations in these genes account for only 5-10% of identified breast cancer cases. Additional DNA repair pathway genes may also contribute to susceptibility. We investigated the association between 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in mismatch repair (MMR) genes and breast cancer risk among 313 sister-sets enrolled in the New York site of the Breast Cancer Family Registry (BCFR) (n=744) using conditional logistic regression analysis. An increase in breast cancer risk was observed for women with the MUTYH_rs3219489 variant allele (odds ratio (OR)=2.23, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.10-4.52) and for women with the MSH2_rs2303428 variant allele (OR=1.73, 95% CI=1.00-2.99). Deficiencies in DNA repair pathways, such as MMR, have implications for the onset of familial breast cancer. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  3. Symptom prevalence, intensity, and distress in patients with inoperable lung cancer in relation to time of death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tishelman, Carol; Petersson, Lena-Marie; Degner, Lesley F.; Sprangers, Mirjam A. G.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose To examine symptom prevalence, intensity, and association with distress in patients with inoperable lung cancer (LC), using time to death as point of reference. Patients and Methods A consecutive sample of 400 patients completed the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer

  4. Long-term survival, prevalence, and cure of cancer: a population-based estimation for 818 902 Italian patients and 26 cancer types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Maso, L.; Guzzinati, S.; Buzzoni, C.; Capocaccia, R.; Serraino, D.; Caldarella, A.; Dei Tos, A. P.; Falcini, F.; Autelitano, M.; Masanotti, G.; Ferretti, S.; Tisano, F.; Tirelli, U.; Crocetti, E.; De Angelis, R.; Virdone, S.; Zucchetto, A.; Gigli, A.; Francisci, S.; Baili, P.; Gatta, G.; Castaing, M.; Zanetti, R.; Contiero, P.; Bidoli, E.; Vercelli, M.; Michiara, M.; Federico, M.; Senatore, G.; Pannozzo, F.; Vicentini, M.; Bulatko, A.; Pirino, D. R.; Gentilini, M.; Fusco, M.; Giacomin, A.; Fanetti, A. C.; Cusimano, R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Persons living after a cancer diagnosis represent 4% of the whole population in high-income countries. The aim of the study was to provide estimates of indicators of long-term survival and cure for 26 cancer types, presently lacking. Patients and methods Data on 818 902 Italian cancer patients diagnosed at age 15–74 years in 1985–2005 were included. Proportions of patients with the same death rates of the general population (cure fractions) and those of prevalent patients who were not at risk of dying as a result of cancer (cure prevalence) were calculated, using validated mixture cure models, by cancer type, sex, and age group. We also estimated complete prevalence, conditional relative survival (CRS), time to reach 5- and 10-year CRS >95%, and proportion of patients living longer than those thresholds. Results The cure fractions ranged from >90% for patients aged cancers to cancers of all ages. Five- or 10-year CRS >95% were both reached in cancers of the stomach, colon–rectum, pancreas, corpus and cervix uteri, brain, and Hodgkin lymphoma. For breast cancer patients, 5- and 10-year CRSs reached >95% after 19 and 25 years, respectively, and in 15 and 18 years for prostate cancer patients. Five-year CRS remained 25 years after cancer diagnosis in patients with liver and larynx cancers, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, myeloma, and leukaemia. Overall, the cure prevalence was 67% for men and 77% for women. Therefore, 21% of male and 31% of female patients had already reached 5-year CRS >95%, whereas 18% and 25% had reached 10-year CRS >95%. Conclusions A quarter of Italian cancer patients can be considered cured. This observation has a high potential impact on health planning, clinical practice, and patients' perspective. PMID:25149707

  5. Prevalence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in unselected breast cancer patients from Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abugattas, J; Llacuachaqui, M; Allende, Y Sullcahuaman; Velásquez, A Arias; Velarde, R; Cotrina, J; Garcés, M; León, M; Calderón, G; de la Cruz, M; Mora, P; Royer, R; Herzog, J; Weitzel, J N; Narod, S A

    2015-10-01

    The prevalence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations among breast cancer patients in Peru has not yet been explored. We enrolled 266 women with breast cancer from a National cancer hospital in Lima, Peru, unselected for age or family history. DNA was screened with a panel of 114 recurrent Hispanic BRCA mutations (HISPANEL). Among the 266 cases, 13 deleterious mutations were identified (11 in BRCA1 and 2 in BRCA2), representing 5% of the total. The average age of breast cancer in the mutation-positive cases was 44 years. BRCA1 185delAG represented 7 of 11 mutations in BRCA1. Other mutations detected in BRCA1 included: two 2080delA, one 943ins10, and one 3878delTA. The BRCA2 3036del4 mutation was seen in two patients. Given the relatively low cost of the HISPANEL test, one should consider offering this test to all Peruvian women with breast or ovarian cancer. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Prevalence and associated factors of spiritual needs among patients with cancer and family caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Elizabeth Johnston

    2006-07-01

    To measure the prevalence of spiritual needs and identify factors associated with spiritual needs among patients with cancer and family caregivers. Descriptive, cross-sectional, quantitative. Inpatients and outpatients at a university medical center in the southwestern United States. 156 patients with cancer and 68 family caregivers who were primarily white and Christian and mostly perceived their cancer as not life threatening. Self-report questionnaires, including the Spiritual Interests Related to Illness Tool and Information About You. Statistical analysis involved analyses of variance, correlations, and factor analysis. Spiritual needs and desire for nursing help with spiritual needs. The most important spiritual needs included being positive, loving others, finding meaning, and relating to God. The least important were needing to ask "why" questions and preparing for dying. Desire for nursing assistance with spiritual needs was moderate and varied. Variables correlated with spiritual needs and desire for nurse help included religiosity, being an inpatient, and perceiving the cancer as incurable. Desire for nurse help and importance of spiritual needs were directly correlated. Distressing spiritual needs were reported least frequently. Certain factors appear to be associated with how much spiritual need is perceived and how much nurse help with those needs is wanted. Patients with cancer and family caregivers have similar spiritual needs that may require care. Spiritual assessment and therapeutics can target specific types of spiritual needs. A nurse's help with spiritual needs, however, is not always wanted.

  7. Incidence and prevalence of non-melanoma skin cancer in Australia: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Eshini; Gnaneswaran, Neiraja; Staines, Carolyn; Win, Aung Ko; Sinclair, Rod

    2015-11-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), including basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), is the most common cancer occurring in people with fair skin. Australia has been reported to have the highest incidence of NMSC in the world. Using a systematic search of the literature in EMBASE and Medline, we identified 21 studies that investigated the incidence or prevalence of NMSC in Australia. Studies published between 1948 and 2011 were identified and included in the analysis. There were six studies that were conducted on national level, two at state level and 13 at the regional level. Overall, the incidence of NMSC had steadily increased over calendar-years in Australia. The incidence of NMSC per 100,000 person-years was estimated to be 555 in 1985; 977 in 1990; 1109 in 1995; 1170 in 2002 and 2448 in 2011. The incidence was higher for men than women and higher for BCC than SCC. Incidence varied across the states of Australia, with the highest in Queensland. The prevalence of NMSC was estimated to be 2% in Australia in 2002. The incidence and prevalence of NMSC still need to be accurately established at both national and state levels to determine the costs and burden of the disease on the public health system in Australia. © 2015 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  8. Prevalence of acute neuropathic pain after cancer surgery: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P N Jain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Acute neuropathic pain (ANP is an under-recognised and under-diagnosed condition and often difficult to treat. If left untreated, it may further transform into persistent post-operative chronic pain leading to a disability. Aims: This prospective study was undertaken on 300 patients to identify the prevalence of ANP in the post-operative period by using a neuropathic pain detection questionnaire tool. Methods: This is an open-label study in which patients with six different types of cancer surgeries (Thoracic, gastro-intestinal, gynae/urology, bone/soft-tissue, head and neck and breast subgroups-50 each were included for painDETECT questionnaire tool on the 2 nd and 7 th day surgery. Results: This study found a 10% point prevalence of ANP. Analysis showed that 25 patients had ′possible′ ANP, the maximum from urological cancer surgery (6 followed by thoracic surgery (5. Five patients were found to have ′positive′ ANP including 2 groin node dissection, 2 hemipelvectomy and 1 oesophagectomy. Conclusion: Significant relationship between severity of post-operative pain was found with the occurrence of ANP in the post-operative period requiring a special attention to neuropathic pain assessment. Larger studies are required with longer follow-up to identify accurately the true prevalence and causative factors of ANP after surgery.

  9. Prevalence of sarcopenia and its association with dysphagia in cancer patients who require rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidetaka Wakabayashi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the prevalence of sarcopaenia and the association between sarcopaenia, activities of daily living, and dysphagia in cancer patients who require rehabilitation. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed in 83 consecutive cancer patients referred to the Department of Rehabilitation Medicine. Skeletal muscle index was calculated as total psoas muscle area assessed via abdominal computed tomography divided by height squared. Sarcopaenia was diagnosed using the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia criteria. Activities of daily living were evaluated with the Barthel Index. Dysphagia was assessed with the 10-item Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10. Results: Study participants were 50 males and 33 females (mean age 71, standard deviation 12 years. Sarcopaenia was observed in 66 (80% patients. The median Barthel Index score was 55 (interquartile range: 25–75. Thirty-five (42% patients were diagnosed as having dysphagia. Logistic regression analysis of dysphagia adjusted for sarcopaenia, Barthel Index score, age, and reason for hospitalization showed that sarcopaenia (odds ratio (OR 3.616; 95% confidence interval (95% CI 0.926–14.114; p = 0.064 and Barthel Index score (OR 0.984; 95% CI 0.966–1.002; p = 0.073 did not reach statistical significance. Conclusion: The prevalence of sarcopaenia in cancer patients who require rehabilitation is very high. The power of this study was too low to observe a significant association between sarcopaenia and dysphagia.

  10. Prevalence of sarcopenia and its association with dysphagia in cancer patients who require rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Hidetaka; Takahashi, Rimiko; Watanabe, Naoko; Oritsu, Hideyuki; Shimizu, Yoshitaka

    2017-08-31

    To assess the prevalence of sarcopaenia and the association between sarcopaenia, activities of daily living, and dysphagia in cancer patients who require rehabilitation. A cross-sectional study was performed in 83 consecutive cancer patients referred to the Department of Rehabilitation Medicine. Skeletal muscle index was calculated as total psoas muscle area assessed via abdominal computed tomography divided by height squared. Sarcopaenia was diagnosed using the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia criteria. Activities of daily living were evaluated with the Barthel Index. Dysphagia was assessed with the 10-item Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10). Study participants were 50 males and 33 females (mean age 71, standard deviation 12 years). Sarcopaenia was observed in 66 (80%) patients. The median Barthel Index score was 55 (interquartile range: 25-75). Thirty-five (42%) patients were diagnosed as having dysphagia. Logistic regression analysis of dysphagia adjusted for sarcopaenia, Barthel Index score, age, and reason for hospitalization showed that sarcopaenia (odds ratio (OR) 3.616; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.926-14.114; p = 0.064) and Barthel Index score (OR 0.984; 95% CI 0.966-1.002; p = 0.073) did not reach statistical significance. The prevalence of sarcopaenia in cancer patients who require rehabilitation is very high. The power of this study was too low to observe a significant association between sarcopaenia and dysphagia.

  11. Prevalence and predictors of anxiety and depression among esophageal cancer patients prior to surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellstadius, Y; Lagergren, J; Zylstra, J; Gossage, J; Davies, A; Hultman, C M; Lagergren, P; Wikman, A

    2016-11-01

    This study aims to establish the prevalence and predictors of anxiety and depression among esophageal cancer patients, post-diagnosis but prior to curatively intended surgery. This was a cross-sectional study using data from a hospital-based prospective cohort study, carried out at St Thomas' Hospital, London. Potential predictor variables were retrieved from medical charts and self-report questionnaires. Anxiety and depression were measured prior to esophageal cancer surgery, using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Prevalence of anxiety and depression was calculated using the established cutoff (scores ≥8 on each subscale) indicating cases of 'possible-probable' anxiety or depression, and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to examine predictors of emotional distress. Among the 106 included patients, 36 (34%) scored above the cutoff (≥8) for anxiety and 24 (23%) for depression. Women were more likely to report anxiety than men (odds ratio 4.04, 95% confidence interval 1.45-11.16), and patients reporting limitations in their activity status had more than five times greater odds of reporting depression (odds ratio 6.07, 95% confidence interval 1.53-24.10). A substantial proportion of esophageal cancer patients report anxiety and/or depression prior to surgery, particularly women and those with limited activity status, which highlights a need for qualified emotional support. © 2015 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  12. High HPV-51 prevalence in invasive cervical cancers: results of a pre-immunization survey in North Sardinia, Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Piana

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human Papilloma virus (HPV is recognized as the etiological agent of benign and malignant ano-genital lesions. The most prevalent genotypes associated with cervical carcinoma are HPV-16 and -18 worldwide. However, recent studies have emphasized the role of other genotypes, such as HPV-51, in the pathogenesis of cervical dysplasia. The aim of the study was to estimate the burden of HPV-51 infection in invasive cervical malignant lesions in Northern Sardinia, Italy. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An observational, retrospective, prevalence, mono-center study was carried out to evaluate the presence of HPV genotypes in tissues biopsies of cervical lesions (CIN-1, CIN-2, CIN-3 and invasive carcinoma gathered from 1996 to 2009. Biological samples were collected from women admitted consecutively to a tertiary university hospital situated in Sassari, Italy. Molecular methods were used to identify 28 oncogenic HPV types. A total of 155 formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded cervical tissue samples were analyzed. Approximately half of the cervical lesions were classified as invasive carcinoma. HPV-DNA was detected in 71% of the samples, with a higher frequency (100% in those categorized as invasive neoplasia. Mono- or co-infections were demonstrated in 45.8% and 25.8% of the cervical samples, respectively. Overall, the most prevalent HPV types were -16 (49% and -51 (19.4%, with an increased frequency of detection associated with the severity of the cervical lesions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This survey highlights for the first time the relevant role of HPV-51 infection in the pathogenesis of invasive cervical cancer prior to the introduction of a vaccination program. Although a selection bias could have influenced the results, other recent studies have described the impact of HPV-51. This remarkable epidemiological element should be carefully evaluated, particularly in the view of opting for preventive vaccines, whose cross-protection patterns

  13. Recent Worldwide Developments in eHealth and mHealth to more Effectively Manage Cancer and other Chronic Diseases – A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, P.; Liaw, S.-T.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objectives This paper is a systematic literature review intended to gain an understanding of the most original, excellent, state-of-the-art research in the application of eHealth (including mHealth) in the management of chronic diseases with a focus on cancer over the past two years. Method This review looks at peer-reviewed papers published between 2013 and 2015 and examines the background and trends in this area. It systematically searched peer-reviewed journals in databases PubMed, Proquest, Cochrane Library, Elsevier, Sage and the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE Digital Library) using a set of pre-defined keywords. It then employed an iterative process to filter out less relevant publications. Results From an initial search return of 1,519,682 results returned, twenty nine of the most relevant peer reviewed articles were identified as most relevant. Conclusions Based on the results we conclude that innovative eHealth and its subset mHealth initiatives are rapidly emerging as an important means of managing cancer and other chronic diseases. The adoption is following different paths in the developed and developing worlds. Besides governance and regulatory issues, barriers still exist around information management, interoperability and integration. These include medical records available online information for clinicians and consumers on cancer and other chronic diseases, mobile app bundles that can help manage co-morbidities and the capacity of supporting communication technologies. PMID:27830236

  14. Human papillomavirus type-specific prevalence in the cervical cancer screening population of Czech women.

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    Ruth Tachezy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPVtypes has been recognized as a causal factor for the development of cervical cancer and a number of other malignancies. Today, vaccines against HPV, highly effective in the prevention of persistent infection and precancerous lesions, are available for the routine clinical practice. OBJECTIVES: The data on the prevalence and type-specific HPV distribution in the population of each country are crucial for the surveillance of HPV type-specific prevalence at the onset of vaccination against HPV. METHODS: Women attending a preventive gynecological examination who had no history of abnormal cytological finding and/or surgery for cervical lesions were enrolled. All samples were tested for the presence of HPV by High-Risk Hybrid Capture 2 (HR HC2 and by a modified PCR-reverse line blot assay with broad spectrum primers (BS-RLB. RESULTS: Cervical smears of 1393 women were analyzed. In 6.5% of women, atypical cytological findings were detected. Altogether, 28.3% (394/1393 of women were positive for any HPV type by BS-RLB, 18.2% (254/1393 by HR HC2, and 22.3% (310/1393 by BS-RLB for HR HPV types. In women with atypical findings the prevalence for HR and any HPV types were significantly higher than in women with normal cytological findings. Overall, 36 different HPV types were detected, with HPV 16 being the most prevalent (4.8%. HPV positivity decreased with age; the highest prevalence was 31.5% in the age group 21-25 years. CONCLUSIONS: Our study subjects represent the real screening population. HPV prevalence in this population in the Czech Republic is higher than in other countries of Eastern Europe. Also the spectrum of the most prevalent HPV types differs from those reported by others but HPV 16 is, concordantly, the most prevalent type. Country-specific HPV type-specific prevalences provide baseline information which will enable to measure the impact of HPV vaccination in the future.

  15. High prevalence of diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance in liver cancer patients: A hospital based study of 4610 patients with benign tumors or specific cancers [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Roujun

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT and impaired fasting glucose (IFG were hypothesised to be different among different tumor patients. This study aimed to study the association between the prevalence of DM, IGT and IFG and liver cancer, colorectal cancer, breast cancer, cervical cancer, nasopharyngeal cancer and benign tumor. Methods:  A hospital based retrospective study was conducted on 4610 patients admitted to the Internal Medical Department of the Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, China. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between gender, age group, ethnicity , cancer types or benign tumors and prevalence of DM, IFG, IGT. Results: Among 4610 patients, there were 1000 liver cancer patients, 373 breast cancer patients, 415 nasopharyngeal cancer patients, 230 cervical cancer patients, 405 colorectal cancer patients, and 2187 benign tumor patients. The prevalence of DM and IGT in liver cancer patients was 14.7% and 22.1%, respectively. The prevalence of DM and IGT was 13.8% and 20%, respectively, in colorectal cancer patients, significantly higher than that of benign cancers. After adjusting for gender, age group, and ethnicity, the prevalence of DM and IGT in liver cancers patients was 1.29 times (CI :1.12-1.66 and 1.49 times (CI :1.20-1.86 higher than that of benign tumors, respectively. Conclusion: There was a high prevalence of DM and IGT in liver cancer patients.

  16. A high and increasing HPV prevalence in tonsillar cancers in Eastern Denmark, 2000-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garnaes, Emilie; Kiss, Katalin; Andersen, Luise

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to explore whether the incidence of tonsillar squamous cell carcinomas (TSCCs) increased in Eastern Denmark, 2000-2010, and whether human papillomavirus (HPV) could explain the increase, and to assess the association of HPV prevalence with gender, age, and origin (i.e., the certainty...... of tonsillar tumor origin). We applied HPV DNA PCR and p16 immunohistochemistry to all TSCCs registered in the Danish Head and Neck Cancer Group (DAHANCA) and in the Danish Pathology Data Bank (n = 632). Pathologists reviewed and subdivided the tumors into two groups: specified and nonspecified TSCCs....... Approximately 10% of HPV-positive tumors was genotyped by amplicon next-generation sequencing. The overall crude incidence of TSCCs increased significantly (2.7% per year) and was explained by an increasing incidence of HPV-positive TSCCs (4.9% per year). The overall HPV prevalence was 58%, with HPV16 being...

  17. Prevalence of and factors associated with persistent pain following breast cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gärtner, Rune; Jensen, Maj-Britt; Nielsen, Jeanette

    2009-01-01

    January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2006. A study questionnaire was sent to the women between January and April 2008. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence, location, and severity of persistent pain and sensory disturbances in 12 well-defined treatment groups assessed an average of 26 months after surgery......, and adjusted odds ratio (OR) of reported pain and sensory disturbances with respect to age, surgical technique, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. RESULTS: By June 2008, 3253 of 3754 eligible women (87%) returned the questionnaire. A total of 1543 patients (47%) reported pain, of whom 201 (13%) had severe pain......CONTEXT: Persistent pain and sensory disturbances following surgical treatment for breast cancer is a significant clinical problem. The pathogenic mechanisms are complex and may be related to patient characteristics, surgical technique, and adjuvant therapy. OBJECTIVE: To examine prevalence...

  18. Prevalence of micronuclei in exfoliated uterine cervical cells from patients with risk factors for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lízia Maria Franco dos Reis Campos

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Pap smears are the most common and inexpensive screening method for cervical cancer. We analyzed micronucleus prevalence in exfoliated cervical mucosa cells, to investigate associations between increased numbers of micronuclei and risk factors for cervical cancer. DESIGN AND SETTING: Analytical cross-sectional study, at Instituto de Pesquisa em Oncologia (IPON. METHODS: Exfoliated cervical cells were obtained from 101 patients between September 2004 and November 2005. Patients' ages, habits (passive or active smoking, alcoholism and numbers of sexual partners, age at first sexual intercourse, contraceptive methods used, histories of sexually transmitted diseases, use of hormone replacement therapy, numbers of pregnancies and abortions, inflammatory cytology and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN were obtained. Cells were collected using Ayre spatulas, transferred to vials containing 0.9% saline solution for micronucleus tests and analyzed at 1000x magnification. The number of micronuclei in 1,000 epithelial cells per patient sample was counted. RESULTS: Comparisons between groups with active (7.9 ± 7.8 and passive (7.2 ± 10.6 smoking versus no smoking (3.7 ± 5.1; with/without alcoholism (7.8 ± 1.4 and 6.9 ± 10.1; with/without inflammatory cytology (10.7 ± 10.5 and 1.3 ± 1.7; and with CIN I, II and III and no CIN (respectively 4.3 ± 4.3, 10.6 ± 5.3, 22.7 ± 11.9 and 1.3 ± 1.4 found elevated micronucleus prevalence (P < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that the prevalence of micronuclei in exfoliated uterine cervical cells was greater in patients with one or more risk factors for uterine cervical cancer than in patients without risk factors.

  19. Targeted nanoparticles for colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cisterna, Bruno A.; Kamaly, Nazila; Choi, Won Il

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is highly prevalent worldwide, and despite notable progress in treatment still leads to significant morbidity and mortality. The use of nanoparticles as a drug delivery system has become one of the most promising strategies for cancer therapy. Targeted nanoparticles could...

  20. The relationship between symptom prevalence, body image, and quality of life in Asian gynecologic cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Irene; Cheung, Yin Bun; Lim, Timothy Yong Kuei; Namuduri, Rama Padmavathi; Long, Victoria; Tewani, Komal

    2018-01-01

    Gynecologic cancer is associated with long-term effects that can be both physical and emotional. We examined symptom prevalence and body image disturbance in patients with gynecologic cancer and their association with quality of life. Predictors of clinically-relevant body image disturbance were examined. A sample of patients in Singapore (n = 104) was assessed for symptom prevalence, quality of life, and body image dissatisfaction. Clinical factors were extracted from medical records. The most frequently reported symptoms were fatigue, abdominal bloatedness, weight gain, constipation, hot flashes, and pelvic pain. Approximately one quarter patients reported feeling less physically attractive and dissatisfied with their body. Ordinary least squares regression indicated that symptom prevalence alone predicted physical well-being, b = -1.09, P < .001, 95% CI, -1.45 to -0.73, and functional well-being, b = -0.88, P < .001, 95% CI, -1.32 to -0.45. Body image dissatisfaction alone significantly predicted emotional well-being, b = -0.21, P < .01, 95% CI, -0.35 to -0.06. Younger age was a significant risk factor for clinically-relevant score of body image distress, OR = 0.95 per year older, 95% CI, 0.92 to 0.99, P = .02. Symptom prevalence and body image dissatisfaction were associated with different domains of quality of life. Emotional well-being of patients was better explained by body image, rather than extent of symptoms experienced. Patients who are younger appear particularly susceptible to body image disturbance. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Nuclear materials transport worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stellpflug, J.

    1987-01-01

    This Greenpeace report shows: nuclear materials transport is an extremely hazardous business. There is no safe protection against accidents, kidnapping, or sabotage. Any moment of a day, at any place, a nuclear transport accident may bring the world to disaster, releasing plutonium or radioactive fission products to the environment. Such an event is not less probable than the MCA at Chernobyl. The author of the book in hand follows the secret track of radioactive materials around the world, from uranium mines to the nuclear power plants, from reprocessing facilities to the waste repositories. He explores the routes of transport and the risks involved, he gives the names of transport firms and discloses incidents and carelessness, tells about damaged waste drums and plutonium that 'disappeared'. He also tells about worldwide, organised resistance to such nuclear transports, explaining the Greenpeace missions on the open sea, or the 'day X' operation at the Gorleben site, informing the reader about protests and actions for a world freed from the threat of nuclear energy. (orig./HP) [de

  2. FISH PRODUCTION WORLDWIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgiana Melania COSTAICHE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fishing is one of the oldest occupations, which over the years has gone through several stages. In the economic terms the increase in intensive industrial system of the fish is advantageous because the specific energy consumption is low, given that they not need to maintain body temperature at high temperatures. Having regard to demographic trends in continue increasing, and the tendency of decrease fisheries leads to increased the production of aquaculture fish by order to ensure enough quantity and quality. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the evolution of fish production worldwide and in particular to show the evolution of production of fish from fisheries and aquaculture. To highlight the evolution global fish production given two ways to get fish respectively from aquaculture and fisheries, that have used data from FAOSTAT for 2007-2012. Also we can see that approximately 90% of the fish production is fished in the sea and only 10% in the territorial waters. The fish production in Africa had an ascending trend in the period under review. Analyzing fish production the share of total world continents is noted that Asia has a share of 68% in 2007 and increase to 73% in 2012.

  3. Prevalence and management of pulmonary comorbidity in patients with lung and head and neck cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottlieb, Magnus; Marsaa, Kristoffer; Godtfredsen, Nina S

    2015-01-01

    patients, and presence of COPD worsens the prognosis of HNC and LC. COPD is under-diagnosed and under-treated in the Danish population. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of COPD in a HNC and LC population, and to determine the need and feasibility of a randomized controlled phase II...... trial comparing usual care with optimized medical treatment of COPD in cancer patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All patients with HNC or LC referred for oncologic treatment in a university hospital during a 10-month period were invited to attend a pulmonary clinic for evaluation of lung function. Patients...

  4. Estimated amount of 24-hour urine sodium excretion is positively correlated with stomach and breast cancer prevalence in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung Hwan; Kim, Yong Chul; Koo, Ho Seok; Oh, Se Won; Kim, Suhnggwon; Chin, Ho Jun

    2014-09-01

    Stomach cancer is one of the most common cancers in Korea. The aim of this study was to identify the association between the prevalence of cancer, particularly stomach cancer, and the amount of 24-hr urine sodium excretion estimated from spot urine specimens. The study included 19,083 subjects who took part in the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey between 2009 and 2011. The total amount of urine sodium excreted in a 24-hr period was estimated by using two equations based on the values for spot urine sodium and creatinine. In subjects who had an estimated 24-hr urine sodium excretion of more than two standard deviations above the mean (group 2), the prevalence of stomach cancer was higher than in subjects with lower 24-hr sodium excretion (group 1). By using the Tanaka equation to estimate it, the prevalence of stomach cancer was 0.6% (114/18,331) in group 1, whereas it was 1.6% (9/568) in group 2 (P=0.006). By using the Korean equation, the prevalence was 0.6% (115/18,392) in group 1, and 1.6% in group 2 (8/507) (P=0.010). By using the Tanaka equation, breast cancer in women is more prevalent in group 2 (1.9%, 6/324) than group 1 (0.8%, 78/9,985, P=0.039). Higher salt intake, as defined by the estimated amount of 24-hr urine sodium excretion, is positively correlated with a higher prevalence of stomach or breast cancer in the Korean population.

  5. Colorectal Cancer in India: An Audit from a Tertiary Center in a Low Prevalence Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Prachi S; Saklani, Avanish; Gambhire, Pravir; Mehta, Shaesta; Engineer, Reena; De'Souza, Ashwin; Chopra, Supriya; Bal, Munita

    2017-12-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common cancer worldwide with a low reported incidence in India. There is significant geographical variation in the incidence rates, and the presentation may also vary. There are few studies evaluating the clinical profile of CRC in Indian patients. We analyzed a prospective database maintained at the Tata Memorial Hospital, a referral cancer center in Mumbai, of consecutive patients with CRC between August 2013 and August 2014. We captured details regarding the demography, symptoms, pathology, stage, and treatment plan. The aim was to assess the demographic and clinical details of patients with CRC in India and compare it with those of the reported literature. Eight hundred new patients with CRC were seen in the colorectal clinic in one year. The mean age was 47.2 years. Sixty-five percent were males. Patients were symptomatic for an average period of 4 months prior to presentation. The commonest symptoms were rectal bleeding (57%), pain (44%), and altered bowel habits (26%). Thirteen percent of the patients had signet ring tumors. The median CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen) level was 5.8 ng/mL. Most patients had localized or locally advanced disease. Twenty-eight percent of the patients had metastatic disease with liver being the commonest site of metastases (14%) followed by peritoneum and lung. More than half of the patients received treatment with a curative intent. Colorectal cancer in India differs from that described in the Western countries. We had more young patients, higher proportion of signet ring carcinomas, and more patients presenting with an advanced stage. Inadequate access to healthcare and socioeconomic factors may play a role in some of these differences.

  6. The worldwide "wildfire" problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, A Malcolm; Stephens, Scott L; Cary, Geoffrey J

    2013-03-01

    The worldwide "wildfire" problem is headlined by the loss of human lives and homes, but it applies generally to any adverse effects of unplanned fires, as events or regimes, on a wide range of environmental, social, and economic assets. The problem is complex and contingent, requiring continual attention to the changing circumstances of stakeholders, landscapes, and ecosystems; it occurs at a variety of temporal and spatial scales. Minimizing adverse outcomes involves controlling fires and fire regimes, increasing the resistance of assets to fires, locating or relocating assets away from the path of fires, and, as a probability of adverse impacts often remains, assisting recovery in the short-term while promoting the adaptation of societies in the long-term. There are short- and long-term aspects to each aspect of minimization. Controlling fires and fire regimes may involve fire suppression and fuel treatments such as prescribed burning or non-fire treatments but also addresses issues associated with unwanted fire starts like arson. Increasing the resistance of assets can mean addressing the design and construction materials of a house or the use of personal protective equipment. Locating or relocating assets can mean leaving an area about to be impacted by fire or choosing a suitable place to live; it can also mean the planning of land use. Assisting recovery and promoting adaptation can involve insuring assets and sharing responsibility for preparedness for an event. There is no single, simple, solution. Perverse outcomes can occur. The number of minimizing techniques used, and the breadth and depth of their application, depends on the geographic mix of asset types. Premises for policy consideration are presented.

  7. Worldwide developments in uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoellen, E.E.

    1987-01-01

    World uranium production will continue to change in most major producing nations. Canadian production will increase and will be increasingly dominated by western producers as eastern Canadian high-cost production declines. Australian production will increase as major projects come into operation before 2000. US production will stabilize through the end of the century. South African production will be dependent upon the worldwide support for economic sanctions. China's entry into the world market injects yet another variable into the already cloudy supply picture. Many risks and uncertainties will face uranium producers through the 1980s. Recognizing that the uranium industry is not a fast-growing market, many existing and potential producers are seeking alternate investment courses, causing a restructuring of the world uranium production industry in ways not anticipated even a few years ago. During the restructuring process, world uranium production will most likely continue to exceed uranium consumption, resulting in a further buildup of world uranium inventories. Inventory sales will continue to redistribute this material. As inventory selling runs its course, users will turn to normal sources of supply, stimulating additional production to meet needs. Stimulation in the form of higher prices will be determined by how fast producers are willing and able to return to the market. Production costs are expected to have an increasing impact as it has become apparent that uranium resources are large in comparison to projected consumption. Conversely, security-of-supply issues have seemed to be of decreasing magnitude as Canada, Australia, and other non-US producers continue to meet delivery commitments

  8. Patient characteristics and cancer prevalence in the Danish cancer patient pathway for patients with serious non-specific symptoms and signs of cancer-A nationwide, population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moseholm Larsen, Ellen Frøsig; Lindhardt, B Ø

    2017-01-01

    and 47% where male. In total, 11% of all patients received a cancer diagnosis after completing a diagnostic course in the NSSC-CPP; the most common types were breast cancer (18%) hematopoietic and lymphoid tissue cancer (15%), and malignant melanoma (12%). The most common non-cancer diagnosis was non...... of included patients who were diagnosed with cancer after completing a NSSC-CPP diagnostic course. Associations between patient characteristics and cancer diagnosis were estimated in a multivariate logistic regression model. RESULTS: The mean age of the 23,934 patients included in the analysis was 64.6 years......-specific symptoms/observation (54%). Fifty-five patients were diagnosed with cancer within six months following a non-cancer diagnosis in the NSSC-CPP. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of cancer in the NSSC-CPP was 11%. The most common cancer diagnosis was breast cancer, hematopoietic and lymphoid cancer and malignant...

  9. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in two Spanish regions with different incidence of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senra-Varela, A; Lopez-Saez, J B; Gomez-Biondi, V

    1998-07-01

    It is a cross-sectional study, comparing the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection (prevalence of IgG antibodies to H. pylori) in the healthy population of Ubrique and Grazalema (mountain location, mortality from stomach cancer 20/100,000) and in Barbate, (coastal location, mortality from stomach cancer 10/100,000) in the province of Cadiz, southern Spain. The subjects were randomly selected, 163 men and 169 women, 18 years or older; 179 persons were studied in the inland, and 154 in the littoral in January 1997. Of the 332 subjects investigated, 43% were positive, a mean antibody titer of 337 IU/1 (95 % CI: 254-420), and 56% were negative, with a mean titer of 18 IU/1 (95% CI: 15-19). In the coastal population, 30% has positive titers and 54% in the mountain location. By age: 18-40 years, 30% of littoral and 41% of inland population had positive titers; 41-60 years, 35% of those living in the littoral and 58% of inland population had positive titers; > 60 years, 24% of coastal inhabitants and 62% of those living in the inland had positive titers. Living in mountain locations in the province of Cadiz involves a greater ecological risk for H. pylori infection (p < 0.05).

  10. Prevalence of Lynch syndrome among patients with newly diagnosed endometrial cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Egoavil

    Full Text Available Lynch syndrome (LS is a hereditary condition that increases the risk for endometrial and other cancers. The identification of endometrial cancer (EC patients with LS has the potential to influence life-saving interventions. We aimed to study the prevalence of LS among EC patients in our population.Universal screening for LS was applied for a consecutive series EC. Tumor testing using microsatellite instability (MSI, immunohistochemistry (IHC for mismatch-repair (MMR protein expression and MLH1-methylation analysis, when required, was used to select LS-suspicious cases. Sequencing of corresponding MMR genes was performed.One hundred and seventy-three EC (average age, 63 years were screened. Sixty-one patients (35% had abnormal IHC or MSI results. After MLH1 methylation analysis, 27 cases were considered suspicious of LS. From these, 22 were contacted and referred for genetic counseling. Nineteen pursued genetic testing and eight were diagnosed of LS. Mutations were more frequent in younger patients (<50 yrs. Three cases had either intact IHC or MSS and reinforce the need of implement the EC screening with both techniques.The prevalence of LS among EC patients was 4.6% (8/173; with a predictive frequency of 6.6% in the Spanish population. Universal screening of EC for LS is recommended.

  11. Trends in frequency and prevalence of oral cancer and oral squamous cell carcinoma in Mexicans. A 20 years retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitán-Cepeda, Luis-Alberto; Peniche-Becerra, Adriana-Graciela; Quezada-Rivera, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    To establish the time trends of the frequency and prevalence of oral cavity cancer in regard to age and gender in a 20-years (time period 1989 - 2008) cohort of Mexicans. 13,235 head and neck biopsies from the archive of the Oral Pathology Laboratory, Dental School, National Autonomous University of Mexico were revised. The cases with diagnoses of oral cancer were selected. Gender and age at diagnosis was obtained from medical records. The frequency and prevalence of oral cavity cancer and oral squamous cell carcinoma were assessed biannually in regard to the total number of population served by the oral pathology laboratory. The statistical significance of trends was established using the linear logistic regression (curve estimation) test (s 0.05). 298 cases (138 males; 160 females) of oral cancer were included; 167 (92 females; 75 males; female:male ratio: 1.1:1) corresponded to oral squamous cell carcinoma. From 1989 to 2008 the prevalence of oral cancer and oral squamous cell carcinoma increased 200% (s 0.05) and 100% (s 0.000) respectively. The increase of frequency and prevalence was observed in both genders however only in females was significant (s 0.000). We do not identify changes in the age at diagnosis. Oral cancer, specifically oral squamous cell carcinoma, has increase in Mexicans females in the last 20 years.

  12. Is prevalence of colorectal polyps higher in patients with family history of colorectal cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sthela Maria Murad-Regadas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the prevalence of polyps in patients with a family history of colorectal cancer, in comparison to asymptomatic individuals with indication for screening. Methods: A prospective study in a group of patients who underwent colonoscopy between 2012 and 2014. Patients were divided into two groups: Group I: no family history of colorectal cancer, and Group II: with a family history in first-degree relatives. Demographic characteristics, findings on colonoscopy, presence, location and histological type of polyps were evaluated, comparing the two groups. Results: 214 patients were evaluated: 162 in Group I and 52 in Group II. The distribution of patients with polyps was similar in relation to gender: polyps were evidenced in Group I in 33 (20% female patients vs. 10 (6% male patients (p = 1.00; in Group II, the presence of polyps was evidenced in 9 (17% female patients vs. 2 (4% male patients (p = 1.00. Polypoid lesions were found in 54 patients (25%, with 43 (26% in Group I and 11 (21% in Group II. The prevalence of adenomas was similar in both groups (Group I = 18/37% vs. Group II = 10/50% (p = 0.83. Conclusion: In this preliminary study, no correlation was found between prevalence of polyps and a family history of colorectal cancer. Resumo: Objetivos: Avaliar a prevalência de pólipos em pacientes com história familiar de câncer colorretal comparando com indivíduos assintomáticos com indicação para rastreamento. Métodos: Estudo prospectivo realizado em um grupo de indivíduos submetidos à colonoscopia entre 2012 e 2014. Os pacientes foram distribuídos em dois grupos: Grupo I: sem história familiar de câncer colorretal e Grupo II: com história familiar em parentes de primeiro grau. Avaliaram-se características demográficas, achados na colonoscopia, presença, localização e tipo histológico dos pólipos, comparando os dois grupos. Resultados: Foram avaliados 214 pacientes, 162 incluídas no grupo I e 52

  13. Prevalence and predictive factors of depression and anxiety in patients with pancreatic cancer: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akizuki, Nobuya; Shimizu, Ken; Asai, Mariko; Nakano, Tomohito; Okusaka, Takuji; Shimada, Kazuaki; Inoguchi, Hironobu; Inagaki, Masatoshi; Fujimori, Maiko; Akechi, Tatsuo; Uchitomi, Yosuke

    2016-01-01

    It is known that depression and anxiety occur more frequently in pancreatic cancer patients than in those with other malignancies. However, few studies have assessed depression and anxiety using reliable psychiatric diagnostic tools. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of depression and anxiety among pancreatic cancer patients before and 1 month after the start of anticancer treatment using reliable psychiatric diagnostic tools, and to identify factors that predict their occurrence. Pancreatic cancer patients were consecutively recruited. Structured clinical interviews were used to determine the presence of affective disorders, anxiety disorders and adjustment disorders. Baseline interviews were performed prior to initiation of anticancer treatment, while follow-up interviews were performed 1 month after treatment was started. Medical, demographic and psychosocial backgrounds were also assessed as predictive factors. One hundred and ten patients participated in the baseline interview and 91 in the follow-up interview. Depression and anxiety were observed in 15 patients (13.6%) at the baseline, and 15 patients (16.5%) at the follow-up. Lack of confidants was associated with depression and anxiety at the baseline. At the baseline, sadness, lower Karnofsky Performance Status and prior experience with the death of a family member due to cancer predicted newly diagnosed depression and anxiety at the follow-up. A considerable percentage of pancreatic cancer patients experienced depression and anxiety. Multidimensional psychosocial predictive factors were found and optimal psychological care should incorporate early detection of sadness. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Assessing standardization of molecular testing for non-small-cell lung cancer: results of a worldwide external quality assessment (EQA) scheme for EGFR mutation testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, S; Normanno, N; Blackhall, F; Murray, S; Kerr, K M; Dietel, M; Filipits, M; Benlloch, S; Popat, S; Stahel, R; Thunnissen, E

    2014-07-15

    The external quality assurance (EQA) process aims at establishing laboratory performance levels. Leading European groups in the fields of EQA, Pathology, and Medical and Thoracic Oncology collaborated in a pilot EQA scheme for somatic epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene mutational analysis in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). EQA samples generated from cell lines mimicking clinical samples were provided to participating laboratories, each with a mock clinical case. Participating laboratories performed the analysis using their usual method(s). Anonymous results were assessed and made available to all participants. Two subsequent EQA rounds followed the pilot scheme. One hundred and seventeen labs from 30 countries registered and 91 returned results. Sanger sequencing and a commercial kit were the main methodologies used. The standard of genotyping was suboptimal, with a significant number of genotyping errors made. Only 72 out of 91 (72%) participants passed the EQA. False-negative and -positive results were the main sources of error. The quality of reports submitted was acceptable; most were clear, concise and easy to read. However, some participants reported the genotyping result in the absence of any interpretation and many obscured the interpretation required for clinical care. Even in clinical laboratories, the technical performance of genotyping in EGFR mutation testing for NSCLC can be improved, evident from a high level of diagnostic errors. Robust EQA can contribute to global optimisation of EGFR testing for NSCLC patients.

  15. Editor’s Pick: Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease – Changing the Prevalence of Liver Cancer?

    OpenAIRE

    Benedetta Campana; David Semela; Markus Heim; Christine Bernsmeier

    2015-01-01

    Due to its increasing prevalence, exceeding 25% of the Western population, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) merits recognition as one of the most frequent chronic liver diseases (CLD) and requires consideration of the associated disease-related complications and their consequences for the surveillance and treatment of patients and the socio-economy worldwide. Along with the increasing incidence of NAFLD-related cirrhosis and end-stage liver disease, the frequency of NAFLD-related he...

  16. Prevalence and Associated Positive Psychological Variables of Depression and Anxiety among Chinese Cervical Cancer Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi-Long; Liu, Li; Wang, Xiao-Xi; Wang, Yang; Wang, Lie

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of depression and anxiety and its associated factors in cervical cancer are not well evaluated in China. Meanwhile, with increasing attention given to positive psychological variables in oncology field, there is a need to conduct a study to explore the integrative effects of positive psychological variables on depression/anxiety so as to provide patients a more holistic cancer care. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of depression/anxiety as well as the integrative effects of hope, optimism and general self-efficacy on depression/anxiety among Chinese cervical cancer patients. Methods A multi-centre, cross-sectional study was conducted of consecutive inpatients at the Liaoning Cancer Hospital & Institute and the Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University in Liaoning Province, northeast China. A total of 224 cervical cancer patients eligible for this study completed questionnaires on demographic and clinic variables, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Herth Hope Index, Life Orientation Scale-Revised, and General Self-Efficacy Scale during February and August 2013. Results The prevalence of depression and anxiety was 52.2% and 65.6% in cervical cancer patients. The anxiety score was significantly higher in patients at the period of 4–6 months after diagnose and at cancer stage II. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that hope, optimism and general self-efficacy as a whole accounted for 31.3% variance of depression and 35.6% variance of anxiety. Under standardized estimate (β) sequence, hope, optimism and general self-efficacy significantly associated with depression, respectively; hope and optimism were also significant individual predictors of anxiety. Conclusions The high prevalence of depression and anxiety among cervical cancer patients should receive more attention in Chinese medical settings. More importantly, efforts to develop the integrated psychosocial interventions are effective and necessary to

  17. Prevalence of colorectal cancer in patients with ulcerative colitis: A retrospective, monocenter study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ulcerative colitis-associated colorectal cancer (UC-CRC is a serious complication of UC. Data on the clinical characteristics of patients in China are scarce. Aims: We aimed to study the incidence, characteristics, treatment, and prognosis of CRC patients with a history of UC. Materials and Methods: We identified patients with UC and followed them until the first occurrence of cancer, death, or emigration in a single study center in China. Results: A total of 4 UC-associated CRC patients were identified among the 642 cases recorded from January 2000 to December 2012. The overall risk of cancer was 0.64%. The overall median duration of UC was 15.5 years (range 6-21 years in patients with UC-associated CRC. Of these patients, 75% (3/4 were at an advanced stage when they were diagnosed. Longer disease duration and extensive colitis were identified as risk factors for developing CRC, and 5-aminosalicylic acid and steroid therapies were not identified as protective factors against UC-associated CRC. Conclusions: Patients with UC are at an increased risk for CRC. However, the prevalence of CRC in China remains lower than that in the West.

  18. Prevalence of Oral Complications occurring in a Population of Pediatric Cancer Patients receiving Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Kapil; Datta, Geetika; Ahuja, Shilpa; Saxena, Tanvi; G Datta, Ankush

    2017-01-01

    Multiagent chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or a combination of both are the contemporary methods of cancer treatment. With medical advancements, though cure rates have increased considerably, focus is now shifted to the potential early and late complications of the same. The aim of this study was to assess the early oral complications in pediatric patients receiving chemotherapy. Sixty-two children with cancer undergoing chemotherapy with the mean age of 7.42 ± 3.6 years were included in the study. The various types of malignancies and oral problems during chemotherapy were recorded in the subjects. The most commonly encountered malignancy was acute lymphoblastic leukemia at 35.5%. Various oral and associated complications like mucosal inflammation with ulcerations, oral pain, xerostomia, and secondary infections were commonly seen, with mucositis being the most commonly observed complication in 58.1% of the subjects undergoing chemotherapy. Clinical importance of timely medical and dental interventions by a multidisciplinary team involving a pediatric dentist at different stages of anticancer treatment is also emphasized to minimize discomfort, increase treatment compliance, and improve the quality of life of pediatric patients. Gandhi K, Datta G, Ahuja S, Saxena T, Datta AG. Prevalence of Oral Complications occurring in a Population of Pediatric Cancer Patients receiving Chemotherapy. Int Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017;10(2):166-171.

  19. Prevalence and Costs of Skin Cancer Treatment in the U.S., 2002–2006 and 2007–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Gery P.; Machlin, Steven R.; Ekwueme, Donatus U.; Yabroff, K. Robin

    2015-01-01

    Background Skin cancer, the most common cancer in the U.S., is a major public health problem. The incidence of nonmelanoma and melanoma skin cancer is increasing; however, little is known about the economic burden of treatment. Purpose To examine trends in the treated prevalence and treatment costs of nonmelanoma and melanoma skin cancers. Methods This study used data on adults from the 2002–2011 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey full-year consolidated files and information from corresponding medical conditions and medical event files to estimate the treated prevalence and treatment cost of nonmelanoma skin cancer, melanoma skin cancer, and all other cancer sites. Analyses were conducted in January 2014. Results The average annual number of adults treated for skin cancer increased from 3.4 million in 2002–2006 to 4.9 million in 2007–2011 (p<0.001). During this period, the average annual total cost for skin cancer increased from $3.6 billion to $8.1 billion (p=0.001), representing an increase of 126.2%, while the average annual total cost for all other cancers increased by 25.1%. During 2007–2011, nearly 5 million adults were treated for skin cancer annually, with average treatment costs of $8.1 billion each year. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that the health and economic burden of skin cancer treatment is substantial and increasing. Such findings highlight the importance of skin cancer prevention efforts, which may result in future savings to the healthcare system. PMID:25442229

  20. Presentation of colorectal cancers in Benin-City, Nigeria | Eze ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Colorectal cancer is a major cause of cancer death worldwide, and the prevalence in Nigeria appears to be increasing due to a shift to western diets. We undertook a retrospective analysis of colorectal cancers seen at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City from January 1983 to December 2002.

  1. Concordance of oral HPV prevalence between patients with oropharyngeal cancer and their partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Anne S; Papadimitrakopoulou, Vassiliki; Lin, Heather; Guo, Ming; Lee, J Jack; Holsinger, F Christopher; Hong, Waun Ki; Sturgis, Erich M

    2016-01-01

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) is a known causative factor in oropharyngeal squamous cell cancer (OPC). In this prospective study, we sought to define the risk of HPV transmission between OPC patients and their sexual partners by performing HPV genotyping on oral cytology brushings. Newly diagnosed OPC patients and their sexual partners underwent oral mouth swabs and answered a risk factor questionnaire. Patient tumor samples and oral swabs from both the patient and partner were assessed for HPV status and genotyped using Easy-Chip HPV Blot PCR. We enrolled 227 patient-partner pairs and obtained sufficient analyzable DNA from both members in 198 pairs. Of 144 patients with available OPC tumor tissue, 128 (89 %) had HPV-positive tumors by either in situ hybridization or p16 immunohistochemical analysis (104 or 121, respectively). In total, there were 28 patients and 30 partners who were HPV positive by oral swab. The prevalence rate of oral HPV in partners was 15 %. There were 39 patient-partner pairs who had one or both members returning positive for HPV in the oral swab, and 49 % of these pairs were concordant for their HPV-genotype. Female partners had a higher oral HPV prevalence (16 %) than did male partners (11 %). Patients who were non-white were also found to have a higher oral prevalence of HPV (p = 0.032) by mouth swab. Partners of OPC patients may have a higher prevalence of oral HPV and should be studied prospectively to understand their OPC risk. Additional future research is needed to identify oral HPV persistence in partners to OPC patients and to determine the optimal sampling methods and technologies to screen patients at high risk for HPV-related disease.

  2. The prevalence of depression and anxiety among Chinese adults with cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background A lot of empirical studies have been conducted to evaluate the prevalence of depression and anxiety among Chinese adults with cancer. We aimed to conduct a meta-analysis in order to evaluate the prevalence and odds ratios of depression and anxiety in Chinese adults with cancer compared with those without. Methods The three most comprehensive computerized Chinese academic databases-CNKI, Wangfang and Vip databases-were systematically screened through September 2012. PubMed and Web of Science (SCIE) were also searched from their inception until September 2012 without language restrictions, and an internet search was also used. Case–control studies assessing the prevalence of depression and anxiety among Chinese adults with cancer were analyzed. Study selection and appraisal were conducted independently by three authors. The non-weighted prevalence, pooled random-effects estimates of odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were all calculated. Results Seventeen eligible studies with a total of 3497 subjects were included. The prevalence of depression and anxiety were significantly higher in adults with cancer compared with those without (Depression: 54.90% vs. 17.50%, OR = 7.85, 95% CI = 5.56-11.07, P = 0.000; Anxiety: 49.69% vs. 18.37%, OR = 6.46, 95% CI = 4.36-9.55, P = 0.000), the same situation was also observed in subgroup of control groups, assessment methods and cancer types. Although no difference of depression was observed in studies utilizing clinical diagnosis compared with self-report, the OR of anxiety in adults with cancer compared with those without was higher in studies utilizing clinical diagnosis (OR = 8.42, 95% CI = 4.83-14.70) than self-reports (OR = 5.83, 95% CI = 3.64-9.34). The ORs of depression and anxiety in cancer patients compared with disease group (Depression: OR = 6.03, 95% CI = 4.23-8.61; Anxiety: OR = 4.40, 95% CI = 3.05-6.36) were lower than in those

  3. Prevalence and risk factors of adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder after breast cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Seoyon; Park, Dae Hwan; Ahn, Sei Hyun; Kim, Jisun; Lee, Jong Won; Han, Jun Young; Kim, Dong Kyu; Jeon, Jae Yong; Choi, Kyoung Hyo; Kim, Won

    2017-04-01

    The present study investigated the prevalence and risk factors of adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder in breast cancer patients between 13 and 18 months after surgery. This study included 271 women who underwent surgery for breast cancer with a postoperative period of 13-18 months. Current adhesive capsulitis was defined as restriction of external rotation and one or more additional directional restrictions with history of shoulder pain. Cumulative adhesive capsulitis was defined as current adhesive capsulitis or a previous history of adhesive capsulitis after breast cancer surgery. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to examine associations between current or cumulative adhesive capsulitis and potential risk factors. Among the 271 study patients, 28 (10.3%) and 21 (7.7%) had cumulative or current adhesive capsulitis, respectively. The incidences of cumulative and current adhesive capsulitis were higher in those aged 50-59 years (odds ratio [OR], 9.912; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.790-54.880; and OR, 12.395; 95% CI, 1.187-129.444, respectively) and those who underwent mastectomy (OR, 6.805; 95% CI, 1.800-25.733; and OR, 9.645; 95% CI, 2.075-44.829, respectively) or mastectomy with reconstruction (OR, 13.122; 95% CI, 2.488-69.218; and OR, 20.075; 95% CI, 2.873-140.261, respectively). Adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder is a common problem after breast cancer treatment. An age of 50-59 years and mastectomy are major risk factors for adhesive capsulitis, and breast reconstruction additionally increases the risk. Patients with these risk factors require greater attention for early diagnosis and proper treatment.

  4. Neuropathic Pain Components in Patients with Cancer: Prevalence, Treatment, and Interference with Daily Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterling, Anne; te Boveldt, Nienke; Verhagen, Constans; van der Graaf, Winette T; Van Ham, Maaike; Van der Drift, Miep; Vissers, Kris; Engels, Yvonne

    2016-04-01

    Pain and neuropathic symptoms impact quality of life of patients with cancer. To obtain more insight in the prevalence, severity, and treatment of neuropathic symptoms in patients with cancer and their interference with daily activities, we conducted a cross-sectional study at the outpatient clinic of a Dutch university hospital. A cross-sectional study among outpatients with cancer. To identify pain, its intensity, quality, and interference with daily activities, the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) was used. Neuropathic symptoms were identified with the Douleur Neuropathique (DN4) interview and pain characteristics with the McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ). Pain medication and adjuvant analgesics were also collected with a prestructured questionnaire. Descriptives, chi-squared tests, t-tests, and a logistic regression analysis were conducted. 892 patients completed the questionnaires. Twenty-three percent (n = 204) reported moderate to severe pain, and 19% (n = 170) scored positive on neuropathic symptoms (DN4 ≥ 3). Particularly in patients with a rating on a numeric rating scale (NRS) < 5, existence of neuropathic symptoms significantly increased interference with daily activities. Of patients with neuropathic symptoms, 8% received adjuvant pain treatment. Receiving curative treatment, using a systemic drug with neurotoxicity, having had an operation, and having had a lymph node dissection independently contributed to having neuropathic symptoms. This study shows that over 40% of the patients with moderate to severe pain also have neuropathic symptoms, causing increased interference with daily activities. Most of these patients do not receive adjuvant analgesics. There is a need to improve management of neuropathic symptoms in patients with cancer. © 2015 World Institute of Pain.

  5. Prevalence of Lynch syndrome in a Middle Eastern population with colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siraj, Abdul K; Prabhakaran, Sarita; Bavi, Prashant; Bu, Rong; Beg, Shaham; Hazmi, Mohsen Al; Al-Rasheed, Maha; Al-Assiri, Mohammed; Sairafi, Rami; Al-Dayel, Fouad; Al-Sanea, Nasser; Uddin, Shahab; Al-Kuraya, Khawla S

    2015-06-01

    Lynch syndrome (LS; hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer) is a common cause of hereditary colorectal cancer (CRC). CRC is the most common cancer diagnosed among males in Saudi Arabia but to the authors' knowledge there is a lack of data regarding the prevalence of LS in patients with CRC. There currently are no clear guidelines for the selection criteria for these patients to screen for LS. A comprehensive molecular characterization was performed in a cohort of 807 CRC cases by immunohistochemical and microsatellite analysis using polymerase chain reaction. BRAF mutation screening, high CpG island methylator phenotype, and analysis for germline mutations were performed in 425 CRC samples. These were all high microsatellite instability (MSI-H) samples (91 cases), all low MSI samples (143 cases), and selected cases from the microsatellite stable group (191 cases) that met revised Bethesda guidelines. Polymerase chain reaction identified 91 MSI-H cases (11.3%) and sequencing revealed mismatch repair germline mutations in 8 CRC cases only. Of the total of 807 CRC cases, these 8 cases (0.99%) were MSI-H, met the revised Bethesda guidelines, and did not harbor BRAF mutations. The results of the current study confirmed cases of LS in approximately 1.0% of CRC samples and reflects the efficacy of screening among MSI-H cases that lack BRAF mutations. This comprehensive study from Saudi Arabia will help in implementing a universal screening/reflex testing strategy in a clinical setting in Saudi Arabia and in conducting a national screening program that benefits both patients and their relatives. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  6. Prevalence, risk factors and clinical implications of malnutrition in French Comprehensive Cancer Centres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressoir, M; Desné, S; Berchery, D; Rossignol, G; Poiree, B; Meslier, M; Traversier, S; Vittot, M; Simon, M; Gekiere, J P; Meuric, J; Serot, F; Falewee, M N; Rodrigues, I; Senesse, P; Vasson, M P; Chelle, F; Maget, B; Antoun, S; Bachmann, P

    2010-01-01

    Background: This epidemiological observational study aimed at determining the prevalence of malnutrition in non-selected adults with cancer, to identify risk factors of malnutrition and correlate the results with length of stay and 2-month mortality. Methods: This prospective multicentre 1-day study conducted in 17 French Comprehensive Cancer Centres included 1545 patients. Body mass index (BMI), weight loss (WL) in the past 6 months and age were routinely recorded according to the French national recommendations for hospitalised patients; malnutrition was rated as absent, moderate or severe according to the level of WL and BMI. Age, sex, tumour site, type of hospitalisation and treatment, disease stage, World Health Organisation performance status (PS) and antibiotic therapy were the potential malnutrition risk factors tested. Follow-up at 2 months allowed to determine the correlation with length of stay and mortality. Results: Malnutrition was reported in 30.9% of patients, and was rated as severe in 12.2%. In multivariate analysis, only pre-existing obesity (BMI⩾30), PS ⩾2 and head-and-neck or upper digestive cancers were associated with increased risk of malnutrition. Antibiotics use was significantly higher in malnourished patients (35.5 vs 22.8% Pmalnutrition was independently associated with mortality. The median length of stay was 19.3±19.4 days for malnourished patients vs 13.3±19.4 days for others (Pmalnutrition in our cancer patient population perhaps because of a misidentification or a delay in nutrition support in this category of patients. PMID:20160725

  7. Community-based screening of cervical cancer in a low prevalence area of India: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasmeen, Jan; Qurieshi, Mariya Amin; Manzoor, Najmi Arshad; Asiya, Wali; Ahmad, Sheikh Zahoor

    2010-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer of women in the world. The disease is amenable to various screening tests of which cytological screening by the Papanicolaou technique remains the mainstay for mass screening. The aim of the present study was to establish the prevalence of cervical cancer in a rural ethnically Muslim community in the state of Jammu and Kashmir in India. For this, a community based screening for cancer cervix was conducted on married women aged 20-65 years. Following provision of information to promote awareness on Pap smear and its role in prevention of cervical cancer, 270 women were screened for cancer cervix by the conventional technique. Of the 270 subjects, the majority were married before 19 years of age (81.1%) and 42.5% delivered their first child within 1-2 years. Multiparity was seen to the tune of 51.3 %. There was no evidence of cervical dysplasia or cancer cervix among the screened population. Despite the presence of risk factors of high parity, early age of marriage and early childbirth after marriage, absence of cervical dysplasia and malignancy emphasizes the fact that socio-cultural factors, like absence of promiscuity and male circumcision, play an important role in the low prevalence of cancer cervix.

  8. Prevalence of Depression and Anxiety amongst Cancer Patients in a Hospital Setting: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anish Khalil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The biomedical care for cancer has not been complemented by psychosocial progressions in cancer care. Objectives. To find the prevalence of anxiety and depression amongst cancer patients in a hospital setting. Design and Setting. This cross-sectional study was conducted at the tertiary care hospitals Shifa International Hospital Islamabad and Nuclear Medicine, Oncology, and Radiotherapy Institute [NORI]. Patients and Methods. 300 patients were interviewed from both the outpatient and inpatient department using The Aga Khan University Anxiety and Depression Scale (AKUADS. Main Outcome Measures. Using a score of 20 and above on the AKUADS, 146 (48.7% patients were suffering from anxiety and depression. Results. When cross tabulation was done between different factors and the cancer patients with anxiety and depression, the following factors were found out to be significant with associated p value < 0.05: education of the patient, presence of cancer in the family, the severity of pain, and the patient’s awareness of his anxiety and depression. Out of 143 (47.7% uneducated patients, 85 (59.4% were depressed, hence making it the highest educational category suffering from depression and anxiety. Conclusion. The prevalence of anxiety and depression amongst cancer patients was high showing that importance should be given to screening and counseling cancer patients for anxiety and depression, to help them cope with cancer as a disease and its impact on their mental wellbeing. Limitations. The frequency of female patients in our research was higher than those of male patients.

  9. Worldwide trends in diabetes since 1980

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Andersen, Lars Bo; Bugge, Anna

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: One of the global targets for non-communicable diseases is to halt, by 2025, the rise in the age-standardised adult prevalence of diabetes at its 2010 levels. We aimed to estimate worldwide trends in diabetes, how likely it is for countries to achieve the global target, and how changes...... in prevalence, together with population growth and ageing, are affecting the number of adults with diabetes. METHODS: We pooled data from population-based studies that had collected data on diabetes through measurement of its biomarkers. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate trends in diabetes...... prevalence-defined as fasting plasma glucose of 7.0 mmol/L or higher, or history of diagnosis with diabetes, or use of insulin or oral hypoglycaemic drugs-in 200 countries and territories in 21 regions, by sex and from 1980 to 2014. We also calculated the posterior probability of meeting the global diabetes...

  10. Prevalence and characteristics of intravertebral enhancement on contrast-enhanced CT scans in cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasselet, Benjamin; Larbi, Ahmed; Viala, Pierre; Molinari, Nicolas; Tetreau, Raphael; Faruch-Bilfeld, Marie; Taourel, Patrice; Cyteval, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • 2.8% of collateral venous circulation seen on CT scan in a cancer population. • 37% of intravertebral enhancement in this population with collateral venous circulation. • 80.8% of intravertebral enhancements are located between C6 and. • 73% of intravertebral enhancements are located ipsilateral to the injection side. -  Abstract: Study design: This was a single center, retrospective observational study. Objective: to investigate—in a cancer population—the prevalence and hallmarks of intravertebral enhancement (IVE) detected on contrast-enhanced CT. Summary of background data: Intravertebral enhancements secondary to iodinated contrast stagnation have been described. Cancer patients have an increased risk of perivertebral venous thrombosis or stenosis secondary to several risk factors (cancer or drug induced hypercoagulability, deterioration of venous flow linked to catheter insertion, prolonged immobilization). In case of a high density lesion identified on CT, the diagnostic choice between metastasis and contrast media within bone marrow vessels may be an issue, especially as oncologic follow-up CT scans are usually performed with contrast medium injection. Methods: 2572 contrast-enhanced body CT scans performed in cancer patients over 3 months in the medical imaging department of a university hospital were retrospectively reviewed. IVE was sought when paravertebral venous collateral circulation was detected and bone metastasis ruled out and classified as linear or nodular. Their locations within vertebra, their relation to the injection side and the predominant collateral venous network side were evaluated. Results: Sixty-seven (2.8%) patients had a collateral paravertebral venous system and among them 21 had IVE (37%). There were 208 IVE locations involving 75 vertebrae. 199 IVE were linear-shaped (95.7%) and 9 nodular-shaped (4.3%). 80.8% were located between C6 and T4. 88.9% were localized in the vertebral body. 73.1% were located

  11. Prevalence and characteristics of intravertebral enhancement on contrast-enhanced CT scans in cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasselet, Benjamin [Medical Imaging Department and Biostatistics Department, Montpellier University Hospital, 191 Avenue du Doyen Gaston Giraud, 34 295 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Larbi, Ahmed; Viala, Pierre [Medical Imaging Department, Nimes University Hospital, 4 rue du Professeur Robert Debré, 30029 Nîmes (France); Molinari, Nicolas [Biostatistics Department, Montpellier University Hospital, 191 Avenue du Doyen Gaston Giraud, 34 295 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Tetreau, Raphael [Medical Imaging Department, Montpellier Cancer Institute (ICM), 208 Avenue des Apothicaires, 34298 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Faruch-Bilfeld, Marie [Medical Imaging Department, Toulouse University Hospital, Place du Docteur Baylac, 31059 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); Taourel, Patrice [Medical Imaging Department and Biostatistics Department, Montpellier University Hospital, 191 Avenue du Doyen Gaston Giraud, 34 295 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Cyteval, Catherine, E-mail: c-cyteval@chu-montpellier.fr [Medical Imaging Department and Biostatistics Department, Montpellier University Hospital, 191 Avenue du Doyen Gaston Giraud, 34 295 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • 2.8% of collateral venous circulation seen on CT scan in a cancer population. • 37% of intravertebral enhancement in this population with collateral venous circulation. • 80.8% of intravertebral enhancements are located between C6 and. • 73% of intravertebral enhancements are located ipsilateral to the injection side. -  Abstract: Study design: This was a single center, retrospective observational study. Objective: to investigate—in a cancer population—the prevalence and hallmarks of intravertebral enhancement (IVE) detected on contrast-enhanced CT. Summary of background data: Intravertebral enhancements secondary to iodinated contrast stagnation have been described. Cancer patients have an increased risk of perivertebral venous thrombosis or stenosis secondary to several risk factors (cancer or drug induced hypercoagulability, deterioration of venous flow linked to catheter insertion, prolonged immobilization). In case of a high density lesion identified on CT, the diagnostic choice between metastasis and contrast media within bone marrow vessels may be an issue, especially as oncologic follow-up CT scans are usually performed with contrast medium injection. Methods: 2572 contrast-enhanced body CT scans performed in cancer patients over 3 months in the medical imaging department of a university hospital were retrospectively reviewed. IVE was sought when paravertebral venous collateral circulation was detected and bone metastasis ruled out and classified as linear or nodular. Their locations within vertebra, their relation to the injection side and the predominant collateral venous network side were evaluated. Results: Sixty-seven (2.8%) patients had a collateral paravertebral venous system and among them 21 had IVE (37%). There were 208 IVE locations involving 75 vertebrae. 199 IVE were linear-shaped (95.7%) and 9 nodular-shaped (4.3%). 80.8% were located between C6 and T4. 88.9% were localized in the vertebral body. 73.1% were located

  12. Gastric Cancer: How Can We Reduce the Incidence of this Disease?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. den Hoed (Caroline); E.J. Kuipers (Ernst)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractGastric cancer remains a prevalent disease worldwide with a poor prognosis. Helicobacter pylori plays a major role in gastric carcinogenesis. H. pylori colonization leads to chronic gastritis, which predisposes to atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, and eventually

  13. Determinants of oral cancer at the national level: just a question of smoking and alcohol drinking prevalence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petti, Stefano; Scully, Crispian

    2010-07-01

    In addition to individual-based prevention strategies, the burden of oral cancer could be decreased by controlling its national level determinants. Population-based studies have found smoking, drinking, and wealth to be associated with oral cancer incidence and mortality rates. However, these studies merely reported trends, or did not account for confounders or for intercorrelation between predictor variables. This ecologic study sought to investigate oral cancer determinants at the country level. The male, age-standardized mortality rate was the dependent variable. The explanatory variables, obtained from reliable international agencies, were life expectancy, frequency of physicians, gross national product (GNP), expenditure on health, literacy rate, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence, smoking prevalence, alcohol drinking prevalence, drinking modality, average daily calorie consumption, and average calorie intake from fruit and vegetables. Common factor analysis was used to generate a new dimension that incorporated all of the strongly intercorrelated variables. These were life expectancy, physician frequency, GNP, expenditure on health, literacy rate, calorie consumption, smoking prevalence, and drinking modality. According to this dimension, arbitrarily called the country development level (CDL), countries were split into quartiles. The ecologic risk for high mortality from oral cancer, estimated using logistic regression analysis, was three to five times higher among the second, third, and fourth CDL quartiles than among the first CDL quartile, which included the highest-income countries. HIV, drinking prevalence, and fruit and vegetable intake did not affect significantly mortality. These results suggest that it might be possible to improve oral cancer mortality by modifying country-based determinants related to aberrant lifestyles (not only smoking and drinking prevalence) and improving healthcare system efficiency, approximately estimated by CDL

  14. The prevalence of long-term symptoms of depression and anxiety after breast cancer treatment: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maass, S W M C; Roorda, C; Berendsen, A J; Verhaak, P F M; de Bock, G H

    2015-09-01

    It is unclear whether breast cancer survivors have a higher risk of long-term symptoms of depression or anxiety. The aim of this study was to systematically review the evidence about long-term symptoms of depression and anxiety in breast cancer survivors. Systematic review. PubMed, Embase, Cochrane and PsycINFO were searched for studies with at least 100 survivors ≥1 year after diagnosis, and which used common questionnaires measuring symptoms of depression or anxiety, by two independent reviewers. The quality was assessed with the NIH 'Quality Assessment Tool' checklist. Prevalence of symptoms of depression and anxiety was compared to time since diagnosis, available control groups and a general female population. Seventeen articles were included in this review with an average quality score of 57% (range 38-86%). The prevalence of symptoms of depression varied from 9.4% to 66.1% and of anxiety from 17.9% to 33.3%. The results on the depression scale suggested an increase in risk of symptoms of depression for breast cancer survivors at one year after diagnosis, which decreases over the ensuing years. Symptoms of anxiety were not more prevalent among the women with early stage breast cancer. This review suggests a higher prevalence of symptoms of depression among breast cancer survivors than among the general female population, persistent over more than 5 years after diagnosis. Health care providers should be aware of this. There was no indication for an increased prevalence of symptoms of anxiety among breast cancer survivors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A Ten-Year Study on the Prevalence and Frequency of Risk Factors for Breast Cancer in Sabzevar, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Hashemian

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Evaluation of prevalence of risk factors for breast cancer in different regions of Iran and identification of their significant effect on this disease can promote the prevention and reduction of breast cancer incidence. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the prevalence, demographic characteristics, and frequency of the risk factors of breast cancer during 10 years. Methods:This cross-sectional study was conducted on 160 women with breast cancer during 10 years. The samples, referred by health connectors and registration centers for patients with cancer, were selected using census sampling. Research tool was a reliable and valid researcher-made questionnaire, validity and reliability of which were confirmed. Data analysis was performed in SPSS version 16 using descriptive statistics. Results: In total, mean age of surviving women was 50.7±1.2 years. The highest incidence rate of breast cancer was 35.2% in the group of participants aged 40-49, while the highest prevalence rate of this disease was 0.432 per 1000 samples in a group of patients aged 50- 59 years. Moreover, the most frequent risk factors for this disease were previous use of oral contraceptive pills (OCP (56.8% and positive family history (19%. Conclusion: The results of this study were indicative of positive family history as a certain risk factor for breast cancer in Sabzevar. Therefore, it is recommended that special attention be paid to women with positive family history of breast cancer. Therefore, prioritization of breast cancer screening and prevention programs is of paramount importance in this regard.

  16. Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus in 45 Greek Patients with Oral Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kouvousi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The relation between HPV and head and neck cancer has recently and extensively been investigated. The purpose of this study was to indentify HPV genotypes, as well as E6/E7 mRNA expression of high-risk HPVs (16, 18, 31, 33 and 45 in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs from 45 Greek patients. The overall prevalence of HPV DNA positive OSCCs was 11.1% (5/45, while high-risk HPV DNA was found in 6.7% (3/45 of OSCCs. E6/E7 mRNA expression was detected in 8.9% (4/45 of the oral cavity samples. Our data indicated that HPV 16 was the commonest genotype identified in HPV-positive OSCCs by both DNA and RNA tests. This study confirms the prevalence of HPV infections among patients with OSCCs. Future analysis and followup of more OSCCs will enable us to correlate HPV detection and clinical outcome.

  17. Mixed and Mixing Systems Worldwide

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sean.Donlan

    MIXED AND MIXING SYSTEMS WORLDWIDE: A PREFACE. 2012 VOLUME 15 No 3 ... dissenters, Mixed Jurisdictions Worldwide galvanised scholarship on mixed systems, especially for jurists in those ... Comparative Law, the International Association of Legal Science and numerous law faculties across the classical ...

  18. The Prevalence of Xerostomia Occurrence after Doing Radiation Therapy in Patients with Head and Neck Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barunawaty Yunus

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Xerostomia is one side effect of radiation therapy that most commonly affects head and neck. This situation is a symptom and not a disease which is generally associated with reduced saliva. For patients this situation is not pleasant and for dentist, this symptom is considered as a challenging case. This research intended to know the prevalence of xerostomia after radiation therapy in cancer patients with head and neck area. The subjects of this study were patients with head and neck area cancer who underwent radiotherapy treatment at Hasanuddin University teaching hospital, subjects were then taken saliva before and after given a total dose of 20 Gy and a total dose of 40 Gy. The analysis of the data processed by the computer program and the Wilcoxon test significance level is accepted when p<0.05. The mean bulk saliva before radiotherapy was higher than average rainfall saliva after radiotherapy total dose of 20 Gy and 40 Gy. Radiotherapy of the head and neck area total dose of 20 Gy and 40 Gy may affect rainfall saliva so that patients feel the symptoms of xerostomia.

  19. Prevalence of psychiatric morbidity among cancer patients – hospital-based, cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Roy Gopalan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the prevalence of Psychiatric disorders in cancer patients and to find out the factors associated with Psychiatric disorders in Cancer Patients. Settings and Design: Department of Radiotherapy, Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram, cross sectional survey design was used. Methods and Material: Adult patients (18 years of age and above, having a diagnosis of carcinoma were selected by consecutive sampling method.A questionnaire which included back ground data, socio economic variables, treatment variables like type of malignancy, exposure to radiation & chemotherapy prior to the evaluation and current treatment, co occurring medical illness & treatment and past & family history of psychiatric illness was used to collect data. Delirium rating scale and MINI International neuropsychiatric interview were used to assess Psychiatric disorders and delirium. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi square and logistics regression tests were used for analysis. Results: Of the 384 assessed, 160(41.7% had psychiatric disorders. Adjustment disorders were seen in 22.6%. 10.9% of subjects had major depressive disorder. Thus a total of 33.5% of patients had a diagnosis of either anxiety or depressive disorder. Proportion of patients having delirium was 6.5%. Hypomania was seen in small (1.6% of patients. Multivariate analysis for various parameters for psychiatric disorders showed that age, past history of chemotherapy, past history of radiotherapy, & surgical treatment of carcinomas are significant predictors of psychiatric disorders. Conclusions: Psychiatric disorders are seen in a significant proportion of Psychiatric patients.

  20. Malnutrition in patients treated for oral or oropharyngeal cancer-prevalence and relationship with oral symptoms : an explorative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager-Wittenaar, Harriet; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Vissink, Arjan; van Oort, Rob P.; van der Laan, Bernard F. A. M.; Roodenburg, Jan L. N.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to assess prevalence of malnutrition after treatment for oral/oropharyngeal cancer and to explore how oral symptoms relate to malnutrition after treatment. In this cross-sectional study, malnutrition (weight loss a parts per thousand yenaEuro parts per thousand 10% in 6 months or a

  1. Incidence, prevalence and survival of patients with rare epithelial digestive cancers diagnosed in Europe in 1995–2002

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faivre, J.; Trama, A.; De Angelis, R.; Elferink, M.A.G.; Siesling, Sabine; Audisio, R.; Bosset, J.F.; Cervantes, A.; Lepage, C.

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Little is known about the epidemiology of rare epithelial digestive cancers. The aim of this study was to report on their incidence, prevalence and survival across Europe. Methods The analysis was carried out on 50,646 cases diagnosed from 1995 to 2002 within a population of

  2. A Worldwide Collaboration to Harmonize Guidelines for the Long-Term Follow-Up of Childhood and Young Adult Cancer Survivors: A Report From the International Late Effects of Childhood Cancer Guideline Harmonization Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremer, Leontien C. M.; Mulder, Renée L.; Oeffinger, Kevin C.; Bhatia, Smita; Landier, Wendy; Levitt, Gill; Constine, Louis S.; Wallace, W. Hamish; Caron, Huib N.; Armenian, Saro H.; Skinner, Roderick; Hudson, Melissa M.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood and young adult cancer survivors should receive optimum care to reduce the consequences of late effects and improve quality of life. We can facilitate achieving this goal by international collaboration in guideline development. In 2010, the International Late Effects of Childhood Cancer

  3. Prevalence and prognostic role of mismatch repair gene defect in endometrial cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangjitgamol, Siriwan; Kittisiam, Thannaporn; Tanvanich, Sujitra

    2017-09-01

    The study was to evaluate the prevalence of mismatch repair gene defect among Thai patients with endometrial cancer and its association with clinico-pathological features and survivals. The formalin fixed paraffin-embedded blocks of EMC tissue from hysterectomy specimens of patients having surgery in our institution between 1 Jan 1995 and 31 December 2016 were assessed for the immunohistochemical expression of 4 mismatch repair proteins (MLH1, PMS, MSH2, MSH 6). Mismatch repair gene defect was determined by a negative expression of at least 1 protein. Among 385 EMC patients included in the study, mean age was 57.3 ± 10.8 years with 62.3% aged ⩽ 60 years. The most frequent mismatch repair gene defect was MSH6 (38.7%), followed by PMS2 (34.3%), MLH1 (33.2%), and MSH2 (16.4%). Overall, 55.1% showed negative expression of at least one protein. We found significantly higher mismatch repair gene defect in patients aged ⩽ 60 years, with early stage disease, and negative lymph node status than the other comparative groups: 59.2% vs 48.3% for age (p = 0.037), 58.2% vs 45.2% (p = 0.027) for stage, and 58.1% vs 44.6% (p = 0.048) for nodal status. The 5-year progression-free survival, overall survival, and endometrial cancer-specific survival of patients with mismatch repair gene defect was higher than those without gene defect. The differences were statistically significant for only progression-free survival and endometrial cancer-specific survival: 87.7% (95% confidence interval = 83.0%-92.4%) vs 81.5% (95% confidence interval = 75.4%-87.6%) (p = 0.049) for progression-free survival and 91.0% (95% confidence interval = 86.9%-95.1%) vs 85.5% (95% confidence interval = 80.0%-91.0%) (p = 0.044) for endometrial cancer-specific survival, respectively. In conclusion, more than half of Thai endometrial cancer patients had mismatch repair gene defect. The patients with mismatch repair gene defect had significantly younger age (⩽ 60 years) and better prognosis in terms of

  4. Prevalence and types of high-risk human papillomaviruses in head and neck cancers from Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Mushfiq H; Khan, Aminul I; Sadat, Anwar; Chowdhury, Ahmed H; Jinnah, Shahed A; Gopalan, Vinod; Lam, Alfred K; Clarke, Daniel T W; McMillan, Nigel A J; Johnson, Newell W

    2017-11-25

    There is a dramatic rise in the incidence of Human papillomavirus (HPV) - associated head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) in the world, with considerable variation by geography, gender and ethnicity. Little is known about the situation in Bangladesh, where tobacco- and areca nut-related head and neck cancers (HNCs) are the most common cancers in men. We aimed to determine the prevalence of HPV in HNSCC in Bangladesh and to explore the possible value of cell cycle markers in clinical diagnostic settings. One hundred and ninety six archival HNSCC tissue samples were analysed for the presence of HPV DNA. The DNA quality was assured, and then amplified using a nested PCR approach. The typing of HPV was performed by automated DNA sequencing. Cellular markers p53, Cyclin D1 and pRb were tested on all samples by immunohistochemistry (IHC), as well as p16 as a putative surrogate for the detection of HPV. HPV DNA was detected in 36/174 (~21%) samples: 36% of cancers from the oropharynx; 31% of oral cancers, and 22% from the larynx. HPV-16 was most common, being present in 33 samples, followed by HPV-33 (2 samples) and HPV-31 (1 sample). Twenty-eight out of 174 samples were positive for p16, predominantly in HPV-positive tissues (p < 0.001). No statistically significant association was observed between the cellular markers and HPV DNA positive cases. However, p16 positivity had excellent predictive value for the presence of HPV by PCR. There is a significant burden of HPV-associated HNSCC in Bangladesh, particularly in the oropharynx but also in oral and laryngeal cancers. Whilst a combination of PCR-based DNA detection and p16 IHC is useful, the latter has excellent specificity, acceptable sensitivity and good predictive value for carriage of HPV in this population and should be used for prognostic evaluation and treatment planning of all HNSCC patients in South Asia, as in the Western world.

  5. Clinical Assessment of Cognitive Function in Patients with Head and Neck Cancer: Prevalence and Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Amy M; Lindholm, Jamie; Siddiqui, Farzan; Ghanem, Tamer A; Chang, Steven S

    2017-11-01

    Objective Identify the prevalence and clinical correlates of cognitive impairment in patients presenting for treatment of head and neck cancer (HNC) using brief screening within a multidisciplinary care team. Study Design A case series with planned data collection of cognitive function, quality of life (QoL), and psychosocial variables. Setting Urban Midwest academic medical center. Subjects and Methods In total, 209 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of HNC between August 2015 and September 2016 who had a pretreatment assessment with a clinical health psychologist. At pretreatment assessment, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), a brief screening tool for cognitive function, was administered along with a semistructured interview to gather information on psychiatric symptoms, social support, and substance use. Patient information, including demographics, clinical variables, and psychosocial variables, was extracted via chart review. A subset of patients with HNC completed the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Head and Neck Cancer at pretreatment assessment and was included in the QoL analyses. Results Cognitive impairment was associated with current alcohol use, past tobacco use and number of pack years, time in radiotherapy, and adherence to treatment recommendations. Social, emotional, and functional QoL scales were associated with cognitive impairment, including executive function, language, and memory. Conclusion Cognitive impairment is common in patients with HNC, and there are important associations between cognitive impairment and psychosocial, QoL, and treatment adherence variables. The results argue for the incorporation of cognitive screening as part of pretreatment assessment for patients, as well as further research into more direct, causal relationships via longitudinal, prospective studies.

  6. Definition, prevalence and characteristics of sudden exhaustion: a possible syndrome of fatigue in cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Horng-Shiuann; Davis, Jean E

    2013-02-01

    Although sudden fatigue/exhaustion is a symptom expression that oncology clinicians frequently hear from their patients, empirical information about this phenomenon is limited. This study investigated the occurrence and characteristics of sudden fatigue in patients treated for breast cancer. This cross-sectional descriptive study enrolled 114 breast cancer chemotherapy outpatients from a cancer clinic and an urban teaching hospital in the Midwestern United States. Subjects were screened for sudden fatigue and completed an investigator-developed Sudden Onset of Fatigue Questionnaire on the day of their chemotherapy treatment. Descriptive statistics were used to examine prevalence and clinical characteristics. Approximately half (46 %) of the patients (age 31-67, 62 % Black, and 70 % unemployed) experienced sudden fatigue. The majority (81 %) reported more than one (median = 3) episode per day; 67 % of episodes lasted 60 min or less. The sudden fatigue was most likely (77 %) to occur between 10 a.m. and 5 p.m., while individuals were active (94 %). When it occurred, individuals stopped activities and sought immediate rest. It was described as abrupt exhaustion/weakness often (66 %) accompanied by other symptoms. Fatigue intensity before, during, and after a specific episode were 5, 9, and 5, respectively, on 0-10 (highest) scale. To better characterize sudden fatigue, a new descriptor, sudden exhaustion syndrome, which encompasses observed abrupt onset, transitory exhaustion/paralysis, and multiple symptoms, is proposed. Individuals may experience multiple occurrences of sudden exhaustion across a day, especially during activities. The syndrome needs to be recognized by oncology professionals. Patients should be educated about the syndrome to enhance sense of control and prevent harm.

  7. Lysyl oxidase in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Thomas R; Erler, Janine T

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third most prevalent form of cancer worldwide and fourth-leading cause of cancer-related mortality, leading to ~600,000 deaths annually, predominantly affecting the developed world. Lysyl oxidase is a secreted, extracellular matrix-modifying enzyme previously suggested...... to act as a tumor suppressor in colorectal cancer. However, emerging evidence has rapidly implicated lysyl oxidase in promoting metastasis of solid tumors and in particular colorectal cancer at multiple stages, affecting tumor cell proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis. This emerging research has...... advancements in the field of colorectal cancer....

  8. Global cancer statistics, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre, Lindsey A; Bray, Freddie; Siegel, Rebecca L; Ferlay, Jacques; Lortet-Tieulent, Joannie; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2015-03-01

    Cancer constitutes an enormous burden on society in more and less economically developed countries alike. The occurrence of cancer is increasing because of the growth and aging of the population, as well as an increasing prevalence of established risk factors such as smoking, overweight, physical inactivity, and changing reproductive patterns associated with urbanization and economic development. Based on GLOBOCAN estimates, about 14.1 million new cancer cases and 8.2 million deaths occurred in 2012 worldwide. Over the years, the burden has shifted to less developed countries, which currently account for about 57% of cases and 65% of cancer deaths worldwide. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among males in both more and less developed countries, and has surpassed breast cancer as the leading cause of cancer death among females in more developed countries; breast cancer remains the leading cause of cancer death among females in less developed countries. Other leading causes of cancer death in more developed countries include colorectal cancer among males and females and prostate cancer among males. In less developed countries, liver and stomach cancer among males and cervical cancer among females are also leading causes of cancer death. Although incidence rates for all cancers combined are nearly twice as high in more developed than in less developed countries in both males and females, mortality rates are only 8% to 15% higher in more developed countries. This disparity reflects regional differences in the mix of cancers, which is affected by risk factors and detection practices, and/or the availability of treatment. Risk factors associated with the leading causes of cancer death include tobacco use (lung, colorectal, stomach, and liver cancer), overweight/obesity and physical inactivity (breast and colorectal cancer), and infection (liver, stomach, and cervical cancer). A substantial portion of cancer cases and deaths could be prevented by broadly

  9. Update on a tumor-associated NADH oxidase in gastric cancer cell growth

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Hsiao-Ling; Lee, Yi-Hui; Yuan, Tein-Ming; Chen, Shi-Wen; Chueh, Pin-Ju

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common human malignancies, and its prevalence has been shown to be well-correlated with cancer-related deaths worldwide. Regrettably, the poor prognosis of this disease is mainly due to its late diagnosis at advanced stages after the cancer has already metastasized. Recent research has emphasized the identification of cancer biomarkers in the hope of diagnosing cancer early and designing targeted therapies to reverse cancer progression. One member of a family...

  10. Prevalence of pathological germline mutations of hMLH1 and hMSH2 genes in colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandan Li

    Full Text Available The prevalence of pathological germline mutations in colorectal cancer has been widely studied, as germline mutations in the DNA mismatch repair genes hMLH1 and hMSH2 confer a high risk of colorectal cancer. However, because the sample size and population of previous studies are very different from each other, the conclusions still remain controversial. In this paper, Databases such as PubMed were applied to search for related papers. The data were imported into Comprehensive Meta-Analysis V2, which was used to estimate the weighted prevalence of hMLH1 and hMSH2 pathological mutations and compare the differences of prevalence among different family histories, ethnicities and related factors. This study collected and utilized data from 102 papers. In the Amsterdam-criteria positive group, the prevalence of pathological germline mutations of the hMLH1 and hMSH2 genes was 28.55% (95%CI 26.04%-31.19% and 19.41% (95%CI 15.88%-23.51%, respectively, and the prevalence of germline mutations in hMLH1/hMSH2 was 15.44%/10.02%, 20.43%/13.26% and 15.43%/11.70% in Asian, American multiethnic and European/Australian populations, respectively. Substitution mutations accounted for the largest proportion of germline mutations (hMLH1: 52.34%, hMSH2: 43.25%. The total prevalence of mutations of hMLH1 and hMSH2 in Amsterdam-criteria positive, Amsterdam-criteria negative and sporadic colorectal cancers was around 45%, 25% and 15%, respectively, and there were no obvious differences in the prevalence of germline mutations among different ethnicities.

  11. Prevalência do HPV em mulheres rastreadas para o câncer cervical Prevalence of genital HPV infection among women screened for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Helena Rama

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a prevalência da infecção genital por papilomavírus humano (HPV de alto risco por faixa etária e fatores associados. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com amostra de 2.300 mulheres (15-65 anos que buscaram rastreamento para o câncer cervical entre fevereiro de 2002 e março de 2003 em São Paulo e Campinas, estado de São Paulo. Aplicou-se questionário epidemiológico e realizou-se coleta cervical para citologia oncológica e teste de captura híbrida II. As análises estatísticas empregadas foram teste de qui-quadrado de Pearson e análise multivariada pelo método forward likelihood ratio. RESULTADOS: A prevalência total da infecção genital por HPV de alto risco foi de 17,8%, distribuída nas faixas etárias: 27,1% (OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of high-risk genital human papillomavirus (HPV infection by age group and risk factors associated. METHODS: Cross-sectional study in a sample of 2,300 women (15-65 years old who self-referred to cervical cancer screening in Sao Paulo and Campinas, Southeastern Brazil, between February 2002 and March 2003. An epidemiological questionnaire was applied and cervical specimens were obtained for cytology and hybrid capture II test (HCII for HPV detection. Statistical analysis included Pearson Chi-square and unconditional multiple logistic regression model (forward likelihood ratio. RESULTS: High-risk genital HPV infection prevalence in this sample was 17.8% and age distribution was as follows: 27.1% (<25 years, 21.3% (25-34 years, 12.1% (35-44 years, 12.0% (45-54 years and 13.9% (55-65 years. Subjects with the highest number of lifetime sexual partners had the highest rates of genital HPV infection. To be living with a partner, aged 35 to 44 years, and former smokers were protective factors. High-risk genital HPV infection was 14.3% in normal cytology, 77.8% in high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and in the two cases (100% of cervical cancer. CONCLUSIONS: High-risk HPV

  12. Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Precancerous Cervical Cancer Lesions among HIV-Infected Women in Resource-Limited Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Memiah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the prevalence and identified associated risk factors for precancerous cervical cancer lesions among HIV-infected women in resource-limited settings in Kenya. Methods. HIV-infected women attending the ART clinic at the Nazareth Hospital ART clinic between June 2009 and September 2010. Multivariate logistic regression model with odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated after controlling for important covariates. Result. A total of 715 women were screened for cervical cancer. The median age of the participants was 40 years (range 18–69 years. The prevalence of precancerous lesions (CINI, CINII, CIN III, ICC was 191 (26.7%. After controlling for other variables in logistic regression analysis, cervical precancerous lesions were associated with not being on ART therapy; whereby non-ART were 2.21 times more likely to have precancerous lesions than ART patients [(aOR=2.21, 95% CI (1.28–3.83]. Conclusion. The prevalence of precancerous cervical lesions was lower than other similar settings. It is recommended that cancer screening of HIV-infected women should be an established practice. Availability and accessibility of these services can be done through their integration into HIV. Prompt initiation of HAART through an early enrollment into care has an impact on reducing the prevalence and progression of cervical precancerous lesions.

  13. Prevalence and Predictors of Neoadjuvant Therapy for Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer in the National Cancer Database: Importance of Socioeconomic Status and Treating Institution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sher, David J.; Liptay, Michael J.; Fidler, Mary Jo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The optimal locoregional therapy for stage IIIA non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is controversial, with definitive chemoradiation therapy (CRT) and neoadjuvant therapy followed by surgery (NT-S) serving as competing strategies. In this study, we used the National Cancer Database to determine the prevalence and predictors of NT in a large, modern cohort of patients. Methods and Materials: Patients with stage IIIA NSCLC treated with CRT or NT-S between 2003 and 2010 at programs accredited by the Commission on Cancer were included. Predictors were categorized as clinical, time/geographic, socioeconomic, and institutional. In accord with the National Cancer Database, institutions were classified as academic/research program and as comprehensive and noncomprehensive community cancer centers. Logistic regression and random effects multilevel logistic regression were performed for univariable and multivariable analyses, respectively. Results: The cohort consisted of 18,581 patients, 3,087 (16.6%) of whom underwent NT-S (10.6% induction CRT, 6% induction chemotherapy). The prevalence of NT-S was constant over time, but there were significant relative 31% and 30% decreases in pneumonectomy and right-sided pneumonectomy, respectively, over time (P trend <.02). In addition to younger age, lower T stage, and favorable comorbidity score, indicators of higher socioeconomic status were strong independent predictors of NT-S, including white race, higher income, and private/managed insurance. The type of institution (academic/research program vs comprehensive or noncomprehensive community cancer centers, odds ratio 1.54 and 2.08, respectively) strongly predicted NT-S, but treatment volume did not. Conclusions: Neoadjuvant therapy followed by surgery was an uncommon treatment approach in Commission on Cancer programs, and the prevalence of postinduction pneumonectomy decreased over time. Higher socioeconomic status and treatment at academic institutions were significant

  14. Self-Reported Food Hypersensitivity: Prevalence, Characteristics, and Comorbidities in the Norwegian Women and Cancer Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Dybdahl Jakobsen

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the prevalence of self-reported food hypersensitivity, (SFH, the characteristics of women with SFH, and whether SFH is associated with multiple health complaints among the participants of the Norwegian Women and Cancer study (NOWAC.We conducted a cross-sectional study among 64,316 women aged 41-76 years. The women were randomly selected from the Norwegian Central Person Register. Information on SFH and all covariates except age and place of residence was collected by questionnaires in 2002-2005.The prevalence of SFH in our study sample was 6.8% (95% confidence interval: 6.7-7.0. Logistic regression analysis showed a negative association between SFH and age (odds ratio [OR] 0.97. The odds of SFH increased among women living in or near urban centers, women with more than 9 years of education, women who did not have full-time work, women who had experienced poor economic conditions in childhood, those living without a partner, and those who did not consume alcohol or smoke (OR varied from 1.10 to 1.70. Women with a low body mass index had higher odds of SFH (OR 1.37 than those with a moderate body mass index. SFH was positively associated with poor self-perceived health (OR 2.56. The odds of SFH increased with the number of concurrent health complaints, with an OR for 5-6 comorbidities of 4.93.We found an association between SFH, poor health, and different socio demographic and lifestyle characteristics. Women with SFH had increased odds of reporting multiple health complaints.

  15. Prevalence of prognostic factors for cancer of the uterine cervix after radical hysterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Buenos Aires Cabral Tavares

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Cancer of the uterine cervix is still very common in Brazil. It is important to evaluate factors that influence its prognosis. The aim here was to analyze the prevalence of prognostic anatomoclinical factors among patients with carcinoma of the uterine cervix undergoing radical hysterectomy. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study on 301 patients with invasive carcinoma of the uterine cervix who underwent Level III Piver-Rutledge hysterectomy surgery at São Marcos Hospital. METHODS: The following variables were analyzed: age, histological type, degree of differentiation, invasion of lymphatic, vascular and perineural space, lymph node metastasis, distance to nearest margin, tumor invasion depth, vaginal cuff size, largest diameter of the tumor, presence of necrosis and surgical margin involvement. Descriptive statistics, multiple regression analysis, Kaplan-Meier survival curves and the log-rank test were performed. A significance level of 5% was used. RESULTS: The mean age was 48.27 years. The following were not important for the prognosis, in relation to survival analysis: degree of differentiation and tumor invasion depth; presence of lymphatic, blood and perineural invasions; distance to nearest margin; and vaginal cuff size. Tumor size (P < 0.036, presence of lymph node metastasis (P < 0.0004, necrosis (P < 0.05 and surgical margin involvement (P < 0.0015 presented impacts on survival. The overall survival with 98 months of follow-up was 88.35%. CONCLUSION: The most prevalent prognostic factors were the presence of lymph node metastasis, tumor size and surgical margin involvement.

  16. High prevalence of mucosa-associated E. coli producing cyclomodulin and genotoxin in colon cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Buc

    Full Text Available Some Escherichia coli strains produce toxins designated cyclomodulins (CMs which interfere with the eukaryotic cell cycle of host cells, suggesting a possible link between these bacteria and cancers. There are relatively few data available concerning the colonization of colon tumors by cyclomodulin- and genotoxic-producing E. coli. We did a qualitative and phylogenetic analysis of mucosa-associated E. coli harboring cyclomodulin-encoding genes from 38 patients with colorectal cancer (CRC and 31 with diverticulosis. The functionality of these genes was investigated on cell cultures and the genotoxic activity of strains devoid of known CM-encoding gene was investigated. Results showed a higher prevalence of B2 phylogroup E. coli harboring the colibatin-producing genes in biopsies of patients with CRC (55.3% than in those of patients with diverticulosis (19.3%, (p<0.01. Likewise, a higher prevalence of B2 E. coli harboring the CNF1-encoding genes in biopsies of patients with CRC (39.5% than in those of patients with diverticulosis (12.9%, (p = 0.01. Functional analysis revealed that the majority of these genes were functional. Analysis of the ability of E. coli to adhere to intestinal epithelial cells Int-407 indicated that highly adherent E. coli strains mostly belonged to A and D phylogroups, whatever the origin of the strains (CRC or diverticulosis, and that most E. coli strains belonging to B2 phylogroup displayed very low levels of adhesion. In addition, 27.6% (n = 21/76 E. coli strains devoid of known cyclomodulin-encoding genes induced DNA damage in vitro, as assessed by the comet assay. In contrast to cyclomodulin-producing E. coli, these strains mainly belonged to A or D E. coli phylogroups, and exhibited a non significant difference in the distribution of CRC and diverticulosis specimens (22% versus 32.5%, p = 0.91. In conclusion, cyclomodulin-producing E. coli belonging mostly to B2 phylogroup colonize the colonic mucosa of

  17. Prevalence rate and influencing factors of preoperative anxiety and depression in gastric cancer patients in China: Preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Le; Pan, Qiong; Lin, Renqin

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the prevalence rate and influencing factors of preoperative anxiety and depression in patients with gastric cancer, in China. Patients with gastric cancer who were diagnosed by gastroscopy and would accept laparoscopic surgery were eligible for the study. Each participant completed self-administered questionnaires, including the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Medical Coping Modes Questionnaire (MCMQ), Social Support Rating Scale, and Type D personality scale before surgery. Routine blood tests were undertaken within 7 days before surgery, to calculate the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR). Based on HADS, patients were divided into an anxiety/depression group and a nonanxiety/depression group. Fifty-three patients with gastric cancer were included in the study. The prevalence of preoperative anxiety and/or depression was 20.75% (11/53). Factors influencing preoperative anxiety and depression were a resigned dimension of coping style, type D personality and NLR. Logistic regression analysis showed that a higher score for the resigned dimension of coping style on the MCMQ and a higher NLR were significantly associated with preoperative anxiety and depression. The prevalence of preoperative anxiety and depression in Chinese patients with gastric cancer may be influenced by both the coping mode and NLR. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Prevalence, patterns, and perceived value of complementary and alternative medicine among cancer patients: a cross-sectional, descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahall, Mandreker

    2017-06-30

    Sophisticated conventional medicine (CM) has brought significant advances to cancer prevention, detection, and treatment. However, many cancer patients still turn to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatment. This study explored the prevalence, patterns, and perceived value of CAM among cancer patients. This quantitative descriptive study was conducted between March 1, 2015, and July 31, 2015, among a cross-sectional, convenience sample of patients from the Oncology Department of San Fernando General Hospital in Trinidad and Tobago. Face-to-face interviews were conducted at the oncology clinic and treatment suite after obtaining informed consent. Data analysis included descriptive analysis, chi-square tests, and binary logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of CAM use among a sample of 350 cancer patients was 39.1% (39.6% for breast cancer, 44.4% for prostate cancer, 37% for ovarian cancer, and 38.7% for colon cancer patients). Herbs were the most common type of CAM used (93.4%), followed by spiritual therapy (73.7%). CAM use was more prevalent among females (68.6%), Indo-Trinidadians (63.5%), and patients aged 41-50 years (37.2%). The majority (70%-80%) rated CAM efficacy on perceived value. CAM was used mainly because of a desire to try anything that might help (67.6%), followed by it being congruent with the patients' beliefs (59.1%). Patients knew about CAM mainly through friends (69.3%) and family (69.3%). Most patients were generally satisfied (93.6%) and considered CAM helpful (89.8%), but the majority never informed their health care provider of CAM use (78.8%). Patients reported the simultaneous use of more than one type of CAM, without considering or knowing of possible side-effects. The perceived value of CAM included empowerment, control, cure, and improved quality of life. CAM use was associated with age, but no predictors of CAM use could be identified. Medicinal herbs and spiritual therapy are commonly used among cancer patients

  19. Anger toward God: social-cognitive predictors, prevalence, and links with adjustment to bereavement and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exline, Julie J; Park, Crystal L; Smyth, Joshua M; Carey, Michael P

    2011-01-01

    Many people see themselves as being in a relationship with God and see this bond as comforting. Yet, perceived relationships with God also carry the potential for experiencing anger toward God, as shown here in studies with the U.S. population (Study 1), undergraduates (Studies 2 and 3), bereaved individuals (Study 4), and cancer survivors (Study 5). These studies addressed 3 fundamental issues regarding anger toward God: perceptions and attributions that predict anger toward God, its prevalence, and its associations with adjustment. Social-cognitive predictors of anger toward God paralleled predictors of interpersonal anger and included holding God responsible for severe harm, attributions of cruelty, difficulty finding meaning, and seeing oneself as a victim. Anger toward God was frequently reported in response to negative events, although positive feelings predominated. Anger and positive feelings toward God showed moderate negative associations. Religiosity and age correlated negatively with anger toward God. Reports of anger toward God were slightly lower among Protestants and African Americans in comparison with other groups (Study 1). Some atheists and agnostics reported anger involving God, particularly on measures emphasizing past experiences (Study 2) and images of a hypothetical God (Study 3). Anger toward God was associated with poorer adjustment to bereavement (Study 4) and cancer (Study 5), particularly when anger remained unresolved over a 1-year period (Study 5). Taken together, these studies suggest that anger toward God is an important dimension of religious and spiritual experience, one that is measurable, widespread, and related to adjustment across various contexts and populations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Comparison of the prevalence of malnutrition diagnosis in head and neck, gastrointestinal and lung cancer patients by three classification methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platek, Mary E.; Popp KPf, Johann V.; Possinger, Candi S.; DeNysschen, Carol A.; Horvath, Peter; Brown, Jean K.

    2011-01-01

    Background Malnutrition is prevalent among patients within certain cancer types. There is lack of universal standard of care for nutrition screening, lack of agreement on an operational definition and on validity of malnutrition indicators. Objective In a secondary data analysis, we investigated prevalence of malnutrition diagnosis by three classification methods using data from medical records of a National Cancer Institute (NCI)-designated comprehensive cancer center. Interventions/Methods Records of 227 patients hospitalized during 1998 with head and neck, gastrointestinal or lung cancer were reviewed for malnutrition based on three methods: 1) physician diagnosed malnutrition related ICD-9 codes; 2) in-hospital nutritional assessment summary conducted by Registered Dietitians; and 3) body mass index (BMI). For patients with multiple admissions, only data from the first hospitalization was included. Results Prevalence of malnutrition diagnosis ranged from 8.8% based on BMI to approximately 26% of all cases based on dietitian assessment. Kappa coefficients between any methods indicated a weak (kappa=0.23, BMI and Dietitians and kappa=0.28, Dietitians and Physicians) to fair strength of agreement (kappa=0.38, BMI and Physicians). Conclusions Available methods to identify patients with malnutrition in an NCI designated comprehensive cancer center resulted in varied prevalence of malnutrition diagnosis. Universal standard of care for nutrition screening that utilizes validated tools is needed. Implications for Practice The Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations requires nutritional screening of patients within 24 hours of admission. For this purpose, implementation of a validated tool that can be used by various healthcare practitioners, including nurses, needs to be considered. PMID:21242767

  1. Prevalent and incident use of androgen deprivation therapy among men with prostate cancer in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Scott M; Kuo, Yong-Fang; Shahinian, Vahakn B

    2011-01-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer increased substantially through the 1990s, but more recent national trends regarding incident and prevalent use have been incompletely characterized. Linked Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare data were used to study patterns of ADT utilization. Prevalence of ADT in the male Medicare population was estimated by examining a cohort of prostate cancer patients and a 5% noncancer control population, from 1991 to 2005. ADT use across different indications was examined for men with incident cancers from 2000 to 2002. Nested logit models were used to examine determinants of ADT use in men with lower risk prostate cancer not treated definitively by surgery or radiation. Prevalent ADT use increased through the 1990s, peaked in 2000 at 3.17% of all male Medicare beneficiaries, subsequently stabilized, then dropped in 2005 to 2.92%. Between 2000 and 2002, use in incident prostate cancer was stable, with 44.8% use in all cases, 15% of cases as an adjuvant with radiation, and 14% as a primary therapy. In the nested logit model, predictors of ADT use in a lower risk setting were older age, higher stage and grade, and elevated prostate-specific antigen levels. Following a period of rapid expansion during the 1990s, incident and prevalent use of ADT has leveled, and may be starting to decline. Further research is needed to monitor how reductions in reimbursement for GnRH agonists will affect appropriate use of ADT as well as use in settings where its benefits may be marginal. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Trends in Obesity Prevalence in Adults With a History of Cancer: Results From the US National Health Interview Survey, 1997 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenlee, Heather; Shi, Zaixing; Sardo Molmenti, Christine L; Rundle, Andrew; Tsai, Wei Yann

    2016-09-10

    Obesity after a diagnosis of specific cancers has been associated with worse prognosis. We examined the trend in obesity prevalence among cancer survivors in the United States in the past two decades and compared trends with those of adults without a history of cancer. This was a population-based nationally representative sample of 538,969 noninstitutionalized US adults 18 to 85 years old with and without a history of cancer who participated in annual cross-sectional National Health Interview Surveys from 1997 to 2014. Obesity was defined as body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m(2) for non-Asians and body mass index ≥ 27.5 kg/m(2) for Asians. Among 32,447 cancer survivors identified, the most common cancer diagnoses were breast (n = 6,948), prostate (n = 3,984), and colorectal (n = 2,546). From 1997 to 2014, the prevalence of obesity increased from 22.4% to 31.7% in cancer survivors and from 20.9% to 29.5% in adults without a history of cancer (P for trend obesity prevalence was higher in women and men with a history of cancer compared with those without a history of cancer (all P for interaction obesity prevalence was 3.1% in female and 3.7% in male colorectal cancer survivors, 3.0% in breast cancer survivors, and 2.1% in prostate cancer survivors (all P obesity burden were colorectal cancer survivors, breast cancer survivors, and non-Hispanic blacks. From 1997 to 2014, obesity increased more rapidly among adult cancer survivors compared with the general population. Colorectal and breast cancer survivors and non-Hispanic blacks were identified as being at the highest risk for obesity. © 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  3. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms Among Bereaved Family Members of Cancer Patients in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jho, Hyun Jung; Choi, Jin Young; Kwak, Kiu Sang; Chang, Yoon Jung; Ahn, Eun Mi; Park, Eun Jung; Paek, Soo Jin; Kim, Kyoung Mee; Kim, Soo Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Bereaved family members of cancer patient are at risk of having psychological problems such as anxiety and depression. However, prevalence and associated factors of anxiety and depressive symptoms among this population have not been explored in Korea. We conducted a nation-wide cross-sectional questionnaire survey of 3522 bereaved family members of cancer patients who died at 44 hospice palliative care unit (HPCU) in Korea in 2012. The questionnaire comprised the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Good Death Inventory (GDI). Deceased patient's age, sex, primary site of cancer, duration of stay at HPCU, awareness of terminal status, bereaved family member's age, sex, and relation to the deceased were collected from Korean Terminal Cancer Patients Information System. 1121 returned questionnaires were analyzed (response rate, 31.8%). Using a cut-off value of 8 for HADS subscale, the prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms was 48.0% and 57.6%, respectively. Mean scores for HADS-A and HADS-D were 7.88 ± 4.87 and 8.91 ± 4.82, respectively. Among the bereaved, older age, being a spouse to the deceased, family members of younger patient, and negative score for a few GDI items were significantly associated with an increased risk of having anxiety or depressive symptoms in the multivariate logistic analysis. In conclusion, we noted the high prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms among the bereaved of cancer patients and identified associated factors for these psychological morbidities. Systematic efforts are needed to improve the mental health of the bereaved family members of cancer patients. PMID:27258497

  4. The Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori Virulence Factors in Bhutan, Vietnam, and Myanmar Is Related to Gastric Cancer Incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Thi Huyen Trang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer is a significant health problem in Asia. Although the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection is similar in Bhutan, Vietnam, and Myanmar, the incidence of gastric cancer is highest in Bhutan, followed by Vietnam and Myanmar. We hypothesized that H. pylori virulence factors contribute to the differences. The status of cagA, vacA, jhp0562, and β-(1,3galT(jhp0563 was examined in 371 H. pylori-infected patients from Bhutan, Vietnam, and Myanmar. Each virulence factor could not explain the difference of the incidence of gastric cancer. However, the prevalence of quadruple-positive for cagA, vacA s1, vacA m1, and jhp0562-positive/β-(1,3galT-negative was significantly higher in Bhutan than in Vietnam and Myanmar and correlated with gastric cancer incidence. Moreover, gastritis-staging scores measured by histology of gastric mucosa were significantly higher in quadruple-positive strains. We suggest that the cagA, vacA s1, vacA m1, and jhp0562-positive/β-(1,3galT-negative genotype may play a role in the development of gastric cancer.

  5. High prevalence of human cytomegalovirus proteins and nucleic acids in primary breast cancer and metastatic sentinel lymph nodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chato Taher

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is a leading cause of death among women worldwide. Increasing evidence implies that human cytomegalovirus (HCMV infection is associated with several malignancies. We aimed to examine whether HCMV is present in breast cancer and sentinel lymph node (SLN metastases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue specimens from breast cancer and paired sentinel lymph node (SLN samples were obtained from patients with (n = 35 and without SLN metastasis (n = 38. HCMV immediate early (IE and late (LA proteins were detected using a sensitive immunohistochemistry (IHC technique and HCMV DNA by real-time PCR. RESULTS: HCMV IE and LA proteins were abundantly expressed in 100% of breast cancer specimens. In SLN specimens, 94% of samples with metastases (n = 34 were positive for HCMV IE and LA proteins, mostly confined to neoplastic cells while some inflammatory cells were HCMV positive in 60% of lymph nodes without metastases (n = 35. The presence of HCMV DNA was confirmed in 12/12 (100% of breast cancer and 10/11 (91% SLN specimens from the metastatic group, but was not detected in 5/5 HCMV-negative, SLN-negative specimens. There was no statistically significant association between HCMV infection grades and progesterone receptor, estrogen receptor alpha and Elston grade status. CONCLUSIONS: The role of HCMV in the pathogenesis of breast cancer is unclear. As HCMV proteins were mainly confined to neoplastic cells in primary breast cancer and SLN samples, our observations raise the question whether HCMV contributes to the tumorigenesis of breast cancer and its metastases.

  6. Pain in Patients with Pancreatic Cancer: Prevalence, Mechanisms, Management and Future Developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulouris, Andreas I; Banim, Paul; Hart, Andrew R

    2017-04-01

    Pain affects approximately 80% of patients with pancreatic cancer, with half requiring strong opioid analgesia, namely: morphine-based drugs on step three of the WHO analgesic ladder (as opposed to the weak opioids: codeine and tramadol). The presence of pain is associated with reduced survival. This article reviews the literature regarding pain: prevalence, mechanisms, pharmacological, and endoscopic treatments and identifies areas for research to develop individualized patient pain management pathways. The online literature review was conducted through: PubMed, Clinical Key, Uptodate, and NICE Evidence. There are two principal mechanisms for pain: pancreatic duct obstruction and pancreatic neuropathy which, respectively, activate mechanical and chemical nociceptors. In pancreatic neuropathy, several histological, molecular, and immunological changes occur which correlate with pain including: transient receptor potential cation channel activation and mast cell infiltration. Current pain management is empirical rather etiology-based and is informed by the WHO analgesic ladder for first-line therapies, and then endoscopic ultrasound-guided celiac plexus neurolysis (EUS-CPN) in patients with resistant pain. For EUS-CPN, there is only one clinical trial reporting a benefit, which has limited generalizability. Case series report pancreatic duct stenting gives effective analgesia, but there are no clinical trials. Progress in understanding the mechanisms for pain and when this occurs in the natural history, together with assessing new therapies both pharmacological and endoscopic, will enable individualized care and may improve patients' quality of life and survival.

  7. Prevalence of PALB2 mutations in breast cancer patients in multi-ethnic Asian population in Malaysia and Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuah, Sze Yee; Lee, Sheau Yee; Kang, Peter; Kang, In Nee; Yoon, Sook-Yee; Thong, Meow Keong; Hartman, Mikael; Sng, Jen-Hwei; Yip, Cheng Har; Taib, Nur Aishah Mohd; Teo, Soo-Hwang

    2013-01-01

    The partner and localizer of breast cancer 2 (PALB2) is responsible for facilitating BRCA2-mediated DNA repair by serving as a bridging molecule, acting as the physical and functional link between the breast cancer 1 (BRCA1) and breast cancer 2 (BRCA2) proteins. Truncating mutations in the PALB2 gene are rare but are thought to be associated with increased risks of developing breast cancer in various populations. We evaluated the contribution of PALB2 germline mutations in 122 Asian women with breast cancer, all of whom had significant family history of breast and other cancers. Further screening for nine PALB2 mutations was conducted in 874 Malaysian and 532 Singaporean breast cancer patients, and in 1342 unaffected Malaysian and 541 unaffected Singaporean women. By analyzing the entire coding region of PALB2, we found two novel truncating mutations and ten missense mutations in families tested negative for BRCA1/2-mutations. One additional novel truncating PALB2 mutation was identified in one patient through genotyping analysis. Our results indicate a low prevalence of deleterious PALB2 mutations and a specific mutation profile within the Malaysian and Singaporean populations.

  8. World-wide environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohlers, H.C.

    1975-01-01

    Man and the physical and natural resources necessary to support him in a civilized society are on a collision course. It is simple to say that man cannot continue to grow in number at an ever-increasing rate without a destructive effect upon the environment. Positive scientific proof for this impending calamity is not now available, yet many indications--sometimes physical and sometimes natural--point toward major world-wide environmental troubles in the near future. A number of environmental problems are described, particularly as they relate to the total world system. A computer model simulating future world-wide environmental trends from 1900 to 2100 A.D. is evaluated and suggested as a major tool for data-gathering purposes to determine the extent of world-wide environmental problems. It is suggested that scientists take an active role in the study of the environment, particularly in relation to man's future on earth

  9. Symptom prevalence, intensity, and distress in patients with inoperable lung cancer in relation to time of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishelman, Carol; Petersson, Lena-Marie; Degner, Lesley F; Sprangers, Mirjam A G

    2007-12-01

    To examine symptom prevalence, intensity, and association with distress in patients with inoperable lung cancer (LC), using time to death as point of reference. A consecutive sample of 400 patients completed the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire C30 plus a 13-item LC-specific scale and the Thurstone Scale of Symptom Distress-Lung Cancer at six time points during the first year after diagnosis. Patients were divided into subgroups, using data from the time point closest to death ( 2 to 3; > 3 to 6; > 6 to 12; and > 12 months before death) for analysis. More than 50% of patients in all subgroups reported problems related to physical, role, and emotional functioning; fatigue; dyspnea; and cough. In general, functional levels were lower and symptoms higher in subgroups closer to death. Notably, clinically relevant differences were also found in role and social functioning and appetite loss between the two groups furthest from death. A consistent pattern was found among the six subgroups, with breathing, pain, and fatigue rated as the symptoms most associated with distress. High prevalence of symptoms was found in all subgroups, with higher intensity in subgroups closer to death, indicating a need for prophylactic and proactive symptom management. Less concordance was found among symptom prevalence, intensity, and association with distress in subgroups further from death. Future studies should investigate longitudinal associations between symptoms with low intensity and high distress, and examine their clinical implications.

  10. Aging Education: A Worldwide Imperative

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Sandra L.

    2017-01-01

    Life expectancy is increasing worldwide. Unfortunately, people are generally not prepared for this long life ahead and have ageist attitudes that inhibit maximizing the "longevity dividend" they have been given. Aging education can prepare people for life's later years and combat ageism. It can reimage aging as a time of continued…

  11. Worldwide Report, Epidemiology, No. 327

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1983-01-01

    ..., Chickenpox, Measles, Eye Diseases, Dengue Fever, Infection, Meningitis, Death, Cancer, Children's Hospitals, Medical Supplies, Medical Equipment, Anthrax, Pneumonia Cases, Food Shortages, Herpes, Youth...

  12. JPRS Report: Epidemiology, Worldwide Health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1993-01-01

    ...: Affordability, National Accelerator Center: Cancer Research, Medical Services: Expansion, Role, Muslims donate Mobile Hospital to Bosnia, Anti-Hib Disease Vaccine Available for Children, Tygerberg Hospital...

  13. Accurate detection of low prevalence AKT1 E17K mutation in tissue or plasma from advanced cancer patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elza C de Bruin

    Full Text Available Personalized healthcare relies on accurate companion diagnostic assays that enable the most appropriate treatment decision for cancer patients. Extensive assay validation prior to use in a clinical setting is essential for providing a reliable test result. This poses a challenge for low prevalence mutations with limited availability of appropriate clinical samples harboring the mutation. To enable prospective screening for the low prevalence AKT1 E17K mutation, we have developed and validated a competitive allele-specific TaqMan® PCR (castPCR™ assay for mutation detection in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE tumor tissue. Analysis parameters of the castPCR™ assay were established using an FFPE DNA reference standard and its analytical performance was assessed using 338 breast cancer and gynecological cancer FFPE samples. With recent technical advances for minimally invasive mutation detection in circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA, we subsequently also evaluated the OncoBEAM™ assay to enable plasma specimens as additional diagnostic opportunity for AKT1 E17K mutation testing. The analysis performance of the OncoBEAM™ test was evaluated using a novel AKT1 E17K ctDNA reference standard consisting of sheared genomic DNA spiked into human plasma. Both assays are employed at centralized testing laboratories operating according to quality standards for prospective identification of the AKT1 E17K mutation in ER+ breast cancer patients in the context of a clinical trial evaluating the AKT inhibitor AZD5363 in combination with endocrine (fulvestrant therapy.

  14. Prevalence of bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis of the jaw after intravenous zoledronate infusions in patients with early breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugani, Petra; Luschin, Gero; Jakse, Norbert; Kirnbauer, Barbara; Lang, Uwe; Acham, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    The definite incidence rate of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (BRONJ) is still unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate prevalence of BRONJ in a group of breast cancer patients applying the classification of the Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons 2009. Between 2000 and 2008, 63 premenopausal early breast cancer patients who were free of metastases were treated with 4 mg zoledronic acid every 6 months over 3 years as participants of a multicenter, randomized, controlled, adjuvant breast cancer medication trial. Patients were not informed about the risk of jaw necrosis. None reported tooth or jaw complaints during the breast cancer follow-up examinations. In 2010, 48 patients of this cohort were investigated concerning BRONJ by clinical and radiological examinations. No advanced stages (AAOMS 2009)were detected. However, five patients (10.4%) presented purulent (2) and nonpurulent (3) fistulas and radiological signs correlating to BRONJ stage 0. Although no case of advanced BRONJ was detected, the study revealed a high prevalence of BRONJ stage 0. This supports the need for tight cooperation between dentists and medical specialists prescribing bisphosphonates including dental pre-therapeutic and follow-up examinations. Adaption of the BRONJ classification taking account to bone exposure via fistulas is recommended. BRONJ is said to be a complication linked to high-dosage bisphosphonate therapy. The study demonstrates that even after application of zoledronate in a low-dose protocol, early BRONJ occurred. Radiological signs solely are not sufficient to confirm BRONJ; clinical signs are mandatory.

  15. High Prevalence of the BIM Deletion Polymorphism in Young Female Breast Cancer in an East Asian Country.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Hung Lin

    Full Text Available A rapid surge of female breast cancer has been observed in young women in several East Asian countries. The BIM deletion polymorphism, which confers cell resistance to apoptosis, was recently found exclusively in East Asian people with prevalence rate of 12%. We aimed to evaluate the possible role of this genetic alteration in carcinogenesis of breast cancer in East Asians.Female healthy volunteers (n = 307, patients in one consecutive stage I-III breast cancer cohort (n = 692 and one metastatic breast cancer cohort (n = 189 were evaluated. BIM wild-type and deletion alleles were separately genotyped in genomic DNAs.Both cancer cohorts consistently showed inverse associations between the BIM deletion polymorphism and patient age (≤35 y vs. 36-50 y vs. >50 y: 29% vs. 22% vs. 15%, P = 0.006 in the consecutive cohort, and 40% vs. 23% vs. 13%, P = 0.023 in the metastatic cohort. In healthy volunteers, the frequencies of the BIM deletion polymorphism were similar (13%-14% in all age groups. Further analyses indicated that the BIM deletion polymorphism was not associated with specific clinicopathologic features, but it was associated with poor overall survival (adjusted hazard ratio 1.71 in the consecutive cohort.BIM deletion polymorphism may be involved in the tumorigenesis of the early-onset breast cancer among East Asians.

  16. PREVAL E NCE OF BREAST CANCER IN PATIENTS ATTENDING CIMS, BILASPUR, C.G.: A TERTIARY HOSPITAL BASED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arya

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Cancer of the breast is among the commonest of human cancers throughout the world. The incidence of breast cancer in Indian women is much lesser than the counterparts in industrialized nations. OBJECTIVE : This study is designed to find out prevalence of b reast cancer in patients attending Chhattisgarh Institute of Medical Sciences (CIMS, a teaching institute in Bilaspur Chhattisgarh. MATERIAL AND METHODS : The biopsy samples of all patients were received and studied in department of pathology. A retrospect ive series study was conducted on 316 cases of breast tumours, reported from March 2003 to August 2015. RESULTS AND OBSERVAT IONS : Mean age of the subjects is 45 years with standard deviation 12.06 years ranging from 12 to 75 years. Among 316 neoplastic les ions, 198 (62.66% were found benign, 02 (0.63% borderline and 116 (36.71% were malignant. Among histological types of malignant breast tumours, infiltrating duct carcinoma dominated, and is followed by medullary carcinoma. CONCLUSION : Mean age of our female breast cancer patients was found to be lower compared to the western world, with an average difference of one decade. A majority of the patients were from a rural background and had a longer duration of symptoms compared to urban pa tients. Lump in the breast was a dominant symptom. Familial breast cancer was uncommon

  17. Posttraumatic stress symptoms in breast cancer: Prevalence, predictors, consequences, and treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O Connor, Maja; Zachariae, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This chapter focuses on posttraumatic stress reactions after being diagnosed with and treated for breast cancer. Posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) are evident in a significant proportion of women after having experienced diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. Several risk factors...... for developing long-term PTSS after breast cancer have been identified. Younger age, low education and income, pre-cancer previous psychiatric history, cancer disease severity, poor physical functioning, and acute symptoms of PTSS are predictors of long-term post-cancer PTSS, with poor physical functioning...

  18. The prevalence of severe pain, its etiopathological characteristics and treatment profile of patients referred to a tertiary cancer care pain clinic

    OpenAIRE

    P N Jain; Kaveri Pai; Aparna S Chatterjee

    2015-01-01

    Pain is the most feared symptom in cancer. About 52?77% patients suffer pain despite World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. Out of total, one-third patients suffer moderate to severe pain. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence, etiopathogenesis and characteristics of severe pain and treatment response among pain clinic referrals in a busy tertiary care cancer center. This study found a high prevalence (31.5%) of severe pain. A total of 251 patients who had complete p...

  19. The prevalence and predictors of subsyndromal anxiety and depression in adult Asian cancer patients across the first year of diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendran, Rathi; Lim, Haikel A; Tan, Joyce Ys; Kua, Ee Heok; Griva, Konstadina

    2016-12-01

    There is an increased prevalence of anxiety and depression in Asian patients diagnosed with cancers; these are known to interfere with treatment, treatment adherence and mortality. This study sought to investigate the prevalence and predictors of subsyndromal anxiety and depression in first-year Asian cancer patients. A total of 206 patients newly diagnosed with cancer in Singapore completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) at T1 (baseline; on average 2 months post-diagnosis), T2 (3 months post-baseline) and T3 (6 months post-baseline). Subsyndromal anxiety and depression were identified using locally validated cut-offs (HADS-A ≥5 and HADS-D ≥7). Adjusted odds ratios were calculated using baseline predictors. Across the three time points, 68-69% of participants were identified as having subsyndromal anxiety and close to 27-38% participants were identified as having subsyndromal depression. Multivariate logistic regressions revealed a lack of predictors for T1 subsyndromal anxiety and depression. Participants with late/metastatic stages of cancer were almost four times as likely to suffer from subsyndromal anxiety at T2. Single participants had a 75% lowered odds, but those living in three to four room public housing were close to four times as likely to suffer from subsyndromal depression at T2. Older patients and those who had undergone surgery were found to significantly suffer from subsyndromal depression at T3. The significant levels of depression and anxiety coupled with the lack of consistent predictors across the first year following cancer diagnosis further underscore the importance of careful assessment and clinician-vigilance in recognizing and identifying Asian patients who may express these emotional sequelae following the cancer diagnosis. A better understanding of patients' pathophysiological and psychological responses and individual strengths and coping skills are thus essential. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  20. Elecnuc. Nuclear power plants worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This small folder presents a digest of some useful information concerning the nuclear power plants worldwide and the situation of nuclear industry at the end of 1997: power production of nuclear origin, distribution of reactor types, number of installed units, evolution and prediction of reactor orders, connections to the grid and decommissioning, worldwide development of nuclear power, evolution of power production of nuclear origin, the installed power per reactor type, market shares and exports of the main nuclear engineering companies, power plants constructions and orders situation, evolution of reactors performances during the last 10 years, know-how and development of nuclear safety, the remarkable facts of 1997, the future of nuclear power and the energy policy trends. (J.S.)

  1. Colorectal cancer screening prevalence and predictors among Asian American subgroups using Medical Expenditure Panel Survey National Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sy, Angela U; Lim, Eunjung; Ka'opua, Lana Sue; Kataoka-Yahiro, Merle; Kinoshita, Yumiko; Stewart, Susan L

    2018-04-01

    Asian American (AA) ethnic subgroups are diverse in socio-economic status, years in the United States, English proficiency, and cultures with different health seeking behaviors and health care access. Fifty-two percent of AAs age ≥50 years had colorectal cancer screening (CRCS) in 2013, compared with 61% of non-Hispanic whites. We hypothesized that CRCS prevalence among AA ethnicities is heterogeneous and that the reasons related to CRCS among AA subgroups are associated with demographic characteristics, acculturation, health care access, and health attitudes. Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data for 2009-2014 compared CRCS status among whites (n = 28,834), Asian Indians (n = 466), Chinese (n = 652), and Filipinos (n = 788). Multivariate logistic regression examined ethnic differences and correlates of CRCS accounting for complex sampling design. Whites had the highest prevalence of screening (62.3%), followed by Filipinos (55.0%), Chinese (50.9%), and Asian Indians (48.6%). Older age, having health insurance, and having a usual care provider predicted CRCS across all ethnicities. Different demographic, health care access, and health attitude predictors within each ethnic group were related to CRCS. This study contributes to the literature on influences of differential CRCS prevalence among AA subgroups. CRCS promotion should be tailored according to attitudes and structural barriers affecting screening behavior of specific ethnic subgroups to truly serve the health needs of the diverse AA population. Cancer 2018;124:1543-51. © 2018 American Cancer Society. © 2018 American Cancer Society.

  2. Worldwide trends in blood pressure from 1975 to 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ezzati, Majid; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Background

    Raised blood pressure is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and chronic kidney disease. We estimated worldwide trends in mean systolic and mean diastolic blood pressure, and the prevalence of, and number of people with, raised blood pressure, defined as systolic

  3. Post-traumatic growth in stomach cancer survivors: Prevalence, correlates and relationship with health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Bo Yun; Lee, Young Whee; Kim, Hwasoon; Kim, Soo Hyun

    2015-06-01

    Post-traumatic growth (PTG) is defined as positive psychological changes experienced as a result of struggle with highly challenging life circumstances. Interest in PTG has increased in cancer survivorship care; however, little is known about PTG among stomach cancer survivors. This study aimed to examine the prevalence and correlates of PTG, and to identify relationships between PTG and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Cross-sectional descriptive design. In total, 122 stomach cancer survivors were recruited from one university hospital in South Korea. Measurements included the Korean version of the Post-traumatic Growth Inventory and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy--General Population. Over half (53.3%) of the participants experienced moderate to high levels of PTG. 'Change of self-perception' was the most common growth domain, followed by 'relating to others', 'new possibilities' and 'spiritual change'. Older age, low socio-economic status (i.e. low education level and low monthly income) and lack of religion were associated with lower levels of PTG. Survivors with higher levels of PTG had better social/family well-being (P stomach cancer survivors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Sarcopenia: Prevalence, and Impact on Operative and Oncologic Outcomes in the Multimodal Management of Locally Advanced Esophageal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Jessie A; Doyle, Suzanne L; Murphy, Conor F; King, Sinead; Guinan, Emer M; Beddy, Peter; Ravi, Narayanasamy; Reynolds, John V

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this article was to study the prevalence and significance of sarcopenia in the multimodal management of locally advanced esophageal cancer (LAEC), and to assess its independent impact on operative and oncologic outcomes. Sarcopenia in cancer may confer negative outcomes, but its prevalence and impact on modern multimodal regimens for LAEC have not been systematically studied. Two hundred fifty-two consecutive patients were studied. Lean body mass (LBM), skeletal muscle index (SMI), and fat mass (FM) were determined pre-treatment, preoperatively, and 1 year postoperatively. Sarcopenia was defined by computed tomography (CT) at L3 as SMI Sarcopenia increased (P = 0.02) from 16% at diagnosis to 31% post-neoadjuvant therapy, with loss of LBM (-3.0 ± 5.4 kg, P sarcopenia was associated with CCI (P = 0.043), and CDC ≥IIIb (P = 0.003). PPCs occurred in 36% nonsarcopenic versus 55% sarcopenic patients (P = 0.01). Sarcopenia did not impact disease-specific (P = 0.14) or overall survival (P = 0.11) after resection. At 1 year, 35% had sarcopenia, significantly associated with pre-treatment BMI (P = 0.013) but not complications (P = 0.20). Sarcopenia increases through multimodal therapy, is associated with an increased risk of major postoperative complications, and is prevalent in survivorship. These data highlight a potentially modifiable marker of risk that should be assessed and targeted in modern multimodal care pathways.

  5. BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation prevalence and clinical characteristics of a population-based series of ovarian cancer cases from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soegaard, M.; Kjaer, S.K.; Cox, M.

    2008-01-01

    , 4.2-26.6); P breast cancer cancer because they carry a BRCA1......PURPOSE: To evaluate the prevalence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations and associations with clinical correlates of disease in a population-based series of ovarian cancer cases from Denmark. METHODS: DNA sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis were used to analyze...... the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes for coding sequence mutations and large genomic rearrangements in 445 confirmed cases of ovarian cancer. We evaluated associations between mutation status and clinical characteristics, including cancer risks for first-degree relatives and clinicopathologic features of tumors...

  6. Prevalence of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Mutations in Patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer in Turkish Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güler Tezel, Gaye; Şener, Ebru; Aydın, Çisel; Önder, Sevgen

    2017-12-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor mutation analysis in non-small cell lung cancer is important for selecting patients who will receive treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors. In this study, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of epidermal growth factor receptor mutations and mutation patterns in the Turkish population. We retrospectively reviewed molecular pathology reports of 959 cases with lung cancer analysed for epidermal growth factor receptor mutations. We analysed all four epidermal growth factor receptor exon mutations using a real-time polymerase chain reaction platform. In this study, the epidermal growth factor receptor mutation rate in the Turkish population was 16.7% (160 of 959). The epidermal growth factor receptor mutation frequency was significantly higher in women (37.1%, n=96) than in men (9.1%, n=64) (pmutation rate was higher in the adenocarcinoma histologic type (pmutations were older than those without mutations (p=0.003). The most frequent mutations were exon 19 deletions (48.8%, 78/160) and exon 21 L858R point mutations (38.1.1%, 61/160). We also detected compound mutation patterns in three cases (1.9%). The prevalence of epidermal growth factor receptor mutations in the Turkish population was slightly higher than that in the Caucasian population and lower than that in the East Asian population. The results of this study may provide guidance in personalized therapy of non-small cell lung cancer in the Turkish population.

  7. Prevalence and distribution of principal periodontal pathogens worldwide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rylev, Mette; Kilian, Mogens

    2008-01-01

    . Some genetically distinct types of Porphyromonas gingivalis are more associated with disease than others, but additional work is required to relate this to clinical differences. CONCLUSIONS: Studies that take into account differences linked to the genetics of both patients and potential pathogens...

  8. Physician-reported barriers to referring cancer patients to specialists: prevalence, factors, and association with career satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Daniel H; Tisnado, Diana M; Keating, Nancy L; Klabunde, Carrie N; Adams, John L; Rastegar, Afshin; Hornbrook, Mark C; Kahn, Katherine L

    2015-01-01

    Quality care for patients with cancer often requires access to specialty providers, but little is known about barriers to referring cancer patients for specialized care. Referral barriers may also lessen physician career satisfaction. The study was aimed at determining what factors are associated with these barriers and whether greater barriers are associated with low career satisfaction. This cross-sectional study examined 1562 primary care physicians (PCPs) and 2144 specialists responding to the multiregional Cancer Care Outcomes Research and Surveillance Consortium physician survey. The prevalence of physician-reported barriers to referring cancer patients for more specialized care (restricted provider networks, preauthorization requirements, patient inability to pay, lack of surgical subspecialists, and excessive patient travel time) was assessed. The 5 items were averaged to calculate a barrier score. A multivariate linear regression was used to determine physician and practice setting characteristics associated with the barrier score, and a multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze the association of the barrier score with physician career satisfaction. Three in 5 physicians reported always, usually, or sometimes encountering any barrier to cancer patient specialty referrals. In adjusted analyses of PCPs and specialists, international medical graduates, physicians practicing in solo or government-owned practices, and physicians with <90% of their patients in managed care plans had higher barrier scores than others (P < .05). High barrier scores were associated with lower physician career satisfaction among PCPs and specialists (P < .05). Many physicians experience barriers to specialty referral for cancer patients. Uniform systems for providing and tracking timely referrals may enhance care and promote physician career satisfaction. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  9. Prevalence and correlates of health information-seeking among Hispanic and non-Hispanic childhood cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kimberly A; Ramirez, Cynthia N; Wojcik, Katherine Y; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Thomas, Stefanie M; Freyer, David R; Hamilton, Ann S; Milam, Joel E

    2018-04-01

    Childhood cancer survivors (CCS) report high unmet information needs. This study examined the prevalence of cancer-related information-seeking among CCS and investigated associations between information-seeking behavior and positive health outcomes such as follow-up care. Participants (n = 193) were young adult CCS diagnosed with cancer in Los Angeles County, 54% of Hispanic ethnicity, with a mean age of 19.87, in remission, and at least 2 years from completion of treatment. CCS were asked where they accessed health information related to their cancer with response options categorized into four information domains: hospital resources, social media, other survivors, and family members. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess variables associated with each information domain, including sociodemographics, post-traumatic growth (i.e., reporting positive changes since cancer diagnosis), health care engagement, level of education, and health insurance status. Hospital resources were the most commonly accessed information domain (65.3%), and CCS of Hispanic ethnicity (vs. non-Hispanic) were more likely to access this source. Seeking information from other cancer survivors was positively associated with follow-up care and post-traumatic growth. Hispanic CCS were marginally less likely to seek information from other survivors and family than non-Hispanics. While CCS obtain information from a variety of sources, hospital resources are an important site for access, particularly for individuals of Hispanic ethnicity. Information sharing between survivors may promote positive health care engagement; however, Hispanic CCS may be less likely to utilize this resource and may face barriers in information sharing with other cancer survivors.

  10. Pace studying worldwide coke production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Pace Consultants Inc., Houston, has started a multiclient study of world-wide petroleum coke production, examining environmental initiatives and eventually forecasting prices of fuel grade coke. Pace expects coker expansions, increased operating severity, and reduced cycle times to boost coke supply to more than 50 million metric tons/year in 2000, compared with 39.7 million metric tons in 1992. Increased supply and tightened environmental rules in countries consuming large amounts of petroleum coke will be the main factors affecting coke markets. The paper discusses coke quality and the Japanese market

  11. A systematic literature review exploring the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder and the role played by stress and traumatic stress in breast cancer diagnosis and trajectory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaboldi, Paola; Riva, Silvia; Crico, Chiara; Pravettoni, Gabriella

    2017-01-01

    Stress has been extensively studied as a psychosomatic factor associated with breast cancer. This study aims to review the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), its associated risk factors, the role of predicting factors for its early diagnosis/prevention, the implications for co-treatment, and the potential links by which stress could impact cancer risk, by closely examining the literature on breast cancer survivors. The authors systematically reviewed studies published from 2002 to 2016 pertaining to PTSD, breast cancer and PTSD, and breast cancer and stress. The prevalence of PTSD varies between 0% and 32.3% mainly as regards the disease phase, the stage of disease, and the instruments adopted to detect prevalence. Higher percentages were observed when the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale was administered. In regard to PTSD-associated risk factors, no consensus has been reached to date; younger age, geographic provenance with higher prevalence in the Middle East, and the presence of previous cancer diagnosis in the family or relational background emerged as the only variables that were unanimously found to be associated with higher PTSD prevalence. Type C personality can be considered a risk factor, together with low social support. In light of the impact of PTSD on cognitive, social, work-related, and physical functioning, co-treatment of cancer and PTSD is warranted and a multidisciplinary perspective including specific training for health care professionals in communication and relational issues with PTSD patients is mandatory. However, even though a significant correlation was found between stressful life events and breast cancer incidence, an unequivocal implication of distress in breast cancer is hard to demonstrate. For the future, overcoming the methodological heterogeneity represents one main focus. Efficacy studies could help when evaluating the effect of co-treating breast cancer and post-traumatic stress symptoms, even if all the

  12. A comparative assessment of the prevalence of cancer among the employee group in Indian nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachdev, M.R.; Ramamirtham, B.; Managanvi, S.S.; Das, M.

    2001-01-01

    The nature of the effects of the low-doses from ionizing radiation has been the subject of considerable interest in the scientific community. The deleterious health effects caused by the relatively high doses of radiation led to the belief that radiation was harmful at all doses. Afterwards, the concept of the threshold dose explained that negative health effects were observed only at certain dose levels. Furthermore, it has been suggested that low doses of ionizing radiation might have beneficial effects on organisms leading to an hermetic effect of these low doses. The specific objectives of the study were to compute the morbidity (prevalence) of cancer among the radiation occupational workers and their families and to compare with suitable controls and to study prevalence of congenital anomalies among the offspring of the employees of the nuclear power plants in India and to determine, if any, their causal relation with radiation exposure

  13. Worldwide spent fuel transportation logistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Best, R.E.; Garrison, R.F.

    1978-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the worldwide transportation requirements for spent fuel. Included are estimates of numbers and types of shipments by mode and cask type for 1985 and the year 2000. In addition, projected capital and transportation costs are presented. For the year 1977 and prior years inclusive, there is a cumulative worldwide requirement for approximately 300 MTU of spent fuel storage at away-from-reactor (AFR) facilities. The cumulative requirements for years through 1985 are projected to be nearly 10,000 MTU, and for the years through 2000 the requirements are conservatively expected to exceed 60,000 MTU. These AFR requirements may be related directly to spent fuel transportation requirements. In total nearly 77,000 total cask shipments of spent fuel will be required between 1977 and 2000. These shipments will include truck, rail, and intermodal moves with many ocean and coastal water shipments. A limited number of shipments by air may also occur. The US fraction of these is expected to include 39,000 truck shipments and 14,000 rail shipments. European shipments to regional facilities are expected to be primarily by rail or water mode and are projected to account for 16,000 moves. Pacific basin shipments will account for 4500 moves. The remaining are from other regions. Over 400 casks will be needed to meet the transportation demands. Capital investment is expected to reach $800,000,000 in 1977 dollars. Cumulative transport costs will be a staggering $4.4 billion dollars

  14. The prevalence and correlates of supportive care needs in testicular cancer survivors: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Allan Ben; King, Madeleine; Butow, Phyllis; Luckett, Tim; Grimison, Peter; Toner, Guy C; Stockler, Martin; Hovey, Elizabeth; Stubbs, John; Hruby, George; Gurney, Howard; Turner, Sandra; Alam, Mahmood; Cox, Keith; Olver, Ian

    2013-11-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to identify the prevalence and correlates of supportive care needs in testicular cancer (TC) survivors. Men who had completed active anti-cancer treatment for TC between 6 months and 5 years previously showing no evidence of recurrence were recruited from 14 Australian cancer centers (September 2009-February 2011). Participants completed a self-report questionnaire measuring sociodemographics, disease, and treatment information, supportive care needs (CaSUN), psychological distress (DASS21) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL; SF36v2). Of the 486 eligible TC survivors invited to participate, 244 completed the questionnaire. Sixty-six percent reported one or more unmet supportive care needs. The mean number of unmet needs was 4.73 (SD = 7.0, Range = 0-34). The most common unmet needs related primarily to existential survivorship issues (e.g., life stress) and relationships (e.g., sex life). Younger age and presence of chronic illness other than TC were significantly associated with higher number of unmet needs. The number of unmet needs was more highly correlated with psychological distress and HRQoL than unmet need strength. The majority of TC survivors reported one or more unmet needs. Unmet needs regarding existential survivorship issues were frequently reported by TC survivors despite their favorable prognosis. Relationships unmet needs were less prevalent but still more common than in breast and gynecological cancer survivors. These findings appear to be related to the young age of TC survivors. As a higher number of unmet needs is significantly associated with psychological morbidity and impaired HRQoL, interventions addressing this constellation of issues are needed. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. High prevalence of cachexia in newly diagnosed head and neck cancer patients : An exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager-Wittenaar, Harriet; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Dijkstra, Gerard; Bijzet, Johan; Langendijk, Johannes A.; van der Laan, Bernard F. A. M.; Roodenburg, Jan L. N.

    Objective: In patients with cancer, weight loss can be related to simple starvation, disturbedmetabolism, or both. In patients with head and neck cancer (HNC), weight loss often is attributed to simple starvation because the obvious oral symptoms are known to hinder dietary intake. In this

  16. Prevalence of CYP1A1 and GST polymorphisms in the population of northeastern India and susceptibility of oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sumana; Chakrabarti, Sila; Sengupta, Bani; Poddar, Sandeep; Biswas, Debolina; Sengupta, Sarthak; Talukder, Geeta

    2009-01-01

    Individual cancer susceptibility is the result of several host factors, including differences in lifestyle habits and genetic susceptibility. There is a correlation between CYP1A1 polymorphism (MspI) and oral cancer susceptibility. Individuals carrying the deletions of GSTM1 and GSTT1 are at high risk of developing oral cancers. In the present study on healthy tribal and nontribal individuals of Assam, we found that the genetic variation of GSST polymorphisms is evident (p = 0.20) with differential dose of toxic exposure. Prevalence of different polymorphic alleles of CYP1A1 also proves the same result. A mini-case-control study with very small sample size showed no marked increase in the risk of developing oral cancer as the frequencies of the studied GST genotypes did not show any statistical significance. But GSTT1-null genotypes were found to have higher risk of developing leukoplakia (OR 1.94, 95% CI 2.61-18.54). CYP1A1 genotype m2 allele was also not found to be associated with the risk of developing leukoplakias in the population.

  17. Prevalence and impact of founder mutations in hereditary breast cancer in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Ashton-Prolla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 10% of all cancers are considered hereditary and are primarily caused by germline, high penetrance mutations in cancer predisposition genes. Although most cancer predisposition genes are considered molecularly heterogeneous, displaying hundreds of different disease-causing sequence alterations, founder mutations have been identified in certain populations. In some Latin American countries, founder mutations associated with increased risk of breast and other cancers have been described. This is particularly interesting considering that in most of these countries, populations are highly admixed with genetic contributions from native populations and from the influx of several distinct populations of immigrants. In this article, we present a review of the scientific literature on the subject and describe current data available on founder mutations described in the most common breast cancer predisposition genes: BRCA1, BRCA2 and TP53.

  18. Prevalence of the use of cancer related self-tests by members of the public: a community survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marriott John

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-tests are those where an individual can obtain a result without recourse to a health professional, by getting a result immediately or by sending a sample to a laboratory that returns the result directly. Self-tests can be diagnostic, for disease monitoring, or both. There are currently tests for more than 20 different conditions available to the UK public, and self-testing is marketed as a way of alerting people to serious health problems so they can seek medical help. Almost nothing is known about the extent to which people self-test for cancer or why they do this. Self-tests for cancer could alter perceptions of risk and health behaviour, cause psychological morbidity and have a significant impact on the demand for healthcare. This study aims to gain an understanding of the frequency of self-testing for cancer and characteristics of users. Methods Cross-sectional survey. Adults registered in participating general practices in the West Midlands Region, will be asked to complete a questionnaire that will collect socio-demographic information and basic data regarding previous and potential future use of self-test kits. The only exclusions will be people who the GP feels it would be inappropriate to send a questionnaire, for example because they are unable to give informed consent. Freepost envelopes will be included and non-responders will receive one reminder. Standardised prevalence rates will be estimated. Discussion Cancer related self-tests, currently available from pharmacies or over the Internet, include faecal occult blood tests (related to bowel cancer, prostate specific antigen tests (related to prostate cancer, breast cancer kits (self examination guide and haematuria tests (related to urinary tract cancers. The effect of an increase in self-testing for cancer is unknown but may be considerable: it may affect the delivery of population based screening programmes; empower patients or cause unnecessary anxiety

  19. The prevalence of BRCA1 mutations among young women with triple-negative breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeSai Damini

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular screening for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations is now an established component of risk evaluation and management of familial breast cancer. Features of hereditary breast cancer include an early age-of-onset and over-representation of the 'triple-negative' phenotype (negative for estrogen-receptor, progesterone-receptor and HER2. The decision to offer genetic testing to a breast cancer patient is usually based on her family history, but in the absence of a family history of cancer, some women may qualify for testing based on the age-of-onset and/or the pathologic features of the breast cancer. Methods We studied 54 women who were diagnosed with high-grade, triple-negative invasive breast cancer at or before age 40. These women were selected for study because they had little or no family history of breast or ovarian cancer and they did not qualify for genetic testing using conventional family history criteria. BRCA1 screening was performed using a combination of fluorescent multiplexed-PCR analysis, BRCA1 exon-13 6 kb duplication screening, the protein truncation test (PTT and fluorescent multiplexed denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE. All coding exons of BRCA1 were screened. The two large exons of BRCA2 were also screened using PTT. All mutations were confirmed with direct sequencing. Results Five deleterious BRCA1 mutations and one deleterious BRCA2 mutation were identified in the 54 patients with early-onset, triple-negative breast cancer (11%. Conclusion Women with early-onset triple-negative breast cancer are candidates for genetic testing for BRCA1, even in the absence of a family history of breast or ovarian cancer.

  20. Wellness as a worldwide phenomenon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Heather; Bernstein, Jennifer; Bowman, Diana M

    2014-10-01

    This article examines the concept of wellness through a comparative political economy and legal framework. It asks whether wellness, an increasingly defined term within US federal and state legislative instruments including, for example, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, is primarily a US-centric phenomenon. Or is wellness, in its various different guises, a worldwide phenomenon? By focusing on three distinctly different jurisdictions - the United States, Germany, and Australia - this article examines wellness through the lens of employers, the health care system, employment and tort law, and the greater political economy. It notes that while improving employee health, well-being, and productivity is common across the three countries and their respective cultures, the focus on wellness as a distinct legal concept is unique to the United States. Copyright © 2014 by Duke University Press.

  1. Space Research Fortifies Nutrition Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems program attempted to address basic needs of crews, meet stringent payload and power usage restrictions, and minimize space occupancy, by developing living, regenerative ecosystems that would take care of themselves and their inhabitants. An experiment from this program evolved into one of the most widespread NASA spinoffs of all time-a method for manufacturing an algae-based food supplement that provides the nutrients previously only available in breast milk. Martek Biosciences Corporation, in Columbia, Maryland, now manufactures this supplement, and it can be found in over 90 percent of the infant formulas sold in the United States, as well as those sold in over 65 other countries. With such widespread use, the company estimates that over 24 million babies worldwide have consumed its nutritional additives.

  2. Worldwide molecular epidemiology of HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry I Z Requejo

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is the worldwide disseminated causative agent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. HIV is a member of the Lentivirus genus of Retroviridae family and is grouped in two types named HIV-1 and HIV-2. These viruses have a notable ability to mutate and adapt to the new conditions of human environment. A large incidence of errors at the transcriptional level results in changes on the genetic bases during the reproductive cycle. The elevated genomic variability of HIV has carried important implications for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention as well as epidemiologic investigations. The present review describes important definitions and geographical distribution of subtypes, circulating recombinant forms and other genomic variations of HIV. The present study aimed at leading students of Biomedical Sciences and public health laboratory staff guidance to general and specific knowledge about the genomic variability of the HIV.

  3. Prevalence of oral HPV infection among healthy individuals and head and neck cancer cases in the French West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auguste, Aviane; Gaëte, Stanie; Herrmann-Storck, Cécile; Michineau, Leah; Joachim, Clarisse; Deloumeaux, Jacqueline; Duflo, Suzy; Luce, Danièle

    2017-11-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is known to play a role in the development of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) and to date, no study has reported on the association between oral HPV infection and HNSCC in the Caribbean. The objective was to determine the prevalence of oral HPV infection in the French West Indies (FWI), overall and by HPV genotype, among HNSCC cases and healthy population controls. We used data from a population-based case-control study conducted in the FWI. The prevalence of oral HPV was estimated separately among 100 HNSCC cases (mean age 59 years) and 308 population controls (mean age 57 years). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using a logistic regression adjusting for age, sex, tobacco, and alcohol consumption, to assess the association between oral HPV infection and HNSCC. Prevalence of oral HPV infections was 26% in controls (30% in men and 14% in women) and 36% in HNSCC cases (36% in men, 33% in women). HPV52 was the most commonly detected genotype, in cases and in controls. The prevalence of HPV16, HPV33, and HPV51 was significantly higher in cases than in controls (p = 0.0340, p = 0.0472, and 0.0144, respectively). Oral infection with high-risk HPV was associated with an increase in risk of HNSCC (OR 1.99, 95% CI 0.95-4.15). HPV16 was only associated with oropharyngeal cancer (OR 16.01, 95% CI 1.67-153.64). This study revealed a high prevalence of oral HPV infection in this middle-aged Afro-Caribbean population, and a specific distribution of HPV genotypes. These findings may provide insight into HNSCC etiology specific to the FWI.

  4. Changing Trends in oral cancer - a global scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Neha; Acharya, Arun Kumar; Patthi, Basavaraj; Goud, Venkatesh; Reddy, Somanath; Garg, Anshul; Singla, Ashish

    2016-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the highly prevalent cancers worldwide and a leading cause of mortality in certain regions like South-Central Asia. It is a major public health problem. Late diagnosis, high mortality rates and morbidity are characteristics of the disease worldwide. For control of oral cancer an idea of the coverage of the same in the various regions is necessary. The estimated incidence, mortality and 5-year survival due to lip, oral cavity cancer in world is 3, 00, 373(2.1%), 1, 45, 328(1.8%) and 7, 02, 149(2.2%) respectively according to data of GLOBOCAN 2012. A changing trend in incidence and prevalence of oral cancer has been observed with more women and youngsters being affected by oral cancer. PMID:28804673

  5. Dietary approach to stop hypertension (DASH): diet components may be related to lower prevalence of different kinds of cancer: A review on the related documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onvani, Shokouh; Haghighatdoost, Fahimeh; Azadbakht, Leila

    2015-07-01

    Dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) eating plan is a healthy dietary pattern. Our object is to review surveys in the field of major components of DASH diet and different kinds of cancers. Our search result from PubMed search engine recruited to find related articles. Adherence to the DASH diet components was significantly related to lower prevalence of various cancers due to their high content of fiber, nutrients, vitamins, mineral, and antioxidant capacity. In this review, positive association of DASH diet components and different cancers were observed. However, the exact association of DASH with cancers should be clarified in future longitudinal studies due to potential interaction among foods and nutrients.

  6. Prevalence of Skin Cancers Among Iranian Veterans, 18-23 Years Following Exposure to Sulfur Mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emadi, S. N.; Soroush, R.; Khateri, S.

    2007-01-01

    In this historical Cohort, in a population of 800 veterans with documented history of exposure to Sulfur Mustard during the period of 1984-88 (all have been under the close health monitoring program) 25 cases are found to have developed skin cancer over the past years. The most common cancer among these cases has been Basal Cell Carcinoma -BCC- with 9 cases and then Squamous Cell Carcinoma -SCC- , mycosis fungoides-MF-, Bowen disease and Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans-DFSP- (5, 5, 4 and 2 cases respectively). Considering the number of diagnosed skin cancers among the subjects of this study and new cases even 2 decades after exposure, more in depth studies are necessary to investigate the possible casual relationship between the exposure to mustard gas and the skin cancers. (author)

  7. Prevalence of Oral Complications occurring in a Population of Pediatric Cancer Patients receiving Chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Gandhi, Kapil; Datta, Geetika; Ahuja, Shilpa; Saxena, Tanvi; G Datta, Ankush

    2017-01-01

    Multiagent chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or a combination of both are the contemporary methods of cancer treatment. With medical advancements, though cure rates have increased considerably, focus is now shifted to the potential early and late complications of the same. The aim of this study was to assess the early oral complications in pediatric patients receiving chemotherapy. Sixty-two children with cancer undergoing chemotherapy with the mean age of 7.42 ? 3.6 years were included in the stud...

  8. Prevalence du cancer de la prostate a l'autopsie chez le noir africain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectifs : Le cancer de la prostate est le cancer le plus fréquent de l'homme de plus de 50 ans dans les pays occidentaux. En Afrique le bas niveau de médicalisation et les difficultés à l'accès des services de santé rendent cette affection moins connue et le diagnostic tardif, parfois même non diagnostiquée. Le but de cette ...

  9. Surveillance strategy of atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia in a country with a high prevalence of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Woon Geon; Kim, Heung Up; Song, Ho June; Hong, Su Jin; Shim, Ki-Nam; Sung, In-Kyung; Kim, Jae Gyu

    2012-03-01

    It is not clear which screening examinations are best suited for gastric cancer prevention, especially in patients with atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia. Therefore, we investigated the gastric cancer screening methods and intervals that are performed in clinical practice in an area with a high prevalence of gastric cancer. Eighty-seven physicians voted by keypad and discussed the consistency of endoscopic diagnosis of atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia at the Annual Symposium of the Korean College of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research. Additionally, 100 core members of this academic society were asked via e-mail to complete the questionnaires related to screening strategies for gastric cancer. The most common recommendation for the subjects with intestinal metaplasia was an annual endoscopic follow-up (95.5% vs. 80.4% in the expert and non-expert groups, respectively; P = 0.118). Annual endoscopic follow-up was also the most predominant recommendation for atrophic gastritis (95.5% vs. 76.5%; P = 0.092), regardless of the physicians' endoscopic experience, position, and degree of the hospital. However, the correct answer rate for the diagnosis of normal endoscopic findings was only 16.7 and 14.1% in the expert and non-expert groups, respectively (P = 0.883). The most common practical screening strategy for patients with atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia in Korea was annual endoscopic examination. However, a new program estimating individualized gastric cancer risk might be needed because of the low inter-observer agreement in the endoscopic diagnosis of atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia.

  10. Microtubule-Associated Protein Mdp3 Promotes Breast Cancer Growth and Metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Tala,; Xie, Songbo; Sun, Xiaodong; Sun, Xiaoou; Ran, Jie; Zhang, Linlin; Li, Dengwen; Liu, Min; Bao, Gang; Zhou, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer in women worldwide with a high mortality rate, and the identification of new biomarkers and targets for this disease is greatly needed. Here we present evidence that microtubule-associated protein (MAP) 7 domain-containing protein 3 (Mdp3) is highly expressed in clinical samples and cell lines of breast cancer. The expression of Mdp3 correlates with clinicopathological parameters indicating breast cancer malignancy. In addition, Mdp3 promotes breast ...

  11. Dermal carotenoid measurement is inversely related to anxiety in patients with breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Li, David G; LeCompte, Gabrielle; Golod, Lev; Cecchi, Gary; Irwin, David; Harken, Alden; Matecki, Amy

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent malignancy among women worldwide. Increased oxidative stress and poor subjective health outcomes have been associated with increased risk of cancer recurrence and metastasis, but few studies until now have explored the relationship between oxidative stress and chronic stress/anxiety. This study aims to examine the association between anxiety and a potential dermal correlate of oxidative stress in patients with breast cancer. 102 breast cancer patients were ...

  12. Overexpression of Long Non-Coding RNA TUG1 Promotes Colon Cancer Progression

    OpenAIRE

    Zhai, Hui-yuan; Sui, Ming-hua; Yu, Xiao; Qu, Zhen; Hu, Jin-chen; Sun, Hai-qing; Zheng, Hai-tao; Zhou, Kai; Jiang, Li-xin

    2016-01-01

    Background Colon cancer is one of the most prevalent and deadly cancers worldwide. It is still necessary to further define the mechanisms and explore therapeutic targets of colon cancer. Dysregulation of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) has been shown to be correlated with diverse biological processes, including tumorigenesis. This study aimed to characterize the biological mechanism of taurine-upregulated gene 1 (TUG1) in colon cancer. Material/Methods qRT-PCR was used to analyze the expression...

  13. [A screening system for anti-metastatic small-molecule compounds based on perinucleolar compartment prevalence in liver cancer cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, F F; Lou, G H; Liu, Y N; Zhu, H H; Chen, Z

    2017-06-20

    Objective: To establish a screening system for anti-metastatic small-molecule compounds based on perinucleolar compartment (PNC) prevalence in liver cancer cells and to investigate its validity. Methods: Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB) monoclonal antibody was used to measure the PNC prevalence in HepG2, HepG2M, and Huh7 cells, and wound healing assay and transwell assay were used to analyze the migration and invasion abilities of hepatoma cells. HepG2M cells were used as the model for the screening of anti-metastatic small-molecule compounds, and after the treatment with the compounds A1, A4, and E696, qPCR was used to measure the expression of metastasis-related miRNAs (miR-141 and miR-200c). A one-way analysis of variance was used for comparison of data between multiple groups. Results: PTB immunofluorescence assay showed that HepG2M cells had the highest PNC prevalence, followed by Huh7 and HepG2 cells, and PNC prevalence was positively correlated with the metastasis and invasion abilities of hepatoma cells. The PNC prevalence of HepG2M cells was reduced to 22.88% ±4.61% by A1, 14.22% ± 3.05% by A4, and 26.12% ± 4.94% by E696. Wound healing assay showed that the 48-hour scratch ratio increased from 17.70% ± 3.34% to 64.50% ± 2.65%, 83.40% ± 5.10%, and 57.20% ± 3.06% ( F = 171.1, P cells was reduced from 264.33 ± 30.50 to 104.33 ± 13.50, 58.00 ± 11.00, and 111.33 ± 19.50 ( F = 59.87, P destroy PNC. A4 upregulated the expression of miR-141 and miR-200c in a dose-dependent manner, and after HepG2M cells were treated with A4 at a concentration of 5 μM, 10 μM, or 20 μM, the level of miR-141 was increased to 3.61 ± 0.78, 8.12 ± 1.15, and 18.24 ± 2.44 folds ( F = 88.01, P cancer.

  14. The impact of HPV vaccination on HPV and cervical cancer in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Matthijsse (Suzette)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractHuman papillomavirus (HPV) is a highly prevalent sexually transmitted virus, of which 150 types have been completely sequenced. Currently, about 14 HPV-types are considered ‘high risk’ for their potential to cause cervical cancer, the fourth most common cancer among women worldwide. In

  15. MiR-128b is down-regulated in gastric cancer and negatively ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-02-04

    Feb 4, 2016 ... Gastric cancer (GC) is the fourth most prevalent type of cancer worldwide, which is usually caused by the interaction between environmental and genetic factors, or epigenetic aspects. Referring to the non-coding RNAs, miR-128b has been reported to be associated with many tumour cases, and exerts ...

  16. Clinical study on the prevalence and comparative analysis of metabolic syndrome and its components among Chinese breast cancer women and control population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Tuan; Luo, Qing-Qing; Li, Xin; Arshad, Bilal; Xu, Zhou; Ran, Liang; Zhao, Chun-Xia; Wu, He; Shi, Yan-Ling; Chen, Hao-Ran; Li, Hao; Li, Hong-Yuan; Wu, Kai-Nan; Kong, Ling-Quan

    2018-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome has been previously identified as a risk factor for breast cancer and is increasingly a public health concern. This study aims to investigate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components among primary breast cancer and control population. The clinical data of metabolic syndrome and its components in the breast cancer (605 cases) and control population (3212 cases), from Breast Cancer Center and Physical Examination Center of Chongqing, China, from July 2015 to February 2017, were collected for comparative analysis. This study was prospectively registered in Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (http://www.chictr.org.cn/, number: ChiCTR-OOB-15007543). The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in breast cancer (32.6%) was obviously higher than that in control population (18.2%) (pmetabolic syndrome in breast cancer group aged below 60 years (24.9%, pmetabolic syndrome and its components in Chinese breast cancer women, and metabolic syndrome is closely related with breast cancer. Therefore, screening and prevention strategy of metabolic syndrome should be carried out in the management of breast cancer.

  17. Application of electron accelerator worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machi, Sueo [Japan Atomic Industrial Forum, Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-02-01

    Electron accelerator is an important radiation source for radiation technology, which covers broad fields such as industry, health care, food and environmental protection. There are about 1,000 electron accelerators for radiation processing worldwide. Electron accelerator has advantage over Co-60 irradiator in term of high dose rate and power, assurance of safety, and higher economic performance at larger volume of irradiation. Accelerator generating higher energy in the range of 10 MeV and high power electron beam is now commercially available. There is a trend to use high-energy electron accelerator replacing Co-60 in case of large through-put of medical products. Irradiated foods, in particular species, are on the commercial market in 35 countries. Electron accelerator is used efficiently and economically for production of new or modified polymeric materials through radiation-induced cross-linking, grafting and polymerization reaction. Another important application of electron beam is the curing of surface coatings in the manufacture of products. Electron accelerators of large capacity are used for cleaning exhaust gases in industrial scale. Economic feasibility studies of this electron beam process have shown that this technology is more cost effective than the conventional process. It should be noted that the conventional limestone process produce gypsum as a by-product, which cannot be used in some countries. By contrast, the by-product of the electron beam process is a valuable fertilizer. (Y. Tanaka)

  18. The worldwide ionospheric data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilitza, Dieter

    1989-01-01

    The worldwide ionospheric data base is scattered over the entire globe. Different data sets are held at different institutions in the U.S., U.S.S.R., Australia, Europe, and Asia. The World Data Centers on the different continents archive and distribute part of the huge data base; the scope and cross section of the individual data holdings depend on the regional and special interest of the center. An attempt is made to pull together all the strings that point toward different ionospheric data holdings. Requesters are provided with the information about what is available and where to get it. An attempt is also made to evaluate the reliability and compatibility of the different data sets based on the consensus in the ionospheric research community. The status and accuracy of the standard ionospheric models are also discussed because they may facilitate first order assessment of ionospheric effects. This is a first step toward an ionospheric data directory within the framework of NSSDC's master directory.

  19. Application of electron accelerator worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machi, Sueo

    2003-01-01

    Electron accelerator is an important radiation source for radiation technology, which covers broad fields such as industry, health care, food and environmental protection. There are about 1,000 electron accelerators for radiation processing worldwide. Electron accelerator has advantage over Co-60 irradiator in term of high dose rate and power, assurance of safety, and higher economic performance at larger volume of irradiation. Accelerator generating higher energy in the range of 10 MeV and high power electron beam is now commercially available. There is a trend to use high-energy electron accelerator replacing Co-60 in case of large through-put of medical products. Irradiated foods, in particular species, are on the commercial market in 35 countries. Electron accelerator is used efficiently and economically for production of new or modified polymeric materials through radiation-induced cross-linking, grafting and polymerization reaction. Another important application of electron beam is the curing of surface coatings in the manufacture of products. Electron accelerators of large capacity are used for cleaning exhaust gases in industrial scale. Economic feasibility studies of this electron beam process have shown that this technology is more cost effective than the conventional process. It should be noted that the conventional limestone process produce gypsum as a by-product, which cannot be used in some countries. By contrast, the by-product of the electron beam process is a valuable fertilizer. (Y. Tanaka)

  20. Prevalence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in unselected breast cancer patients from Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koumpis Chrissovaladis

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inheritance of a mutation in either BRCA1 or BRCA2 accounts for approximately 5% of all breast cancer cases, but varies by country. Investigations into the contribution of BRCA mutations to breast cancer incidence in Greece have been, for the most part, limited by small sample sizes and by the use of cases selected for their family history of cancer. The aim of the current study was to estimate BRCA mutation frequencies in breast cancer patients unselected for family history. Methods To do so, we enrolled 127 unselected women with breast cancer from the Alexandra Hospital in Athens, Greece, a large public hospital in the city. Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 were detected using a combination of techniques and were confirmed by direct sequencing. Two large genomic deletions were sought using mutation-specific assays. A detailed family history of cancer was obtained from each patient. Results We were able to successfully complete testing on samples from 127 women. Among these, six mutations were identified (four in BRCA1 and two in BRCA2 representing 4.7% of the total or 9.5% of cases diagnosed before age forty. None of the mutation carriers had a family history of breast or ovarian cancer. Three of the four BRCA1 mutations were in exon 20: two were a G5331A mutation and the third was a 3.2 kb deletion. The fourth BRCA1 mutation was the 3819delGTAAA in exon 11. The two BRCA2 mutations were in exon 11 (3782del10 and 4512insT. Conclusions The G5331A mutation in BRCA1 appears to be a founder mutation in the Greek population.

  1. Myofascial pain syndrome after head and neck cancer treatment: Prevalence, risk factors, and influence on quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Leticia Rodrigues; Rizzo, Cláudia Carvalho; de Oliveira, Cleyton Zanardo; dos Santos, Carlos Roberto; Carvalho, André Lopes

    2015-12-01

    Patients undergoing treatment for head and neck cancer may develop myofascial pain syndrome as sequelae. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence, risk factors, and quality of life (QOL) related to myofascial pain syndrome. This was a prospective study including patients with head and neck cancer with at least a 1-year disease-free interval. One hundred sixty-seven patients were analyzed, and myofascial pain syndrome was diagnosed in 20 (11.9%). In the multivariate analysis, hypopharyngeal tumors (odds ratio [OR] = 6.35; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.58-25.56) and neck dissection (OR = 3.43; 95% CI = 1.16-10.17) were independent factors for myofascial pain syndrome. The pain (p < .001) and shoulder domain (p < .001) as well as overall University of Washington Quality of Life (UW-QOL) score (p = .006) were significantly lower in the patients with myofascial pain syndrome. Myofascial pain syndrome was observed in 1 of 9 patients after head and neck cancer treatment and a worse QOL was observed among them. Tumor site and neck dissection were found to be risk factors for myofascial pain syndrome. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Substitution scenario in follow-up of chronic cancer patients in primary care: prevalence, disease duration and estimated extra consultation time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dipten, C; Olde Hartman, T C; Biermans, M C J; Assendelft, W J J

    2016-02-01

    The incidence of cancer as well as survival rates for it are increasing. It is debated whether care in the chronic phase of cancer can be positioned in primary care due to doubts about capacity and workload. To estimate GPs' extra consultation time if they assume responsibility for the care in the chronic phase of cancer. Retrospective cohort study. Estimation of extra consultation time by quantifying prevalence, incidence, survival, number of chronic cancer patients, current practice contacts and registration of risk factors in patients with all types of cancers. The most prevalent types of cancer (with 5-year survival rates) are as follows: breast cancer (91.5%), colorectal cancer (63.8%), prostate cancer (78.3%), melanoma (91.9%) and bladder and urinary tract cancer (77.3%). Primary care practices include ~32 chronic cancer patients, with a potential extra consultation time of ~19 hours per year per 1000 patients. One-third (35%) are already in a chronic disease management programme and 57% were diagnosed >5 years ago. Registration of risk factors for cancer is incomplete, but of better quality when comorbidity is present. Numbers of chronic cancer patients and possible time investment by primary care professionals in the case of a substitution scenario should not be a limiting factor for transition of follow-up from secondary to primary care, as most of the patients were diagnosed >5 years ago and a large proportion of these patients are already monitored in an existing chronic care programme. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Prevalence of phantom limb pain, stump pain, and phantom limb sensation among the amputated cancer patients in India: A prospective, observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The phantom limb pain (PLP and phantom limb sensation (PLS are very common among amputated cancer patients, and they lead to considerable morbidity. In spite of this, there is a lack of epidemiological data of this phenomenon among the Asian population. This study was done to provide the data from Indian population. Methods: The prevalence of PLP, stump pain (SP, and PLS was prospectively analyzed from the amputated cancer patients over a period of 2 years in Dr. B.R.A. Institute Rotary Cancer Hospital, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. The risk factors and the impact of phantom phenomenon on patients were also noted. Results: The prevalence of PLP was 41% at 3 and 12 months and 45.3% at 6 months, whereas that of SP and PLS was 14.4% and 71.2% at 3 months, 18.75% and 37.1% at 6 months, 15.8% and 32.4% at 12 months, respectively. There was higher prevalence of PLP and PLS among the patients with history of preamputation pain, smoking with proximal level of amputation, receiving general anesthesia, receiving intravenous (IV opioid postoperative analgesia, and developing neuroma or infection. Conclusion: The prevalence of PLP and PLS was higher among the cancer amputees as compared to SP, and a few risk factors responsible for their higher prevalence were found in our study. The PLP and PLS lead to considerable morbidity in terms of sleep disturbance and depression.

  4. Worldwide Status of EUV Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Michael P.; Wood, K. S.; Barstow, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    The bulk of radiation from million-degree plasmas is emitted at EUV wavelengths, which include critical spectral features containing diagnostic information often not available at other wavelengths (e.g., He II Ly series 228-304 Å). Thus, EUV astrophysics (Barstow & Holberg 2003) presents opportunities for intriguing results obtainable with sensitive high-resolution spectroscopy and particularly applicable to hot plasmas in stellar coronae, white dwarfs and the interstellar medium. The US-built J-PEX spectrometer has flown twice on sounding rockets, observing and publishing results on two white dwarf targets (Cruddace et al. 2002, Barstow et al. 2005, Kowalski et al. 2011). Using multilayer-grating technology, J-PEX delivers both high effective area and the world's highest resolution in EUV, greater than Chandra at adjacent energies, but in a waveband Chandra cannot reach. However, the US program has been stalled by inability to obtain further NASA sounding rocket flights. A high level of technology readiness, plus important questions answerable solely with that technology, does not seem sufficient to win support. Nor is the substantial amount of resources invested into technology development over two decades, supported by NASA, DoD, and European partners. Proposals to turn the instrument or its technology into small satellite-based surveys have been made (results to be described) in the US and Europe, but the overall situation is precarious. The entire EUV astrophysics field is losing out on an opportunity, and is at risk of fading away, with forced discard of established assets. Only mobilization of the international EUV community -- unifying European, US, and perhaps others -- can reverse this situation. Our poster summarizes science quests within reach of proven technology, gives a current snapshot of that technology, and provides a summary of worldwide efforts to obtain necessary space access in NASA, ESA, and elsewhere. A process for building and maintaining

  5. Prevalence and risk of depressive symptoms 3-4 months post-surgery in a nationwide cohort study of Danish women treated for early stage breast-cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren; Zachariae, Robert; Jensen, Anders Bonde

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Elevated levels of depressive symptoms are generally found among cancer patients, but results from existing studies vary considerably with respect to prevalence and proposed risk factors. PURPOSE: To study the prevalence of depressive symptoms and major depression 3-4 months following...... breast cancer during the 2 1/2 year study period. Of these, 3343 women (68%) participated in a questionnaire study 12-16 weeks following surgery. Depressive symptoms (Beck's Depression Inventory II) and health-related behaviors were assessed by questionnaire. The Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group...... symptoms and major depression (13.7%) compared to population-based samples. The pre-cancer variables: Social status, net-wealth, ethnicity, comorbidity, psychiatric history, and age were all independent risk factors for depressive symptoms. Of the clinical variables, only nodal status carried additional...

  6. Dietary approach to stop hypertension (DASH): diet components may be related to lower prevalence of different kinds of cancer: A review on the related documents

    OpenAIRE

    Onvani, Shokouh; Haghighatdoost, Fahimeh; Azadbakht, Leila

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) eating plan is a healthy dietary pattern. Our object is to review surveys in the field of major components of DASH diet and different kinds of cancers. Materials and Methods: Our search result from PubMed search engine recruited to find related articles. Results: Adherence to the DASH diet components was significantly related to lower prevalence of various cancers due to their high content of fiber, nutrients, vitamins, mineral, and a...

  7. Prevalence and clinical significance of supra- or infraclavicular drainage on preoperative lymphoscintigraphy in women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, T; Sato, S; Tada, A; Inai, R; Taira, N; Doihara, H; Kanazawa, S

    2016-06-01

    Preoperative sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping by lymphoscintigraphy is helpful to evaluate extra-axillary SLNs over a wider range than the blue dye method. However, the clinical value of extra-axillary SLNs remains uncertain. The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence and clinical significance of supra- or infraclavicular drainage on preoperative lymphoscintigraphy in women with breast cancer. We retrospectively reviewed the files of 942 consecutive breast cancer women who underwent preoperative lymphoscintigraphy for SLN biopsy at our institution between April 2004 and March 2015. Supra- or infraclavicular drainage was detected in 5/942 women (0.5%) on preoperative lymphoscintigraphy. An axillary hot spot was detected in all five women, and a positive axillary SLN was detected in four women. Breast tumor locations were the upper inner or outer quadrants in four women and the lower outer quadrant in one woman. The median follow-up period was 75 months (mean: 92; range: 26-111 months). Recurrence outside the axilla was found in three (60%) women. The woman with a negative SLN status did not undergo adjuvant chemotherapy, but developed extra-axillary lymph node recurrence 3 years after primary surgery. No patient died of metastatic breast cancer at the last follow-up. The detection of the supra- or infraclavicular SLNs on lymphoscintigraphy may provide additional staging information to tailor individual treatment regimens with regard to the potential risk of recurrence or metastasis of breast cancer. Copyright © 2016 Editions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevalence, changes in and correlates of fatigue in the first year after diagnosis of testicular cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleer, J.; Sleijfer, D.T.; Hoekstra, Harald; Tuinman, M.A.; Hoekstra-Weebers, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To examine fatigue among testicular cancer patients during the first year after diagnosis. Patients and Methods: Fifteen patients treated with orchidectomy (group 1) and 37 treated with orchidectomy plus chemotherapy (group 2) were assessed within I month after orchidectomy, and 3 and 12 months

  9. Review article: the incidence and prevalence of colorectal cancer in inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, P

    2003-01-01

    Although colorectal cancer (CRC), complicating ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, only accounts for 1-2% of all cases of CRC in the general population, it is considered a serious complication of the disease and accounts for approximately 15% of all deaths in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) ...

  10. Early onset breast cancer in a registry-based sample of African-american women: BRCA mutation prevalence, and other personal and system-level clinical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Tuya; Bonner, Devon; Kim, Jongphil; Monteiro, Alvaro N A; Kessler, Lisa; Royer, Robert; Narod, Steven A; Vadaparampil, Susan T

    2013-01-01

    Young Black women are disproportionately afflicted with breast cancer, a proportion of which may be due to BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA) gene mutations. In a sample of Black women with early onset breast cancer, we evaluated BRCA mutations and explored personal and system-level clinical characteristics. Black women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer (age ≤50) were recruited through the state cancer registry. Participants completed a questionnaire, genetic counseling and BRCA testing. Of the 48 women who consented to study participation, 46 provided a usable biologic specimen for BRCA testing. The overall prevalence of BRCA mutations and variants of uncertain significance (VUS) in participants was 6.5% and 34.8%, respectively. Of these, only 14 were referred for genetic counseling prior to study enrollment. Overall, those participants who chose to undergo bilateral mastectomy had a higher number of relatives with breast and ovarian cancer (p = 0.024) and a higher household income (p = 0.009). BRCA mutation prevalence and the high prevalence of VUS in participants are consistent with prior studies. Furthermore, clinical factors such as family history and financial means may influence type of surgery recommended and chosen, at both the provider and patient level, respectively. Finally, the limited number of patients referred for genetic counseling prior to surgical treatment for breast cancer may represent a missed clinical opportunity to inform surgical decisions. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. High preoperative prevalence of deep venous thrombosis in patients with colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, M T; Nielsen, T S H; Frøkjaer, J B

    2007-01-01

    , with a prevalence of 16 per cent in women (12 of 76) versus 2.6 per cent in men (three of 117 (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 5.8 (95 per cent confidence interval (c.i.) 1.4 to 23.2)). The risk of DVT was strongly correlated with increasing American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) risk score: adjusted OR 6.8 (95 per...

  12. Worldwide associations between air quality and health end-points: Are they meaningful?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wallner

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The World Health Organization (WHO provides data on national indices of health, environment and economy. When we were asked, why air pollution is negatively correlated with cancer mortality, our first response (presumably the mortality data are not age-adjusted was not sufficient to explain the paradox. Material and Methods: A table including all-cause, cancer and childhood mortality, life expectancy, gross national product per person, smoking prevalence, physician density and particulate matter (PM10 per country (N = 193 was developed. For explorative purposes weighted cross-sectional multiple linear regressions models were built. Results: Air pollution is positively correlated with infant and overall mortality and negatively with life expectancy. This might not only depict a true causal effect of PM10 because air quality is also an indicator of a country’s prosperity and general state of environment. Cancer mortality is negatively correlated with PM10. However, this association turns positive when economic or health system indicators are controlled. Conclusions: The World Health Organization’s world-wide data sets demonstrate the large disparity of our world. A careful and professional approach is needed as interpretation is difficult, especially for lay persons. Therefore, with publicly available data WHO should also provide interpretation and guidance.

  13. A systematic literature review exploring the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder and the role played by stress and traumatic stress in breast cancer diagnosis and trajectory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaboldi P

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Paola Arnaboldi,1 Silvia Riva,2 Chiara Crico,2 Gabriella Pravettoni1 1Applied Research Division for Cognitive and Psychological Science, European Institute of Oncology, 2Department of Oncology and Hemato-Oncology, University of Milan, Milan, Italy Abstract: Stress has been extensively studied as a psychosomatic factor associated with breast cancer. This study aims to review the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, its associated risk factors, the role of predicting factors for its early diagnosis/prevention, the implications for co-treatment, and the potential links by which stress could impact cancer risk, by closely examining the literature on breast cancer survivors. The authors systematically reviewed studies published from 2002 to 2016 pertaining to PTSD, breast cancer and PTSD, and breast cancer and stress. The prevalence of PTSD varies between 0% and 32.3% mainly as regards the disease phase, the stage of disease, and the instruments adopted to detect prevalence. Higher percentages were observed when the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale was administered. In regard to PTSD-associated risk factors, no consensus has been reached to date; younger age, geographic provenance with higher prevalence in the Middle East, and the presence of previous cancer diagnosis in the family or relational background emerged as the only variables that were unanimously found to be associated with higher PTSD prevalence. Type C personality can be considered a risk factor, together with low social support. In light of the impact of PTSD on cognitive, social, work-related, and physical functioning, co-treatment of cancer and PTSD is warranted and a multidisciplinary perspective including specific training for health care professionals in communication and relational issues with PTSD patients is mandatory. However, even though a significant correlation was found between stressful life events and breast cancer incidence, an unequivocal implication of

  14. Polymorphic light eruption and skin cancer prevalence: is one protective against the other?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lembo, S

    2008-12-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation (UVR) interacts with chromophores in cutaneous cells with consequent antigenicity. The normal response to this is a downregulation of immune responsiveness. Failure of the immune system to downregulate and to ignore transient photoantigens in human skin results in polymorphic light eruption (PLE), the commonest of the photodermatoses. UVR initiates and promotes skin cancer (SC): UV-induced immunosuppression permits the expansion of UV-mutated clones of cells which ultimately lead to SC.

  15. The Prevalence and Importance of Epithelial Plasticity in Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    show that MET was required for metastasis of a human uterine carcinosarcoma cell line, CS-99, in vivo (Figure 5). Rather unexpectedly, we noted that...AT3 tumors resemble carcinosarcomas in that they have an undifferentiated histology, a mesenchymal-like gene expression profile, and a preference...suggests that CS-99 human carcinosarcoma cells require MET to efficiently metastasize in the lungs. Yet, our data also indicate that other, post-EMT cancers

  16. Prevalence of codon 72 P53 polymorphism in Brazilian women with cervix cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Michelina Fernandes Brenna

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The p53 codon 72 polymorphism seems to be associated with HPV-carcinogenesis, although controversial data have been reported. A series of Brazilian women with cervix carcinomas were analyzed. Ninety-nine (67% of 148 women were found to be homozygous (arg/arg for the arginine polymorphism, and 49 (33% were heterozygous (arg/pro. This polymorphism may be an important determinant of the risk for cervix cancer, but does not seem to be sufficient for carcinogenesis.

  17. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Ovarian Metastases in Breast Cancer Patients < 41 Years of Age in the Netherlands: A Nationwide Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge T A Peters

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is one of the primary indications for cryopreservation and subsequent autotransplantation of ovarian tissue. The safety of this fertility preservation method remains questionable, as the presence of disseminated breast tumor cells cannot yet be excluded in the ovarian autografts. We explored the prevalence of ovarian metastases among young breast cancer patients and determined risk factors for the development of ovarian metastases.Using the nationwide database of the Dutch Pathology Registry (PALGA, we identified a cohort of 2648 women with primary invasive breast cancer at age 5 cm and/or inflammatory carcinoma, we recommend a cautious approach to ovarian tissue autotransplantation.

  18. Facilities for radiotherapy with ion beams status and worldwide developments

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, B H

    1999-01-01

    Forty-five years after the first ion beam therapy in Berkeley around 25,000 cancer patients worldwide have been treated successfully. Ion accelerators, designed for nuclear research, delivered most of this treatment. The first hospital-based facility started operation in 1998 at Loma Linda California, the first for heavier ions at Chiba, Japan in 1994 and the first commercially delivered facilities started operation in 1998 at Kashiwa, Japan. In 2000, the Harvard Medical Centre, Boston, US, will commence operation and several new facilities are planned or under construction worldwide, although none in Australia. This paper will discuss the physical and biological advantages of ion beams over x-rays and electrons. In the treatment of cancer patients ion beam therapy is especially suited for localised tumours in radiation sensitive areas like skull or spine. Heavier ions are also effective in anoxic tumour cells (found around the normally oxygenated cell population). An additional advantage of the heavier carbo...

  19. Chronic fatigue in 812 testicular cancer survivors during long-term follow-up: increasing prevalence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprauten, M; Haugnes, H S; Brydøy, M; Kiserud, C; Tandstad, T; Bjøro, T; Bjerner, J; Cvancarova, M; Fosså, S D; Oldenburg, J

    2015-10-01

    Chronic fatigue (CF) has been reported to be slightly more prevalent in testicular cancer survivors (TCSs) than in the general population. In this study, we wished to explore possible determinants of CF in TCSs median 12 (survey I) and 19 years (survey II) after treatment, in particular the relation to late effects after treatment. Overall, 812 TCSs treated between 1980 and 1994 provided blood samples (testosterone and luteinizing hormone) and completed questionnaires at survey I (1998-2002) and survey II (2007-2008). Hormone levels were categorized according to quartile thresholds for decadal age groups of controls. Associations between CF and possible risk factors, including the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), treatment, physical activity, hormone levels, neurotoxicity, and comorbidity, were analyzed by logistic regression. Prevalence of CF increased from 15% at survey I to 27% at survey II (P interventions, early detection and treatment of depression and anxiety, and possibly testosterone substitution might reduce the risk of CF. Extended long-term follow-up seems to be important. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Malcolm V.; Ford, Jean G.; Samet, Jonathan M.; Spivack, Simon D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ever since a lung cancer epidemic emerged in the mid-1900s, the epidemiology of lung cancer has been intensively investigated to characterize its causes and patterns of occurrence. This report summarizes the key findings of this research. Methods: A detailed literature search provided the basis for a narrative review, identifying and summarizing key reports on population patterns and factors that affect lung cancer risk. Results: Established environmental risk factors for lung cancer include smoking cigarettes and other tobacco products and exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke, occupational lung carcinogens, radiation, and indoor and outdoor air pollution. Cigarette smoking is the predominant cause of lung cancer and the leading worldwide cause of cancer death. Smoking prevalence in developing nations has increased, starting new lung cancer epidemics in these nations. A positive family history and acquired lung disease are examples of host factors that are clinically useful risk indicators. Risk prediction models based on lung cancer risk factors have been developed, but further refinement is needed to provide clinically useful risk stratification. Promising biomarkers of lung cancer risk and early detection have been identified, but none are ready for broad clinical application. Conclusions: Almost all lung cancer deaths are caused by cigarette smoking, underscoring the need for ongoing efforts at tobacco control throughout the world. Further research is needed into the reasons underlying lung cancer disparities, the causes of lung cancer in never smokers, the potential role of HIV in lung carcinogenesis, and the development of biomarkers. PMID:23649439

  1. Clinical study on the prevalence and comparative analysis of metabolic syndrome and its components among Chinese breast cancer women and control population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-tuan; Luo, Qing-qing; Li, Xin; Arshad, Bilal; Xu, Zhou; Ran, Liang; Zhao, Chun-xia; Wu, He; Shi, Yan-ling; Chen, Hao-ran; Li, Hao; Li, Hong-yuan; Wu, Kai-nan; Kong, Ling-quan

    2018-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome has been previously identified as a risk factor for breast cancer and is increasingly a public health concern. This study aims to investigate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components among primary breast cancer and control population. The clinical data of metabolic syndrome and its components in the breast cancer (605 cases) and control population (3212 cases), from Breast Cancer Center and Physical Examination Center of Chongqing, China, from July 2015 to February 2017, were collected for comparative analysis. This study was prospectively registered in Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (http://www.chictr.org.cn/, number: ChiCTR-OOB-15007543). The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in breast cancer (32.6%) was obviously higher than that in control population (18.2%) (p<0.001; OR: 2.173, 95%CI: 1.793 to 2.633). With age stratification, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in breast cancer group aged below 60 years (24.9%, p<0.001; OR: 2.216, 95%CI: 1.744 to 2.816) and equal/above 60 years (58.3%, p<0.001; OR: 2.291, 95%CI: 1.580 to 3.322) were also statistically higher than those (13.0% & 37.9%) in control population, respectively. Breast cancer women were more likely to have preobese (BMI 25.0-29.9) or obesity (BMI ≥30.0), broader waist circumference, lower HDL-C level, higher systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure and higher fasting blood glucose level compared to the control population, corresponding prevalence were 31.7%vs.19.4%, 76.0%vs.29.6%, 37.4%vs.30.4%, 34.2%/27.3%vs.27.6%/14.2% and 25.0%vs.20.1%, respectively (p<0.01). In summary, there is high prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in Chinese breast cancer women, and metabolic syndrome is closely related with breast cancer. Therefore, screening and prevention strategy of metabolic syndrome should be carried out in the management of breast cancer. PMID:29483960

  2. HPV Prevalence in the Dutch cervical cancer screening population (DuSC study): HPV testing using automated HC2, cobas and Aptima workflows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijsmans, C.J.J. (Cornelis Johannes Jacobus); W.R.R. Geurts-Giele (Ina); Leeijen, C. (Cindy); Hazenberg, H.L.C.M. (Hendrikus Lambertus Cornelius Maria); van Beek, J. (Jenneke); de Wild, C. (Carola); J.C. van der Linden (Jacqueline); van den Brule, A.J.C. (Adrianus Johannes Christiaan)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Primary high risk (hr)HPV screening will be introduced in The Netherlands in January 2017. Our aim was to determine the hrHPV prevalence in the Dutch cervical cancer screening population (DuSC study). Methods: A total of 12,113 residual PreservCyt cervical samples from the

  3. Ovarian Cancer: Prevalence in Incidental Simple Adnexal Cysts Initially Identified in CT Examinations of the Abdomen and Pelvis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boos, Johannes; Brook, Olga R; Fang, Jieming; Brook, Alexander; Levine, Deborah

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the rate of malignancy in incidentally detected simple adnexal cysts at computed tomography (CT) to determine if simple-appearing cysts require follow-up. Materials and Methods In this HIPAA-compliant, institutional review board-approved retrospective cohort study, an institutional database was searched for abdominal and pelvic CT studies performed between June 2003 and December 2010 in women reported to have adnexal cysts. Adnexal cyst characterization was determined by prospective report description as well as image review by a research fellow and by a fellowship-trained abdominal radiologist for examinations with disagreement between the original report and the research fellow's assessment. Patients with known ovarian cysts or ovarian cancer at time of the index CT examination were excluded. Clinical outcome was assessed by using follow-up imaging studies, medical records, and the state cancer registry. Benign outcome was determined by benign findings at surgery, a decrease in size or resolution of a simple-appearing cyst at follow-up imaging, or stability of the cyst for at least 1 year. Descriptive statistics and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Results Among 42 111 women who underwent abdominal and pelvic CT examinations in the study period, 2763 (6.6%; 95% CI: 6.3%, 6.8%) (mean age, 48.1 years ± 18.1; range, 15-102 years) had a newly detected finding of ovarian cyst described in the body or impression section of the report. Median cyst size was 3.1 cm (range, 0.8-20.0 cm). Eighteen (0.7%; 95% CI: 0.4%, 1.0%) of 2763 patients were found to have ovarian cancer after an average follow-up of 5.1 years ± 3.8 (range, 0-12.8 years). None (95% CI: 0%, 0.4%) of 1031 women with simple-appearing cysts were given a diagnosis of ovarian cancer. This included none (95% CI: 0%, 0.4%) of 904 women with simple-appearing cysts with an adequate reference standard for benign outcome. Conclusion The prevalence of previously unknown adnexal

  4. Prevalence of colorectal polyps among women with ovarian and endometrial cancers admitted in Firoozgar, Akbarabadi and Rasol Akram Hospitals during 2010- 2011: a brief report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafari S

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with endometrial or ovarian cancer have an increased risk for breast or colon cancer. The aim of this study was to assess the individual and age-related characteristics of patients with a combination of these malignancies. Methods: In this retrospective descriptive study, we reviewed the medical records of 100 patients admitted for endometrial or ovarian cancer in Rasol Akram, Akbarabadi and Firozgar educational Hospitals in Tehran, Iran, during 2010- 2011. Colon polyps were evaluated by immunohistochemistry assay. Results: The mean age, weight and BMI of the patients were 50.21, 65.9 and 26.07, respectively. Among 100 cases participating in this study, five (5% patients had colon polyps. All the five cases with colon polyp had positive familial histories of ovarian cancer. Conclusion: With considering the low prevalence of colorectal polyps among women with ovarian and endometrial cancers, patient's follow-up for screening test is not recommended.

  5. Prevalence of and Factors Associated with Sarcopenia in Korean Cancer Survivors: Based on Data Obtained by the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Young; Kim, Kirang; Kim, Young Saing; Ahn, Hee Kyung; Jeong, Yu Mi; Kim, Jeong Ho; Choi, Won-Jun

    2017-04-01

    Using a representative dataset from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) from 2008 to 2011, we analyzed anthropometric and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-determined body composition findings for 493 cancer survivors (mean age a61.1 ± 12.6 years; 35.7% male). A much higher proportion of men (30.1%) than women (0.6%) met the criteria of sarcopenia. Subjects with a history of lung cancer, genitourinary cancer, or gastric cancer were prone to develop sarcopenia (31.6%, 26.3%, and 21.4%, respectively). Furthermore, sarcopenia was more prevalent among elderly (≥65 years; P Korean cancer survivors.

  6. Prevalence study on potential drug-drug interaction in cancer patients in Piacenza hospital's Onco-Haematology department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchia, Stefano; Orlandi, Elena; Confalonieri, Corrado; Damonti, Enrico; Riva, Alessandra; Sartori, Alessia; Cavanna, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    Background Cancer patients can be a human model of potential drug interactions. Usually they receive a large number of different medications, including antineoplastic agents, drugs for comorbid illness and medication for supportive care, however information about these interactions are fragmented and poor. Objective We assessed a prospective study to evaluate the prevalence of drug interaction among patients hospitalized in the Onco-Haematology department, Hospital of Piacenza. Methods Data on drugs administered for cancer, comorbidities, or supportive care were collected from different computerized prescription software in use in the department; we compared them with a database to focus on the co-administration of drugs. A literature review was performed to identify major potential drug interaction and to classify them by level of severity and by strengths of scientific evidence. Results In this study 284 cancer patients were enrolled; patients had taken an average of seven drugs on each day of therapy plus chemotherapeutic agents, we identified 67 potential drug interactions. At least 53 patients had one potential drug interaction. Of all potential drug interactions 63 were classified as moderate severity and only four as major. In 55 cases chemotherapeutic agents were involved in possible interactions with supportive care drugs, meanwhile in 12 cases the potential drug interactions were between supportive care drugs. Conclusions In our centre, thanks to a computerized prescription software, integrated with caution alarm in case of possible interaction, we had a lower rate of potential drug interactions than the one from literature. It is possible to improve the software integrating the alarm with the potential drug interactions between chemotherapy agents and supportive care drugs.

  7. Prevalence and Predicting Factors for Commonly Neglected Sexual Side Effects to External-Beam Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Anders; Pedersen, Christian; Lindberg, Henriette; Bisbjerg, Rasmus; Sønksen, Jens; Fode, Mikkel

    2017-04-01

    Changes in sexual function other than erectile dysfunction are sparsely investigated after radiation therapy for prostate cancer. To investigate orgasmic dysfunction, urinary incontinence during sexual activity, changes in penile morphology, and sensory disturbances in the penis in patients with prostate cancer treated with external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT). In February 2015, men treated with EBRT at our center 3 months to 5 years previously (N = 519) received a study-specific questionnaire. This was developed from purpose-built questions and validated tools including the Erection Hardness Scale. All patients had received a radiation dose of 78 Gy. Androgen deprivation therapy was administered according to disease characteristics. Outcome measurements were prevalence rates and predictors of these side effects as identified by multivariate logistic regression analyses. One hundred nine patients were eligible (sexually active and had completed androgen deprivation therapy) for inclusion. Twenty-four percent reported anorgasmia, 44% reported a decreased intensity of their orgasms, and 40% reported that the time it took to reach orgasm had increased. Eleven percent reported anejaculation. Fifteen percent reported orgasm-associated pain. Only 4% reported urinary incontinence during sexual activity. Subjective penile length loss in excess of 1 cm was reported by 42%. Twelve percent reported an altered curvature of their penis after EBRT. Six percent reported painful erections. Twenty-seven percent reported decreased sensitivity in the penis after EBRT, 2% reported a cold sensation, and 2% reported paresthesia. Increasing time since final treatment increased the risk of penile sensory disturbances (odds ratio = 1.05; P = .028). Orgasmic dysfunction, changes in penile morphology, and sensory disturbances in the penis are common side effects of ERBT. Patients should be properly informed of the occurrence of these side effects before deciding which treatment to

  8. Worldwide QA networks for radiotherapy dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izewska, J.; Svensson, H.; Ibbott, G.

    2002-01-01

    A number of national or international organizations have developed various types and levels of external audits for radiotherapy dosimetry. There are three major programmes who make available external audits, based on mailed TLD (thermoluminescent dosimetry), to local radiotherapy centres on a regular basis. These are the IAEA/WHO TLD postal dose audit service operating worldwide, the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ESTRO) system, EQUAL, in European Union (EU) and the Radiological Physics Center (RPC) in North America. The IAEA, in collaboration with WHO, was the first organization to initiate TLD audits on an international scale in 1969, using mailed system, and has a well-established programme for providing dose verification in reference conditions. Over 32 years, the IAEA/WHO TLD audit service has checked the calibration of more than 4300 radiotherapy beams in about 1200 hospitals world-wide. Only 74% of those hospitals who receive TLDs for the first time have results with deviation between measured and stated dose within acceptance limits of ±5%, while approximately 88% of the users that have benefited from a previous TLD audit are successful. EQUAL, an audit programme set up in 1998 by ESTRO, involves the verification of output for high energy photon and electron beams, and the audit of beam parameters in non-reference conditions. More than 300 beams are checked each year, mainly in the countries of EU, covering approximately 500 hospitals. The results show that although 98% of the beam calibrations are within the tolerance level of ±5%, a second check was required in 10% of the participating centres, because a deviation larger than ±5% was observed in at least one of the beam parameters in non-reference conditions. EQUAL has been linked to another European network (EC network) which tested the audit methodology prior to its application. The RPC has been funded continuously since 1968 to monitor radiation therapy dose delivery at

  9. Protein expression profile and prevalence pattern of the molecular classes of breast cancer - a Saudi population based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Tamimi, Dalal M; Shawarby, Mohamed A; Ahmed, Ayesha; Hassan, Ammar K; AlOdaini, Amal A

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is not a single entity but a diverse group of entities. Advances in gene expression profiling and immunohistochemistry as its surrogate marker have led to the unmasking of new breast cancer molecular subtypes, resulting in the emergence of more elaborate classification systems that are therapeutically and prognostically more predictive. Molecular class distribution across various ethnic groups may also reveal variations that can lead to different clinical outcomes in different populations. We aimed to analyze the spectrum of molecular subtypes present in the Saudi population. ER, PR, HER2, EGFR and CK5/6 were used as surrogate markers for gene expression profiling to classify 231 breast cancer specimens. Correlation of each molecular class with Ki-67 proliferation index, p53 mutation status, histologic type and grade of the tumor was also carried out. Out of 231 cases 9 (3.9%) were classified as luminal A (strong ER +ve, PR +ve or -ve), 37 (16%) as luminal B (weak to moderate ER +ve, and/or PR +ve), 40 (17.3%) as HER2+ (strong or moderately positive HER 2 with confirmation by silver enhanced in-situ hybridization) and 23 (10%) as basal (CK5/6 or EGFR +ve). Co-positivity of different markers in varied patterns was seen in 23 (10%) of cases which were grouped into a hybrid category comprising luminal B-HER2, HER2-basal and luminal-basal hybrids. Ninety nine (42.8%) of the tumors were negative for all five immunohistochemical markers and were labelled as unclassified (penta negative). A high Ki-67 proliferation index was seen in basal (p = 0.007) followed by HER2+ class. Overexpression of p53 was predominantly seen in HER2 + (p = 0.001) followed by the basal group of tumors. A strong correlation was noted between invasive lobular carcinoma and hormone receptor expression with 8 out of 9 lobular carcinoma cases (88.9%) classifiable as luminal cancers. Otherwise, there was no association between the molecular class and the histologic type or grade of the

  10. Prevalence and Correlates of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use among Patients with Lung Cancer: A Cross-Sectional Study in Beirut, Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naja, Farah; Anouti, Bilal; Shatila, Hibeh; Akel, Reem; Haibe, Yolla; Tfayli, Arafat

    2017-01-01

    Patients with lung cancer are increasingly seeking complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) to improve their physiological and psychological well-being. This study aimed to assess CAM use among lung cancer patients in Lebanon. Using a cross-sectional design, 150 lung cancer patients attending the Basile Cancer Institute at the American University of Beirut Medical Center were interviewed. Participants completed a questionnaire addressing sociodemographic characteristics, lung cancer condition, and use of CAM. The main outcome of interest was "use of any CAM therapy since diagnosis." Prevalence of CAM use was 41%. The most commonly used CAM modality among study participants was "dietary supplements/special foods." Results of the multiple logistic regression analyses showed that CAM use was positively associated with Lebanese nationality and paying for treatment out of pocket and was negatively associated with unemployment and having other chronic diseases. About 10% of patients used CAM on an alternative base, 58% did not disclose CAM use to their physician, and only 2% cited health professionals as influencing their choice of CAM. This study revealed a prevalent CAM use among lung cancer patients in Lebanon, with a marginal role for physicians in guiding this use. Promoting an open-communication and a patient-centered approach regarding CAM use is warranted.

  11. Young Israeli women with epithelial ovarian cancer: prevalence of BRCA mutations and clinical correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helpman, Limor; Zidan, Omri; Friedman, Eitan; Kalfon, Sarit; Perri, Tamar; Ben-Baruch, Gilad; Korach, Jacob

    2017-09-01

    The current study investigates disease patterns and outcomes in young Israeli epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients and their association with BRCA mutation status. Consecutive EOC patients diagnosed at or below 50 years in a single institution between 1995-2011 were identified. All patients are referred for genetic counseling and testing for the predominant Jewish BRCA mutations: BRCA1-185delAG, BRCA1-5382insC, and BRCA2-6174delT. A comparison between BRCA mutation carriers and non-carriers was undertaken across demographic, pathologic, and clinical features; recurrence and survival were compared using the Kaplan-Meier method and associations with the variables of interest were analyzed using the Cox proportional hazards method. One hundred eighty-six patients diagnosed with EOC at 50 years or younger were included, with a total follow-up of 1,088 person years. Mean age at diagnosis was 44±5 years. Of 113 patients with documented BRCA testing, 49.6% carried a germline BRCA mutation, compared with 29% in the general Israeli EOC population (p=0.001). BRCA mutation carriers had a higher rate of serous tumors (75% vs. 64%, p=0.040) and higher CA125 levels at diagnosis (median, 401 vs. 157, p=0.001) than non-carriers. No significant association between BRCA mutations and recurrence (hazard ratio [HR]=1.03; p=0.940) or survival (HR=1.40; p=0.390) was found. BRCA mutations are encountered in almost 50% of young Israeli ovarian cancer patients; they are associated with serous tumors and high CA125 levels at diagnosis, but are not independently associated with recurrence or survival in this patient population. Copyright © 2017. Asian Society of Gynecologic Oncology, Korean Society of Gynecologic Oncology

  12. Flourishing or floundering? Prevalence and correlates of anxiety and depression among a population-based sample of adult cancer survivors 6months after diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyes, Allison W; Girgis, Afaf; D'Este, Catherine; Zucca, Alison C

    2011-12-01

    To describe the prevalence of anxiety, depression and comorbid anxiety-depression among adult cancer survivors six months following diagnosis, and identify the individual, disease, health behaviour, psychological and social factors associated with psychological morbidity. A population-based sample of adult cancer survivors was recruited from two state-based cancer registries in Australia. Data for 1323 survivors were obtained by self-report questionnaire and linkage with registry data. Anxiety and depression were assessed by the 14-item Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The prevalence of psychological morbidity was 28% (95% CI: 23%-33%). Specifically, 24% (95% CI: 19%-29%) of survivors were identified as cases on anxiety (irrespective of depression), 14% (95% CI: 9%-19%) as cases on depression (irrespective of anxiety) and 10% (95% CI: 5%-15%) as cases on comorbid anxiety-depression. In addition to mental health history prior to cancer, modifiable health behaviours (physical activity, smoking status), psychological (helplessness-hopelessness, anxious preoccupation coping) and social (low positive social interaction) characteristics were stronger indicators of psychological morbidity than survivors' individual or disease characteristics. Psychological morbidity was assessed by self-report screening instrument rather than clinical interview. The extent to which psychological morbidity is age-related versus cancer-related cannot be determined without a gender- and age-matched control group. Although lower than previously reported, psychological morbidity is prevalent six months after a cancer diagnosis and emphasises the need for routine psychosocial assessment throughout the cancer trajectory to identify those at increased risk or in need of immediate intervention. Physical activity, smoking cessation and coping skills training interventions warrant further exploration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Depressão e comportamento suicida em pacientes oncológicos hospitalizados: prevalência e fatores associados Depression and suicidal behavior of cancer inpatients: prevalence and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Caroline Fanger

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar as prevalências de depressão e de comportamento suicida em indivíduos com câncer internados em um hospital geral universitário e fatores associados a essas condições. MÉTODOS: O rastreamento de 5357 pacientes consecutivamente internados utilizou a Escala Hospitalar de Ansiedade e Depressão (HAD e a seção comportamento suicida do Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI. Análises univariadas, com ajustes para sexo e faixa etária, foram feitas tomando-se depressão e comportamento suicida como variáveis dependentes. RESULTADOS: Nos 675 pacientes com câncer, a prevalência de depressão foi 18,3% (IC95% = 15,4 - 21,4. O risco para suicídio estimado pela respectiva seção do MINI foi de 4,7% (IC95% = 3,2 - 6,7. A prevalência de depressão foi maior entre pacientes com câncer do que nos demais pacientes internados (13,2%; p = 0,0009. Associaram-se à depressão (p OBJECTIVE: To determine prevalence rates of depression and suicidal behavior among cancer inpatients and factors associated with these conditions. METHODS: A total of 5357 patients consecutively admitted to a university hospital were assessed by means of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD and the suicide risk section of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI. Univariate analyses adjusted for gender and age groups were performed with depression and suicide risk as dependent variables. RESULTS: Of those assessed, 675 had cancer. The prevalence rates for depression and suicide risk were 18.3% (95%CI = 15.4 - 21.4 and 4.7% (95%CI = 3.2 - 6.7 respectively. Depression was more frequently found in cancer bearers than in the other inpatients (13.2%; p = 0.0009. Female gender, low schooling level, long time of disease, pain, use of psychotropic drugs and suicide risk were associated with depression (p < 0.05. Pain and depression were associated with suicide risk. CONCLUSION: Because prevalence rates of depression and

  14. Implementing visual cervical cancer screening in Senegal: a cross-sectional study of risk factors and prevalence highlighting service utilization barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykens, J Andrew; Linn, Annē M; Irwin, Tracy; Peters, Karen E; Pyra, Maria; Traoré, Fatoumata; Touré Diarra, Mariama; Hasnain, Memoona; Wallner, Katie; Linn, Patrick; Ndiaye, Youssoupha

    2017-01-01

    Senegal ranks 15th in the world in incidence of cervical cancer, the number one cause of cancer mortality among women in this country. The estimated participation rate for cervical cancer screening throughout Senegal is very low (6.9% of women 18-69 years old), especially in rural areas and among older age groups (only 1.9% of women above the age of 40 years). There are no reliable estimates of the prevalence of cervical dysplasia or risk factors for cervical dysplasia specific to rural Senegal. The goals of this study were to estimate the prevalence of cervical dysplasia in a rural region using visual inspection of the cervix with acetic acid (VIA) and to assess risk factors for cervical cancer control. We conducted a cross-sectional study in which we randomly selected 38 villages across the Kédougou region using a three-stage clustering process. Between October 2013 and March 2014, we collected VIA screening results for women aged 30-50 years and cervical cancer risk factors linked to the screening result. We screened 509 women; 5.6% of the estimated target population (9,041) in the region. The point prevalence of cervical dysplasia (positive VIA test) was 2.10% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.99-3.21). Moreover, 287 women completed the cervical cancer risk factor survey (56.4% response rate) and only 38% stated awareness of cervical cancer; 75.9% of the screened women were less than 40 years of age. The overall prevalence of dysplasia in this sample was lower than anticipated. Despite both overall awareness and screening uptake being less than expected, our study highlights the need to address challenges in future prevalence estimates. Principally, we identified that the highest-risk women are the ones least likely to seek screening services, thus illustrating a need to fully understand demand-side barriers to accessing health services in this population. Targeted efforts to educate and motivate older women to seek screenings are needed to sustain an effective

  15. Innovation in Science Education - World-Wide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baez, Albert V.

    The purpose of this book is to promote improvements in science education, world-wide, but particularly in developing countries. It is addressed to those in positions to make effective contributions to the improvement of science education. The world-wide role of science education, the goals of innovative activities, past experience in efforts to…

  16. [Prevalence, clinical-endoscopic characteristics and predictive factors of Barrett's Esophagus in endoscopic screening for gastric cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacaltana, Alfonso; Urday, Carlos; Ramon, Walter; Rodríguez, Carlos; Espinoza, Julio; Velarde, Héctor; Rodríguez, Ivan; Lucho, Elizabeth; Rauch, Erick

    2009-01-01

    Determine the prevalence, clinical-epidemiological characteristics and predictive factors for Barrets Esophagus (BE). An analytical and transversal study was conducted, followed by a case-control study nested in a population participating in a gastric cancer screening campaign, from January to June 2008 at the Central Hospital of the Peruvian Air Force (FAP). A BE case was defined due to the endoscopic presence of columnar-appearing mucosa confirmed by intestinal metaplasia at biopsy. Demographic, clinical and endoscopic variables were evaluated, and bivariate and multivariate studies were conducted to identify predictive risk factors, using patients with gastroesophagic reflux and control patients of the study population as control groups. Out of 2273 patients studied, 11 (0.48%) patients with an average age of 52.2 +/- 7.7 years (43-69 year range) suffered from BE, out of which 81.8% were male. The 81.8% were symptomatic, with dyspepsia in 54.5% and with reflux in 27.3%, while 18.2% were asymptomatic. The short-segment BE was more common than the long-segment BE (72.7% versus 27.3%). The predictive factors found after the bivariate and multivariate analysis (comparing cases versus population control group) were: hiatal hernia [OR = 12.1, CI 95% 2.25 64.75], consumption of AINES [OR = 6.72, CI 95% 1.6-29.1] and consumption of alcohol [OR = 4.22, CI 95% 1.1-16.91]. BE prevalence in the study was low. The presence of hiatal hernia, consumption of AINES, and consumption of alcohol were predictive risk factors to develop BE in the study.

  17. Causes of Death in Men With Prevalent Diabetes and Newly Diagnosed High- Versus Favorable-Risk Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Amico, Anthony V.; Braccioforte, Michelle H.; Moran, Brian J.; Chen, Ming-Hui

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether prevalent diabetes mellitus (pDM) affects the presentation, extent of radiotherapy, or prostate cancer (PCa)-specific mortality (PCSM) and whether PCa aggressiveness affects the risk of non-PCSM, DM-related mortality, and all-cause mortality in men with pDM. Methods: Between October 1997 and July 2907, 5,279 men treated at the Chicago Prostate Cancer Center with radiotherapy for PCa were included in the study. Logistic and competing risk regression analyses were performed to assess whether pDM was associated with high-grade PCa, less aggressive radiotherapy, and an increased risk of PCSM. Competing risks and Cox regression analyses were performed to assess whether PCa aggressiveness described by risk group in men with pDM was associated with the risk of non-PCSM, DM-related mortality, and all-cause mortality. Analyses were adjusted for predictors of high-grade PCa and factors that could affect treatment extent and mortality. Results: Men with pDM were more likely (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR], 1.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-2.7; p = .002) to present with high-grade PCa but were not treated less aggressively (p = .33) and did not have an increased risk of PCSM (p = .58) compared to men without pDM. Among the men with pDM, high-risk PCa was associated with a greater risk of non-PCSM (AHR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.1-4.5; p = .035), DM-related mortality (AHR, 5.2; 95% CI, 2.0-14.0; p = .001), and all-cause mortality (AHR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.2-4.7; p = .01) compared to favorable-risk PCa. Conclusion: Aggressive management of pDM is warranted in men with high-risk PCa.

  18. Prevalence characteristics of high-risk human papillomaviruses in women living in Shanghai with cervical precancerous lesions and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Ying; Ma, Chenyun; Zou, Jue; Zhu, Yi; Yang, Rong; Xu, Yan; Zhang, Yu

    2016-04-26

    A complete understanding of the natural history of infection with high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) in cervical cancer requires data from regional and ethnic studies. The prevalence of high-risk HPVs was evaluated retrospectively in 2040 patients with cervicitis, 239 with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 (CIN1), 242 with CIN2/3, and 42 patients with invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) based on data from patients who visited our hospital between May 2013 and May 2015. The rates of high-risk HPV infection in patients with cervicitis, CIN1, CIN2/3, and invasive SCC were 40.8%, 74.9%, 70.2%, and 83.3%, respectively. The three most dominant HPV genotypes were HPV16, 58, and 52. HPV16 and HPV58 positivity in cervicitis, CIN1, CIN2/3, and SCC patients were 20.9% and 16.4%, 19.0% and 20.1%, 44.1% and 23.5%, and 60.0% and 31.4%, respectively. Compared to cervicitis, the odds ratios (ORs) for CIN2/3 in HPV16- and HPV58-positive patients were 2.99 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.32-4.33) and 1.56 (1.11-3.21), respectively; for SCC, the corresponding values were 5.68 (2.31-7.893) and 2.33 (1.41-3.87). Further identifying of carcinogenic HPVs and a fully aware of regional differences in HPV genotype distribution are tasks of top priority for cervical cancer control and prevention.

  19. Dietary approach to stop hypertension (DASH: diet components may be related to lower prevalence of different kinds of cancer: A review on the related documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokouh Onvani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH eating plan is a healthy dietary pattern. Our object is to review surveys in the field of major components of DASH diet and different kinds of cancers. Materials and Methods: Our search result from PubMed search engine recruited to find related articles. Results: Adherence to the DASH diet components was significantly related to lower prevalence of various cancers due to their high content of fiber, nutrients, vitamins, mineral, and antioxidant capacity. Conclusion: In this review, positive association of DASH diet components and different cancers were observed. However, the exact association of DASH with cancers should be clarified in future longitudinal studies due to potential interaction among foods and nutrients.

  20. BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation prevalence and clinical characteristics of a population-based series of ovarian cancer cases from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soegaard, M.; Kjaer, S.K.; Cox, M.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the prevalence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations and associations with clinical correlates of disease in a population-based series of ovarian cancer cases from Denmark. METHODS: DNA sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis were used to analyze...... the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes for coding sequence mutations and large genomic rearrangements in 445 confirmed cases of ovarian cancer. We evaluated associations between mutation status and clinical characteristics, including cancer risks for first-degree relatives and clinicopathologic features of tumors....... RESULTS: Deleterious BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations were identified in 26 cases; thus, mutations in these genes are responsible for at least 5.8% of ovarian cancer cases in this population. Five different mutations were identified in more than one individual, suggesting that they may be founder mutations...

  1. Prevalence of oral cancer patients at the Pathology Anatomy Department RSUD Tasikmalaya year 2002-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murnisari Dardjan

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Malignancy was included which happened in the oral cavity. Oral cavity cancer is statistically fever than other parts of a body but can to be dead. The incidence of malignancy was increased in the last 50 years throughout the world. The purpose of this research is to get distribution data about oral malignancy cases frequency at Rumah Sakit Umum Daerah/RSUD Tasikmalaya. Rumah Sakit Umum Daerah Tasikmalaya is a Referal Hospital from East Priangan region, West Java Indonesia. This is retrospective descriptive research. Samples were taken from Histopathologic form data patient at RSUD Tasikmalaya from January 2002-December 2007. The result of this study indicated that 15 cases oral malignancy cases from all samples 2943 histopathology specimen in the period. The most malignancy cases of carcinoma were squamous cell carcinoma (98%. Tongue became the most area in this cases which was 46.66%. Oral malignancy were common in men 54%. The group of ages 60-70% became the majority namely 40%. The conclusion of the research indicated that carcinoma cell squamous were became the greatest part of oral malignancy types.

  2. Prevalence of Cancers of Female Organs among Patients with Diabetes Type 2 in Kelantan, Malaysia: Observations over an 11 Year Period and Strategies to Reduce the Incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalil, Nur Asyilla Che; Zin, Anani Aila Mat; Othman, Nor Hayati

    2015-01-01

    Kelantan is one of the states in Malaysia which has a high prevalence of type 2 diabetes (DM2). Other than with endometrial carcinoma, the association of DM2 with particular female cancers is not known. To determine the proportion of breast, cervical, ovarian and endometrial cancers among females with DM2 diagnosed in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM) over an 11 year period. All histologically confirmed cases of breast, endometrial, cervical and ovarian carcinomas admitted to the Hospital were included in the study. The patient diabetic status was traced from the hospital medical records. There was a total of 860 cases of breast, cervical, ovarian and endometrial carcinomas over this period. Breast carcinoma was the commonest, accounting for 437/860 (50.8%) followed by cervix, 159/860 (18.5%), ovarian, 143/860 (16.6%) and endometrial carcinomas, 121/860 (14.1%). Out of these, 228/860 (26.5%) were confirmed diabetics. Endometrial carcinoma patients showed the highest proportion being diabetics, 42.1% (51/121), followed by ovarian cancer, 25.9% (37/143), breast carcinoma, 23.6% (103/437) and cervical cancer 23.3% (37/159). There is a significant proportion of DM2 among women with these four cancers, endometrial carcinoma being the highest followed by ovarian, breast and cervical carcinoma. The rising trend of these four cancers is in tandem with an increasing trend of DM2 in the community. In populations where diabetes is prevalent, screening for epithelial cancers should be rigourous. Diabetic clinics should include screening for these cancers among their female patients and gynecology clinics should screen the women they treat for their diabetes status.

  3. Prevalence of papillomaviruses, polyomaviruses, and herpesviruses in triple-negative and inflammatory breast tumors from algeria compared with other types of breast cancer tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilys Corbex

    Full Text Available The possible role of viruses in breast cancer etiology remains an unresolved question. We hypothesized that if some viruses are involved, it may be in a subgroup of breast cancers only. Epidemiological arguments drove our interest in breast cancer subgroups that are more frequent in Africa, namely inflammatory breast cancer (IBC and triple-negative breast cancer. We tested whether viral prevalence was significantly higher in these subgroups.One hundred fifty-five paraffin-embedded malignant breast tumors were randomly selected at the pathology laboratory of the University Hospital of Annaba (Algeria to include one third of IBC and two thirds of non-IBC. They were tested for the presence of DNA from 61 viral agents (46 human papillomaviruses, 10 polyomaviruses, and 5 herpesviruses using type-specific multiplex genotyping assays, which combine multiplex PCR and bead-based Luminex technology.Viral DNA was found in 22 (17.9% of 123 tumors. The most prevalent viruses were EBV1 and HPV16. IBC tumors carried significantly more viruses (any type than non-IBC tumors (30% vs. 13%, p<0.04. Similarly, triple-negative tumors displayed higher virus-positivity than non-triple-negative tumors (44% vs. 14%, p<0.009.Our results suggest an association between the presence of viral DNA and aggressive breast cancer phenotypes (IBC, triple-negative. While preliminary, they underline the importance of focusing on subgroups when studying viral etiology in breast cancer. Further studies on viruses in breast cancer should be conducted in much larger samples to confirm these initial findings.

  4. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms Among Bereaved Family Members of Cancer Patients in Korea: A Nation-Wide Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jho, Hyun Jung; Choi, Jin Young; Kwak, Kiu Sang; Chang, Yoon Jung; Ahn, Eun Mi; Park, Eun Jung; Paek, Soo Jin; Kim, Kyoung Mee; Kim, Soo Hyun

    2016-05-01

    Bereaved family members of cancer patient are at risk of having psychological problems such as anxiety and depression. However, prevalence and associated factors of anxiety and depressive symptoms among this population have not been explored in Korea.We conducted a nation-wide cross-sectional questionnaire survey of 3522 bereaved family members of cancer patients who died at 44 hospice palliative care unit (HPCU) in Korea in 2012. The questionnaire comprised the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Good Death Inventory (GDI). Deceased patient's age, sex, primary site of cancer, duration of stay at HPCU, awareness of terminal status, bereaved family member's age, sex, and relation to the deceased were collected from Korean Terminal Cancer Patients Information System.1121 returned questionnaires were analyzed (response rate, 31.8%). Using a cut-off value of 8 for HADS subscale, the prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms was 48.0% and 57.6%, respectively. Mean scores for HADS-A and HADS-D were 7.88 ± 4.87 and 8.91 ± 4.82, respectively. Among the bereaved, older age, being a spouse to the deceased, family members of younger patient, and negative score for a few GDI items were significantly associated with an increased risk of having anxiety or depressive symptoms in the multivariate logistic analysis.In conclusion, we noted the high prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms among the bereaved of cancer patients and identified associated factors for these psychological morbidities. Systematic efforts are needed to improve the mental health of the bereaved family members of cancer patients.

  5. Prevalence of the HOXB13 G84E germline mutation in British men and correlation with prostate cancer risk, tumour characteristics and clinical outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kote-Jarai, Z; Mikropoulos, C; Leongamornlert, D A

    2015-01-01

    -nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with PrCa and the HOXB13 G84E variant act multiplicatively on PrCa risk. Based on the estimated prevalence and risk, this rare variant explains ∼1% of the familial risk of PrCa in the UK population. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical importance of HOXB13 G84E in PrCa management has...... not been established. This variant was found to have no effect on prognostic implications but could be used for stratifying screening, by identifying men at high risk. CLINICAL TRIALS NUMBERS: Prostate Testing for Cancer and Treatment (ProtecT): NCT02044172. UK GENETIC PROSTATE CANCER STUDY: Epidemiology...

  6. Heart failure: preventing disease and death worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponikowski, Piotr; Anker, Stefan D; AlHabib, Khalid F; Cowie, Martin R; Force, Thomas L; Hu, Shengshou; Jaarsma, Tiny; Krum, Henry; Rastogi, Vishal; Rohde, Luis E; Samal, Umesh C; Shimokawa, Hiroaki; Budi Siswanto, Bambang; Sliwa, Karen; Filippatos, Gerasimos

    2014-09-01

    Heart failure is a life-threatening disease and addressing it should be considered a global health priority. At present, approximately 26 million people worldwide are living with heart failure. The outlook for such patients is poor, with survival rates worse than those for bowel, breast or prostate cancer. Furthermore, heart failure places great stresses on patients, caregivers and healthcare systems. Demands on healthcare services, in particular, are predicted to increase dramatically over the next decade as patient numbers rise owing to ageing populations, detrimental lifestyle changes and improved survival of those who go on to develop heart failure as the final stage of another disease. It is time to ease the strain on healthcare systems through clear policy initiatives that prioritize heart failure prevention and champion equity of care for all. Despite the burdens that heart failure imposes on society, awareness of the disease is poor. As a result, many premature deaths occur. This is in spite of the fact that most types of heart failure are preventable and that a healthy lifestyle can reduce risk. Even after heart failure has developed, premature deaths could be prevented if people were taught to recognize the symptoms and seek immediate medical attention. Public awareness campaigns focusing on these messages have great potential to improve outcomes for patients with heart failure and ultimately to save lives. Compliance with clinical practice guidelines is also associated with improved outcomes for patients with heart failure. However, in many countries, there is considerable variation in how closely physicians follow guideline recommendations. To promote equity of care, improvements should be encouraged through the use of hospital performance measures and incentives appropriate to the locality. To this end, policies should promote the research required to establish an evidence base for performance measures that reflect improved outcomes for patients

  7. A systematic review of salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia induced by cancer therapies: prevalence, severity and impact on quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, S B; Pedersen, A M L; Vissink, A; Andersen, E; Brown, C G; Davies, A N; Dutilh, J; Fulton, J S; Jankovic, L; Lopes, N N F; Mello, A L S; Muniz, L V; Murdoch-Kinch, C A; Nair, R G; Napeñas, J J; Nogueira-Rodrigues, A; Saunders, D; Stirling, B; von Bültzingslöwen, I; Weikel, D S; Elting, L S; Spijkervet, F K L; Brennan, M T

    2010-08-01

    This systematic review aimed to assess the literature for prevalence, severity, and impact on quality of life of salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia induced by cancer therapies. The electronic databases of MEDLINE/PubMed and EMBASE were searched for articles published in English since the 1989 NIH Development Consensus Conference on the Oral Complications of Cancer Therapies until 2008 inclusive. Two independent reviewers extracted information regarding study design, study population, interventions, outcome measures, results and conclusions for each article. The inclusion criteria were met by 184 articles covering salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia induced by conventional, 3D conformal radiotherapy or intensity-modulated radiotherapy in head and neck cancer patients, cancer chemotherapy, total body irradiation/hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, radioactive iodine treatment, and immunotherapy. Salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia are induced by radiotherapy in the head and neck region depending on the cumulative radiation dose to the gland tissue. Treatment focus should be on optimized/new approaches to further reduce the dose to the parotids, and particularly submandibular and minor salivary glands, as these glands are major contributors to moistening of oral tissues. Other cancer treatments also induce salivary gland hypofunction, although to a lesser severity, and in the case of chemotherapy and immunotherapy, the adverse effect is temporary. Fields of sparse literature included pediatric cancer populations, cancer chemotherapy, radioactive iodine treatment, total body irradiation/hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and immunotherapy.

  8. Prevalence and Assessment of Various Risk Factors among Oral Cancer Cases in a Rural Area of Maharashtra State, India - An Epidemiological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant J. Pawar

    2015-01-01

    patients in males were 79% and in females 61% .Conclusion: The present study findings suggest that prevalence of oral cancer is more among tobacco users especially those using tobacco quid which is more common among Indian women which is in line with most of the epidemiological studies about oral cancer in India. There is an urgent need to implement and sustain appropriate preventive measures and oral cancer screening programmes for the communit

  9. Self-reported arm-lymphedema and functional impairment after breast cancer treatment--a nationwide study of prevalence and associated factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gärtner, Rune; Jensen, Maj-Britt; Kronborg, Lise

    2010-01-01

    Lymphedema and impairment of function are well-established sequelae to breast cancer treatment and affect an increasing number of women due to continually improved survival. The aim of the present nationwide questionnaire study was to examine the impact of breast cancer treatment on perceived....../heaviness varied from 13 to 65%. Associated factors were young age, axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) and radiotherapy but not type of breast surgery or use of chemotherapy. Depending on treatment group 11-44% had to give up activities. Giving up activities was associated with pain and swelling...... swelling/sensation of heaviness (lymphedema) and on function, reporting prevalence in 12 subgroups of modern treatment and offering estimates for treatment-related associated factors. 3253 Women (87%) returned the study questionnaire. Depending on treatment group prevalence of perceived swelling...

  10. Multi-site study of HPV type-specific prevalence in women with cervical cancer, intraepithelial neoplasia and normal cytology, in England

    OpenAIRE

    Howell-Jones, R; Bailey, A; Beddows, S; Sargent, A; de Silva, N; Wilson, G; Anton, J; Nichols, T; Soldan, K; Kitchener, H

    2010-01-01

    Background: Knowledge of the prevalence of type-specific human papillomavirus (HPV) infections is necessary to predict the expected, and to monitor the actual, impact of HPV immunisation and to design effective screening strategies for vaccinated populations. Methods: Residual specimens of cervical cytology (N=4719), CIN3/CGIN and cervical cancer biopsies (N=1515) were obtained from sites throughout England, anonymised and tested for HPV DNA using the Linear Array typing system (Roche). Resul...

  11. Worldwide Environmental Compliance Assessment System (ECAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-01

    parking lots - toxic air pollutants - indoor air pollution.) 1-4. Preventive Medi- Determine if an emission inventory has been completed recently or cine ...Worldwide ECAS STATUS NA C RMA REVIEWER COMMENTS: 9 (1) Directorae of Enginering and Housing (DEH) (2) Envirnmental Coordinator (EC) (3) Preventive...HAZARDOUS MATERIALS MANAGEMENT Worldwide ECAS STATUS NA C RMA REVIEWER COMMENTS: (1) Directorae of Engineering and Housing (DEH) (2) Environmenta

  12. Using stool antigen to screen for Helicobacter pylori in immigrants and refugees from high prevalence countries is relatively cost effective in reducing the burden of gastric cancer and peptic ulceration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R Schulz

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Refugees and immigrants from developing countries settling in industrialised countries have a high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori. Screening these groups for H. pylori and use of eradication therapy to reduce the future burden of gastric cancer and peptic ulcer disease is not currently recommended in most countries. We investigated whether a screening and eradication approach would be cost effective in high prevalence populations. METHODS: Nine different screening and follow-up strategies for asymptomatic immigrants from high H. pylori prevalence areas were compared with the current approach of no screening. Cost effectiveness comparisons assumed population prevalence's of H. pylori of 25%, 50% or 75%. The main outcome measure was the net cost for each cancer prevented for each strategy. Total costs of each strategy and net costs including savings from reductions in ulcers and gastric cancer were also calculated. RESULTS: Stool antigen testing with repeat testing after treatment was the most cost effective approach relative to others, for each prevalence value. The net cost per cancer prevented with this strategy was US$111,800 (assuming 75% prevalence, $132,300 (50% and $193,900 (25%. A test and treat strategy using stool antigen remained relatively cost effective, even when the prevalence was 25%. CONCLUSIONS: H. pylori screening and eradication can be an effective strategy for reducing rates of gastric cancer and peptic ulcers in high prevalence populations and our data suggest that use of stool antigen testing is the most cost effective approach.

  13. Prevalence and Risk Assessment of Cervical Cancer Screening by Papanicolaou Smear and Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid for Pregnant Women at a Thai Provincial Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lertcharernrit, Jiraporn; Sananpanichkul, Panya; Suknikhom, Wineeya; Bhamarapravatana, Kornkarn; Suwannarurk, Komsun; Leaungsomnapa, Yosapon

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common in Thailand, but the mortality rate may be rising yearly. It is a cancer that can be prevented by early screening for precancerous lesions, several methods being available. To identify the prevalence of abnormal Papanicolaou (Pap) smears and lesions with visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) in pregnant women and assess risk factors for this group. This prospective study was performed at Prapokklao Hospital, Thailand during April-July 2016. All pregnant women of gestational age between 12-36 weeks who attended an antenatal clinic were recruited. All participants were screened for cervical cancer by Pap smear and VIA. If results of one or both were abnormal, colposcopic examination was evaluated by gynecologic oncologist. A total of 414 pregnant women were recruited. Prevalence of abnormal Pap smear and VIA were 6.0 and 6.7 percent, respectively. The most common abnormal Pap smear was low grade intraepithelial lesion (LSIL, 44%). Factors associated with abnormal Pap smear in pregnant women were low BMI, multiple partners and being a government officer. In pregnancy, Pap smear had higher sensitivity and specificity than VIA for detection of precancerous cervical lesion. Patients with young coitarche or more than 25 years of active sexual activity were high risk groups. Prevalence of abnormal Pap smear and VIA in pregnant women was 6.0 and 6.7 percent, respectively. Factors associated with abnormal Pap smear were coitarche, years of sexual activity, low BMI, multiple partners and being a government officer.

  14. The prevalence of severe pain, its etiopathological characteristics and treatment profile of patients referred to a tertiary cancer care pain clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, P N; Pai, Kaveri; Chatterjee, Aparna S

    2015-01-01

    Pain is the most feared symptom in cancer. About 52-77% patients suffer pain despite World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. Out of total, one-third patients suffer moderate to severe pain. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence, etiopathogenesis and characteristics of severe pain and treatment response among pain clinic referrals in a busy tertiary care cancer center. This study found a high prevalence (31.5%) of severe pain. A total of 251 patients who had complete pain data were analyzed for etiopathological characteristics and treatment response. Head and neck cancer contributed the highest prevalence among all regions. Oncologists prescribed non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or paracetamol with or without mild opioids to 14% patients and pain clinic physicians prescribed opioids and overall 63.7% patients had a better response after pain clinic referral, even then, morphine was not prescribed to many deserving patients. Doctors need pain education about opioids to remove any fear of prescribing opioids in presence of severe pain.

  15. Implementing visual cervical cancer screening in Senegal: a cross-sectional study of risk factors and prevalence highlighting service utilization barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dykens JA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available J Andrew Dykens,1–4 Annē M Linn,5,6 Tracy Irwin,7 Karen E Peters,8 Maria Pyra,8 Fatoumata Traoré,9 Mariama Touré Diarra,9,☪ Memoona Hasnain,1,10 Katie Wallner,11 Patrick Linn,11 Youssoupha Ndiaye12 1Department of Family Medicine, College of Medicine, 2Center for Global Health, 3Institute for Health Research and Policy, 4Cancer Center, Hospital and Health Sciences System, University of Illinois at Chicago, IL, USA; 5Master’s International Graduate School Program, Peace Corps, Dakar, Senegal; 6Rutgers School of Nursing, Newark, NJ, 7Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 8School of Public Health, University of Illinois at Chicago, IL, USA; 9Regional Ministry of Health and Social Affairs, Kédougou, Senegal; 10Foundation for Advancement of International Medical Education and Research, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 11Peace Corps, Dakar, 12Regional Ministry of Health and Social Affairs, Sédhiou, Senegal ☪Mariama Touré Diarra passed away on March 21, 2015 Background: Senegal ranks 15th in the world in incidence of cervical cancer, the number one cause of cancer mortality among women in this country. The estimated participation rate for cervical cancer screening throughout Senegal is very low (6.9% of women 18–69 years old, especially in rural areas and among older age groups (only 1.9% of women above the age of 40 years. There are no reliable estimates of the prevalence of cervical dysplasia or risk factors for cervical dysplasia specific to rural Senegal. The goals of this study were to estimate the prevalence of cervical dysplasia in a rural region using visual inspection of the cervix with acetic acid (VIA and to assess risk factors for cervical cancer control. Patients and methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study in which we randomly selected 38 villages across the Kédougou region using a three-stage clustering process. Between October 2013 and March 2014, we collected VIA screening results for women aged 30–50 years and

  16. [PREVENTION AND EARLY DETECTION OF COLORECTAL CANCER].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, B Bergman

    2015-11-01

    Colorectal cancer is a global problem worldwide because of its very high prevalence and mortality. Therefore, prevention of colorectal cancer and its early diagnosis is of great importance. In Croatia, the National Program for Colorectal Cancer has been carried out since 2007; however, the rate of response was about 18 percent, depending on the region. Such a great public health and social and economic problem requires multidisciplinary approach in which family physicians have an important role. The well spread and developed network of primary health care and the availability of family physicians to each inhabitant have not been sufficiently exploited, especially for such preventive activities where family physicians could supervise program implementation.

  17. Impact of replacing cytology with human papillomavirus testing for cervical cancer screening on the prevalence ofTrichomonas vaginalis: a modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Ben B; Reulein, Caitlin P; Guy, Rebecca J; Donovan, Basil; Hocking, Jane S; Law, Matthew G; Regan, David G

    2018-01-11

    Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) is the most common curable STI worldwide and is associated with increased risk of HIV acquisition and serious reproductive morbidities. The prevalence of TV infection is very low in Australian cities, and this is thought to be at least partly due to incidental detection and treatment of TV in women participating in the cervical cytology screening programme. In 2017, the national cervical screening programme will transition to a new model based on testing for high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV), with a reduced frequency and commencement at an older age. We model the potential impact of this transition on TV prevalence in Australia. A mathematical model was developed to describe the transmission of TV in the general population and used to evaluate scenarios that capture the switch from cytology-based screening to HR HPV testing. Under these scenarios, individuals with asymptomatic TV who test negative for HR HPV will remain undiagnosed and untreated. We estimate the change in TV prevalence expected to occur due to the switch from cytology to HR HPV testing and changes to the frequency and age at commencement of screening. Our results suggest that with the transition to HR HPV testing, TV prevalence may increase from the current ~0.4% to 2.8% within 20 years if TV testing coverage is not increased and HR HPV prevalence does not decline further. If HR HPV prevalence continues to decline at its current rate with ongoing vaccination, TV prevalence is predicted to increase to 3.0% within this time frame. Our modelling suggests that in a setting like Australia, where TV can be detected incidentally through cytology-based cervical screening, a transition to HPV testing is likely to result in increasing TV prevalence over time unless additional measures are implemented to increase TV testing and treatment. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial

  18. Prevalence of Germline Mutations in Genes Engaged in DNA Damage Repair by Homologous Recombination in Patients with Triple-Negative and Hereditary Non-Triple-Negative Breast Cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Domagala

    Full Text Available This study sought to assess the prevalence of common germline mutations in several genes engaged in the repair of DNA double-strand break by homologous recombination in patients with triple-negative breast cancers and hereditary non-triple-negative breast cancers. Tumors deficient in this type of DNA damage repair are known to be especially sensitive to DNA cross-linking agents (e.g., platinum drugs and to poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP inhibitors.Genetic testing was performed for 36 common germline mutations in genes engaged in the repair of DNA by homologous recombination, i.e., BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2, NBN, ATM, PALB2, BARD1, and RAD51D, in 202 consecutive patients with triple-negative breast cancers and hereditary non-triple-negative breast cancers.Thirty five (22.2% of 158 patients in the triple-negative group carried mutations in genes involved in DNA repair by homologous recombination, while 10 (22.7% of the 44 patients in the hereditary non-triple-negative group carried such mutations. Mutations in BRCA1 were most frequent in patients with triple-negative breast cancer (18.4%, and mutations in CHEK2 were most frequent in patients with hereditary non-triple-negative breast cancers (15.9%. In addition, in the triple-negative group, mutations in CHEK2, NBN, and ATM (3.8% combined were found, while mutations in BRCA1, NBN, and PALB2 (6.8% combined were identified in the hereditary non-triple-negative group.Identifying mutations in genes engaged in DNA damage repair by homologous recombination other than BRCA1/2 can substantially increase the proportion of patients with triple-negative breast cancer and hereditary non-triple-negative breast cancer who may be eligible for therapy using PARP inhibitors and platinum drugs.

  19. Detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA prevalence and p53 codon 72 (Arg72Pro) polymorphism in prostate cancer in a Greek group of patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michopoulou, Vasiliki; Derdas, Stavros P; Symvoulakis, Emmanouil; Mourmouras, Nikolaos; Nomikos, Alexandros; Delakas, Dimitris; Sourvinos, George; Spandidos, Demetrios A

    2014-12-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common neoplasm found in males and the second most frequent cause of cancer-related mortality in males in Greece. Among other pathogens, the detection frequency of human papillomavirus (HPV) has been found to be significantly increased in tumor tissues among patients with sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), depending on the geographical distribution of each population studied. The present study focused on the detection of HPV and the distribution of Arg72Pro p53 polymorphism in a cohort of healthy individuals, as well as prostate cancer patients. We investigated the presence of HPV in 50 paraffin-embedded prostate cancer tissues, as well as in 30 physiological tissue samples from healthy individuals by real-time PCR. Furthermore, the same group of patients was also screened for the presence of the Arg72Pro polymorphism of the p53 gene, a p53 polymorphism related to HPV. Out of the 30 control samples, only 1 was found positive for HPV (3.33 %). On the contrary, HPV DNA was detected in 8 out of the total 50 samples (16 %) in the prostate cancer samples. The distribution of the three genotypes, Arg/Arg, Arg/Pro, and Pro/Pro, was 69.6, 21.7, and 8.7 % in the cancer patients and 75.0, 17.86, and 7.14 % in healthy controls, respectively. No statistically significant association was observed between the HPV presence and the age, stage, p53 polymorphism status at codon 72, or PSA. The increased prevalence of HPV detected in the prostate cancer tissues is in agreement with that reported in previous studies, further supporting the association of HPV infection and prostate cancer.

  20. Prevalence of hypertension determined by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) and body composition in long-term survivors of childhood cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guler, Elif; Col, Nilgun; Buyukcelik, Mithat; Balat, Ayse

    2018-02-01

    In recent years, survival rates of childhood cancers have significantly increased, and occurrence of long-term adverse late effects (eg, insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, hypertension) has become increasingly important. Early diagnosis of obesity/hypertension in childhood is essential to avoid morbidity in the adulthood. Therefore, this study was aimed to determine the blood pressure (BP) profile by ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) method, and prevalence of hypertension, obesity, abdominal obesity among childhood cancer survivors. The study was carried out with 52 cancer survivors. The ABPM measurement was performed during 24 hours. The anthropometric measurements of patients were performed using standardized protocols. The body composition analysis was performed with bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) method. Statistical significance was considered at p < 0.05. The mean age of patients was 12.84 ± 3.88 years. Time off therapy ranged 24-125 month. The prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension were 57.7% and 9.6%, respectively. There was no statistically significant relationship between diagnosis and BP status (p = 0.59). The prevalence of obesity, and abdominal obesity were 1.9% and 30.4%, respectively. There was a positive correlation between waist circumference (WC) and time off therapy (p = 0.046). The WC was found to be higher in patients who received cranial irradiation (p = 0.048). Weight/WC were higher in patients who used corticosteroids in the treatment (p = 0.019). Careful follow up of BP, weight and WC is necessary for long-term cancer survivors to prevent complications. Especially patients who receive cranial radiotherapy and use corticosteroid are at increased risk of abdominal obesity.

  1. Type-specific HPV prevalence in invasive cervical cancer in the UK prior to national HPV immunisation programme: baseline for monitoring the effects of immunisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesher, David; Cuschieri, Kate; Hibbitts, Sam; Jamison, Jackie; Sargent, Alex; Pollock, Kevin G; Powell, Ned; Wilson, Robbie; McCall, Fiona; Fiander, Alison; Soldan, Kate

    2015-02-01

    To establish the human papillomavirus (HPV) type-specific prevalence in cervical cancer and high-grade cervical lesions in the UK prior to the introduction of national HPV vaccination. Specimens of cervical cancer (n=1235) and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)3 (n=2268) were tested for HPV genotypes in England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. Data were pooled and weighted estimates presented. Among cervical cancer cases, 95.8% were positive for at least one high-risk (HR) HPV type. Restricting to those with HR HPV, the proportion positive for HPV16 and/or HPV18 was similar across countries (weighted overall prevalence 83.0%). This proportion decreased with increasing age at diagnosis (p=0.0005). HPV31, HPV33, HPV45, HPV52 and/or HPV58 were detected in 16.1% of HR HPV-positive cervical cancers and there was no significant association with age for these types. For HR HPV-positive CIN3 cases, there was a similar age-specific pattern with the highest positivity of HPV16 and/or HPV18 in the youngest age group (77.2%). The proportion of HR HPV CIN3 cases positive for HPV31, HPV33, HPV45, HPV52 and/or HPV58 was 36.3% in those aged type-specific HPV prevalence in cervical disease. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. [Prevalence of breast cancer sub-types by immunohistochemistry in patients in the Regional General Hospital 72, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer mortality has increased in women 25 years and over, and since 2006 it has surpassed cervical cancer. Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease, with several clinical and histological presentations that require a thorough study of all clinical and pathological parameters, including immunohistochemistry to classify it into subtypes, have a better prognosis, provide individualised treatment, increase survival, and reduce mortality. To evaluate the prevalence of sub-types of breast cancer and the association with the clinical and histopathological features of the tumour. An observational, retrospective, cross-sectional and analytical study conducted on 1380 patients with a diagnosis of breast cancer have been classified by immunohistochemistry into four subtypes: luminal A, triple negative, luminal B and HER2. An analysis was performed on the association with age, risk factors, and the clinical and histopathological features of the tumour. The mean age of the patients was 53.3 ± 11.4. The frequency was luminal A (65%), triple negative (14%), luminal B (12%), and HER2 (9%). The most frequent characteristics were the 50 to 59 age range, late menopause, the right side, upper external quadrant, stage II, metastatic lymph nodes, and mastectomy. The most frequent sub-type was luminal A, and together with the luminal B are those which have better prognosis compared with the triple negative and HER2. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  3. The prevalence and factors for cancer screening behavior among people with severe mental illness in Hong Kong.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phoenix Kit Han Mo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Screening is useful in reducing cancer incidence and mortality. People with severe mental illness (PSMI are vulnerable to cancer as they are exposed to higher levels of cancer risks. Little is known about PSMI's cancer screening behavior and associated factors. The present study examined the utilization of breast, cervical, prostate, and colorectal cancer screening among PSMI in Hong Kong and to identify factors associated with their screening behaviors. METHOD: 591 PSMI from community mental health services completed a cross-sectional survey. RESULTS: The percentage of cancer screening behavior among those who met the criteria for particular screening recommendation was as follows: 20.8% for mammography; 36.5% for clinical breast examination (CBE; 40.5% for pap-smear test; 12.8% for prostate examination; and 21.6% for colorectal cancer screening. Results from logistic regression analyses showed that marital status was a significant factor for mammography, CBE, and pap-smear test; belief that cancer can be healed if found early was a significant factor for pap-smear test and colorectal screening; belief that one can have cancer without having symptoms was a significant factor for CBE and pap-smear test; belief that one will have a higher risk if a family member has had cancer was a significant factor for CBE; and self-efficacy was a significant factor for CBE and pap-smear test behavior. CONCLUSIONS: Cancer screening utilization among PSMI in Hong Kong is low. Beliefs about cancer and self-efficacy are associated with cancer screening behavior. Health care professionals should improve the knowledge and remove the misconceptions about cancer among PSMI; self-efficacy should also be promoted.

  4. World-wide distribution automation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devaney, T.M.

    1994-01-01

    A worldwide power distribution automation system is outlined. Distribution automation is defined and the status of utility automation is discussed. Other topics discussed include a distribution management system, substation feeder, and customer functions, potential benefits, automation costs, planning and engineering considerations, automation trends, databases, system operation, computer modeling of system, and distribution management systems

  5. Equipment and services for worldwide applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    The report presents a digest of geothermal energy technology. The worldwide distribution of geothermal resources is described, and the degree to which various countries are exploiting their resources estimated. Detailed information about US technologies is presented, from exploration through applications to cost factors. (ACR)

  6. WorldWide Web: Hypertext from CERN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Gord

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of software tools for accessing information on the Internet focuses on the WorldWideWeb (WWW) system, which was developed at the European Particle Physics Laboratory (CERN) in Switzerland to build a worldwide network of hypertext links using available networking technology. Its potential for use with multimedia documents is also…

  7. Prevalence and severity of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women worldwide and the leading cause of cancer deaths in Tanzanian women. Prevention of cervical cancer relies on the detection and treatment of Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion (SIL), a premalignant disease stage. Worldwide there are overwhelming ...

  8. Prevalence of the BRCA1 founder mutation c.5266dupin Brazilian individuals at-risk for the hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewald Ingrid P

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract About 5-10% of breast and ovarian carcinomas are hereditary and most of these result from germline mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. In women of Ashkenazi Jewish ascendance, up to 30% of breast and ovarian carcinomas may be attributable to mutations in these genes, where 3 founder mutations, c.68_69del (185delAG and c.5266dup (5382insC in BRCA1 and c.5946del (6174delT in BRCA2, are commonly encountered. It has been suggested by some authors that screening for founder mutations should be undertaken in all Brazilian women with breast cancer. Thus, the goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of three founder mutations, commonly identified in Ashkenazi individuals in a sample of non-Ashkenazi cancer-affected Brazilian women with clearly defined risk factors for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC syndrome. Among 137 unrelated Brazilian women from HBOC families, the BRCA1c.5266dup mutation was identified in seven individuals (5%. This prevalence is similar to that encountered in non-Ashkenazi HBOC families in other populations. However, among patients with bilateral breast cancer, the frequency of c.5266dup was significantly higher when compared to patients with unilateral breast tumors (12.1% vs 1.2%, p = 0.023. The BRCA1 c.68_69del and BRCA2 c.5946del mutations did not occur in this sample. We conclude that screening non-Ashkenazi breast cancer-affected women from the ethnically heterogeneous Brazilian populations for the BRCA1 c.68_69del and BRCA2 c.5946del is not justified, and that screening for BRCA1c.5266dup should be considered in high risk patients, given its prevalence as a single mutation. In high-risk patients, a negative screening result should always be followed by comprehensive BRCA gene testing. The finding of a significantly higher frequency of BRCA1 c.5266dup in women with bilateral breast cancer, as well as existence of other as yet unidentified founder mutations in this population, should be

  9. High prevalence and low E6 genetic variability of human papillomavirus 58 in women with cervical cancer and precursor lesions in Southeast Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canche, Jaqueline Canul; López, Iván Rosado; Suárez, Nicolás G; Acosta, Gladis Colli; Conde-Ferráez, Laura; Cetina, Thelma Canto de; Losa, María R González

    2010-03-01

    Infection with some genotypes of human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most important risk factor associated with cervical cancer (CC). Throughout the world, HPV type 58 prevalence varies from one region to another; it is higher in women from certain countries in Asia and Latin America, such as China and Mexico. Although intratypic variants have been reported on a few occasions, our knowledge about HPV 58 genetic variation remains limited. Therefore, this work aims to (i) determine the prevalence of HPV type 58 amongst Mexican women with invasive CC or precursor lesions and (ii) identify HPV 58 sequence variants. One hundred and forty five colposcopy clinic patients were studied. Genotyping of HPV 16, 18 and 58 was determined by specific nested PCR and HPV 58 variants were detected by direct sequencing. The general prevalence of HPV was 51.7% (75/145). HPV 16 was found in 30.6% (23/75) and HPV 58 in 24% (18/75) of the patients. HPV 18 was not identified in patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade I; it was only found in those with CIN II, with a prevalence of 6.8% (3/44). In patients with CC, the prevalence of HPV 16 and 58 was 78.9%. Regarding HPV 58 variants, 94.4% of the HPV 58 sequences were identical to the prototype strain, whereas one sample showed changes at a single nucleotide. This study demonstrates a high prevalence of HPV 58 and a low genetic variability of E6 sequences amongst Mexican colposcopy patients.

  10. Prevalence of COPD in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Peder; Løkke, Anders; Marott, Jacob Louis

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: COPD is a leading cause of death worldwide; however, prevalence estimates have varied considerably in previous studies. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and severity of COPD in Copenhagen using data from the 4th examination of The Copenhagen City Heart Study, to investig...

  11. Prevalence of COPD in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Peder; Løkke, Anders; Marott, Jacob Louis

    2011-01-01

    COPD is a leading cause of death worldwide; however, prevalence estimates have varied considerably in previous studies. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and severity of COPD in Copenhagen using data from the 4th examination of The Copenhagen City Heart Study, to investigate...

  12. Prevalence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations in families with medium and high risk of breast and ovarian cancer in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.F. Esteves

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Of all malignant neoplasias affecting women, breast cancer has the highest incidence rate in Brazil. The objective of the present study was to determine the frequency of genetic modifications in families with medium and high risk for breast and ovarian cancer from different regions of Brazil. An exploratory, descriptive study was carried out on the prevalence of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in case series of high-risk families for breast and/or ovarian cancer. After heredogram construction, a blood sample was taken and DNA extraction was performed in all index cases. The protein truncation test was used to screen for truncated mutations in exon 11 of the BRCA1 gene and in exons 10 and 11 of the BRCA2 gene. Of the 612 individuals submitted to genetic testing, 21 (3.4%, 19 women and 2 men, had mutations in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes. Of the 19 BRCA1 mutations found in the 18 participants, 7 consisted of ins6kb mutations, 4 were 5382insC, 3 were 2156delGinsCC, 2 were 185delAG, 1 was C1201G, 1 was C3522T, and 1 was 3450del4. With respect to the BRCA2 gene, 3 mutations were found: 5878del10, 5036delA and 4232insA (one case each. The prevalence of germline mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes found in the present study was lower than reported by other studies on high-risk Brazilian populations. The inclusion of individuals with medium risk may have contributed to the lower prevalence observed.

  13. Prevalence of iodine- and thyroglobulin-negative findings in differentiated thyroid cancer. A retrospective analysis of patients treated from 1961 to 1998 in a university hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klutmann, S.; Jenicke, L.; Geiss-Toenshoff, M.; Bohuslavizki, K.H.; Mester, J.; Clausen, M.

    2001-01-01

    Aim: The prevalence of iodine- and thyroglobulin-negative findings was evaluated in all patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) treated from 1961 until 1998 at the Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf. Methods: A total of 490 patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PCA) and 242 patients with follicular thyroid cancer (FCA) were analyzed retrospectively. Patients were divided into four groups: 1: no recurrence, 2: recurrent disease, 3: primary metastatic/progressive disease and 4: inconclusive follow-up. Results of iodine scan, serum-TG, and additional imaging modalities as well as histology were compared in all patients. Results: 21/490 (4,3%) of patients with PCA and 16/242 (6,6%) with FCA suffered from recurrent disease. 62/490 (12,7%) of patients with PCA and 59/242 (24,4%) with FCA had primary metastatic/progressive disease. 12/21 patients with PCA and 12/16 with FCA showing up with recurrent disease had a negative iodinescan. 11/21 of patients with PCA and 4/16 with FCA and tumor recurrence had negative serum-TG levels. 14/62 patients with PCA and 14/59 with FCA presenting with primary metastatic/progressive disease had negative iodinescan. 14/62 patients with PCA and 6/59 with FCA had negative serum-TG. Conclusion: The prevalence of iodine-negative recurrent/metastatic disease is in accordance to the literature, whereas the prevalence of TG-negative recurrent/metastatic was noted higher than reported previously. Thus, the commonly used follow-up scheme of DTC is confirmed. However, iodine scan should be regularly performed in patients with high risk of recurrence. (orig.) [de

  14. Prevalence of Lynch syndrome and Lynch-like syndrome among patients with colorectal cancer in a Japanese hospital-based population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chika, Noriyasu; Eguchi, Hidetaka; Kumamoto, Kensuke; Suzuki, Okihide; Ishibashi, Keiichiro; Tachikawa, Tetsuhiko; Akagi, Kiwamu; Tamaru, Jun-Ichi; Okazaki, Yasushi; Ishida, Hideyuki

    2017-02-09

    We investigated the prevalence of Lynch syndrome and Lynch-like syndrome among Japanese colorectal cancer patients, as there have been no credible data from Japan. Immunohistochemical analyses for mismatch repair proteins (MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2) were carried out in surgically resected, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens obtained from 1,234 newly diagnosed colorectal cancer patients between March 2005 and April 2014. The presence/absence of the BRAF V600E mutation and hypermethylation of the MLH1 promoter was analyzed where necessary. Genetic testing was finally undertaken in patients suspected as having Lynch syndrome. By the universal screening approach with immunohistochemical analysis for mismatch repair proteins followed by analyses for the BRAF V600E mutation and MLH1 promoter methylation status, 11 (0.9%) of the 1,234 patients were identified as candidates for genetic testing. Out of the 11 patients, 9 (0.7%) were finally diagnosed as having Lynch syndrome; the responsible genes included MLH1 (n = 1), MSH2 (n = 4), EPCAM (n = 1) and MSH6 (n = 3). The remaining two patients (0.2%) were regarded as having Lynch-like syndrome, since biallelic somatic deletion of the relevant mismatch repair genes was detected in the absence of germline mismatch repair alterations. None of the cases was identified as having germline MLH1 epimutation. The prevalence of Lynch syndrome among all newly diagnosed cases of colorectal cancer in Japan is in the same range as that recently reported by studies in Western population. The prevalence of Lynch-like syndrome seems to be extremely low. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  15. Prevalence of cardiovascular disease and cancer during cross-sex hormone therapy in a large cohort of trans persons: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierckx, K; Elaut, E; Declercq, E; Heylens, G; De Cuypere, G; Taes, Y; Kaufman, J M; T'Sjoen, G

    2013-10-01

    This study evaluated the short- and long-term cardiovascular- and cancer-related morbidities during cross-sex hormone therapy in a large sample of trans persons. A specialist center cross-sectional study compared 214 trans women (male-to-female transsexual persons) and 138 trans men (female-to-male trans persons) with an age- and gender-matched control population (1-3 matching). The participants were on cross-sex hormone therapy for an average of 7.4 years. We assessed physical health and possible treatment-related adverse events using questionnaires. Five percent of trans women experienced venous thrombosis and/or pulmonary embolism during hormone therapy. Five of these adverse events occurred during the first year of treatment, while another three occurred during sex reassignment surgery. Trans women experienced more myocardial infarctions than the control women (P=0.001), but a similar proportion compared with control men. The prevalence of cerebrovascular disease (CVD) was higher in trans women than in the control men (P=0.03). The rates of myocardial infarction and CVD in trans men were similar to the control male and female subjects. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes was higher in both trans men and women than in their respective controls, whereas the rates of cancer were similar compared with the control men and women. Morbidity rate during cross-sex hormone therapy was relatively low, especially in trans men. We observed a higher prevalence of venous thrombosis, myocardial infarction, CVD, and type 2 diabetes in trans women than in the control population. Morbidity rates in trans men and controls were similar, with the exception of the increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes.

  16. Human papilloma virus in oral cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most prevalent cancer among women, and it arises from cells that originate in the cervix uteri. Among several causes of cervical malignancies, infection with some types of human papilloma virus (HPV) is well known to be the greatest cervical cancer risk factor. Over 150 subtypes of HPV have been identified; more than 40 types of HPVs are typically transmitted through sexual contact and infect the anogenital region and oral cavity. The recently introduced vaccine for HPV infection is effective against certain subtypes of HPV that are associated with cervical cancer, genital warts, and some less common cancers, including oropharyngeal cancer. Two HPV vaccines, quadrivalent and bivalent types that use virus-like particles (VLPs), are currently used in the medical commercial market. While the value of HPV vaccination for oral cancer prevention is still controversial, some evidence supports the possibility that HPV vaccination may be effective in reducing the incidence of oral cancer. This paper reviews HPV-related pathogenesis in cancer, covering HPV structure and classification, trends in worldwide applications of HPV vaccines, effectiveness and complications of HPV vaccination, and the relationship of HPV with oral cancer prevalence. PMID:28053902

  17. The influence of the level of lamina propria invasion and the prevalence of p53 nuclear accumulation on survival in stage T1 transitional cell bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, G G; Horn, T; Steven, K

    1998-01-01

    immunoreactivity was determined with antibody PAB 1801. RESULTS: The study comprised 143 patients including 31 (22%) with stage T1a disease, 60 (42%) with stage T1b and 52 (36%) with stage T1c. Mean patient age was 67 years (range 38 to 92) and mean followup was 4.7 years (range 2.4 to 9.7). Tumor grade related...... related to age, level of lamina propria invasion and presence of p53 nuclear accumulation. For this subpopulation overall survival was 67%, and 79% for stage T1a, 70% for stage T1b and 57% for stage T1c (p ...PURPOSE: We assessed the influence of the level of lamina propria invasion and the prevalence of p53 nuclear immunoreactivity on the survival of patients with stage T1 transitional cell bladder cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients presenting with stage T1 bladder cancer were prospectively...

  18. The influence of the level of lamina propria invasion and the prevalence of p53 nuclear accumulation on survival in stage T1 transitional cell bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, G G; Horn, T; Steven, K

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: We assessed the influence of the level of lamina propria invasion and the prevalence of p53 nuclear immunoreactivity on the survival of patients with stage T1 transitional cell bladder cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients presenting with stage T1 bladder cancer were prospectively...... immunoreactivity was determined with antibody PAB 1801. RESULTS: The study comprised 143 patients including 31 (22%) with stage T1a disease, 60 (42%) with stage T1b and 52 (36%) with stage T1c. Mean patient age was 67 years (range 38 to 92) and mean followup was 4.7 years (range 2.4 to 9.7). Tumor grade related...... to the depth of lamina propria invasion (p grade (p

  19. Continuing rise in oropharyngeal cancer in a high HPV prevalence area: A Danish population-based study from 2011 to 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlander, Amanda-Louise Fenger; Larsen, Christian Grønhøj; Jensen, David Hebbelstrup

    2017-01-01

    through to 2020. Patients and methods Patients with OPSCC (tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma [TSCC] and base of tongue squamous cell carcinoma [BSCC]) were identified via the Danish Head and Neck Cancer Group and the Danish Pathology Databank (n = 700). Tumours were re-reviewed and assessed using p16...... immunohistochemistry, HPV DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR), with genotyping by next generation sequencing. Results Sixty-two percent (432/700) of tumours were HPV-positive (HPV+). The total incidence rate (per 100.000) for OPSCC increased from 4.0 in 2011 to 4.5 in 2014, primarily due to a rise in HPV+ TSCCs......-related OPSCC in the high HPV prevalence area of Eastern Denmark from 2000 to 2010. Therefore, we investigated if the incidence for OPSCC continued to rise, the association to HPV and putative HPV-types in Eastern Denmark from 2011 to 14. We then projected the expected incidence of OPSCC versus cervical cancer...

  20. Exploring the Universe with the Worldwide Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    Microsoft Research WorldWide Telescope is a software platform for exploring the universe. Whether you are a researcher, student or just a casual explorer WorldWide Telescope uses cutting edge technology to take you anywhere in the universe and visualize data collected by science programs from across the globe, including NASA great observatories and planetary probes. WWT leverages technologies such as Virtual reality headsets, multi-channel full dome projection and HTML5/WebGL to bring the WWT experience to any device and any scale. We will discuss how to use WWT to browse previously curated data, as well as how to process and visualize your own data, using examples from NASA Mars missions.

  1. Dental Master’s Programs Worldwide

    OpenAIRE

    Pieschacón Gutiérrez, María Paulina; Docente de la Facultad de Odontología, Universidad Santo Tomás (Bucaramanga).; Rodriguez Gómez, Martha Juliana; Docente de la Facultad de Odontología, Universidad Santo Tomás (Bucaramanga).; Concha Sánchez, Sonia Constanza; Docente de la Facultad de Odontología, Universidad Santo Tomás (Bucaramanga).

    2014-01-01

    Background: Master’s degrees are developed to encourage pursuing high-level knowledge. Their creation promotes national and personal growth and development. Purpose: To describe postdoctoral master’s degrees in dentistry, which are offered worldwide and in Colombia. Methods: This descriptive study looked for the terms maestría, master, master degree, magister AND odontologia, dental, and dentistry in the databases PubMed, SciELO, and Google Scholar. Variables analyzed were program name, conti...

  2. Selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations.

    OpenAIRE

    Fariello, Maria-Ines; Servin, Bertrand; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Rupp, Rachel; Moreno, Carole; San Cristobal, Magali; Boitard, Simon; Drögemüller, Cord; The International Sheep Genomics Consortium, ISGC

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of populations in domestic species offers great opportunities to study genome response to selection. The recently published Sheep HapMap dataset is a great example of characterization of the world wide genetic diversity in sheep. In this study, we re-analyzed the Sheep HapMap dataset to identify selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations. Compared to previous analyses, we made use of statistical methods that (i) take account of the hierarchical structure of sheep popula...

  3. Selection Signatures in Worldwide Sheep Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Fariello, Maria-Ines; Servin, Bertrand; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Rupp, Rachel; Moreno, Carole; Cristobal, Magali San; Boitard, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of populations in domestic species offers great opportunities to study genome response to selection. The recently published Sheep HapMap dataset is a great example of characterization of the world wide genetic diversity in sheep. In this study, we re-analyzed the Sheep HapMap dataset to identify selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations. Compared to previous analyses, we made use of statistical methods that (i) take account of the hierarchical structure of sheep popula...

  4. Worldwide review of nuclear power developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rippon, Simon.

    1985-01-01

    In the Western world during 1984, some 26 new reactors with a total capacity of about 26 GWe were commissioned. This review discusses political and economic factors affecting nuclear power worldwide. Developments, or the lack of them, in the following areas are considered: U.S.A., Japan, Western Europe, Turkey, South East Asia, China, India, South and Central America and Eastern Europe. China is predicted to be the next big market

  5. CMS Centres Worldwide - a New Collaborative Infrastructure

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Lucas

    2011-01-01

    Webcasts, and generic Web tools such as CMS-TV for broadcasting live monitoring and outreach information. Being Web-based and experiment-independent, these systems could easily be extended to other organizations. We describe the experiences of using CMS Centres Worldwide in the CMS data-taking operations as well as for major media events with several hundred TV channels, radio stations, and many more press journalists simultaneously around the world.

  6. Clinical utility of TERT promoter mutations and ALK rearrangement in thyroid cancer patients with a high prevalence of the BRAF V600E mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Ja Seong; Kim, Yourha; Jeon, Sora; Kim, Se Hee; Kim, Tae Jung; Lee, Sohee; Kim, Min-Hee; Lim, Dong Jun; Lee, Youn Soo; Jung, Chan Kwon

    2016-02-09

    Mutations in the TERT promoter, ALK rearrangement, and the BRAF V600E mutation are associated with aggressive clinicopathologic features in thyroid cancers. However, little is known about the impact of TERT promoter mutations and ALK rearrangement in thyroid cancer patients with a high prevalence of BRAF mutations. We performed Sanger sequencing to detect BRAF V600E and TERT promoter mutations and both immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization to identify ALK rearrangement on 243 thyroid cancers. TERT promoter mutations were not present in 192 well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas (WDTC) without distant metastasis or in 9 medullary carcinomas. However, the mutations did occur in 40 % (12/30) of WDTC with distant metastasis, 29 % (2/7) of poorly differentiated carcinomas and 60 % (3/5) of anaplastic carcinomas. ALK rearrangement was not present in all thyroid cancers. The BRAF V600E mutation was more frequently found in WDTC without distant metastasis than in WDTC with distant metastasis (p = 0.007). In the cohort of WDTC with distant metastasis, patients with wild-type BRAF and TERT promoter had a significantly higher response rate after radioiodine therapy (p = 0.024), whereas the BRAF V600E mutation was significantly correlated with progressive disease (p = 0.025). The TERT promoter mutation is an independent predictor for distant metastasis of WDTC, but ALK testing is not useful for clinical decision-making in Korean patients with a high prevalence of the BRAF V600E mutation. Radioiodine therapy for distant metastasis of WDTC is most effective in patients without BRAF V600E and TERT promoter mutations.

  7. Teenage and Young Adult Cancer-Related Fatigue Is Prevalent, Distressing, and Neglected: It Is Time to Intervene. A Systematic Literature Review and Narrative Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spathis, Anna; Booth, Sara; Grove, Sarah; Hatcher, Helen; Kuhn, Isla; Barclay, Stephen

    2015-03-01

    Cancer-related fatigue in adults has been the subject of considerable recent research, confirming its importance as a common and debilitating symptom, and establishing a number of evidence-based interventions. There has, however, been limited focus on the fatigue suffered by teenagers and young adults with cancer, a group recognized as having unique experiences and developmental needs. We have undertaken a systematic review of the literature to provide a comprehensive overview of studies evaluating fatigue in this younger patient group in order to guide clinical practice and future research. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and CINAHL databases for literature containing data relating to any aspect of fatigue in patients aged 13-24 at cancer diagnosis or treatment. Sixty articles were identified, of which five described interventional clinical trials. Cancer-related fatigue was consistently one of the most prevalent, severe, and distressing symptoms, and it persisted long-term in survivors. It was associated with a number of factors, including poor sleep, depression, and chemotherapy. There was little evidence for the effectiveness of any intervention, although exercise appears to be the most promising. Importantly, fatigue was itself a significant barrier to physical and social activities. Cancer-related fatigue is a major and disabling problem in young cancer patients. Effective management strategies are needed to avoid compounding the dependence and social isolation of this vulnerable patient group. Future research should focus on providing evidence for the effectiveness of interventions, of which activity promotion and management of concurrent symptoms are the most promising.

  8. Prevalence and predictors of post-traumatic stress symptoms in adolescent and young adult cancer survivors: a 1-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Minyoung; Zebrack, Brad J; Meeske, Kathleen A; Embry, Leanne; Aguilar, Christine; Block, Rebecca; Hayes-Lattin, Brandon; Li, Yun; Butler, Melissa; Cole, Steven

    2013-08-01

    Post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) have been identified as a meaningful indicator of distress in cancer survivors. Distinct from young adult survivors of childhood cancer, young people diagnosed with cancer as adolescents and young adults (AYAs) face unique psychosocial issues; however, there is little published research of PTSS in the AYA population. This study examines prevalence and predictors of PTSS among AYAs with cancer. As part of a longitudinal study of AYAs with cancer, 151 patients aged 15-39 years completed mailed surveys at 6 and 12 months post-diagnosis. Severity of PTSS was estimated at 6 and 12 months post-diagnosis. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to investigate the predictive effects of socio-demographic and clinical characteristics on changes in PTSS over time. At 6 and 12 months, respectively, 39% and 44% of participants reported moderate to severe levels of PTSS; 29% had PTSS levels suggestive of post-traumatic stress disorder. No significant differences in severity of PTSS between 6 and 12 months were observed. Regression analyses suggested that a greater number of side effects were associated with higher levels of PTSS at 6 months. Currently receiving treatment, having surgical treatment, diagnosis of a cancer type with a 90-100% survival rate, remaining unemployed/not in school, and greater PTSS at 6 months were associated with higher levels of PTSS at 12 months. Post-traumatic stress symptoms were observed as early as 6 months following diagnosis and remained stable at 12-month follow-up. The development of early interventions for reducing distress among AYA patients in treatment is recommended. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Prevalence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 Germline Mutations in Breast Cancer Women of Multiple Ethnic Region in Northwest China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ou, Jianghua; Wu, Tao; Sijmons, Rolf; Ni, Duo; Xu, Wenting; Upur, Halmurat

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to further understand the status of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation among Chinese high-risk breast cancer patients in multiple-ethnic regions of China. Methods: A total of 79 blood samples of high-risk breast cancer patients from Xinjiang Uyghur autonomous region were

  10. The prevalence of long-term symptoms of depression and anxiety after breast cancer treatment: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maass, S.W.M.C.; Roorda, C.; Berendsen, A.J.; Verhaak, P.F.M.; Bock, G.H. de

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: It is unclear whether breast cancer survivors have a higher risk of long-term symptoms of depression or anxiety. The aim of this study was to systematically review the evidence about long-term symptoms of depression and anxiety in breast cancer survivors. Study design: Systematic review.

  11. The prevalence of long-term symptoms of depression and anxiety after breast cancer treatment : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maass, S. W. M. C.; Roorda, C.; Berendsen, A. J.; Verhaak, P. F. M.; de Bock, G. H.

    Objectives: It is unclear whether breast cancer survivors have a higher risk of long-term symptoms of depression or anxiety. The aim of this study was to systematically review the evidence about long-term symptoms of depression and anxiety in breast cancer survivors. Study design: Systematic review.

  12. Potential drug interactions and duplicate prescriptions among ambulatory cancer patients: a prevalence study using an advanced screening method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, R.W.F.; Swart, E.L.; Boom, F.A.; Schuitenmaker, M.S.; Hugtenburg, J.G.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The pharmacotherapeutic treatment of patients with cancer is generally associated with multiple side-effects. Drug interactions and duplicate prescriptions between anti-cancer drugs or interactions with medication to treat comorbidity can reinforce or intensify side-effects.The aim of

  13. Critical weight loss in head and neck cancer - prevalence and risk factors at diagnosis : an explorative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager-Wittenaar, H.; Dijkstra, P.U.; Vissink, A.; van der Laan, B.F.A.M.; van Oort, R.P.; Roodenburg, J.L.N.

    Goals of work Critical weight loss (>= 5% in 1 month or >= 10% in 6 months) is a common phenomenon in head and neck cancer patients. It is unknown which complaints are most strongly related to critical weight loss in head and neck cancer patients at the time of diagnosis. The aim of this explorative

  14. Could viruses contribute to the worldwide epidemic of obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Richard L

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity in children increased rapidly starting about 1980 in both developed and developing countries. Studies of changes in diet and physical activity, television watching, and food advertisements on television suggest that these are not sufficient to explain the epidemic. The pattern of rapid spread is suggestive of an infectious origin. The concept of virus-induced obesity is not new. Eight viruses have been shown to cause obesity in animals and there is evidence for virus-induced obesity in humans. Recent evidence on animal and human adenoviruses suggests that these adenoviruses may infect adipocytes to alter enzymes and transcription factors resulting in accumulation of triglycerides and differentiation of preadipocytes into mature adipocytes. The E4orf1 gene of Ad-36 has been shown to be responsible for the adipogenic effect. It appears that a portion of the worldwide epidemic of obesity since 1980 could be due to infections with human adenoviruses.

  15. Worldwide trends in bilateral cochlear implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, B Robert; Wyss, Josephine; Manrique, Manuel

    2010-05-01

    The goal of this study is to ascertain worldwide experience with bilateral cochlear implantation (BCI) with regard to patient demographics, trends in provision of BCI to adult and child patient populations, differences and similarities in BCI candidacy criteria, diagnostic requirements, and treatment approaches among clinicians in high-volume cochlear implant centers. Retrospective/prospective. : An electronic survey consisting of 59 mainly multiple-choice questions was developed for online completion. It examined the implant experience and clinical opinion of expert cochlear implant (CI) centers worldwide on the indications, motivations, and contraindications for adult and pediatric, simultaneous and sequential BCI candidacy. Centers were chosen to complete the survey based on their known reputation as a center of excellence. Patient demographics were queried for two time periods to elucidate trends: 2006 and prior, and for the year 2007. Seventy-one percent (25/35) of the CI clinics approached completed the survey. Collectively, these 25 clinics represent experience with approximately 23,200 CI users globally, representing 15% of the total estimated CI population worldwide. The total number of BCI surgeries reflected in their experience (2,880) represents 36% of the estimated number worldwide as of December 2007. Cumulatively to the end of 2007, 70% of all BCI surgeries have occurred in children, with the 3- to 10-year-old age group having the highest representation (33% of all BCIs), followed in order by adults (30%), children under 3 years of age (26%), and children between 11 and 18 years of age (11%). Seventy-two percent of all BCI surgeries were performed sequentially (70% of children, 76% of adults). Children adults, 76% sequential). Prior to January 2007, 68% of BCIs were performed in children. This increased to 79% for the year 2007 (P adult BCI patients (59% children, 41% adults) than the non-United States clinics (78% children, 22% adults; P < .001

  16. [Hepatitis B genotype distribution in Portugal and worldwide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Ana; Areias, Jorge; Cardoso, Margarida Fonseca

    2011-01-01

    Infection with Hepatitis B is a public health problem worldwide. In Portugal, around 1% of the population is chronically infected. Some genotypes are only predominant in some geographical regions; however migration around the world can lead to the dissemination of the different genotypes. The heterogeneity of hepatitis B genotypes seems to be related to differences in clinical evolution of the infection and response to antiviral treatment. The present study was designed to review the worldwide geographical distribution of Hepatitis B genotypes, and to analyze the possible relationships with the distribution of genotypes in Portugal. Studies of interest were identified by search on indexed journals. Search of Portuguese information was extended to conference proceedings in the areas of Virology and Hepatology. In Asia genotypes B and C were prevalent; in the North of Africa the genotype D was prevalent, and in the East Coast genotype E was predominant. In the American continent the most predominant genotypes were A, D, F, G and H. In South America, Venezuela and Argentina showed a high prevalence of genotype F, in Brazil genotype A was prevalent. In Europe, including Portugal, genotypes A and D were predominant. In Portugal genotypes C, E and F were observed in Portuguese patients and in immigrant patients. The pattern of global migration affects the pattern of genotype distribution, introducing genotypes in regions where the clinical outcome can differ from the population of origin. The genotypic distribution found in Portugal seems to be associated not just with being a European country, but also with immigration from Africa, Brazil, Eastern Europe, and Asian countries like China. The study of the hepatitis B genotypic distribution should be extended to all regions in Portugal, namely Lisbon where the immigration levels are higher, as well as to the autonomous regions of Portugal, the Azores and Madeira islands. The relationship between hepatitis B genotypes and

  17. The periodontal infection may be a contributing factor to the development of gastric cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Jinghua Sun; Jie Yin; Benxiang Hou

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Self-reported tooth loss is highly prevalent in patients with gastric cancer, the second most common malignancy worldwide. Periodontal disease is characterized by loss of the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone, and is a major cause of tooth loss. The theories have been confirmed that chronic systemic inflammation and increased exposure to carcinogenic nitrosamines can increase the risk of cancer, and periodontal pathogens could induce the chronic inflammation. Poor oral hygi...

  18. Advances in the study of serum tumor markers of lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wenjie Qi; Xuechang Li; Jingbo Kang

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer is among the most prevalently occurring carcinomas worldwide, and reducing lung cancer mortality depends on early detection, diagnosis, and treatment. Given the rapid development of molecular biology and modern techniques for diagnosis and treatment, the study of serum tumor markers has gained extensive application in early diagnosis, treatment effect monitoring, and prognosis evaluation. Serum tumor markers possess the advantages of easy detection, noninvasive operation, and cost...

  19. Prevalence and its associated psychological variables of symptoms of depression and anxiety among ovarian cancer patients in China: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chun Li; Liu, Li; Zhang, Yi; Dai, Xiao Ze; Wu, Hui

    2017-08-17

    It is well known that cancer patients tend to have high levels of perceived stress and symptoms of depression and anxiety. However, there is less study on the association between perceived stress and symptoms of depression and anxiety among ovarian cancer patients in China. And the mediating effect of hope and resilience needs to be further studied. In this study, we aim to examine the prevalence of depression and anxiety symptoms, to analyze the association between perceived stress and symptoms of depression and anxiety, and to test whether hope and resilience mediate the association of perceived stress with symptoms of depression and anxiety among Chinese patients with ovarian cancer. A total of 220 questionnaires were distributed and collected from the First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University and Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University. All participants in this study were ovarian cancer inpatients. After excluding the incomplete questionnaires, 198 questionnaires were valid for the analysis. Qualified patients were asked to response to the questionnaires including Hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS), perceived stress scale (PSS-10), and the Herth hope scale and the resilience scale. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to test the associations among perceived stress, symptoms of depression and anxiety, and hope and resilience. Bootstrapping method was conducted to examine whether the indirect effect of hope and resilience was significant respectively. The prevalence of symptoms of depression and anxiety in ovarian cancer patients was 47.0% and 51.5% respectively. Perceived stress correlated significantly with symptoms of depression (r = 0.709, P anxiety (r = 0.660, P anxiety. However, resilience (a*b = 0.004, BCa 95% CI: -0.030, 0.040) did not mediate the association between perceived stress and symptoms of depression. And resilience (a*b = 0.041,BCa 95% CI: -0.013, 0.098) did not mediate the association between

  20. Human papillomavirus prevalence is high in oral samples of patients with tonsillar and base of tongue cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordfors, Cecilia; Vlastos, Andrea; Du, Juan; Ahrlund-Richter, Andreas; Tertipis, Nikolaos; Grün, Nathalie; Romanitan, Mircea; Haeggblom, Linnea; Roosaar, Ann; Dahllöf, Göran; Donà, Maria Gabriella; Benevolo, Maria; Ramqvist, Torbjörn; Munck-Wikland, Eva; Dalianis, Tina

    2014-05-01

    Presence of HPV DNA was analyzed in mouthwash and tonsillar swab samples, if indicative of HPV-positive tonsillar or base of tongue cancer in 76 patients, with suspected head neck cancer, undergoing diagnostic endoscopy at Karolinska University Hospital. The diagnosis and tumor HPV status was later obtained from patients' records. As controls, 37 tumor-free dental visitors were included. Of the 76 patients, 22/29 (76%) and 16/18 (89%) had an HPV-positive tonsillar and base of tongue cancer respectively, with 18/22 (82%) and 8/16 (50%) respectively having tumor concordant HPV-type positive oral samples. Two other HPV-positive oral samples in the base of tongue cancer group did not correlate to the tumor HPV status. Among the remaining patients, 19 with other head neck cancer and 10 with benign conditions, 4/29 (14%) had HPV-positive oral samples. Consequently, of the HPV-positive oral samples, dominated by HPV16 and high signals, 27/32 (84%) were derived from 26 patients with concordant HPV-type positive tonsillar or base of tongue cancer and one patient with an unknown primary head and neck cancer. The other five HPV-positive oral samples, with mainly low signals were derived from two patients with non-concordant HPV-type positive tumor biopsies, two patients with HPV-negative tumor biopsies and a patient with a benign condition. Of the dental patients, 3/37 (8%) had HPV-positive tonsillar swabs with weak signals. In patients with suspected head neck cancer, HPV-positive oral samples, especially HPV16 with high signals, could be indicative of HPV-positive tonsillar or base of tongue cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Tackling cancer control in the Gulf Cooperation Council Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Othman, Saleh; Haoudi, Abdelali; Alhomoud, Samar; Alkhenizan, Abdullah; Khoja, Tawfik; Al-Zahrani, Ali

    2015-05-01

    Cancer is a major health problem in both high income and middle-to-low income countries, and is the second leading cause of death in the world. Although more than a third of cancer could be prevented and another third could be cured if diagnosed early, it remains a huge challenge to health-care systems worldwide. Despite substantial improvements in health services some of the countries in the Gulf region, the burden of non-communicable diseases is a major threat, primarily due to the rapid socioeconomic shifts that have led to unfavourable changes in lifestyle such as increased tobacco use, decreased physical activity, and consumption of unhealthy food. In the Gulf Cooperation Council states (United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, Oman, Qatar, and Kuwait), advanced breast cancer, colorectal cancer, leukaemia, thyroid cancer, and non-Hodgkin lymphomas are the most common cancers affecting younger populations compared with other countries. By contrast with cancer prevalence in developed countries, prostate, lung, and cervical cancers are not among the most common cancers in the Gulf region. In view of the increased cost of cancer management worldwide, integrated approaches between primary, secondary, and tertiary health-care systems with special focus on prevention and early detection is an essential step in the countries' efforts in the fight against cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. HPV Prevalence in the Dutch cervical cancer screening population (DuSC study): HPV testing using automated HC2, cobas and Aptima workflows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijsmans, Cornelis Johannes Jacobus; Geurts-Giele, Willemina Rosalia Rita; Leeijen, Cindy; Hazenberg, Hendrikus Lambertus Cornelius Maria; van Beek, Jenneke; de Wild, Carola; van der Linden, Johannes Cornelis; van den Brule, Adrianus Johannes Christiaan

    2016-11-28

    Primary high risk (hr)HPV screening will be introduced in The Netherlands in January 2017. Our aim was to determine the hrHPV prevalence in the Dutch cervical cancer screening population (DuSC study). A total of 12,113 residual PreservCyt cervical samples from the Dutch population based cytology screening program were rendered anonymous, randomized and tested for hrHPV using 3 HPV assays on their respective automated platforms: QIAGEN's digene® HC2 HPV DNA Test® (HC2, signal amplification), Roche Cobas® HPV test (DNA amplification) and Hologic Aptima® HPV Test (RNA amplification). To determine the agreement between results generated using the different assays, pair wise comparison of the systems was performed by determining kappa coefficients. The selected samples were representative for the population based screening program with respect to age distribution and cytology classification. HrHPV prevalences found were: 8.5% for HC2 (n = 959), 8.1% for cobas (n = 919) and 7.5% for Aptima (n = 849), resulting in a mean hrHPV prevalence of 8.0 ± 0.5%. Although the hrHPV prevalences of the different assays are in the range of 8%, there was a significant difference in prevalence for the HC2 vs. Aptima assay (p-value = 0.007). A clear age dependency was found, with an hrHPV prevalence ranging from 18.7 ± 1.2% in women 29-33 years of age to 4.2 ± 0.2% in women 59-63 years of age. Furthermore, a correlation between hrHPV prevalence and severity of cytology was observed, ranging from 5.5 ± 0.4% in normal cytology to 95.2 ± 1.7% in severe dysplasia. Indeed, kappa coefficients of 0.77, 0.71 and 0.72 (HC2 vs cobas, cobas vs Aptima and Aptima vs HC2, respectively) indicated substantial agreement between the results generated by the different systems. However, looking at the hrHPV positive samples, only 48% of the samples tested positive with all 3 assays. A hrHPV prevalence of 8% was found in this unselected population based screening

  3. Prevalence of Prognostic Biomarkers in Archival Specimens and Breast Cancer Survival Among White, Black, and Asian Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krieger, Nancy

    1998-01-01

    We assessed distributions of breast cancer tumor characteristics and molecular prognostic biomarkers by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic position among paraffin-embedded tumor biopsy specimens from 135 U.S. women...

  4. Reviss to market Russian isotopes worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latham, I.A. (Reviss services, Aylesbury (United Kingdom))

    1992-12-01

    The culmination of two years of detailed negotiations saw the formation of Reviss Services in April 1992. This joint venture company is a collaboration between Amersham International (Health Science Group), the Mayak Production Association (manufacturer of radioisotopes) and AO Techsnabexport (the Russian export agency). It is set up to enable a variety of Russian-manufactured radioisotopes to be marketed worldwide. Formation of the joint venture company was made possible by the recent political changes in the former Soviet Union, allowing the three parties to extend their long-standing commercial trading relationship into a full working partnership. (Author).

  5. Reviss to market Russian isotopes worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latham, I.A.

    1992-01-01

    The culmination of two years of detailed negotiations saw the formation of Reviss Services in April 1992. This joint venture company is a collaboration between Amersham International (Health Science Group), the Mayak Production Association (manufacturer of radioisotopes) and AO Techsnabexport (the Russian export agency). It is set up to enable a variety of Russian-manufactured radioisotopes to be marketed worldwide. Formation of the joint venture company was made possible by the recent political changes in the former Soviet Union, allowing the three parties to extend their long-standing commercial trading relationship into a full working partnership. (Author)

  6. Vitamin D and breast cancer: Indian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrozul Haq

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a major public health problem and cause of death worldwide. According to WHO, cancer accounted for 7.6 million deaths in 2008, which is projected to continue rising with an estimated 13.1 million deaths in 2030. Breast Cancer (BC is the most common cancer in women worldwide and it represents the second leading cause of death among women, after lung cancer. In India, BC is the most common diagnosed malignancy with 75,000 new cases of breast cancer diagnosed every year. The factors associated with BC are genetic mutation, reproductive factors, family history, breast density, increasing age and nutritional risk factors. Retrospective and prospective epidemiologic studies have revealed that vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increased risk of developing and dying of BC. Several recent reports have found vitamin D intake is beneficial not only for cancer prevention but also for women recently diagnosed with BC. In India, vitamin D deficiency ranges between 70% and 100%. There is paucity of literature available on association of vitamin D and risk of BC in Indian women. The aim of this review is to present the association of vitamin D deficiency with BC. Given the high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and a higher incidence of breast cancer in India, interventional possibilities to increase vitamin D status should be done. Revising the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA for vitamin D intake and defining serum 25(OHD cut off levels for the Asian population should be done with a high priority.

  7. Human papillomavirus prevalence, viral load and pre-cancerous lesions of the cervix in women initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy in South Africa: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rybicki Ed

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical cancer and infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV are both important public health problems in South Africa (SA. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs, high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV, HPV viral load and HPV genotypes in HIV positive women initiating anti-retroviral (ARV therapy. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted at an anti-retroviral (ARV treatment clinic in Cape Town, SA in 2007. Cervical specimens were taken for cytological analysis and HPV testing. The Digene Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2 test was used to detect HR-HPV. Relative light units (RLU were used as a measure of HPV viral load. HPV types were determined using the Roche Linear Array HPV Genotyping test. Crude associations with abnormal cytology were tested and multiple logistic regression was used to determine independent risk factors for abnormal cytology. Results The median age of the 109 participants was 31 years, the median CD4 count was 125/mm3, 66.3% had an abnormal Pap smear, the HR-HPV prevalence was 78.9% (Digene, the median HPV viral load was 181.1 RLU (HC2 positive samples only and 78.4% had multiple genotypes. Among women with abnormal smears the most prevalent HR-HPV types were HPV types 16, 58 and 51, all with a prevalence of 28.5%. On univariate analysis HR-HPV, multiple HPV types and HPV viral load were significantly associated with the presence of low and high-grade SILs (LSIL/HSIL. The multivariate logistic regression showed that HPV viral load was associated with an increased odds of LSIL/HSIL, odds ratio of 10.7 (95% CI 2.0 – 57.7 for those that were HC2 positive and had a viral load of ≤ 181.1 RLU (the median HPV viral load, and 33.8 (95% CI 6.4 – 178.9 for those that were HC2 positive with a HPV viral load > 181.1 RLU. Conclusion Women initiating ARVs have a high prevalence of abnormal Pap smears and HR-HPV. Our results underscore the need

  8. Prevalence and impact of extended-spectrum β-lactamase production on clinical outcomes in cancer patients with Enterobacter species bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Jong; Park, Ki-Ho; Chung, Jin-Won; Sung, Heungsup; Choi, Seong-Ho; Choi, Sang-Ho

    2014-09-01

    We examined the prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) production and the impact of ESBL on clinical outcomes in cancer patients with Enterobacter spp. bacteremia. Using prospective cohort data on Enterobacter bacteremia obtained between January 2005 and November 2008 from a tertiary care center, the prevalence and clinical impact of ESBL production were evaluated. Two-hundred and three episodes of Enterobacter spp. bacteremia were identified. Thirty-one blood isolates (15.3%, 31/203) scored positive by the double-disk synergy test. Among 17 isolates in which ESBL genes were detected by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing, CTX-M (n = 12), SHV-12 (n = 11), and TEM (n = 4) were the most prevalent ESBL types. Prior usage of antimicrobial agents (77.4% vs. 54.0%, p = 0.02) and inappropriate empirical antimicrobial therapy (22.6% vs. 3.0%, p Enterobacter bacteremia. Although inappropriate empirical therapy was more common in the ESBL-positive group, ESBL production was not associated with poorer outcomes.

  9. Time to change perspectives on HPV in oropharyngeal cancer. A systematic review of HPV prevalence per oropharyngeal sub-site the last 3 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeggblom, Linnea; Ramqvist, Torbjörn; Tommasino, Massimo; Dalianis, Tina; Näsman, Anders

    2017-12-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) as a risk factor in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) is well established. However, accumulating data imply that the OPSCC concept is too unspecific with regard to HPV prevalence and clinical importance. To further study the role of HPV in OPSCC by sub-site, a systematic review and meta-analysis was performed. PubMed was searched and all studies reporting HPV data (p16/HPV DNA/RNA) in both "lymphoepithelial associated" (i.e. tonsillar and base of tongue cancer; TSCC and BOTSCC respectively) and "non-lymphoepithelial" ("other" OPSCC) OPSCC were included. Pooled odds ratios by HPV detection method were analysed using a random effects model. In total, 58 unique patient cohorts were identified. Total HPV prevalence in TSCC/BOTSCC was 56%, 95%CI: 55-57% (59%, 95%CI: 58-60% for TSCC only) as compared to 19%, 95%CI: 17-20%, in "other" OPSCC. Significant association of HPV to TSCC/BOTSCC vs. "other" OPSCC was observed no matter HPV detection method used, but statistical homogeneity was only observed when studies using algorithm based HPV detection were pooled. HPV prevalence differs markedly between OPSCC sub-sites and while the role of HPV in TSCC/BOTSCC is strong, the role in "other" OPSCC is more uncertain and needs further evaluation. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Prevalence of Prostate Cancer Metastases after Intravenous Inoculation Provides Clues into the Molecular Basis of Dormancy in the Bone Marrow Microenvironment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younghun Jung

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Bone is the preferred metastasis site of advanced prostate cancer (PCa. Using an in vivo murine model of human PCa cell metastasis to bone, we noted that the majority of animals that develop skeletal metastasis have either spinal lesions or lesions in the bones of the hindlimb. Much less frequently, lesions develop in the bones of the forelimb. We therefore speculated whether the environment of the forelimb bones is not permissive for the growth of PCa. Consequently, data on tumor prevalence were normalized to account for the number of PCa cells arriving after intravascular injection, marrow cellularity, and number of hematopoietic stem cell niches. None of these factors were able to account for the observed differences in tumor prevalence. An analysis of differential gene and protein levels identified that growth arrest specific-6 (GAS6 levels were significantly greater in the forelimb versus hindlimb bone marrow. When murine RM1 cells were implanted into subcutaneous spaces in immune competent animals, tumor growth in the GAS6-/- animals was greater than in GAS6+/+ wild-type animals. In an osseous environment, the human PC3 cell line grew significantly better in vertebral body transplants (vossicles derived from GAS6-/- animals than in vossicles derived from GAS6+/+ animals. Together, these data suggest that the differences in tumor prevalence after intravascular inoculation are a useful model to study the molecular basis of tumor dormancy. Importantly, these data suggest that therapeutic manipulation of GAS6 levels may prove useful as a therapy for metastatic disease.

  11. [Prevalence of osteoporosis, estimation of probability of fracture and bone metabolism study in patients with newly diagnosed prostate cancer in the health area of Lugo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel-Carrera, Jonatan; García-Porrua, Carlos; de Toro Santos, Francisco Javier; Picallo-Sánchez, Jose Antonio

    2017-06-16

    To study the prevalence of osteoporosis and fracture probability in patients diagnosed with prostate cancer. Observational descriptive transversal study. SITE: Study performed from Primary Care of Lugo in collaboration with Rheumatology and Urology Services of our referral hospital. Patients diagnosed with prostate cancer without bone metastatic disease from January to December 2012. Epidemiologic, clinical, laboratory and densitometric variables involved in osteoporosis were collected. The likelihood of fracture was estimated by FRAX ® Tool. Eighty-three patients met the inclusion criteria. None was excluded. The average age was 67 years. The Body Mass Index was 28.28. Twenty-five patients (30.1%) had previous osteoporotic fractures. Other prevalent risk factors were alcohol (26.5%) and smoking (22.9%). Eighty-two subjects had vitamin D below normal level (98.80%). Femoral Neck densitometry showed that 8.9% had osteoporosis and 54% osteopenia. The average fracture risk in this population, estimated by FRAX ® , was 2.63% for hip fracture and 5.28% for major fracture. Cut level for FRAX ® major fracture value without DXA >5% and ≥7.5% proposed by Azagra et al. showed 24 patients (28.92%) and 8 patients (9.64%) respectively. The prevalence of osteoporosis in this population was very high. The more frequent risk factors associated with osteoporosis were: previous osteoporotic fracture, alcohol consumption, smoking and family history of previous fracture. The probability of fracture using femoral neck FRAX ® tool was low. Vitamin D deficiency was very common (98.8%). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Worldwide trends in blood pressure from 1975 to 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Anders

    2017-01-01

    largely in low-income and middle-income countries. The global increase in the number of adults with raised blood pressure is a net effect of increase due to population growth and ageing, and decrease due to declining age-specific prevalence. INTERPRETATION: During the past four decades, the highest...... worldwide blood pressure levels have shifted from high-income countries to low-income countries in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa due to opposite trends, while blood pressure has been persistently high in central and eastern Europe. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust.......·7 mm Hg (77·9-79·5) for men and 76·7 mm Hg (75·9-77·6) for women. Global age-standardised prevalence of raised blood pressure was 24·1% (21·4-27·1) in men and 20·1% (17·8-22·5) in women in 2015. Mean systolic and mean diastolic blood pressure decreased substantially from 1975 to 2015 in high-income...

  13. The prevalence, severity, and correlates of psychological distress and impaired health-related quality of life following treatment for testicular cancer: a survivorship study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Allan Ben; Butow, Phyllis; Olver, Ian; Luckett, Tim; Grimison, Peter; Toner, Guy C; Stockler, Martin R; Hovey, Elizabeth; Stubbs, John; Turner, Sandra; Hruby, George; Gurney, Howard; Alam, Mahmood; Cox, Keith; King, Madeleine T

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to establish the prevalence, severity, and correlates of psychological distress and impaired generic health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in testicular cancer (TC) survivors. Men who had completed active anti-cancer treatment for TC between 6 months and 5 years previously showing no evidence of recurrence were recruited from 14 Australian cancer centers from September 2009 to February 2011. Participants completed a self-report questionnaire measuring demographic, disease, and treatment information, psychological distress (i.e., depression, anxiety, and stress; DASS21), generic health-related quality of life (HRQOL; SF-36v2), TC-specific HRQOL (EORTC QLQ-TC26), coping (MAC), social support (DUFSS), and unmet needs (CaSUN). Of 486 eligible TC survivors, 244 (50.2%) completed the questionnaire. Compared with normative data, TC survivors reported: small but statistically significant increases in mean levels of anxiety and depression; a greater prevalence of moderate to extremely severe anxiety (19%) and depression (20%); and significant deficits to mostly mental aspects of generic HRQOL. The most problematic TC-specific HRQOL issues (e.g., fear of recurrence) were also more mental than physical. In multiple regression analyses, the strongest correlates of psychological distress and impaired generic HRQOL were psychosocial (e.g., helpless/hopeless coping and lower social support) rather than disease or treatment factors. Generally, TC survivors appear to experience mild psychological distress and HRQOL impairments, while a vulnerable subgroup experience more severe morbidity. There is a need to identify TC survivors at risk of poorer outcomes and for interventions to target the areas of greatest impairment (i.e., psychological distress and mental HRQOL).

  14. A Community Based Study On The Prevalence Of Risk Factors OF Cancer Cervix In Married Women Of A Rural Area Of West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasgupta Aparajita

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the prevalence of the established risk factors associated with cancer cervix? Objective: To assess the presence of some determinants of cancer cervix among married, rural women of reproductive age group. Study design: Community based, cross â€" sectional, observational study. Setting: Rural: Village East Gobindopur is Singur block in Hooghly district of West Bengal. Study population : All the married women of reproductive age group (103 of the village were included in the study. Results: More than two â€" third (72.8% of the study population belonged to the vulnerable age group (25-45 years for this disease while 59.3% were married before they attained 18 years of age. Again 50% (approx of the married women gave birth to their first child before they were 18 years of age. One â€" third of the study population had parity higher than three. Two â€" third of the women studied were using one or more methods of family planning and one â€" third of the same population were permanently sterilized, 20% were using oral contraceptive pills and only 7.7% were using barrier methods of contraception. Only 31% of the women had satisfactory genital hygiene practice and 36.9% had symptoms of reproductive tract infection. Conclusion: There was a high prevalence of some important risk factors associated with cancer cervix like age, age of marriage, age of first child birth, parity ,family planning practices, genital hygiene and reproductive tract infections in the study population. Therefore screening and early detection efforts can be directed specifically to the group at risk.

  15. Origins of food crops connect countries worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achicanoy, Harold A.; Bjorkman, Anne D.; Navarro-Racines, Carlos; Guarino, Luigi; Flores-Palacios, Ximena; Engels, Johannes M. M.; Wiersema, John H.; Dempewolf, Hannes; Sotelo, Steven; Ramírez-Villegas, Julian; Castañeda-Álvarez, Nora P.; Fowler, Cary; Jarvis, Andy; Rieseberg, Loren H.; Struik, Paul C.

    2016-01-01

    Research into the origins of food plants has led to the recognition that specific geographical regions around the world have been of particular importance to the development of agricultural crops. Yet the relative contributions of these different regions in the context of current food systems have not been quantified. Here we determine the origins (‘primary regions of diversity’) of the crops comprising the food supplies and agricultural production of countries worldwide. We estimate the degree to which countries use crops from regions of diversity other than their own (‘foreign crops’), and quantify changes in this usage over the past 50 years. Countries are highly interconnected with regard to primary regions of diversity of the crops they cultivate and/or consume. Foreign crops are extensively used in food supplies (68.7% of national food supplies as a global mean are derived from foreign crops) and production systems (69.3% of crops grown are foreign). Foreign crop usage has increased significantly over the past 50 years, including in countries with high indigenous crop diversity. The results provide a novel perspective on the ongoing globalization of food systems worldwide, and bolster evidence for the importance of international collaboration on genetic resource conservation and exchange.

  16. Stationary power fuel cell commercialization status worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, M.C. [Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Fuel cell technologies for stationary power are set to play a role in power generation applications worldwide. The worldwide fuel cell vision is to provide powerplants for the emerging distributed generation and on-site markets. Progress towards commercialization has occurred in all fuel cell development areas. Around 100 ONSI phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) units have been sold, with significant foreign sales in Europe and Japan. Fuji has apparently overcome its PAFC decay problems. Industry-driven molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) programs in Japan and the U.S. are conducting megawatt (MW)-class demonstrations, which are bringing the MCFC to the verge of commercialization. Westinghouse Electric, the acknowledged world leader in tubular solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology, continues to set performance records and has completed construction of a 4-MW/year manufacturing facility in the U.S. Fuel cells have also taken a major step forward with the conceptual development of ultra-high efficiency fuel cell/gas turbine plants. Many SOFC developers in Japan, Europe, and North America continue to make significant advances.

  17. The nursing shortage: a worldwide problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Z. Booth

    Full Text Available A worldwide shortage of nurses has been acknowledged by the multidisciplinary Global Advisory Group of the World Health Organization. The shortage is caused by an increased demand for nurses, while fewer people are choosing nursing as a profession and the current nurses worldwide are aging. The shortage applies to nurses in practice as well as the nurse faculty who teach students. The inter-country recruitment and migration of nurses from developing countries to developed countries exacerbates the problem. Although public opinion polls identifies the nurse as the person who makes the health care system work for them, the conditions of the work environment in which the nurse functions is unsatisfactory and must change. Numerous studies have shown the positive effects on the nurse of a healthy work environment and the positive relationships between nursing care and patient outcomes. It is important that government officials, insurance companies, and administrators and leaders of health care systems acknowledge and operationalize the value of nurses to the health care system in order to establish and maintain the integrity and viability of that system.

  18. Worldwide status of burbot and conservation measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Paragamian, Vaughn L.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Jackson, James R.; Lappalainen, Jyrki; Evenson, Matthew J.; Neufeld, Matthew D.

    2010-01-01

    Although burbot (Lota lota Gadidae) are widespread and abundant throughout much of their natural range, there are many populations that have been extirpated, endangered or are in serious decline. Due in part to the species’ lack of popularity as a game and commercial fish, few regions consider burbot in management plans. We review the worldwide population status of burbot and synthesize reasons why some burbot populations are endangered or declining, some burbot populations have recovered and some burbot populations do not recover despite management measures. Burbot have been extirpated in much of Western Europe and the United Kingdom and are threatened or endangered in much of North America and Eurasia. Pollution and habitat change, particularly the effects of dams, appear to be the main causes for declines in riverine burbot populations. Pollution and the adverse effects of invasive species appear to be the main reasons for declines in lacustrine populations. Warmer water temperatures, due either to discharge from dams or climate change, have been noted in declining burbot populations at the southern extent of their range. Currently, fishing pressure does not appear to be limiting burbot populations world-wide. We suggest mitigation measures for burbot population recovery, particularly those impacted by dams and invasive species.

  19. Trends in breast cancer in the elderly in Denmark, 1980-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jeanette D; Cold, Søren; Holck Nielsen, Mette

    2016-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the most frequent malignancy among women worldwide and the second most common cause of cancer-related death in developed countries. The aim of the present analysis is to describe trends in incidence, mortality, prevalence, and relative survival in Denmark from 1980...... in the Nordic countries, where the Danish data were delivered from the Danish Cancer Registry and the Danish Cause of Death Registry with follow-up for death or emigration until the end of 2013. Results The proportion of patients diagnosed with breast cancer over the age of 70 years increased with time to 29...

  20. High prevalence and incidence of HPV-related anal cancer precursor lesions in HIV-positive women in the late HAART era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo-Tenorio, Carmen; de Jesus, Samantha E; Esquivias, Javier; Pasquau, Juan

    2017-12-02

    Anal cancer is one of the most common non-AIDS defining malignancies, especially in men who have sex with men and women living with HIV (WLHIV). To evaluate the prevalence and incidence of precursor lesions (high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions [HSIL]) and anal cancer in our cohort of women and to compare them to cervical lesions; to calculate the percentage of patients that acquire and clear oncogenic genotypes (HR-HPV) in the anal canal; and to determine predictive factors for anal HPV infection. Prospective-longitudinal study (May 2012-December 2016). At baseline (V1) and follow up visits, anal mucosa samples were taken in liquid medium for cytology and HPV PCR. In cases of abnormal anal cytology and/or positive HR-HPV PCR results, a high resolution anoscopy was performed. Patients were also referred to the gynaecologist. Ninety five women with an average age of 43.7years were included. At baseline, 11.6% had cervical abnormalities (4.1% CIN1, 2.2% CIN2/3, 1.1% cervical cancer), 64.3% anal abnormalities (50% LSIL/AIN1, 9.5% HSIL/AIN2/3 and 2.4% anal cancer) and 49.4% had HR-HPV genotypes. During 36months of follow up, the incidence of anal HSIL was 16×1,000 person-years; 14.8% acquired HR-HPV genotypes and 51.2% cleared them, P=.007. No patients presented CIN1/2/3/ or cervical cancer. In the multivariate analysis we found the following predictive factors for HR-HPV infection: smoking (RR: 1.55, 95%CI: 0.99-2.42), number of sexual partners >3 (RR: 1.69; 95%CI: 1.09-2.62), cervical and anal dysplasia (RR: 1.83; 95%CI: 1.26-2.67) and (RR: 1.55; 95%CI: 1.021-2.35), respectively. Despite clearance rates of anal oncogenic genotypes being higher than acquisition rates, prevalence and incidence of HSIL were still high and greater than cervical HSIL. Therefore, screening for these lesions should perhaps be offered to all WLHIV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights

  1. Prevalence and parental perceptions of complementary and alternative medicine use by children with cancer in a multi-ethnic Southeast Asian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidah, Alias; Rustam, Zainudin A; Tamil, Azmi M; Zarina, Latiff A; Zulkifli, Zakaria S; Jamal, Rahman

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine the prevalence of use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) by children with cancer and to compare the characteristics of CAM users and CAM nonusers. A cross-sectional study was performed at a pediatric oncology center in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The parents of 97 children with cancer were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Overall, 84.5% of the respondents had used CAM, and most of them believed that CAM provided a boost to the immune system, and used CAM with the intention to complement conventional treatment. The most frequently used CAM was water therapy (78%), followed by spirulina (33%), vitamin C (27%), multivitamin (23%), visit to traditional healers (22%), sea cucumber (Stichopus horrens) (15%), and Chinese traditional medicine (12%). The Malay (n = 67) were using more often (93%) CAM than non-Malay (n = 30, use 67%, P = 0.001). CAM use is common among Malaysian children with cancer. Understanding the sociocultural dimension of patients' health beliefs is important to a successful treatment, and pediatric oncologists should ask for the use of CAM.

  2. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection among blood donors in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany - a region at intermediate risk for gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, Caspar; Hoffmann, Armin; Link, Alexander; Schulz, Christian; Wuttig, Kerstin; Becker, Elke; Heim, Marcell; Venerito, Marino; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2017-07-01

    Background  In the federal state of Saxony-Anhalt, gastric cancer (GC) incidence ranks among the highest in Germany. Helicobacter pylori prevalence is a surrogate marker for GC risk in a given population. In 2010 we reported an H. pylori seroprevalence of 44.4 % in patients at the emergency ward of the University Hospital of Magdeburg, the capital of Saxony-Anhalt. Our aim is to update these findings in a cohort of healthy blood donors from the same region. Materials and methods  The sera of 516 consecutive blood donors (40.1 ± 14.1 years; 286 males and 230 females) were tested for antibodies against H. pylori and CagA. Data on demographics and previous H. pylori eradication therapy were obtained by means of a structured questionnaire. Blood donors with positive serology for H. pylori or CagA and/or history of eradication therapy were classified as H. pylori-positive. Results  Overall, 28.9 % of the study cohort were H. pylori-positive. The prevalence was higher in older generations (9 % in 18 - 20 years up to 47 % in 61 - 70 years). In 44.4 % of H. pylori IgG-positive donors, CagA serology was also positive. This proportion was not age-dependent. Study participants with siblings were by trend more often H. pylori-positive (p = 0.066). Conclusion  Compared to our previous study in patients at the emergency ward, we found by trend lower age-related H. pylori prevalence rates. In our cohort of healthy blood donors, we confirmed a lower H. pylori prevalence in younger generations. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Co-prevalence of Epstein-Barr virus and high-risk human papillomaviruses in Syrian women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Moustafa, Ala-Eddin; Al-Antary, Noor; Aboulkassim, Tahar; Akil, Nizar; Batist, Gerald; Yasmeen, Amber

    2016-07-02

    ABSTRAT We recently performed 2 studies viewing the presence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) types 16, 18, 31, 33 and 35 in human breast cancer in the Syrian population. Herein, we report that EBV and high-risk HPVs are co-present in breast cancer in Syrian women. Therefore, and based on our previous studies and present data, we reveal that 35 (32%) of 108 cancer samples are positive for both EBV and high-risk HPVs and their co-presence is associated with high grade invasive ductal carcinomas (IDCs) with at least one positive lymph nodes, in comparison with EBV and high-risk HPVs-positive samples, which are low to intermediate grade IDCs, respectively. Future studies are needed to confirm the co-presence and the cooperation effect of these onco-viruses in human breast carcinogenesis and metastasis.

  4. Prevalence, socio-demographic and clinical predictors of post-diagnostic utilisation of different types of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in a nationwide cohort of Danish women treated for primary breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christina Gundgaard; Christensen, Søren; Jensen, Anders Bonde

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence and predictors of use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in a nationwide inception cohort of Danish women treated for early-stage breast cancer as well as differences in user patterns for individual types of CAM.......This study investigated the prevalence and predictors of use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in a nationwide inception cohort of Danish women treated for early-stage breast cancer as well as differences in user patterns for individual types of CAM....

  5. Breast implants following mastectomy in women with early-stage breast cancer: prevalence and impact on survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, Gem M; O'Malley, Cynthia D; Glaser, Sally L; Lynch, Charles F; Stanford, Janet L; Keegan, Theresa HM; West, Dee W

    2005-01-01

    Few studies have examined the effect of breast implants after mastectomy on long-term survival in breast cancer patients, despite growing public health concern over potential long-term adverse health effects. We analyzed data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Breast Implant Surveillance Study conducted in San Francisco–Oakland, in Seattle–Puget Sound, and in Iowa. This population-based, retrospective cohort included women younger than 65 years when diagnosed with early or unstaged first primary breast cancer between 1983 and 1989, treated with mastectomy. The women were followed for a median of 12.4 years (n = 4968). Breast implant usage was validated by medical record review. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard rate ratios for survival time until death due to breast cancer or other causes for women with and without breast implants, adjusted for relevant patient and tumor characteristics. Twenty percent of cases received postmastectomy breast implants, with silicone gel-filled implants comprising the most common type. Patients with implants were younger and more likely to have in situ disease than patients not receiving implants. Risks of breast cancer mortality (hazard ratio, 0.54; 95% confidence interval, 0.43–0.67) and nonbreast cancer mortality (hazard ratio, 0.59; 95% confidence interval, 0.41–0.85) were lower in patients with implants than in those patients without implants, following adjustment for age and year of diagnosis, race/ethnicity, stage, tumor grade, histology, and radiation therapy. Implant type did not appear to influence long-term survival. In a large, population-representative sample, breast implants following mastectomy do not appear to confer any survival disadvantage following early-stage breast cancer in women younger than 65 years old

  6. Worldwide clustering of the corruption perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Michal; Kristoufek, Ladislav

    2015-06-01

    We inspect a possible clustering structure of the corruption perception among 134 countries. Using the average linkage clustering, we uncover a well-defined hierarchy in the relationships among countries. Four main clusters are identified and they suggest that countries worldwide can be quite well separated according to their perception of corruption. Moreover, we find a strong connection between corruption levels and a stage of development inside the clusters. The ranking of countries according to their corruption perfectly copies the ranking according to the economic performance measured by the gross domestic product per capita of the member states. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first one to present an application of hierarchical and clustering methods to the specific case of corruption.

  7. World-Wide Web the information universe

    CERN Document Server

    Berners-Lee, Tim; Groff, Jean-Francois; Pollermann, Bernd

    1992-01-01

    Purpose - The World-Wide Web (W-3) initiative is a practical project designed to bring a global information universe into existence using available technology. This paper seeks to describe the aims, data model, and protocols needed to implement the "web" and to compare them with various contemporary systems. Design/methodology/approach - Since Vannevar Bush's article, men have dreamed of extending their intellect by making their collective knowledge available to each individual by using machines. Computers provide us two practical techniques for human-knowledge interface. One is hypertext, in which links between pieces of text (or other media) mimic human association of ideas. The other is text retrieval, which allows associations to be deduced from the content of text. The W-3 ideal world allows both operations and provides access from any browsing platform. Findings - Various server gateways to other information systems have been produced, and the total amount of information available on the web is...

  8. Selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fariello, Maria-Ines; Servin, Bertrand; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Rupp, Rachel; Moreno, Carole; San Cristobal, Magali; Boitard, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of populations in domestic species offers great opportunities to study genome response to selection. The recently published Sheep HapMap dataset is a great example of characterization of the world wide genetic diversity in sheep. In this study, we re-analyzed the Sheep HapMap dataset to identify selection signatures in worldwide sheep populations. Compared to previous analyses, we made use of statistical methods that (i) take account of the hierarchical structure of sheep populations, (ii) make use of linkage disequilibrium information and (iii) focus specifically on either recent or older selection signatures. We show that this allows pinpointing several new selection signatures in the sheep genome and distinguishing those related to modern breeding objectives and to earlier post-domestication constraints. The newly identified regions, together with the ones previously identified, reveal the extensive genome response to selection on morphology, color and adaptation to new environments.

  9. CMS Centres Worldwide - a New Collaborative Infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Lucas

    2011-01-01

    The CMS Experiment at the LHC has established a network of more than fifty inter-connected 'CMS Centres' at CERN and in institutes in the Americas, Asia, Australasia, and Europe. These facilities are used by people doing CMS detector and computing grid operations, remote shifts, data quality monitoring and analysis, as well as education and outreach. We present the computing, software, and collaborative tools and videoconferencing systems. These include permanently running 'telepresence' video links (hardware-based H.323, EVO and Vidyo), Webcasts, and generic Web tools such as CMS-TV for broadcasting live monitoring and outreach information. Being Web-based and experiment-independent, these systems could easily be extended to other organizations. We describe the experiences of using CMS Centres Worldwide in the CMS data-taking operations as well as for major media events with several hundred TV channels, radio stations, and many more press journalists simultaneously around the world.

  10. Cell therapy worldwide: an incipient revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Mahendra; Mason, Chris; Solomon, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The regenerative medicine field is large, diverse and active worldwide. A variety of different organizational and product models have been successful, and pioneering entrepreneurs have shown both what can work and, critically, what does not. Evolving regulations, novel funding mechanisms combined with new technological breakthroughs are keeping the field in a state of flux. The field struggles to cope with the lack of infrastructure and investment, it nevertheless has evolved from its roots in human stem cell therapy and tissue and organ transplants to a field composed of a variety of products from multiple cell sources with approval for use in numerous countries. Currently, tens of thousands of patients have been treated with some kind of cell therapy.

  11. Climate Change Impacts on Worldwide Coffee Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, T.; Rising, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Coffee (Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora) plays a vital role in many countries' economies, providing necessary income to 25 million members of tropical countries, and supporting a $81 billion industry, making it one of the most valuable commodities in the world. At the same time, coffee is at the center of many issues of sustainability. It is vulnerable to climate change, with disease outbreaks becoming more common and suitable regions beginning to shift. We develop a statistical production model for coffee which incorporates temperature, precipitation, frost, and humidity effects using a new database of worldwide coffee production. We then use this model to project coffee yields and production into the future based on a variety of climate forecasts. This model can then be used together with a market model to forecast the locations of future coffee production as well as future prices, supply, and demand.

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF WOOD-BASED PRODUCTS WORLDWIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius C. BARBU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The tendency in recent decades for manufacturing plants of semi-finished products such as composite panels, has been to invest in order to achieve high production capacities (>2,000 m³/day for panels and >3,000 t/day for paper with one line. The trend of concentrating the primary processing capacities and manufacturing wood-based panels will continue for the next few years not only in Europe but in North and South America as well. The ten largest panel manufacturers had a combined manufacturing capacity that exceeded a third of the worldwide production capacity. The financial crisis that started in 2008 has caused the closure of a large number of factories especially in North America and Central Europe. Small- and medium-sized producers will only survive if they will continue to specialize in the manufacture of panel types and sizes (niche products that are “unprofitable” for mega-groups. The installed production capacity worldwide of all wood-based composite panels combined (includes PY, PB, MDF, OSB rose by more than 2.5 times between 1980 and 2005 (225 mil.m³, and continues to increase despite the crises reaching approx. 300 mil.m³ in 2013. The forecast for the coming years varies greatly from continent to continent. In North America and Central Europe, both a consolidation of the available production capacities and the closure of less efficient older lines are expected. The lowest point of the effect of the financial crisis on the building industry seems to have been overcome. The furniture production companies will continue to move from one continent and region to another.

  13. [Current tuberculosis mortality world-wide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haefliger, E; Rieder, H L

    1992-04-21

    The mortality rate still is an important index for assessment of tuberculosis. Statistical records are kept on the mortality rate on a worldwide basis--more than in the case of other tuberculosis parameters. They allow us to make valuable comparisons. They are also useful because the mortality is closely related to the morbidity. The present thesis is based on comparative figures from the 1989 volume of the WHO Health Statistics Annual. Various countries have been specially selected by the publisher--and subsequently also by us--for sake of clarity. The figures vary strongly within these countries, which was to be expected. The mortality rate varies in Europe (for each 100,000 residents) e.g. from 0.2 in the Netherlands to 8.15 in the Soviet Union. In the Americas the rates vary from 0.4 for Canada to 12.9 for Ecuador. In the Western Pacific region the mortality rates vary from 0.35 for Australia to 14.65 for China. On a worldwide basis, the share of deaths from tuberculosis among all causes of death varies from 0.02% in the Netherlands to 2.10% in the Republic of Korea. The relation of tuberculosis deaths with regard to sexes in Switzerland: 75.7% men, 24.3% women, which is more or less the European average. The lower the mortality rate for tuberculosis are, the lower the difference between the sexes appears to be. Similar facts are found with regard to the distribution of tuberculosis deaths according to age groups: the lower the tuberculosis rate, the more tuberculosis is found in older age groups. The tuberculosis deaths are percentage-wise similarly distributed to the respiratory organs and the other tuberculosis forms.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Câncer cutâneo em Taubaté (SP - Brasil, de 2001 a 2005: um estudo de prevalência Skin cancer in Taubaté (SP - Brazil, from 2001 to 2005: a prevalence study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Regina Ferreira

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: O câncer figura como a terceira principal causa de morte no Brasil. A pele é a localização mais freqüente, e estima-se que cerca de 50% das pessoas brancas com mais de 60 anos desenvolverão algum tipo de neoplasia cutânea. OBJETIVO: Descrever o perfil dos indivíduos com câncer da pele atendidos no Hospital Universitário de Taubaté no período de 2001 a 2005. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal de base hospitalar envolvendo indivíduos atendidos no Serviço de Dermatologia do Hospital Universitário de Taubaté no período de janeiro de 2001 a dezembro de 2005. As variáveis do estudo foram sexo, idade, cor da pele, localização e tipo clínico do tumor: carcinoma basocelular, carcinoma espinocelular, combinado e melanoma. As técnicas estatísticas utilizadas foram a do qui-quadrado, t de Student e Anova. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos no estudo 639 indivíduos, e a prevalência encontrada foi de 50 casos/100.000 habitantes. A faixa etária mais acometida foi a partir dos 60 anos, a proporção de indivíduos acometidos foi maior para o sexo feminino em relação ao masculino (57,2%/42,8% e a proporção de brancos/não brancos foi de 4:1. CONCLUSÃO: Este trabalho vem preencher uma lacuna, dada a inexistência de estudos na região e também à escassez de estudos no Estado de São Paulo, e os achados foram coincidentes com os da literatura.BACKGROUND: Cancer represents the third principal cause of death in Brazil. Skin is the most frequent location and about 50% of caucasian patients older than sixty years will develop some type of cutaneous cancer. OBJECTIVE: To describe the profile of the individuals with skin cancer assisted at the University Hospital of Taubaté in the period between 2001 and 2005. METHODS: A hospital-based cross-sectional study involving individuals assisted at the Dermatology Department at the University Hospital of Taubaté in the period between January 2001 to December 2005 was performed. Study

  15. Prevalence and spectrum of germline rare variants in BRCA1/2 and PALB2 among breast cancer cases in Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaohong R; Devi, Beena C R; Sung, Hyuna; Guida, Jennifer; Mucaki, Eliseos J; Xiao, Yanzi; Best, Ana; Garland, Lisa; Xie, Yi; Hu, Nan; Rodriguez-Herrera, Maria; Wang, Chaoyu; Jones, Kristine; Luo, Wen; Hicks, Belynda; Tang, Tieng Swee; Moitra, Karobi; Rogan, Peter K; Dean, Michael

    2017-10-01

    To characterize the spectrum of germline mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, and PALB2 in population-based unselected breast cancer cases in an Asian population. Germline DNA from 467 breast cancer patients in Sarawak General Hospital, Malaysia, where 93% of the breast cancer patients in Sarawak are treated, was sequenced for the entire coding region of BRCA1; BRCA2; PALB2; Exons 6, 7, and 8 of TP53; and Exons 7 and 8 of PTEN. Pathogenic variants included known pathogenic variants in ClinVar, loss of function variants, and variants that disrupt splice site. We found 27 pathogenic variants (11 BRCA1, 10 BRCA2, 4 PALB2, and 2 TP53) in 34 patients, which gave a prevalence of germline mutations of 2.8, 3.23, and 0.86% for BRCA1, BRCA2, and PALB2, respectively. Compared to mutation non-carriers, BRCA1 mutation carriers were more likely to have an earlier age at onset, triple-negative subtype, and lower body mass index, whereas BRCA2 mutation carriers were more likely to have a positive family history. Mutation carrier cases had worse survival compared to non-carriers; however, the association was mostly driven by stage and tumor subtype. We also identified 19 variants of unknown significance, and some of them were predicted to alter splicing or transcription factor binding sites. Our data provide insight into the genetics of breast cancer in this understudied group and suggest the need for modifying genetic testing guidelines for this population with a much younger age at diagnosis and more limited resources compared with Caucasian populations.

  16. Human papillomavirus prevalence and type-distribution, cervical cancer screening practices and current status of vaccination implementation in Central and Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poljak, Mario; Seme, Katja; Maver, Polona J; Kocjan, Boštjan J; Cuschieri, Kate S; Rogovskaya, Svetlana I; Arbyn, Marc; Syrjänen, Stina

    2013-12-31

    We present a review of current cervical cancer screening practices, the implementation status of vaccination against human papillomaviruses (HPV) and available data concerning the burden of HPV infection and HPV type-specific distribution in 16 Central and Eastern European countries: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Montenegro, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia and the Former Yugoslav Republic (FYR) of Macedonia. Since published data were relatively scarce, two detailed surveys were conducted during August-October 2011 and in January 2013 to obtain relevant and updated information. The mean prevalence of HPV infection in 8610 women with normal cervical cytology from the region was 12.6%, with HPV16 being the most frequent HPV type. The overall HPV DNA prevalence in women with high-grade cervical lesions was 78.1%. HPV DNA was found in 86.6% of cervical cancers; the combined prevalence of HPV16/18 among HPV positive cases was 87.5%. The overall HPV DNA prevalence in genital warts and laryngeal papillomas was 94.8% and 95.2%, respectively, with HPV6 and HPV11 being the most frequent types. Opportunistic and organized cervical screening, mainly based on conventional cytology, is performed in nine and seven countries in the region, respectively, with the proposed age of the start of screening ranging from 20 to 30 years and the estimated coverage ranging from a few percent to over 70%. At least one of the current HPV prophylactic vaccines is registered in all Central and Eastern European countries except Montenegro. Only Bulgaria, Czech Republic, FYR Macedonia, Latvia, Romania and Slovenia have actually integrated HPV vaccination into their national immunization programme and currently provide routine vaccination free of charge to the primary target population. The key reasons for lack of implementation of HPV vaccination into the national immunization programme are high vaccine cost and

  17. Microtubule-associated protein Mdp3 promotes breast cancer growth and metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tala; Xie, Songbo; Sun, Xiaodong; Sun, Xiaoou; Ran, Jie; Zhang, Linlin; Li, Dengwen; Liu, Min; Bao, Gang; Zhou, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer in women worldwide with a high mortality rate, and the identification of new biomarkers and targets for this disease is greatly needed. Here we present evidence that microtubule-associated protein (MAP) 7 domain-containing protein 3 (Mdp3) is highly expressed in clinical samples and cell lines of breast cancer. The expression of Mdp3 correlates with clinicopathological parameters indicating breast cancer malignancy. In addition, Mdp3 promotes breast cancer cell proliferation and motility in vitro and stimulates breast cancer growth and metastasis in mice. Mechanistic studies reveal that γ-tubulin interacts with and recruits Mdp3 to the centrosome and that the centrosomal localization of Mdp3 is required for its activity to promote breast cancer cell proliferation and motility. These findings suggest a critical role for Mdp3 in the growth and metastasis of breast cancer and may have important implications for the management of this disease.

  18. Prevalence of HER-2 and Hormone Receptors and P53 Mutations in the Pathologic Specimens of Breast Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Abbas Mirmalek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Prognostic factors are in interest for breast cancer as the second cause of malignancy deaths. Some have predictive values as human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2 and estrogen receptor (ER. To access the incidence of HER2 and its relations to other factors, like age, pathology, ER, progesterone receptor (PR, and P53, 2000 pathologic blocks from 2750 total samples have been selected from 2011 to 2013 in Cancer Institute of Tehran. Incidence of HER2, ER, PR, and P53 was; 58.5%, 33.4%, 43.3%, and 65.4%, respectively. Invasive ductal carcinoma was the most pathologic type (82.2% and 60%–70% positive HER2 and P53 had negative ER and PR (poor prognosis. The peak age of incidence of breast cancer was perimenopausal age group (46–55 years. Our cases had more positive HER2 and P53 and less positive PR and ER compared to other studies. High perimenopausal incidence as another finding assures the importance of breast cancer screening in these age groups.

  19. HPV prevalence and p16INKa overexpression in non-smoking non-drinking oral cavity cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dediol, E; Sabol, I; Virag, M; Grce, M; Muller, D; Manojlović, S

    2016-09-01

    Our aim was to compare HPV and p16INK4a (p16) expression and their influence on survival and prognosis in oral cavity squamous cell cancer (OCSCC), between non-smokers and non-drinkers (NSND) and smokers and drinkers (SD). Patients with OCSCC treated with surgery from 2000 to 2010 were included in the study. Patients who did not smoke at all or smoked less than 10 pack per years and did not drink alcohol on a daily basis were considered the NSND group. An equal number of SD were the control group. HPV presence was determined from paraffin-embedded blocks investigated by PCR analysis. p16 expression was evaluated with immunohistochemistry. The NSND group were mostly younger or older female patients with tongue or gingival cancers. p16 expression was significantly more frequent in NSND patients (27% vs 10%). Patients with stronger p16 expression had significantly worse survival, especially for tongue cancers (P = 0.026). In Cox multivariate analysis, both HPV and p16 expression carried a negative prognosis for NSND patients (P = 0.0351 and P = 0.0260). NSND are a specific population of OCSCC patients. In contrast to oropharyngeal cancer, HPV and p16 expression in OCSCC are negative predictive factors, especially in NSND patients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Prevalence and characterization of BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline mutations in Chinese women with familial breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Pei, Renguang; Pang, Zhiyuan; Ouyang, Tao; Li, Jinfeng; Wang, Tianfeng; Fan, Zhaoqing; Fan, Tie; Lin, Benyao; Xie, Yuntao

    2012-04-01

    Although there are some studies to investigate germline mutations in BRCA1/2 genes in Chinese women with familial breast cancer, many of them suffer relatively small sample size. In this study, we screened germline mutations in BRCA1/2 genes in a cohort of 409 Chinese women with familial breast cancer from north China by using a PCR-sequencing assay. A total of 43 deleterious mutations in BRCA1/2 genes were identified in this cohort, including 17 novel mutations and 6 recurrent mutations. The frequencies of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations were 3.9% (16/409) and 6.6% (27/409), respectively; the mutation rate of BRCA2 was 1.7-fold higher than that of BRCA1. The entire mutation rate of BRCA1/2 was 10.5% in this cohort; however, the mutation rate of BRCA1/2 genes was 23.0% in 78 familial breast cancer patients whose tumors were diagnosed at or before the age of 40. The mean age at diagnosis of breast cancer in BRCA1 carriers (42.8 years) and BRCA2 carriers (45.1 years) was younger than non-carriers (51.0 years) in this cohort (P = 0.005; P = 0.01, respectively). In addition, both BRCA1 carriers and BRCA2 carriers were more likely to exhibit triple-negative breast cancer (ER-, PgR-, and HER2-) than non-carriers (BRCA1 carriers vs. non-carriers, 69.2 vs. 23.0%, P = 0.001; BRCA2 carriers vs. non-carriers, 45.8 vs. 23.0%, P = 0.01). Our study suggested that the spectrum and characteristics of BRCA1/2 mutations in Chinese familial breast cancer exhibit some unique features, and Chinese women with familial breast cancer whose tumors are diagnosed at or before the age of 40 are good candidates for BRCA1/2 testing.

  1. The Role of Herbs and Spices in Cancer Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Kaefer, Christine M.; Milner, John A.

    2008-01-01

    Historically herbs and spices have enjoyed a rich tradition of use for their flavor-enhancement characteristics and for their medicinal properties. The rising prevalence of chronic diseases world-wide and the corresponding rise in health care costs is propelling interest among researchers and the public for these food related items for multiple health benefits, including a reduction in cancer risk and modification of tumor behavior. A growing body of epidemiological and preclinical evidence p...

  2. Prevalence and risk factors for esophageal squamous cell cancer and precursor lesions in Anyang, China: a population-based endoscopic survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Z; Zhao, Y; Guo, C; Liu, Y; Sun, M; Liu, F; Wang, X; Guo, F; Chen, K; Gao, L; Ning, T; Pan, Y; Li, Y; Zhang, S; Lu, C; Wang, Z; Cai, H; Ke, Y

    2010-01-01

    Background: The etiology of esophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC) in high prevalence regions of China remains unclear. Methods: Endoscopic biopsies were conducted among 7381 inhabitants aged from 25 to 65 of Anyang, China. Results: In this study, 2.57, 0.20 and 0.16% of the participants had mild, moderate and severe squamous dysplasia, respectively; 0.19 and 0.08% showed squamous carcinoma in situ and invasive ESCC. Using deep well (depth >100 meters) as water source (odds ratio=0.72, 95% confidence interval: 0.54–0.96) was negatively associated with ESCC and its precursors, whereas tobacco and alcohol use were not significantly associated with ESCC. Conclusions: Water source and other factors in this region need further evaluation by longitudinal studies. PMID:20700119

  3. WATER REALITY IN UKRAINE AND WORLDWIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. F. Dolina

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The paper analyzes the state of water management in Ukraine and worldwide, as well as the best practices in this area. Methodology. The study was carried out based on the analysis of literature sources and reporting data on the state of water management in Ukraine, European countries, the USA (2010-2016. Findings. The water state analysis in the regions of Ukraine showed that the quality in most cases is close to or meets the requirements for drinking water. Drinking tap water requires post-treatment in all regions of the country. The main issue for today is the production of the necessary equipment for treatment plants. Unfortunately, not all equipment is produced in Ukraine. The condition of rural water pipelines is of particular concern. Among the tested pipelines 7.3% do not comply with the rules and regulations. At the same time, only 25% of villages in Ukraine are provided with centralized water supply. Originality. The authors presented the results of a comprehensive review of the world's issues on disinfection of drinking and waste water, where various methods are used, partly in combination with each other in Ukraine and the worldwide. The main unresolved issue today is the issue of the residual quantity of drugs in the drinking water. The main environmental threat of the world scale is the presence of medicines in drinking water. The treatment facilities are not suitable for the decomposition or trapping of medicinal products. Nowhere in the world there is protection from these substances. One of the key issues in the solution of drinking water production is seawater desalination. To reduce the cost of desalination of sea water the SWRO-membrane technology is used. Practical value. Water problems are number one problems all over the world and in Ukraine as well. It is necessary to provide for additional financing to solve problems in the preparation and purification of waters, not with whatever funds remain, taking into

  4. Genomic Analysis of Uterine Lavage Fluid Detects Early Endometrial Cancers and Reveals a Prevalent Landscape of Driver Mutations in Women without Histopathologic Evidence of Cancer: A Prospective Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navya Nair

    2016-12-01

    allele fractions significantly less than 1%. Of the remaining 95 patients diagnosed with benign or non-cancer pathology, 44 had no significant cancer mutations detected. Intriguingly, 51 patients without histopathologic evidence of cancer had relatively high allele fraction (1.0%-30.4%, cancer-associated mutations. Participants with detected driver and potential driver mutations were significantly older (mean age mutated = 57.96, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.30-∞, mean age no mutations = 50.35; p-value = 0.002; Benjamini-Hochberg [BH] adjusted p-value = 0.015 and more likely to be post-menopausal (p-value = 0.004; BH-adjusted p-value = 0.015 than those without these mutations. No associations were detected between mutation status and race/ethnicity, body mass index, diabetes, parity, and smoking status. Long-term follow-up was not presently available in this prospective study for those women without histopathologic evidence of cancer.Using ultra-deep NGS, we identified somatic mutations in DNA extracted both from cell pellets and a never previously reported cfDNA fraction from the uterine lavage. Using our targeted sequencing approach, endometrial driver mutations were identified in all seven women who received a cancer diagnosis based on classic histopathology of tissue curettage obtained at the time of hysteroscopy. In addition, relatively high allele fraction driver mutations were identified in the lavage fluid of approximately half of the women without a cancer diagnosis. Increasing age and post-menopausal status were associated with the presence of these cancer-associated mutations, suggesting the prevalent existence of a premalignant landscape in women without clinical evidence of cancer. Given that a uterine lavage can be easily and quickly performed even outside of the operating room and in a physician's office-based setting, our findings suggest the future possibility of this approach for screening women for the earliest stages of endometrial cancer

  5. Prevalence of risk factors for breast cancer in German airline cabin crew: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Mareen; Blettner, Maria; Zeeb, Hajo

    2014-01-01

    Many epidemiological studies point to an increased risk of breast cancer among female airline cabin crew. Possible causes include occupational factors (e.g. cosmic radiation exposure, chronodisruption), as well as lifestyle and reproductive factors. To investigate the frequency of various risk factors in German flight attendants which are recognised to be associated with breast