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Sample records for prevalence-based cost-of-illness study

  1. The economic burden of adult asthma in Cyprus; a prevalence-based cost of illness study

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    Savvas Zannetos

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma is one of the main non-infectious diseases of the respiratory system with substantial economic burden worldwide. The objective of this study was to estimate the economic burden of adult asthma in Cyprus during 2015. Methods A retrospective probabilistic prevalence-based cost of illness model was developed to calculate the economic burden of asthma including direct and indirect costs. The bottom-up approach (person-based data was used for the calculation of direct costs while for the calculation of indirect costs the approach of human capital was employed. In addition, bootstrapped sensitivity analysis with 1000 bootstrap simulations was performed in order to calculate a 95% Confidence Interval (CI. Results Mean patient cost of asthma in Cyprus in 2015 was estimated at €579.64 (95% CI: €376.90–€813.68. Direct costs accounted for 82.08% of the overall expenses, €475.75 per patient (95% CI: €296.94–€697.69. Indirect costs of €103.89 (95% CI: €49.59–€181.46 accounted for 17.92% of the overall expenses. Conclusion This was the first study in Cyprus, which used bootstrapped prevalence-based cost of illness model to estimate the cost of asthma. This study confirms that asthma is an expensive disease for the society. In addition, it provides important information and analysis of the economic consequences of asthma to policy makers in order to strengthen surveillance of the disease as well as draft the national health policy accordingly.

  2. Cost-of-illness studies based on massive data: a prevalence-based, top-down regression approach.

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    Stollenwerk, Björn; Welchowski, Thomas; Vogl, Matthias; Stock, Stephanie

    2016-04-01

    Despite the increasing availability of routine data, no analysis method has yet been presented for cost-of-illness (COI) studies based on massive data. We aim, first, to present such a method and, second, to assess the relevance of the associated gain in numerical efficiency. We propose a prevalence-based, top-down regression approach consisting of five steps: aggregating the data; fitting a generalized additive model (GAM); predicting costs via the fitted GAM; comparing predicted costs between prevalent and non-prevalent subjects; and quantifying the stochastic uncertainty via error propagation. To demonstrate the method, it was applied to aggregated data in the context of chronic lung disease to German sickness funds data (from 1999), covering over 7.3 million insured. To assess the gain in numerical efficiency, the computational time of the innovative approach has been compared with corresponding GAMs applied to simulated individual-level data. Furthermore, the probability of model failure was modeled via logistic regression. Applying the innovative method was reasonably fast (19 min). In contrast, regarding patient-level data, computational time increased disproportionately by sample size. Furthermore, using patient-level data was accompanied by a substantial risk of model failure (about 80 % for 6 million subjects). The gain in computational efficiency of the innovative COI method seems to be of practical relevance. Furthermore, it may yield more precise cost estimates.

  3. Type 2 diabetes in Vietnam: a cross-sectional, prevalence-based cost-of-illness study

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    Le NTD

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Nguyen Tu Dang Le, Luyen Dinh Pham, Trung Quang Vo Department of Pharmacy Administration, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Medicine and Pharmacy at Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam Background: According to the International Diabetes Federation, total global health care expenditures for diabetes tripled between 2003 and 2013 because of increases in the number of people with diabetes as well as in the average expenditures per patient. This study aims to provide accurate and timely information about the economic impacts of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in Vietnam. Method: The cost-of-illness estimates followed a prospective, prevalence-based approach from the societal perspective of T2DM with 392 selected diabetic patients who received treatment from a public hospital in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, during the 2016 fiscal year. Results: In this study, the annual cost per patient estimate was US $246.10 (95% CI 228.3, 267.2 for 392 patients, which accounted for about 12% (95% CI 11, 13 of the gross domestic product per capita in 2017. That includes US $127.30, US $34.40 and US $84.40 for direct medical costs, direct nonmedical expenditures, and indirect costs, respectively. The cost of pharmaceuticals accounted for the bulk of total expenditures in our study (27.5% of total costs and 53.2% of direct medical costs. A bootstrap analysis showed that female patients had a higher cost of treatment than men at US $48.90 (95% CI 3.1, 95.0; those who received insulin and oral antidiabetics (OAD also had a statistically significant higher cost of treatment compared to those receiving OAD, US $445.90 (95% CI 181.2, 690.6. The Gradient Boosting Regression (Ensemble method and Lasso Regression (Generalized Linear Models were determined to be the best models to predict the cost of T2DM (R2=65.3, mean square error [MSE]=0.94; and R2=64.75, MSE=0.96, respectively. Conclusion: The findings of this study serve as a reference for policy decision making in diabetes

  4. Cost-of-illness studies.

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    Oderda, Gary M

    2003-01-01

    Cost-of-illness studies measure the overall economic impact of a disease on society. Such studies are important in setting public health priorities and for economic evaluation of new treatments. These studies should take the societal perspective and include both direct and indirect costs. Often indirect costs exceed direct costs. Comparison of cost-of-illness studies from different countries is difficult because of differences in population, currency, the way health care is provided, and other social and political factors.

  5. Burden of rheumatoid arthritis from a societal perspective: A prevalence-based study on cost of illness for patients with rheumatoid arthritis in China.

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    Hu, Hao; Luan, Luan; Yang, Keqin; Li, Shu-Chuen

    2017-02-17

    To provide a comprehensive estimation of the economic burden of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in China, especially for patients from less developed areas, and to explore the cost transferability between regions to assist healthcare decision-making. The study was conducted in south and north China from May 2013 to December 2013. The burden of RA was investigated by interviewing participants with a questionnaire battery containing socio-demographic, cost of illness (COI) and medical treatments. The COI questionnaire captured direct, indirect and intangible costs. Direct costs included hospitalizations, outpatient visits and medications. Indirect costs were estimated using the human capital approach, and intangible costs valued through the willingness-to-pay approach. All cost data were converted to 2013 US dollars by purchasing power parity, and then summarized descriptively and analyzed with mixed models. Questionnaires were administered to 133 RA patients. The average direct costs were $1917.21 ± $2559.06 per patient year, with medications at $1283.89 ± $1898.15 comprising more than 50% of the total. The average indirect costs were $492.88 ± $1739.74 per patient year, while intangible costs were $20396.30 ± $31145.10. There was no significant difference detected between regions. Recent hospitalization was tested as a significant predictor of the direct costs. Age and income were significantly associated with indirect and intangible costs. Besides the substantial burden in terms of direct medical costs and productivity lost, there were notable intangible costs, especially among older patients. This conclusion could be potentially expanded to other provinces in China or even other countries through the adjustments for transferability. © 2017 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  6. Cost-of-illness studies in heart failure: a systematic review 2004-2016.

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    Lesyuk, Wladimir; Kriza, Christine; Kolominsky-Rabas, Peter

    2018-05-02

    Heart failure is a major and growing medical and economic problem worldwide as 1-2% of the healthcare budget are spent for heart failure. The prevalence of heart failure has increased over the past decades and it is expected that there will be further raise due to the higher proportion of elderly in the western societies. In this context cost-of-illness studies can significantly contribute to a better understanding of the drivers and problems which lead to the increasing costs in heart failure. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of published cost-of-illness studies related to heart failure to highlight the increasing cost impact of heart failure. A systematic review was conducted from 2004 to 2016 to identify cost-of-illness studies related to heart failure, searching PubMed (Medline), Cochrane, Science Direct (Embase), Scopus and CRD York Database. Of the total of 16 studies identified, 11 studies reported prevalence-based estimates, 2 studies focused on incidence-based data and 3 articles presented both types of cost data. A large variation concerning cost components and estimates can be noted. Only three studies estimated indirect costs. Most of the included studies have shown that the costs for hospital admission are the most expensive cost element. Estimates for annual prevalence-based costs for heart failure patients range from $868 for South Korea to $25,532 for Germany. The lifetime costs for heart failure patients have been estimated to $126.819 per patient. Our review highlights the considerable and growing economic burden of heart failure on the health care systems. The cost-of-illness studies included in this review show large variations in methodology used and the cost results vary consequently. High quality data from cost-of-illness studies with a robust methodology applied can inform policy makers about the major cost drivers of heart failure and can be used as the basis of further economic evaluations.

  7. Cost-of-illness studies: concepts, scopes, and methods

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    Changik Jo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Liver diseases are one of the main causes of death, and their ever-increasing prevalence is threatening to cause significant damage both to individuals and society as a whole. This damage is especially serious for the economically active population in Korea. From the societal perspective, it is therefore necessary to consider the economic impacts associated with liver diseases, and identify interventions that can reduce the burden of these diseases. The cost-of-illness study is considered to be an essential evaluation technique in health care. By measuring and comparing the economic burdens of diseases to society, such studies can help health-care decision-makers to set up and prioritize health-care policies and interventions. Using economic theories, this paper introduces various study methods that are generally applicable to most disease cases for estimating the costs of illness associated with mortality, morbidity, disability, and other disease characteristics. It also presents concepts and scopes of costs along with different cost categories from different research perspectives in cost estimations. By discussing the epidemiological and economic grounds of the cost-of-illness study, the reported results represent useful information about several evaluation techniques at an advanced level, such as cost-benefit analysis, cost-effectiveness analysis, and cost-utility analysis.

  8. Cost-of-illness studies: concepts, scopes, and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Liver diseases are one of the main causes of death, and their ever-increasing prevalence is threatening to cause significant damage both to individuals and society as a whole. This damage is especially serious for the economically active population in Korea. From the societal perspective, it is therefore necessary to consider the economic impacts associated with liver diseases, and identify interventions that can reduce the burden of these diseases. The cost-of-illness study is considered to be an essential evaluation technique in health care. By measuring and comparing the economic burdens of diseases to society, such studies can help health-care decision-makers to set up and prioritize health-care policies and interventions. Using economic theories, this paper introduces various study methods that are generally applicable to most disease cases for estimating the costs of illness associated with mortality, morbidity, disability, and other disease characteristics. It also presents concepts and scopes of costs along with different cost categories from different research perspectives in cost estimations. By discussing the epidemiological and economic grounds of the cost-of-illness study, the reported results represent useful information about several evaluation techniques at an advanced level, such as cost-benefit analysis, cost-effectiveness analysis, and cost-utility analysis. PMID:25548737

  9. Cost of illness of oral lichen planus in a U.K. population--a pilot study.

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    Ni Riordain, Richeal; Christou, Joanna; Pinder, Denise; Squires, Vanessa; Hodgson, Tim

    2016-05-01

    To assess the economic burden of oral lichen planus (OLP) from the perspective of the healthcare provider in a U.K. population. This prevalence-based cost-of-illness analysis was carried out via a cross-sectional study conducted in the Oral Medicine Unit of the Eastman Dental Hospital. This study was conducted in three phases - phase 1 involved framing of the cost-of-illness analysis, development of the cost inventory and design of the patient questionnaire for ease of data collection. Data collected from patients were inputted during phase 2, and costings were determined. The final phase consisted of the calculation of the cost of illness of OLP. One hundred patients were enrolled in the study, 30 males and 70 females, with an average age of 59.9 years (±13.4 years). The average OLP patient, based on our cohort, attends the oral medicine unit 2.64 times per year, their general medical practitioner 1.13 times annually, their general dental practitioner 0.82 times in a year and fills on average 3.37 prescriptions annually. This leads to an average annual cost of £398.58 (€541.16) per patient per year from the perspective of the healthcare provider. The annual average cost of OLP to the healthcare provider in the U.K. is substantial. The prevalence-based cost-of-illness data generated in this study will facilitate comparison with other chronic oral mucosal diseases and with chronic diseases managed in allied medical specialties. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The scope of costs in alcohol studies: Cost-of-illness studies differ from economic evaluations

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    Tariq Luqman

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol abuse results in problems on various levels in society. In terms of health, alcohol abuse is not only an important risk factor for chronic disease, but it is also related to injuries. Social harms which can be related to drinking include interpersonal problems, work problems, violent and other crimes. The scope of societal costs related to alcohol abuse in principle should be the same for both economic evaluations and cost-of-illness studies. In general, economic evaluations report a small part of all societal costs. To determine the cost- effectiveness of an intervention it is necessary that all costs and benefits are included. The purpose of this study is to describe and quantify the difference in societal costs incorporated in economic evaluations and cost-of-illness studies on alcohol abuse. Method To investigate the economic costs attributable to alcohol in cost-of-illness studies we used the results of a recent systematic review (June 2009. We performed a PubMed search to identify economic evaluations on alcohol interventions. Only economic evaluations in which two or more interventions were compared from a societal perspective were included. The proportion of health care costs and the proportion of societal costs were estimated in both type of studies. Results The proportion of healthcare costs in cost-of-illness studies was 17% and the proportion of societal costs 83%. In economic evaluations, the proportion of healthcare costs was 57%, and the proportion of societal costs was 43%. Conclusions The costs included in economic evaluations performed from a societal perspective do not correspond with those included in cost-of-illness studies. Economic evaluations on alcohol abuse underreport true societal cost of alcohol abuse. When considering implementation of alcohol abuse interventions, policy makers should take into account that economic evaluations from the societal perspective might underestimate the total

  11. The scope of costs in alcohol studies: Cost-of-illness studies differ from economic evaluations.

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    van Gils, Paul F; Hamberg-van Reenen, Heleen H; van den Berg, Matthijs; Tariq, Luqman; de Wit, G Ardine

    2010-07-06

    Alcohol abuse results in problems on various levels in society. In terms of health, alcohol abuse is not only an important risk factor for chronic disease, but it is also related to injuries. Social harms which can be related to drinking include interpersonal problems, work problems, violent and other crimes. The scope of societal costs related to alcohol abuse in principle should be the same for both economic evaluations and cost-of-illness studies. In general, economic evaluations report a small part of all societal costs. To determine the cost- effectiveness of an intervention it is necessary that all costs and benefits are included. The purpose of this study is to describe and quantify the difference in societal costs incorporated in economic evaluations and cost-of-illness studies on alcohol abuse. To investigate the economic costs attributable to alcohol in cost-of-illness studies we used the results of a recent systematic review (June 2009). We performed a PubMed search to identify economic evaluations on alcohol interventions. Only economic evaluations in which two or more interventions were compared from a societal perspective were included. The proportion of health care costs and the proportion of societal costs were estimated in both type of studies. The proportion of healthcare costs in cost-of-illness studies was 17% and the proportion of societal costs 83%. In economic evaluations, the proportion of healthcare costs was 57%, and the proportion of societal costs was 43%. The costs included in economic evaluations performed from a societal perspective do not correspond with those included in cost-of-illness studies. Economic evaluations on alcohol abuse underreport true societal cost of alcohol abuse. When considering implementation of alcohol abuse interventions, policy makers should take into account that economic evaluations from the societal perspective might underestimate the total effects and costs of interventions.

  12. The scope of costs in alcohol studies: Cost-of-illness studies differ from economic evaluations

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    van Gils, Paul F; Hamberg-van Reenen, Heleen H; van den Berg, Matthijs; Tariq, Luqman; de Wit, G Ardine

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Alcohol abuse results in problems on various levels in society. In terms of health, alcohol abuse is not only an important risk factor for chronic disease, but it is also related to injuries. Social harms which can be related to drinking include interpersonal problems, work problems, violent and other crimes. The scope of societal costs related to alcohol abuse in principle should be the same for both economic evaluations and cost-of-illness studies. In general, economic e...

  13. Economic costs of obesity in Thailand: a retrospective cost-of-illness study.

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    Pitayatienanan, Paiboon; Butchon, Rukmanee; Yothasamut, Jomkwan; Aekplakorn, Wichai; Teerawattananon, Yot; Suksomboon, Naeti; Thavorncharoensap, Montarat

    2014-04-02

    Over the last decade, the prevalence of obesity (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) in Thailand has been rising rapidly and consistently. Estimating the cost of obesity to society is an essential step in setting priorities for research and resource use and helping improve public awareness of the negative economic impacts of obesity. This prevalence-based, cost-of-illness study aims to estimate the economic costs of obesity in Thailand. The estimated costs in this study included health care cost, cost of productivity loss due to premature mortality, and cost of productivity loss due to hospital-related absenteeism. The Obesity-Attributable Fraction (OAF) was used to estimate the extent to which the co-morbidities were attributable to obesity. The health care cost of obesity was further estimated by multiplying the number of patients in each disease category attributable to obesity by the unit cost of treatment. The cost of productivity loss was calculated using the human capital approach. The health care cost attributable to obesity was estimated at 5,584 million baht or 1.5% of national health expenditure. The cost of productivity loss attributable to obesity was estimated at 6,558 million baht - accounting for 54% of the total cost of obesity. The cost of hospital-related absenteeism was estimated at 694 million baht, while the cost of premature mortality was estimated at 5,864 million baht. The total cost of obesity was then estimated at 12,142 million baht (725.3 million US$PPP, 16.74 baht =1 US$PPP accounting for 0.13% of Thailand's Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Obesity imposes a substantial economic burden on Thai society especially in term of health care costs. Large-scale comprehensive interventions focused on improving public awareness of the cost of and problems associated with obesity and promoting a healthy lifestyle should be regarded as a public health priority.

  14. A societal cost-of-illness study of hemodialysis in Lebanon.

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    Rizk, Rana; Hiligsmann, Mickaël; Karavetian, Mirey; Salameh, Pascale; Evers, Silvia M A A

    2016-12-01

    Renal failure is a growing public health problem, and is mainly treated by hemodialysis. This study aims to estimate the societal costs of hemodialysis in Lebanon. This was a quantitative, cross-sectional cost-of-illness study conducted alongside the Nutrition Education for Management of Osteodystrophy trial. Costs were assessed with a prevalence-based, bottom-up approach, for the period of June-December 2011. The data of 114 patients recruited from six hospital-based units were collected through a questionnaire measuring healthcare costs, costs to patients and family, and costs in other sectors. Recall data were used for the base-case analysis. Sensitivity analyses employing various sources of resources use and costs were performed. Costs were uprated to 2015US$. Multiple linear regression was conducted to explore the predictors of societal costs. The mean 6-month societal costs were estimated at $9,258.39. The larger part was attributable to healthcare costs (91.7%), while costs to patient and family and costs in other sectors poorly contributed to the total costs (4.2% and 4.1%, respectively). In general, results were robust to sensitivity analyses. Using the maximum value for hospitalization resulted in the biggest difference (+15.5% of the base-case result). Female gender, being widowed/divorced, having hypertension comorbidity, and higher weekly time on dialysis were significantly associated with greater societal costs. Information regarding resource consumption and cost were not readily available. Rather, they were obtained from a variety of sources, with each having its own strengths and limitations. Hemodialysis represents a high societal burden in Lebanon. Using extrapolation, its total annual cost for the Lebanese society is estimated at $61,105,374 and the mean total annual cost ($18,516.7) is 43.70% higher than the gross domestic product per capita forecast for 2015. Measures to reduce the economic burden of hemodialysis should be taken, by promoting

  15. Cost of illness of atrial fibrillation: a nationwide study of societal impact.

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    Johnsen, Søren Paaske; Dalby, Lene Worsaae; Täckström, Tomas; Olsen, Jens; Fraschke, Anina

    2017-11-10

    The prevalence of atrial fibrillation is increasing rapidly; however, to date, population-based data are lacking on the attributable cost of illness of atrial fibrillation from a societal perspective, including both direct and indirect costs. The study was an incidence-based cost-of-illness study based on national registries covering the entire population of Denmark. We identified all patients with a first-time hospital diagnosis of atrial fibrillation between 2001 and 2012. For every atrial fibrillation patient, we identified three age- and sex-matched controls from the general population. Both the total and the attributable costs of atrial fibrillation were estimated based on individual level information on hospital care (in- and out-patient contacts), primary sector care, use of prescription drugs and productivity loss. Average 3-year societal costs per patient attributable to atrial fibrillation were estimated to be €20,403-26,544 during the study period. The costs were highest during the first year after diagnosis of atrial fibrillation. Admission costs constituted the largest cost component, whereas primary sector costs and medicine costs only constituted minor components. The attributable costs were more than two-fold higher among patients experiencing a stroke. The total 3-year cost attributable to atrial fibrillation in Denmark was estimated to be €219-295 million. The societal costs attributable to atrial fibrillation are significant. Reducing the need for hospitalizations, in particular from stroke, is a key factor in controlling the costs.

  16. Quality of life and cost of illness in patients with psoriasis in Malaysia: a multicenter study.

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    Tang, Min Moon; Chang, Choong Chor; Chan, Lee Chin; Heng, Agnes

    2013-03-01

    Psoriasis is an immune-mediated, chronic, inflammatory skin disease which affects approximately 2% of the world's population. It has a major impact on the patient's quality of life (QoL), influencing career, social activities, family relationships, and all other aspects of life. Many studies have described the various ways in which psoriasis can affect a patient's life. Very little is known, however, about the impact of psoriasis on the QoL of patients treated in Malaysia and the cost of illness in this region. This study aims to describe the extent to which psoriasis affects the QoL of patients treated in government-run dermatology clinics in Malaysia and to estimate the cost of illness. A total of 250 psoriasis patients treated at eight dermatology clinics in government-run hospitals in Malaysia were studied. The severity of psoriasis was assessed by dermatologists. Quality of life was evaluated using the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) and Version 2 of the 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12v2). Scores on the SF-12v2 of healthy subjects and of patients with other medical conditions, such as depression, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and ischemic heart disease, were also assessed for comparison. The costs of dermatology outpatient consultant fees, medications, investigations, procedures, transportation, over-the-counter medications, and hospitalization were retrospectively estimated using questionnaires. The cohort studied had a median Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI) score of 9.9 and a median DLQI score of 10.0. The average SF-12v2 scores were 43.68 (standard deviation [SD] 9.23) and 42.25 (SD 10.7) on the Physical Health Summary and Mental Health Summary, respectively. The impact of disease on QoL was found to be greater in those with more extensive psoriatic lesion involvement, in younger patients, and in those with psoriatic arthropathy. Psoriasis was found to affect QoL in both genders equally. Body mass index had no effect on the severity of

  17. Cost-of-illness studies for bipolar disorder: systematic review of international studies.

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    Jin, Huajie; McCrone, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) may result in a greater burden than all forms of cancer, Alzheimer's disease and epilepsy. Cost-of-illness (COI) studies provide useful information on the economic burden that BD imposes on a society. Furthermore, COI studies are pivotal sources of evidence used in economic evaluations. This study aims to give a general overview of COI studies for BD and to discuss methodological issues that might potentially influence results. This study also aims to provide recommendations to improve practice in this area, based on the review. A search was performed to identify COI studies of BD. The following electronic databases were searched: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycInfo, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, HMIC and openSIGLE. The primary outcome of this review was the annual cost per BD patient. A narrative assessment of key methodological issues was also included. Based on these findings, recommendations for good practice were drafted. Fifty-four studies were included in this review. Because of the widespread methodological heterogeneity among included studies, no attempt has been made to pool results of different studies. Potential areas for methodological improvement were identified. These were: description of the disease and population, the approach to deal with comorbidities, reporting the rationale and impact for choosing different cost perspectives, and ways in which uncertainty is addressed. This review showed that numerous COI studies have been conducted for BD since 1995. However, these studies employed varying methods, which limit the comparability of findings. The recommendations provided by this review can be used by those conducting COI studies and those critiquing them, to increase the credibility and reporting of study results.

  18. Cost-of-illness studies and cost-effectiveness analyses in anxiety disorders: a systematic review.

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    Konnopka, Alexander; Leichsenring, Falk; Leibing, Eric; König, Hans-Helmut

    2009-04-01

    To review cost-of-illness studies (COI) and cost-effectiveness analyses (CEA) conducted for anxiety disorders. Based on a database search in Pubmed, PsychINFO and NHS EED, studies were classified according to various criteria. Cost data were inflated and converted to 2005 US-$ purchasing power parities (PPP). We finally identified 20 COI and 11 CEA of which most concentrated on panic disorder (PD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Differing inclusion of cost categories limited comparability of COI. PD and GAD tended to show higher direct costs per case, but lower direct cost per inhabitant than social and specific phobias. Different measures of effectiveness severely limited comparability of CEA. Overall CEA analysed 26 therapeutic or interventional strategies mostly compared to standard treatment, 8 of them resulting in lower better effectiveness and costs than the comparator. Anxiety disorders cause considerable costs. More research on phobias, more standardised inclusion of cost categories in COI and a wider use of comparable effectiveness measures (like QALYs) in CEA is needed.

  19. Socio-economic costs of osteoarthritis: a systematic review of cost-of-illness studies.

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    Puig-Junoy, Jaume; Ruiz Zamora, Alba

    2015-04-01

    The burden of illness that can be attributed to osteoarthritis is considerable and ever increasing. The aim of this systematic review is to analyze currently available data derived from cost-of-illness studies on the healthcare and non-healthcare costs of osteoarthritis. PubMed, Index Medicus Español (IME), and the Spanish Database of Health Sciences [Índice Bibliográfico Español en Ciencias de la Salud (IBECS)] were searched up to the end of April 2013. This study adhered to the PRISMA guidelines. Articles were reviewed and the study quality assessed by two independent investigators with consensus resolution of discrepancies. We identified 39 studies that investigated the socio-economic cost of osteoarthritis. Only nine studies took a social perspective. Rather than estimating the incremental cost of osteoarthritis, nine studies estimated the total cost of treating patients with osteoarthritis without a control for comorbidity. The other 30 studies determined the incremental cost with or without a control group. Only nine studies assessed a comprehensive list of healthcare resources. The annual incremental healthcare costs of generalized osteoarthritis ranged from €705 to €19,715. The annual incremental non-healthcare-related costs of generalized osteoarthritis ranged from €432 to €11,956. The study concludes that the social cost of osteoarthritis could be between 0.25% and 0.50% of a country׳s GDP. This should be considered in order to foster studies that take into account both healthcare and non-healthcare costs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cost-of-illness studies in chronic ulcers: a systematic review.

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    Chan, B; Cadarette, S; Wodchis, W; Wong, J; Mittmann, N; Krahn, M

    2017-04-01

    To systematically review the published academic literature on the cost of chronic ulcers. A literature search was conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, HealthSTAR, Econlit and CINAHL up to 12 May 2016 to identify potential studies for review. Cost search terms were based on validated algorithms. Clinical search terms were based on recent Cochrane reviews of interventions for chronic ulcers. Titles and abstracts were screened by two reviewers to determine eligibility for full text review. Study characteristics were summarised. The quality of reporting was evaluated using a modified cost-of-illness checklist. Mean costs were adjusted and inflated to 2015 $US and presented for different durations and perspectives. Of 2267 studies identified, 36 were eligible and included in the systematic review. Most studies presented results from the health-care public payer or hospital perspective. Many studies included hospital costs in the analysis and only reported total costs without presenting condition-specific attributable costs. The mean cost of chronic ulcers ranged from $1000 per year for patient out of pocket costs to $30,000 per episode from the health-care public payer perspective. Mean one year cost from a health-care public payer perspective was $44,200 for diabetic foot ulcer (DFU), $15,400 for pressure ulcer (PU) and $11,000 for leg ulcer (LU). There was large variability in study methods, perspectives, cost components and jurisdictions, making interpretation of costs difficult. Nevertheless, it appears that the cost for the treatment of chronic ulcers is substantial and greater attention needs to be made for preventive measures.

  1. Annual Direct Medical Costs of Diabetic Foot Disease in Brazil: A Cost of Illness Study

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    Cristiana M. Toscano

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the annual costs for the treatment of diabetic foot disease (DFD in Brazil. We conducted a cost-of-illness study of DFD in 2014, while considering the Brazilian Public Healthcare System (SUS perspective. Direct medical costs of outpatient management and inpatient care were considered. For outpatient costs, a panel of experts was convened from which utilization of healthcare services for the management of DFD was obtained. When considering the range of syndromes included in the DFD spectrum, we developed four well-defined hypothetical DFD cases: (1 peripheral neuropathy without ulcer, (2 non-infected foot ulcer, (3 infected foot ulcer, and (4 clinical management of amputated patients. Quantities of each healthcare service was then multiplied by their respective unit costs obtained from national price listings. We then developed a decision analytic tree to estimate nationwide costs of DFD in Brazil, while taking into the account the estimated cost per case and considering epidemiologic parameters obtained from a national survey, secondary data, and the literature. For inpatient care, ICD10 codes related to DFD were identified and costs of hospitalizations due to osteomyelitis, amputations, and other selected DFD related conditions were obtained from a nationwide hospitalization database. Direct medical costs of DFD in Brazil was estimated considering the 2014 purchasing power parity (PPP (1 Int$ = 1.748 BRL. We estimated that the annual direct medical costs of DFD in 2014 was Int$ 361 million, which denotes 0.31% of public health expenses for this period. Of the total, Int$ 27.7 million (13% was for inpatient, and Int$ 333.5 million (87% for outpatient care. Despite using different methodologies to estimate outpatient and inpatient costs related to DFD, this is the first study to assess the overall economic burden of DFD in Brazil, while considering all of its syndromes and both outpatients and inpatients

  2. Annual Direct Medical Costs of Diabetic Foot Disease in Brazil: A Cost of Illness Study.

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    Toscano, Cristiana M; Sugita, Tatiana H; Rosa, Michelle Q M; Pedrosa, Hermelinda C; Rosa, Roger Dos S; Bahia, Luciana R

    2018-01-08

    The aim of this study was to estimate the annual costs for the treatment of diabetic foot disease (DFD) in Brazil. We conducted a cost-of-illness study of DFD in 2014, while considering the Brazilian Public Healthcare System (SUS) perspective. Direct medical costs of outpatient management and inpatient care were considered. For outpatient costs, a panel of experts was convened from which utilization of healthcare services for the management of DFD was obtained. When considering the range of syndromes included in the DFD spectrum, we developed four well-defined hypothetical DFD cases: (1) peripheral neuropathy without ulcer, (2) non-infected foot ulcer, (3) infected foot ulcer, and (4) clinical management of amputated patients. Quantities of each healthcare service was then multiplied by their respective unit costs obtained from national price listings. We then developed a decision analytic tree to estimate nationwide costs of DFD in Brazil, while taking into the account the estimated cost per case and considering epidemiologic parameters obtained from a national survey, secondary data, and the literature. For inpatient care, ICD10 codes related to DFD were identified and costs of hospitalizations due to osteomyelitis, amputations, and other selected DFD related conditions were obtained from a nationwide hospitalization database. Direct medical costs of DFD in Brazil was estimated considering the 2014 purchasing power parity (PPP) (1 Int$ = 1.748 BRL). We estimated that the annual direct medical costs of DFD in 2014 was Int$ 361 million, which denotes 0.31% of public health expenses for this period. Of the total, Int$ 27.7 million (13%) was for inpatient, and Int$ 333.5 million (87%) for outpatient care. Despite using different methodologies to estimate outpatient and inpatient costs related to DFD, this is the first study to assess the overall economic burden of DFD in Brazil, while considering all of its syndromes and both outpatients and inpatients. Although we

  3. Healthcare and wider societal implications of stillbirth: a population-based cost-of-illness study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, H E; Kurinczuk, J J; Heazell, Aep; Leal, J; Rivero-Arias, O

    2018-01-01

    To extend previous work and estimate health and social care costs, litigation costs, funeral-related costs, and productivity losses associated with stillbirth in the UK. A population-based cost-of-illness study using a synthesis of secondary data. The National Health Service (NHS) and wider society in the UK. Stillbirths occurring within a 12-month period and subsequent events occurring over the following 2 years. Costs were estimated using published data on events, resource use, and unit costs. Mean health and social care costs, litigation costs, funeral-related costs, and productivity costs for 2 years, reported for a single stillbirth and at a national level. Mean health and social care costs per stillbirth were £4191. Additionally, funeral-related costs were £559, and workplace absence (parents and healthcare professionals) was estimated to cost £3829 per stillbirth. For the UK, the annual health and social care costs were estimated at £13.6 million, and total productivity losses amounted to £706.1 million (98% of this cost was attributable to the loss of the life of the baby). The figures for total productivity losses were sensitive to the perspective adopted about the loss of life of the baby. This work expands the current intelligence on the costs of stillbirth beyond the health service to costs for parents and society, and yet these additional findings must still be regarded as conservative estimates of the true economic costs. The costs of stillbirth are significant, affecting the health service, parents, professionals, and society. Why and how was the study carried out? The personal, social, and emotional consequences of stillbirth are profound. Placing a monetary value on such consequences is emotive, yet necessary, when deciding how best to invest limited healthcare resources. We estimated the average costs associated with a single stillbirth and the costs for all stillbirths occurring in the UK over a 1-year period. What were the main

  4. Economic context analysis in mental health care. Usability of health financing and cost of illness studies for international comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador-Carulla, L; Hernández-Peña, P

    2011-03-01

    This paper discusses an integrated approach to mental health studies on Financing of Illness (FoI) and health accounting, Cost of Illness (CoI) and Burden of Disease (BoD). In order to expand the mental health policies, the following are suggested: (a) an international consensus on the standard scope, methods to collect and to analyse mental health data, as well as to report comparative information; (b) mathematical models are also to be validated and tested in an integrated approach, (c) a better knowledge transfer between clinicians and knowledge engineers, and between researchers and policy makers to translate economic analysis into practice and health planning.

  5. Comorbidities, treatment patterns and cost-of-illness of acromegaly in Sweden: a register-linkage population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesén, Eva; Granfeldt, Daniel; Houchard, Aude; Dinet, Jérôme; Berthon, Anthony; Olsson, Daniel S; Björholt, Ingela; Johannsson, Gudmundur

    2017-02-01

    Acromegaly is a complex endocrine disease with multiple comorbidities. Treatment to obtain biochemical remission includes surgery, medical therapy and radiation. We aimed to describe comorbidities, treatment patterns and cost-of-illness in patients with acromegaly in Sweden. A nationwide population-based study. Patients with acromegaly were identified and followed in national registers in Sweden. Longitudinal treatment patterns were assessed in patients diagnosed between July 2005 and December 2013. The cost-of-illness during 2013 was estimated from a societal perspective among patients diagnosed between 1987 and 2013. Among 358 patients with acromegaly (48% men, mean age at diagnosis 50.0 (s.d. 15.3) years) at least one comorbidity was reported in 81% (n = 290). The most common comorbidities were hypertension (40%, n = 142), neoplasms outside the pituitary (30%, n = 109), hypopituitarism (22%, n = 80) and diabetes mellitus (17%, n = 61). Acromegaly treatment was initiated on average 3.7 (s.d. 6.9) months after diagnosis. Among the 301 treated patients, the most common first-line treatments were surgery (60%, n = 180), somatostatin analogues (21%, n = 64) and dopamine agonists (14%, n = 41). After primary surgery, 24% (n = 44) received somatostatin analogues. The annual per-patient cost was €12 000; this was €8700 and €16 000 if diagnosed before or after July 2005, respectively. The cost-of-illness for acromegaly and its comorbidities was 77% from direct costs and 23% from production loss. The prevalence of comorbidity is high in patients with acromegaly. The most common first-line treatment in acromegalic patients was surgery followed by somatostatin analogues. The annual per-patient cost of acromegaly and its comorbidities was €12 000. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  6. Inequalities in the distribution of the costs of alcohol misuse in Scotland: a cost of illness study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Marjorie C; Ludbrook, Anne; Jaffray, Mariesha A

    2012-01-01

    To examine the distribution of the costs of alcohol misuse across Scotland in 2009/2010, in relation to deprivation. A cost of illness approach was used. Alcohol-related harmful effects were assessed for inclusion using a literature review. This was based upon the following categories: direct healthcare costs, intangible health costs, social care costs, crime costs and labour and productivity costs. An analysis of secondary data supplemented by a literature review was carried out to quantify each harmful effect, determine its value and provide an estimate of the distribution by deprivation. The deprivation distributions used were area measures (primarily the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation). The overall cost was £7457 million. Two alcohol harmful effects were not included in the overall cost by deprivation due to a lack of data. These were 'children's social work and hearing system' and the criminal justice system costs from 'alcohol-specific offences'. The included alcohol harmful effects demonstrated that 40.41% of the total cost arose from the 20% most deprived areas. The intangible cost category was the largest category (78.65%). The study found that the burden of alcohol harmful effects is greater in deprived groups and these burdens do not simply arise from deprived groups but are also experienced more by these groups. The study was limited by a lack of data availability in certain areas, leading to less-precise cost estimates.

  7. Costs of shoulder pain and resource use in primary health care: a cost-of-illness study in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virta, Lena; Joranger, Pål; Brox, Jens Ivar; Eriksson, Rikard

    2012-02-10

    Painful shoulders pose a substantial socioeconomic burden. A prospective cost-of-illness study was performed to assess the costs associated with healthcare use and loss of productivity in patients with shoulder pain in primary health care in Sweden. The study was performed in western Sweden, in a region with 24 000 inhabitants. Data were collected during six months from electronic patient records at three primary healthcare centres in two municipalities. All patients between 20 and 64 years of age who presented with shoulder pain to a general practitioner or a physiotherapist were included. Diagnostic codes were used for selection, and the cases were manually controlled. The cost for sick leave was calculated according to the human capital approach. Sensitivity analysis was used to explore uncertainty in various factors used in the model. 204 (103 women) patients, mean age 48 (SD 11) years, were registered. Half of the cases were closed within six weeks, whereas 32 patients (16%) remained in the system for more than six months. A fifth of the patients were responsible for 91% of the total costs, and for 44% of the healthcare costs. The mean healthcare cost per patient was €326 (SD 389) during six months. Physiotherapy treatments accounted for 60%. The costs for sick leave contributed to 84% of the total costs. The mean annual total cost was €4139 per patient. Estimated costs for secondary care increased the total costs by one third. The model applied in this study provides valuable information that can be used in cost evaluations. Costs for secondary care and particularly for sick leave have a major influence on total costs and interventions that can reduce long periods of sick leave are warranted.

  8. Costs of shoulder pain and resource use in primary health care: a cost-of-illness study in Sweden

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    Virta Lena

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Painful shoulders pose a substantial socioeconomic burden. A prospective cost-of-illness study was performed to assess the costs associated with healthcare use and loss of productivity in patients with shoulder pain in primary health care in Sweden. Methods The study was performed in western Sweden, in a region with 24 000 inhabitants. Data were collected during six months from electronic patient records at three primary healthcare centres in two municipalities. All patients between 20 and 64 years of age who presented with shoulder pain to a general practitioner or a physiotherapist were included. Diagnostic codes were used for selection, and the cases were manually controlled. The cost for sick leave was calculated according to the human capital approach. Sensitivity analysis was used to explore uncertainty in various factors used in the model. Results 204 (103 women patients, mean age 48 (SD 11 years, were registered. Half of the cases were closed within six weeks, whereas 32 patients (16% remained in the system for more than six months. A fifth of the patients were responsible for 91% of the total costs, and for 44% of the healthcare costs. The mean healthcare cost per patient was €326 (SD 389 during six months. Physiotherapy treatments accounted for 60%. The costs for sick leave contributed to 84% of the total costs. The mean annual total cost was €4139 per patient. Estimated costs for secondary care increased the total costs by one third. Conclusions The model applied in this study provides valuable information that can be used in cost evaluations. Costs for secondary care and particularly for sick leave have a major influence on total costs and interventions that can reduce long periods of sick leave are warranted.

  9. The Economic Burden of Visual Impairment and Comorbid Fatigue: A Cost-of-Illness Study (From a Societal Perspective).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schakel, Wouter; van der Aa, Hilde P A; Bode, Christina; Hulshof, Carel T J; van Rens, Ger H M B; van Nispen, Ruth M A

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the burden of visual impairment and comorbid fatigue in terms of impact on daily life, by estimating societal costs (direct medical costs and indirect non-health care costs) accrued by these conditions. This cost-of-illness study was performed from a societal perspective. Cross-sectional data of visually impaired adults and normally sighted adults were collected through structured telephone interviews and online surveys, respectively. Primary outcomes were fatigue severity (FAS), impact of fatigue on daily life (MFIS), and total societal costs. Cost differences between participants with and without vision loss, and between participants with and without fatigue, were examined by (adjusted) multivariate regression analyses, including bootstrapped confidence intervals. Severe fatigue (FAS ≥ 22) and high fatigue impact (MFIS ≥ 38) was present in 57% and 40% of participants with vision loss (n = 247), respectively, compared to 22% (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 4.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] [2.7, 7.6]) and 11% (adjusted OR 4.8; 95% CI [2.7, 8.7]) in those with normal sight (n = 233). A significant interaction was found between visual impairment and high fatigue impact for total societal costs (€449; 95% CI [33, 1017]). High fatigue impact was associated with significantly increased societal costs for participants with visual impairment (mean difference €461; 95% CI [126, 797]), but this effect was not observed for participants with normal sight (€12; 95% CI [-527, 550]). Visual impairment is associated with an increased prevalence of high fatigue impact that largely determines the economic burden of visual impairment. The substantial costs of visual impairment and comorbid fatigue emphasize the need for patient-centered interventions aimed at decreasing its impact.

  10. The cost of pressure ulcer prevention and treatment in hospitals and nursing homes in Flanders: A cost-of-illness study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarré, Liesbet; Verhaeghe, Sofie; Annemans, Lieven; Van Hecke, Ann; Grypdonck, Maria; Beeckman, Dimitri

    2015-07-01

    The economic impact of pressure ulcer prevention and treatment is high. The results of cost-of-illness studies can assist the planning, allocation, and priority setting of healthcare expenditures to improve the implementation of preventive measures. Data on the cost of current practice of pressure ulcer prevention or treatment in Flanders, a region of Belgium, is lacking. To examine the cost of pressure ulcer prevention and treatment in an adult population in hospitals and nursing homes from the healthcare payer perspective. A cost-of-illness study was performed using a bottom-up approach. Hospitals and nursing homes in Flanders, a region of Belgium. Data were collected in a series of prospective multicentre cross-sectional studies between 2008 and 2013. Data collection included data on risk assessment, pressure ulcer prevalence, preventive measures, unit cost of materials for prevention and treatment, nursing time measurements for activities related to pressure ulcer prevention and treatment, and nursing wages. The cost of pressure ulcer prevention and treatment in hospitals and nursing homes was calculated as annual cost for Flanders, per patient, and per patient per day. The mean (SD) cost for pressure ulcer prevention was €7.88 (8.21) per hospitalised patient at risk per day and €2.15 (3.10) per nursing home resident at risk per day. The mean (SD) cost of pressure ulcer prevention for patients and residents identified as not at risk for pressure ulcer development was €1.44 (4.26) per day in hospitals and €0.50 (1.61) per day in nursing homes. The main cost driver was the cost of labour, responsible for 79-85% of the cost of prevention. The mean (SD) cost of local treatment per patient per day varied between €2.34 (1.14) and €77.36 (35.95) in hospitals, and between €2.42 (1.15) and €16.18 (4.93) in nursing homes. Related to methodological differences between studies, the cost of pressure ulcer prevention and treatment in hospitals and nursing

  11. Cost of illness in colorectal cancer: an international review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriza, Christine; Emmert, Martin; Wahlster, Philip; Niederländer, Charlotte; Kolominsky-Rabas, Peter

    2013-07-01

    Given the current-and increasing-pressure to limit expenditure on health care provision in many countries, a better understanding of the cost burden of colorectal cancer is needed. Cost-of-illness studies and reviews thereof can be a useful tool for analysing and critically evaluating the cost-related development of colorectal cancer, and they highlight important cost drivers. A systematic review was conducted from 2002 to 2012 to identify cost-of-illness studies related to colorectal cancer, searching the Medline, PubMed, Science Direct, Cochrane Library and the York CRD databases. Among the 10 studies (from France, the US, Ireland and Taiwan) included in the review, 6 studies reported prevalence-based estimates and 4 studies focussed on incidence-based data. In the studies included in the review, long-term costs for colorectal cancer of up to $50,175 per patient (2008 values) were estimated. Most of the studies in the review showed that the initial and terminal phases of colorectal cancer care are the most expensive, with continuing treatment being the least costly phase. One study also highlighted that stage I CRC disease was the least costly and stage III the most costly of all 4 stages, due to the high cost impact of biological agents. This review has highlighted a trend for rising costs associated with CRC, which is linked to the increasing use of targeted biological therapies. COI studies in colorectal cancer can identify specific components and areas of care that are especially costly, thereby focussing attention on more cost-effective approaches, which is especially relevant to the increased use of biological agents in the field of personalised medicine. COI studies are an important tool for further health economic evaluations of personalised medicine.

  12. Health sector costs of self-reported food allergy in Europe: a patient-based cost of illness study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mugford, M.; Fox, M.; Voordouw, J.; Cornelisse-Vermaat, J.R.; Antonides, G.; Hoz Caballer, de la B.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Food allergy is a recognized health problem, but little has been reported on its cost for health services. The EuroPrevall project was a European study investigating the patterns, prevalence and socio-economic cost of food allergy. Aims: To investigate the health service cost for

  13. Health sector costs of self-reported food allergy in Europe : A patient-based cost of illness study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, Margaret; Mugford, Miranda; Voordouw, Jantine; Cornelisse-Vermaat, Judith; Antonides, Gerrit; de la Hoz Caballer, Belen; Cerecedo, Inma; Zamora, Javier; Rokicka, Ewa; Jewczak, Maciej; Clark, Allan B; Kowalski, Marek L; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Knulst, Anna C; Seneviratne, Suranjith; Belohlavkova, Simona; Asero, Roberto; de Blay, Frederic; Purohit, Ashok; Clausen, Michael; Flokstra de Blok, Bertine; Dubois, Anthony E; Fernandez-Rivas, Montserrat; Burney, Peter; Frewer, Lynn J; Mills, Clare E N

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Food allergy is a recognized health problem, but little has been reported on its cost for health services. The EuroPrevall project was a European study investigating the patterns, prevalence and socio-economic cost of food allergy. Aims: To investigate the health service cost for

  14. Cost of illness of Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodger, Keith

    2002-01-01

    Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease of unknown aetiology which affects around 35,000 people in the UK (population 56.8 million). The potential for onset in early adult life, disease chronicity and a need for hospitalisation and surgery mean that the disease can be associated with substantial healthcare costs. Cost-of-illness studies focusing on direct medical costs have identified that over half the average costs associated with the disease relate to hospital costs. Estimates of the contribution of drug costs to the total direct economic burden have varied between 4.6 and 25%. Figures for average annual direct costs per patient in the US have been put at between US dollars 6561 (1990 values) and US dollars 12,417 (1994 values), whereas European studies have given much lower cost estimates (US dollars 655, 1994 values). However, all studies have highlighted that much of the total cost of illness relates to extensive interventions required by a small proportion of severely affected individuals. Indirect costs associated with reduced productivity in Crohn's disease can be high, with long periods of absenteeism and early disability. However, most patients (90%) remain in the workforce and life expectancy is relatively normal. A variety of drugs are employed for the treatment of Crohn's disease, both in an attempt to induce clinical remission in active disease and to maintain remission once this has been achieved. Comparative data on cost effectiveness is lacking, though crude estimates based on randomised trials suggest that the frequently prescribed aminosalicylates, which have only modest efficacy, are a relatively costly drug option. The costs associated with adverse drug effects, particularly for corticosteroids, have not been formally quantified. Despite high costs, new drug therapies for more severe disease, such as anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) antibodies, may prove a cost-effective option if the need for hospitalisation is reduced

  15. Costs of Illness Due to Endemic Cholera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulos, C.; Riewpaiboon, A.; Stewart, J.F.; Clemens, J.; Guh, S.; Agtini, M.; Sur, D.; Islam, Z.; Lucas, M.; Whittington, D.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Economic analyses of cholera immunization programmes require estimates of the costs of cholera. The Diseases of the Most Impoverished programme measured the public, provider, and patient costs of culture-confirmed cholera in four study sites with endemic cholera using a combination of hospital- and community-based studies. Families with culture-proven cases were surveyed at home 7 and 14 days after confirmation of illness. Public costs were measured at local health facilities using a micro-costing methodology. Hospital-based studies found that the costs of severe cholera were USD 32 and 47 in Matlab and Beira. Community-based studies in North Jakarta and Kolkata found that cholera cases cost between USD 28 and USD 206, depending on hospitalization. Patient costs of illness as a percentage of average monthly income were 21% and 65% for hospitalized cases in Kolkata and North Jakarta, respectively. This burden on families is not captured by studies that adopt a provider perspective. PMID:21554781

  16. Cost-of-illness study of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Colombia Diabetes mellitus tipo 2 en Colombia: costo de la enfermedad

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    Juan Camilo González

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the per patient and overall cost of illness of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in Colombia from Ministry of Health and societal perspectives. METHODS: A published Markov transition model was adapted for Colombia, using the clinical expertise of a Colombian endocrinologist. Transition probabilities for the model were derived from an international literature review. A model was run for a time horizon of 42 years. Direct resources (drugs, laboratory, medical, hospital, other health care were identified and cost was ascertained by using national price lists, international health care guidelines, and other Colombian studies or data from other countries. Indirect costs (work time lost were calculated by using the human capital approach. Annual and lifetime direct and indirect costs, in 2007 U.S. dollars with a 5% discount rate, were determined on a per patient basis and projected to the overall Colombian population. Costs were clustered according to treatments and outcomes. RESULTS: The estimated annual cost was $2.7 billion from the societal perspective and $921 million from the Ministry of Health perspective. The annual direct cost per patient was $288, and the indirect cost was $559 (total = $847. This cost was distributed across disease outcomes as follows: diabetes treatment (drugs, 47%; cardiac and coronary disease, 24%; stroke, 15%; amputation, 9%; nephropathy, 3%; retinopathy, 2%. Macrovascular complications made up 86% of the annual direct costs and 95% of the annual indirect costs of T2DM. CONCLUSIONS: We estimated the annual cost of T2DM for Colombia from societal, Ministry of Health, and Colombian Health System perspectives. We also estimated annual direct cost per patient and the cost of treating diabetes and macrovascular complications. The economic burden is substantial and comparable to results for other countries. The model showed a logical disease progression.OBJETIVO: Determinar el costo de la enfermedad

  17. The Indirect cost of illness in Africa

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    Joses Muthuri Kirigia

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The current study estimated (a the indirect costs associated with non-fatal disability and premature death across a wide range of diseases and health conditions in Africa in 2015 and (b the potential savings that could be accrued if countries were to meet the 3 health targets of the substainable development goal (SDG compared to the costs under the status quo. Methods: This study used the lost output or human capital approach to quantify the gross domestic product (GDP losses associated with the disability-adjusted-life-years (DALYs lost due to all causes by age group as well as by country economic classification (Group 1: 10 high/upper-middle income countries; Group 2: 17 lower-middle income countries; and Group 3: 27 low income countries. Results: The expected indirect cost of the 704,765,879 DALYs lost in Africa in 2015 was Int$ 2,983,187,560,197. Of this amount, 25.17%, 57.84% and 16.99% were incurred by the economies of the countries comprising Group 1, Group 2 and Group 3, respectively. Of the total continental indirect cost, 36.9%, 10.5%, 13.7%, 17.0%, 7.6%, 6.8% and 7.5% were associated with people aged 0-4, 5-14, 15-29, 30-49, 50-59, 60-69 and 70 years or older, respectively. Most of the total indirect cost (56.61% was attributable to maternal conditions, AIDS, tuberculosis (TB, malaria, neglected tropicald diseases (NTDs, non-communicable diseases and traffic injuries. Approximately half (47% of this cost could be avoided (or saved every year if the 3 (health targets of the SDG were fully met. Conclusion: The study estimated the total indirect cost of illness due to all causes by age group and country economic classification. The annual indirect cost is substantial. The findings contained in this paper suggest that health system strengthening should focus on both rich and poor countries, people of all ages and specific disease categories.

  18. A Cost of Illness Study of Children with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders and Comorbid Anxiety Disorders as Compared to Clinically Anxious and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steensel, Francisca J.; Dirksen, Carmen D.; Bögels, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    The study's aim was to estimate the societal costs of children with high-functioning ASD and comorbid anxiety disorder(s) (ASD + AD-group; n = 73), and to compare these costs to children with anxiety disorders (AD-group; n = 34), and typically developing children (controls; n = 87). Mean total costs for the ASD + AD-group amounted €17,380 per…

  19. Cost-of-Illness Trends Associated with Thyroid Disease in Korea

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    Kyung-Rae Hyun

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe purpose of this study is to analyze the scale of and trends associated with the cost-of-illness of thyroid disease in Korea at 2-year intervals during the last 10 years for which data are available.MethodsCost-of-illness was estimated in terms of direct and indirect costs. Direct costs include direct medical costs due to hospitalization, outpatient and pharmacy sectors, transportation, and care-giver costs. Indirect costs include future income loss due to premature death and loss of productivity as a result of absence from work.ResultsThe cost-of-illness of thyroid disease in Korea was estimated at 224.2 billion won in 2002, 303.4 billion won in 2004, 400.3 billion won in 2006, 570.4 billion won in 2008, and 762.2 billion won in 2010. For example, the cost-of-illness of thyroid disease in 2010 was 3.4 times greater compared to 2002. The direct cost of the total cost-of-illness was 69.7%, which accounted for the highest proportion of costs. Cost-of-illness for individuals between the ages of 30 and 50 accounted for the greatest share of costs.ConclusionThe cost-of-illness of thyroid disease was relatively large in economically active age groups, and demonstrated a very rapid growth rate compared to other major diseases in Korea. Therefore, we suggest nationwide recognition of the importance of prevention and management of thyroid disease and prioritization of the management of thyroid disease among current and future health promotion policies in Korea.

  20. The social and economic burden of stroke survivors in Italy: a prospective, incidence-based, multi-centre cost of illness study

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    Fattore Giovanni

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to estimate the one-year societal costs due to a stroke event in Italy and to investigate variables associated with costs in different phases following hospital admission. Methods The patients were enrolled in 44 hospitals across the country and data on socio-demographic, clinical variables and resource consumption were prospectively surveyed for 411 stroke survivors at admission, discharge and 3, 6 and 12 months post the event. We adopted a micro-costing procedure to identify cost generating components and the attribution of appropriate unit costs for three cost categories: direct healthcare, direct non-healthcare (including informal care costs and productivity losses. The relation between costs of stroke management and socio-demographic and clinical characteristics as well as disability levels was evaluated in a series of bivariate analyses using non parametric tests (Mann Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to determine predictors of costs incurred by stroke patients during the acute phase and follow-up of 1 year. Results On average, one-year healthcare and societal costs amounted to €11,747 and € 19,953 per stroke survivor, respectively. The major cost component of societal costs was informal care accounting for € 6,656 (33.4% of total, followed by the initial hospitalisation, (€ 5,573; 27.9% of total, rehabilitation during follow up (€ 4,112; 20.6 %, readmissions (€ 439 and specialist and general practioner visits (€ 326. Mean drug costs per patient over the follow-up period was about € 50 per month. Costs associated to the provision of paid and informal care followed different pattern and were persistent over time (ranging from € 639 to € 597 per month in the first and the second part of the year, respectively. Clinical variables (presence of diabetes mellitus and hemorrhagic stroke were significant predictors of total healthcare

  1. Cost of illness and economic evaluation in rare diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Bastida, Julio; Oliva-Moreno, Juan

    2010-01-01

    Rare diseases are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in high income countries and have major repercussions on individuals and health care systems. This chapter examines the health economy of rare diseases from two different perspectives: firstly, the study of the economic impact of rare diseases (Cost of Illness studies); and, secondly, cost-effectiveness evaluation, which evaluates both the costs and results of the health care technologies applied in rare diseases. From the point of view of economics, health resource allocation is based on the principle of scarcity, as there are not - and never will be- sufficient resources for all worthy objectives. Hence, policy makers should balance costs and health outcomes. Rare diseases may well represent a significant societal burden that should rightly receive appropriate prioritisation of health care resources. As new and seemingly expensive health care technologies are developed for rare diseases, it will become increasingly important to evaluate potential and real impact of these new technologies in both dimensions: social costs and health outcomes.

  2. Cost-of-illness analysis of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Iran.

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    Mehdi Javanbakht

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a worldwide high prevalence chronic progressive disease that poses a significant challenge to healthcare systems. The aim of this study is to provide a detailed economic burden of diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and its complications in Iran in 2009 year.This is a prevalence-based cost-of-illness study focusing on quantifying direct health care costs by bottom-up approach. Data on inpatient hospital services, outpatient clinic visits, physician services, drugs, laboratory test, education and non-medical cost were collected from two national registries. The human capital approach was used to calculate indirect costs separately in male and female and also among different age groups.The total national cost of diagnosed T2DM in 2009 is estimated at 3.78 billion USA dollars (USD including 2.04±0.28 billion direct (medical and non-medical costs and indirect costs of 1.73 million. Average direct and indirect cost per capita was 842.6±102 and 864.8 USD respectively. Complications (48.9% and drugs (23.8% were main components of direct cost. The largest components of medical expenditures attributed to diabetes's complications are cardiovascular disease (42.3% of total Complications cost, nephropathy (23% and ophthalmic complications (14%. Indirect costs include temporarily disability (335.7 million, permanent disability (452.4 million and reduced productivity due to premature mortality (950.3 million.T2DM is a costly disease in the Iran healthcare system and consume more than 8.69% of total health expenditure. In addition to these quantified costs, T2DM imposes high intangible costs on society in terms of reduced quality of life. Identification of effective new strategies for the control of diabetes and its complications is a public health priority.

  3. Diabetes: cost of illness in Norway

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    Jenssen Trond

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus places a considerable burden on patients in terms of morbidity and mortality and on society in terms of costs. Costs related to diabetes are expected to increase due to increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to estimate the health care costs attributable to type 1 and type 2 diabetes in Norway in 2005. Methods Data on inpatient hospital services, outpatient clinic visits, physician services, drugs, medical equipment, nutrition guidance, physiotherapy, acupuncture, foot therapy and indirect costs were collected from national registers and responses to a survey of 584 patients with diabetes. The study was performed with a prevalence approach. Uncertainty was explored by means of bootstrapping. Results When hospital stays with diabetes as a secondary diagnosis were excluded, the total costs were €293 million, which represents about 1.4% of the total health care expenditure. Pharmaceuticals accounted for €95 million (32%, disability pensions €48 million (16%, medical devices €40 million (14% and hospital admissions €21 million (7%. Patient expenditures for acupuncture, physiotherapy and foot therapy were many times higher than expenditure for nutritional guidance. Indirect costs (lost production from job absenteeism accounted for €70.1 million (24% of the €293 million and included sick leave (€16.7 million, disability support and disability pensions (€48.2 million and other indirect costs (€5.3 million. If all diabetes related hospital stays are included (primary- and secondary diagnosis total costs amounts to €535 million, about 2.6% of the total health care expenditure in Norway. Conclusions Diabetes represents a considerable burden to society in terms of health care costs and productivity losses.

  4. Cost-of-illness analysis. What room in health economics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarricone, Rosanna

    2006-06-01

    Cost-of-illness (COI) was the first economic evaluation technique used in the health field. The principal aim was to measure the economic burden of illness to society. Its usefulness as a decision-making tool has however been questioned since its inception. The main criticism came from welfare economists who rejected COIs because they were not grounded in welfare economics theory. Other attacks related to the use of the human capital approach (HCA) to evaluate morbidity and mortality costs since it was said that the HCA had nothing to do with the value people attach to their lives. Finally, objections were made that COI could not be of any help to decision makers and that other forms of economic evaluation (e.g. cost-effectiveness, cost-benefit analysis) would be much more useful to those taking decisions and ranking priorities. Conversely, it is here suggested that COI can be a good economic tool to inform decision makers if it is considered from another perspective. COI is a descriptive study that can provide information to support the political process as well as the management functions at different levels of the healthcare organisations. To do that, the design of the study must be innovative, capable of measuring the true cost to society; to estimate the main cost components and their incidence over total costs; to envisage the different subjects who bear the costs; to identify the actual clinical management of illness; and to explain cost variability. In order to reach these goals, COI need to be designed as observational bottom-up studies.

  5. Cost of illness and illness perceptions in patients with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervoort, Vera M; Vriezekolk, Johanna E; Olde Hartman, Tim C; Cats, Hans A; van Helmond, Toon; van der Laan, Willemijn H; Geenen, Rinie; van den Ende, Cornelia H

    2016-01-01

    The disease impact and economic burden of fibromyalgia (FM) are high for patients and society at large. Knowing potential determinants of economic costs may help in reducing this burden. Cognitive appraisals (perceptions) of the illness could affect costs. The present study estimated costs of illness in FM and examined the association between these costs and illness perceptions. Questionnaire data of FM severity (FIQ), illness perceptions (IPQ-R-FM), productivity losses (SF-HLQ) and health care use were collected in a cohort of patients with FM. Costs were calculated and dichotomised (median split). Univariate and hierarchic logistic regression models examined the unique association of each illness perception with 1) health care costs and 2) costs of productivity losses. Covariates were FM severity, comorbidity and other illness perceptions. 280 patients participated: 95% female, mean age 42 (SD=12) years. Annualised costs of FM per patient were €2944 for health care, and €5731 for productivity losses. In multivariate analyses, a higher disease impact (FIQ) and two of seven illness perceptions (IPQ-R-FM) were associated with high health care costs: 1) high scores on 'cyclical timeline' reflecting a fluctuating, unpredictable course and 2) low scores on 'emotional representations', thus not perceiving a connection between fibromyalgia and emotions. None of the variables was associated with productivity losses. Our study indicates that perceiving a fluctuating course and low emotional representation, which perhaps reflects somatic fixation, are associated with health care costs in FM. Future studies should examine whether targeting these illness perceptions results in reduction of costs.

  6. Cost-of-illness of cholera to households and health facilities in rural Malawi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick G Ilboudo

    Full Text Available Cholera remains an important public health problem in many low- and middle-income countries. Vaccination has been recommended as a possible intervention for the prevention and control of cholera. Evidence, especially data on disease burden, cost-of-illness, delivery costs and cost-effectiveness to support a wider use of vaccine is still weak. This study aims at estimating the cost-of-illness of cholera to households and health facilities in Machinga and Zomba Districts, Malawi. A cross-sectional study using retrospectively collected cost data was undertaken in this investigation. One hundred patients were purposefully selected for the assessment of the household cost-of-illness and four cholera treatment centres and one health facility were selected for the assessment conducted in health facilities. Data collected for the assessment in households included direct and indirect costs borne by cholera patients and their families while only direct costs were considered for the assessment conducted in health facilities. Whenever possible, descriptive and regression analysis were used to assess difference in mean costs between groups of patients. The average costs to patients' households and health facilities for treating an episode of cholera amounted to US$65.6 and US$59.7 in 2016 for households and health facilities, respectively equivalent to international dollars (I$ 249.9 and 227.5 the same year. Costs incurred in treating a cholera episode were proportional to duration of hospital stay. Moreover, 52% of households used coping strategies to compensate for direct and indirect costs imposed by the disease. Both households and health facilities could avert significant treatment expenditures through a broader use of pre-emptive cholera vaccination. These findings have direct policy implications regarding priority investments for the prevention and control of cholera.

  7. Cost-of-illness of cholera to households and health facilities in rural Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilboudo, Patrick G; Huang, Xiao Xian; Ngwira, Bagrey; Mwanyungwe, Abel; Mogasale, Vittal; Mengel, Martin A; Cavailler, Philippe; Gessner, Bradford D; Le Gargasson, Jean-Bernard

    2017-01-01

    Cholera remains an important public health problem in many low- and middle-income countries. Vaccination has been recommended as a possible intervention for the prevention and control of cholera. Evidence, especially data on disease burden, cost-of-illness, delivery costs and cost-effectiveness to support a wider use of vaccine is still weak. This study aims at estimating the cost-of-illness of cholera to households and health facilities in Machinga and Zomba Districts, Malawi. A cross-sectional study using retrospectively collected cost data was undertaken in this investigation. One hundred patients were purposefully selected for the assessment of the household cost-of-illness and four cholera treatment centres and one health facility were selected for the assessment conducted in health facilities. Data collected for the assessment in households included direct and indirect costs borne by cholera patients and their families while only direct costs were considered for the assessment conducted in health facilities. Whenever possible, descriptive and regression analysis were used to assess difference in mean costs between groups of patients. The average costs to patients' households and health facilities for treating an episode of cholera amounted to US$65.6 and US$59.7 in 2016 for households and health facilities, respectively equivalent to international dollars (I$) 249.9 and 227.5 the same year. Costs incurred in treating a cholera episode were proportional to duration of hospital stay. Moreover, 52% of households used coping strategies to compensate for direct and indirect costs imposed by the disease. Both households and health facilities could avert significant treatment expenditures through a broader use of pre-emptive cholera vaccination. These findings have direct policy implications regarding priority investments for the prevention and control of cholera.

  8. Cost of illness due to typhoid Fever in pemba, zanzibar, East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riewpaiboon, Arthorn; Piatti, Moritz; Ley, Benedikt; Deen, Jacqueline; Thriemer, Kamala; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Salehjiddawi, Mohammad; Busch, Clara Jana-Lui; Schmied, Wolfgang H; Ali, Said Mohammed; The Typhoid Economic Study Group GiDeok Pak Leon R Ochiai Mahesh K Puri Na Yoon Chang Thomas F Wierzba And John D Clemens

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the economic burden of typhoid fever in Pemba, Zanzibar, East Africa. This study was an incidence-based cost-of-illness analysis from a societal perspective. It covered new episodes of blood culture-confirmed typhoid fever in patients presenting at the outpatient or inpatient departments of three district hospitals between May 2010 and December 2010. Cost of illness was the sum of direct costs and costs for productivity loss. Direct costs covered treatment, travel, and meals. Productivity costs were loss of income by patients and caregivers. The analysis included 17 episodes. The mean age of the patients, was 23 years (range=5-65, median=22). Thirty-five percent were inpatients, with a mean of 4.75 days of hospital stay (range=3-7, median=4.50). The mean cost for treatment alone during hospital care was US$ 21.97 at 2010 prices (US$ 1=1,430.50 Tanzanian Shilling─TSH). The average societal cost was US$ 154.47 per typhoid episode. The major expenditure was productivity cost due to lost wages of US$ 128.02 (83%). Our results contribute to the further economic evaluation of typhoid fever vaccination in Zanzibar and other sub-Saharan African countries.

  9. A prevalence-based association test for case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryckman, Kelli K; Jiang, Lan; Li, Chun; Bartlett, Jacquelaine; Haines, Jonathan L; Williams, Scott M

    2008-11-01

    Genetic association is often determined in case-control studies by the differential distribution of alleles or genotypes. Recent work has demonstrated that association can also be assessed by deviations from the expected distributions of alleles or genotypes. Specifically, multiple methods motivated by the principles of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) have been developed. However, these methods do not take into account many of the assumptions of HWE. Therefore, we have developed a prevalence-based association test (PRAT) as an alternative method for detecting association in case-control studies. This method, also motivated by the principles of HWE, uses an estimated population allele frequency to generate expected genotype frequencies instead of using the case and control frequencies separately. Our method often has greater power, under a wide variety of genetic models, to detect association than genotypic, allelic or Cochran-Armitage trend association tests. Therefore, we propose PRAT as a powerful alternative method of testing for association.

  10. [Socioeconomic costs of food-borne disease using the cost-of-illness model: applying the QALY method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hosung; Lee, Suehyung; Kim, Jong Soo; Kim, Jinsuk; Han, Kyu Hong

    2010-07-01

    This study estimated the annual socioeconomic costs of food-borne disease in 2008 from a societal perspective and using a cost-of-illness method. Our model employed a comprehensive set of diagnostic disease codes to define food-borne diseases with using the Korea National Health Insurance (KNHI) reimbursement data. This study classified the food borne illness as three types of symptoms according to the severity of the illness: mild, moderate, severe. In addition to the traditional method of assessing the cost-of-illness, the study included measures to account for the lost quality of life. We estimated the cost of the lost quality of life using quality-adjusted life years and a visual analog scale. The direct cost included medical and medication costs, and the non-medical costs included transportation costs, caregiver's cost and administration costs. The lost productivity costs included lost workdays due to illness and lost earnings due to premature death. The study found the estimated annual socioeconomic costs of food-borne disease in 2008 were 954.9 billion won (735.3 billion won-996.9 billion won). The medical cost was 73.4 - 76.8% of the cost, the lost productivity cost was 22.6% and the cost of the lost quality of life was 26.0%. Most of the cost-of-illness studies are known to have underestimated the actual socioeconomic costs of the subjects, and these studies excluded many important social costs, such as the value of pain, suffering and functional disability. The study addressed the uncertainty related to estimating the socioeconomic costs of food-borne disease as well as the updated cost estimates. Our estimates could contribute to develop and evaluate policies for food-borne disease.

  11. Assessment of cost of illness for diabetic patients in South Indian tertiary care hospital

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    Leelavathi D Acharya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The impact of diabetes on health-care expenditures has been increasingly recognized. To formulate an effective health planning and resource allocation, it is important to determine economic burden. Objective: The objective of this study is to assess the cost of illness (COI for diabetic inpatients with or without complications. Methodology: The study was conducted in the medicine wards of tertiary care hospital after ethical approval by the Institutional Ethical Committee. A total of 116 each diabetic with or without complications were selected and relevant data were collected using COI questionnaire and data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Mann–Whitney U test is used to assess the statistical significant difference in the cost of treatment of diabetes alone and with complications'. P ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Total COI includes the cost of treatment, investigation, consultation fee, intervention cost, transportation, days lost due to work, and hospitalization. The median of total COI for diabetic care without any complication was Rs. 22,456.97/- per patient per annum and with complication was Rs. 30,634.45/-. Patients on dialysis had to spend 7.3 times higher, and patients with cardiac intervention had to spend 7.4 times higher than diabetic patients without any complication. Conclusion: Treatment costs were many times higher in patients with complications and with cardiac and renal interventions. Complications in diabetic patients will increase the economic burden to family and also to the society.

  12. Cost-of-illness in psoriasis: comparing inpatient and outpatient therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine I B Steinke

    Full Text Available Treatment modalities of chronic plaque psoriasis have dramatically changed over the past ten years with a still continuing shift from inpatient to outpatient treatment. This development is mainly caused by outpatient availability of highly efficient and relatively well-tolerated systemic treatments, in particular BioLogicals. In addition, inpatient treatment is time- and cost-intense, conflicting with the actual burst of health expenses and with patient preferences. Nevertheless, inpatient treatment with dithranol and UV light still is a major mainstay of psoriasis treatment in Germany. The current study aims at comparing the total costs of inpatient treatment and outpatient follow-up to mere outpatient therapy with different modalities (topical treatment, phototherapy, classic systemic therapy or BioLogicals over a period of 12 months. To this end, a retrospective cost-of-illness study was conducted on 120 patients treated at the University Medical Centre Mannheim between 2005 and 2006. Inpatient therapy caused significantly higher direct medical, indirect and total annual costs than outpatient treatment (13,042 € versus 2,984 €. Its strong influence on cost levels was confirmed by regression analysis, with total costs rising by 104.3% in case of inpatient treatment. Patients receiving BioLogicals produced the overall highest costs, whereas outpatient treatment with classic systemic antipsoriatic medications was less cost-intense than other alternatives.

  13. Economic costs of drug abuse: financial, cost of illness, and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, William S

    2008-03-01

    This article examines costs as they relate to the financial costs of providing drug abuse treatment in private and public health plans, costs to society relating to drug abuse, and many smaller costing studies of various stakeholders in the health care system. A bibliography is developed from searches across PubMed, Web of Science, and other bibliographic sources. The review indicates that a wide collection of cost findings is available to policy makers. For example, the financial aspects of health plans have been dominated by considerations of actuarial costs of parity for drug abuse treatment. Cost-of-illness methods have been developed and extended to drug abuse costing to measure the national level of burden and are important to the economic evaluation of interventions at the program level. Costing is done in many small and focused studies, reflecting the interests of different stakeholders in the health care system. For costs in programs and health plans, as well as cost offsets of the impact of substance abuse treatment on medical expenditures, findings are surprisingly important to policy makers. Maintaining ongoing research that is highly policy relevant from the point of view of health services, more is needed on costing concepts and measurement applications.

  14. Cost of illness and illness perceptions in patients with fibromyalgia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervoort, V.M.C.; Vriezekolk, J.E.; Olde Hartman, T.C.; Cats, H.A.; van Helmond, T.; Van der Laan, W.H.; Geenen, R.; Van den Ende, C.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The disease impact and economic burden of fibromyalgia (FM) are high for patients and society at large. Knowing potential determinants of economic costs may help in reducing this burden. Cognitive appraisals (perceptions) of the illness could affect costs. The present study estimated

  15. Cost-of-illness and disease burden of food-related pathogens in the Netherlands, 2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangen, Marie Josée J; Bouwknegt, Martijn; Friesema, Ingrid H M; Haagsma, Juanita A.; Kortbeek, Laetitia M.; Tariq, Luqman; Wilson, Margaret; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Havelaar, Arie H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072306122

    2015-01-01

    To inform risk management decisions on control and prevention of food-related disease, both the disease burden expressed in Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY) and the cost-of-illness of food-related pathogens are estimated and presented. Disease burden of fourteen pathogens that can be

  16. Willingness to pay and cost of illness for changes in health capital depreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ried, W

    1996-01-01

    The paper investigates the relationship between the willingness to pay and the cost of illness approach with respect to the evaluation of economic burden due to adverse health effects. The basic intertemporal framework is provided by Grossman's pure investment model, while effects on individual morbidity are taken to be generated by marginal changes in the rate of health capital depreciation. More specifically, both the simple example of purely temporary changes and the more general case of persistent variations in health capital depreciation are discussed. The analysis generates two principal findings. First, for a class of identical individuals cost as measured by the cost of illness approach is demonstrated to provide a lower bound on the true welfare cost to the individual, i.e. cost as given by the willingness to pay approach. Moreover, the cost of illness is increasing in the size of the welfare loss. Second, if one takes into account the possible heterogeneity of individuals, a clear relationship between the cost values supplied by the two approaches no longer exists. As an example, the impact of variations in either financial wealth or health capital endowment is discussed. Thus, diversity in individual type turns out to blur the link between cost of illness and the true economic cost.

  17. Cost-of-illness in patients with moderate to severe psoriasis: a cross-sectional survey in Hungarian dermatological centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, Orsolya; Brodszky, Valentin; Gulácsi, László; Herédi, Emese; Herszényi, Krisztina; Jókai, Hajnalka; Kárpáti, Sarolta; Baji, Petra; Remenyik, Éva; Szegedi, Andrea; Holló, Péter

    2014-05-01

    Despite the widespread availability of biological drugs in psoriasis, there is a shortage of disease burden studies. To assess the cost-of-illness and quality of life of patients with moderate to severe psoriasis in Hungary. Consecutive patients with Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) > 10 and Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) > 10, or treated with traditional systemic (TST) or biological systemic treatment (BST) were included. Demographic data, clinical characteristics, psoriasis related medication, health care utilizations and employment status in the previous 12 months were recorded. Costing was performed from the societal perspective applying the human capital approach. Quality of life was assessed using DLQI and EQ-5D measures. Two-hundred patients were involved (females 32%) with a mean age of 51 (SD 13) years, 103 (52%) patients were on BST. Mean PASI, DLQI and EQ-5D scores were 8 (SD 10), 6 (SD 7) and 0.69 (SD 0.3), respectively. The mean total cost was €9,254/patient/year (SD 8,502) with direct costs accounting for 86%. The main cost driver was BST (mean €7,339/patient/year). Total costs differed significantly across treatment subgroups, mean (SD): no systemic therapy €2,186 (4,165), TST €2,388 (4,106) and BST €15,790 (6,016) (p costs than patients with or without traditional systemic treatment. Our study is the largest in Europe and the first in the CEE region that provides cost-of-illness data in psoriasis involving patients with BST.

  18. Cost of illness and determinants of costs among patients with gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaetgens, Bart; Wijnands, José M A; van Durme, Caroline; van der Linden, Sjef; Boonen, Annelies

    2015-02-01

    To estimate costs of illness in a cross-sectional cohort of patients with gout attending an outpatient rheumatology clinic, and to evaluate which factors contribute to higher costs. Altogether, 126 patients with gout were clinically assessed. They completed a series of questionnaires. Health resource use was collected using a self-report questionnaire that was cross-checked with the electronic patient file. Productivity loss was assessed by the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire, addressing absenteeism and presenteeism. Resource use and productivity loss were valued by real costs, and annual costs per patient were calculated. Factors contributing to incurring costs above the median were explored using logistic univariable and multivariable regression analysis. Mean (median) annual direct costs of gout were €5647 (€1148) per patient. Total costs increased to €6914 (€1279) or €10,894 (€1840) per patient per year when adding cost for absenteeism or both absenteeism and presenteeism, respectively. Factors independently associated with high direct and high indirect costs were a positive history of cardiovascular disease, functional limitations, and female sex. In addition, pain, gout concerns, and unmet gout treatment needs were associated with high direct costs. The direct and indirect costs-of-illness of gout are primarily associated with cardiovascular disease, functional limitations, and female sex.

  19. Cost of illness for cholera in a high risk urban area in Bangladesh: an analysis from household perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Cholera poses a substantial health burden to developing countries such as Bangladesh. In this study, the objective is to estimate the economic burden of cholera treatments incurred by households. The study was carried out in the context of a large vaccine trial in an urban area of Bangladesh. Methods The study used a combination of prospective and retrospective incidence-based cost analyses of cholera illness per episode per household. A total of 394 confirmed cholera hospitalized cases were identified and treated in the study area during June–October 2011. Households with cholera patients were interviewed within 15 days after discharge from hospitals or clinics. To estimate the total cost of cholera illness a structured questionnaire was used, which included questions on direct medical costs, non-medical costs, and the indirect costs of patients and caregivers. Results The average total household cost of treatment for an episode of cholera was US$30.40. Total direct and indirect costs constituted 24.6% (US$7.40) and 75.4% (US$23.00) of the average total cost, respectively. The cost for children under 5 years of age (US$21.50) was higher than that of children aged 5–14 years (US$17.50). The direct cost of treatment was similar for male and female patients, but the indirect cost was higher for males. Conclusion Our study suggests that by preventing one cholera episode (3 days on an average), we can avert a total cost of 2,278.50 BDT (US$30.40) per household. Among medical components, medicines are the largest cost driver. No clear socioeconomic gradient emerged from our study, but limited demographic patterns were observed in the cost of illness. By preventing cholera cases, large production losses can be reduced. PMID:24188717

  20. Household costs of illness during different phases of tuberculosis treatment in Central Asia: a patient survey in Tajikistan

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    Abdualimova Hanifa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Illness-related costs incurred by patients constitute a severe economic burden for households especially in low-income countries. High household costs of illness lead to impoverishment; they impair affordability and equitable access to health care and consequently hamper tuberculosis (TB control. So far, no study has investigated patient costs of TB in the former Soviet Union. Methods All adult new pulmonary TB cases enrolled into the DOTS program in 12 study districts during the study period were enrolled. Medical and non-medical expenditure as well as loss of income were quantified in two interviews covering separate time periods. Costs of different items were summed up to calculate total costs. For missing values, multiple imputation was applied. Results A cohort of 204 patients under DOTS, 114 men and 90 women, participated in the questionnaire survey. Total illness costs of a TB episode averaged $1053 (c. $4900 purchasing power parity, PPP, of which $292, $338 and $422 were encountered before the start of treatment, during intensive phase and in continuation phase, respectively. Costs per month were highest before the start of treatment ($145 and during intensive phase ($153 and lower during continuation phase ($95. These differences were highly significant (paired t-test, p Conclusions The illness-related costs of an episode of TB exceed the per capita GDP of $1600 PPP about two-and-a-half times. Hence, these costs are catastrophic for concerned households and suggest a high risk for impoverishment. Costs are not equally spread over time, but peak in early stages of treatment, exacerbating the problem of affordability. Mitigation strategies are needed in order to control TB in Tajikistan and may include social support to the patients as well as changes in the management of TB cases. These mitigation strategies should be timed early in treatment when the cost burden is highest.

  1. The economic burden of diabetes to French national health insurance: a new cost-of-illness method based on a combined medicalized and incremental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lagasnerie, Grégoire; Aguadé, Anne-Sophie; Denis, Pierre; Fagot-Campagna, Anne; Gastaldi-Menager, Christelle

    2018-03-01

    A better understanding of the economic burden of diabetes constitutes a major public health challenge in order to design new ways to curb diabetes health care expenditure. The aim of this study was to develop a new cost-of-illness method in order to assess the specific and nonspecific costs of diabetes from a public payer perspective. Using medical and administrative data from the major French national health insurance system covering about 59 million individuals in 2012, we identified people with diabetes and then estimated the economic burden of diabetes. Various methods were used: (a) global cost of patients with diabetes, (b) cost of treatment directly related to diabetes (i.e., 'medicalized approach'), (c) incremental regression-based approach, (d) incremental matched-control approach, and (e) a novel combination of the 'medicalized approach' and the 'incremental matched-control' approach. We identified 3 million individuals with diabetes (5% of the population). The total expenditure of this population amounted to €19 billion, representing 15% of total expenditure reimbursed to the entire population. Of the total expenditure, €10 billion (52%) was considered to be attributable to diabetes care: €2.3 billion (23% of €10 billion) was directly attributable, and €7.7 billion was attributable to additional reimbursed expenditure indirectly related to diabetes (77%). Inpatient care represented the major part of the expenditure attributable to diabetes care (22%) together with drugs (20%) and medical auxiliaries (15%). Antidiabetic drugs represented an expenditure of about €1.1 billion, accounting for 49% of all diabetes-specific expenditure. This study shows the economic impact of the assumption concerning definition of costs on evaluation of the economic burden of diabetes. The proposed new cost-of-illness method provides specific insight for policy-makers to enhance diabetes management and assess the opportunity costs of diabetes complications

  2. Canadian Potential Healthcare and Societal Cost Savings from Consumption of Pulses: A Cost-Of-Illness Analysis

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    Mohammad M. H. Abdullah

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of dietary pulses, including beans, peas and lentils, is recommended by health authorities across jurisdictions for their nutritional value and effectiveness in helping to prevent and manage major diet-related illnesses of significant socioeconomic burden. The aim of this study was to estimate the potential annual healthcare and societal cost savings relevant to rates of reduction in complications from type 2 diabetes (T2D and incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD following a low glycemic index (GI or high fiber diet that includes pulses, or 100 g/day pulse intake in Canada, respectively. A four-step cost-of-illness analysis was conducted to: (1 estimate the proportions of individuals who are likely to consume pulses; (2 evaluate the reductions in established risk factors for T2D and CVD; (3 assess the percent reduction in incidences or complications of the diseases of interest; and (4 calculate the potential annual savings in relevant healthcare and related costs. A low GI or high fiber diet that includes pulses and 100 g/day pulse intake were shown to potentially yield Can$6.2 (95% CI $2.6–$9.9 to Can$62.4 (95% CI $26–$98.8 and Can$31.6 (95% CI $11.1–$52 to Can$315.5 (95% CI $110.6–$520.4 million in savings on annual healthcare and related costs of T2D and CVD, respectively. Specific provincial/territorial analyses suggested annual T2D and CVD related cost savings that ranged from up to Can$0.2 million in some provinces to up to Can$135 million in others. In conclusion, with regular consumption of pulse crops, there is a potential opportunity to facilitate T2D and CVD related socioeconomic cost savings that could be applied to Canadian healthcare or re-assigned to other priority domains. Whether these potential cost savings will be offset by other healthcare costs associated with longevity and diseases of the elderly is to be investigated over the long term.

  3. Fraturas do fêmur proximal no idoso: estudo de custo da doença sob a perspectiva de um hospital público no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Hip fractures in the elderly: cost of illness study in a public hospital perspective, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Roberta Arinelli Fernandes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo visa a estimar o custo direto médico do tratamento hospitalar de pacientes idosos com fraturas de fêmur proximal, no Hospital Municipal Lourenço Jorge, na cidade do Rio de Janeiro. Estudo observacional, prospectivo, para estimar a utilização de recursos e custos diretos médicos associados à hospitalização por fratura de fêmur proximal em idosos, em 2007 e 2008, sob a perspectiva do prestador de serviços. Foi utilizado um instrumento de coleta de dados através do qual foram registrados recursos identificados na revisão prospectiva dos prontuários. Aos recursos utilizados foram atribuídos custos em reais (R$ baseando-se em valores do ano 2010. Foram realizadas análises descritivas dos custos e utilização de recursos, bem como avaliada a associação de variáveis clínicas e demográficas com o custo final observado. Foram incluídos 82 pacientes, 81,7% do sexo feminino, idade média de 76,96 anos, hospitalização média de 12,66 dias. A mediana de custo por paciente foi de R$ 3.064,76 (IC95%: 2.817,63 a 3.463,98. Hospitalização clínica e procedimento cirúrgico foram responsáveis por 65,61% e 24,94% dos custos, respectivamente. Pacientes submetidos ao tratamento cirúrgico até o quarto dia de hospitalização apresentaram mediana de custos menor do que pacientes submetidos após o quarto dia (R$ 2.136,31 e R$ 3.281,45, pThis paper aims to assess direct medical costs associated to hospital treatment of hip fractures in the elderly in the Municipal Hospital Lourenço Jorge (HMLJ, Rio de Janeiro. Observational, prospective study to assess resource utilization and direct medical costs associated to elderly hip fracture hospitalization in 2007 and 2008, under the health care provider perspective. A standard data collection instrument was used to register identified resources during prospective medical charts review. The resource utilization was converted into Brazilian Real (R$, based on 2010 prices. Descriptive

  4. Demographic and epidemiological determinants of healthcare costs in Netherlands: cost of illness study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.J. Meerding (Willem Jan); L.G.A. Bonneux (Luc); J.J. Polder (Johan); M.A. Koopmanschap (Marc); P.J. van der Maas (Paul)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVES: To determine the demands on healthcare resources caused by different types of illnesses and variation with age and sex. DESIGN: Information on healthcare use was obtained from all 22 healthcare sectors in the Netherlands. Most important sectors

  5. A prevalence-based approach to societal costs occurring in consequence of child abuse and neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Traumatization in childhood can result in lifelong health impairment and may have a negative impact on other areas of life such as education, social contacts and employment as well. Despite the frequent occurrence of traumatization, which is reflected in a 14.5 percent prevalence rate of severe child abuse and neglect, the economic burden of the consequences is hardly known. The objective of this prevalence-based cost-of-illness study is to show how impairment of the individual is reflected in economic trauma follow-up costs borne by society as a whole in Germany and to compare the results with other countries’ costs. Methods From a societal perspective trauma follow-up costs were estimated using a bottom-up approach. The literature-based prevalence rate includes emotional, physical and sexual abuse as well as physical and emotional neglect in Germany. Costs are derived from individual case scenarios of child endangerment presented in a German cost-benefit-analysis. A comparison with trauma follow-up costs in Australia, Canada and the USA is based on purchasing power parity. Results The annual trauma follow-up costs total to a margin of EUR 11.1 billion for the lower bound and to EUR 29.8 billion for the upper bound. This equals EUR 134.84 and EUR 363.58, respectively, per capita for the German population. These results conform to the ones obtained from cost studies conducted in Australia (lower bound) and Canada (upper bound), whereas the result for the United States is much lower. Conclusion Child abuse and neglect result in trauma follow-up costs of economically relevant magnitude for the German society. Although the result is well in line with other countries’ costs, the general lack of data should be fought in order to enable more detailed future studies. Creating a reliable cost data basis in the first place can pave the way for long-term cost savings. PMID:23158382

  6. An integrative cross-design synthesis approach to estimate the cost of illness: an applied case to the cost of depression in Catalonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendeck, Murielle; Serrano-Blanco, Antoni; García-Alonso, Carlos; Bonet, Pere; Jordà, Esther; Sabes-Figuera, Ramon; Salvador-Carulla, Luis

    2013-04-01

    Cost of illness (COI) studies are carried out under conditions of uncertainty and with incomplete information. There are concerns regarding their generalisability, accuracy and usability in evidence-informed care. A hybrid methodology is used to estimate the regional costs of depression in Catalonia (Spain) following an integrative approach. The cross-design synthesis included nominal groups and quantitative analysis of both top-down and bottom-up studies, and incorporated primary and secondary data from different sources of information in Catalonia. Sensitivity analysis used probabilistic Monte Carlo simulation modelling. A dissemination strategy was planned, including a standard form adapted from cost-effectiveness studies to summarise methods and results. The method used allows for a comprehensive estimate of the cost of depression in Catalonia. Health officers and decision-makers concluded that this methodology provided useful information and knowledge for evidence-informed planning in mental health. The mix of methods, combined with a simulation model, contributed to a reduction in data gaps and, in conditions of uncertainty, supplied more complete information on the costs of depression in Catalonia. This approach to COI should be differentiated from other COI designs to allow like-with-like comparisons. A consensus on COI typology, procedures and dissemination is needed.

  7. ENCOMS: Argentinian survey in cost of illness and unmet needs in multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celica Ysrraelit

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to assess the cost of multiple sclerosis (MS patients in Argentina categorized by disease severity using a societal perspective. Method: Cross-sectional study including MS patients from 21 MS centers in 12 cities of Argentina. Patients were stratified by disease severity using the expanded disability status scale (EDSS (group 1 with EDSS score between 0 and 3; group 2 with EDSS >3 and 3 and <7, and USD 50,712 (95%CI 47,825-62,104 for patients with EDSS ≥7. Conclusions: This is the first Argentine study evaluating the costs of MS considering disease severity.

  8. Cost-of-illness of neck pain in The Netherlands in 1996

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borghouts, J A; Koes, B W; Vondeling, H; Bouter, L M

    The prevalence of neck pain in the general population ranges from 10 to 15%. The complaints can result in substantial medical consumption, absenteeism from work and disability. In this study we investigated the costs of neck pain in the Netherlands in 1996 to assess the financial burden to society.

  9. Cost-of-illness of patients with contact dermatitis in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saetterstrøm, Bjørn; Olsen, Jens; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2014-09-01

    Contact dermatitis is a frequent occupational and non-occupational skin disease. To investigate the effects of contact dermatitis on labour market affiliation and societal costs in terms of healthcare costs and production loss. A total of 21 441 patients patch tested either in hospital departments or at dermatological clinics in the period 2004-2009 were included in the study. The analyses were stratified by children (age 0-15 years), occupational contact dermatitis (age 16-65 years), and non-occupational dermatitis (age ≥ 16 years). Controls were selected from a 30% random sample of the population. Individual encrypted data were retrieved on healthcare utilization, socio-demographics, education, labour market affiliation and transfer payments from public registers in Denmark for cases and controls. Attributable healthcare costs for 4 years prior to patch testing (1 year for children) and the year after patch testing were €959 for children, €724 for occupational contact dermatitis, and €1794 for non-occupational dermatitis. Productivity costs for the same period were €10 722 for occupational contact dermatitis and €3074 for non-occupational contact dermatitis. The main findings of this study were that there were statistically significant attributable healthcare costs for both children and adults, and statistically significant productivity loss for adults. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Cost-of-illness of patients with contact dermatitis in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saetterstrøm, Bjørn; Olsen, Jens; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Contact dermatitis is a frequent occupational and non-occupational skin disease. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of contact dermatitis on labour market affiliation and societal costs in terms of healthcare costs and production loss. METHODS: A total of 21 441 patients patch...... tested either in hospital departments or at dermatological clinics in the period 2004-2009 were included in the study. The analyses were stratified by children (age 0-15 years), occupational contact dermatitis (age 16-65 years), and non-occupational dermatitis (age ≥ 16 years). Controls were selected...... prior to patch testing (1 year for children) and the year after patch testing were €959 for children, €724 for occupational contact dermatitis, and €1794 for non-occupational dermatitis. Productivity costs for the same period were €10 722 for occupational contact dermatitis and €3074 for non...

  11. European Union-28: An annualised cost-of-illness model for venous thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barco, Stefano; Woersching, Alex L; Spyropoulos, Alex C; Piovella, Franco; Mahan, Charles E

    2016-04-01

    Annual costs for venous thromboembolism (VTE) have been defined within the United States (US) demonstrating a large opportunity for cost savings. Costs for the European Union-28 (EU-28) have never been defined. A literature search was conducted to evaluate EU-28 cost sources. Median costs were defined for each cost input and costs were inflated to 2014 Euros (€) in the study country and adjusted for Purchasing Power Parity between EU countries. Adjusted costs were used to populate previously published cost-models based on adult incidence-based events. In the base model, annual expenditures for total, hospital-associated, preventable, and indirect costs were €1.5-2.2 billion, €1.0-1.5 billion, €0.5-1.1 billion and €0.2-0.3 billion, respectively (indirect costs: 12 % of expenditures). In the long-term attack rate model, total, hospital-associated, preventable, and indirect costs were €1.8-3.3 billion, €1.2-2.4 billion, €0.6-1.8 billion and €0.2-0.7 billion (indirect costs: 13 % of expenditures). In the multiway sensitivity analysis, annual expenditures for total, hospital-associated, preventable, and indirect costs were €3.0-8.5 billion, €2.2-6.2 billion, €1.1-4.6 billion and €0.5-1.4 billion (indirect costs: 22 % of expenditures). When the value of a premature life-lost increased slightly, aggregate costs rose considerably since these costs are higher than the direct medical costs. When evaluating the models aggregately for costs, the results suggests total, hospital-associated, preventable, and indirect costs ranging from €1.5-13.2 billion, €1.0-9.7 billion, €0.5-7.3 billion and €0.2-6.1 billion, respectively. Our study demonstrates that VTE costs have a large financial impact upon the EU-28's healthcare systems and that significant savings could be realised if better preventive measures are applied.

  12. Stroke in Switzerland: social determinants of treatment access and cost of illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snozzi, Philippe; Blank, Patricia R; Szucs, Thomas D

    2014-01-01

    Few useful empirical data on stroke are available for Switzerland. The aim of this study was to collect data on the use of medical resources and associated costs among stroke patients. Special attention was paid to possible correlations between epidemiologic indicators, sociodemographic variables, resource use, and costs. We carried out a representative population survey of 19,123 households in the German- and French-speaking parts of Switzerland with computer-assisted telephone interviews in 2005. Detailed sociodemographic data and information on the use of resources were collected from 509 individuals aged 15-75 years who had cared for a stroke patient in the past 1-2 years. In the last 1-2 years, a total of 7.8% of households were affected by stroke in the German-speaking part of Switzerland, whereas only 4.3% of households were affected in the French-speaking part of Switzerland (odds ratio [OR] = 1.89, P Switzerland. Patients with supplementary insurance were treated more frequently as inpatients than patients with statutory insurance (OR: 2.14, P = .014), and patients with a low household income were referred less frequently to an inpatient rehabilitation facility than those with medium or high household income (OR = .58, P Switzerland. Patients without supplementary insurance or with low household income were less likely to receive inpatient treatment. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The cost of illness attributable to diabetic foot and cost-effectiveness of secondary prevention in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, María Kathia; Mirelman, Andrew J; Galvin, Cooper J; Lazo-Porras, María; Pinto, Miguel; Miranda, J Jaime; Gilman, Robert H

    2015-10-26

    Diabetes mellitus is a public health challenge worldwide, and roughly 25% of patients with diabetes in developing countries will develop at least one foot ulcer during their lifetime. The gravest outcome of an ulcerated foot is amputation, leading to premature death and larger economic costs. This study aimed to estimate the economic costs of diabetic foot in high-risk patients in Peru in 2012 and to model the cost-effectiveness of a year-long preventive strategy for foot ulceration including: sub-optimal care (baseline), standard care as recommended by the International Diabetes Federation, and standard care plus daily self-monitoring of foot temperature. A decision tree model using a population prevalence-based approach was used to calculate the costs and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). Outcome measures were deaths and major amputations, uncertainty was tested with a one-way sensitivity analysis. The direct costs for prevention and management with sub-optimal care for high-risk diabetics is around US$74.5 million dollars in a single year, which decreases to US$71.8 million for standard care and increases to US$96.8 million for standard care plus temperature monitoring. The implementation of a standard care strategy would avert 791 deaths and is cost-saving in comparison to sub-optimal care. For standard care plus temperature monitoring compared to sub-optimal care the ICER rises to US$16,124 per death averted and averts 1,385 deaths. Diabetic foot complications are highly costly and largely preventable in Peru. The implementation of a standard care strategy would lead to net savings and avert deaths over a one-year period. More intensive prevention strategies such as incorporating temperature monitoring may also be cost-effective.

  14. Dietary fibre intakes and reduction in functional constipation rates among Canadian adults: a cost-of-illness analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad M. H. Abdullah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evidence-based research highlights beneficial impacts of dietary fibre on several aspects of the gut pathophysiology that are accompanied by a considerable financial burden in healthcare services. Recommended intakes of dietary fibre may thus associate with financial benefits at a population level. Objective: We sought to systematically assess the potential annual savings in healthcare costs that would follow the reduction in rates of functional constipation and irregularity with increased dietary fibre intakes among Canadian adults. Design: A cost-of-illness analysis was developed on the basis of current and recommended levels of fibre intake in Canada, constipation reduction per 1 g fibre intake, proportion of adults who are likely to consume fibre-rich diets, and population expected to respond to fibre intake. Sensitivity analyses covering a range of assumptions were further implemented within the economic simulation. Results: Our literature searches assumed a 1.8% reduction in constipation rates with each 1 g/day increase in fibre intake. With intakes corresponding to the Institute of Medicine's adequate levels of 38 g/day for men and 25 g/day for women, among 5 and 100% of the adult populations, anywhere between CAD$1.5 and CAD$31.9 million could be saved on constipation-related healthcare costs annually. Each 1 g/day increase in dietary fibre was estimated to result in total annual healthcare cost savings that ranged between CAD$0.1 and CAD$2.5 million. Conclusions: The present research suggests an economic value of increasing dietary fibre intake beyond its well-known health benefits. Healthy-eating behaviours consistent with the recommended intakes of dietary fibre by the general public should hence be advocated as a practical approach for reducing costs associated with the management of constipation in Canada.

  15. A prevalence-based approach to societal costs occurring in consequence of child abuse and neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habetha Susanne

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traumatization in childhood can result in lifelong health impairment and may have a negative impact on other areas of life such as education, social contacts and employment as well. Despite the frequent occurrence of traumatization, which is reflected in a 14.5 percent prevalence rate of severe child abuse and neglect, the economic burden of the consequences is hardly known. The objective of this prevalence-based cost-of-illness study is to show how impairment of the individual is reflected in economic trauma follow-up costs borne by society as a whole in Germany and to compare the results with other countries’ costs. Methods From a societal perspective trauma follow-up costs were estimated using a bottom-up approach. The literature-based prevalence rate includes emotional, physical and sexual abuse as well as physical and emotional neglect in Germany. Costs are derived from individual case scenarios of child endangerment presented in a German cost-benefit-analysis. A comparison with trauma follow-up costs in Australia, Canada and the USA is based on purchasing power parity. Results The annual trauma follow-up costs total to a margin of EUR 11.1 billion for the lower bound and to EUR 29.8 billion for the upper bound. This equals EUR 134.84 and EUR 363.58, respectively, per capita for the German population. These results conform to the ones obtained from cost studies conducted in Australia (lower bound and Canada (upper bound, whereas the result for the United States is much lower. Conclusion Child abuse and neglect result in trauma follow-up costs of economically relevant magnitude for the German society. Although the result is well in line with other countries’ costs, the general lack of data should be fought in order to enable more detailed future studies. Creating a reliable cost data basis in the first place can pave the way for long-term cost savings.

  16. Cost-of-illness analysis reveals potential healthcare savings with reductions in type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease following recommended intakes of dietary fiber in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Mohammad M. H.; Gyles, Collin L.; Marinangeli, Christopher P. F.; Carlberg, Jared G.; Jones, Peter J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are leading causes of mortality and two of the most costly diet-related ailments worldwide. Consumption of fiber-rich diets has been repeatedly associated with favorable impacts on these co-epidemics, however, the healthcare cost-related economic value of altered dietary fiber intakes remains poorly understood. In this study, we estimated the annual cost savings accruing to the Canadian healthcare system in association with reductions in T2D and CVD rates, separately, following increased intakes of dietary fiber by adults. Methods: A three-step cost-of-illness analysis was conducted to identify the percentage of individuals expected to consume fiber-rich diets in Canada, estimate increased fiber intakes in relation to T2D and CVD reduction rates, and independently assess the potential annual savings in healthcare costs associated with the reductions in rates of these two epidemics. The economic model employed a sensitivity analysis of four scenarios (universal, optimistic, pessimistic, and very pessimistic) to cover a range of assumptions within each step. Results: Non-trivial healthcare and related savings of CAD$35.9-$718.8 million in T2D costs and CAD$64.8 million–$1.3 billion in CVD costs were calculated under a scenario where cereal fiber was used to increase current intakes of dietary fiber to the recommended levels of 38 g per day for men and 25 g per day for women. Each 1 g per day increase in fiber consumption resulted in annual CAD$2.6 to $51.1 million savings for T2D and $4.6 to $92.1 million savings for CVD. Conclusion: Findings of this analysis shed light on the economic value of optimal dietary fiber intakes. Strategies to increase consumers’ general knowledge of the recommended intakes of dietary fiber, as part of healthy diet, and to facilitate stakeholder synergy are warranted to enable better management of healthcare and related costs associated with T2D and CVD in Canada. PMID

  17. Societal cost-of-illness in patients with borderline personality disorder one year before, during and after dialectical behavior therapy in routine outpatient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Till; Fydrich, Thomas; Stiglmayr, Christian; Marschall, Paul; Salize, Hans-Joachim; Renneberg, Babette; Fleßa, Steffen; Roepke, Stefan

    2014-10-01

    Societal cost-of-illness in a German sample of patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) was calculated for 12 months prior to an outpatient Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) program, during a year of DBT in routine outpatient care and during a follow-up year. We retrospectively assessed resource consumption and productivity loss by means of a structured interview. Direct costs were calculated as opportunity costs and indirect costs were calculated according to the Human Capital Approach. All costs were expressed in Euros for the year 2010. Total mean annual BPD-related societal cost-of-illness was €28026 (SD = €33081) during pre-treatment, €18758 (SD = €19450) during the DBT treatment year for the 47 DBT treatment completers, and €14750 (SD = €18592) during the follow-up year for the 33 patients who participated in the final assessment. Cost savings were mainly due to marked reductions in inpatient treatment costs, while indirect costs barely decreased. In conclusion, our findings provide evidence that the treatment of BPD patients with an outpatient DBT program is associated with substantial overall cost savings. Already during the DBT treatment year, these savings clearly exceed the additional treatment costs of DBT and are further extended during the follow-up year. Correspondingly, outpatient DBT has the potential to be a cost-effective treatment for BPD patients. Efforts promoting its implementation in routine care should be undertaken. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Economic burden of Clostridium difficile associated diarrhoea: a cost-of-illness study from a German tertiary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimann, S M; Vehreschild, J J; Cornely, O A; Wisplinghoff, H; Hallek, M; Goldbrunner, R; Böttiger, B W; Goeser, T; Hölscher, A; Baldus, S; Müller, F; Jazmati, N; Wingen, S; Franke, B; Vehreschild, M J G T

    2015-12-01

    Clostridium difficile associated diarrhoea (CDAD) is the most common cause of health-care-associated infectious diarrhoea. In the context of the German health-care system, direct and indirect costs of an initial episode of CDAD and of CDAD recurrence are currently unknown. We defined CDAD as presence of diarrhoea (≥3 unformed stools/day) in association with detection of Clostridium difficile toxin in an unformed faecal sample. Patients treated with metronidazole (PO or IV) and/or vancomycin (PO) were included. Comprehensive data of patients were retrospectively documented into a database using the technology of the Cologne Cohort of Neutropenic Patients (CoCoNut). Patients with CDAD were matched to control patients in a 1:1 ratio. Analysis was split in three groups: incidence group (CDAD patients without recurrence), recurrence group (CDAD patients with ≥1 recurrence) and control group (matched non-CDAD patients). Between 02/2010 and 12/2011, 150 patients with CDAD (114 patients in the incidence and 36 (24 %) in the recurrence group) and 150 controls were analysed. Mean length of stay was: 32 (95 %CI: 30-37), 94 (95 %CI: 76-112) and 24 days (95 %CI: 22-27; P = costs per patient of €18,460 (95 %CI: €14,660-€22,270), €73,900 (95 %CI: €50,340-€97,460) and €14,530 (95 %CI: €11,730-€17,330; P = costs, which were mostly attributable to a significantly longer overall length of stay. Innovative treatment strategies are warranted to reduce treatment costs and prevent recurrence of CDAD.

  19. Burden of Six Healthcare-Associated Infections on European Population Health: Estimating Incidence-Based Disability-Adjusted Life Years through a Population Prevalence-Based Modelling Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Cassini

    2016-10-01

    associated with the highest burden because of their high severity. The cumulative burden of the six HAIs was higher than the total burden of all other 32 communicable diseases included in the BCoDE 2009-2013 study. The main limitations of the study are the variability in the parameter estimates, in particular the disease models' case fatalities, and the use of the Rhame and Sudderth formula for estimating incident number of cases from prevalence data.We estimated the EU/EEA burden of HAIs in DALYs in 2011-2012 using a transparent and evidence-based approach that allows for combining estimates of morbidity and of mortality in order to compare with other diseases and to inform a comprehensive ranking suitable for prioritization. Our results highlight the high burden of HAIs and the need for increased efforts for their prevention and control. Furthermore, our model should allow for estimations of the potential benefit of preventive measures on the burden of HAIs in the EU/EEA.

  20. Burden of Six Healthcare-Associated Infections on European Population Health: Estimating Incidence-Based Disability-Adjusted Life Years through a Population Prevalence-Based Modelling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckmanns, Tim; Abu Sin, Muna; Ducomble, Tanja; Harder, Thomas; Sixtensson, Madlen; Velasco, Edward; Weiß, Bettina; Kramarz, Piotr; Monnet, Dominique L.; Kretzschmar, Mirjam E.; Suetens, Carl

    2016-01-01

    . HAP and HA primary BSI were associated with the highest burden because of their high severity. The cumulative burden of the six HAIs was higher than the total burden of all other 32 communicable diseases included in the BCoDE 2009–2013 study. The main limitations of the study are the variability in the parameter estimates, in particular the disease models’ case fatalities, and the use of the Rhame and Sudderth formula for estimating incident number of cases from prevalence data. Conclusions We estimated the EU/EEA burden of HAIs in DALYs in 2011–2012 using a transparent and evidence-based approach that allows for combining estimates of morbidity and of mortality in order to compare with other diseases and to inform a comprehensive ranking suitable for prioritization. Our results highlight the high burden of HAIs and the need for increased efforts for their prevention and control. Furthermore, our model should allow for estimations of the potential benefit of preventive measures on the burden of HAIs in the EU/EEA. PMID:27755545

  1. Cost-of-illness analysis reveals potential healthcare savings with reductions in type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease following recommended intakes of dietary fibre in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad eAbdullah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Consumption of fibre-rich diets is associated with favourable impacts on type 2 diabetes (T2D and cardiovascular disease (CVD, two of the most costly ailments worldwide, however the economic value of altered fibre intakes remains poorly understood. Methods: A cost-of-illness analysis was conducted to identify the percentage of adults expected to consume fibre-rich diets in Canada, estimate fibre intakes in relation to T2D and CVD reductions, and assess the potential annual savings in healthcare costs with reductions in rates of these two epidemics. Results: Non-trivial healthcare and related savings of CAD$35.9-$718.8 million in T2D costs and CAD$64.8-$1,295.7 million in CVD costs were calculated under a scenario where cereal fibre was used to increase current intakes of dietary fibre to the recommended levels of 38 g per day for men and 25 g per day for women. Each 1 g per day increase in fibre consumption resulted in annual CAD$2.6-$51.1 and $4.6-$92.1 million savings for T2D and CVD, respectively. Conclusions: Strategies to increase consumers’ knowledge of the recommended dietary fibre intakes, as part of healthy diet, and to facilitate stakeholder synergy are warranted to enable better management of costs associated with T2D and CVD in Canada.

  2. Comparative cost of illness analysis and assessment of health care burden of Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber-Katz, Olivia; Klug, Constanze; Thiele, Simone; Schorling, Elisabeth; Zowe, Janet; Reilich, Peter; Nagels, Klaus H; Walter, Maggie C

    2014-12-18

    Our study aimed to determine the burden of illness in dystrophinopathy type Duchenne (DMD) and Becker (BMD), both leading to progressive disability, reduced working capacity and high health care utilization. A micro-costing method was used to examine the direct, indirect and informal care costs measuring the economic burden of DMD in comparison to BMD on patients, relatives, payers and society in Germany and to determine the health care burden of these diseases. Standardized questionnaires were developed based on predefined structured interview guidelines to obtain data directly from patients and caregivers using the German dystrophinopathy patient registry. The health-related quality of life (HRQOL) was analyzed using PedsQL™ Measurement Model. In total, 363 patients with genetically confirmed dystrophinopathies were enrolled. Estimated annual disease burden including direct medical/non-medical, indirect and informal care costs of DMD added up to € 78,913 while total costs in BMD were € 39,060. Informal care costs, indirect costs caused by loss of productivity and absenteeism of patients and caregivers as well as medical costs of rehabilitation services and medical aids were identified as the most important cost drivers. Total costs notably increased with disease progression and were consistent with the clinical severity; however, patients' HRQOL declined with disease progression. In conclusion, early assessments of economic aspects and the disease burden are essential to gain extensive knowledge of a distinct disease and above all play an important role in funding drug development programs for rare diseases. Therefore, our results may help to accelerate payer negotiations such as the pricing and reimbursement of new therapies, and will hopefully contribute to facilitating the efficient translation of innovations from clinical research over marketing authorization to patient access to a causative treatment.

  3. Counting Costs under Severe Financial Constraints: A Cost-of-Illness Analysis of Spondyloarthropathies in a Tertiary Hospital in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsifetaki, Niki; Migkos, Michail P; Papagoras, Charalampos; Voulgari, Paraskevi V; Athanasakis, Kostas; Drosos, Alexandros A

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the total annual direct cost of patients with spondyloarthritis (SpA) in Greece. Retrospective study with 156 patients diagnosed and followed up in the rheumatology clinic of the University Hospital of Ioannina. Sixty-four had ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and 92 had psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Health resource use for each patient was elicited through a retrospective chart review that documented the use of monitoring visits, medications, laboratory/diagnostic tests, and inpatient stays for the previous year from the date that the review took place. Costs were calculated from a third-party payer perspective and are reported in 2014 euros. The mean ± SD annual direct cost for the patients with SpA reached €8680 ± 6627. For the patients with PsA and AS, the cost was estimated to be €8097 ± 6802 and €9531 ± 6322, respectively. The major cost was medication, which represented 88.9%, 88.2%, and 89.3% of the mean total direct cost for SpA, AS, and PsA, respectively. The annual amount of the scheduled tests for all patients corresponded to 7.5%, and for those performed on an emergency basis, 1.1%. Further, the cost for scheduled and emergency hospitalization, as well as the cost of scheduled visits to an outpatient clinic, corresponded to 2.5% of the mean total annual direct cost for the patients with SpA. SpA carries substantial financial cost, especially in the era of new treatment options. Adequate access and treatment for patients with SpA remains a necessity, even in times of fiscal constraint. Thus, the recommendations of the international scientific organizations should be considered when administering high-cost drugs such as biological treatments.

  4. Direct healthcare cost of obesity in brazil: an application of the cost-of-illness method from the perspective of the public health system in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Michele Lessa; Santos, Leonor Maria Pacheco; da Silva, Everton Nunes

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a global public health problem and a risk factor for several diseases that financially impact healthcare systems. To estimate the direct costs attributable to obesity (body mass index {BMI} ≥ 30 kg/m2) and morbid obesity (BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2) in adults aged ≥ 20 incurred by the Brazilian public health system in 2011. Public hospitals and outpatient care. A cost-of-illness method was adopted using a top-down approach based on prevalence. The proportion of the cost of each obesity-associated comorbidity was calculated and obesity prevalence was used to calculate attributable risk. Direct healthcare cost data (inpatient care, bariatric surgery, outpatient care, medications and diagnostic procedures) were extracted from the Ministry of Health information systems, available on the web. Direct costs attributable to obesity totaled US$ 269.6 million (1.86% of all expenditures on medium- and high-complexity health care). The cost of morbid obesity accounted for 23.8% (US$ 64.2 million) of all obesity-related costs despite being 18 times less prevalent than obesity. Bariatric surgery costs in Brazil totaled US$ 17.4 million in 2011. The cost of morbid obesity in women was five times higher than it was in men. The cost of morbid obesity was found to be proportionally higher than the cost of obesity. If the current epidemic were not reversed, the prevalence of obesity in Brazil will increase gradually in the coming years, as well as its costs, having serious implications for the financial sustainability of the Brazilian public health system.

  5. Costs of Illness Due to Cholera, Costs of Immunization and Cost-Effectiveness of an Oral Cholera Mass Vaccination Campaign in Zanzibar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaetti, Christian; Weiss, Mitchell G.; Ali, Said M.; Chaignat, Claire-Lise; Khatib, Ahmed M.; Reyburn, Rita; Duintjer Tebbens, Radboud J.; Hutubessy, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends oral cholera vaccines (OCVs) as a supplementary tool to conventional prevention of cholera. Dukoral, a killed whole-cell two-dose OCV, was used in a mass vaccination campaign in 2009 in Zanzibar. Public and private costs of illness (COI) due to endemic cholera and costs of the mass vaccination campaign were estimated to assess the cost-effectiveness of OCV for this particular campaign from both the health care provider and the societal perspective. Methodology/Principal Findings Public and private COI were obtained from interviews with local experts, with patients from three outbreaks and from reports and record review. Cost data for the vaccination campaign were collected based on actual expenditure and planned budget data. A static cohort of 50,000 individuals was examined, including herd protection. Primary outcome measures were incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) per death, per case and per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) averted. One-way sensitivity and threshold analyses were conducted. The ICER was evaluated with regard to WHO criteria for cost-effectiveness. Base-case ICERs were USD 750,000 per death averted, USD 6,000 per case averted and USD 30,000 per DALY averted, without differences between the health care provider and the societal perspective. Threshold analyses using Shanchol and assuming high incidence and case-fatality rate indicated that the purchase price per course would have to be as low as USD 1.2 to render the mass vaccination campaign cost-effective from a health care provider perspective (societal perspective: USD 1.3). Conclusions/Significance Based on empirical and site-specific cost and effectiveness data from Zanzibar, the 2009 mass vaccination campaign was cost-ineffective mainly due to the relatively high OCV purchase price and a relatively low incidence. However, mass vaccination campaigns in Zanzibar to control endemic cholera may meet criteria for cost

  6. Pharmacoeconomic Analysis of Drugs Used in the Treatment of Pneumonia in Paediatric Population in a Tertiary Care Hospital in India-A Cost-of-Illness Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Lekha; Kaur, Sharonjeet; Khosla, Pratibha; Kumari, Sweta; Rani, Alka

    2017-12-11

    The cost of antibiotic therapy for the treatment of pneumonia in the inpatient paediatric population can have a major impact on the healthcare expenditure. We planned to assess the direct and indirect costs of diagnosis and medical treatment of paediatric patients with community acquired pneumonia who are hospitalized in a tertiary care hospital in India. 125 children with a diagnosis of pneumonia who were admitted to the inpatient department of a paediatric hospital receiving antibiotic treatment were observed. Data on clinical presentation and resources consumed were collected and the costs of pneumonia treatment were calculated. Descriptive statistics (mean ± standard deviation (SD)) were used to evaluate data regarding demographics, drugs prescribed and cost (direct and indirect cost). Multivariate regression analysis was used to find out predictors of direct and indirect cost. Among all pneumonia admissions, mild-to-moderate pneumonia constitutes 76.8%, and 23.2% children were admitted with severe pneumonia; 105 children out of 125 (84%) were suffering from associated disorders along with pneumonia. The majority of antibiotics prescribed belonged to beta lactams (52%) followed by aminoglycosides (19%), macrolides (13%) and peptides (11%). Parenteral routes of administration were used in a majority of patients as compared to oral. The average cost per patient in management of pneumonia was 12245 ± 593 INR ($187.34 ± 9.07).

  7. Pharmacoeconomic Analysis of Drugs Used in the Treatment of Pneumonia in Paediatric Population in a Tertiary Care Hospital in India—A Cost-of-Illness Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lekha Saha

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims and objectives: The cost of antibiotic therapy for the treatment of pneumonia in the inpatient paediatric population can have a major impact on the healthcare expenditure. We planned to assess the direct and indirect costs of diagnosis and medical treatment of paediatric patients with community acquired pneumonia who are hospitalized in a tertiary care hospital in India. Methods: 125 children with a diagnosis of pneumonia who were admitted to the inpatient department of a paediatric hospital receiving antibiotic treatment were observed. Data on clinical presentation and resources consumed were collected and the costs of pneumonia treatment were calculated. Descriptive statistics (mean ± standard deviation (SD were used to evaluate data regarding demographics, drugs prescribed and cost (direct and indirect cost. Multivariate regression analysis was used to find out predictors of direct and indirect cost. Results: Among all pneumonia admissions, mild-to-moderate pneumonia constitutes 76.8%, and 23.2% children were admitted with severe pneumonia; 105 children out of 125 (84% were suffering from associated disorders along with pneumonia. The majority of antibiotics prescribed belonged to beta lactams (52% followed by aminoglycosides (19%, macrolides (13% and peptides (11%. Parenteral routes of administration were used in a majority of patients as compared to oral. The average cost per patient in management of pneumonia was 12245 ± 593 INR ($187.34 ± 9.07.

  8. A cost of illness study of children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders and comorbid anxiety disorders as compared to clinically anxious and typically developing children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Steensel, F.J.A.; Dirksen, C.D.; Bögels, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    The study’s aim was to estimate the societal costs of children with high-functioning ASD and comorbid anxiety disorder(s) (ASD + AD-group; n = 73), and to compare these costs to children with anxiety disorders (AD-group; n = 34), and typically developing children (controls; n = 87). Mean total costs

  9. An estimation of the effect of 100% Compliance with Diabetes Treatment: Can we reduce cost of illness with higher compliance rates?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guvenc Kockaya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The current study was designed to estimate the direct cost of noncompliance of diabetes patients to the US health system. Understanding these expenses can inform screening and education budget policy regarding expenditure levels that can be calculated to be cost-beneficial. Materials and Method: The study was conducted in three parts. First, a computer search of National Institutes of Health websites and professional society websites for organizations with members that treat diabetes, and a PubMed search were performed to obtain the numbers required for calculations. Second, formulas were developed to estimate the risk of non-compliance and undiagnosed diabetes. Third, risk calculations were performed using the information obtained in part one and the formulas developed in part two. Results: Direct risk reduction for diabetes-related kidney disease, stroke, heart disease, and amputation were estimated for 100% compliance with diabetes treatment. Risk, case and yearly cost reduction calculated for a 100% compliance with diabetes treatment were 13.6%, 0.9 million and US$ 9.3 billion, respectively. Conclusion: Society, insurers, policy makers and other stakeholders could invest up to these amounts in screening, education and prevention efforts in an effort to reduce these costly and traumatic sequelae of noncompliant diabetes patients.   Type: Original Research

  10. Can we reduce the cost of illness with more compliant patients? An estimation of the effect of 100% compliance with hypertension treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koçkaya, Güvenç; Wertheimer, Albert

    2011-06-01

    The current study was designed to calculate the direct cost of noncompliance of hypertensive patients to the US health system. Understanding these expenses can inform screening and education budget policy regarding expenditure levels that can be calculated to be cost-beneficial. The study was conducted in 3 parts. First, a computer search of National Institutes of Health Web sites and professional society Web sites for organizations with members that treat hypertension, and a PubMed search were performed to obtain the numbers required for calculations. Second, formulas were developed to estimate the risk of noncompliance and undiagnosed hypertension. Third, risk calculations were performed using the information obtained in part 1 and the formulas developed in part 2. Direct risk reduction for stroke caused by hypertension, heart attack, kidney disease, and heart disease was calculated for a 100% compliant strategy. Risk, case, and cost reduction for a 100% compliant strategy for hypertension were 32%, 8.5 million and US$ 72 billion, respectively. Our analysis means that the society can spend up to the cost of noncompliance in screening, education, and prevention efforts in an attempt to reduce these costly and traumatic sequelae of poorly controlled hypertension in the light of published analysis.

  11. Cost calculations during "dire straits": a cost-of-illness analysis of regular hemodialysis for end-stage renal disease in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naoum, Panagiota; Topkaroglou, Ioannis; Kitsonis, Dimitrios; Skroumpelos, Anastasios; Athanasakis, Kostas; Iatrou, Christos; Boletis, John; Kyriopoulos, John

    2016-02-01

    More than 3 million people worldwide suffer from end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Even though regular hemodialysis is considered very costly, it is still the most commonly used method of treatment in Greece. The aim of this study is to provide a current estimate of the annual patient cost for ESRD-related regular hemodialysis, especially during a period of economic instability for Greece. Data was collected from 113 anonymous patient files from 3 dialysis units. The cost analysis includes the following parameters: hospitalization, disposable supplies, medication, meals, contaminants, human resources and equipment depreciation/utilization. The cost of a regular hemodialysis session was estimated at €177.12. Human resources account for 43.53% of the hemodialysis cost, while expendable supplies and medication account for 24.79% and 21.16%, respectively. The total annual cost of ESRD per patient was calculated at €34,012.31, which breaks down into €27,630.72 (81.24%) for hemodialysis, €4,800.64 (14.11%) for hospitalization, €1,454.84 (4.28%) for laboratory tests and €126.11 (0.37%) for microsurgery. ESRD entails a significant economic burden for the Greek health care system. In a current context of ongoing austerity measures, which severely pressure the health care budget, further research should be performed in order to identify possible ways to reduce costs and improve management of the disease.

  12. Quantitative Analyses about Market- and Prevalence-Based Needs for Adapted Physical Education Teachers in the Public Schools in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiabei

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze quantitative needs for more adapted physical education (APE) teachers based on both market- and prevalence-based models. The market-based need for more APE teachers was examined based on APE teacher positions funded, while the prevalence-based need for additional APE teachers was analyzed based on students…

  13. Societal Perspective on Tile Cost of Illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. van Hakkaart-van Roijen (Leona)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractThe rising casts of health care during the last decades ellhallced the importance of economie evaluations in support of decisions on resourc~ allocation. Questions may be raised as to whether the alloeation of resources is optimal when measured against the total health gain that an

  14. Epidemiological and economic burden of metabolic syndrome and its consequences in patients with hypertension in Germany, Spain and Italy; a prevalence-based model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scholze Jürgen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of metabolic syndrome in patients with hypertension significantly increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and mortality. Our aim is to estimate the epidemiological and economic burden to the health service of metabolic syndrome in patients with hypertension in three European countries in 2008 and 2020. Methods An age, sex and risk group structured prevalence based cost of illness model was developed using the United States Adult Treatment Panel III of the National Cholesterol Education Program criteria to define metabolic syndrome. Data sources included published information and public use databases on disease prevalence, incidence of cardiovascular events, prevalence of type 2 diabetes, treatment patterns and cost of management in Germany, Spain and Italy. Results The prevalence of hypertension with metabolic syndrome in the general population of Germany, Spain and Italy was 36%, 11% and 10% respectively. In subjects with hypertension 61%, 22% and 21% also had metabolic syndrome. Incident cardiovascular events and attributable mortality were around two fold higher in subjects with metabolic syndrome and prevalence of type 2 diabetes was around six-fold higher. The economic burden to the health service of metabolic syndrome in patients with hypertension was been estimated at €24,427, €1,900 and €4,877 million in Germany, Spain and Italy and forecast to rise by 59%, 179% and 157% respectively by 2020. The largest components of costs included the management of prevalent type 2 diabetes and incident cardiovascular events. Mean annual costs per hypertensive patient were around three-fold higher in subjects with metabolic syndrome compared to those without and rose incrementally with the additional number of metabolic syndrome components present. Conclusion The presence of metabolic syndrome in patients with hypertension significantly inflates economic burden and costs are likely to

  15. http://z.umn.edu/INNOVATIONS 2011, Vol. 2, No. 2, Article 45 INNOVATIONS in pharmacy 1 An estimation of the effect of 100% Compliance with Diabetes Treatment: Can we reduce cost of illness with higher compliance rates?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güvenç Koçkaya, MD

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The current study was designed to estimate the direct cost of noncompliance of diabetes patients to the US health system. Understanding these expenses can inform screening and education budget policy regarding expenditure levels that can be calculated to be cost-beneficial.Materials and Method: The study was conducted in three parts. First, a computer search of National Institutes of Health websites and professional society websites for organizations with members that treat diabetes, and a PubMed search were performed to obtain the numbers required for calculations. Second, formulas were developed to estimate the risk of non-compliance and undiagnosed diabetes. Third, risk calculations were performed using the information obtained in part one and the formulas developed in part two.Results: Direct risk reduction for diabetes-related kidney disease, stroke, heart disease, and amputation were estimated for 100% compliance with diabetes treatment. Risk, case and yearly cost reduction calculated for a 100% compliance with diabetes treatment were 13.6%, 0.9 million and US$ 9.3 billion, respectively.Conclusion: Society, insurers, policy makers and other stakeholders could invest up to these amounts in screening, education and prevention efforts in an effort to reduce these costly and traumatic sequelae of noncompliant diabetes patients.

  16. Cost of Illness of Chronic Hepatitis B Infection in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tu, Hong Anh T.; Woerdenbag, Herman J.; Riewpaiboon, Arthorn; Kane, Sumit; Le, Diep M.; Postma, Maarten J.; Li, Shu Chuen

    2012-01-01

    To estimate the total financial burden of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection for Vietnam by quantifying the direct medical, the direct nonmedical, and indirect costs among patients with various stages of chronic HBV infection. Direct medical cost data were retrieved retrospectively from

  17. Burden of disease calculation, cost of illness analysis and demand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper introduces the demand for death for Activities of Daily Living (ADL) measured disability as being pioneered by Igberaese and co-workers, as a way of eliminating the BoD and CoI once and for all. It makes DALY only equal to YLL, as YLD approaches zero. DALY will simply be the number of years of life lost due to ...

  18. The economic burden of smoking-related disease in Thailand: a prevalence-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leartsakulpanitch, Jittrakul; Nganthavee, Wimol; Salole, Eugene

    2007-09-01

    To estimate the direct out-of-pocket medical costs of treating major diseases attributable to smoking in Thailand in 2006. A prevalence-based, disease-specific, approach was used to estimate the direct medical costs of treating lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and coronary heart disease (CHD) attributable to smoking. Epidemiological parameters were obtained from the literature; historical out-of-pocket cost data were used to estimate 2006 expenditure. The number of cases attributable to smoking in 2006 was 5,299 for lung cancer, 624,309 for COPD, and 52,605 for CHD. The out-of-pocket expenditures for treatment were 368.49 million baht for lung cancer, 7,714.88 million baht for COPD, and 1,773.65 million baht for CHD. Total smoking-attributable out-of-pocket medical costs amounted to 9,857.02 million baht, 0.48% of GDP in 2006. The prevalence-based, disease-specific, analysis described here shows that the health and economic impact of smoking in Thailand are substantial, and should be reduced by implementing smoking-cessation and related tobacco control policies of the types found effective in reducing the prevalence of smoking in other countries.

  19. Direct healthcare costs of spinal disorders in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiz Carregaro, Rodrigo; da Silva, Everton Nunes; van Tulder, Maurits

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the direct healthcare costs of spinal disorders in Brazil, over 2016. METHODS: Prevalence-based cost-of-illness study, top-down approach and public healthcare system's perspective. International Classification of Diseases codes related to spinal disorders were included.

  20. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE BURDEN OF BIPOLAR AFFECTIVE DISORDER AND SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Jayakrishnaveni

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Mental and behavioural disorders have a large impact on individuals, family and communities. There is a paucity of studies on burden and cost of illness of Bipolar Affective Disorder both internationally and in India. Such studies are important for clinical management and policy decisions. Aim of the study - The aim of the present study is to assess the magnitude of the cost of illness and family burden of Bipolar Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia and to find out the difference in the burden of the caregivers for both the groups. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was conducted in the outpatient department of Institute of Mental Health, Chennai. Sixty patients in each group were included by stratified sampling. Caregivers living with patients for atleast one year are included in the study, and those with any comorbid illness, were excluded from the study. ICD -10 diagnostic and research criteria were used for diagnosis of BPAD and Schizophrenia, Questionnaire for Assessment of Cost of Illness was used to assess cost of illness and Family Burden Interview Schedule was used to assess burden of caregivers. RESULTS Schizophrenia patients are mostly from urban, nuclear family. The illness characters & sociodemographic profile of caregivers are comparable. Lifetime costs and loss of income over lifetime was more in schizophrenia. Loss of income in the past year was similar. The burden was comparable for caregivers of both groups in disruption of family routine, interaction with family members, effect on mental health. CONCLUSION Burden of both diseases were comparable except schizophrenics experience more financial burden.

  1. Oppositional Defiant Disorder: prevalence based on parent and teacher ratings of Malaysian primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Rapson; Hafetz, Nina; Gomez, Rashika Miranjani

    2013-08-01

    This study examined the prevalence rate of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) in Malaysian primary school children. In all 934 Malaysian parents and teachers completed ratings of their children using a scale comprising DSM-IV-TR ODD symptoms. Results showed rates of 3.10%, 3.85%, 7.49% and 0.64% for parent, teacher, parent or teacher ("or-rule"), and parent and teacher ("and-rule") ratings, respectively. When the functional impairment criterion was not considered, the rate reported by parents was higher at 13.28%. The theoretical, diagnostic and cultural implications of the findings are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Anterior loop of the inferior alveolar nerve: Averages and prevalence based on CT scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, Del Valle Lovato; Grageda, Edgar; Gómez Crespo, Salvador

    2016-02-01

    The treatment of edentulous patients by using a complete implant-supported fixed prosthetic with distal extension has been widely studied; success is mainly dependent upon the placement of the distal implants. The location of the inferior alveolar nerve determines implant placement, but the length, prevalence, and symmetry between the left and right side of the anterior loop of the alveolar nerve are unknown. The purpose of this clinical study was to measure the anterior loop of the inferior alveolar nerve, which determines the placement of distal implants, in a group of 55 Mexican participants. The study expected to ascertain the average length, prevalence, and symmetry between left and right side and any sex differences. To differentiate the inferior alveolar nerve path, a new technique was applied using Hounsfield unit (HU) thresholds. The null hypothesis was that no significant differences would be found between the left and right sides or between men and women for the anterior loop of the inferior alveolar nerve. Fifty-five computed tomography (CT) scans were made (Somatom Sensation 16; Siemens Healthcare) and were visualized with InVesalius software. Anterior loop measurements were made on 3-dimensional surfaces. To determine statistical differences between the left and right side and between the sexes, the t test was used. The interclass correlation coefficient test was also applied to verify the reliability of the measurements. Ninety percent of participants showed the anterior loop of the inferior alveolar nerve. The length of the anterior loop ranged between 0 and 6.68 mm, with a mean of 2.19 mm. No significant differences were found between the left and right sides or between men and women. The mean length for the anterior loop in the sample was 2.19 mm. As the anterior loop length shows a high degree of variability, these findings suggest that a CT scan for each patient is recommended in order to visualize a safety zone before placing implants close to

  3. Register-based studies of healthcare costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Marie; Christiansen, Terkel

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this paper is to provide an overview and a few examples of how national registers are used in analyses of healthcare costs in Denmark. Research topics: The paper focuses on health economic analyses based on register data. For the sake of simplicity, the studies are divided...... into three main categories: economic evaluations of healthcare interventions, cost-of-illness analyses, and other analyses such as assessments of healthcare productivity. Conclusion: We examined a number of studies using register-based data on healthcare costs. Use of register-based data renders...

  4. Campylobacteriosis and sequelae in the Netherlands - Estimating the disease burden and the costs-of-illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangen MJJ; Havelaar AH; Wit GA de; MGB

    2004-01-01

    Each year, approximately 80,000 persons per year (range 30,000 - 160,000) are estimated to experience symptoms of acute gastro-enteritis as a consequence of infection with Campylobacter bacteria. On average 18,000 patients consult a general practitioner and 500 patients are hospitalised; for some 30

  5. Cost of illness for chronic stable angina patients enrolled in a self-management education trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillion, Michael; Croxford, Ruth; Watt-Watson, Judy; LeFort, Sandra; Stevens, Bonnie; Coyte, Peter

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic stable angina (CSA) is a major debilitating health problem in Canada. A paucity of relevant cardiovascular data sets has precluded a detailed examination of the impact of interventions on CSA-related costs and its broader economic burden. OBJECTIVES: As part of a larger clinical trial, the authors sought to determine the short-term impact of a standardized self-management training program on CSA-related costs. A secondary objective was to estimate the total annualized cost of CSA per patient from a societal perspective. METHODS: Pre- and three-month post-test cost data were collected on 117 participants using the Ambulatory Home Care Record. Mean annualized direct, indirect and system-related CSA costs (2003 to 2005) were estimated; total per-patient CSA costs from a societal perspective were calculated as the sum of these costs. RESULTS: The mean (± SD) age of participants was 68±11 years; 80% were male. The program did not impact costs in the short-term. Direct annual out-of-pocket costs, including money paid for health care, travel to appointments, medication, equipment and home support totaled $3,267. Indirect costs, reflecting the value of all unpaid time spent by those engaged in angina-related care, were $12,963. System costs, including costs paid by public and private insurers, were $2,979. Total estimated annual CSA costs from a societal perspective were $19,209 per patient. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that CSA imposes a major economic burden, comparable with other prevalent conditions such as chronic noncancer pain. Advancements in self-management training research are needed to help reduce the economic burden of CSA in Canada. PMID:18841254

  6. The costs of human Campylobacter infections and sequelae in the Netherlands: A DALY and cost-of-illness approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangen, M.J.J.; Havelaar, A.H.; Bernsen, R.A.J.A.M.; Koningsveld, van G.A.; Wit, de G.A.

    2007-01-01

    Campylobacter infections and sequelae pose an important public health problem for the Netherlands. With the help of a second order stochastic simulation model (using @Risk), confidence intervals (CI) for the associated disease burden (summing up morbidity and mortality) and the associated

  7. Heart Disease Patients' Averting Behavior, Costs of Illness, and Willingness to Pay to Avoid Angina Episodes - Final Report (1988)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report examines the cost effectiveness of control options which reduce nitrate deposition to the Chesapeake watershed and to the tidal Bay. The report analyzes current estimates of the reductions expected in the ozone transport region.

  8. The economic burden of type 2 diabetes mellitus in rural southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Cai; Lin, Li; Jun, Dong; Jianhui, He; Keying, Zhao; Wenlong, Cui; Ying, Song; Tao, Wei

    2013-05-10

    This study was conducted in order to estimate the economic burden of diabetes in a given year in rural Yunnan province of China, including direct, indirect and intangible costs. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in rural southwest China in early 2011 among 9396 consenting individuals aged ≥ 18 years. Information on participants' demographic characteristics, and economic consequences and related aspects of diabetes were obtained using a standard questionnaire. Fasting blood sugar level was also measured for each individual. Years of life lost (YLL) due to diabetes was estimated using medical death certificates. A prevalence-based cost-of-illness method was used to estimate the economic burden of diabetes. The overall prevalence and YLL of diabetes was 6.5% and 1168.1 years in the study population, respectively. Total cost of illness related to diabetes was estimated to be $46.8 million. Mean unit direct medical costs, direct non-medical costs, morbidity costs, mortality costs, intangible costs, and cost of illness were $863.2, $44.6, $59.7, $7797.7, $936.2, and $9686.6, respectively. Direct costs accounted for the largest proportion of the economic costs of diabetes. Age was positively associated with direct costs whereas negatively associated with indirect costs. Patients aged 45-59 years incurred the highest intangible costs. Both indirect and intangible costs increased with level of education. Diabetes is a major public health problem in terms of morbidity and economic burden in rural southwest China. The region should increase investment in the further control of diabetes, and improvement of patient quality of life. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The economic burden of smoking and secondhand smoke exposure in rural South-West China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Le; Cui, Wenlong; He, Jianhui; Wu, Xinan

    2014-06-01

    To estimate the direct and indirect costs of chronic diseases attributed to smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) in a given year (2011) in rural southwest China. A prevalence-based, disease-specific attributable-risk approach was used to estimate the economic burden of chronic diseases attributable to both smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS). A cross-sectional questionnaire survey of 17 158 consenting adults aged ≥18 years was used to derive prevalence of smoking and exposure to SHS, as well as direct and indirect costs of chronic diseases. In the study population, the prevalence rates of smoking and exposure to SHS are 73.1 and 38.2% for males and 1.4 and 43.4% for females, respectively. The total costs of illness are $25.85 million for COPD, $18.80 million for asthma, $37.25 million for CHD, $17.91 million for stroke, $264.35 million for hypertension and $17.11 million for peptic ulcer. The estimated costs attributable to smoking and exposure to SHS are $95.51 million and $79.35 million, accounting for 7.15 and 5.94% of local healthcare costs, respectively. Of the total costs of tobacco, direct costs and indirect costs are $94.66 million and $0.85 million for smoking, and $78.22 million and $1.36 million for exposure to SHS. Smoking contributes more cost of illness than exposure to SHS in men, whereas exposure to SHS contributes more cost of illness than smoking in women. Smoking and exposure to SHS produce substantial economic burden as well as have a considerable public health impact in rural southwest China.

  10. Campylobacteriosis and sequelae in the Netherlands - Estimating the disease burden and the costs-of-illness (Campylobacteriose en complicaties in Nederland - ziektelast en kosten)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangen, M.J.J.; Havelaar, A.H.; Wit, de G.A.

    2004-01-01

    Each year, approximately 80,000 persons per year (range 30,000 - 160,000) are estimated to experience symptoms of acute gastro-enteritis as a consequence of infection with Campylobacter bacteria. On average 18,000 patients consult a general practitioner and 500 patients are hospitalised; for some 30

  11. Study on drug costs associated with COPD prescription medicine in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Marie; Anker, Niels; Dollerup, Jens; Poulsen, Peter Bo; Lange, Peter

    2013-10-01

    Spirometric studies of the general population estimate that 430 000 Danes have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). COPD is mainly caused by smoking, and smoking cessation is the most important intervention to prevent disease progression. Cost-of-illness studies conclude that the costs associated with COPD in Denmark are significant, but costs of prescription medicine for COPD were not analysed. To analyse the societal costs associated with prescription medicine for COPD in Denmark. The study was designed as a nationwide retrospective register study of the drug costs (ATC group R03) associated with COPD in the period 2001-2010. Data were retrieved from the Prescription Database, the National Patient Register and the Centralised Civil Register. The population comprised individuals (40+ years) who had at least one prescription of selected R03 drugs and who had been either hospitalised with a COPD diagnosis or had at least one prescription for drugs primarily used for COPD. The study population comprised 166 462 individuals of which 97 916 were alive on 31 December 2010. The average annual drug costs (R03) were DKK 7842 (EUR 1055) per patient in 2010 with total costs of DKK 685 million (EUR 92 million). The average lifetime costs associated with COPD prescription medicine were estimated to be DKK 70 000-75 000 (EUR 9416-10 089) per patient (2010 prices). The costs associated with prescription medicine for COPD in Denmark are significant. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Earlier surgical intervention in congenital heart disease results in better outcome and resource utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panni, Roheena Z; Ashfaq, Awais; Amanullah, Muhammad M

    2011-12-29

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) accounts for a major proportion of disease in the pediatric age group. The objective of the study was to estimate the cost of illness associated with CHD pre, intra and postoperatively; among patients referred to a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. This is the first study conducted to estimate the cost of managing CHD in Pakistan. A prevalence based cost of illness study design was used to estimate the cost of cardiac surgery (corrective & palliative) for congenital heart defects in children ≤ 5 years of age from June 2006 to June 2009. A total of 120 patients were enrolled after obtaining an informed consent and the data was collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. The mean age at the time of surgery in group A (1-12 mo age) was 6.08 ± 2.80 months and in group B (1-5 yrs) was 37.10 ± 19.94 months. The cost of surgical admission was found to be significantly higher in the older group, p = 0.001. The total number and cost of post-operative outpatient visits was also higher in group B, p = 0.003. Pre and post operative hospital admissions were not found to be significantly different among the two groups, p = 0.166 and 0.627, respectively. The number of complications were found to be different between the two groups (p = 0.019). Majority of these were contributed by hemorrhage and post-operative seizures. This study concluded that significant expenditure is incurred by people with CHD; with the implication that resources could be saved by earlier detection and awareness campaigns.

  13. Estimating the cost of epilepsy in Europe: a review with economic modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliatti, Maura; Beghi, Ettore; Forsgren, Lars; Ekman, Mattias; Sobocki, Patrik

    2007-12-01

    Based on available epidemiologic, health economic, and international population statistics literature, the cost of epilepsy in Europe was estimated. Europe was defined as the 25 European Union member countries, Iceland, Norway, and Switzerland. Guidelines for epidemiological studies on epilepsy were used for a case definition. A bottom-up prevalence-based cost-of-illness approach, the societal perspective for including the cost items, and the human capital approach as valuation principle for indirect costs were used. The cost estimates were based on selected studies with common methodology and valuation principles. The estimated prevalence of epilepsy in Europe in 2004 was 4.3-7.8 per 1,000. The estimated total cost of the disease in Europe was euro15.5 billion in 2004, indirect cost being the single most dominant cost category (euro8.6 billion). Direct health care costs were euro2.8 billion, outpatient care comprising the largest part (euro1.3 billion). Direct nonmedical cost was euro4.2 billion. That of antiepileptic drugs was euro400 million. The total cost per case was euro2,000-11,500 and the estimated cost per European inhabitant was euro33. Epilepsy is a relevant socioeconomic burden at individual, family, health services, and societal level in Europe. The greater proportion of such burden is outside the formal health care sector, antiepileptic drugs representing a smaller proportion. Lack of economic data from several European countries and other methodological limitations make this report an initial estimate of the cost of epilepsy in Europe. Prospective incidence cost-of-illness studies from well-defined populations and common methodology are encouraged.

  14. A prospective study to determine the costs incurred by families of children newly diagnosed with cancer in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsimicalis, Argerie; Stevens, Bonnie; Ungar, Wendy J; McKeever, Patricia; Greenberg, Mark; Agha, Mohammad; Guerriere, Denise; Barr, Ronald; Naqvi, Ahmed; Moineddin, Rahim

    2012-10-01

    A diagnosis of cancer in childhood places a considerable economic burden on families, although costs are not well described. The objectives of this study were to identify and determine independent predictors of the direct and time costs incurred by such families. A prospective, cost-of-illness study was conducted in families of children newly diagnosed with cancer. Parents recorded the resources consumed and costs incurred during 1 week per month for three consecutive months beginning the fourth week following diagnosis and listed any additional costs incurred since then. Descriptive and multiple regression analyses were performed to describe families' costs (expressed in 2007 Canadian dollars) and to determine direct and time cost predictors. In total, 28 fathers and 71 mothers participated. The median total direct and time costs in 3 months were $CAD3503 and $CAD23 130, respectively, per family. The largest component of direct costs was travel and of time costs was time allocated previously for unpaid activities. There were no statistically significant predictors of direct costs. Six per cent of the variance for time costs was explained by language spoken at home. Families of children with cancer are confronted with a wide range of direct and time costs, the largest being travel and time allocated previously for unpaid activities. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Analysis of disease patterns and cost of treatments for prevention of deep venous thrombosis after total knee or hip replacement: results from the Practice Analysis of THromboprophylaxis after Orthopaedic Surgery (PATHOS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degli Esposti L

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Luca Degli Esposti,1 Guido Didoni,2 Teresa Simon,3 Stefano Buda,1 Diego Sangiorgi,1 Ezio Degli Esposti11CliCon Health, Economics and Outcomes Research, Ravenna, Italy; 2BMS Italy, Rome, Italy; 3BMS Global, Princeton, NJ, USAIntroduction: Venous thromboembolism (VTE is a well-known complication of total hip replacement (THR and total knee replacement (TKR. Various drugs have been introduced in an attempt to reduce the mortality as well as the short-term and long-term morbidity associated with the development of VTE. The aim of this study was to analyze drug utilization for thromboprophylaxis and the cost of illness in real clinical practice in patients with THR or TKR.Materials and methods: A multicenter, retrospective, observational cohort study based on local health unit administrative databases was conducted. All patients (≥18 years old discharged for THR/TKR procedures between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2008 were included in the study. The date of first hospital discharge was the index date; patients were followed up for a period of 12 months.Results: A total of 10,389 patients were included: 3516 males (33.8%, 69.4 ± 10.4 years and 6873 females (66.2%, 71.7 ± 9.0 years, of which 5483 (52.8% were discharged for THR and 4906 (47.2% for TKR. First antithrombotic treatments after discharge were enoxaparin (3937, 37.9%, heparin (3752, 36.1%, antiplatelet agents (658, 6.3%, vitamin K antagonists (276, 2.7%, fondaparinux (136, 1.3%, combinations (185, 1.8%, and no therapy (1445, 13.9%. Overall, we observed 2347 (22.6% treatment changes; median duration of antithrombotic treatment was 23 days (range 11–47 for THR and 22 days (range 11–46 for TKR. During the follow-up period, we observed 129 cases of VTE (120 per 10,000 patients, five post-thrombotic syndrome (4.8 per 10,000 patients, and three heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (2.9 per 10,000 patients. Median cost for both THR and TKR was €9052.00 (range €8063.00–€9084.96, with

  16. Economic burden of advanced melanoma in France, Germany and the UK: a retrospective observational study (Melanoma Burden-of-Illness Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grange, Florent; Mohr, Peter; Harries, Mark; Ehness, Rainer; Benjamin, Laure; Siakpere, Obukohwo; Barth, Janina; Stapelkamp, Ceilidh; Pfersch, Sylvie; McLeod, Lori D; Kaye, James A; Wolowacz, Sorrel; Kontoudis, Ilias

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the cost-of-illness associated with completely resected stage IIIB/IIIC melanoma with macroscopic lymph node involvement, overall and by disease phase, in France, Germany and the UK. This retrospective observational study included patients aged older than or equal to 18 years first diagnosed with stage IIIB/IIIC cutaneous melanoma between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2011. Data were obtained from medical records and a patient survey. Direct costs, indirect costs and patient out-of-pocket expenses were estimated in euros (€) (and British pounds, £) by collecting resource use and multiplying by country-specific unit costs. National annual costs were estimated using national disease prevalence from the European cancer registry and other published data. Forty-nine centres provided data on 558 patients (58.2% aged <65 years, 53.6% stage IIIB disease at diagnosis). The mean follow-up duration was 27 months (France), 26 months (Germany) and 22 months (UK). The mean total direct cost per patient during follow-up was €23 582 in France, €32 058 in Germany and €37 970 (£31 123) in the UK. The largest cost drivers were melanoma drugs [mean €14 004, €21 269, €29 750 (£24 385), respectively] and hospitalization/emergency treatment [mean: €6634, €6950, €3449 (£2827), respectively]. The total mean indirect costs per patient were €129 (France), €4,441 (Germany) and €1712 (£1427) (UK). Estimates for annual national direct cost were €13.1 million (France), €30.2 million (Germany) and €27.8 (£22.8) million (UK). The economic burden of stage IIIB/IIIC melanoma with macroscopic lymph node involvement was substantial in all three countries. Total direct costs were the highest during the period with distant metastasis/terminal illness.

  17. A multi-country study of the economic burden of dengue fever: Vietnam, Thailand, and Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Seok; Mogasale, Vittal; Lim, Jacqueline K; Carabali, Mabel; Lee, Kang-Sung; Sirivichayakul, Chukiat; Dang, Duc Anh; Palencia-Florez, Diana Cristina; Nguyen, Thi Hien Anh; Riewpaiboon, Arthorn; Chanthavanich, Pornthep; Villar, Luis; Maskery, Brian A; Farlow, Andrew

    2017-10-01

    Dengue fever is a major public health concern in many parts of the tropics and subtropics. The first dengue vaccine has already been licensed in six countries. Given the growing interests in the effective use of the vaccine, it is critical to understand the economic burden of dengue fever to guide decision-makers in setting health policy priorities. A standardized cost-of-illness study was conducted in three dengue endemic countries: Vietnam, Thailand, and Colombia. In order to capture all costs during the entire period of illness, patients were tested with rapid diagnostic tests on the first day of their clinical visits, and multiple interviews were scheduled until the patients recovered from the current illness. Various cost items were collected such as direct medical and non-medical costs, indirect costs, and non-out-of-pocket costs. In addition, socio-economic factors affecting disease severity were also identified by adopting a logit model. We found that total cost per episode ranges from $141 to $385 for inpatient and from $40 to $158 outpatient, with Colombia having the highest and Thailand having the lowest. The percentage of the private economic burden of dengue fever was highest in the low-income group and lowest in the high-income group. The logit analyses showed that early treatment, higher education, and better knowledge of dengue disease would reduce the probability of developing more severe illness. The cost of dengue fever is substantial in the three dengue endemic countries. Our study findings can be used to consider accelerated introduction of vaccines into the public and private sector programs and prioritize alternative health interventions among competing health problems. In addition, a community would be better off by propagating the socio-economic factors identified in this study, which may prevent its members from developing severe illness in the long run.

  18. The cost of child health inequalities in Aotearoa New Zealand: a preliminary scoping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Clair; Reid, Papaarangi; Vaithianathan, Rhema

    2012-05-28

    Health inequalities have been extensively documented, internationally and in New Zealand. The cost of reducing health inequities is often perceived as high; however, recent international studies suggest the cost of "doing nothing" is itself significant. This study aimed to develop a preliminary estimate of the economic cost of health inequities between Māori (indigenous) and non-Māori children in New Zealand. Standard quantitative epidemiological methods and "cost of illness" methodology were employed, within a Kaupapa Māori theoretical framework. Data were obtained from national data collections held by the New Zealand Health Information Service and other health sector agencies. Preliminary estimates suggest child health inequities between Māori and non-Māori in New Zealand are cost-saving to the health sector. However the societal costs are significant. A conservative "base case" scenario estimate is over $NZ62 million per year, while alternative costing methods yield larger costs of nearly $NZ200 million per annum. The total cost estimate is highly sensitive to the costing method used and Value of Statistical Life applied, as the cost of potentially avoidable deaths of Māori children is the major contributor to this estimate. This preliminary study suggests that health sector spending is skewed towards non-Māori children despite evidence of greater Māori need. Persistent child health inequities result in significant societal economic costs. Eliminating child health inequities, particularly in primary care access, could result in significant economic benefits for New Zealand. However, there are conceptual, ethical and methodological challenges in estimating the economic cost of child health inequities. Re-thinking of traditional economic frameworks and development of more appropriate methodologies is required.

  19. Economic consequences of legal and illegal drugs: The case of social costs in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lievens, Delfine; Vander Laenen, Freya; Verhaeghe, Nick; Putman, Koen; Pauwels, Lieven; Hardyns, Wim; Annemans, Lieven

    2017-06-01

    Legal and illegal drugs impose a considerable burden to the individual and to society. The misuse of addictive substances results in healthcare and law enforcement costs, loss of productivity and reduced quality of life. A social cost study was conducted to estimate the substance-attributable costs of alcohol, tobacco, illegal drugs and psychoactive medication to Belgian society in 2012. The cost-of-illness framework with prevalence-based and human capital approach was applied. Three cost components were considered: direct, indirect and intangible costs related to substance misuse. The direct and indirect cost of addictive substances was estimated at 4.6 billion euros in Belgium (419 euros per capita or 1.19% of the GDP) and more than 515,000 healthy years are lost due to substance misuse. The Belgian social cost study reaffirms that alcohol and tobacco impose the highest cost to society compared to illegal drugs. Health problems are the main driver of the social cost of legal drugs. Law enforcement expenditure exceed the healthcare costs but only in the case of illegal drugs. Estimating social costs of addictive substances is complex because it is difficult to determine to what extent the societal harm is caused by substances. It can be argued that social cost studies take only a 'snapshot' of the monetary consequences of substance misuse. Nevertheless, the current study offers the most comprehensive analysis thus far of the social costs of substance misuse in Belgium. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Costs of major intracranial, gastrointestinal and other bleeding events in patients with atrial fibrillation - a nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Marie; Kolodziejczyk, Christophe; Klausen Fredslund, Eskild; Poulsen, Peter Bo; Dybro, Lars; Paaske Johnsen, Søren

    2017-06-12

    Use of oral anticoagulation therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) involves a trade-off between a reduced risk of ischemic stroke and an increased risk of bleeding events. Different anticoagulation therapies have different safety profiles and data on the societal costs of both ischemic stroke and bleeding events are necessary for assessing the cost-effectiveness and budgetary impact of different treatment options. To our knowledge, no previous studies have estimated the societal costs of bleeding events in patients with AF. The objective of this study was to estimate the 3-years societal costs of first-incident intracranial, gastrointestinal and other major bleeding events in Danish patients with AF. The study was an incidence-based cost-of-illness study carried out from a societal perspective and based on data from national Danish registries covering the period 2002-2012. Costs were estimated using a propensity score matching and multivariable regression analysis (first difference OLS) in a cohort design. Average 3-years societal costs attributable to intracranial, gastrointestinal and other major bleeding events were 27,627, 17,868, and 12,384 EUR per patient, respectively (2015 prices). Existing evidence shows that the corresponding costs of ischemic stroke were 24,084 EUR per patient (2012 prices). The average costs of bleeding events did not differ between patients with AF who were on oral anticoagulation therapy prior to the event and patients who were not. The societal costs attributable to major bleeding events in patients with AF are significant. Intracranial haemorrhages are most costly to society with average costs of similar magnitude as the costs of ischemic stroke. The average costs of gastrointestinal and other major bleeding events are lower than the costs of intracranial haemorrhages, but still substantial. Knowledge about the relative size of the costs of bleeding events compared to ischemic stroke in patients with AF constitutes

  1. Social Costs of Gambling in the Czech Republic 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Petr; Bejdová, Markéta; Csémy, Ladislav; Weissová, Aneta

    2017-12-01

    Evidence about social costs of gambling is scarce and the methodology for their calculation has been a subject to strong criticism. We aimed to estimate social costs of gambling in the Czech Republic 2012. This retrospective, prevalence based cost of illness study builds on the revised methodology of Australian Productivity Commission. Social costs of gambling were estimated by combining epidemiological and economic data. Prevalence data on negative consequences of gambling were taken from existing national epidemiological studies. Economic data were taken from various national and international sources. Consequences of problem and pathological gambling only were taken into account. In 2012, the social costs of gambling in the Czech Republic were estimated to range between 541,619 and 619,608 thousands EUR. While personal and family costs accounted for 63% of all social costs, direct medical costs were estimated to range from 0.25 to 0.28% of all social costs only. This is the first study which estimates social costs of gambling in any of the Central and East European countries. It builds upon the solid evidence about prevalence of gambling related problems in the Czech Republic and satisfactorily reliable economic data. However, there is a number of limitations stemming from assumptions that were made, which suggest that the methodology for the calculation of the social costs of gambling needs further development.

  2. The social costs of alcohol misuse in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saar, Indrek

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the social costs of alcohol misuse in Estonia in 2006. Using a prevalence-based cost-of-illness approach, both direct and indirect costs were considered, including tangible costs associated with health care, criminal justice, rescue services, damage to property, premature mortality, incarceration, incapability of working due to illnesses, and lower labor productivity. The results show that alcohol misuse cost Estonia more than EUR 200 million in 2006. The costs involved are estimated to represent 1.6% of the gross domestic product (GDP), which is relatively high in comparison with many other countries. In addition, the state receives less receipts from the alcohol excise tax than the costs that it incurs as a consequence of alcohol misuse, which points to the existence of economic inefficiency with respect to the alcohol market. The results of this study suggest that there is definitely a need for further cost-benefit analysis to reach a conclusion regarding the possible utility of government intervention. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Mapping research activity on mental health disorders in Europe: study protocol for the Mapping_NCD project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg Brigham, Karen; Darlington, Meryl; Wright, John S F; Lewison, Grant; Kanavos, Panos; Durand-Zaleski, Isabelle

    2016-05-26

    Mental health disorders (MHDs) constitute a large and growing disease burden in Europe, although they typically receive less attention and research funding than other non-communicable diseases (NCDs). This study protocol describes a methodology for the mapping of MHD research in Europe as part of Mapping_NCD, a 2-year project funded by the European Commission which seeks to map European research funding and impact for five NCDs in order to identify potential gaps, overlaps, synergies and opportunities, and to develop evidence-based policies for future research. The project aims to develop a multi-focal view of the MHD research landscape across the 28 European Union Member States, plus Iceland, Norway and Switzerland, through a survey of European funding entities, analysis of research initiatives undertaken in the public, voluntary/not-for-profit and commercial sectors, and expert interviews to contextualize the gathered data. The impact of MHD research will be explored using bibliometric analyses of scientific publications, clinical guidelines and newspaper stories reporting on research initiatives. Finally, these research inputs and outputs will be considered in light of various metrics that have been proposed to inform priorities for the allocation of research funds, including burden of disease, treatment gaps and cost of illness. Given the growing burden of MHDs, a clear and broad view of the current state of MHD research is needed to ensure that limited resources are directed to evidence-based priority areas. MHDs pose a particular challenge in mapping the research landscape due to their complex nature, high co-morbidity and varying diagnostic criteria. Undertaking such an effort across 31 countries is further challenged by differences in data collection, healthcare systems, reimbursement rates and clinical practices, as well as cultural and socioeconomic diversity. Using multiple methods to explore the spectrum of MHD research funding activity across Europe

  4. Cost evaluation of out-of-country care for patients with eating disorders in Ontario: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Claire; Macdonald, Erin M; Green, Diane; Colton, Patricia; Olmsted, Marion; Bondy, Susan; Kurdyak, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Eating disorders, specifically anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and eating disorder not otherwise specified, represent a substantial burden to the health care system. Our goal was to estimate the economic burden of patients who received specialized inpatient care for an eating disorder out of country. We conducted a cost-of-illness study evaluating health care costs among patients in Ontario who received specialized inpatient care for an eating disorder out of country from 2003 to 2011, from the public third-party payer perspective. Using linked administrative databases, we estimated net costs of eating disorders for 2 patient groups: those who received specialized inpatient care both out of country and in province ( n = 160), and those who received specialized inpatient care out of country only ( n = 126). Patients approved for specialized out-of-country inpatient care were mostly girls and young women from high-income, urban neighbourhoods. Total net costs varied annually and were higher for patients treated both out of country and in province (about $11 million before 2007, $6.5 million after) than for those treated out of country alone (about $5 million and $2 million, respectively). The main cost drivers were out-of-country care and physician services. Costs associated with eating disorder care represent a substantial economic burden to the Ontario health care system. Given the high costs of out-of-country care, there may be opportunity to redirect these funds to increase capacity and expertise for eating disorder treatment within Ontario.

  5. Cost of schizophrenia in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangalore, Roshni; Knapp, Martin

    2007-03-01

    Despite the wide-ranging financial and social burdens associated with schizophrenia, there have been few cost-of-illness studies of this illness in the UK. To provide up-to-date, prevalence based estimate of all costs associated with schizophrenia for England. A bottom-up approach was adopted. Separate cost estimates were made for people living in private households, institutions, prisons and for those who are homeless. The costs included related to: health and social care, informal care, private expenditures, lost productivity, premature mortality, criminal justice services and other public expenditures such as those by the social security system. Data came from many sources, including the UK-SCAP (Schizophrenia Care and Assessment Program) survey, Psychiatric Morbidity Surveys, Department of Health and government publications. The estimated total societal cost of schizophrenia was 6.7 billion pounds in 2004/05. The direct cost of treatment and care that falls on the public purse was about 2 billion pounds; the burden of indirect costs to the society was huge, amounting to nearly 4.7 billion pounds. Cost of informal care and private expenditures borne by families was 615 million pounds. The cost of lost productivity due to unemployment, absence from work and premature mortality of patients was 3.4 billion pounds. The cost of lost productivity of carers was 32 million pounds. Estimated cost to the criminal justice system was about 1 million pounds. It is estimated that about 570 million pounds will be paid out in benefit payments and the cost of administration associated with this is about 14 million pounds. It is difficult to compare estimates from previous cost-of-illness studies due to differences in the methods, scope of analyses and the range of costs covered. Costs estimated in this study are detailed, cover a comprehensive list of relevant items and allow for different levels of disaggregation. The main limitation of the study is that data came from a

  6. The economic burden of chronic non-communicable diseases in rural Malawi: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qun; Brenner, Stephan; Kalmus, Olivier; Banda, Hastings Thomas; De Allegri, Manuela

    2016-09-01

    Evidence from population-based studies on the economic burden imposed by chronic non-communicable diseases (CNCDs) is still sparse in Sub-Saharan Africa. Our study aimed to fill this existing gap in knowledge by estimating both the household direct, indirect, and total costs incurred due to CNCDs and the economic burden households bear as a result of these costs in Malawi. The study used data from the first round of a longitudinal household health survey conducted in 2012 in three rural districts in Malawi. A cost-of-illness method was applied to estimate the economic burden of CNCDs. Indicators of catastrophic spending and impoverishment were used to estimate the economic burden imposed by CNCDs on households. A total 475 out of 5643 interviewed individuals reported suffering from CNCDs. Mean total costs of all reported CNCDs were 1,040.82 MWK, of which 56.8 % was contributed by direct costs. Individuals affected by chronic cardiovascular conditions and chronic neuropsychiatric conditions bore the highest levels of direct, indirect, and total costs. Using a threshold of 10 % of household non-food expenditure, 21.3 % of all households with at least one household member reporting a CNCD and seeking care for such a condition incurred catastrophic spending due to CNCDs. The poorest households were more likely to incur catastrophic spending due to CNCDs. An additional 1.7 % of households reporting a CNCD fell under the international poverty line once considering direct costs due to CNCDs. Our study showed that the economic burden of CNCDs is high, causes catastrophic spending, and aggravates poverty in rural Malawi, a country where in principle basic care for CNCDs should be offered free of charge at point of use through the provision of an Essential Health Package (EHP). Our findings further indicated that particularly high direct, indirect, and total costs were linked to specific diagnoses, although costs were high even for conditions targeted by the EHP. Our

  7. Economic burden of non-malignant blood disorders across Europe: a population-based cost study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luengo-Fernandez, Ramon; Burns, Richeal; Leal, Jose

    2016-08-01

    Blood disorders comprise a wide range of diseases including anaemia, malignant blood disorders, and haemorrhagic disorders. Although they are a common cause of disease, no systematic cost-of-illness studies have been done to assess the economic effect of non-malignant blood disorders in Europe. We aimed to assess the economic burden of non-malignant blood disorders across the 28 countries of the European Union (EU), Iceland, Norway, and Switzerland. Non-malignant blood disorder-related costs (WHO International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision [ICD] D50-89) were estimated for 28 EU countries, Iceland, Norway, and Switzerland for 2012. Country-specific costs were estimated with aggregate data on morbidity, mortality, and health-care resource use obtained from international and national sources. Health-care costs were estimated from expenditure on primary care, outpatient care, emergency care, hospital inpatient care, and drugs. Costs of informal care and productivity losses due to morbidity and early death were also included. To these costs we added those due to malignant blood disorders (ICD-10 C81-96 and D47) as estimated in a Burns and colleagues' companion Article to obtain the total costs of blood disorders. Non-malignant disorders of the blood cost the 31 European countries €11 billion in 2012. Health-care costs accounted for €8 billion (75% of total costs), productivity losses for €2 billion (19%), and informal care for less than €1 billion (6%). Averaged across the European population studied, non-malignant disorders of the blood represented an annual health-care cost of €159 per ten citizens. Combining malignant and non-malignant blood disorders, the total cost of blood disorders was €23 billion in 2012. Our study highlights the economic burden that non-malignant blood disorders place on European health-care systems and societies. Our study also shows that blood disorder costs were evenly distributed between malignant and non

  8. The Financial Implication of Treating Motorcycle Limb Trauma in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The total cost of care of injuries is usually much more than the cost of hospitalization. This study was designed to determine the total cost to the patient, of limb injuries sustained from motorcycle crashes. Method: The study design was based on the cost-of illness method. Only patients who were employed and ...

  9. Costs of Nine Common Mental Disorders:Implications for Curative and Preventive Psychiatry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, H.F.E.; Cuijpers, P.; Oostenbrink, J.; Batelaan, N.M.; de Graaf, R.; Beekman, A.J.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mental disorders are highly prevalent and are associated with substantial disease burden, but their economic costs have been relatively less well researched. Moreover, few cost-of-illness studies used population-based psychiatric surveys for estimating direct medical, direct non-medical

  10. Economic evaluation of influenza vaccination : Assessment for The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Maarten J.; Bos, Jasper M.; Van Gennep, Mark; Jager, Johannes C.; Baltussen, Rob; Sprenger, Marc J.W.

    1999-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the costs associated with influenza and the cost effectiveness (net costs per life-year gained) of influenza vaccination in The Netherlands. Design and setting: The economic evaluation comprised a cost-of-illness assessment and a

  11. Valuation of Drug Abuse: A Review of Current Methodologies and Implications for Policy Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schori, Maayan

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the use of several valuation methods as they relate to drug abuse and places them within the context of U.S. policy. First, cost-of-illness (COI) studies are reviewed and their limitations discussed. Second, three additional economic methods of valuing drug abuse are reviewed, including cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA),…

  12. Direct medical costs of serious gastrointestinal ulcers attributable to non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonkeman, Harald E.; Klok, Rogier M.; Postma, Maarten J.; Brouwers, Jacobus R.B.J.; van de Laar, Mart A.F.J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The occurrence and prevention of gastrointestinal ulcers attributable to the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) has become a major health care issue. Analysis of cost effectiveness of preventive strategies has been hampered by a lack of recent cost of illness studies. The

  13. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2013-09-17

    Sep 17, 2013 ... the poverty threshold [2], out-of-pocket payments remain the main method of paying .... participation status, benefits of the study and confidentiality issues .... community health financing in meeting the cost of illness. Bull .... France. OECD development Centre. Working Papers. PubMed | Google Scholar. 26.

  14. Direct medical costs of serious gastrointestinal ulcers among users of NSAIDs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonkeman, H.E.; Klok, R.M.; Postma, M.J.; Brouwers, J.R.B.J.; van de Laar, M.A.F.J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The occurrence and prevention of gastrointestinal ulcers during use of NSAIDs has become a major healthcare issue. Objective: To determine the direct medical costs of serious NSAID-related ulcer complications. Method: An observational cost-of-illness study was conducted in a large

  15. Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erum Zahir

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical properties like density, viscosity, boiling point, saponification value (SV, iodine value (IV,and peroxide value (PV of Corn and Mustard oils were studied to evaluate the compositional quality of oils and also to investigate the effect on the use of same oil for repeated frying as it ultimately changes the physicochemical, nutritional and sensory properties of the oil. FT-IR spectroscopy was used to evaluate the degree of oxidation after heating and frying processes. Results revealed that due to the temperature change in the oil there is a notable difference in the spectral band which showed that the proportions of the fatty acids were changed. The spectra of Corn oil at the boiling point and at multiple frying times with a piece of potato showed frequencies in range of 2852.7–2926.0 cm−1 while in Mustard oil an additional peak was observed at 3633.8 cm−1 which exhibits the secondary oxidized product formation.

  16. Economic burden and cost determinants of coronary heart disease in rural southwest China: a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, C; Fang, Y; Linxiong, W; Shulan, Z; Golden, A R

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the economic burden of coronary heart disease (CHD) in a given year (2010), including direct and indirect costs, and examine the impact of contextual and individual socio-economic (SES) predictors on the costs of CHD among adults in rural southwest China. Cross-sectional community survey. In total, 4595 adults (aged ≥18 years) participated in this study. A prevalence-based cost-of-illness approach was used to estimate the economic burden of CHD. Information on demographic characteristics of the study population and the economic consequences of CHD was obtained using a standard questionnaire. Multilevel linear regression was used to model the variation in costs of CHD. In the study population, the overall prevalence of CHD was 2.9% (3.5% for males, 2.3% for females). The total cost of CHD was estimated to be US$17 million. Inpatient hospitalizations represented the main component of direct costs of CHD, and direct costs accounted for the greatest proportion of the economic burden of CHD. Males were more likely to have a higher economic burden of CHD than females. A positive association was found between the individual's level of education and the economic burden of CHD. Residence in a higher-income community was associated with higher costs related to CHD. This study found that both contextual and individual SES were closely associated with the costs of CHD. Future strategies for CHD interventions and improved access to affordable medications to treat and control CHD should focus on less-educated individuals and communities with lower SES. Copyright © 2014 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Social Cost of Substance Abuse in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potapchik, Elena; Popovich, Larisa

    2014-09-01

    To summarize results of studies that estimate the social costs of alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug abuse in Russia. The purpose of these studies was to inform policymakers about the real economic burden of risky behaviors and to provide conditions for evidence-based and well-informed decision making in this area. The cost-of-illness method was applied to estimate the social cost of substance abuse. The intangible cost was not included in estimation. A prevalence-based approach was applied to estimate the tangible cost. For the estimation of direct costs, a top-down method was used. Indirect costs were estimated using two methods: the human capital and the friction cost. In 2008, the social cost of substance abuse in Russia comprised 677.2 billion rubles if the friction cost method is applied and 1965.9 billion rubles if the human capital method is used. The social cost of substance abuse is defined to the greatest extent by alcohol consumption, comprising about 45% of the economic burden. Illicit drug use comprises about 30% of the economic burden and tobacco consumption 25%. The results of economic studies demonstrated that psychoactive substances impose a considerable economic burden on society. Analysis of the substance abuse social cost pattern shows that the main losses that society bears because of these behavioral risk factors fall outside the health care system and lay in other sectors of the economy such as social care, law enforcement, and productivity losses. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Recent trends in economic burden of acute myocardial infarction in South Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeyoung Seo

    Full Text Available In 2010, ischemic heart disease was the leading cause of disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs worldwide. More specially, the prevalence of acute myocardial infarctions (AMI is increasing in the aged population as mortality decreases; South Korea is no exception. This study aims to examine the economic burden of AMI in the Korean population between 2007 and 2012. AMI-related costs were assessed from a societal perspective. A prevalence-based cost-of-illness framework was used for this analysis. The subjects included all South Koreans with AMI-related ICD-10 codes (I21, I22, I23, I25.0, and I25.1. Data on direct (medical and non-medical costs and indirect (productivity loss due to AMI-associated morbidity and mortality costs were collected from the Korean National Health Insurance Service's claims data. The human capital approach was used to calculate indirect costs. The total estimated cost of AMI in 2012 was $1,177,649,323 USD. The majority (52% of this amount was made up of medical costs, followed by productivity losses due to mortality and morbidity (42% of annual cost. Although the total cost declined by approximately 18% compared to 2007 ($1,427,643,854 USD, the cost of AMI in the over 60 age group amounted to 47% of the total cost of AMI in 2012. AMI led to a high economic burden in 2012. This study, which identified not only the size, but also the trends of AMI-related costs, will provide information to evaluate effects of governmental health projects and the effective allocation of public research funds.

  19. Global economic consequences of selected surgical diseases: a modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkire, Blake C; Shrime, Mark G; Dare, Anna J; Vincent, Jeffrey R; Meara, John G

    2015-04-27

    The surgical burden of disease is substantial, but little is known about the associated economic consequences. We estimate the global macroeconomic impact of the surgical burden of disease due to injury, neoplasm, digestive diseases, and maternal and neonatal disorders from two distinct economic perspectives. We obtained mortality rate estimates for each disease for the years 2000 and 2010 from the Institute of Health Metrics and Evaluation Global Burden of Disease 2010 study, and estimates of the proportion of the burden of the selected diseases that is surgical from a paper by Shrime and colleagues. We first used the value of lost output (VLO) approach, based on the WHO's Projecting the Economic Cost of Ill-Health (EPIC) model, to project annual market economy losses due to these surgical diseases during 2015-30. EPIC attempts to model how disease affects a country's projected labour force and capital stock, which in turn are related to losses in economic output, or gross domestic product (GDP). We then used the value of lost welfare (VLW) approach, which is conceptually based on the value of a statistical life and is inclusive of non-market losses, to estimate the present value of long-run welfare losses resulting from mortality and short-run welfare losses resulting from morbidity incurred during 2010. Sensitivity analyses were performed for both approaches. During 2015-30, the VLO approach projected that surgical conditions would result in losses of 1·25% of potential GDP, or $20·7 trillion (2010 US$, purchasing power parity) in the 128 countries with data available. When expressed as a proportion of potential GDP, annual GDP losses were greatest in low-income and middle-income countries, with up to a 2·5% loss in output by 2030. When total welfare losses are assessed (VLW), the present value of economic losses is estimated to be equivalent to 17% of 2010 GDP, or $14·5 trillion in the 175 countries assessed with this approach. Neoplasm and injury account

  20. Cost of osteoporosis-related fracture in Italy. Results of the BLOCK study

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    Luca Degli Esposti

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were to calculate the cost of illness of osteoporosis and to assess drug utilization patterns in postmenopausal women after a fracture-related hospitalization. The study subjects were enrolled from a large population-based administrative database. Female patients (age ≥ 65 years who were hospitalized for a typical osteoporotic fracture between 1/1/2000 and 31/12/2005 were included. Patients were classified as exposed/unexposed to treatment according to the presence/absence of at least one prescription for an osteoporosis-related medication in the 6 months following the discharge date. Treatment adherence was calculated for patients who were exposed to bisphosphonate therapy and was defined as at least 80% of treatment coverage during the follow-up period of 18 months after the discharge date. Hospitalizations, medications, diagnostic tests, laboratory tests and specialist visits during the 18-month follow-up period were collected and classified as osteoporosis-related or non-related to osteoporosis. A total of 12,376 patients were included in the study (mean age ± SD, 79.1 ± 7.5 years, out of which 97.9% (n = 12,110 were hospitalized due to an osteoporosis-related fracture and only 2.1% (n = 266 had general osteoporosis diagnosis. Among the 12,110 women with a fracture, 15.2% (n = 1,845 had a subsequent fracture-related hospitalization (63.8% of the patients had hip fracture. Only 32.3% (n = 4,001 of all included patients was exposed to osteoporosis-related medications and out of those patients exposed to bisphosphonates (n = 860 only 34.2% (n = 294 was adherent to therapy. The average cost per patient was € 4,481, of which € 1,089 was for osteoporosis-related and € 3,392 for non-osteoporosis-related items. The average cost of a matching cohort of patients without hospitalizations for fracture was € 2,339. Among osteoporosis-related costs, 87.0% was due to hospitalizations for subsequent fractures

  1. An introduction to the basic principles of health economics for those involved in the development and delivery of headache care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernick, D

    2005-09-01

    Against a background of increasing demands on limited resources, health economics is gaining an increasing impact on decision making and a basic understanding of the subject is important for all those involved in headache research and service delivery at whatever level. This paper is not intended as a review of the literature in the area of headache economics but discusses some general principles of health economics from the perspective of headache, with a focus on cost of illness studies and economic evaluation.

  2. Direct, indirect and intangible costs of acute hand and wrist injuries: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Luke Steven; Sarkies, Mitchell; Brown, Ted; O'Brien, Lisa

    2016-12-01

    Injuries sustained to the hand and wrist are common, accounting for 20% of all emergency presentations. The economic burden of these injuries, comprised of direct (medical expenses incurred), indirect (value of lost productivity) and intangible costs, can be extensive and rise sharply with the increase of severity. This paper systematically reviews cost-of-illness studies and health economic evaluations of acute hand and wrist injuries with a particular focus on direct, indirect and intangible costs. It aims to provide economic cost estimates of burden and discuss the cost components used in international literature. A search of cost-of-illness studies and health economic evaluations of acute hand and wrist injuries in various databases was conducted. Data extracted for each included study were: design, population, intervention, and estimates and measurement methodologies of direct, indirect and intangible costs. Reported costs were converted into US-dollars using historical exchange rates and then adjusted into 2015 US-dollars using an inflation calculator RESULTS: The search yielded 764 studies, of which 21 met the inclusion criteria. Twelve studies were cost-of-illness studies, and seven were health economic evaluations. The methodology used to derive direct, indirect and intangible costs differed markedly across all studies. Indirect costs represented a large portion of total cost in both cost-of-illness studies [64.5% (IQR 50.75-88.25)] and health economic evaluations [68% (IQR 49.25-73.5)]. The median total cost per case of all injury types was US$6951 (IQR $3357-$22,274) for cost-of-illness studies and US$8297 (IQR $3858-$33,939) for health economic evaluations. Few studies reported intangible cost data associated with acute hand and wrist injuries. Several studies have attempted to estimate the direct, indirect and intangible costs associated with acute hand and wrist injuries in various countries using heterogeneous methodologies. Estimates of the economic

  3. The costs of respiratory illnesses arising from Florida gulf coast Karenia brevis blooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoagland, Porter; Jin, Di; Polansky, Lara Y; Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Kirkpatrick, Gary; Fleming, Lora E; Reich, Andrew; Watkins, Sharon M; Ullmann, Steven G; Backer, Lorraine C

    2009-08-01

    Algal blooms of Karenia brevis, a harmful marine algae, occur almost annually off the west coast of Florida. At high concentrations, K. brevis blooms can cause harm through the release of potent toxins, known as brevetoxins, to the atmosphere. Epidemiologic studies suggest that aerosolized brevetoxins are linked to respiratory illnesses in humans. We hypothesized a relationship between K. brevis blooms and respiratory illness visits to hospital emergency departments (EDs) while controlling for environmental factors, disease, and tourism. We sought to use this relationship to estimate the costs of illness associated with aerosolized brevetoxins. We developed a statistical exposure-response model to express hypotheses about the relationship between respiratory illnesses and bloom events. We estimated the model with data on ED visits, K. brevis cell densities, and measures of pollen, pollutants, respiratory disease, and intra-annual population changes. We found that lagged K. brevis cell counts, low air temperatures, influenza outbreaks, high pollen counts, and tourist visits helped explain the number of respiratory-specific ED diagnoses. The capitalized estimated marginal costs of illness for ED respiratory illnesses associated with K. brevis blooms in Sarasota County, Florida, alone ranged from $0.5 to $4 million, depending on bloom severity. Blooms of K. brevis lead to significant economic impacts. The costs of illness of ED visits are a conservative estimate of the total economic impacts. It will become increasingly necessary to understand the scale of the economic losses associated with K. brevis blooms to make rational choices about appropriate mitigation.

  4. Global economic burden of schizophrenia: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong HY

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Huey Yi Chong,1 Siew Li Teoh,1 David Bin-Chia Wu,1 Surachai Kotirum,1 Chiun-Fang Chiou,2 Nathorn Chaiyakunapruk1,3–5 1School of Pharmacy, Monash University Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 2Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies Asia Pacific, Singapore; 3Center of Pharmaceutical Outcomes Research (CPOR, Department of Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok, Thailand; 4School of Pharmacy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA; 5School of Population Health, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia Background: Schizophrenia is one of the top 25 leading causes of disability worldwide in 2013. Despite its low prevalence, its health, social, and economic burden has been tremendous, not only for patients but also for families, caregivers, and the wider society. The magnitude of disease burden investigated in an economic burden study is an important source to policymakers in decision making. This study aims to systematically identify studies focusing on the economic burden of schizophrenia, describe the methods and data sources used, and summarize the findings of economic burden of schizophrenia. Methods: A systematic review was performed for economic burden studies in schizophrenia using four electronic databases (Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and EconLit from inception to August 31, 2014. Results: A total of 56 articles were included in this review. More than 80% of the studies were conducted in high-income countries. Most studies had undertaken a retrospective- and prevalence-based study design. The bottom-up approach was commonly employed to determine cost, while human capital method was used for indirect cost estimation. Database and literature were the most commonly used data sources in cost estimation in high-income countries, while chart review and interview were the main data sources in low and middle-income countries. Annual costs for the schizophrenia population in the country ranged from US$94

  5. The economic costs of alcohol consumption in Thailand, 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thitiboonsuwan Khannika

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence that the adverse consequences of alcohol impose a substantial economic burden on societies worldwide. Given the lack of generalizability of study results across different settings, many attempts have been made to estimate the economic costs of alcohol for various settings; however, these have mostly been confined to industrialized countries. To our knowledge, there are a very limited number of well-designed studies which estimate the economic costs of alcohol consumption in developing countries, including Thailand. Therefore, this study aims to estimate these economic costs, in Thailand, 2006. Methods This is a prevalence-based, cost-of-illness study. The estimated costs in this study included both direct and indirect costs. Direct costs included health care costs, costs of law enforcement, and costs of property damage due to road-traffic accidents. Indirect costs included costs of productivity loss due to premature mortality, and costs of reduced productivity due to absenteeism and presenteeism (reduced on-the-job productivity. Results The total economic cost of alcohol consumption in Thailand in 2006 was estimated at 156,105.4 million baht (9,627 million US$ PPP or about 1.99% of the total Gross Domestic Product (GDP. Indirect costs outweigh direct costs, representing 96% of the total cost. The largest cost attributable to alcohol consumption is that of productivity loss due to premature mortality (104,128 million baht/6,422 million US$ PPP, followed by cost of productivity loss due to reduced productivity (45,464.6 million baht/2,804 million US$ PPP, health care cost (5,491.2 million baht/339 million US$ PPP, cost of property damage as a result of road traffic accidents (779.4 million baht/48 million US$ PPP, and cost of law enforcement (242.4 million baht/15 million US$ PPP, respectively. The results from the sensitivity analysis revealed that the cost ranges from 115,160.4 million baht to 214

  6. The economic costs of alcohol consumption in Thailand, 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavorncharoensap, Montarat; Teerawattananon, Yot; Yothasamut, Jomkwan; Lertpitakpong, Chanida; Thitiboonsuwan, Khannika; Neramitpitagkul, Prapag; Chaikledkaew, Usa

    2010-06-09

    There is evidence that the adverse consequences of alcohol impose a substantial economic burden on societies worldwide. Given the lack of generalizability of study results across different settings, many attempts have been made to estimate the economic costs of alcohol for various settings; however, these have mostly been confined to industrialized countries. To our knowledge, there are a very limited number of well-designed studies which estimate the economic costs of alcohol consumption in developing countries, including Thailand. Therefore, this study aims to estimate these economic costs, in Thailand, 2006. This is a prevalence-based, cost-of-illness study. The estimated costs in this study included both direct and indirect costs. Direct costs included health care costs, costs of law enforcement, and costs of property damage due to road-traffic accidents. Indirect costs included costs of productivity loss due to premature mortality, and costs of reduced productivity due to absenteeism and presenteeism (reduced on-the-job productivity). The total economic cost of alcohol consumption in Thailand in 2006 was estimated at 156,105.4 million baht (9,627 million US$ PPP) or about 1.99% of the total Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Indirect costs outweigh direct costs, representing 96% of the total cost. The largest cost attributable to alcohol consumption is that of productivity loss due to premature mortality (104,128 million baht/6,422 million US$ PPP), followed by cost of productivity loss due to reduced productivity (45,464.6 million baht/2,804 million US$ PPP), health care cost (5,491.2 million baht/339 million US$ PPP), cost of property damage as a result of road traffic accidents (779.4 million baht/48 million US$ PPP), and cost of law enforcement (242.4 million baht/15 million US$ PPP), respectively. The results from the sensitivity analysis revealed that the cost ranges from 115,160.4 million baht to 214,053.0 million baht (7,102.1 - 13,201 million US$ PPP

  7. Cost analysis of Human Papillomavirus-related cervical diseases and genital warts in Swaziland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Themba G Ginindza

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV has proven to be the cause of several severe clinical conditions on the cervix, vulva, vagina, anus, oropharynx and penis. Several studies have assessed the costs of cervical lesions, cervical cancer (CC, and genital warts. However, few have been done in Africa and none in Swaziland. Cost analysis is critical in providing useful information for economic evaluations to guide policymakers concerned with the allocation of resources in order to reduce the disease burden.A prevalence-based cost of illness (COI methodology was used to investigate the economic burden of HPV-related diseases. We used a top-down approach for the cost associated with hospital care and a bottom-up approach to estimate the cost associated with outpatient and primary care. The current study was conducted from a provider perspective since the state bears the majority of the costs of screening and treatment in Swaziland. All identifiable direct medical costs were considered for cervical lesions, cervical cancer and genital warts, which were primary diagnoses during 2015. A mix of bottom up micro-costing ingredients approach and top-down approaches was used to collect data on costs. All costs were computed at the price level of 2015 and converted to dollars ($.The total annual estimated direct medical cost associated with screening, managing and treating cervical lesions, CC and genital warts in Swaziland was $16 million. The largest cost in the analysis was estimated for treatment of high-grade cervical lesions and cervical cancer representing 80% of the total cost ($12.6 million. Costs for screening only represented 5% of the total cost ($0.9 million. Treatment of genital warts represented 6% of the total cost ($1million.According to the cost estimations in this study, the economic burden of HPV-related cervical diseases and genital warts represents a major public health issue in Swaziland. Prevention of HPV infection with a national HPV immunization

  8. The economic burden of schizophrenia in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teoh SL

    2017-07-01

    (M which was equivalent to 0.04% of the national gross domestic product. On average, the mean cost per patient was USD 6,594. Of the total economic burden of SCZ, 72% was attributed to indirect cost, costing at USD 72M, followed by direct medical cost (26%, costing at USD 26M, and direct non-medical cost (2%, costing at USD 1.7M.Conclusion: This study highlights the magnitude of economic burden of SCZ and informs the policy-makers that there is an inadequate support for SCZ patients. More resources should be allocated to improve the condition of SCZ patients and to reduce the economic burden.Keywords: economic burden, schizophrenia, Malaysia, cost of illness, lower-income countries, middle-income countries, societal perspective

  9. Pulmonary melioidosis in Cambodia: A prospective study

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    Te Vantha

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Melioidosis is a disease caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei and considered endemic in South-East Asia but remains poorly documented in Cambodia. We report the first series of hospitalized pulmonary melioidosis cases identified in Cambodia describing clinical characteristics and outcomes. Methods We characterized cases of acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI that were identified through surveillance in two provincial hospitals. Severity was defined by systolic blood pressure, cardiac frequency, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation and body temperature. B. pseudomallei was detected in sputum or blood cultures and confirmed by API20NE gallery. We followed up these cases between 6 months and 2 years after hospital discharge to assess the cost-of-illness and long-term outcome. Results During April 2007 - January 2010, 39 ALRI cases had melioidosis, of which three aged ≤2 years; the median age was 46 years and 56.4% were males. A close contact with soil and water was identified in 30 patients (76.9%. Pneumonia was the main radiological feature (82.3%. Eleven patients were severe cases. Twenty-four (61.5% patients died including 13 who died within 61 days after discharge. Of the deceased, 23 did not receive any antibiotics effective against B. pseudomallei. Effective drugs that were available did not include ceftazidime. Mean total illness-related costs was of US$65 (range $25-$5000. Almost two-thirds (61.5% incurred debt and 28.2% sold land or other belongings to pay illness-related costs. Conclusions The observed high fatality rate is likely explained by the lack or limited access to efficient antibiotics and under-recognition of the disease among clinicians, which led to inappropriate therapy.

  10. Ecological study of socio-economic indicators and prevalence of asthma in schoolchildren in urban Brazil

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    Genser Bernd

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence of higher prevalence of asthma in populations of lower socio-economic status in affluent societies, and the prevalence of asthma is also very high in some Latin American countries, where societies are characterized by a marked inequality in wealth. This study aimed to examine the relationship between estimates of asthma prevalence based on surveys conducted in children in Brazilian cities and health and socioeconomic indicators measured at the population level in the same cities. Methods We searched the literature in the medical databases and in the annals of scientific meeting, retrieving population-based surveys of asthma that were conducted in Brazil using the methodology defined by the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. We performed separate analyses for the age groups 6–7 years and 13–14 years. We examined the association between asthma prevalence rates and eleven health and socio-economic indicators by visual inspection and using linear regression models weighed by the inverse of the variance of each survey. Results Six health and socioeconomic variables showed a clear pattern of association with asthma. The prevalence of asthma increased with poorer sanitation and with higher infant mortality at birth and at survey year, GINI index and external mortality. In contrast, asthma prevalence decreased with higher illiteracy rates. Conclusion The prevalence of asthma in urban areas of Brazil, a middle income country, appears to be higher in cities with more marked poverty or inequality.

  11. Effects of diabetes definition on global surveillance of diabetes prevalence and diagnosis: a pooled analysis of 96 population-based studies with 331,288 participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Diabetes has been defined on the basis of different biomarkers, including fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h plasma glucose in an oral glucose tolerance test (2hOGTT), and HbA1c. We assessed the effect of different diagnostic definitions on both the population prevalence of diabetes and the classification of previously undiagnosed individuals as having diabetes versus not having diabetes in a pooled analysis of data from population-based health examination surveys in different regions. We used data from 96 population-based health examination surveys that had measured at least two of the biomarkers used for defining diabetes. Diabetes was defined using HbA1c (HbA1c ≥6·5% or history of diabetes diagnosis or using insulin or oral hypoglycaemic drugs) compared with either FPG only or FPG-or-2hOGTT definitions (FPG ≥7·0 mmol/L or 2hOGTT ≥11·1 mmol/L or history of diabetes or using insulin or oral hypoglycaemic drugs). We calculated diabetes prevalence, taking into account complex survey design and survey sample weights. We compared the prevalences of diabetes using different definitions graphically and by regression analyses. We calculated sensitivity and specificity of diabetes diagnosis based on HbA1c compared with diagnosis based on glucose among previously undiagnosed individuals (ie, excluding those with history of diabetes or using insulin or oral hypoglycaemic drugs). We calculated sensitivity and specificity in each survey, and then pooled results using a random-effects model. We assessed the sources of heterogeneity of sensitivity by meta-regressions for study characteristics selected a priori. Population prevalence of diabetes based on FPG-or-2hOGTT was correlated with prevalence based on FPG alone (r=0·98), but was higher by 2-6 percentage points at different prevalence levels. Prevalence based on HbA1c was lower than prevalence based on FPG in 42·8% of age-sex-survey groups and higher in another 41·6%; in the other 15·6%, the two definitions

  12. The Cost of Blindness in the Republic of Ireland 2010–2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Green

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To estimate the prevalence of blindness in the Republic of Ireland and the associated financial and total economic cost between 2010 and 2020. Methods. Estimates for the prevalence of blindness in the Republic of Ireland were based on blindness registration data from the National Council for the Blind of Ireland. Estimates for the financial and total economic cost of blindness were based on the sum of direct and indirect healthcare and nonhealthcare costs. Results. We estimate that there were 12,995 blind individuals in Ireland in 2010 and in 2020 there will be 17,997. We estimate that the financial and total economic costs of blindness in the Republic of Ireland in 2010 were €276.6 million and €809 million, respectively, and will increase in 2020 to €367 million and €1.1 billion, respectively. Conclusions. Here, ninety-eight percent of the cost of blindness is borne by the Departments of Social Protection and Finance and not by the Department of Health as might initially be expected. Cost of illness studies should play a role in public policy making as they help to quantify the indirect or “hidden” costs of disability and so help to reveal the true cost of illness.

  13. First approaches to the monetary impact of environmental health disturbances in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haucke, Florian; Brückner, Ulrike

    2010-01-01

    This article aims to describe essential conditions and starting-points for the monetary evaluation of environmentally attributable diseases. Furthermore, a cost calculation within a scenario analysis is conducted for Germany. To calculate the costs of environmental health effects we chose a disease-specific perspective. The national statistics of the Federal Statistical Office and the World Health Report burden of disease estimates were used to identify the most important disease categories for Germany. Based on an extensive literature research in computerized databases and the publications of national and international institutions, available costs of illness studies for Germany as well as environmental attributable fractions (EAFs) were identified. Based on these data environmental health costs were calculated with a top-down approach. Direct and indirect environmental costs of illness add up to 15-62 billion euro(2006) per year depending on the specific scenario. From our results a tentative scheme is deduced of how the monetary environmental burden of specific diseases is composed and how it can be assigned to major environmental exposures and economic sectors which can be used in setting intervention priorities and evaluating intervention efficiency. Within this article, we were able to calculate environmental health costs for Germany based on available, easy to access data and deduce implications for environmental policy decision-making. However, there are restrictions in data quality, as the aetiology of some diseases with respect to environmental impacts is not very well documented and data has not been collected particularly for Germany.

  14. Study Proposal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MATHEMATICS DEPARTMENT

    This cross sectional study design on mathematical syllabi at preparatory levels of the high schools was to ... Technology, Computer Science and Applied Sciences. It is studied of ..... For example, Jimma University Medical faculty students ...

  15. Initial Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    increased. In the initial study presented here, the time it takes to pass an intersection is studied in details. Two major signal-controlled four-way intersections in the center of the city Aalborg are studied in details to estimate the congestion levels in these intersections, based on the time it takes...

  16. Game Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raessens, J.F.F.

    2016-01-01

    This entry describes game studies as a dynamic interdisciplinary field of academic study and research that focuses on digital games and play in a wide variety of social and cultural contexts. It examines the history of game studies from its prehistory, when games were looked at as part of other

  17. Study of relation between the onset age of type 1 diabetes and celiac disease in children andadole scents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    robabe Ghergherehchi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease (CD is a chronic enteropathy caused by hypersensitivity to gluten. Most studies have showed more prevalence of CD in the patients with diabetes mellitus type 1. Both diseases are autoimmune and their incidence is related to inheritance and environmental factors. The aim of this research is the study of relation between CD prevalence and diabetic age onset. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 135 children with diabetes mellitus type 1 referring to Tabriz children hospital endocrine department and clinic between 2006-2008 were selected. After filling individual identity of the patients and the measurement of weight and height, the serumic level of anti-tissue Trans glutaminase IgA antibody (A-tTG-A-IgA, anti endomisial IgA antibody (AEA-IgA and anti-gliadin IgG antibody (AGA-IgG were measured. In the case that A-tTG-A either AEA alone or with AGA was high, small intestinal biopsy was preformed. The data was analysed using SPSS ver 16 software. Results: 28 of 135 patients with diabetes mellitus type 1, were serologically positive for celiac. Confirmed celiac prevalence based on biopsy was 6. 8%. From diabetic age onset and celiac incidence point of view there was not any significant relation (P=0. 996. Conclusion: Celiac disease in type1 diabetic patients dose not have correlation with the onset age of type 1 diabetes and diabetic patients should be followed up from celiac point of view during treatment and prevention.

  18. Patient side cost and its predictors for cervical cancer in Ethiopia: a cross sectional hospital based study

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    Hailu Alemayehu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical cancer is a leading cause of death from cancer among women in low-resource settings, affecting women at a time of life when they are critical to social and economic stability. In addition, the economic burden is important for policy formulation. The aim of this study is to estimate patient side cost and to determine predictors of its variation for the treatment of cervical cancer. Methods Analytic cross sectional study involving 227 cervical cancer cases at Tikur Anbessa Hospital, Ethiopia was conducted. Cost estimation was based on patients' perspective and using the prevalence-based model as a time frame. Productivity losses were estimated from lost working days. Results The mean outpatient cost per patient for cervical cancer was $407.2 (Median = $206.9. Direct outpatient cost (Mean = $334.2 takes the largest share compared with the indirect counterpart ($150. The outpatient cost for half of the respondent falls in a range between $93.7 and $478. The mean inpatient cost for hospitalized patients was $404.4. The average direct inpatient cost was $329 (74% medical costs and 26% non medical costs. The mean value for total inpatient cost for half of the respondents was in the range of $133.5 and $493.9. For every additional day of inpatient hospital stay, there is a daily incremental inpatient cost of $4.2. Conclusion As has been found in other studies, our findings revealed that cervical cancer creates an immense financial burden on patients. Primary prevention measures, vaccination against HPV and screening, should be initiated and expanded to reduce morbidity from cervical cancer and subsequent costs in both human lives and money resources. Control of co-morbidity and complication should be emphasized during management of cervical cancer patients. Capacitating regional hospitals and provision of low cost or fee exemption schemes should be arranged and strengthened.

  19. HTS Teologiese Studies / Theological Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HTS Teologiese Studies/Theological Studies is an acclaimed Open Access journal with broad coverage that promotes multidisciplinary, religious, and biblical aspects of studies in the international theological arena. The journal's publication criteria are based on high ethical standards and the rigor of the methodology and ...

  20. Study protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Troels; Helms, Anne Sofie; Adamsen, Lis

    2013-01-01

    , and problems related to interaction with peers. Methods/design The RESPECT study is a nationwide population-based prospective, controlled, mixed-methods intervention study looking at children aged 6-18 years newly diagnosed with cancer in eastern Denmark (n = 120) and a matched control group in western Denmark......, and one year after the cessation of treatment. The study is powered to quantify the impact of the combined educational, physical, and social intervention programs. Discussion RESPECT is the first population-based study to examine the effect of early rehabilitation for children with cancer, and to use...

  1. Absorption studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganatra, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    Absorption studies were once quite popular but hardly anyone does them these days. It is easier to estimate the blood level of the nutrient directly by radioimmunoassay (RIA). However, the information obtained by estimating the blood levels of the nutrients is not the same that can be obtained from the absorption studies. Absorption studies are primarily done to find out whether some of the essential nutrients are absorbed from the gut or not and if they are absorbed, to determine how much is being absorbed. In the advanced countries, these tests were mostly done to detect pernicious anaemia where vitamin B 12 is not absorbed because of the lack of the intrinsic factor in the stomach. In the tropical countries, ''malabsorption syndrome'' is quire common. In this condition, several nutrients like fat, folic acid and vitamin B 12 are not absorbed. It is possible to study absorption of these nutrients by radioisotopic absorption studies

  2. Clinical Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Ulla

    universities and practicing dentists restore millions of teeth throughout the World with composite resin materials. Do we know enough about the clinical performance of these restorations over time? Numerous in vitro studies are being published on resin materials and adhesion, some of them attempting to imitate...... in vivo conditions. But real life is different and in vitro studies cannot include all variables. Only clinical studies can provide valid information on the clinical performance of restorations over time. What do we know about longevity of posterior resin restorations? What are the reasons for replacement...... and results from own up to 30-year prospective clinical university studies and practice based studies from Public Dental Health Service on the clinical performance of posterior composite resin restorations....

  3. Hydrogeological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massa, E.; Carrion, R.

    1987-01-01

    This work refers to the hydrogeological study about underground water to domestic uses. It was required by Artigas intendence of Uruguay, in the rural school 10, located belongs to the Chiflero zone around the capital of the Artigas Province.

  4. Feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs, P.; Kalas, P.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility study itself examines the technical, economic and financial implications of a nuclear power station in depth so as to make sure that nuclear power is the right course to take. This means that it is quite an expensive operation and it is to avoid wasting this money that a pre-feasibility study is carried out. This preliminary study should eliminate cases where the electrical system cannot absorb the capacity of a nuclear station of commercial size, where other sources of power such as hydro-electricity, gas or cheap coal would make nuclear obviously uneconomic or where no suitable sites exist. If this first rather simple survey shows that nuclear power is a credible solution to a utilities need for electricity or heat production plant, then the next stage is a full feasibility study. (orig./TK) [de

  5. INTERHEART STUDY

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. INTERHEART STUDY. About 90% of CHD Risk (“PAR”) can be explained by 9 Risk Factors: Smoking. Dyslipidemia. High BP. Diabetes. Abdominal Obesity. Psychosocial Factors. Fruits & Vegetables. Exercise. Alcohol.

  6. Study Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to quit, they may have withdrawal symptoms like depression, thoughts of suicide, intense drug cravings, sleep problems, and fatigue. The health risks aren't the only downside to study drugs. Students caught with illegal prescription drugs may get suspended ...

  7. Environmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Tadza Abd Rahman

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear Technology offers unique method, yet effective for environmental research. Nuclear techniques are invented to carry out research activities on environmental pollutions, erosion and slope stability, landslide ground water studies and water pollution

  8. Floodplain Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — The purpose of a floodplain study is to establish the 100-year floodplain limits within or near a development in order to preserve the natural resources within the...

  9. Creole Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book launches a new approach to creole studies founded on phylogenetic network analysis. Phylogenetic approaches offer new visualisation techniques and insights into the relationships between creoles and non-creoles, creoles and other contact varieties, and between creoles and lexifier...... languages. With evidence from creole languages in Africa, Asia, the Americas, and the Pacific, the book provides new perspectives on creole typology, cross-creole comparisons, and creole semantics. The book offers an introduction for newcomers to the fields of creole studies and phylogenetic analysis. Using...... these methods to analyse a variety of linguistic features, both structural and semantic, the book then turns to explore old and new questions and problems in creole studies. Original case studies explore the differences and similarities between creoles, and propose solutions to the problems of how to classify...

  10. Actuarial Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Office of the Actuary in the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) from time to time conducts studies on various aspects of the Medicare and Medicaid...

  11. ARHCO studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, L.E.

    1977-01-01

    Ecological studies at the Hanford Reservation are designed to clarify ecosystem structure and function in and near the radioactive waste management areas. To date, emphasis has been placed on characterizing the abiotic and biotic components of these areas. During the current year, deer, raptors, coots, and mice have been under active study with respect to their potential for dissemination of radioactivity from pond or burial locations via feeding

  12. European Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Pechatnov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of Western countries and teaching courses on the related subjects have longstanding and established tradition at MGIMO-University. The basis of this brilliant research and teaching tradition was laid down by such academicians as E.V. Tarle and V.G. Trukhanovsky, Professor L.I. Clove, Y. Borisov, F.I. Notovitch, G.L. Rozanov. Their work in 1940-1960's at the Department of World History at MGIMO-University progressed in following directions: France studies, German studies, American studies. The work resulted in a number of monographs and textbooks on modern history and foreign policy of the studied countries and regions. The aim of the publications was dictated by the goal of the Institute - to prepare the specialists in international affairs primarily for practical work. A close relationship with the Foreign Ministry was "binding advantage" sometimes limiting researchers in choosing periods and subjects for the study. At the same time the undisputed advantage and quality of regional studies at MGIMO were strengthened by the practical relevance of research, making it a vital and interesting not only for specialists but also for students and researchers from other research centers. Another characteristic of the tradition is the analysis of foreign policy and diplomacy in a close relationship with the socio-economic and political processes. Such an integrated approach to regional geography also formed largely under the influence of institutional profile designed to train highly skilled and versatile specialists in specific countries and regions with a good knowledge of their languages, history, economics, politics, law and culture. Therefore, scientific and educational-methodical work at MGIMO-University has always relied on a wealth of empirical data and has been focused on the analysis of real-world phenomena and processes, acute problems of foreign countries. Scientific research at MGIMO-University traditionally intertwined with

  13. Club studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob Johan; Ravn, Signe; Harder, Sidsel Kirstine

    2010-01-01

    Club studies are sociological investigations of youth drug use in the social situation of the club. By being present at the club the researcher tries to gain access to a somehow hidden population of drug users who only to a lesser extent perceive their drug use as problematic. In spite of impress......Club studies are sociological investigations of youth drug use in the social situation of the club. By being present at the club the researcher tries to gain access to a somehow hidden population of drug users who only to a lesser extent perceive their drug use as problematic. In spite...... of impressive club studies conducted in both Great Britain and in the United States, it seems that, broadly speaking, previous efforts can be characterized as either very broad and/or quantitative or very particular, sub-cultural and exclusively qualitative. Through a review of these studies, this article...... suggests a mixed-methods approach to club studies that combine quantitative data, qualitative interviews and ethnography conducted in the club space. By introducing the concept of ‘socionautics', this review suggests that the researcher travels into the social landscape of youth, clubs and drugs...

  14. Studying Sideways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plesner, Ursula

    2011-01-01

    inequalities in relation to the people we study. This article argues that not all types of social scientific research interviews benefit from an à priori problematization of power and control, ethics and equality, or emancipation. From a constructivist perspective, the article seeks to displace......, we must cultivate interview methods which cause confrontation and disagreement—not to acknowledge asymmetry but to enhance the quality of research.......One strand of the qualitative interview literature has been concerned with the normative or otherwise problematic implications of studying down or studying up (i.e., interviewing “disadvantaged” people or elites). This interview literature is part of a tradition of taking up the problem of power...

  15. Invisibility Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Invisibility Studies explores current changes in the relationship between what we consider visible and what invisible in different areas of contemporary culture. Contributions trace how these changes make their marks on various cultural fields and investigate the cultural significance of these de......Invisibility Studies explores current changes in the relationship between what we consider visible and what invisible in different areas of contemporary culture. Contributions trace how these changes make their marks on various cultural fields and investigate the cultural significance...... conditioned by physical and social settings that create certain possibilities for visibility and visuality, yet exclude others. The richness and complexity of this cultural framework means that no single discipline or interdisciplinary approach could capture it single-handedly. Invisibility Studies begins...

  16. Project studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geraldi, Joana; Söderlund, Jonas

    2018-01-01

    Project organising is a growing field of scholarly inquiry and management practice. In recent years, two important developments have influenced this field: (1) the study and practice of projects have extended their level of analysis from mainly focussing on individual projects to focussing on micro......, and of the explanations of project practices they could offer. To discuss avenues for future research on projects and project practice, this paper suggests the notion of project studies to better grasp the status of our field. We combine these two sets of ideas to analyse the status and future options for advancing...... project research: (1) levels of analysis; and (2) type of research. Analysing recent developments within project studies, we observe the emergence of what we refer to as type 3 research, which reconciles the need for theoretical development and engagement with practice. Type 3 research suggests pragmatic...

  17. Study protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Benjamin E; Hendrick, Paul; Bateman, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    avoidance behaviours, catastrophising, self-efficacy, sport and leisure activity participation, and general quality of life. Follow-up will be 3 and 6 months. The analysis will focus on descriptive statistics and confidence intervals. The qualitative components will follow a thematic analysis approach....... DISCUSSION: This study will evaluate the feasibility of running a definitive large-scale trial on patients with patellofemoral pain, within the NHS in the UK. We will identify strengths and weaknesses of the proposed protocol and the utility and characteristics of the outcome measures. The results from...... this study will inform the design of a multicentre trial. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN35272486....

  18. Study Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, Stephanie Phuong; Roosta, Natalie; Nielsen, Mikkel Fuhr; Meyer, Maria Holmgaard; Friis, Katrine Birk

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, students around the world, started to use preparations as Ritalin and Modafinil,also known as study drugs, to improve their cognitive abilities1. It is a common use among thestudents in United States of America, but it is a new tendency in Denmark. Our main focus is tolocate whether study drugs needs to be legalized in Denmark or not. To investigate this ourstarting point is to understand central ethical arguments in the debate. We have chosen twoarguments from Nick Bostrom a...

  19. Security studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venot, R.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Security studies constitute one of the major tools for evaluating the provisions implemented at facilities to protect and control Nuclear Material against unauthorized removal. Operators use security studies to demonstrate that they are complying with objectives set by the Competent Authority to counter internal or external acts aimed at unauthorized removal of NM. The paper presents the context of security studies carried out in France. The philosophy of these studies is based on a postulated unauthorized removal of NM and the study of the behavior of the systems implemented to control and protect NM in a facility. The potential unauthorized removal of NM usually may take place in two stages. The first stage involves the sequence leading to handling of the NM. It occurs inside the physical barriers of a facility and may include action involving the documents corresponding to Material Control and Accounting systems. At this stage it is possible to limit the risk of unauthorized removal of NM by means of detection capabilities of the MC and A systems. The second stage is more specific to theft and involves removing the NM out of the physical barriers of a facility in which they are being held, notably by affecting the Physical Protection System. Operators have to study, from a quantity and time lapse point of view, the ability of the installed systems to detect unauthorized removal, as well as the possibility of tampering with the systems to mask unlawful operations. Operators have also to analyze the sequences during which NM are accessed, removed from their containment and further removed from the facility in which they are stored. At each stage in the process, the probability of detection and the time taken to carry out the above actions have to be estimated. Of course, these two types of studies complement each other. Security studies have begun, in France, for more than fifteen years. Up to now more than fifty security studies are available in the

  20. Polarization study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurushev, S.B.

    1989-01-01

    Brief review is presented of the high energy polarization study including experimental data and the theoretical descriptions. The mostimportant proposals at the biggest accelerators and the crucial technical developments are also listed which may become a main-line of spin physics. 35 refs.; 10 figs.; 4 tabs

  1. Hydrogeological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massa, E.; Heinzen, W.; Santana, J.

    1987-01-01

    This work shows the hydrogeological study and well drilling carried out in the Teaching Formation Institute San Jose de Mayo Province Uruguay. It was developed a geological review in the National Directorate of Geology and Mining data base as well as field working, geology and hydrogeology recognition and area well drilling inventory.

  2. Immunology studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.M.; Baron, P.A.; Drake, G.A.; LaBauve, P.M.; London, J.E.; Wilson, J.S.

    1977-01-01

    The following studies were conducted in the field of immunology; a model system to determine toxic effects on the immune system using 3 H-uridine uptake by Feells of rats; and survival in lethally irradiatd mice receiving allogenic fetal liver and thymus

  3. CASE STUDY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-06-02

    Jun 2, 2011 ... immunosuppression associated with HIV/AIDS puts them at a higher risk of developing oesophageal cancer. 47. CASE STUDY. A 49-year-old man was diagnosed as HIV infected, with a CD4 count of 60 cells/µl. He was started on an antiretroviral treatment regimen comprising zidovudine, lamivudine and ...

  4. The Study About Physical Activity for Subjects With Prevention of Benign Prostate Hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Won Lee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available PurposeThe number of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH subjects has been increasing worldwide, and many studies have been conducted to determine the treatment that can delay drug therapy or surgery. Subsequently, most of these studies involved physical activity (PA and associated factors. Therefore, we aimed to determine factors associated with BPH prevalence based on a review of past and present studies and to investigate the effect of a healthy lifestyle as a protective factor of BPH occurrence.MethodsWe selected 582 subjects aged ≥40 years from an initial 779 subjects recruited from Gyeonggi, Yangpyeong, South Korea, during August 2009 to August 2011. Trained investigators surveyed International Prostate Symptom Score and demographic information, including PA and lifestyle questionnaire during face-to-face interviews; further, they performed digital rectal examination, rectal ultrasonography, and measured prostate-specific antigen levels. The statistical association between PA and BPH was analyzed by logistic regression analysis using multivariable regression models which use categorical variables by the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test and continuous variables by the general linear model.ResultsSeven statistically significant variables for PA were selected. Regular exercise, frequency of exercise, sedentary time, nonsedentary time, leisure time PA (metabolic equivalent, hr/wk were not statistically associated with prostate volume but sedentary time (hr/day was the only factor that showed a significant association in the multivariable model, including a linear effect relationship. Subjects with lower levels of sedentary time (4.5-7.0 hr/day had a significantly lower risk of BPH (odds ratio [OR], 0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.52-1.67 than those with a higher sedentary time (>7 hr/day (OR, 1.72; 95% CI, 0.96-3.09 (P for trend=0.05.ConclusionsOur study showed that reducing sedentary time could have a protective effect and reduce the

  5. Reliability of FEV1/FEV6 to Diagnose Airflow Obstruction Compared with FEV1/FVC: The PLATINO Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Padilla, Rogelio; Wehrmeister, Fernando C.; Celli, Bartolome R.; Lopez-Varela, Maria Victorina; Montes de Oca, Maria; Muiño, Adriana; Talamo, Carlos; Jardim, Jose R.; Valdivia, Gonzalo; Lisboa, Carmen; Menezes, Ana Maria B.

    2013-01-01

    QUESTION A 6-second spirometry test is easier than full exhalations. We compared the reliability of the ratio of the Forced expiratory volume in 1 second/Forced expiratory volume in 6 seconds (FEV1/FEV6) to the ratio of the FEV1/Forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) for the detection of airway obstruction. METHODS The PLATINO population-based survey in individuals aged 40 years and over designed to estimate the prevalence of post-Bronchodilator airway obstruction repeated for the same study participants after 5–9 years in three Latin-American cities. RESULTS Using the FEV1/FVCprevalence based on a low FEV1/FEV6 (R2 = 0.40). CONCLUSION The FEV1/FEV6 is a more reliable index than FEV1/FVC because FVC varies with the duration of the forced exhalation. Reporting FET and FEV1/FEV6

  6. Reliability of FEV1/FEV6 to diagnose airflow obstruction compared with FEV1/FVC: the PLATINO longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogelio Perez-Padilla

    Full Text Available QUESTION: A 6-second spirometry test is easier than full exhalations. We compared the reliability of the ratio of the Forced expiratory volume in 1 second/Forced expiratory volume in 6 seconds (FEV1/FEV6 to the ratio of the FEV1/Forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC for the detection of airway obstruction. METHODS: The PLATINO population-based survey in individuals aged 40 years and over designed to estimate the prevalence of post-Bronchodilator airway obstruction repeated for the same study participants after 5-9 years in three Latin-American cities. RESULTS: Using the FEV1/FVCprevalence based on a low FEV1/FEV6 (R(2 =0.40. CONCLUSION: The FEV1/FEV6 is a more reliable index than FEV1/FVC because FVC varies with the duration of the forced exhalation. Reporting FET and FEV1/FEV6

  7. Pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmeester, G.H.; Swart, A.; Dijk, E. van

    1984-01-01

    In May 1980 it was decided to organize an intercomparison of personal dosimeters for photon radiations. The Commission of the European Communities initiated the intercomparison by starting a pilot study in which three laboratories NPL (United Kingdom), PTB (Germany) and RIV (The Netherlands) were asked to irradiate a series of personal dosemeters from institutes, GSF (Muenchen), CEA (Fontenay-aux-Roses), CNEN (Bologna) and CEGB (Berkeley). The latter institutes are secondary standard laboratories and have a radiation protection service as well. A new aspect of this pilot study is the fact that the irradiations also take place in front of a phantom. Irradiations took place in July and August 1980. The results of 4 institutes show that the personal dosemeters are quite capable of measuring the backscattered photon components

  8. Study Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Camilla Kirketerp; Noer, Vibeke Røn

    and theory forms the basis of the research. Veterinary students have been followed through alternating learning contexts referring to both the scholastic academic classrooms and workplaces in commercial pig herds as well as to group work and game-based situations in a mandatory master course - ”the pig...... as a student´ and the process of professionalization. By maintaining the position of focusing upon the education as a situated and formative trajectory, the comparative analysis shows how students in profession-oriented educational settings manage the challenges of education and use study strategies......ID: 1277 / 22 SES 06 B: 2 22. Research in Higher Education Format of Presentation: Paper Alternative EERA Network: 19. Ethnography Topics: NW 22: Teaching, learning and assessment in higher education Keywords: Profession-oriented learning, study strategies, professionalisation processes...

  9. How Important is Presenteeism for the Value of Lost Production in Rheumatoid Arthritis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Rikke; Sørensen, Jan; Linde, Louise

    2010-01-01

    Lost production can be due to individuals’ time lost to work (absenteeism), as well as their time at work with reduced productivity because of ill health (presenteeism). A sound methodological framework for the assessment of presenteeism remains to be established but given its significance......, ignoring it would lead to severe underestimations, eg, in cost-of-illness studies. The objective of this study was to assess the empirical significance of absenteeism and presenteeism in terms of production loss using the case of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Selected modules from the Health and Labor...... Questionnaire were applied in a cross-sectional study of 3,704 patients with RA. The costs of absenteeism and presenteeism were estimated using the Human Capital approach, and the impact of including multipliers adjusting for the productivity effect of a workers’ absence or impaired presenteeism on societal...

  10. Economic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kholopov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of the School of Economic Science at MGIMO was due to the necessity of the world economy research, and the need to prepare highly skilled specialists in international economics. The school is developing a number of areas, which reflect the Faculty structure. - Economic theory is one of the most important research areas, a kind of foundation of the School of Economic Science at MGIMO. Economic theory studies are carried out at the chair of Economic theory. "The course of economic theory" textbook was published in 1991, and later it was reprinted seven times. Over the past few years other textbooks and manuals have been published, including "Economics for Managers" by Professor S.N. Ivashkovskaya, which survived through five editions; "International Economics" - four editions and "History of Economic Thought" - three editions. - International Economic Relations are carried out by the Department of International Economic Relations and Foreign Economic Activity. Its establishment is associated with the prominent economist N.N. Lyubimov. In 1957 he with his colleagues published the first textbook on the subject which went through multiple republications. The editorial team of the textbook subsequently formed the pride of Soviet economic science - S.M. Menshikov, E.P. Pletnev, V.D. Schetinin. Since 2007, the chair of Foreign Economic Activities led by Doctor of Economics, Professor I. Platonova has been investigating the problems of improving the architecture of foreign economic network and the international competitiveness of Russia; - The history of the study of problems of the world economy at MGIMO begins in 1958 at the chair baring the same name. Since 1998, the department has been headed by Professor A. Bulatov; - The study of international monetary relations is based on the chair of International Finance, and is focused on addressing the fundamental scientific and practical problems; - The chair "Banks, monetary circulation

  11. Studying Emerge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Sarah Rachael; Selin, Cynthia; Rodegher, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    The Emerge event, held in Tempe, AZ in March 2012, brought together a range of scientists, artists, futurists, engineers and students in order to experiment with innovative methods for thinking about the future. These methodological techniques were tested through nine workshops, each of which made...... use of a different format; Emerge as a whole, then, offered an opportunity to study a diverse set of future-oriented engagement practices. We conducted an event ethnography, in which a team of 11 researchers collaboratively developed accounts of the practices at play within Emerge and its workshops...

  12. Law Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Tolstopiatenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available At the origin of the International Law Department were such eminent scientists, diplomats and teachers as V.N. Durdenevsky, S.B. Krylov and F.I. Kozhevnikov. International law studies in USSR and Russia during the second half of the XX century was largely shaped by the lawyers of MGIMO. They had a large influence on the education in the international law in the whole USSR, and since 1990s in Russia and other CIS countries. The prominence of the research of MGIMO international lawyers was due to the close connections with the international practice, involving international negotiations in the United Nations and other international fora, diplomatic conferences and international scientific conferences. This experience is represented in the MGIMO handbooks on international law, which are still in demand. The Faculty of International Law at MGIMO consists of seven departments: Department of International Law, Department of Private International and Comparative Law; Department of European Law; Department of Comparative Constitutional Law; Department of Administrative and Financial Law; Department of Criminal Law, Department Criminal Procedure and Criminalistics. Many Russian lawyers famous at home and abroad work at the Faculty, contributing to domestic and international law studies. In 1947 the Academy of Sciences of the USSR published "International Law" textbook which was the first textbook on the subject in USSR. S.B. Krylov and V.N. Durdenevsky were the authors and editors of the textbook. First generations of MGIMO students studied international law according to this textbook. All subsequent books on international law, published in the USSR, were based on the approach to the teaching of international law, developed in the textbook by S.B. Krylov and V.N. Durdenevsky. The first textbook of international law with the stamp of MGIMO, edited by F.I. Kozhevnikov, was published in 1964. This textbook later went through five editions in 1966, 1972

  13. Immunology studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Three efforts dealing with the role of the immune state have continued to show promise over the last year. The first deals with the development of animal models for testing the part played by immune dysfunction in carcinogenesis. The second and related program is a clinical study of high-risk uranium miners whose status in relation to neoplastic manifestations is rather well-defined. The third program is one in which fetal tissue is used to attempt the rescue of lethally irradiated hosts

  14. A systematic review assessing the economic impact of sildenafil citrate (Viagra) in the treatment of erectile dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Amber L; Huelin, Rachel; Wilson, David; Foster, Talia S; Mould, Joaquin F

    2013-05-01

    Sildenafil was the first oral phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor introduced as primary therapy for erectile dysfunction (ED). In the 7 years following its market launch, sildenafil was prescribed by more than 750,000 physicians to more than 23 million men worldwide. To date, few studies have evaluated the economic impact of sildenafil in treating ED. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness and impact of sildenafil on health care costs for patients with ED in multiple countries. Economic outcomes including cost, cost-effectiveness, cost of illness, cost consequence, resource use, productivity, work loss, and willingness to pay (WTP) were investigated. Using keywords related to economic outcomes and sildenafil, we systematically searched literature published between July 2001 and July 2011 using MEDLINE and EMBASE. Included articles pertained to costs, WTP, and economic evaluations. In the last 10 years, 12 studies assessed economic outcomes associated with sildenafil for ED. Most studies were conducted in the United States and the United Kingdom, with one study identified in Canada and one from Mexico. Six studies evaluated cost of illness, cost consequence, or cost of care, and four studies evaluated WTP or drug pricing by country in the United States and the United Kingdom. In the United States and the United Kingdom, costs to health care systems have increased with demand for treatment. Cost analyses suggested that sildenafil would lower direct costs compared with other PDE5 inhibitors. U.S. and U.K. studies found that patients exhibited WTP for sildenafil. The two cost-effectiveness models we identified examined ED sub-groups, those with spinal cord injury and those with diabetes or hypertension. These models indicated favorable cost-effectiveness profiles for sildenafil compared with other active-treatment options in both Mexico and Canada. The relative value of sildenafil vs. surgically implanted prosthetic devices and other PDE5 inhibitors, is underscored

  15. Geologic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wayland, T.E.; Rood, A.

    1983-01-01

    The modern Great Divide Basin is the end product of natural forces influenced by the Green River lake system, Laramide tectonism, and intermittent volcanic events. It ranks as one of the most complex structural and stratigtaphic features within the Tertiary basins of Wyoming. Portions of the Great Divide Basin and adjoining areas in Wyoming have been investigated by applying detailed and region exploration methods to known uranium deposits located within the Red Desert portions of the basin. Geologic field investigations conducted by Bendix Field Engineering Corporaton (Bendix) were restricted to reconnaissance observations made during infrequent visits to the project area by various Bendix personnel. Locations of the most comprehensive field activities are shown in Figure II-1. The principal source fo data for geologic studies of the Red Desert project area has been information and materials furnished by industry. Several hundred holes have been drilled by various groups to delineate the uranium deposits. Results from Bendix-drilled holes at selected locations within the project area are summarized in Table II-1. Additional details and gross subsurface characteristics are illustrated in cross sections; pertinent geologic features are illustrated in plan maps. Related details of continental sedimentation that pertain to the Wyoming Basins generally, and the project area specificially, are discussed in subsections of this Geologic Studies section

  16. Aerosol studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristy, G.A.; Fish, M.E.

    1978-01-01

    As part of the continuing studies of the effects of very severe reactor accidents, an effort was made to develop, test, and improve simple, effective, and inexpensive methods by which the average citizen, using only materials readily available, could protect his residence, himself, and his family from injury by toxic aerosols. The methods for protection against radioactive aerosols should be equally effective against a clandestine biological attack by terrorists. The results of the tests to date are limited to showing that spores of the harmless bacterium, bacillus globegii (BG), can be used as a simulant for the radioactive aerosols. An aerosol generator of Lauterbach type was developed which will produce an essentially monodisperse aerosol at the rate of 10 9 spores/min. Analytical techniques have been established which give reproducible results. Preliminary field tests have been conducted to check out the components of the system. Preliminary tests of protective devices, such as ordinary vacuum sweepers, have given protection factors of over 1000

  17. Conceptual study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harty, H.

    1978-09-01

    This appendix is a compendium of topical reports prepared for the Hanford Nuclear Energy Center: Status Report: Conceptual Fuel Cycle Studies for the Hanford Nuclear Energy Center; Selection of Heat Disposal Methods for a Hanford Nuclear Energy Center; Station Service Power Supply for a Hanford Nuclear Energy Center (HNEC); Impact of a Hanford Nuclear Energy Center on Ground Level Fog and Humidity; A Review of Potential Technology for the Seismic Characterization of Nuclear Energy Centers; Reliability of Generation at a Hanford Nuclear Energy Center (HNEC); Meteorological Evaluation of Multiple Reactor Contamination Probabilities for a Hanford Nuclear Energy Center; Electric Power Transmission for a Hanford Nuclear Energy Center (HNEC); The Impact of a Hanford Nuclear Energy Center on Cloudiness and Insolation; and A Licensing Review for an HNEC.

  18. Terrestrial studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    Tritium in the organic fraction of soil, separated as water by high temperature combustion, was 5 to 50 times higher in activity than water that was freeze-dried from the same samples. The 50-year dose commitment from ingestion of crops is not influenced significantly by the plutonium in the SRP environment. This plutonium is a result of more than 20 years of operating chemical separations facilities. Techniques were developed to detect as little as 0.02 pCi/m 2 of iodine-129 and 0.2 pg of technetium-99 in soil to evaluate environmental effects. A sensitive three-stage mass spectrometer was completed for use in environmental studies of transuranium elements. Results of monitoring particle size distribution of entrapped particles containing Pu-238, and Pu-239,240 are reported

  19. Conceptual study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harty, H.

    1978-09-01

    This appendix is a compendium of topical reports prepared for the Hanford Nuclear Energy Center: Status Report: Conceptual Fuel Cycle Studies for the Hanford Nuclear Energy Center; Selection of Heat Disposal Methods for a Hanford Nuclear Energy Center; Station Service Power Supply for a Hanford Nuclear Energy Center (HNEC); Impact of a Hanford Nuclear Energy Center on Ground Level Fog and Humidity; A Review of Potential Technology for the Seismic Characterization of Nuclear Energy Centers; Reliability of Generation at a Hanford Nuclear Energy Center (HNEC); Meteorological Evaluation of Multiple Reactor Contamination Probabilities for a Hanford Nuclear Energy Center; Electric Power Transmission for a Hanford Nuclear Energy Center (HNEC); The Impact of a Hanford Nuclear Energy Center on Cloudiness and Insolation; and A Licensing Review for an HNEC

  20. Studying antimatter

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2006-01-01

    Antiparticles are a crucial ingredient of particle physics and cosmology. Almost 80 years after Dirac’s bold prediction and the subsequent discovery of the positron in 1932, antiparticles are still in the spotlight of modern physics. This lecture for non-specialists will start with a theoretical and historical introduction. Why are antiparticles needed? When and how were they discovered? Why is the (CPT) symmetry between particles and antiparticles so fundamental? What is their role in cosmology? The second part will give an overview about the many aspects of antiparticles in experimental physics: their production, their use in colliders; as a probe inside atoms or nuclei; or as an object to study fundamental symmetries. In the third part, the lecture will focus on results and challenges of the “antimatter” programme at the Antiproton Decelerator (AD), with special emphasis on antihydrogen production, trapping and precision measurements.

  1. Spectroscopic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, M.; Rodriguez, R.; Arroyo, R.

    1999-01-01

    This work is focused about the spectroscopic properties of a polymer material which consists of Polyacrylic acid (Paa) doped at different concentrations of Europium ions (Eu 3+ ). They show that to stay chemically joined with the polymer by a study of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) of 1 H, 13 C and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (Ft-IR) they present changes in the intensity of signals, just as too when this material is irradiated at λ = 394 nm. In according with the results obtained experimentally in this type of materials it can say that is possible to unify chemically the polymer with this type of cations, as well as, varying the concentration of them, since that these are distributed homogeneously inside the matrix maintaining its optical properties. These materials can be obtained more quickly and easy in solid or liquid phase and they have the best conditions for to make a quantitative analysis. (Author)

  2. Cost effectiveness of preventing falls and improving mobility in people with Parkinson disease: protocol for an economic evaluation alongside a clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menz Hylton B

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cost of illness studies show that Parkinson disease (PD is costly for individuals, the healthcare system and society. The costs of PD include both direct and indirect costs associated with falls and related injuries. Methods This protocol describes a prospective economic analysis conducted alongside a randomised controlled trial (RCT. It evaluates whether physical therapy is more cost effective than usual care from the perspective of the health care system. Cost effectiveness will be evaluated using a three-way comparison of the cost per fall averted and the cost per quality adjusted life year saved across two physical therapy interventions and a control group. Conclusion This study has the potential to determine whether targetted physical therapy as an adjunct to standard care can be cost effective in reducing falls in people with PD. Trial Registration No: ACTRN12606000344594

  3. ANALYSIS OF THE COST OF THE DISEASE — PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Omel'yanovskii

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the estimation of the disease value, which includes direct, indirect and «intangible» costs. Advantages and disadvantages of different approaches to cost accounting, including the method of direct costs microcalculation compared with established norms of reimbursement are presented. It is demonstrated that disease’s cost not only reveals the burden of a pathology, but also allows the State to rationally allocate resources. The authors conclude that lack of comparability of the results of studies with different approaches to cost accounting does not allow their use in health care management. To solve this problem is necessary to develop a common methodology for analyzing the cost of the disease.Key words: cost of illness study, clinical and economical analysis, direct cost, indirect cost, impalpable costs, microcalculation of costs, human capital method, friction costs method, absenteeism, presenteeism.

  4. American Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Pechatnov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The "Founding fathers" of American Studies at MGIMO are considered to be A.V. Efimov and L.I. Clove. Alexey Efimov - Corresponding Member of the USSR Academy of Sciences since 1938, Head of the Department of Modern and Contemporary History and Dean of the Historical School at the Moscow State University - one of the first professors of the Faculty of International Relations MGIMO. Efimov distinguished himself by a broad vision and scope of scientific interests. Back in 1934 he published a monograph "On the history of capitalism in the United States," which initiated a series of research culminating in the fundamental work "The United States. The path of capitalist development (pre-imperialist era". Alexey was not only a great scientist but also a great teacher, whose lectures was popular throughout Moscow. His lecture courses, given at the end of the 1940s at MGIMO, became the basis for the first post-war history textbooks USA - "Essays on the history of the United States." At least as colorful a figure was Professor Leo Izrailevich Zubok - a man of unusual destiny. As a teenager he emigrated to the United States with his parents, where he soon joined the American revolutionary movement in the 1920s and was forced to leave the country. He came to MGIMO being already an experienced scientists. His research interests were very wide: from the study of American foreign policy expansion to the history of the labor movement in the United States. Zubok's fundamental works still have not lost its scientific significance. He has successfully combined scientific work with teaching. Tutorials that are based on his lectures were very popular not only among students of MGIMO.

  5. The hidden costs: Identification of indirect costs associated with acute gastrointestinal illness in an Inuit community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vriezen, Rachael; Edge, Victoria L.; Ford, James; Wood, Michele; Harper, Sherilee

    2018-01-01

    Background Acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI) incidence and per-capita healthcare expenditures are higher in some Inuit communities as compared to elsewhere in Canada. Consequently, there is a demand for strategies that will reduce the individual-level costs of AGI; this will require a comprehensive understanding of the economic costs of AGI. However, given Inuit communities’ unique cultural, economic, and geographic contexts, there is a knowledge gap regarding the context-specific indirect costs of AGI borne by Inuit community members. This study aimed to identify the major indirect costs of AGI, and explore factors associated with these indirect costs, in the Inuit community of Rigolet, Canada, in order to develop a case-based context-specific study framework that can be used to evaluate these costs. Methods A mixed methods study design and community-based methods were used. Qualitative in-depth, group, and case interviews were analyzed using thematic analysis to identify and describe indirect costs of AGI specific to Rigolet. Data from two quantitative cross-sectional retrospective surveys were analyzed using univariable regression models to examine potential associations between predictor variables and the indirect costs. Results/Significance The most notable indirect costs of AGI that should be incorporated into cost-of-illness evaluations were the tangible costs related to missing paid employment and subsistence activities, as well as the intangible costs associated with missing community and cultural events. Seasonal cost variations should also be considered. This study was intended to inform cost-of-illness studies conducted in Rigolet and other similar research settings. These results contribute to a better understanding of the economic impacts of AGI on Rigolet residents, which could be used to help identify priority areas and resource allocation for public health policies and programs. PMID:29768456

  6. Aquatic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    Thermal stress to microorganisms was measured by the production of dissolved organic matter by algal communities and the mineralization of glucose by heterotrophic populations. Mutagenic activity as measured by the Ames/Salmonella/microsome assay indicate that such activity does not occur in Par Pond, although limited mutagenic activity does occur in a nearby canal system due to chlorination of cooling water. Sodium hypochlorite, used as an algicide in the reactor fuel storage basins, caused increased pitting corrosion to reactor fuel targets. Five other compounds selected for testing proved to be superior to sodium hypochlorite. Legionella pneumophila, the pathogen which causes Legionnaire's disease, was found to be a natural part of aquatic ecosystems. It occurs over a wide range of environments and is able to utilize nutrients provided by primary producers. Phytoplankton size classes of less than 3 μm (less than 5% of the total phytoplankton biomass) accounted for 15 to 40% of the total primary productivity in Par Pond, Pond C, and Clark Hill Reservoir. Three major biological data sets were compiled and are available in the SRL computer system for analysis: the SRP deer herd data; 20 years of Par Pond data; and 25 years of biological data on the Savannah River. Results of marine studies indicated that nearly all plutonium in the Savannah River and its estuary resulted from nuclear weapons fallout. The plutonium concentration in the Savannah River is about one fourth the concentration in the Newport River which has no nuclear operations associated with it

  7. Catalysis studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, T.N.; Ellis, W.P.

    1977-11-01

    The New Research Initiatives Program (NRIP) project on catalysis in Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) Group CMB-8 has made significant progress towards performing the first basic in situ experimental studies of heterogeneous catalysis on solid compound surfaces in a LEED-Auger system. To further understand the surface crystallography of a possible catalyst compound, LEED-Auger measurements were made on UO 2 (approximately 100) vicinal surfaces. These (approximately 100) vicinal surfaces were shown to decompose irreversibly into lower index facets, including prominent (100) facets, at temperatures below those needed for creation of lowest index faceting on (approximately 111) vicinal surfaces. LEED examination of fully faceted surfaces from both types of UO 2 vicinal cuts did not show evidence of cyclopropane or propene chemisorption. The existing LEED-Auger system was modified to allow catalytic reactions at approximately less than 10 -3 torr. A sample holder, specifically designed for catalysis measurements in the modified system, was tested while examining single crystals of CoO and Cr 2 O 3 . Extensive LEED-Auger measurements were made on CoO in vacuo and in the presence of light hydrocarbons and alcohols plus H 2 O, NO, and NH 3 . No chemisorptive behavior was observed except with H 2 O in the presence of the electron beam. Although only examined briefly, the Cr 2 O 3 was remarkable for the sharp LEED features obtained prior to any surface treatment in the vacuum system

  8. Validity of self-reported weight, height, and body mass index among university students in Thailand: Implications for population studies of obesity in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Lynette Ly; Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Sleigh, Adrian

    2009-09-25

    Large-scale epidemiological studies commonly use self-reported weights and heights to determine weight status. Validity of such self-reported data has been assessed primarily in Western populations in developed countries, although its use is widespread in developing countries. We examine the validity of obesity based on self-reported data in an Asian developing country, and derive improved obesity prevalence estimates using the "reduced BMI threshold" method. Self-reported and measured heights and weights were obtained from 741 students attending an open university in Thailand (mean age 34 years). Receiver operator characteristic techniques were applied to derive "reduced BMI thresholds." Height was over-reported by a mean of 1.54 cm (SD 2.23) in men and 1.33 cm (1.84) in women. Weight was under-reported by 0.93 kg (3.47) in men and 0.62 kg (2.14) in women. Sensitivity and specificity for determining obesity (Thai BMI threshold 25 kg/m2) using self-reported data were 74.2% and 97.3%, respectively, for men and 71.9% and 100% for women. For men, reducing the BMI threshold to 24.5 kg/m2 increased the estimated obesity prevalence based on self-reports from 29.1% to 33.8% (true prevalence was 36.9%). For women, using a BMI threshold of 24.4 kg/m2, the improvement was from 12.0% to 15.9% (true prevalence 16.7%). Young educated Thais under-report weight and over-report height in ways similar to their counterparts in developed countries. Simple adjustments to BMI thresholds will overcome these reporting biases for estimation of obesity prevalence. Our study suggests that self-reported weights and heights can provide economical and valid measures of weight status in high school-educated populations in developing countries.

  9. On illicit drug policies; methods of evaluation and comments on recent practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trovato, Giovanni; Vezzani, Antonio

    2013-06-01

    This contribution provides an overview of different approaches used to analyse drug policies within and across countries. Besides the great number of cost of illness studies which have contributed to the assessment of health harms and risks associated to the drug use, most of the recent efforts have focused on the creation of synthetic indices to classify countries around the world or to evaluate particular law enforcement policies in some countries. This is probably due to a general lack of comparable data across countries. The wide variety of budgetary practices in the drugs field in Europe contributes to the problems that exist in estimating drug-related public expenditure. These heterogeneous accounting practices, together with the complexity of the drug phenomenon and the multiplicity of perspectives on the issue, strongly constrains the possibility of economically evaluate and compare drug laws across countries.

  10. Critical review of methods for risk ranking of food related hazards, based on risks for human health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Fels-Klerx, H. J.; van Asselt, E. D.; Raley, M.

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to critically review methods for ranking risks related to food safety and dietary hazards on the basis of their anticipated human health impacts. A literature review was performed to identify and characterize methods for risk ranking from the fields of food, environmental science......, and the risk ranking method characterized. The methods were then clustered - based on their characteristics - into eleven method categories. These categories included: risk assessment, comparative risk assessment, risk ratio method, scoring method, cost of illness, health adjusted life years, multi......-criteria decision analysis, risk matrix, flow charts/decision trees, stated preference techniques and expert synthesis. Method categories were described by their characteristics, weaknesses and strengths, data resources, and fields of applications. It was concluded there is no single best method for risk ranking...

  11. Modelling the costs of care of hypertension in patients with metabolic syndrome and its consequences, in Germany, Spain and Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wille, Eberhard; Scholze, Jürgen; Alegria, Eduardo; Ferri, Claudio; Langham, Sue; Stevens, Warren; Jeffries, David; Uhl-Hochgraeber, Kerstin

    2011-06-01

    The presence of metabolic syndrome in patients with hypertension significantly increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and mortality. Our aim is to estimate the economic burden to the health service of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in patients with hypertension and its consequences, in three European countries in 2008, and to forecast future economic burden in 2020 using projected demographic estimates and assumptions around the growth of MetS. An age-, sex- and risk group-structured prevalence-based cost of illness model was developed using the United States Adult Treatment Panel III of the National Cholesterol Education Program criteria to define MetS. Data sources included published information and public use databases on disease prevalence, incidence of cardiovascular events, prevalence of type 2 diabetes, treatment patterns and cost of management in Germany, Spain and Italy. The economic burden to the health service of MetS in patients with hypertension has been estimated at 24,427 euro, 1,900 euro and 4,877 euro million in Germany, Spain and Italy, and is forecast to rise by 59, 179 and 157%, respectively, by 2020. The largest components of costs included the management of prevalent type 2 diabetes and incident cardiovascular events. Mean annual costs per hypertensive patient were around three-fold higher in subjects with MetS compared to those without and rose incrementally with the additional number of MetS components present. In conclusion, the presence of MetS in patients with hypertension significantly inflates economic burden, and costs are likely to increase in the future due to an aging population and an increase in the prevalence of components of MetS.

  12. The health economics of cholera: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Amber; Hall, Angela H; Mogasale, Vittal; Quentin, Wilm

    2018-06-12

    Vibrio cholera is a major contributor of diarrheal illness that causes significant morbidity and mortality globally. While there is literature on the health economics of diarrheal illnesses more generally, few studies have quantified the cost-of-illness and cost-effectiveness of cholera-specific prevention and control interventions. The present systematic review provides a comprehensive overview of the literature specific to cholera as it pertains to key health economic measures. A systematic review was performed with no date restrictions up through February 2017 in PubMed, Econlit, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Review to identify relevant health economics of cholera literature. After removing duplicates, a total of 1993 studies were screened and coded independently by two reviewers, resulting in 22 relevant studies. Data on population, methods, and results (cost-of-illness and cost-effectiveness of vaccination) were compared by country/region. All costs were adjusted to 2017 USD for comparability. Costs per cholera case were found to be rather low: $1000/case. There is adequate evidence to support the economic value of vaccination for the prevention and control of cholera when vaccination is targeted at high-incidence populations and/or areas with high case fatality rates due to cholera. When herd immunity is considered, vaccination also becomes a cost-effective option for the general population and is comparable in cost-effectiveness to other routine immunizations. Cholera vaccination is a viable short-to-medium term option, especially as the upfront costs of building water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) infrastructure are considerably higher for countries that face a significant burden of cholera. While WASH may be the more cost-effective solution in the long-term when implemented properly, cholera vaccination can still be a feasible, cost-effective strategy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The cost of first-ever stroke in Valle d’Aosta, Italy: linking clinical registries and administrative data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bottacchi Edo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stroke is one of the most relevant reasons of death and disability worldwide. Many cost of illness studies have been performed to evaluate direct and indirect costs of ischaemic stroke, especially within the first year after the acute episode, using different methodologies. Methods We conducted a longitudinal, retrospective, bottom-up cost of illness study, to evaluate clinical and economic outcomes of a cohort of patients affected by a first cerebrovascular event, including subjects with ischaemic, haemorrhagic or transient episodes. The analysis intended to detect direct costs, within 1, 2 and 3 years from the index event. Clinical patient data collected in regional disease registry were integrated and linked to regional administrative databases to perform the analysis. Results The analysis of costs within the first year from the index event included 800 patients. The majority of patients (71.5% were affected by ischaemic stroke. Overall, per patient costs were €7,079. Overall costs significantly differ according to the type of stroke, with costs for haemorrhagic stroke and ischaemic stroke amounting to €9,044 and €7,289. Hospital costs, including inpatient rehabilitation, were driver of expenditure, accounting for 89.5% of total costs. The multiple regression model showed that sex, level of physical disability and level of neurological deficit predict direct healthcare costs within 1 year. The analysis at 2 and 3 years (per patient costs: €7,901 and €8,874, respectively showed that majority of costs are concentrated in the first months after the acute event. Conclusions This cost analysis highlights the importance to set up significant prevention programs to reduce the economic burden of stroke, which is mostly attributable to hospital and inpatient rehabilitation costs immediately after the acute episode. Although some limitation typical of retrospective analyses the approach of linking clinical and

  14. Prevalence and demographic determinants of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in the Turkish general population: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungan, Zeynel

    2012-08-01

    We aimed to establish the prevalence and demographic determinants of gastroesophageal reflux disease in the Turkish general population using the Turkish version of the gastroesophageal reflux disease questionnaire. A total of 8143 volunteers (mean age: 38.5 (13.3) years; 52.3% males) were included in this cross-sectional questionnaire study conducted via face-to-face administration of the questionnaire forms including items on sociodemographic features, past history of gastric disorders, gastroesophageal reflux disease, the influence of reflux symptoms on patients' lives, physician visits, diagnostic tests, and reflux medications. A past history of gastric symptoms was reported in half of the population. More female participants (p<0.001) had a past history of gastric symptoms that yielded a previous diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease in 19.1% of the population. The likelihood of gastroesophageal reflux disease was low in the majority (75.3%) of the subjects evaluated. Gastroesophageal reflux disease with an inconveniencing or disrupting impact on the patient's life was present in 17.9% and 6.8% of the population. Total gastroesophageal reflux disease-questionnaire scores and reflux prevalence were higher in older age groups (p<0.001). Females were more likely to have gastroesophageal reflux disease prevalence based on reflux symptoms. The impact of gastroesophageal reflux disease on sleep and psychological/emotional well-being was more pronounced in older and female patients, whereas the impact on eating/drinking behaviors and physical-social activities was more marked among females independent of their age (p<0.001). Reflux prevalence was higher in subjects from East Anatolia, Central Anatolia, Mediterranean, and Black Sea regions of Turkey (p<0.001 for each). Prevalence and demographic determinants of gastroesophageal reflux disease are compatible with the profile of the disease in the other Western populations, with a predilection for females and

  15. Quality of life and costs in Parkinson's disease: a cross sectional study in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamás, Gertrúd; Gulácsi, László; Bereczki, Dániel; Baji, Petra; Takáts, Annamária; Brodszky, Valentin; Péntek, Márta

    2014-01-01

    Patient reported outcomes and costs of illness are useful to capture some of the multiple effects of a disease and its treatments. Our aim was to assess quality of life (QoL) and costs of Parkinson's disease (PD) in Hungary, and to analyze their associations. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted in one neurology university clinic. Clinical characteristics, PD related resource utilizations and productivity loss in the past 12 months were recorded; the Hoehn&Yahr (HY) scale, PDQ-39 and EQ-5D questionnaires were applied. Cost calculation was performed from the societal perspective. 110 patients (34.5% female) were involved with mean age of 63.3 (SD=11.3) and disease duration of 8.2 (SD=5.8) years. PDQ-39 summary score was 48.1 (SD=13.4). The average EQ-5D score was 0.59 (SD=0.28), and was significantly lower than the population norm in age-groups 45-74. The correlation was significant between EQ-5D and PDQ-39 (-0.47, p=0.000), the HY scale and EQ-5D (-0.3416, p=0.0008) and PDQ-39 (0.3419, p=0.0006) scores. The total mean cost was €6030.2 (SD=6163.0)/patient/year (direct medical 35.7%, direct non-medical 29.4%, indirect cost 34.9%). A one year increase in disease duration and 0.1 decrease of the EQ-5D utility score increase the yearly costs by 8 to 10%, and 7.8%, respectively. The effect of the PDQ-39 score on total cost was not significant. Disease severity and public health importance of PD are clearly demonstrated by the magnitude of QoL loss. PD-related costs are substantial, but are much lower in Hungary than in Western European countries. Disease duration and EQ-5D score are significant proxy of costs.

  16. Quality of life and costs in Parkinson's disease: a cross sectional study in Hungary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertrúd Tamás

    Full Text Available Patient reported outcomes and costs of illness are useful to capture some of the multiple effects of a disease and its treatments. Our aim was to assess quality of life (QoL and costs of Parkinson's disease (PD in Hungary, and to analyze their associations.A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted in one neurology university clinic. Clinical characteristics, PD related resource utilizations and productivity loss in the past 12 months were recorded; the Hoehn&Yahr (HY scale, PDQ-39 and EQ-5D questionnaires were applied. Cost calculation was performed from the societal perspective.110 patients (34.5% female were involved with mean age of 63.3 (SD=11.3 and disease duration of 8.2 (SD=5.8 years. PDQ-39 summary score was 48.1 (SD=13.4. The average EQ-5D score was 0.59 (SD=0.28, and was significantly lower than the population norm in age-groups 45-74. The correlation was significant between EQ-5D and PDQ-39 (-0.47, p=0.000, the HY scale and EQ-5D (-0.3416, p=0.0008 and PDQ-39 (0.3419, p=0.0006 scores. The total mean cost was €6030.2 (SD=6163.0/patient/year (direct medical 35.7%, direct non-medical 29.4%, indirect cost 34.9%. A one year increase in disease duration and 0.1 decrease of the EQ-5D utility score increase the yearly costs by 8 to 10%, and 7.8%, respectively. The effect of the PDQ-39 score on total cost was not significant.Disease severity and public health importance of PD are clearly demonstrated by the magnitude of QoL loss. PD-related costs are substantial, but are much lower in Hungary than in Western European countries. Disease duration and EQ-5D score are significant proxy of costs.

  17. Patients, the public and priorities in healthcare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Littlejohns, Peter; Rawlins, Michael

    2009-01-01

    "Sharing the costs of ill health is the mark of a civilised society. However, every society has limited healthcare resources, and must therefore make finely balanced decisions on how best to allocate...

  18. Fostering Effective Studying and Study Planning with Study Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Pascal; Pieters, Jules M.

    2007-01-01

    In a course on biological psychology and neuropsychology, study questions were provided that also appeared as test questions in the course exam. This method was introduced to support students in active processing and reproduction of the study texts, and study planning. Data were gathered to test the hypothesis that study question use would be…

  19. Case Study: Testing with Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2015-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue discusses using case studies to test for knowledge or lessons learned.

  20. Fostering effective studying and study planning with study questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilhelm, P.; Pieters, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    In a course on biological psychology and neuropsychology, study questions were provided that also appeared as test questions in the course exam. This method was introduced to support students in active processing and reproduction of the study texts, and study planning. Data were gathered to test the

  1. Archives: HTS Teologiese Studies / Theological Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 120 ... Archives: HTS Teologiese Studies / Theological Studies. Journal Home > Archives: HTS Teologiese Studies / Theological Studies. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search ...

  2. CASE STUDY CRITIQUE; UPPER CLINCH CASE STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case study critique: Upper Clinch case study (from Research on Methods for Integrating Ecological Economics and Ecological Risk Assessment: A Trade-off Weighted Index Approach to Integrating Economics and Ecological Risk Assessment). This critique answers the questions: 1) does ...

  3. Building Transdisciplinary Environmental Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    Conceptual analytical-methodological conceptualization of crossdisciplinary sustainability studies......Conceptual analytical-methodological conceptualization of crossdisciplinary sustainability studies...

  4. Current and past smoking patterns in a Central European urban population: a cross-sectional study in a high-burden country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narine K. Movsisyan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies have examined the socioeconomic variations in smoking and quitting rates across the European region; however, data from Central and East European countries, where the tobacco burden is especially high, are sparse. This study aimed to assess the patterns in current and past smoking prevalence based on cross-sectional data from a Central European urban population sample. Methods Data from 2160 respondents aged 25–64 years in Brno, Czech Republic were collected in 2013–2014 using the Czech post-MONICA survey questionnaire to assess the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, including smoking status. The age- and sex-stratified randomized sample was drawn using health insurance registries. Descriptive statistics and quit ratios were calculated, and chi-square and multivariate logistic analyses conducted to examine relationships between current and past smoking and demographic (age, gender, marital status and socioeconomic variables (education, income, occupation. Results The prevalence of current and past smoking was 23.6 and 31.3 % among men and 20.5 and 23.2 % among women, respectively. Education reliably predicted smoking and quitting rates in both genders. Among men, being unemployed was associated with greater odds of smoking (OR 3.6; 1.6–8.1 and lower likelihood of quitting (OR 0.2: 0.1–0.6; the likelihood of quitting also increased with age (OR 1.8; 1.2–2.8. Among women, marital status (being married decreased the odds of current smoking (OR 0.6; 0.4–0.9 and increased the odds of quitting (OR 2.2; 1.2–3.9. Quit ratios were the lowest in the youngest age group (25–34 years where quitting was more strongly associated with middle income (OR 2.7; 95 % CI 1.2–5.9 than with higher education (OR 2.9; 95 % CI 0.9–8.2. Conclusions Interventions to increase cessation rates and reduce smoking prevalence need to be gender-specific and carefully tailored to the needs of the disadvantaged groups

  5. WWC Study Review Guide: Group Design Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2018

    2018-01-01

    Underlying all What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) products are WWC Study Review Guides, which are intended for use by WWC certified reviewers to assess studies against the WWC evidence standards. As part of an ongoing effort to increase transparency, promote collaboration, and encourage widespread use of the WWC standards, the Institute of Education…

  6. German Studies in America. German Studies Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Volkmar; Osterle, Heinz D.

    This volume contains two papers, "German Studies in America," by Volkmar Sander, and "Historicism, Marxism, Structuralism: Ideas for German Culture Courses," by Heinz D. Osterle. The first paper discusses the position of German studies in the United States today. The greatest challenge comes from low enrollments; therefore,…

  7. Study of lip prints: A forensic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikash Ranjan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although several studies have been done on lip prints for human identification in forensic science, there is a doubt about their use in gender determination. Aims: The present study was designed to study the lip groove patterns in all the quadrants of both male and female subjects to identify the sex, based on the patterns of the grooves of the lip prints. Study Design: 300 lip prints were collected from volunteers of D. J. College of Dental Sciences and Research, Modinagar (UP. Materials and Methods: Lip prints were recorded with lip stick and transferred on to a glass slide. Statistical Analysis: Pearson chi-square test was adopted for statistical analysis and probability value (P value was calculated. Conclusion: In our study, none of the lip prints were identical, thus confirming the role of lip prints in individual identification. According to Suzuki′s classification, Type I, II, III and IV patterns were significant in gender determination.

  8. Repository design sensitivity study: Engineering study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    A preliminary sensitivity study of the salt repository design has been performed to identify critical site and design parameters to help guide future site characterization and design optimization activities. The study considered the SCP-conceptual design at the Deaf Smith County site in Texas with the horizontal waste package emplacement mode as the base case. Relative to this base case, parameter variations were compared. Limited studies were performed which considered the vertical emplacement mode geometry. The report presents the reference data base and design parameters on which the study was based (including the range of parameters that might be expected). Detailed descriptions of the numerical modeling methods and assumptions are included for the thermal, thermomechanical and hydrogeological analyses. The impacts of parameter variations on the sensitivity of the rock mass response are discussed. Recommendations are provided to help guide site characterization activities and advanced conceptual design optimization activities. 47 refs., 119 refs., 22 tabs

  9. Civilian End Strength Study. Study Sponsor ODCSLOG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-30

    Chief of Staff deferred action on the recommendations and requested a subsequent briefing with the following guidance. (1) Need to do more to take...Term Actions ... ..................... 38-39 ix CIVILIAN END STRENGTH STUDY Abstract This study examined the methodology by which the Army determines...DAPE-MBC) and COA ( DACA -OMP) has facilitated this process; an updated LOI, in draft, will clear up some of the problems identified in the test

  10. Drinking Game Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debus, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    The paper examines research on drinking game participation from a game studies ontological perspective, covering definition, classification and problems with the, in the studies implied, underlying ontology of drinking games.......The paper examines research on drinking game participation from a game studies ontological perspective, covering definition, classification and problems with the, in the studies implied, underlying ontology of drinking games....

  11. Southeastern Cancer Study Group: breast cancer studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smalley, R.V.; Bartolucci, A.A.; Moore, M.

    1983-01-01

    During the past 10 years, the Southeastern Cancer Study Group (SECSG) has been engaged in one major adjuvant study and three major advanced disease studies for patients with adenocarcinoma of the breast. The adjuvant study is demonstrating that six months of adjuvant CMF is the therapeutic equivalent of 12 months and that post-operative irradiation is of no added therapeutic benefit. In patients with advanced disease, a low dose 5 drug combination of CMFVP induces more objective responses than single agent 5FU, but improves survival only for those patients with liver metastases when compared to the sequential use of the same 5 single agents. The three drug combination, CAF, utilizing doxorubicin, induces more objective responses than low dose CMFVP, but it does not improve overall survival. The addition of a phase active combination, CAMELEON, (i.e., sequentially alternating therapy) of CAF has not improved the duration of disease control and survival for patients with liver metastases, lymphangitic and nodular lung metastases compared to CAF. Aggressive combination chemotherapeutic approaches to patients with advanced disease provide better and longer disease and tumor control but only marginal improvements in overall survival. Adding additional agents to a maximally tolerable regimen has not improved the therapeutic outcome

  12. Physics studies in Europe; a comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenstrup, S; dalle Rose, LFD; Jones, WG; Tugulea, L; van Steenwijk, FJ

    What are the differences and similarities between physics studies at different universities across Europe (here the definition of Europe is broad)? How much does a student have to work to obtain a degree in physics? Questions like those prompted EUPEN (European Physics Education Network) to make a

  13. Case Study Research Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Widdowson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Commenting on the lack of case studies published in modern psychotherapy publications, the author reviews the strengths of case study methodology and responds to common criticisms, before providing a summary of types of case studies including clinical, experimental and naturalistic. Suggestions are included for developing systematic case studies and brief descriptions are given of a range of research resources relating to outcome and process measures. Examples of a pragmatic case study design and a hermeneutic single-case efficacy design are given and the paper concludes with some ethical considerations and an exhortation to the TA community to engage more widely in case study research.

  14. The Study of Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushforth, Samuel R.

    1977-01-01

    Included in this introduction to the study of algae are drawings of commonly encountered freshwater algae, a summary of the importance of algae, descriptions of the seven major groups of algae, and techniques for collection and study of algae. (CS)

  15. Current Research Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Success Home > Explore Research > Current Research Studies Current Research Studies Email Print + Share The Crohn’s & Colitis Foundation ... conducted online. Learn more about IBD Partners. Clinical Research Alliance The Clinical Research Alliance is a network ...

  16. FEMA DFIRM Study Info

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This table contains details about the study such as the study name, datum, projection, etc. There is normally only one record in this table for each Flood Insurance...

  17. Neutron beam studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, B.T.M.; Apps, M.E.

    1979-01-01

    The report is in sections, entitled: metallurgy; reactor fuels; defect solid state and interatomic forces; surface studies; colloid, polymer and biological studies; glasses; energy-related materials; solid state physics and crystallography; instrumentation and experimental technique. (U.K.)

  18. Study of strange nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrien, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    A brief history of the discovery of hypernuclei is given and some recent hypernuclei studies are described. Topics include the study of p-shell hypernuclei, 12 C (K - , π - ) experiment, and hypernuclear gamma rays. 13 references

  19. Chemical Industry Bandwidth Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2006-12-01

    The Chemical Bandwidth Study provides a snapshot of potentially recoverable energy losses during chemical manufacturing. The advantage of this study is the use of "exergy" analysis as a tool for pinpointing inefficiencies.

  20. Critical Kinship Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In recent decades the concept of kinship has been challenged and reinvigorated by the so-called “repatriation of anthropology” and by the influence of feminist studies, queer studies, adoption studies, and science and technology studies. These interdisciplinary approaches have been further...... developed by increases in infertility, reproductive travel, and the emergence of critical movements among transnational adoptees, all of which have served to question how kinship is now practiced. Critical Kinship Studies brings together theoretical and disciplinary perspectives and analytically sensitive...... in the Humanities and Social Sciences today. Critical Kinship Studies should be of particular interest to students and scholars in Anthropology, Sociology, Cultural Studies, Medical Humanities, Politics, Gender and Queer Studies and Globalization....

  1. 522 Postmarket Surveillance Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The 522 Postmarket Surveillance Studies Program encompasses design, tracking, oversight, and review responsibilities for studies mandated under section 522 of the...

  2. Descriptive studies of Purepecha: Introductory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Vázquez Rojas Maldonado

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Seven papers in this volume are the result of a collective project of linguistic description. This introduction offers a general background for such enterprise. It provides information about some sociolinguistic and grammatical aspects of the Purepecha language, a list of some recent studies on the language, it describes the orthographic conventions employed. We also provide details about the elicitation methodology and the demographic information of the language consultants.

  3. Study deep geothermal energy; Studie dypgeotermisk energi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havellen, Vidar; Eri, Lars Sigurd; Andersen, Andreas; Tuttle, Kevin J.; Ruden, Dorottya Bartucz; Ruden, Fridtjof; Rigler, Balazs; Pascal, Christophe; Larsen, Bjoern Tore

    2012-07-01

    The study aims to analyze the potential energy with current technology, challenges, issues and opportunities for deep geothermal energy using quantitative analysis. It should especially be made to identify and investigate critical connections between geothermal potential, the size of the heating requirements and technical solutions. Examples of critical relationships may be acceptable cost of technology in relation to heating, local geothermal gradient / drilling depth / temperature levels and profitability. (eb)

  4. Cost of depression in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobocki, Patrik; Jönsson, Bengt; Angst, Jules; Rehnberg, Clas

    2006-06-01

    there is no earlier cost-of-illness study conducted on depression in Europe, it is, however, difficult to evaluate the validity of our results for individual countries and thus further research is needed. The cost of depression poses a significant economic burden to European society. The simulation model employed shows good predictability of the cost of depression in Europe and is a novel approach to estimate the cost-of-illness in Europe. IMPLICATIONS FOR HEALTH CARE PROVISION AND POLICIES: Health and social care policy and commissioning must be evidence-based. The empirical results from this study confirm previous findings, that depression is a major concern to the economic welfare in Europe which has consequences to both healthcare providers and policy makers. One important way to stop this explosion in cost is through increased research efforts in the field. Moreover, better detection, prevention, treatment and patient management are imperatives to reduce the burden of depression and its costs. Mental healthcare policies and better access to healthcare for mentally ill are other challenges to improve for Europe. This study has identified several research gaps which are of interest for future research. In order to better understand the impact of depression to European society long-term prospective epidemiology and cost-of-illness studies are needed. In particular data is lacking for Central European countries. On the basis of our findings, further economic evaluations of treatments for depression are necessary in order to ensure a cost-effective use of European healthcare budgets.

  5. INTRODUCTION/ BACKGROUND OF STUDY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The study was carried out in Abia State. Five out ... study area and the farmers were more of women. ... Cassava utilization, as livestock feed, is very popular in the whole world, ... In order to relieve farmers from this problem of poor yield during harvesting, the .... Also majority (54.7 percent) of the cassava farmers in the study.

  6. Low frequency noise study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    This report documents a study to investigate human response to the low-frequency : content of aviation noise, or low-frequency noise (LFN). The study comprised field : measurements and laboratory studies. The major findings were: : 1. Start-of-takeof...

  7. STUDYING ON THE INTERNET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    正Nowadays the Internet is more and more popular.I think it is a good way of learning. First,the Intemet enables people to study whenever and wherever it is convenient. They can also choose to study whatever they are interested in.However,a traditional school doesn't provide such great freedom.Students have to study given sub-

  8. Selling the Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girod, Gerald R.; Harmon, Gerald R.

    1987-01-01

    Maintains school-aged children would prefer not to study social studies. Presents several strategies to help encourage positive attitudes. Strategies include persuasion, reinforcement, enthusiasm, personalized contact. Stresses that negative attitudes must be changed in order for social studies to achieve its fundamental citizenship goals. (BR)

  9. Studying Engineering Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The study of engineering practices has been the focus of Engineering Studies over the last three decades. Theses studies have used ethnographic and grounded methods in order to investigate engineering practices as they unfold in natural settings - in workplaces and engineering education. However......, engineering studies have not given much attention to conceptually clarifying what should be understood by 'engineering practices' and more precisely account for the composition and organization of the entities and phenomena that make up the practices. This chapter investigates and discusses how a 'practice...... will draw out some methodological consequences and discuss the ramifications of a practice theoretical approach for Engineering Studies....

  10. Mysore study: A study of suicide notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namratha, P; Kishor, M; Sathyanarayana Rao, T S; Raman, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is one of the leading causes of preventable deaths. Recent data suggest South India as one of the regions with highest suicide rates in the world. In 2013, 134,799 people committed suicide in India according to the statistics released by the National Crime Records Bureau. Suicide note is one of the most important sources to understand suicide, which may be beneficial in suicide prevention. Studies on suicidal notes from this part of the world are sparse. The aim was to study the themes in suicide notes that might be useful in prevention strategies. A descriptive study of all suicide notes of those individuals who committed suicide between 2010 and 2013 available with Police Department, Mysore district was obtained and analyzed. A total of 22 suicide note were available. A majority of suicide note was in age group of 16-40 years (86%) and most were men (59%). All suicide notes were handwritten, the majority (70%) in regional language Kannada. Length of notes varied from just few words to few pages. Contents of suicide notes included apology/shame/guilt (80%), love for those left behind (55%) and instruction regarding practical affairs (23%). Most have blamed none for the act (50%). 23% mentioned that they are committing suicide to prove their innocence. 32% mentioned a last wish. The majority of suicidal note contained "guilt" which is a strong indicator of possible depression in deceased. Creating awareness about suicide among public and ensuring access to professionals trained in suicide prevention is need of the hour in this part of the world.

  11. The CAIRO4 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    't Lam-Boer, Jorine; Mol, Linda; Verhoef, Cornelis

    2015-01-01

    stages of the disease. We here propose a randomized trial in order to demonstrate that resection of the primary tumour improves overall survival. METHODS/DESIGN: The CAIRO4 study is a multicentre, randomized, phase III study of the Dutch Colorectal Cancer Group (DCCG). Patients with synchronous...... objective of this study is to determine the clinical benefit in terms of overall survival of initial resection of the primary tumour. Secondary endpoints include progression free survival, surgical morbidity, quality of life and the number of patients requiring resection of the primary tumour in the control...... arm. DISCUSSION: The CAIRO4 study is a multicentre, randomized, phase III study that will assess the benefit of resection of the primary tumour in patients with synchronous metastatic CRC. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The CAIRO4 study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01606098)....

  12. The modal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    The term ''Modal Study'' refers to a research program conducted for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on the level of protection provided by NRC-certified packages during the shipment of spent nuclear fuel form U.S. power reactors. The objective of the study was to examine the response of the packages to actual highway and railway accident conditions. The Modal Study results show that NRC-certified spent fuel casks would perform their safety functions under severe, actual accident conditions. The study also explains how NRC's cask design conditions, which are expressed in engineering terms, relate to actual accident conditions, with which the public is more familiar. The Modal Study, along with other transportation studies, physical testing of casks, and the spent fuel shipment safety record confirm the view that casks provide a high level of public safety during spent fuel transport

  13. Nuclear Industry Family Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This is a copy of the U.K.A.E.A. Question and Answer brief concerning an epidemiological study entitled the Nuclear Industry Family Study, to investigate the health of children of AEA, AWE, and BNFL Workers. The study is being carried out by an independent team of medical research workers from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, and the Imperial Cancer Research Fund. (UK)

  14. Doing Cultural Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    du Gay, Paul; Hall, Stuart; Janes, Linda

    What does the Walkman have to do with the 21st century? The long-awaited second edition of this classic textbook takes students on a journey between past and present, giving them the skills do to cultural analysis along the way. Through the notion of the 'circuit of culture', this book teaches st......' for cultural studies. It is an essential classic, reworked for today's students in cultural studies, media studies and sociology....

  15. Phase controlled rectifier study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronner, G.; Murray, J.G.

    1976-03-01

    This report introduces the results of an engineering study incorporating a computer program to determine the transient and steady-state voltage and current wave shapes for a 12-pulse rectifier system. Generally, rectifier engineering studies are completed by making simplified assumptions and neglecting many circuit parameters. The studies incorporate the 3-phase AC parameters including nonlinear source or generator, 3-winding transformer impedances, and shunt and series capacitors. It includes firing angle control, and DC filter circuits with inductive loads

  16. Innovation and Entrepreneurship Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landström, Hans; Åström, Fredrik; Harirchi, Gouya

    2015-01-01

    -of-the-art” books in entrepreneurship studies and eleven books in innovation studies. The chapters in these “state-of-the-art” books are written by experts within the field, and it can be assumed that the most frequently cited references in these chapters represent “core knowledge” in entrepreneurship...... innovation and entrepreneurship studies can be considered as two fields or parts of a single broader scientific field, sharing and contributing to the same knowledge base? The studies by Fagerberg et al. and Landström et al. are based on two unique databases consisting of all references in twelve “state...

  17. Project management case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Kerzner, Harold R

    2013-01-01

    A new edition of the most popular book of project management case studies, expanded to include more than 100 cases plus a ""super case"" on the Iridium Project Case studies are an important part of project management education and training. This Fourth Edition of Harold Kerzner''s Project Management Case Studies features a number of new cases covering value measurement in project management. Also included is the well-received ""super case,"" which covers all aspects of project management and may be used as a capstone for a course. This new edition:Contains 100-plus case studies drawn from re

  18. Information society studies

    CERN Document Server

    Duff, Alistair S

    2013-01-01

    We are often told that we are ""living in an information society"" or that we are ""information workers."" But what exactly do these claims mean, and how might they be verified? In this important methodological study, Alistair S. Duff cuts through the rhetoric to get to the bottom of the ""information society thesis."" Wide-ranging in coverage, this study will be of interest to scholars in information science, communication and media studies and social theory. It is a key text for the newly-unified specialism of information society studies, and an indispensable guide to the future of this disc

  19. Human exploration mission studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    The Office of Exploration has established a process whereby all NASA field centers and other NASA Headquarters offices participate in the formulation and analysis of a wide range of mission strategies. These strategies were manifested into specific scenarios or candidate case studies. The case studies provided a systematic approach into analyzing each mission element. First, each case study must address several major themes and rationale including: national pride and international prestige, advancement of scientific knowledge, a catalyst for technology, economic benefits, space enterprise, international cooperation, and education and excellence. Second, the set of candidate case studies are formulated to encompass the technology requirement limits in the life sciences, launch capabilities, space transfer, automation, and robotics in space operations, power, and propulsion. The first set of reference case studies identify three major strategies: human expeditions, science outposts, and evolutionary expansion. During the past year, four case studies were examined to explore these strategies. The expeditionary missions include the Human Expedition to Phobos and Human Expedition to Mars case studies. The Lunar Observatory and Lunar Outpost to Early Mars Evolution case studies examined the later two strategies. This set of case studies established the framework to perform detailed mission analysis and system engineering to define a host of concepts and requirements for various space systems and advanced technologies. The details of each mission are described and, specifically, the results affecting the advanced technologies required to accomplish each mission scenario are presented.

  20. Study Groups in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.

    2007-01-01

    Since 1998 European Study Groups have been held in Denmark, and Danish companies from LEGO and NOVO to very small high-tech firms have participated. I briefly describe the history, the organisation and the format of the Danish Study Groups, and highlight a few problem solutions.......Since 1998 European Study Groups have been held in Denmark, and Danish companies from LEGO and NOVO to very small high-tech firms have participated. I briefly describe the history, the organisation and the format of the Danish Study Groups, and highlight a few problem solutions....

  1. Film studies the basics

    CERN Document Server

    Villarejo, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Film Studies: The Basics is a compelling guide to the study of cinema in all its forms. This second edition has been thoroughly revised and updated to take account of recent scholarship, the latest developments in the industry and the explosive impact of new technologies. Core topics covered include:   The history, technology and art of cinema Theories of stardom, genre and film-making The movie industry from Hollywood to Bollywood Who does what on a film set   Complete with film stills, end-of-chapter summaries and a substantial glossary, Film Studies: The Basics is the ideal introduction to those new to the study of cinema.

  2. Towards Marxian Internet Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fuchs

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This article gives an overview of example approaches of Critical Internet Studies and points out key concepts of this field. Critical Cyberculture Studies and Critical Political Economy/Critical Theory of the Internet are identified as two approaches in Critical Internet Studies. The paper also discusses the role of 11 Marxian concepts for Critical Internet Studies. Marxian concepts that have been reflected in Critical Internet Studies include: dialectics, capitalism, commodification, surplus value/exploitation/alienation/class, globalization, ideology, class struggle, commons, public sphere, communism, and aesthetics. The paper points out the importance of explicitly acknowledging the importance of Karl Marx’s thinking in Critical Internet Studies. Marx’s concepts are today frequently used implicitly, without acknowledging and engaging with their roots. A critique of the approach of “Critical” Cyberculture Studies is advanced. This approach is compared to the approaches of Critical Theory and Critical Political Economy of the Internet. The difference between these two approaches reflects the debate about class exploitation and non-class domination between Cultural Studies and Critical Political Economy in Media and Communication Studies.

  3. Studies in chemical dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuppermann, A.

    1978-01-01

    Progress made in the following studies is reported: low-energy electron scattering; variable-angle photoelectron spectroscopy; laser photochemistry and spectroscopy; and collisions in crossed molecular beams

  4. The economic impact of Clostridium difficile infection: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanwa, Natasha; Kendzerska, Tetyana; Krahn, Murray; Kwong, Jeffrey C; Daneman, Nick; Witteman, William; Mittmann, Nicole; Cadarette, Suzanne M; Rosella, Laura; Sander, Beate

    2015-04-01

    With Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) on the rise, knowledge of the current economic burden of CDI can inform decisions on interventions related to CDI. We systematically reviewed CDI cost-of-illness (COI) studies. We performed literature searches in six databases: MEDLINE, Embase, the Health Technology Assessment Database, the National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database, the Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Registry, and EconLit. We also searched gray literature and conducted reference list searches. Two reviewers screened articles independently. One reviewer abstracted data and assessed quality using a modified guideline for economic evaluations. The second reviewer validated the abstraction and assessment. We identified 45 COI studies between 1988 and June 2014. Most (84%) of the studies were from the United States, calculating costs of hospital stays (87%), and focusing on direct costs (100%). Attributable mean CDI costs ranged from $8,911 to $30,049 for hospitalized patients. Few studies stated resource quantification methods (0%), an epidemiological approach (0%), or a justified study perspective (16%) in their cost analyses. In addition, few studies conducted sensitivity analyses (7%). Forty-five COI studies quantified and confirmed the economic impact of CDI. Costing methods across studies were heterogeneous. Future studies should follow standard COI methodology, expand study perspectives (e.g., patient), and explore populations least studied (e.g., community-acquired CDI).

  5. Changing costs of metastatic non small cell lung cancer in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keusters, W R; de Weger, V A; Hövels, A; Schellens, J H M; Frederix, G W J

    2017-12-01

    The primary objective of this study was to identify the total intramural cost of illness of metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in the Netherlands between 2006-2012. Secondary objective was to identify whether changes in cost patterns of metastatic NSCLC have occurred over the last years. Patients diagnosed with metastatic NSCLC between 1-1-2006 and 31-12-2012, who had follow-up to death or the date of data cut-off and no trial participation were included. A structured chart review was performed using a case report form. Data collection started after diagnosis of metastatic NSCLC and ended at death or April first, 2015. Data regarding outpatient visits, clinical attendance, oncolytic drug use, imaging, lab tests, radiotherapy and surgery were collected. Sixty-seven patients were included with a median age of 67 years. The median follow-up was 234days. On average patients had 28 outpatient visits and 11 inpatient days. Oncolytic drugs were administered to 76% of the patients. Mean per patient expenditures amounted up to €17,463, with oncolytic drugs (€6,390) as the main cost driver. In comparison with the time-period of 2003-2005 total per patient per year expenses decreased by 44%. The contribution to total yearly costs of oncolytic drugs increased from 18% to 35%, while costs for inpatient stay decreased from 52% to 28% of total expenditures. Outcomes in this study demonstrate that average treatment costs for metastatic NSCLC in the Netherlands Cancer Institute amount to €17,463. Compared to a prior study the average cost for metastatic NSCLC over time in the Netherlands has decreased. A shift of main cost drivers seems to have occurred from inpatient stay, to oncolytic drugs as main contributor. The shift towards treatment cost might become more visible with the introduction of immunotherapy. These results mark the importance of up-to-date cost of illness studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Simulation in International Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Social scientists have long worked to replicate real-world phenomena in their research and teaching environments. Unlike our biophysical science colleagues, we are faced with an area of study that is not governed by the laws of physics and other more predictable relationships. As a result, social scientists, and international studies scholars more…

  7. Ca-48 metabolism studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Merwe, D.G.

    1987-03-01

    Calcium metabolism has been studied in depth physiologically and is a relatively well-understood element in biochemistry and medicine. There is still only restricted knowledge of the metabolic fate of calcium in normal and abnormal paediatric subjects. The latter is partially owing to inadequate techniques for tracing and modelling calcium pathways in children. The advent of radioactive tracers has unquestionably enhanced medical research and improved the quality of many metabolic studies. The present study was aimed at the development, promotion and justification of a new tracer technique using the stable isotope, calcium-48. The obvious advantages of such a technique are its harmlessness tothe subject, its applicability to both short- and long-term studies as well as its usefulness to the study for which it was originally motivated, viz research defining the actual relationship between a calcium-deficient diet and the occurrence of rickets in rural Black children in South Africa. Exploratory instrumental analyses were performed specifically with serum samples. This proved successful enough to develop a less specific pre-concentration technique which improved the sensitivity and reduces the cost of doing calcium-48 metabolism studies. The results of a simple metabolic study are presented whereby the scope of the technique is demonstrated in a real situation. The possibilities and limitations of double-isotope metabolic studies are discussed, particularly with regard to strontium as the second tracer

  8. Journal of Cultural Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Cultural Studies was established in 1999 as an independent tool for research development in Africa. It is published by the Nigerian Group for the Study of African ... Sexual Harassment in the Workplace: A Case for Linguistic and Sexual Politics? EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  9. Designing a Language Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James Dean

    Some issues in the design of classroom research on second language teaching are discussed, with the intention of helping the researcher avoid conceptual pitfalls that may cripple the study later in the process. This begins with an examination of concerns in sampling, including definition of a population to be studied, alternative sampling…

  10. Jabiluka environmental studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morley, A.W.; Koontz, D.V.; Sanderson, N.T. (Pancontinental Mining Ltd., Sydney (Australia))

    1984-02-01

    Environmental baseline studies associated with development of the Jabiluka uranium deposits are described. Some basic characteristics of the area local to the deposits are reported and a brief explanation is provided of the nature of, and philosophy behind the environmental studies. The major findings from this program are discussed.

  11. Jabiluka environmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morley, A.W.; Koontz, D.V.; Sanderson, N.T.

    1984-01-01

    Environmental baseline studies associated with development of the Jabiluka uranium deposits are described. Some basic characteristics of the area local to the deposits are reported and a brief explanation is provided of the nature of, and philosophy behind the environmental studies. The major findings from this program are discussed. (author)

  12. Aquatic biology studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Aquatic biology studies focused on studying the hydrothermal effects of Par Pond reservoir on periphyton, plankton, zooplankton, macrophytes, human pathogens, and microbial activity; the variability between the artificial streams of the Flowing Streams Laboratory and Upper Three Runs Creek; and the bacterial production of methane in Savannah River Plant aquatic systems

  13. Mirror hybrid reactor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    The hybrid reactor studies are reviewed. The optimization of the point design and work on a reference design are described. The status of the nuclear analysis of fast spectrum blankets, systems studies for fissile fuel producing hybrid reactor, and the mechanical design of the machine are reviewed

  14. Pacific Studies: Quo Vadis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Holden Rønning

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Looking back to the past this paper discusses why Pacific studies and in particular Australasian studies became an area of interest in tertiary education in Europe. What subject areas initiated these studies, and how do past legacies shape the present? With cutbacks in higher education over the past two decades the future of interdisciplinary studies and the humanities looks bleak. At the same time due to global business and increased political communication across borders there is a vibrant interest in and need for such studies among businesses and students. For most Europeans the literature of settler countries, with their European legacy, makes access to ways of thought and culture easier than studies of countries with other mythological backgrounds. In today’s multicultural environment such studies can provide knowledge for an understanding of other cultures and increase tolerance of the ‘other’. Area studies have relevance to our situation in Europe with increased migrancy, not least as a result of Schengen and EU regulations.

  15. Missouri airport investment study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The studys purpose is to provide MoDOT with insight to the potential ROI for airport : investments in terms of economic development. To do so, this study addresses two central : objectives: first, an approach to evaluate airport investments; and s...

  16. Energy conversion alternatives study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shure, L. T.

    1979-01-01

    Comparison of coal based energy systems is given. Study identifies and compares various advanced energy conversion systems using coal or coal derived fuels for baselaoad electric power generation. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS) reports provede government, industry, and general public with technically consistent basis for comparison of system's options of interest for fossilfired electric-utility application.

  17. The Study of Butterflies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Study of Butterflies. 3. Intra-specific ... study of chitinous parts of the genitalia, especially of males proved a .... not known to affect mating habits in any way. We now .... such random interactions as well as modifications caused by external ...

  18. Theorizing Iberian Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, Robert Patrick

    2015-01-01

    A growing number of scholars invested in Iberian Studies are asking how peninsular literary and cultural studies might be reimagined, and reinvigorated, by placing the Spanish and Portuguese canons into critical dialogue with each other, and with Galician, Catalan, Basque/Euskadi, and Latin American and North African immigrant writers, cultural…

  19. Prolactinomas : clinical studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kars, Marleen

    2008-01-01

    Prolactinoma are treated with dopamine agonists, which are effective in reducing prolactin and tumor size. Studies reporting clinical and radiological outcome are scarce. The study described in chapter 2, assesses long-term outcome in patients treated with dopamine agonists for macroprolactinoma. An

  20. Fusion energy studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Current experimental efforts are aimed toward developing cryosorption vacuum pumps for removing unburned fuel and impurities from the plasma, studying deep-bed sorption pumps for roughing and transfer operations, investigating methods for recovery of tritium bred in blankets of lithium or lithium alloys, and studying containment of tritium that permeates metal walls

  1. Designing satisfaction studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Kai; Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær

    2007-01-01

    In the effect sampling method, presentation of researcher, the intro text, the order of questions in the questionnaire along with the number of categories in the rating scale is tested in relation to the design of satisfaction studies. Based on the analyses specific recommendations for designing...... satisfaction studies are given....

  2. American Studies in Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nye, David

    Papers first given at a conference the previous year in Fåborg, Denmark, with a dual focus on 20th century America and new methods in American Studies.......Papers first given at a conference the previous year in Fåborg, Denmark, with a dual focus on 20th century America and new methods in American Studies....

  3. Studies of Personality Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronningstam, Elsa; Simonsen, Erik; Oldham, John M

    2014-01-01

    The past 25 years have shown major advances in the studies of personality disorders. This collaborative article by the presidents, past and present, of ISSPD reflects on the progress within several significant areas of studies, i.e., assessment, neuroscience, treatment, prevention, advocacy...

  4. Geothermal studies in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ji-Yang; Chen Mo-Xiang; Wang Ji-An; Deng Xiao; Wang Jun; Shen Hsien-Chieh; Hsiung Liang-Ping; Yan Shu-Zhen; Fan Zhi-Cheng; Liu Xiu-Wen

    1981-01-01

    Geothermal studies have been conducted in China continuosly since the end of the 1950's with renewed activity since 1970. Three areas of research are defined: (1) fundamental theoretical research of geothermics, including subsurface temperatures, terrestrial heat flow and geothermal modeling; (2) exploration for geothermal resources and exploitation of geothermal energy; (3) geothermal studies in mines. (orig./ME)

  5. Lesson study i Danmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Arne

    2009-01-01

    Der beskrives et japansk lesson study forløb, og det diskuteres i hvilket omfang, de gode japanske erfaringer kan overføres til dansk matematikundervisning.......Der beskrives et japansk lesson study forløb, og det diskuteres i hvilket omfang, de gode japanske erfaringer kan overføres til dansk matematikundervisning....

  6. Radiopharmaceuticals for renal studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdera, Silvia

    1994-01-01

    Between the diagnostic techniques using radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine it find renal studies.A brief description about renal glomerular filtration(GFR) and reliability renal plasma flux (ERPF),renal blood flux measurement agents (RBF),renal scintillation agents and radiation dose estimates by organ physiology was given in this study.tabs

  7. Memetics and Translation Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew, Chesterman

    2000-01-01

    Translation Studies is a branch of memetics. This is a claim, a hypothesis. More specifically, it is an interpretive hypothesis: I claim that Translation Studies can be thus interpreted, and that this is a useful thing to do because it offers a new and beneficial way of understanding translation.

  8. Managerial Accounting. Study Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plachta, Leonard E.

    This self-instructional study guide is part of the materials for a college-level programmed course in managerial accounting. The study guide is intended for use by students in conjuction with a separate textbook, Horngren's "Accounting for Management Control: An Introduction," and a workbook, Curry's "Student Guide to Accounting for Management…

  9. Studies Highlight Biodiesel's Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    , Colo., July 6, 1998 — Two new studies highlight the benefits of biodiesel in reducing overall air Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted both studies: An Overview of Biodiesel and Petroleum Diesel Life Cycles and Biodiesel Research Progress, 1992-1997. Biodiesel is a renewable diesel

  10. Multimodality in organization studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Leeuwen, Theo

    2017-01-01

    This afterword reviews the chapters in this volume and reflects on the synergies between organization and management studies and multimodality studies that emerge from the volume. These include the combination of strong sociological theorizing and detailed multimodal analysis, a focus on material...

  11. Luminescence study of spodumene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotani, S.; Fujii, A.T.; Antonini, R.; Pontuschka, W.M.; Rabani, S.R.; Furtado, W.W.

    1990-02-01

    A comparative study is made of the luminescence of five kinds of spodumene from Minas Gerais, Brazil, studied previously by optical absorption spectroscopy. Natural gemstones are used which, in the course of the experiments, were irradiated with X-rays. (L.C.) [pt

  12. Methods of Studying Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, Allen W.; Shontz, Franklin C.

    Conventional research strategies typically emphasize behavior-determining tendencies so strongly that the person as a whole is ignored. Research strategies for studying whole persons focus on symbolic structures, formulate specific questions in advance, study persons one at a time, use individualized measures, and regard participants as expert…

  13. Explaining Kansei design studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levy, P.D.; Vakamori, S.; Yamanaka, T.

    2008-01-01

    Within the last thirty years, Kansei studies have become an important field of research in Japan. More recently, foreign researchers have become more and more interested in understating the approach, despite the difficulties related to the cultural dimension of Kansei and Kansei studies. The aim of

  14. Censorship in Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiferth, Berniece B.

    In order to determine how much censorship was taking place in Illinois social studies classes, 200 principals were asked to respond to a questionnaire regarding censorship of teaching methods and social studies textbooks. The principals were asked to respond to the following topics concerning the degree of censorship encountered for each item:…

  15. Archives: African Studies Monographs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Archives: African Studies Monographs. Journal Home > Archives: African Studies Monographs. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 5 of 5 Items. 2007. Vol 8 (2007) ...

  16. Critical Digital Tourism Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyimóthy, Szilvia; Munar, Ana María

    2013-01-01

    This paper advocates the need for a critical and cross-disciplinary research agenda on the field of digital technologies and tourism. The changing virtual landscape of tourism has received increased attention by tourism scholars. However, contemporary studies on information technologies (IT......) are approached mostly from a business administration perspective and informed by conceptual frameworks developed in management and marketing. IT studies in tourism are still at a stage similar to the first advocacy phase of tourism research in general (Jafari, 1990) and are seldom inspired by relevant...... to studying digital socio-technical systems and virtual mediation in tourism. Critical Digital Tourism Studies opens a new cross-disciplinary field where the sociality of virtual tourism interactions is examined (entailing the study of structures, social rules, ideologies, power relations, sustainability...

  17. Hanford groundwater scenario studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnett, R.C.; Gephart, R.E.; Deju, R.A.; Cole, C.R.; Ahlstrom, S.W.

    1977-05-01

    This report documents the results of two Hanford groundwater scenario studies. The first study examines the hydrologic impact of increased groundwater recharge resulting from agricultural development in the Cold Creek Valley located west of the Hanford Reservation. The second study involves recovering liquid radioactive waste which has leaked into the groundwater flow system from a hypothetical buried tank containing high-level radioactive waste. The predictive and control capacity of the onsite Hanford modeling technology is used to evaluate both scenarios. The results of the first study indicate that Cold Creek Valley irrigationis unlikely to cause significant changes in the water table underlying the high-level waste areas or in the movement of radionuclides already in the groundwater. The hypothetical tank leak study showed that an active response (in this case waste recovery) can be modeled and is a possible alternative to passive monitoring of radionuclide movement in the unlikely event that high-level waste is introduced into the groundwater

  18. The bismuth miners study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosche, B.; Kreuzer, M.; Kreisheimer, M.; Schnelzer, M.; Tschense, A.; Gottschalk, K.

    2005-01-01

    The Federal Radiation Protection Office carried out a retrospective cohort study on some 60,000 former employees of the SAG/SDAG Wismut. The purpose of the study was to validate the radon-related risk of acquiring lung cancer previously calculated from 11 jointly evaluated studies among miners on the basis of an independent, homogeneous data record of comparable size. A further goal was to study the risk of acquiring extrapulmonal tumours. This paper only briefly describes the sampling, design and methods used in the study, as these were already presented during the Radon Status Talks. The first follow-up on the cohort was completed in 2003. Around this time a job exposure matrix (JEM) suitable for scientific inquiries was made available by the professional miners' association and the roof organisation of professional trade associations (HVBG). This paper is the first to report on the outcome of the risk analysis in direct comparison with the results found by BEIR

  19. Single Policy Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronsell, Annica; Manners, Ian James

    2015-01-01

    Single policy studies are the most common form of European Union (EU) research. Single policy studies are widely used to understand the role of the EU in a wide variety of sectors, together with their development over time, and often offer public policy prescriptions. This chapter discusses...... the relevance of single policy studies in EU research and give examples of how such research can be designed and carried out. The chapter reviews three examples of single policy studies using different methods based on EU environmental policy, the EU biofuels directive, and the EU Common Security and Defence...... Policy (CSDP). The examples are illustrative of how single policy studies can be designed to use different approaches in the analysis: multiple streams approach to policy-making; a comparative hypothesis testing; and feminist institutional theory....

  20. International user studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene; Madsen, Sabine; Jensen, Iben

    In this report, we present the results of a research project about international user studies. The project has been carried out by researchers from the Center for Persona Research and –Application, The IT University in Copenhagen and the Department of Learning and Philosophy, Aalborg University...... in Sydhavnen, and it is funded by InfinIT. Based on a qualitative interview study with 15 user researchers from 11 different companies, we have investigated how companies collect and present data about users on international markets. Key findings are: Companies do not collect data about end users in all...... the countries/regions they operate in. Instead, they focus on a few strategic markets. International user studies tend to be large-scale studies that involve the effort of many both internal and external/local human resources. The studies typically cover 2-4 countries/regions and many end users in each country...

  1. Effective Physics Study Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettili, Nouredine

    2011-04-01

    We discuss the methods of efficient study habits and how they can be used by students to help them improve learning physics. In particular, we deal with ideas pertaining to the most effective techniques needed to help students improve their physics study skills. These ideas were developed as part of Project IMPACTSEED (IMproving Physics And Chemistry Teaching in SEcondary Education), an outreach grant funded by the Alabama Commission on Higher Education. This project is motivated by a major pressing local need: A large number of high school physics teachers teach out of field. In the presentation, focus on topics such as the skills of how to develop long term memory, how to improve concentration power, how to take class notes, how to prepare for and take exams, how to study scientific subjects such as physics. We argue that the student who conscientiously uses the methods of efficient study habits will be able to achieve higher results than the student who does not; moreover, a student equipped with the proper study skills will spend much less time to learn a subject than a student who has no good study habits. The underlying issue here is not the quantity of time allocated to the study efforts by the student, but the efficiency and quality of actions. This work is supported by the Alabama Commission on Higher Education as part of IMPACTSEED grant.

  2. Monetary burden of health impacts of air pollution in Mumbai, India: implications for public health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patankar, A M; Trivedi, P L

    2011-03-01

    Mumbai, a mega city with a population of more than 12 million, is experiencing acute air pollution due to commercial activity, a boom in construction and vehicular traffic. This study was undertaken to investigate the link between air pollution and health impacts for Mumbai, and estimate the monetary burden of these impacts. Cross-sectional data were subjected to logistic regression to analyse the link between air pollution and health impacts, and the cost of illness approach was used to measure the monetary burden of these impacts. Data collected by the Environmental Pollution Research Centre at King Edward Memorial Hospital in Mumbai were analysed using logistic regression to investigate the link between air pollution and morbidity impacts. The monetary burden of morbidity was estimated through the cost of illness approach. For this purpose, information on treatment costs and foregone earnings due to illness was obtained through the household survey and interviews with medical practitioners. Particulate matter (PM(10)) and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) emerged as the critical pollutants for a range of health impacts, including symptoms such as cough, breathlessness, wheezing and cold, and illnesses such as allergic rhinitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study developed the concentration-response coefficients for these health impacts. The total monetary burden of these impacts, including personal burden, government expenditure and societal cost, is estimated at 4522.96 million Indian Rupees (INR) or US$ 113.08 million for a 50-μg/m(3) increase in PM(10), and INR 8723.59 million or US$ 218.10 million for a similar increase in NO(2). The estimated monetary burden of health impacts associated with air pollution in Mumbai mainly comprises out-of-pocket expenses of city residents. These expenses form a sizable proportion of the annual income of individuals, particularly those belonging to poor households. These findings have implications for public

  3. Metabolomic Studies in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, James E; Thummel, Carl S; Tennessen, Jason M

    2017-07-01

    Metabolomic analysis provides a powerful new tool for studies of Drosophila physiology. This approach allows investigators to detect thousands of chemical compounds in a single sample, representing the combined contributions of gene expression, enzyme activity, and environmental context. Metabolomics has been used for a wide range of studies in Drosophila , often providing new insights into gene function and metabolic state that could not be obtained using any other approach. In this review, we survey the uses of metabolomic analysis since its entry into the field. We also cover the major methods used for metabolomic studies in Drosophila and highlight new directions for future research. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  4. Decontamination solution development studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, R.P.; Fetrow, L.K.; Kjarmo, H.E.; Pool, K.H.

    1993-09-01

    This study was conducted for the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of the Hanford Grout Technology Program (HGTP). The objective of this study was to identify decontamination solutions capable of removing radioactive contaminants and grout from the Grout Treatment Facility (GTF) process equipment and to determine the impact of these solutions on equipment components and disposal options. The reference grout used in this study was prepared with simulated double-shell slurry feed (DSSF) and a dry blend consisting of 40 wt % limestone flour, 28 wt % blast furnace slag, 28 wt % fly ash, and 4 wt % type I/II Portland cement

  5. Teaching Secondary Social Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Everett

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Review of the book, instructional strategies for middle and high school social studies: Methods, assessment, and classroom management, by Bruce E. Larson. The book has two goals: It situates the learning of social studies within the broader developmental context of learning and also focuses on “Instructional Strategies.” “Instructional Strategies for Middle and High School Social Studies: Methods, Assessment, and Classroom Management.” 2nd Edition. By Bruce E. Larson. New York: Routledge, 2017. ISBN: 978-1-138-84678-4

  6. Motivations of parametric studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birac, C.

    1988-01-01

    The paper concerns the motivations of parametric studies in connection with the Programme for the Inspection of Steel Components PISC II. The objective of the PISC II exercise is to evaluate the effectiveness of current and advanced NDT techniques for inspection of reactor pressure vessel components. The parametric studies were initiated to determine the influence of some parameters on defect detection and dimensioning, and to increase the technical bases of the Round Robin Tests. A description is given of the content of the parametric studies including:- the effect of the defects' characteristics, the effect of equipment characteristics, the effect of cladding, and possible use of electromagnetic techniques. (U.K.)

  7. Tokamak reactor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, C.C.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of tokamak reactor studies with particular attention to commercial reactor concepts developed within the last three years. Emphasis is placed on DT fueled reactors for electricity production. A brief history of tokamak reactor studies is presented. The STARFIRE, NUWMAK, and HFCTR studies are highlighted. Recent developments that have increased the commercial attractiveness of tokamak reactor designs are discussed. These developments include smaller plant sizes, higher first wall loadings, improved maintenance concepts, steady-state operation, non-divertor particle control, and improved reactor safety features

  8. [Case and studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, András

    2015-11-15

    Case studies and case reports form an important and ever growing part of scientific and scholarly literature. The paper deals with the share and citation rate of these publication types on different fields of research. In general, evidence seems to support the opinion that an excessive number of such publications may negatively influence the impact factor of the journal. In the literature of scientometrics, case studies (at least the presence of the term "case study" in the titles of the papers) have a moderate share, but their citation rate is practically equal to that of other publication types.

  9. Nuclear material shipment study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepherd, E.W.

    1980-01-01

    The Radioactive Material Transport Assessment Study is expected to provide a flexible set of capabilities and useful information to the public, industry and government users by using a system design to assure obtaining high quality data from selected industry sources at acceptable cost. It is expected that the shipping record approach coupled with an efficient sampling strategy will accomplish this. The study is also designed to yield analytical capabilities and statistical output to serve public, industry and government users. The information provided by the study will make a valuable contribution to environmental and accident risk assessment, policy development and operational planning and management activities

  10. Border region studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Williams, Allan

    2016-01-01

    The contemporary conditions of academic capitalism exert pressures on researchers to avoid ‘peripheral’ journals and ‘unfashionable’ topics. Here an attempt is made to shed light onto the structure of one such ‘offbeat’ field, namely ‘border region studies’, by discussing its geographical...... distribution, key themes, significance and impact. The review suggests that border region studies can be considered a significant and important ‘branch’ of regional studies, which accounts for a small but increasing proportion of regional studies research particularly in Europe and North America. Four main...

  11. Building Transdisciplinary Environmental Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jesper

    We will in this paper approach the challenge of building integrated environmental studies by presenting a crude frame of analysis which take into account both the physical aspects and the social-discursive articulations of environmental problems. This framework partly mirrors the approach of our...... department (Dept. of Environment, Technology and Social Studies, Roskilde University), and has originally in another version been presented in the book “Miljøregulering - tværvidenskabelige studier (Environmental Regulation. Interdisciplinary Studies)” (Holm, Kjærgård & Pedersen eds. 1997, in Danish) written...

  12. Plutonium storage study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This Spanish study gives a more detailed analysis of a possible store for plutonium oxide. The capacity of the store is assumed to be 30 t Pu and the minimum storage time 2 years. The study includes a general description of the store and its design philosophy; comments on the quality and properties of the material stored; a detailed criticality study and comments on gas and heat generation and shielding requirements; and a brief cost evaluation. Costs are estimated to be about $110/kg PuO 2 /year

  13. American Studies in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Luca

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available American Studies at the University of BucharestThe idea of teaching American Studies and founding a program in American Studies was first voiced in the long meetings of faculty and students held at the University of Bucharest soon after the collapse of the communist regime. The proposal was one of many that reflected the spirit of reform and hope for radical changes at the outset of Romania’s transition to democracy. The absence of institutional structures other than English departments and t...

  14. Study of copper fluorination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillardeau, J.

    1967-02-01

    This report deals with the action of fluorine on copper. Comprehensive descriptions are given of the particular technological methods and of the preparation of the reactants. This fluorination reaction has been studied at medium and low fluorine pressures. A nucleation and growth phenomenon is described. The influence of a pollution of the gas phase on the fluorination process is described. The solid-state reaction between cupric fluoride and cooper has also been studied. A special study has been made of the growth of copper deposits by thermal decomposition of gaseous fluorides. (author) [fr

  15. Pavement Subgrade Performance Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Wei; Ullidtz, Per; Macdonald, Robin

    1998-01-01

    The report describes the second test in the Danish Road Testing Machine (RTM) under the International Pavement Subgrade Performance Study. Pavement response was measured in different layers, and compared to different theroretical values. Performance in terms of plastic strains, rutting...

  16. Optimum study designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, C; Rao, D C

    2001-01-01

    Because simplistic designs will lead to prohibitively large sample sizes, the optimization of genetic study designs is critical for successfully mapping genes for complex diseases. Creative designs are necessary for detecting and amplifying the usually weak signals for complex traits. Two important outcomes of a study design--power and resolution--are implicitly tied together by the principle of uncertainty. Overemphasis on either one may lead to suboptimal designs. To achieve optimality for a particular study, therefore, practical measures such as cost-effectiveness must be used to strike a balance between power and resolution. In this light, the myriad of factors involved in study design can be checked for their effects on the ultimate outcomes, and the popular existing designs can be sorted into building blocks that may be useful for particular situations. It is hoped that imaginative construction of novel designs using such building blocks will lead to enhanced efficiency in finding genes for complex human traits.

  17. Accelerator research studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Accelerator Research Studies program at the University of Maryland, sponsored by the Department of Energy under grant number DE-FG05-91ER40642, is currently in the second year of a three-year funding cycle. The program consists of the following three tasks: TASK A, ''Study of Transport and Longitudinal Compression of Intense, High-Brightness Beams,'' (P.I., M. Reiser); TASK B, ''Study of Collective Ion Acceleration by Intense Electron Beams and Pseudospark Produced High Brightness Electron Beams,'' (Co-P.I.'s, W.W. Destler, M. Reiser, M.J. Rhee, and C.D. Striffler); TASK C, ''Study of a Gyroklystron High-Power Microwave Source for Linear Colliders,'' (Co-P.I.'s, V.L. Granatstein, W. Lawson, M. Reiser, and C.D. Striffler). In this report we document the progress that has been made during the past year for each of the three tasks

  18. Exploratory studies, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-05-01

    This report discusses the following topics: accelerator physics for the ALS; SSC support; machine investigations; mathematical techniques in particle dynamics; APIARY: B-factory studies; and two-beam accelerators and bright electron sources

  19. Accelerator research studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This progress report for the Accelerator Research Studies program at the University of Maryland covers the second year (June 1, 1989 to May 31, 1990) of the current three-year contract period from June 1, 1988 to May 31, 1991, funded by the Department of Energy under Contract No. AC05-85ER40216. The research program is divided into three separate tasks, as follows: the study of Transport and Longitudinal Compression of Intense, High-Brightness Beams; the study of Collective Ion Acceleration by Intense Electron Beams and Pulse-Powered Plasma Focus; the study of Microwave Sources and Parameter Scaling for High-Frequency Linacs. This report consists of three sections in which the progress for each task is documented separately. An introduction and synopsis is presented at the beginning of the progress report for each task

  20. Geomembrane special study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-07-01

    The objective of the Geomembrane Special Study was to asses the suitability of geomembranes in Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project pile designs. Geomembranes, also called flexible membrane liners, are made of polymer resins and are thermoplastic materials. Part of the special study was to evaluate regulatory compliance and acceptability issues. This study was proposed because of the extensive use of geomembranes in hazardous waste site remedial actions and their accepted use in Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) cells as both covers and liners to limit infiltration, or as part of leachate collection systems. This study has reviewed the recent geomembrane literature focusing on: (1) longevity; (2) performance; (3) constructibility; and (4) quality control/quality assurance considerations. In addition to these technical considerations, regulatory compliance and acceptability concerns were also evaluated. This report describes the results of the literature review, including correspondence with manufacturers, resin producers, experts in the field, and long-term major users. 12 refs., 2 tabs

  1. STUDYING BUSINESS CYCLES SYNCHRONIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Servetnyk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper researches business cycles synchronization. The fluctuations in post-Soviet countries are considered. The study examines different measures of synchronization in groups of countries according to some criteria.

  2. The Black Studies Boondoggle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Richard A.

    1970-01-01

    Indicates tendencies dangerous to the basic purpose of Black Studies, and identifies four external challeges--imperialism, paternalism, nihilism, and materialism. An internal challenge is considered to be the use of European and Establishment constructs to analyze black reality. (DM)

  3. Septic Systems Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    A collection of septic systems case studies to help community planners, elected officials, health department staff, state officials, and interested citizens explore alternatives for managing their decentralized wastewater treatment systems.

  4. Mobile OS Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, Jyothy; K, Shinto Kurian

    2013-01-01

    In the fast growing mobile revolutionary era, many operating systems are playing vital role in present market. This study is intending to identify the apt and secure mobile based on mobile operating systems capability and user requirements.

  5. Color transparency study group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appel, J.A.; Pordes, S.; Botts, J.; Bunce, G.; Farrar, G.

    1990-01-01

    The group studied the relatively new notion of color transparency, discussed present experimental evidence for the effect, and explored several ideas for future experiments. This write-up summarizes these discussions. 11 refs., 1 fig

  6. Earth study from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorenko, A. V.

    1981-01-01

    The significance that space studies are making to all Earth sciences in the areas of geography, geodesy, cartography, geology, meteorology, oceanology, agronomy, and ecology is discussed. It is predicted that cosmonautics will result in a revolution in science and technology.

  7. Tailored Barium Swallow Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Impulse Oscillimetry (IOS) Hypoxic and Hypercapnic Drive Response Lung Diffusion Capacity Testing (DLCO) Maximum Inspiratory/Expiratory Pressures Nitrogen Washout Performing Pressure Volume Study Performing Routine Pulmonary Test Performing Spirometry Test ...

  8. Esophagram (Barium Swallow Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Impulse Oscillimetry (IOS) Hypoxic and Hypercapnic Drive Response Lung Diffusion Capacity Testing (DLCO) Maximum Inspiratory/Expiratory Pressures Nitrogen Washout Performing Pressure Volume Study Performing Routine Pulmonary Test Performing Spirometry Test ...

  9. Evidence: Study Guide. Revision

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    ...) correct application of principles of military rules of evidence. This study guide is also intended to be a convenient reference for use by Navy and Marine Corps judge advocates and Coast Guard law...

  10. Reconnaissance Geochemical Study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    distribution patterns. The geochemical distribution maps of the elements reveal that Cu, Pb, Zn, Co, Sc, Ni, Cr, .... After filtration, the leached solutions were diluted with ultra ...... some other rare earth elements in the study area. The occurrence ...

  11. Study the Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choate, Joyce S.

    1990-01-01

    The initial step of a strategic process for solving mathematical problems, "studying the question," is discussed. A lesson plan for teaching students to identify and revise arithmetic problems is presented, involving directed instruction and supervised practice. (JDD)

  12. The Faroese IBD Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Turid; Nielsen, Kari R.; Munkholm, Pia

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Inflammatory bowel diseases [IBDs] include Crohn’s disease [CD], ulcerative colitis [UC], and IBD unclassified [IBDU]. In 2010 and 2011, the ECCO-EpiCom study found the worldwide highest incidence of inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] in the Faroe Islands: 83 per 100 000...... [European Standard Population, ESP]. The present study assessed the long-term time trends in IBD incidence in the Faroese population. Methods: In this population-based study, data were retrieved from the National Hospital of the Faroe Islands and included all incident cases of CD, UC, and IBDU diagnosed...... from 4 to 44, and for IBDU from 2 to 21 per 100 000 [ESP]. Conclusions: The high IBD incidence was found to be a relatively new phenomenon. The observed increase is unlikely to be an artefact resulting from, for instance, better registration. Our study indicated a real and increasing disease burden...

  13. South African Music Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAMUS: South African Music Studies is the official organ for the South African ... Shifty Records in Apartheid South Africa: Innovations in Independent Record ... Experiences of Belonging and Exclusion in the Production and Reception of ...

  14. Kuwait oil spill studied

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Susan

    1992-02-01

    More than a year after the Persian Gulf War, scientists are still trying to assess the environmental impact of the estimated 6-8 million barrels of oil that were dumped into the gulf and to understand the environmental processes that take place in such a disturbance. Many atmospheric studies were done in the months immediately following the war, but oceanographic studies have been slower in getting started.The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration is currently spearheading a major oceanographic study being undertaken in the Persian Gulf by the research vessel Mt. Mitchell. The ship left its home port of Norfolk, Va., in mid-January and arrived in Muscat, Oman, on February 16 to begin a 100-day oceanographic and environmental survey. The six-leg cruise will feature physical oceanography, near-shore, and marine life studies.

  15. A qualitative study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ismail - [2010

    Methods: A descriptive qualitative study was carried out in Adami Tulu District of East Shoa Zone – the ... to enhance teaching learning at CBE sites and facilitate ..... on good nutrition”. ... not observing any misbehavior: “The behavior of the.

  16. HYDROGEOLOGIC CASE STUDIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  17. Digital signature feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the advantages and disadvantages of using digital signatures to assist the Arizona Department of Transportation in conducting business. The Department is evaluating the potential of performing more electronic t...

  18. Accelerator research studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Accelerator Research Studies program at the University of Maryland, sponsored by the Department of Energy under grant number DE-FG05-91ER40642, is currently in the first year of a three-year funding cycle. The program consists of the following three tasks: TASK A, Study of Transport and Longitudinal Compression of Intense, High-Brightness Beams, TASK B, Study of Collective Ion Acceleration by Intense Electron Beams and Pseudospark Produced High Brightness Electron Beams; TASK C, Study of a Gyroklystron High-power Microwave Source for Linear Colliders. In this report we document the progress that has been made during the past year for each of the three tasks

  19. Study of biological compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, A.F.G. da

    1976-01-01

    The several types of biological compartments are studied such as monocompartmental system, one-compartment balanced system irreversible fluxes, two closed compartment system, three compartment systems, catenary systems and mammilary systems [pt

  20. IRD dropout study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalowitz, Jeffrey S.; Schroer, Michael A.; Dickson, John E., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    This final report describes work performed by SRS Technologies for the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center under Contract NAS8-39077, entitled 'Integrated Receiver-Decoder Dropout Study'. The purpose of the study was to determine causes of signal fading effects on ultra-high-frequency (UHF) range safety transmissions to the Space Shuttle during flyout. Of particular interest were deep fades observed at the External Tank (ET) Integrated Receiver-Decoder (IRD) during the flyout interval between solid rocket booster separation and ET separation. Analytical and simulation methods were employed in this study to assess observations captured in flight telemetry data records. Conclusions based on the study are presented in this report, and recommendations are given for future experimental validation of the results.

  1. A Psychobiographical Case Study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    man, and cancer fighter. This psychobiographical case study entailed a psychosocial-historical ... does not draw more attention as a research method, as this approach has .... of the applied Levinsonian theory to the life of Jobs against the ...

  2. Applied Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Ronald J.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to study the feasibility of reusing major components of a software system that had been used to control the operations of a spacecraft launched in the 1980s. The study was done in the context of a ground data processing system that was to be rehosted from a large mainframe to an inexpensive workstation. The study concluded that a systematic approach using inexpensive tools could aid in the reengineering process by identifying a set of certified reusable components. The study also developed procedures for determining duplicate versions of software, which were created because of inadequate naming conventions. Such procedures reduced reengineering costs by approximately 19.4 percent.

  3. Thyroid function study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, A.F.G. da

    1976-01-01

    A short revision of thyroid physiology is done. The radioisotopes of common use in thyroid investigation and the choice of the most appropriated ones are discussed. A table showing radioisotopes frequently used in this study, with their main characteristics is presented. Among several isotopic assays in thyroid propaedeutics, those that refer to the function study, topographic studies and tests 'in vitro' are pointed out. Exploration methods 'in vivo' are treated, such as: thyroid uptake; urinary excretion; thyroid scintigraphy, with scintigraphic imagings; stimulation test by TSH; suppression test; pbi; clearance test with perchlorate; iodine deficiency test and thyroid study with technetium. 'In vitro' proofs like triiodothyronine (T 3 ) and thyroxine (T 4 ) assays, as well as free thyroxine index, are treated. At last, the therapeutics by Iodine 131 is commented and emphasis is given to its application on the treatment of hyperthyroidism and thyroid carcinoma [pt

  4. PPB | Study Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Pleuropulmonary Blastoma (PPB) DICER1 Syndrome Study team is made up of researchers from the National Cancer Institute, Children¹s National Medical Center, the International Pleuropulmonary Blastoma Registry, and Washington University in St. Louis.

  5. 451 Case studies Cardiac

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marinda

    Case Studies. 29 ... A case of a 26-year-old ASA I physical status male undergoing septoplasty had an abrupt ... myocardial infarction, severe hypertensive crisis, cerebral .... or no formal management is required in an ASA I patient.8 One.

  6. Chamberino Floodplain Management Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The Dona Ana County Flood Commission requested the United States Department of Agriculture's Natural Resources Conservation Service to conduct a study of the...

  7. Epidemiological studies on syncope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruwald, Martin Huth

    2013-01-01

    of the patients play an essential role. In epidemiology these factors have major impact on the outcome of the patients. Until recently, even the definition of syncope differed from one study to another which has made literature reviews difficult. Traditionally the data on epidemiology of syncope has been taken...... from smaller studies from different clinical settings with wide differences in patient morbidity. Through the extensive Danish registries we examined the characteristics and prognosis of the patients hospitalized due to syncope in a nationwide study. The aims of the present thesis were to investigate......, prevalence and cardiovascular factors associated with the risk of syncope, 4) the prognosis in healthy individuals discharged after syncope, and 5) the prognosis of patients after syncope and evaluation of the CHADS2 score as a tool for short- and long-term risk prediction. The first studies of the present...

  8. Nature Study Tips. Spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulaik, Stanley B.

    1990-01-01

    Different types of spiders, their ranges and habits are discussed. Activities associated with the study of spiders are suggested. Four references are listed which may be of interest to beginners. (CW)

  9. Advanced Propulsion Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davis, Eric

    2004-01-01

    ... that show promise of leading to a major advance in Earth-to-orbit (ETO) propulsion. The study also reviewed and evaluated a select number of credible far-term breakthrough propulsion physics concepts pertaining...

  10. Public Key Infrastructure Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berkovits, Shimshon

    1994-01-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has tasked The MITRE Corporation to study the alternatives for automated management of public keys and of the associated public key certificates for the Federal Government...

  11. African Studies Monographs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African Studies Monographs is a serial that promotes research and scholarship on the African perspective worldwide. This includes matters of philosophy, history, literature, arts and culture, environment, gender, politics, administration crisis management, etc.

  12. Thermoluminescence studies in geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankaran, A.V.; Sunta, C.M.; Nambi, K.S.V.; Bapat, V.N.

    1980-01-01

    Even though the phenomenon of thermoluminescence is well studied, particularly over last 3 decades, its potentialities in the field of geology have not been adequately evaluated. In this report several useful applications of TL in mineralogy, petrogenesis, stratigraphy, tectonics, ore-prospecting and other branches have been identified with particular emphasis to the Indian scene. Important areas in the country that may provide the basic material for such studies are indicated at the end along with brief geological or mineralogical accounts. (auth.)

  13. Qualitative Case Study Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Introduction to Sociological Methods. 2nd ed. New York, McGraw-Hill 14. Denzin , N. K. and Lincoln , Y. S. (2011) The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative...The Art of Science. In: Denzin , N. K. and Lincoln , Y. S. (eds.) Handbook of Qualitative Research. Thousand Oaks, Sage 19. GAO (1990) Case Study...Rinehart & Winston 39. Stake, R. E. (1994) Case Studies. In: Denzin , N. K. and Lincoln , Y. S. (eds.) Handbook of Qualitative Research. Thousand Oaks, Sage

  14. DOE's Yucca Mountain studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    This booklet is about the disposal of high-level nuclear waste in the United States. It is for readers who have a general rather than a technical background. It discusses why scientists and engineers thinkhigh-level nuclear waste may be disposed of safely underground. It also describes why Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is being studied as a potential repository site and provides basic information about those studies

  15. University related studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Over the years, opportunities for terrestrial ecology studies have attracted student researchers associated with Pacific Northwest colleges and universities. During the past year, four students have been involved with undergraduate or graduate thesis projects. Brief descriptions of these studies are included in this section. It is expected that university participation will be enhanced by designating parts of the Hanford Reservation as a National Environmental Research Park (NERP)

  16. Workshop I: Gender Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, Eden; Kurup, Anitha; Meza-Montes, Lilia; Shastri, Prajval; Ghose, Shohini

    2015-12-01

    Participants in the Gender Studies workshop of the 5th IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics discussed the gender question in science practice from a policy perspective, informed by investigations from the social science disciplines. The workshop's three sessions—"Equity and Education: Examining Gender Stigma in Science," "A Comparative Study of Women Scientists and Engineers: Experiences in India and the US," and "Toward Gender Equity Through Policy: Characterizing the Social Impact of Interventions—are summarized, and the resulting recommendations presented.

  17. Vitrification melter study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.A.

    1995-04-01

    This report presents the results of a study performed to identify the most promising vitrification melter technologies that the Department of Energy (EM-50) might pursue with available funding. The primary focus was on plasma arc systems and graphite arc melters. The study was also intended to assist EM-50 in evaluating competing technologies, formulating effective technology strategy, developing focused technology development projects, and directing the work of contractors involved in vitrification melter development

  18. Tanzania country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meena, H E [Centre for Energy, Environment, Science and Technology, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1998-10-01

    An objective of this study is to analyse the role of the land use sectors of Tanzania (especially forestry) on mitigation of greenhouse gases. Specific emphasis is placed on the relationship between forestry and energy supply from biomass. This is a follow up study on an earlier effort which worked on mitigation options in the country without an in-depth analysis of the forestry and land use sectors. (au)

  19. Cerebral perfution studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mut, Fernando

    1994-01-01

    For detecting in precocious form a coronary disease is necessary to aply a diagnostic techniques. The main considerations to be indicated in the present work are: physiological considerations, myocardial perfusion studies with radiotracers such as Talio 201, 99mTc, MIBI, 99mTc-Teboroxima, 99mTc-Fosfinas, instrumentation for obtain good images, proceedings protocols, studies interpretation, standards, SPECT, anomalies standards, coronary diseases

  20. Artificial Intelligence Study (AIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-01

    ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGNECE HARDWARE ....... 2-50 AI Architecture ................................... 2-49 AI Hardware ....................................... 2...ftf1 829 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE STUDY (RIS)(U) MAY CONCEPTS 1/3 A~NLYSIS AGENCY BETHESA RD R B NOJESKI FED 6? CM-RP-97-1 NCASIFIED /01/6 M |K 1.0...p/ - - ., e -- CAA- RP- 87-1 SAOFŔ)11 I ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE STUDY (AIS) tNo DTICFEBRUARY 1987 LECT 00 I PREPARED BY RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS

  1. Radiation Studies, Vol.10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadareishvili, K.; Tsitskishvili, M.; Chankseliani, Z.; Gelashvili, K.; Mtskhoetadze, A.; Oniani, T.; Todua, F.; Vepkhoadze, N.; Zaalishvili, T.

    2002-01-01

    'Radiation studies' - is a periodical edition of Scientific Research Center of Radiobiology and Radiation Ecology of Georgian Academy of Sciences, Problem Council of Radiobiology of Georgian Academy of Sciences and Georgian Academy of Ecological Sciences. The 10th volume of 'Radiation studies' reflects activities of above-mentioned institutions during previous two years and contains 26 articles, from which 17 are within the scope of INIS

  2. Evaluation of epidemiological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breckow, J.

    1995-01-01

    The publication is intended for readers with a professional background in radiation protection who are not experts in the field of epidemiology. The potentials and the limits of epidemiology are shown and concepts and terminology of radioepidemilogic studies as well as epidemiology in general are explained, in order to provide the necessary basis for understanding or performing evaluations of epidemiologic studies. (orig./VHE) [de

  3. Zambia country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    The Zambia Country Study, which was part of the Danida-funded project Climate Change Mitigation in Southern Africa: Phase 2, aimed at methodological development, national mitigation analysis and institutional capacity building in Zambia. The study comprised the following five elements: Comprehensive evaluation of national social and economic development framework for climate change; Baseline scenario(s) projection(s); Mitigation scenario(s) projection(s); Macro-economic assessment; Implementation Issues. (au) 17 refs.

  4. Tanzania country study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meena, H.E.

    1998-01-01

    An objective of this study is to analyse the role of the land use sectors of Tanzania (especially forestry) on mitigation of greenhouse gases. Specific emphasis is placed on the relationship between forestry and energy supply from biomass. This is a follow up study on an earlier effort which worked on mitigation options in the country without an in-depth analysis of the forestry and land use sectors. (au)

  5. Future ATLAS Higgs Studies

    CERN Document Server

    Smart, Ben; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The High-Luminosity LHC will prove a challenging environment to work in, with for example $=200$ expected. It will however also provide great opportunities for advancing studies of the Higgs boson. The ATLAS detector will be upgraded, and Higgs prospects analyses have been performed to assess the reach of ATLAS Higgs studies in the HL-LHC era. These analyses are presented, as are Run-2 ATLAS di-Higgs analyses for comparison.

  6. clinical and experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Tornow, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    Posterior capsule opacity (PCO) is a frequent complication in extracapsular cataract extraction in conjunction with an intraocular lens implant. Different studies have shown that a reduction in PCO frequency can be achieved via a number of factors. Lens design is a significant criterion in this process. In this study, two multifocal intraocular lenses (MIOLs) were compared. The design of these lenses differed due to their varying optical principles. They are the refractive MIOL A...

  7. Networked Microgrids Scoping Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backhaus, Scott N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dobriansky, Larisa [General MicroGrids, San Diego, CA (United States); Glover, Steve [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Liu, Chen-Ching [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Looney, Patrick [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Mashayekh, Salman [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Pratt, Annabelle [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schneider, Kevin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stadler, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Starke, Michael [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wang, Jianhui [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Yue, Meng [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-12-05

    Much like individual microgrids, the range of opportunities and potential architectures of networked microgrids is very diverse. The goals of this scoping study are to provide an early assessment of research and development needs by examining the benefits of, risks created by, and risks to networked microgrids. At this time there are very few, if any, examples of deployed microgrid networks. In addition, there are very few tools to simulate or otherwise analyze the behavior of networked microgrids. In this setting, it is very difficult to evaluate networked microgrids systematically or quantitatively. At this early stage, this study is relying on inputs, estimations, and literature reviews by subject matter experts who are engaged in individual microgrid research and development projects, i.e., the authors of this study The initial step of the study gathered input about the potential opportunities provided by networked microgrids from these subject matter experts. These opportunities were divided between the subject matter experts for further review. Part 2 of this study is comprised of these reviews. Part 1 of this study is a summary of the benefits and risks identified in the reviews in Part 2 and synthesis of the research needs required to enable networked microgrids.

  8. Study of wilms' tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.H.; Yaqub, N.

    2001-01-01

    This study is an effort to bring into light data related to children with Wilms' tumor managed at Islamabad as local literature on this topic is lacking. It was retrospective study. The study was conducted at Children Hospital, Pakistan Institute of Medical Science, Islamabad between January, 1987 and December 1995. All patients managed during the study period were included in the study. In all the patients complete blood count (CBC), urine analysis (D/R),X-ray abdomen and chest, ultrasound abdomen and in selected cases CT scan were performed. National Wilms' Tumor Study Group (NWTS 3) protocol was followed for further management. Fifty patients including 28 males and 22 females with the age range from 9 months to 8 years were managed in 9 years period. Left kidney was involved in 31 patients. Most of the tumors were solid on ultrasound, 76% patients were in stage III and IV. In one case bilateral involvement of kidney was found. Forty patients underwent primary surgery. Only 14 patients received complete course of chemotherapy while 31 radiotherapy. Nineteen patients died and 15 lost to follow-up. The survival and mortality rates are comparable to NWTS-3 results, although, most of the patients were presented in advance stage of Wilms tumor. The survival of these patients can be improved by increasing awareness of society through electronic and print media. (author)

  9. Effectiveness and cost effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in clinically depressed adolescents: individual CBT versus treatment as usual (TAU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stikkelbroek, Yvonne; Bodden, Denise Hm; Deković, Maja; van Baar, Anneloes L

    2013-11-21

    Depressive disorders occur in 2 to 5% of the adolescents and are associated with a high burden of disease, a high risk of recurrence and a heightened risk for development of other problems, like suicide attempts. The effectiveness of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT), cost-effectiveness of this treatment and the costs of illness of clinical depression in adolescents are still unclear. Although several Randomized Controlled Trials (RCT) have been conducted to establish the efficacy of CBT, the effectiveness has not been established yet. Aim of this study is to conduct a RCT to test the effectiveness of CBT and to establish the cost-effectiveness of CBT under rigorous conditions within routine care provided by professionals already working in mental health institutions. CBT is investigated with a multi-site, RCT using block randomisation. The targeted population is 140 clinically referred depressed adolescents aged 12 to 21 years old. Adolescents are randomly assigned to the experimental (N = 70, CBT) or control condition (N = 70, TAU). Four assessments (pre, post, follow up at 6 and 12 months) and two mediator assessments during treatment are conducted. Primary outcome measure is depression diagnosis based on a semi-structured interview namely the K-SADS-PL. Secondary outcome measures include depressive symptoms, severity and improvement of the depression, global functioning, quality of life, suicide risk, comorbidity, alcohol and drug use, parental depression and psychopathology, parenting and conflicts. Costs and treatment characteristics will also be assessed. Furthermore, moderator and mediator analyses will be conducted. This trial will be the first to compare CBT with TAU under rigorous conditions within routine care and with a complex sample. Furthermore, cost-effectiveness of treatment and cost-of-illness of clinical depression are established which will provide new insights on depression as a disorder and its treatment. Dutch Trial register number

  10. Economic appraisal of the public control and prevention strategy against the 2010 West Nile Virus outbreak in Central Macedonia, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolimenakis, A; Bithas, K; Richardson, C; Latinopoulos, D; Baka, A; Vakali, A; Hadjichristodoulou, C; Mourelatos, S; Kalaitzopoulou, S; Gewehr, S; Michaelakis, A; Koliopoulos, G

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present paper is to evaluate the economic efficiency of the public control and prevention strategies to tackle the 2010 West Nile Virus (WNV) outbreak in the Region of Central Macedonia, Greece. Efficiency is examined on the basis of the public prevention costs incurred and their potential in justifying the costs arising from health and nuisance impacts in the succeeding years. Economic appraisal of public health management interventions. Prevention and control cost categories including control programmes, contingency planning and blood safety testing, are analyzed based on market prices. A separate cost of illness approach is conducted for the estimation of medical costs and productivity losses from 2010 to 2013 and for the calculation of averted health impacts. The averted mosquito nuisance costs to households are estimated on the basis of a contingent valuation study. Based on these findings, a limited cost-benefit analysis is employed in order to evaluate the economic efficiency of these strategies in 2010-2013. Results indicate that cost of illness and prevention costs fell significantly in the years following the 2010 outbreak, also as a result of the epidemic coming under control. According to the contingent valuation survey, the annual average willingness to pay to eliminate the mosquito problem in the study area ranged between 22 and 27 € per household. Cost-benefit analysis indicates that the aggregate benefit of implementing the previous 3-year strategy creates a net socio-economic benefit in 2013. However the spread of the WNV epidemic and the overall socio-economic consequences, had the various costs not been employed, remain unpredictable and extremely difficult to calculate. The application of a post epidemic strategy appears to be of utmost importance for public health safety. An updated well designed survey is needed for a more precise definition of the optimum prevention policies and levels and for the establishment of the various

  11. Cost of rheumatoid arthritis in a selected population from Argentina in the prebiologic therapy era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catay E

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Erika Catay,1 Cecilia Castel del Cid,1 Lorena Narváez,1 Edson J Velozo,1 Javier E Rosa,1,2 Luis J Catoggio,1,2 Enrique R Soriano1,21Rheumatology Unit, Internal Medicine Service, Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires, 2University Institute Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires, School of Medicine, PM Catoggio Foundation, Buenos Aires, ArgentinaBackground: The present study aimed to estimate the cost of rheumatoid arthritis and its components in a university hospital-based health management organization in Argentina, during the prebiologic era.Methods: A one-year (2002 observational prevalence, cost-of illness study of patients with rheumatoid arthritis from the societal perspective was performed in a hospital-based health management organization population. Direct medical costs were obtained using administrative databases. Direct nonmedical and indirect costs were obtained from a semistructured questionnaire. Indirect costs included work absenteeism, permanent work disability, and housework lost for housewives, using the human capital approach. Costs are expressed in 2002 US dollars per patient per year.Results: A total of 165 patients (84% females, of mean age 61 ± 15 years and with a mean disease duration of 8.5 ± 8.3 years were included. Mean total direct medical costs were US$1862 (95% confidence interval [CI] 828–2899. Mean direct nonmedical costs were US$222 (95% CI 149–294. Mean indirect costs were US$1008 (95% CI 606–1412. The annual mean total cost was US$3093 without biologics. Hospitalizations represented 73% of total direct medical costs while drugs and outpatient procedures represented 16% and 8% of total direct medical costs, respectively. Sixty percent of the total costs were related to direct medical costs, while indirect costs represented 33% of total costs.Conclusion: In our population, annual mean total costs in the prebiologic therapy era were mainly driven by direct medical costs. Even without the use of biologic agents

  12. Studying Organizations on Instagram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uta Russmann

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available With the rise of social media platforms based on the sharing of pictures and videos, the question of how such platforms should be studied arises. Previous research on social media (content has mainly focused on text (written words and the rather text-based social media platforms Twitter and Facebook. Drawing on research in the fields of visual, political, and business communication, we introduce a methodological framework to study the fast-growing image-sharing service Instagram. This methodological framework was developed to study political parties’ Instagram accounts and tested by means of a study of Swedish political parties during the 2014 election campaign. In this article, we adapt the framework to also study other types of organizations active on Instagram by focusing on the following main questions: Do organizations only use Instagram to share one-way information, focusing on disseminating information and self-presentation? Or is Instagram used for two-way communication to establish and cultivate organization-public relationships? We introduce and discuss the coding of variables with respect to four clusters: the perception of the posting, image management, integration, and interactivity.

  13. Impact studies at Winfrith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, C.A.; Wicks, S.J.

    1987-02-01

    Analytical and experimental studies of subsonic impacts on nuclear reactor plant structures have been in progress at Winfrith since 1977. These studies have examined the behaviour of concrete and metal structures under the impact of missiles typifying those derived either from the plant itself or from external sources, such as crashing aircraft. During 1986 the Winfrith programme was expanded to include studies of the behaviour of radioactive materials transport containers under impact conditions. This report initially describes the experimental facilities available for impact studies at Winfrith. These include both compressed air guns, capable of delivering payloads of up to 65 kg at sonic velocity or payloads up to 2 tonnes at speeds up to 45 ms -1 , and drop test facilities for impact testing of models, up to full-scale radioactive materials transport flasks, at relatively low speeds. Supporting facilities include a small concrete manufacturing laboratory to produce concrete targets. Assessments of the resistance of concrete or metal structures to impact damage are performed using empirical or semi-empirical correlations, derived from data obtained in well-characterised experiments, or using structural dynamics finite element codes. The codes used by the analysts and the computing facilities available for impact analysis work are described. Finally the current programme of impact studies is reviewed, recent progress is summarised and future plans outlined. (author)

  14. Cosmos-1989 immunology studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1991-01-01

    Evidence from both human and rodent studies has indicated that alterations in immunological parameters occur after space flight. The number of flight experiments has been small, and the full breadth of immunological alterations occurring after space flight remains to be established. Among the major effects on immune responses after space flight that have been reported are: alterations in lymphocyte blastogenesis and natural killer cell activity, alterations in production of cytokines, changes in leukocyte sub-population distribution, and decreases in the ability in the ability of bone marrow cells to respond to colony stimulating factors. Changes have been reported in immunological parameters of both humans and rodents. The significance of these alterations in relation to resistance to infection remains to be established. The current study involved a determination of the effects of flight on Cosmos mission 2044 on leukocyte subset distribution and the sensitivity of bone marrow cells to colony stimulating factor-GM. A parallel study with antiorthostatic suspension was also carried out. The study involved repetition and expansion of studies carried out on Cosmos 1887.

  15. Laboratory microfusion capability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to elucidate the issues involved in developing a Laboratory Microfusion Capability (LMC) which is the major objective of the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program within the purview of the Department of Energy's Defense Programs. The study was initiated to support a number of DOE management needs: to provide insight for the evolution of the ICF program; to afford guidance to the ICF laboratories in planning their research and development programs; to inform Congress and others of the details and implications of the LMC; to identify criteria for selection of a concept for the Laboratory Microfusion Facility and to develop a coordinated plan for the realization of an LMC. As originally proposed, the LMC study was divided into two phases. The first phase identifies the purpose and potential utility of the LMC, the regime of its performance parameters, driver independent design issues and requirements, its development goals and requirements, and associated technical, management, staffing, environmental, and other developmental and operational issues. The second phase addresses driver-dependent issues such as specific design, range of performance capabilities, and cost. The study includes four driver options; the neodymium-glass solid state laser, the krypton fluoride excimer gas laser, the light-ion accelerator, and the heavy-ion induction linear accelerator. The results of the Phase II study are described in the present report

  16. Indoor radon epidemiological study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunz, E; Tomasek, L; Mueller, T [National Radiation Protection Institute, Prague (Czech Republic); Placek, V [Inst. for Expertises and Emergencies, Pribram-Kamenna (Czech Republic); Matzner, J; Heribanova, A [State Office for Nuclear Safety, Prague (Czech Republic)

    1996-12-31

    The study is a long-term prospective cohort study of lung cancer and possibility other causes of death. The study population includes inhabitants of the area, who had resided there for at three years and at least one of these between 1.1.1960 and 21.12.1989. A total of 11865 inhabitants satisfied these criteria. The cumulative exposure of each respondent is being assessed on the basis of measurements in dwellings, time spent there and estimation of previous exposure levels by a model accounting for constructional changes in buildings. One year lasting measurements of radon daughter products by integral dosimeters (Kodak film LR 115) were performed in practically all dwellings of the specified area. Radon measurements in houses in term of equilibrium concentration are compared with the results of a pilot study in Petrovice in 1990-91 which gave the stimulus for the epidemiological study. The distribution of death causes and ratio of observed (O) to expected (E) cases among collected death cases in the cohort, generally, somewhat lower ratios than one reflect the non-industrial character of the region, with the exception of lung cancer in man. The differences in the O/E ratios for lung cancer among the separate communities indicate that even in the situation of generally lower mortality, the dependence of lung cancer mortality on radon.

  17. Photovoltaics information user study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marie, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1980-10-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on photovoltaics (PV) are described. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. The report is 1 of 10 discussing study results. The overall study provides baseline data about information needs in the solar community. It covers these technological areas: photovoltaics, passive solar heating and cooling, active solar heating and cooling, biomass energy, solar thermal electric power, solar industrial and agricultural process heat, wind energy, ocean energy, and advanced energy storage. An earlier study identified the information user groups in the solar community and the priority (to accelerate solar energy commercialization) of getting information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from seven PV groups respondents are analyzed in this report: DOE-Funded Researchers, Non-DOE-Funded Researchers, Researchers Working for Manufacturers, Representatives of Other Manufacturers, Representatives of Utilities, Electric Power Engineers, and Educators.

  18. Environmental health studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easterly, C.E.; Shank, K.E.

    1978-01-01

    The two major thrusts of the environmental health studies have been in the areas of health physics aspects of fusion power and methodology for assessing health effects related to nuclear facilities. Researchers were unable to discern a dose-response relationship or to find adverse health effects in the local population around nuclear facilities which might be related to radiation exposure. A second study analyzed the trends in incidence of cancer, congenital malformation, and fetal and infant mortality for Oak Ridge, Anderson County, and Roane County relative to Tennessee. Finally, a more in-depth study on congenital malformations and fetal mortality trends for nine East Tennessee counties surrounding Oak Ridge was completed. The objective of the Health Physics Aspects of Fusion Power Program is to provide, on a timely basis, scientific information and technical evaluations on the potential impacts of fusion power to occupational workers and to members of the public. The primary areas of study in this program during the past year have been (1) factors affecting calculations of dose resulting from a release of tritium, (2) an assessment of the potential for reducing occupational risk from exposures to tritium, and (3) experimental studies of tritium conversion from molecular hydrogen to tritiated water

  19. Functional studies using NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCready, V.R.; Leach, M.O.; Sutton; Ell, P.

    1986-01-01

    The object of this book is to discuss and evaluate an area of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance which to date has been less emphasized than it might be, namely the use of NMR for functional studies. The book commences with a discussion of the areas in which the NMR techniques might be needed due to deficiencies in other techniques. The physics of NMR especially relating to functional measurement are then explained. Technical factors in producing functional images are discussed and the use of paramagnetic substances for carrying out flow studies are detailed. Particular attention is paid to specific studies in the various organs. The book ends with a survey of imaging in each organ and the relation of NMR images to other techniques such as ultrasound, nuclear medicine and X-rays

  20. Florida statewide radiation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagda, N.L.; Koontz, M.D.; Fortmann, R.C.; Schoenborn, W.A.; Mehegan, L.L.

    1987-01-01

    Florida phosphate deposits contain higher levels of uranium than most other soils and rocks, thus exposing the population to higher-than-desirable levels of radon and its short-lived daughters. The Florida Legislature ordered a survey of significant land areas where an environmental radiation standard should be applied. Among other things, the study assessed indoor radon in 6,000 homes, soil radon at 3,000 residences, and all data existing prior to the study. The report explains the purpose of the study, how it was designed and conducted, and its results. It concludes with a discussion of radon/radon decay product equilibrium factor, correlation between indoor and soil radon, and preliminary attempts to develop a safe threshold for soil radon below which few elevated indoor levels would be anticipated

  1. Oxidizer Scoping Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chancellor, Christopher John [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2016-11-07

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of the acceptable knowledge (AK) review of oxidizers present in active waste streams, provide a technical analysis of the oxidizers, and report the results of the scoping study testing. This report will determine the fastest burning oxidizer to be used in the development of a Test Plan for Preparation and Testing of Sorbents Mixed with Oxidizer found in Transuranic Waste (DWT-TP-001). The companion report, DWT-RPT-002, Sorbent Scoping Studies, contains similar information for sorbents identified during the AK review of TRU waste streams. The results of the oxidizer and sorbent scoping studies will be used to inform the QL1 test plan. The QL1 test results will support the development of a basis of knowledge document that will evaluate oxidizing chemicals and sorbents in TRU waste and provide guidance for treatment.

  2. Seal design alternatives study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Sambeek, L.L.; Luo, D.D.; Lin, M.S.; Ostrowski, W.; Oyenuga, D.

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results from a study of various sealing alternatives for the WIPP sealing system. Overall, the sealing system has the purpose of reducing to the extent possible the potential for fluids (either gas or liquid) from entering or leaving the repository. The sealing system is divided into three subsystems: drift and panel seals within the repository horizon, shaft seals in each of the four shafts, and borehole seals. Alternatives to the baseline configuration for the WIPP seal system design included evaluating different geometries and schedules for seal component installations and the use of different materials for seal components. Order-of-magnitude costs for the various alternatives were prepared as part of the study. Firm recommendations are not presented, but the advantages and disadvantages of the alternatives are discussed. Technical information deficiencies are identified and studies are outlined which can provide required information

  3. Parylene C Aging Studies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achyuthan, Komandoor; Sawyer, Patricia Sue.; Mata, Guillermo Adrian; White II, Gregory Von; Bernstein, Robert

    2014-09-01

    Parylene C is used in a device because of its conformable deposition and other advantages. Techniques to study Parylene C aging were developed, and "lessons learned" that could be utilized for future studies are the result of this initial study. Differential Scanning Calorimetry yielded temperature ranges for Parylene C aging as well as post-deposition treatment. Post-deposition techniques are suggested to improve Parylene C performance. Sample preparation was critical to aging regimen. Short-term (%7E40 days) aging experiments with free standing and ceramic-supported Parylene C films highlighted "lessons learned" which stressed further investigations in order to refine sample preparation (film thickness, single sided uniform coating, machine versus laser cutting, annealing time, temperature) and testing issues ("necking") for robust accelerated aging of Parylene C.

  4. The Hi Five study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Anette; Denbæk, Anne Maj; Bonnesen, Camilla Thørring

    2015-01-01

    of school toilets during the school day. Baseline data was collected from December 2011 to April 2012. The intervention period was August 2012 to June 2013. The follow-up data was collected from December 2012 to April 2013. DISCUSSION: The Hi Five study fills a gap in international research. This large......BACKGROUND: Infectious illnesses such as influenza and diarrhea are leading causes of absenteeism among Danish school children. Interventions in school settings addressing hand hygiene have shown to reduce the number of infectious illnesses. However, most of these studies include small populations...... and almost none of them are conducted as randomized controlled trials. The overall aim of the Hi Five study was to develop, implement and evaluate a multi-component school-based intervention to improve hand hygiene and well-being and to reduce the prevalence of infections among school children...

  5. Underground layout tradeoff study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This report presents the results of a technical and economic comparative study of four alternative underground layouts for a nuclear waste geologic repository in salt. The four alternatives considered in this study are (1) separate areas for spent fuel (SF) and commercial high-level waste (CHLW); (2) panel alternation, in which SF and CHLW are emplaced in adjacent panels of rooms; (3) room alternation, in which SF and CHLW are emplaced in adjacent rooms within each panel; and (4) intimate mixture, in which SF and CHLW are emplaced in random order within each storage room. The study concludes that (1) cost is not an important factor; (2) the separate-areas and intimate-mixture alternatives appear, technically, to be more desirable than the other alternatives; and (3) the selection between the separate-areas and intimate mixture alternatives depends upon future resolution of site-specific and reprocessing questions. 5 refs., 6 figs., 12 tabs

  6. Waarom Jesus-studies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Geyser

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Why Jesus studies? Present-day historical Jesus studies are the epistemological product of what has become known as the New Historicism. The aim of the article is to emphasize two aspects of the New Historicism as epistemological approach. The one aspect focuses on the profitability of this endeavour and the other on the historical nature of the New Historicism. As far as profitability is concerned, the social standing and identity of the researcher are emphasized. Among otherthings, the social interests of the researcher are taken into account. Concerning the historical nature of this kind of research, a distinction is drawn between the Jesus of history and the Jesus of faith. The aim of the article is to gain clarity on the relationship between the Jesus of history (pre-Easter and the Jesus of faith (post-Easter. J D Crossan's exposition of the reasons for Jesus studies is followed. He distinguishes three reasons: historical, ethical and theological.

  7. Operation and machine studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This annual report describes the GANIL (Grand accelerateur national d'ions lourds, Caen, France) operation and the machine studies realized in 1992. Metallic ions have been accelerated during 36 pc of the time; some were produced for the first time at GANIL: 125 Te, 52 Cr with ECR3, 181 Ta with ECR4. The various machine studies are: comparison of lifetimes of carbon sheets, charge exchange of very heavy ions in carbon foils and in the residual gas of the Ganil cyclotrons, commissioning of the new high intensity axial injection system for Ganil, tantalum acceleration with the new injector, a cyclotron as a mass spectrometer; other studies concerned: implementing the new control system, gettering flux measurement, energy deposited by neutrons and gamma rays in the cryogenic system of SISSI; latest developments on multicharged ECR ion sources, and an on-line isotopic separator test bench at Ganil

  8. STUDY ON VIRTUAL COLONOSCOPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aithagani Rama Chandraiah

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Current options available in the investigations of colorectal carcinoma include screening using digital rectal examination, sigmoidoscopy, barium enema and fiberoptic colonoscopy, virtual colonoscopy. The aim of the study was to prospectively evaluate patient acceptance of virtual colonoscopy compared with that of conventional colonoscopy when performed in patients with or suspected of having colorectal disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study had been conducted on patients attending Department of Radiology for a period of 1 year. Patients with primary or secondary complaints of pain abdomen, lump in abdomen, bleeding per rectum, loose motions/constipation, altered bowel habits, loss of appetite and weight and anaemia, so total number of cases were 51. RESULTS In our study, the patients were in age groups of 21-70 years. Both sexes were represented in our study. Male preponderance was noted in 51 patients. Cases of adenoma were more commonly found 37 (72.78%. The sensitivity of the CT colonography for the polyps more than 10 mm is 100%, polyps 6-9 mm is 90%, less than 6 mm is 80%. Our study consists of 51 patients; among them, 30 patients showed acceptance for CT colonography, 10 patients for optical colonoscopy. Our study consists of 51 patients, the polyps (more than 10 mm detected in 2D viewing were 24, 2D and 3D viewing of 24, the polyps (less than 10 mm detected in 2D viewing were 15, 2D and 3D viewing were 17. 3D viewing resulted in increased sensitivity for identification of patients with larger polyps more than 1 cm, (70-85% sensitivity and patients with smaller polyps less than 1 cm (increased sensitivity 75-88%. CONCLUSIONS Multislice CT (64 colonography is a good alternative to other colorectal screening tests because it has high sensitivity for polyps 10 mm or more in diameter is relatively safe, clinical effective, minimally invasive, cost effective and filter for therapeutic optical colonoscopy.

  9. Making Media Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gauntlett

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This podcast is a recording of a research seminar that took place on December 3, 2015, at the University of Westminster's Communication and Media Research Institute (CAMRI. In this contribution, David Gauntlett discusses his new book, Making Media Studies, and other new work. In Making Media Studies (Peter Lang, 2015, Gauntlett proposes a vision of media studies based around doing and making – not about the acquisition of skills, as such, but an experience of building knowledge and understanding through creative hands-on engagement with all kinds of media. Gauntlett suggests that media studies scholars have failed to recognise the significance of everyday creativity – the vital drive of people to make, exchange, and learn together, supported by online networks. He argues that we should think about media in terms of conversations, inspirations, and making things happen. Media studies can be about genuine social change, he suggests, if we recognise the significance of everyday creativity, work to transform our tools, and learn to use them wisely. David Gauntlett is a Professor in the School of Media, Arts and Design at the University of Westminster, where he is also the School's Co-Director of Research. He is the author of several books, including: Creative Explorations (2007, Media, Gender and Identity: An Introduction (2nd edition 2008, Making is Connecting (2011, and Making Media Studies (2015. He has made a number of popular online resources, videos and playthings, and has pioneered creative research and workshop methods. He is external examiner for Information Experience Design at the Royal College of Art, London.

  10. Application Actuation Trade Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    32 RCA PRICE-L Podel Calculated 0 & S Values 138 33 RCA PRICE LCC Summery - Typical LRU 139 34 Airplane Actuation Trade Study LCC Summary 140 35...results achieved can be duplicated by a user. The RCA PRICE Podel calculates the RDTSE. Production cost, and creates the YiDF file for use in the PCA...PR ICE L). Some of the basic program ground rules for this study were as follows: RCA - PRICE Cost Podel RCA - PRICE L Model Prototype Hardware 10

  11. Study of estuarine dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genders, S.

    1979-01-01

    A case study of a shallow, well mixed fjord illustrates the use of radioactive and an activable tracer. An instantaneous injection of the rare earth lanthanum was used as an activable tracer to determine residence-time and internal recirculation in the fjord system. An instantaneous injection of bromine-82 was used to investigate tae bypass of water from a harbour area through a power plant cooling water system to a partly enclosed basin of the fjord. Instantaneous releases of bromine-82 were further used for short time studies of the primary spread and transport of river water discharged to the inner section of the fjord system. (Author) [pt

  12. Regional Studies Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parzyck, D.C.

    1978-01-01

    Progress is reported on methodology studies with regard to hydrologic analysis; atmospheric transport; forest growth models; distribution of sensitive species; agricultural analysis; and environmental objectives in energy facility siting. National coal utilization assessment studies are reported with regard to technology characterization; air quality impacts; water resources; regional characterization; forest impacts; coal extraction impacts on sensitive animal species; and health impacts. The following special projects were carried out: water resource aspects of inexhaustible technology deployment; ecological constraints on the rapidly expanded use of coal; and U.S. coal and the global carbon problem

  13. Studies in Rheoencephalography (REG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Bodo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an overview of rheoencephalography (REG – electrical impedance measurements of the brain – and summarizes past and ongoing research to develop medical applications of REG for neuro-critical care and for primary prevention of stroke and cardiovascular disease. The availability of advanced electronics and computation has opened up the potential for use of REG technology as a noninvasive, continuous and inexpensive brain monitor for military and civilian applications. The clinical background information presented here introduces physiological and clinical environments where REG has potential for use in research and clinical settings. REG studies over the past three decades have involved in vitro and in vivo groups (animal and human, including more than 1500 measurements and related electronic and computational results and practical applications. In vitro studies helped researchers understand the flow/volume relationship between Doppler ultrasound and electrical impedance signals and supported development of REG data processing methods. In animal studies, REG was used to monitor the lower limit of cerebral blood flow (CBF autoregulation (AR using a newly developed algorithm. These animal studies also confirmed correlations between REG and measurements of carotid flow (CF and intracranial pressure (ICP. Human studies confirmed the applicability of REG for detecting cerebrovascular alteration, demonstrating the usefulness of REG in the field of stroke/cardio-vascular disease prevention. In these studies, REG was compared to known stroke risk factors and to results obtained using carotid ultrasound measurements. An intelligent REG system (Cerberus has been developed for primary stroke prevention. In these studies, the biologically relevant variables of the REG signal were pulse amplitude (minimum – maximum distance and duration of the anacrotic (rising portion of the REG pulse wave. The principal limitation of REG for

  14. Reporting of teratology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Paul C; Reynaud, Lucie

    2013-01-01

    The regulatory toxicology report is an unusual document that requires a particular skill to write. The report must be clear, accurate, concise, and focused. A clear and direct writing style is required. The end-users of the report will hope to find the information they seek with as little effort as possible. Few, or none, will read the entire document. The author should aim to appease the user by obliging him to read as little text and turn as few pages as possible. This chapter gives tips and guidance on how to present the experimental data and write the narrative text in the final study report for a teratology study.

  15. Biological study in schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Kiyoto; Yoshikawa, Akane; Natsubori, Takanobu; Koike, Shinsuke; Nagai, Tatsuya; Araki, Tsuyoshi; Nishimura, Yukika; Iwamoto, Kazuya

    2012-01-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with enormous morbidity, mortality, personal disability, and social cost. Although considerable research on schizophrenia has been performed, the etiology of this disease has not been fully elucidated. In recent years, imaging and genetic technologies have been developed dramatically. Disturbances in glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurotransmission may underlie the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. We attempted an integrative review, of studies pertaining to recent advances of schizophrenia research with a focus on neuroimaging and genetic studies. Additionally, we present the preliminary findings of the clinical research in our outpatient unit, specialized for early intervention, at the University of Tokyo Hospital. (author)

  16. CTR plasma engineering studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, G.H.

    1990-01-01

    The main focus of the work by the Fusion Plasma Engineering Group at the University during the prior contract year involved a study of fusion ash (helium) effects on burn efficiency and on potential ways to control ash buildup. This work has wide application to a variety of fusion reactor concepts, but the immediate application for the present work is in the ARIES tokamak reactor design study now being undertaken by a national design team headed by the UCLA. The examples presented here largely deal with the ARIES-I design which is a D-T device operating in the first instability regime

  17. Throughput rate study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, L.; Bailey, W.; Gottlieb, P.; Emami, F.; Fleming, M.; Robertson, D.

    1993-01-01

    The Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) Management and Operating (M ampersand O) Contractor, has completed a study to analyze system wide impacts of operating the CRWMS at varying throughput rates, including the 3000 MTU/year rate which has been assumed in the past. Impacts of throughput rate on all phases of the CRWMS operations (acceptance, transportation, storage and disposal) were evaluated. The results of the study indicate that a range from 3000 to 5000 MTU/year is preferred, based on system cost per MTU of SNF emplaced and logistics constraints

  18. Methodology of site studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caries, J.C.; Hugon, J.; Grauby, A.

    1980-01-01

    This methodology consists in an essentially dynamic, estimated and follow-up analysis of the impact of discharges on all the environment compartments, whether natural or not, that play a part in the protection of man and his environment. It applies at two levels, to wit: the choice of site, or the detailed study of the site selected. Two examples of its application will be developed, namely: at the choice of site level in the case of marine sites, and of the detailed study level of the chosen site in that of a riverside site [fr

  19. ARIES tokamak reactor study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, D.; Embrechts, M.

    1990-07-01

    This is a status report on technical progress relative to the tasks identified for the fifth year of Grant No. FG02-85-ER52118. The ARIES tokamak reactor study is a multi-institutional effort to develop several visions of the tokamak as an attractive fusion reactor with enhanced economic, safety, and environmental features. The ARIES study is being coordinated by UCLA and involves a number of institutions, including RPI. The RPI group has been pursuing the following areas of research in the context of the ARIES-I design effort: MHD equilibrium and stability analyses; plasma-edge modeling and blanket materials issues. Progress in these areas is summarized herein

  20. Camp Marmal Flood Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    was simulated by means of a broad - crested weir built into the topography of the mesh. There is 0.5 m of freeboard and the width of the weir is 30 m...ER D C/ CH L TR -1 2- 5 Camp Marmal Flood Study Co as ta l a nd H yd ra ul ic s La bo ra to ry Jeremy A. Sharp , Steve H. Scott...Camp Marmal Flood Study Jeremy A. Sharp , Steve H. Scott, Mark R. Jourdan, and Gaurav Savant Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory U.S. Army Engineer

  1. Alecto 2 - interaction studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunet, J.P.; Clouet d'Orval, Ch.; Mougniot, J.C.; Penet, F.

    1965-01-01

    Weak interactions were experimentally studies with the tank of the critical assembly Alecto II and one, two or three bottles containing solutions of various concentrations. In particular, was studied the validity of certain classical assumptions, shielding effects, screening and semi-reflexion effects, importance of thermal coupling. The method of the 'k eff , solid angle' is shown to apply to such a system. The determination by divergence and pulsed neutron technique of the reactivity related to a millimeter of solution level affords the obtention of critical heights in terms of reactivity. (authors) [fr

  2. Rockwell support studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, L.E.

    1978-01-01

    The Rockwell Hanford Operations (RHO) supported ecological studies are designed to clarify ecosystem structure and functioning as pertaining to the management of radioactive waste control areas. To date, emphasis has been placed on characterizing the abiotic and biotic components of these areas, resulting in publication of over 20 PNL documents and several scientific articles pertinent to the 200 Area Waste Management Program. Results are reported from studies on the food habits of ground-dwelling beetles, mule deer, and American Coots inhabiting the areas, and the radiation dose received by rodents inhabiting waste management areas

  3. CCNA Wireless Study Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Lammle, Todd

    2010-01-01

    A complete guide to the CCNA Wireless exam by leading networking authority Todd Lammle. The CCNA Wireless certification is the most respected entry-level certification in this rapidly growing field. Todd Lammle is the undisputed authority on networking, and this book focuses exclusively on the skills covered in this Cisco certification exam. The CCNA Wireless Study Guide joins the popular Sybex study guide family and helps network administrators advance their careers with a highly desirable certification.: The CCNA Wireless certification is the most respected entry-level wireless certification

  4. A longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Kristen, Astrid

    2010-01-01

    Does playing violent video games increase aggressive behavior over time or is it aggressive children who increasingly seek out (and play) these violent video games? To study such long-term effects a longitudinal design is necessary. Within a field study in a large German city (Kinder, Computer, Hobby, Lernen – KUHL, Freie Universtität Berlin) about 115 elementary school boys attending in the beginning (t1) classrooms of the third and fourth grade and twelve months later (t2) classrooms of the...

  5. Study of genital lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Kumar B

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of one hundred patients (75 males and 25 females age ranged from 17-65 years with genital lesions attending the STD clinic of Bowring and LC Hospitals Bangalore constituted the study group. Based on clinical features, the study groups were classified as syphilis (39, chancroid (30, herpes genitolis (13, condylomato lato (9, LGV (7t condylomata acuminata (5, genital scabies (3, granuloma inguinole (2 and genital candidiasis (1. In 68% microbiological findings confirmed the clinical diagnosis. Of the 100 cases 13% and 2% were positive for HIV antibodies and HbsAg respectively.

  6. Morphing Terminology Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Stuart J.; Brockman, Fred J.; Hart, Michelle L.; Engel, David W.; Valentine, Nancy B.; Calapristi, Augustin J.

    2010-06-28

    This study investigates methods of automatically identifying and characterizing significant transitions in term usage over time. Within scientific literature, the occurrence of terms reflects the use of technologies and techniques as well as the study of specific species and materials. Transitions in terminology usage may be a result of vocabulary standardization or specialization in which terms are replaced with their shorter form. They may also be a result of new applications, combinations, alternatives, or interests that result in the appearance of new or existing terminology in unexpected contexts.

  7. Case study - Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, E.

    1986-01-01

    Antecedents and experience of nuclear activities in Argentina; the Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA). First development and research activities. Research reactors and radioisotopes plants. Health physics and safety regulations. - Feasibility studies for the first nuclear power plant. Awarding the first plant CNA I (Atucha I). Relevant data related to the different project stages. Plant performance. - Feasibility study for the second nuclear power plant. Awarding the second plant CNE (Central Nuclear Embalse). Relevant data related to established targets. Differences compared with the first station targets. Local participation. Plant performance. (orig./GL)

  8. Critical cyberculture studies

    CERN Document Server

    Silver, David; Jones, Steve

    2006-01-01

    Starting in the early 1990s, journalists and scholars began responding to and trying to take account of new technologies and their impact on our lives. By the end of the decade, the full-fledged study of cyberculture had arrived. Today, there exists a large body of critical work on the subject, with cutting-edge studies probing beyond the mere existence of virtual communities and online identities to examine the social, cultural, and economic relationships that take place online. Taking stock of the exciting work that is being done and positing what cyberculture's future might look like, Criti

  9. Solid State Studies Section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1974-12-31

    Research is summarized on fuel, fertile, and cladding materials. Results of studies in the field of solid state sciences are also reported. It was found during the studies on the thermal diffusion release of /sup 133/Xe from irradiated thoria--urania powders that during prolonged annealing at high temperatures, there were several sudden burst releases of /sup 133/Xe as a function of time. These sudden bursts appear to be related to the particle size of the powders. Studies on the phase composition of U/sub 3/O/sub 8//su established that the phase obtained at room temperature after heating at 850 deg K is always oxygen deficient. Results of studies on the different modifications of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ indicated that the so-called delta-phase has a crystal structure almost identical with the beta-phase, yet there were differences in the heats of transition of each of these phases to the alpha-U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ phase at 130 deg C. Studies on fast neutron damage in stainless steel were initiated and results related to damage by void formation were obtained even when the fluencies were only moderately high. Studies on the phase transformations in solids brought out the unusual phase transition behavior of KNO/sub 3/. It was established that the phase transformation attributed to the orthorhombic (II) to the trigonal (I) transition at 129 deg C is essentially a 2-step transition. Results of differential scanning colorimeter (DSC) studies also revealed a peculiar feature which is as yet not understood, namely that on cooling, differential thermal analysis (DTA) showed a III to II phase transition; this is not seen in the DSC. The capabilities of the DSC technique to delineate temperatures of magnetic transitions were demonstrated by studying the transitions in a number of standard substances (metals, alloys, and compounds). In studies on KMnF/sub 3/, it was further demonstrated that the DSC technique is superior in measuring and detecting the heats of crystallographic and

  10. Case Studies - Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about several case studies for cervical cancer screening and management.

  11. Studies on continuous fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, K

    1958-01-01

    Continuous fermentation of molasses with a combined system of agitated vessel and flow pipe is studied. A new apparatus was designed. The rate of the fermentation was faster with this apparatus than with the former apparatus which was composed of two vessels.

  12. Electron beam diagnostics study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garganne, P.

    1989-08-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a study on beam diagnostics, using carbon wire scanners and optical transition radiation (DTR) monitors. The main consideration consists in the material selection, taking their thermal properties and their effect on the beam into account [fr

  13. Positron imaging studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budinger, T.F.; Ganz, E.; Moyer, B.R.; Yano, Y.; Mathis, C.A.; Friedland, R.P.

    1982-01-01

    Several methods for the noninvasive evaluation of the metabolism and blood perfusion of brain and heart are reviewed. Heart muscle perfusion can be followed by measuring the accumulation of rubidium-82 simultaneously with the measurement of the arterial input. Deoxyglucose labelled with fluorine-18 was used to study the role of insulin in deoxyglucose accumulation

  14. Nuclear forensics case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedchenko, Vitaly

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this presentation is to share three case studies from the Institute of Transuranium Elements (ITU) which describe the application of nuclear forensics to events where nuclear and other radioactive material was found to be out of regulatory control

  15. Studies in Chemical Dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabitz, Herschel; Ho, Tak-San

    2003-01-01

    This final report draws together the research carried from February, 1986 through January, 2003 concerning a series of topics in chemical dynamics. The specific areas of study include molecular collisions, chemical kinetics, data inversion to extract potential energy surfaces, and model reduction of complex kinetic systems

  16. Polysomnography (Sleep Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this stage, your brain waves, as recorded by electroencephalography (EEG), slow down considerably. Your eyes don't move ... necessary, oxygen also may be used during the study to bolster your ... for PAP or oxygen in case your doctor would like to prescribe these for ...

  17. Post commissioning noise study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heraud, P.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation described a wind farm post-commissioning study conducted at a wind farm owned by Helimax Energy Inc. The farm was located in a partly-forested, partly cultivated region in Quebec that featured gently rolling hills. Over 600 dwellings were located within 2 km of the wind farm, and 44 dwellings were within the wind farm's boundaries. The noise impact assessments were conducted at various points near the wind farm. The wind farm was designed using an International Standards Organization (ISO) noise propagation model and a 40 dBA to provide adequate setbacks. The study was conducted using 10 days of continuous measurements at selected points of a wind farm. Points of reception included points from 650 m to 800 m. Noise over 2 km was not thought to be contributed by the wind turbine. The nearest dwelling was 512 m from one of the farm's wind turbines. The study also considered ground factor, temperature, relative humidity, and the height of the receptors. Quebec noise level limits are 40 dBA at night, and 45 dBA during the day. Noise level limits are independent of wind speed. Measured noise contributions over 40 dBA were not observed during the measurement program. The wind turbines were only audible for 1 night out of the 30 night study period. It was concluded that the ISO noise propagation model is a reliable tool for conducting noise impact assessments. tabs., figs

  18. Acid Rain Study Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunger, Carolyn; And Others

    Acid rain is a complex, worldwide environmental problem. This study guide is intended to aid teachers of grades 4-12 to help their students understand what acid rain is, why it is a problem, and what possible solutions exist. The document contains specific sections on: (1) the various terms used in conjunction with acid rain (such as acid…

  19. Fusion energy studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The following topics are considered: (1) cryosorption vacuum pumping for fusion reactors, (2) TNS support studies, (3) tritium recovery from irradiated Li-Al and SAP, (4) actinide oxides, nitrides, and carbides, and (5) transition metal-actinide-C phase equilibria

  20. Eastern Frequency Response Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, N.W.; Shao, M.; Pajic, S.; D' Aquila, R.

    2013-05-01

    This study was specifically designed to investigate the frequency response of the Eastern Interconnection that results from large loss-of-generation events of the type targeted by the North American Electric Reliability Corp. Standard BAL-003 Frequency Response and Frequency Bias Setting (NERC 2012a), under possible future system conditions with high levels of wind generation.

  1. Solid waste study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, Paul G.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to study the solid waste issues brought about by a Type C Investigation; ''Disposal of Inappropriate Material in the Los Alamos County Landfill'' (May 28, 1993). The study was completed in August 1995 by Coleman Research Corporation, under subcontract number 405810005-Y for Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The study confirmed the issues identified in the Type C investigation, and also ascertained further issues or problems. During the course of this study two incidents involving hazardous waste resulted in the inappropriate disposal of the waste. An accidental spill, on June 8, 1995, at one of Laboratory buildings was not handled correctly, and ended up in the LAC Landfill. Hazardous waste was disposed of in a solid waste container and sent to the Los Alamos County Landfill. An attempt to locate the hazardous waste at the LAC Landfill was not successful. The second incident involving hazardous waste was discovered by the FSS-8, during a random dumpster surveillance. An interim dumpster program managed by FSS-8 discovered hazardous waste and copper chips in the solid waste, on August 9, 1995. The hazardous waste and copper chips would have been transported to the LAC Landfill if the audit team had not brought the problem to the awareness of the facility waste management personnel

  2. Punta Higuero environmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, E.D.; Youngbluth, M.J.; Nutt, M.E.; Yeaman, M.N.; Yoshioka, P.; Canoy, M.J.

    1975-01-01

    Site selection surveys and environmental research studies of seven coastal sites in Puerto Rico for construction of power generating facilities were carried out. Data are presented on the physical, chemical, and geological parameters of the Punta Higuero site, and the ecological parameters of zooplankton, benthic invertebrates, and fish communities. Plant associations are included. (U.S.)

  3. [Internal migration studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stpiczynski, T

    1986-10-01

    Recent research on internal migration in Poland is reviewed. The basic sources of data, consisting of censuses or surveys, are first described. The author discusses the relationship between migration studies and other sectors of the national economy, and particularly the relationship between migration and income.

  4. Studies of Giardia lamblia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-10-05

    isoenzyme analysis of 19 axenic strains isolated from symptomatic and asymptomatic patients in Mexico . Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 83 : 644-646...antibody studies with agents of Varicella and Herpes Zoster propagated in vitro. Proe. Soc. Exptl. BioI. Med . 86 :7 89-794. Woo, P. and G.S. Panayi

  5. Nippon Storm Study design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kurita

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of the clinical aspects of electrical storm (E-storms in patients with implantable cardiac shock devices (ICSDs: ICDs or cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillator [CRT-D] may provide important information for clinical management of patients with ICSDs. The Nippon Storm Study was organized by the Japanese Heart Rhythm Society (JHRS and Japanese Society of Electrocardiology and was designed to prospectively collect a variety of data from patients with ICSDs, with a focus on the incidence of E-storms and clinical conditions for the occurrence of an E-storm. Forty main ICSD centers in Japan are participating in the present study. From 2002, the JHRS began to collect ICSD patient data using website registration (termed Japanese cardiac defibrillator therapy registration, or JCDTR. This investigation aims to collect data on and investigate the general parameters of patients with ICSDs, such as clinical backgrounds of the patients, purposes of implantation, complications during the implantation procedure, and incidence of appropriate and inappropriate therapies from the ICSD. The Nippon Storm Study was planned as a sub-study of the JCDTR with focus on E-storms. We aim to achieve registration of more than 1000 ICSD patients and complete follow-up data collection, with the assumption of a 5–10% incidence of E-storms during the 2-year follow-up.

  6. Techno-economic Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdsson, Halldór Matthias; Point, J.C.; Million, P.

    A techno-economic model for analysing and comparing broadband deployment strategies has been established. The resulting simulation model can compare Capital Expenditure (CAPEX) of dominating broadband technologies in different types of demographic areas. The study reveals the competitiveness...... and applicability of different access technologies in the future broadband market as well as providing sensitivity analysis of the most influential factors controlling market development....

  7. A Prospective Observational Study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: This was a prospective, questionnaire-based observational study. Printed questionnaires were distributed to the visitors of medical, surgical and neurosurgical ICU patients to determine awareness of basic infection control practices among visitors to an ICU. All the ICU staff, including nurses, doctors, consultant ...

  8. Steam explosion studies review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Moon Kyu; Kim, Hee Dong

    1999-03-01

    When a cold liquid is brought into contact with a molten material with a temperature significantly higher than the liquid boiling point, an explosive interaction due to sudden fragmentation of the melt and rapid evaporation of the liquid may take place. This phenomenon is referred to as a steam explosion or vapor explosion. Depending upon the amount of the melt and the liquid involved, the mechanical energy released during a vapor explosion can be large enough to cause serious destruction. In hypothetical severe accidents which involve fuel melt down, subsequent interactions between the molten fuel and coolant may cause steam explosion. This process has been studied by many investigators in an effort to assess the likelihood of containment failure which leads to large scale release of radioactive materials to the environment. In an effort to understand the phenomenology of steam explosion, extensive studies has been performed so far. The report presents both experimental and analytical studies on steam explosion. As for the experimental studies, both small scale tests which involve usually less than 20 g of high temperature melt and medium/large scale tests which more than 1 kg of melt is used are reviewed. For the modelling part of steam explosions, mechanistic modelling as well as thermodynamic modelling is reviewed. (author)

  9. Fitzmaurice Voicework Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Lynn; Nayak, Sadhana

    2015-11-01

    A repeated-measures pilot study was used to investigate acoustic changes in the voices of participants in a Fitzmaurice Voicework (FV) teacher certification program. Maximum phonation time (MPT) was also measured. Eleven participants with no reported voice problems were studied. Pretraining and posttraining recordings were made of each participant. Measures of MPT were made, and the recordings were analyzed for jitter, shimmer, and noise-to-harmonics ratio (NHR). The measure of effect size for MPT was moderate, and there was an overall increase in MPT from pretraining to posttraining, with 70% of participants showing an increase in MPT. The measure of effect sizes for jitter, shimmer, and NHR were small, with measurements showing no significant changes from pretraining to posttraining. There were indications that FV training may have positive outcomes for actors and professional voice users, particularly in increasing MPT. Further studies with larger subject groups are needed to investigate the significance of the increase in MPT noted in this study and to test whether FV training can help to lower rates of shimmer and jitter. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Nuclear fuel cycle studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    For the metal-matrix encapsulation of radioactive waste, brittle-fracture, leach-rate, and migration studies are being conducted. For fuel reprocessing, annular and centrifugal contactors are being tested and modeled. For the LWBR proof-of-breeding project, the full-scale shear and the prototype dissolver were procured and tested. 5 figures

  11. The Study of Butterflies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 7. The Study of Butterflies - Congregations, Courtship and Migration. Peter Smetacek. Series Article Volume 7 Issue 7 July 2002 pp 6-14. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  12. Electric field sensor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, R.D.; Parks, S.

    1977-01-01

    Above-ground intrusion sensors are reviewed briefly. Buried wire sensors are next considered; feasibility studies were conducted. A triangular system of an overhead transmitter wire exciting two buried sensor wires was developed and tested. It failed sometimes to detect a man making a broad jump. A differential receiver was developed to solve this problem

  13. Diagnostic studies in amyloidosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazenberg, Bouke Pier Cornelis

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis two diagnostic techniques are studied in amyloidosis. Systemic amyloidosis is characterized by deposition of amyloid fibrils (tiny fibres) throughout the body resulting in damage of vital organs. Amyloid can be detected in a tissue specimen stained with Congo red: red-stained amyloid

  14. SCA12 case study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 88; Issue 1. Utilizing linkage disequilibrium information from Indian Genome Variation Database for mapping mutations: SCA12 case study. Samira Bahl Ikhlak Ahmed The Indian Genome Variation Consortium Mitali Mukerji. Research Article Volume 88 Issue 1 April 2009 pp 55- ...

  15. A Study in Phenomenalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giles, James

    Phenomenalism is a philosophical theory of perception involving the idea that statements about material objects can be explained in terms of statements about actual and possible sense experiences. In this study James Giles explores the development of phenomenalism through the works of Locke...

  16. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ergun Kuru; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Len Volk; Mark Pickell; Evren Ozbayoglu; Barkim Demirdal; Paco Vieira; Affonso Lourenco

    1999-10-15

    This report includes a review of the progress made in ACTF Flow Loop development and research during 90 days pre-award period (May 15-July 14, 1999) and the following three months after the project approval date (July15-October 15, 1999) The report presents information on the following specific subjects; (a) Progress in Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility design and development, (b) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Flow of Synthetic Drilling Fluids Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (c) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (d) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Muds Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (e) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (f) Progress report on the instrumentation tasks (Tasks 11 and 12) (g) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with oil and service company members.

  17. Fuel development studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, F.

    1986-12-01

    This paper describes the main lines of the studies carried out to develop the Fast Neutron Fuel Element, from the ''SPX1-first load'' version, to progress to high performance which will be required for the project 1500 and for the fast neutron series [fr

  18. Gold induced apoptsis study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Christoffer

    2008-01-01

    on a macrophage cell lines and automated image processing.   Results   Cell apoptosis study Three successful CSLM counters were constructed and one unsuccessful AMG counter were constructed for automated processing and counting. One successful sorting macro were also constructed for easy directory manipulations...

  19. Australian Film Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Myles P.

    Although Australia had a vigorous film industry in the silent film era, it was stifled in the 1930s when United States and British interests bought up the Australian distribution channels and closed down the indigenous industry. However, the industry and film study have undergone a renaissance since the advent of the Labor government in 1972,…

  20. COPEWORK - COPESTRESS Workplace Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladegaard, Yun Katrine; Netterstrøm, Bo; Langer, Roy

    2012-01-01

    "COPEWORK – COPESTRESS Workplace Study" er en undersøgelse af hvad der sker på arbejdspladser, når en medarbejder sygemeldes med stress. I undersøgelsen indgik 64 ledere og arbejdsmiljørepræsentanter fra fra 38 danske arbejdspladser. Alle arbejdspladser havde haft minimum én stresssygemeldt...

  1. Low dose epidemiologic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    In this chapter the BEIR committee has reviewed low-dose irradiation studies since the BEIR III report. They have considered the carcinogenic effectiveness of low-LET in populations exposed to radiation from a number of different sources: diagnostic radiography; fallout from nuclear weapons testing; nuclear installations; radiation in the workplace and high levels of natural background radiation

  2. Fiction and Organization Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savage, P. (Paul); J.P. Cornelissen (Joep); Franck, H. (Henrika)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe topic of fiction is in itself not new to the domain of organization studies. However, prior research has often separated fiction from the reality of organizations and used fiction metaphorically or as a figurative source to describe and interpret organizations. In this article, we go

  3. Planning for study abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, L H; Hermann, C P

    1994-01-01

    There is more to planning for study abroad than buying airplane tickets. Providing a successful course away from the host institution requires a great deal of planning by the educator. This planning includes course development, budget, marketing, travel, housing, food, and entertainment. Careful preparation provides both the educator and student a unique and enriching experience that goes beyond the traditional course.

  4. Rockwell support studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwell, L.L.; Cline, J.F.; Gano, K.A.; Warren, J.L.; Rogers, L.E.

    1981-01-01

    Studies performed for the Rockwell Hanford Operations (RHO) were designed to either identify the role of biota in the uptake and transport of radionuclides from low-level waste management areas or design and/or evaluate methods for reducing biological transport of radionuclides away from waste management areas

  5. Advanced commercial tokamak study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, S.L.; Dabiri, A.E.; Keeton, D.C.; Brown, T.G.; Bussell, G.T.

    1985-12-01

    Advanced commercial tokamak studies were performed by the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC) as a participant in the Tokamak Power Systems Studies (TPSS) project coordinated by the Office of Fusion Energy. The FEDC studies addressed the issues of tokamak reactor cost, size, and complexity. A scoping study model was developed to determine the effect of beta on tokamak economics, and it was found that a competitive cost of electricity could be achieved at a beta of 10 to 15%. The implications of operating at a beta of up to 25% were also addressed. It was found that the economics of fusion, like those of fission, improve as unit size increases. However, small units were found to be competitive as elements of a multiplex plant, provided that unit cost and maintenance time reductions are realized for the small units. The modular tokamak configuration combined several new approaches to develop a less complex and lower cost reactor. The modular design combines the toroidal field coil with the reactor structure, locates the primary vacuum boundary at the reactor cell wall, and uses a vertical assembly and maintenance approach. 12 refs., 19 figs

  6. Studies of exotic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelique, J.C.; Orr, N.A.

    1997-01-01

    The study of the nuclei far off stability valley is of much interest for testing the nuclear models established for the stable nuclei but also for astrophysics to understand the nucleosynthesis. Experiments aim to measure the mass and lifetime, to build the decay schemes and also to study the structure and the properties of these nuclei. The radioactive beam group focused its research on light neutron-rich nuclei having a halo neutron structure. Mass measurements in N ∼ Z nuclei namely in A ∼ 60-80 proton-rich nuclei, important for understanding the rp process, are mentioned, as well as in nuclei in the 100 Sn region. In the newly obtained 26 O and 28 O nuclei the lifetimes, the probabilities of emission of one for more neutrons were determined. The data analysis has permitted to determine also for the first time the lifetimes of 27,29 F and 30 Ne. Studies of nuclei in the 100 Sn region, near the proton drip line in the ground and isomeric states are now under way. The spectroscopy (energy levels, gamma emissions, etc.) of the neutron-rich nuclei produced by the 36 S fragmentation has been carried out in 31 Ne, 17 B and 29 F. Studies by Coulomb excitation of the 2 + excited states and associated probability B (E2) in O, Ne, Ni and Zn are now analysed

  7. Soil washing treatability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krstich, M.

    1995-12-01

    Soil washing was identified as a viable treatment process option for remediating soil at the FEMP Environmental Management Project (FEMP). Little information relative to the specific application and potential effectiveness of the soil washing process exists that applies to the types of soil at the FEMP. To properly evaluate this process option in conjunction with the ongoing FEMP Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS), a treatability testing program was necessary to provide a foundation for a detailed technical evaluation of the viability of the process. In August 1991, efforts were initiated to develop a work plan and experimental design for investigating the effectiveness of soil washing on FEMP soil. In August 1992, the final Treatability Study Work Plan for Operable Unit 5: Soil Washing (DOE 1992) was issued. This document shall be referenced throughout the remainder of this report as the Treatability Study Work Plan (TSWP). The purpose of this treatability study was to generate data to support initial screening and the detailed analysis of alternatives for the Operable Unit 5 FS

  8. Radioactive waste repository study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    This is the second part of a report of a preliminary study for AECL. It considers the requirements for an underground waste repository for the disposal of wastes produced by the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Program. The following topics are discussed with reference to the repository: 1) geotechnical assessment, 2) hydrogeology and waste containment, 3) thermal loading and 4) rock mechanics. (author)

  9. Asian Australian Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars

    2008-01-01

    abstrakt til konferencepaper, der diskuterer forholdet mellem ASAL, der i mange år har tegnet australske studier med hovedvægten på litteraturstudier, og AASRN, der repræsenterer asiatisk-australske studier. AASRN er langt mere populærkulturelt, cultural studies, og tværdisciplinært orienteret, u...

  10. NGLW RCRA Storage Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, R.J.; Ochoa, R.; Fritz, K.D.; Craig, D.W.

    2000-01-01

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory contains radioactive liquid waste in underground storage tanks at the INTEC Tank Farm Facility (TFF). INTEC is currently treating the waste by evaporation to reduce the liquid volume for continued storage, and by calcination to reduce and convert the liquid to a dry waste form for long-term storage in calcine bins. Both treatment methods and activities in support of those treatment operations result in Newly Generated Liquid Waste (NGLW) being sent to TFF. The storage tanks in the TFF are underground, contained in concrete vaults with instrumentation, piping, transfer jets, and managed sumps in case of any liquid accumulation in the vault. The configuration of these tanks is such that Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations apply. The TFF tanks were assessed several years ago with respect to the RCRA regulations and they were found to be deficient. This study considers the configuration of the current tanks and the RCRA deficiencies identified for each. The study identifies four potential methods and proposes a means of correcting the deficiencies. The cost estimates included in the study account for construction cost; construction methods to minimize work exposure to chemical hazards, radioactive contamination, and ionizing radiation hazards; project logistics; and project schedule. The study also estimates the tank volumes benefit associated with each corrective action to support TFF liquid waste management planning

  11. Dimethyl Ether Injection Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorenson, Spencer C.; Glensvig, Michael; Abata, Duane L.

    1998-01-01

    A series of preliminary investigations has been performed in order to investigate the behavior of DME in a diesel injection environment. These studies have in-cluded visual observations of the spray penetration and angles for high pressure injection into Nitrogen using conventional jerk pump inje...

  12. Teaching Biblical Studies Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delamarter, Stephen; Gravett, Sandra L.; Ulrich, Daniel W.; Nysse, Richard W.; Polaski, Sandra Hack

    2011-01-01

    In this edited transcript of a panel at the Society of Biblical Literature (November 23, 2009, Boston, Massachusetts), five Bible scholars give brief presentations on various challenges and opportunities encountered when teaching academic biblical studies courses online in both undergraduate and theological education contexts. Each presentation is…

  13. CTR plasma engineering studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, G.H.

    1991-01-01

    Ash (e.g. thermalized helium from D-T) buildup in a tokamak can potentially prevent ignition and seriously degrade the fusion energy gain from driven system. This problem is most pronounced as the ratio of particle/energy confinement time increases towards the neoclassical limit. Yet much improved confinement of the fuel ions is desirable for a fusion reactor. The goals of the work described here were two fold: to study the effect of helium buildup on the energy balance for a tokamak, and consider methods of active control that might be employed to alleviate the problem. We examine ash buildup effect for both D-T and D- 3 He systems. Most examples used apply to the ARIES 1 D-T reactor design and to the ARIES 3 D- 3 He design since part of this was in support of these two designs. Then we report on brief studies of two potentially attractive control methods, namely controlled sawtooth and fishbone instabilities. The concept is that sawteeth or fishbones would be used on purpose periodically in order to ''flush'' out excess ash from the fusion core. Both methods are shown to feasible and attractive. More study is needed, however, since the phenomenona in which are physically complex. Still the pay off, namely, reduced ash buildup, is exceedingly important so that such studies desires strong attention

  14. Rockwell support studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwell, L.L.

    1980-01-01

    Studies performed for the Rockwell Hanford Operations (RHO) were designed to either (1) identify the role of biota in the uptake and transport of radionuclides from low-level waste managemnt areas or (2) design and/or evaluate methods for reducing biological transport of radionuclides away from waste management areas. The completion and publication of documents reporting the results of previous studies was also emphasized this fiscal year. Field studies were designed to characterize insect and plant communities occupying low-level waste management areas and to evaluate pond ecosystem response to herbicide application. Laboratory studies involved the examination of (1) germination response in plant species proposed for surface stabilization on burial grounds, (2) a synthetic polymer matrix as a carrier and delivery system for phytotoxins to act as a barrier to plant root penetration of shallow-land low-level waste burial sites, and (3) factors responsible for differences in radionuclide availability to plants resulting from the chemical equilibration of radionuclides occurring under field conditions

  15. Studying Variation in Tunes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, B.; van Kranenburg, P.

    2014-01-01

    Variation in music can be caused by different phenomena: conscious, creative manipulation of musical ideas; but also unconscious variation during music recall. It is the latter phenomenon that we wish to study: variation which occurs in oral transmission, in which a melody is taught without the help

  16. Why Study Classical Languages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Samuel

    This speech emphasizes the significance of living literatures and living cultures which owe a direct debt to the Romans and the Greeks from whom they can trace their origins. After commenting on typical rejoinders to the question "Why study classical languages?" and poking fun at those who advance jaded, esoteric responses, the author dispels the…

  17. Radioactive waste repository study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    This is the third part of a report of a preliminary study for AECL. It summarizes the topics considered in reports AECL-6188-1 and AECL-6188-2 as requirements for an undergpound repository for disposal of wastes produced by the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Program. (author)

  18. Entrepreneurship and Process Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Daniel; Holt, Robin; Steyaert, Chris

    2015-01-01

    and potential of processual approaches to studying, researching and practising entrepreneurship. The articles in the issue attest to an increasing sensitivity to processual thinking. We argue that appreciating entrepreneurial phenomena processually opens up the field to an understanding of entrepreneurship...... as organizational creation – not simply the creation of new organizations but also experiments in new organizational form....

  19. NGLW RCRA Storage Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. J. Waters; R. Ochoa; K. D. Fritz; D. W. Craig

    2000-06-01

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory contains radioactive liquid waste in underground storage tanks at the INTEC Tank Farm Facility (TFF). INTEC is currently treating the waste by evaporation to reduce the liquid volume for continued storage, and by calcination to reduce and convert the liquid to a dry waste form for long-term storage in calcine bins. Both treatment methods and activities in support of those treatment operations result in Newly Generated Liquid Waste (NGLW) being sent to TFF. The storage tanks in the TFF are underground, contained in concrete vaults with instrumentation, piping, transfer jets, and managed sumps in case of any liquid accumulation in the vault. The configuration of these tanks is such that Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations apply. The TFF tanks were assessed several years ago with respect to the RCRA regulations and they were found to be deficient. This study considers the configuration of the current tanks and the RCRA deficiencies identified for each. The study identifies four potential methods and proposes a means of correcting the deficiencies. The cost estimates included in the study account for construction cost; construction methods to minimize work exposure to chemical hazards, radioactive contamination, and ionizing radiation hazards; project logistics; and project schedule. The study also estimates the tank volumes benefit associated with each corrective action to support TFF liquid waste management planning.

  20. Why Indigenous Nations Studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Robert; Yellow Bird, Michael

    2000-01-01

    The development of a new Indigenous Nations Studies program at the University of Kansas is described. Success depended on a critical mass of Indigenous and non-Indigenous faculty and students that had a sense of political and social justice and understood the need for institutional change. The biggest challenge was countering the entrenched…

  1. SOFC interface studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Torben; Bay, Lasse; West, Keld

    performance and inductive hysteresis phenomena often observed in SOFC kinetic studies (\\ref{TJ01}). Fig.\\,\\ref{cath_laser} shows the YSZ surface developed below a Pt point electrode polarised at -0.10\\, V at $1000^\\circ$C for a period of 85 days. The structural as well as the compositional changes...

  2. Replication studies in longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varcasia, O; Garasto, S; Rizza, T

    2001-01-01

    In Danes we replicated the 3'APOB-VNTR gene/longevity association study previously carried out in Italians, by which the Small alleles (less than 35 repeats) had been identified as frailty alleles for longevity. In Danes, neither genotype nor allele frequencies differed between centenarians and 20...

  3. national Case study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This national case study reports on the development of a national network, ... system under the new policy), tends to be limited by content on problems and ... 20 credit programme; and within two Post Graduate Certificate of Education contexts, ...... descriptive with an issues focus (empirical) towards awareness production to.

  4. A Study of Sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Joseph L.; Levy, Janet

    This paper is a report of a study which explores the relative contributions of norms, modeling, positive affect, and empathy to generalized reciprocity (prior help by one person leading to greater helpfulness by the recipient toward another person). Preschool children were randomly assigned to one of six groups and individually exposed to two…

  5. SOCMA study urges flexibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirschner, E.

    1993-01-01

    In implementing the 1990 Pollution Prevention Act, regulators and legislators should hold off on cookie-cutter, numerical goal-based requirements to allow for site and process specific programs, says a study sponsored by the Synthetic Organic Chemicals Manufacturers Association (SOCMA; Washington). Companies should have that flexibility to target their resources toward those activities that reduce pollution cost effectively, says SOCMA environmental quality committee chairman Art Gillen, who is also BASF director of environmental regulatory affairs. The study - conducted by Woodward-Clyde Consultants (Denver) - examines four batch and custom chemical manufacturing films. As in the Clean Air Act, the batch processing of SOCMA-member plants should be considered in new regulations, Gillen says. For example, the study found that most wastes are from shutdowns and cleanouts, and there are frequent charges in waste streams and raw materials. Those characteristics do not lend themselves to annual reduction goals. Also, specific goals could have a wide range of costs: measures to reduce stack air emissions run from $18/lb to $1,106/lb. SOCMA says it will present the study to Congress and the Environmental Protection Agency

  6. The Study of Butterflies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 5. The Study of Butterflies - Intra-specific Variation. Peter Smetacek. Series Article Volume 6 Issue 5 May 2001 pp 8-15. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/05/0008-0015 ...

  7. The Study of Butterflies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 8. The Study of Butterflies - Flight, Fuels and Senses. Peter Smetacek. Series Article Volume 5 Issue 8 August 2000 pp 4-12. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/005/08/0004-0012 ...

  8. Belgrade metro studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Arandjelović

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The subway system is an indispensable part of every modern metropolis. Building a subway is no longer a matter of prestige but a necessity, a consequence of the traffic revolution worldwide. This paper shows four metro studies with specific reference to the Belgrade subway and problems that occurred. The first one was conducted in 1946 by the famous Serbian architect Nikola Dobrovic. This document is indeed the first written record discussing the subway issue in Belgrade. The next study dates back to 1968. This project was the first major study on the possibility of a subway. The third and biggest, this subway study was completed in 1982 and contained a major and comprehensive subway project. This project was officially accepted and enacted by the city government. The fourth project in circulation with regard to the subway is the light city railway project. It came out due to the consequences of the decision that a classical subway was not necessary in Belgrade, so that a replacement for the classical subway system was to be undertaken. The light city railway project was adopted as a part of the General Urban Plan for Belgrade by the year 2021.

  9. Cementation process study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, H.H.; Han, K.W.; Ahn, S.J.; Choi, K.S.; Lee, M.W.; Ryu, Y.K.

    1985-01-01

    In the cementation process study, in 1984, design of the waste treatment simulator was finished for the first step. We can experience not only the operation of solidification system but the design and construction of comming large scale plant through the design of cementation process. (Author)

  10. SOLID WASTE STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PAUL G. ORTIZ - COLEMAN RESEARCH CORP/COMPA INDUSTRIES

    1995-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to study the solid waste issues brought about by a Type C Investigation; ``Disposal of Inappropriate Material in the Los Alamos County Landfill'' (May 28, 1993). The study was completed in August 1995 by Coleman Research Corporation, under subcontract number 405810005-Y for Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The study confirmed the issues identified in the Type C investigation, and also ascertained further issues or problems. During the course of this study two incidents involving hazardous waste resulted in the inappropriate disposal of the waste. An accidental spill, on June 8, 1995, at one of Laboratory buildings was not handled correctly, and ended up in the LAC Landfill. Hazardous waste was disposed of in a solid waste container and sent to the Los Alamos County Landfill. An attempt to locate the hazardous waste at the LAC Landfill was not successful. The second incident involving hazardous waste was discovered by the FSS-8, during a random dumpster surveillance. An interim dumpster program managed by FSS-8 discovered hazardous waste and copper chips in the solid waste, on August 9, 1995. The hazardous waste and copper chips would have been transported to the LAC Landfill if the audit team had not brought the problem to the awareness of the facility waste management personnel.

  11. African Studies Monographs: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. Manuscripts should be sent to The Series Editor, African Studies Monographs, OOP Ltd, P.O. Box 4893, Somolu, Lagos State, Nigeria or Dr Karo Ogbinaka, Department of Philosophy, Faculty of Arts, University of Lagos, Akoka, Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria. Electronic submission should be on Microsoft Word and ...

  12. Speech Alarms Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandor, A.; Moses, H. R.

    2016-01-01

    Currently on the International Space Station (ISS) and other space vehicles Caution & Warning (C&W) alerts are represented with various auditory tones that correspond to the type of event. This system relies on the crew's ability to remember what each tone represents in a high stress, high workload environment when responding to the alert. Furthermore, crew receive a year or more in advance of the mission that makes remembering the semantic meaning of the alerts more difficult. The current system works for missions conducted close to Earth where ground operators can assist as needed. On long duration missions, however, they will need to work off-nominal events autonomously. There is evidence that speech alarms may be easier and faster to recognize, especially during an off-nominal event. The Information Presentation Directed Research Project (FY07-FY09) funded by the Human Research Program included several studies investigating C&W alerts. The studies evaluated tone alerts currently in use with NASA flight deck displays along with candidate speech alerts. A follow-on study used four types of speech alerts to investigate how quickly various types of auditory alerts with and without a speech component - either at the beginning or at the end of the tone - can be identified. Even though crew were familiar with the tone alert from training or direct mission experience, alerts starting with a speech component were identified faster than alerts starting with a tone. The current study replicated the results from the previous study in a more rigorous experimental design to determine if the candidate speech alarms are ready for transition to operations or if more research is needed. Four types of alarms (caution, warning, fire, and depressurization) were presented to participants in both tone and speech formats in laboratory settings and later in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA). In the laboratory study, the alerts were presented by software and participants were

  13. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira; Lei Zhou

    2000-01-30

    This is the second quarterly progress report for Year 2 of the ACTS project. It includes a review of progress made in Flow Loop development and research during the period of time between Oct 1, 2000 and December 31, 2000. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks: (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility (Task 2: Addition of a foam generation and breaker system), (b) Research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (c) Research project (Task 7): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Muds Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (d) Research project (Task 8): ''Study of Flow of Synthetic Drilling Fluids Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (e) Research project (Task 9): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (f) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (g) Research on instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), and Foam properties while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), (h) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S). (i) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members. The tasks Completed During This Quarter are Task 7 and Task 8.

  14. BALANOPOSTHITIS: A CLINICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raju

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The inflammation of the non - keratinized epithelium of the glans penis (i.e., Balanities and that of prepuce (i.e., posthitis together comprise the term Balanoposthitis. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To determine the aetiological and p redisposing factors for the development of Balanoposthitis, and to know its relation with venereal and non - venereal disease, local and systemic precipitatin g factors. To know the prevalence of Balanoposthitis in STD clinic. Study design - retrospective study . MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study material consists of 75 cases of balanoposthitis attending out - patient department Skin & STD clinic during a period exten din g from Feb, 1998 to Feb, 1999 . CRITERIA FOR SELECTION OF A CASE: Only those cases which have a history of redness of glans or mucous surface of prepuce, with or without genital discharge or ulcer on glans or mucosal surface of prepuce with or without discharge or growth on the penis or fissuring of fore skin were selected for the study. RESULTS: Incidence of balanoposthitis during the period from Feb. 98 to Feb.99 was – 11.53%, out of 650 new STD cases. It was observed that maximum number of pat i ents w as in the 21 - 30 age group (33.34%. The next predominant groups affected were 17 - 20 & 31 - 40 age group (20% each. The third most common age group affected was 41 - 50 (16%. In this study 69 patients (92% who presented with balanoposthitis of whatever cause were found to be uncircumcised, only 6 cases (8% were found to be circumcised. Most cases who presented with balanoposthitis gave a history of exposure to STD risk. CONCLUSIONS: Balanoposthitis is very commonly encountered condition in the STD clinics wi th a multi factorial aetiology. Infective causes dominated over the other possible causes, and 30% of the candidial infection had diabetes mellitus as a predisposing factor.

  15. Background to EOHSI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granville, G.

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses ongoing public concerns regarding the health impacts of sour gas in Pincher Creek. A description of a 90 day toxicity study on hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) at the Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology (CIIT) in 3 strains of rodents was presented. A decade by decade review of events concerning gas emissions was provided, including a description of the 1980s lodgepole blowout and an introduction of a sulphide network in Alberta. The creation of a joint proposal for a comprehensive health review from Alberta researchers and the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) was also outlined. The 1990s heralded an increased level of public participation in sour gas developments and health and odour issues. Details of the Ludwig saga were presented as well as further research studies and the Energy and Utilities Board (EUB) protocols, processes and hearings. In the 1990s, several human volunteer studies were conducted in response to public concerns about neurotoxicity and reproductive developmental effects. After the year 2000, continued public concern has been voiced at EUB hearings and at panel reviews of health effects. It was noted that development and research data has continued to be the cause of public concern and continued calls for additional work and reviews. However, no additional hazards have been identified with ongoing human volunteer studies, environmental levels and enhanced monitors research almost complete. It was concluded that current controversy seemed to downplay or ignore much of the available science. Human and animal data has consistently revealed that there is no evidence of neuro-developmental reproductive effects. It was recommended that power plays should be avoided and that the ongoing human volunteer study should eventually provide results. tabs, figs

  16. Background to EOHSI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granville, G. [Environmental Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    2004-07-01

    This paper discusses ongoing public concerns regarding the health impacts of sour gas in Pincher Creek. A description of a 90 day toxicity study on hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) at the Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology (CIIT) in 3 strains of rodents was presented. A decade by decade review of events concerning gas emissions was provided, including a description of the 1980s lodgepole blowout and an introduction of a sulphide network in Alberta. The creation of a joint proposal for a comprehensive health review from Alberta researchers and the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) was also outlined. The 1990s heralded an increased level of public participation in sour gas developments and health and odour issues. Details of the Ludwig saga were presented as well as further research studies and the Energy and Utilities Board (EUB) protocols, processes and hearings. In the 1990s, several human volunteer studies were conducted in response to public concerns about neurotoxicity and reproductive developmental effects. After the year 2000, continued public concern has been voiced at EUB hearings and at panel reviews of health effects. It was noted that development and research data has continued to be the cause of public concern and continued calls for additional work and reviews. However, no additional hazards have been identified with ongoing human volunteer studies, environmental levels and enhanced monitors research almost complete. It was concluded that current controversy seemed to downplay or ignore much of the available science. Human and animal data has consistently revealed that there is no evidence of neuro-developmental reproductive effects. It was recommended that power plays should be avoided and that the ongoing human volunteer study should eventually provide results. tabs, figs.

  17. Clinical and sexual risk correlates of Mycoplasma genitalium in urban pregnant and non-pregnant young women: cross-sectional outcomes using the baseline data from the Women's BioHealth Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, Maria; Coleman, Jenell S; Hardick, Justin; Perin, Jamie; Tabacco, Lisa; Huettner, Steven; Ronda, Jocelyn; Felter-Wernsdorfer, Rebecca; Gaydos, Charlotte A

    2018-03-29

    Research exploring the clinical and sexual risk correlates is essential to define universal standards for screening and management for Mycoplasma genitalium (MG). The objective of this study is to determine the baseline prevalence of MG and associated clinical risks using cross-sectional data. Adolescent and young adult women 13-29 years were recruited during clinical visits during which biological specimens were collected for Neisseriagonorrhoeae (NG) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) testing to provide vaginal specimens for MG and Trichomonasvaginalis (TV) testing. Demographic, clinical and sexual risk data were collected after obtaining written consent. MG was tested using the Hologic Gen-Probe transcription-mediated amplification-MG analyte-specific reagent assay and TV by the Aptima TV assay. Bivariate analyses were used to evaluate differences in MG prevalence based on pregnancy status, demographic factors, clinical symptoms, concurrent STI and sexual risk behaviour quiz score (maximum score=10). 483 patients with a mean age of 22.4 years (SD 3.6) were enrolled. Most participants were not pregnant (66%) and asymptomatic (59%). MG was the most common STI (MG 16%, TV 9%, CT 8%, NG 1%). Neither pregnancy nor symptoms were predictive of STI positivity. Thirty-five percent of non-pregnant and 45% of pregnant adolescents ≤19 years were positive for any STI. Participants with MG were 3.4 times more likely to be co-infected with other STIs compared with those with other STIs (OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.17 to 10.3, P=0.021). Mean risk quiz scores for STI positive women were six points higher than those who were STI negative (β=0.63, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.90, P<0.001). There were no differences in risk scores for MG-positive participants compared with other STI positivity. MG infection was common, associated with STI co-infection and often asymptomatic, and pregnancy status did not confer protection. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of

  18. PET studies in epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarikaya, Ismet

    2015-01-01

    Various PET studies, such as measurements of glucose, serotonin and oxygen metabolism, cerebral blood flow and receptor bindings are availabe for epilepsy. 18Fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET imaging of brain glucose metabolism is a well established and widely available technique. Studies have demonstrated that the sensitivity of interictal FDG-PET is higher than interictal SPECT and similar to ictal SPECT for the lateralization and localization of epileptogenic foci in presurgical patients refractory to medical treatments who have noncontributory EEG and MRI. In addition to localizing epileptogenic focus, FDG-PET provide additional important information on the functional status of the rest of the brain. The main limitation of interictal FDG-PET is that it cannot precisely define the surgical margin as the area of hypometabolism usually extends beyond the epileptogenic zone. Various neurotransmitters (GABA, glutamate, opiates, serotonin, dopamine, acethylcholine, and adenosine) and receptor subtypes are involved in epilepsy. PET receptor imaging studies performed in limited centers help to understand the role of neurotransmitters in epileptogenesis, identify epileptic foci and investigate new treatment approaches. PET receptor imaging studies have demonstrated reduced 11C-flumazenil (GABAA-cBDZ) and 18F-MPPF (5-HT1A serotonin) and increased 11C-cerfentanil (mu opiate) and 11C-MeNTI (delta opiate) bindings in the area of seizure. 11C-flumazenil has been reported to be more sensitive than FDG-PET for identifying epileptic foci. The area of abnormality on GABAAcBDZ and opiate receptor images is usually smaller and more circumscribed than the area of hypometabolism on FDG images. Studies have demonstrated that 11C-alpha-methyl-L-tryptophan PET (to study synthesis of serotonin) can detect the epileptic focus within malformations of cortical development and helps in differentiating epileptogenic from non-epileptogenic tubers in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex

  19. The cost of multiple sclerosis in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsen, B; Myhr, K-M; Nyland, H; Aarseth, J H

    2012-02-01

    Health economic aspects have been increasingly important during introduction of new treatments for multiple sclerosis. As a partial response for Norway, a cost-of-illness study was carried out to estimate the yearly cost of the illness to society and relate costs and patients' quality of life to illness severity. Estimated cost to society was Euro 439 million in 2002 exclusive of the cost of reduced quality of life. The cost per patient was close to Euro 65,000. Account taken of methodological differences, the results compare to results for Sweden, Norway's closest neighboring country. The illness reduced patients' quality of life with 0.26. More patients were early retired because of their MS in Norway than in any of nine other European countries comprised by a recent European study, illustrating a liberal practice in Norway. The Norwegian cost of unpaid assistance was almost identical to the Swedish cost that was the lowest found across the countries in the European study. When related to illness severity, the cost per patient increased, and the patients' experienced quality of life decreased with increasing EDSS levels in line with what has been found for other countries. Cost-of-MS studies have been carried out for a number of countries. Together they contribute to our understanding of the economic consequences of multiple sclerosis and, if their results are related to illness severity, also provide valuable information for further economic analyses of treatment and medication. Our study adds to this.

  20. EUROv Super Beam Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dracos, Marcos

    2011-01-01

    Neutrino Super Beams use conventional techniques to significantly increase the neutrino beam intensity compared to the present neutrino facilities. An essential part of these facilities is an intense proton driver producing a beam power higher than a MW. The protons hit a target able to accept the high proton beam intensity. The produced charged particles are focused by a system of magnetic horns towards the experiment detectors. The main challenge of these projects is to deal with the high beam intensity for many years. New high power neutrino facilities could be build at CERN profiting from an eventual construction of a high power proton driver. The European FP7 Design Study EUROv, among other neutrino beams, studies this Super Beam possibility. This paper will give the latest developments in this direction.

  1. Study of different filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochinal, R.; Rouby, R.

    1959-01-01

    This note first contains a terminology related to filters and to their operation, and then proposes an overview of general characteristics of filters such as load loss with respect to gas rate, efficiency, and clogging with respect to filter pollution. It also indicates standard aerosols which are generally used, how they are dosed, and how efficiency is determined with a standard aerosol. Then, after a presentation of the filtration principle, this note reports the study of several filters: glass wool, filter papers provided by different companies, Teflon foam, English filters, Teflon wool, sintered Teflonite, quartz wool, polyvinyl chloride foam, synthetic filter, sintered bronze. The third part reports the study of some aerosol and dust separators

  2. World Biofuels Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfstad,T.

    2008-10-01

    This report forms part of a project entitled 'World Biofuels Study'. The objective is to study world biofuel markets and to examine the possible contribution that biofuel imports could make to help meet the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA). The study was sponsored by the Biomass Program of the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), U.S. Department of Energy. It is a collaborative effort among the Office of Policy and International Affairs (PI), Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The project consisted of three main components: (1) Assessment of the resource potential for biofuel feedstocks such as sugarcane, grains, soybean, palm oil and lignocellulosic crops and development of supply curves (ORNL). (2) Assessment of the cost and performance of biofuel production technologies (NREL). (3) Scenario-based analysis of world biofuel markets using the ETP global energy model with data developed in the first parts of the study (BNL). This report covers the modeling and analysis part of the project conducted by BNL in cooperation with PI. The Energy Technology Perspectives (ETP) energy system model was used as the analytical tool for this study. ETP is a 15 region global model designed using the MARKAL framework. MARKAL-based models are partial equilibrium models that incorporate a description of the physical energy system and provide a bottom-up approach to study the entire energy system. ETP was updated for this study with biomass resource data and biofuel production technology cost and performance data developed by ORNL and NREL under Tasks 1 and 2 of this project. Many countries around the world are embarking on ambitious biofuel policies through renewable fuel standards and economic incentives. As a result, the global biofuel demand is expected to grow very

  3. Metabolomic studies in pulmonology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. Furina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The review shows the results of metabolomic studies in pulmonology. The key idea of metabolomics is to detect specific biomarkers in a biological sample for the diagnosis of diseases of the bronchi and lung. Main methods for the separation and identification of volatile organic substances as biomarkers (gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry used in metabolomics are given. A solid-phase microextraction method used to pre-prepare a sample is also covered. The results of laboratory tests for biomarkers for lung cancer, acute respiratory distress syndrome, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cystic fibrosis, chronic infections, and pulmonary tuberculosis are presented. In addition, emphasis is placed on the possibilities of metabolomics used in experimental medicine, including to the study of asthma. The information is of interest to both theorists and practitioners.

  4. Botswana country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    This study was carried out in Botswana, Tanzania and Zambia as part of the project `Climate Change Mitigation in Southern Africa` funded by the Danish International Development Agency (Danida). The project was conducted parallel to the UNEP/GEF project `Economics of Greenhouse Gas Limitations` which involved 8 other developing countries and 2 regional projects in Latin America and the SADC region. The limitation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is a complex issue, intimately connected with economic development at local, national, regional and global levels. Key economic sectors such as energy, agriculture, industry and forestry all produce GHGs, and are likely to be affected directly and indirectly by any mitigation policy. The UNEP Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costing Studies, initiated in 1991, attempted to address these complex issues, developing a methodological framework and testing it through practical application in ten countries. (EHS) 28 refs.

  5. Remote connector development study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parazin, R.J.

    1995-05-01

    Plutonium-uranium extraction (PUREX) connectors, the most common connectors used at the Hanford site, offer a certain level of flexibility in pipe routing, process system configuration, and remote equipment/instrument replacement. However, these desirable features have inherent shortcomings like leakage, high pressure drop through the right angle bends, and a limited range of available pipe diameters that can be connect by them. Costs for construction, maintenance, and operation of PUREX connectors seem to be very high. The PUREX connector designs include a 90 degree bend in each connector. This increases the pressure drop and erosion effects. Thus, each jumper requires at least two 90 degree bends. PUREX connectors have not been practically used beyond 100 (4 in.) inner diameter. This study represents the results of a survey on the use of remote pipe-connection systems in US and foreign plants. This study also describes the interdependence between connectors, remote handling equipment, and the necessary skills of the operators

  6. Studies on provoked asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munkner, L.; Bundgaard, A.

    1982-01-01

    A group of adult patients with perennial bronchial asthma has been studied as to lung perfusion and alveolar ventilation (81m-Kr) at rest and after provocation of an acute attack. Asthma was provoked by exercise and by histamine inhalation. After provocation the peak expiratory flow values were reduced to less than 80% of the base line values. Perfusion was often deranged. Regional ventilation changed rapidly after provocation and not always in the same fashion after exercise and histamine. During attacks lung volume increased. The expansion decreased (in parallel with increased peak expiratory flow) after inhalator of a #betta#-2 agonist (terbutaline). 81m-Kr offers unique opportunities for studying acute regional changes in alveolar ventilation. (Author)

  7. ATF-1 torsatron studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, J.F.; Carreras, B.A.; Charlton, L.A.

    1983-01-01

    The main advances in the ORNL Stellarator Program since the 1982 IAEA Conference have been: (1) engineering design of the ATF-1 torsatron; (2) extension of 3-D MHD equilibrium and stability studies and calculations of helical axis configurations; (3) study of stable equilibria with greater than or equal to 8% and direct access to the second stability regime; (4) 3-D Monte Carlo and analytic transport calculations which show a large reduction in transport at low collisionality for the absolute value of e phi'/T' greater than or equal to 1; (5) calculation of ambipolar electric fields; and (b) calculation of well confined ion drift surfaces in the ergodic field region outside the last closed flux surface

  8. LEIR longitudinal studies

    CERN Document Server

    Albright, S; Hancock, S

    2017-01-01

    Towards the end of 2015 and during 2016 there were exten-sive studies of longitudinal beam dynamics in LEIR aimedat improving extracted intensities. As the driving source oflosses early in the ramp was shown to be transverse spacecharge tune spread a significant improvement came fromflattening the beam profile to increase the bunching factorby offsetting the RF frequency from the beam revolution fre-quency. Further benefits were provided by modulating theRF frequency during capture, leading to emittance blow-upand improved reproducibility. The use of two RF cavitiesduring operation was studied to try and further increase thecaptured emittance, however after careful alignment of theRF it was found that a hard limit in the bunch heigh of approx-imately 7 MeV exists. Due to the acceptance limit there wasno operational benefit to using both cavities simultaneously

  9. Objectivist case study research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner; Fachner, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    be achieved through the use of objectivist case study research. The strength of the case study design is that it allows for uncovering or suggesting causal relationships in real-life settings through an intensive and rich collection of data. According to Hilliard (1993), the opposite applies for extensive......In order to comprehend the impact of music therapy or music therapy processes, a researcher might look for an approach where the topic under investigation can be understood within a broader context. This calls for a rich inclusion of data and consequently a limited number of participants and may...... designs, in which a small amount of data is gathered on a large number of subjects. With the richness of data, the intensive design is ―the primary pragmatic reason for engaging in single-case or small N research‖ (p. 374) and for working from an idiographic rather than a nomothetic perspective....

  10. Case Study: Shiraz Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijan Khajehnoori

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relationship between lifestyle which seems as a scale of globalization process with body image. Required data was collected by systematic random sampling among 508 women in Shiraz. Based on existing theories and studies theoretical framework has constituted based on Giddens theory. Six hypotheses have been established. For collecting information, survey method and self reported questionnaire were used. In data analysis and explanation, multiple regression and unilateral dispersion analyses were used. The result showed that among effective factors on body image, modern musical lifestyle, religious' lifestyle, leisure lifestyle and participative lifestyle explained 23 percent of variations of body image. Among these variables, only religious lifestyle had negative relationship with body image and other variables had positive relationship with dependant variable.

  11. E85 Dispenser Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriarty, K.; Johnson, C.; Sears, T.; Bergeron, P.

    2009-12-01

    This study reviews E85 dispensing infrastructure advances and issues and evaluates the geographic concentration of flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs), E85 stations, ethanol production facilities, and E85 suppliers. Costs, space, financial incentives, and barriers to adding E85 fueling equipment at existing stations are also assessed. This study found that E85 is increasingly available in the U.S. in half of the states; however, the other half have minimal or no E85 fueling options. Despite these gains, E85 is only available at 1% of U.S. gasoline stations. Ethanol production reached 9.5 billion gallons in 2008, but less than 1% is consumed as E85. FFVs have not reached a significant concentration in any county, metropolitan area, or state.

  12. Center for dielectric studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, L. E.; Newnham, R. E.; Biggers, J. V.

    1984-05-01

    This report focuses upon the parts of the Center program which have drawn most extensively upon Navy funds. In the basic study of polarization processes in high K dielectrics, major progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms in relaxor ferroelectric in the perovskite structure families. A new effort is also being mounted to obtain more precise evaluation of the internal stress effects in fine grained barium titanate. Related to reliability, studies of the effects of induced macro-defects are described, and preparation for the evaluation of space charge by internal potential distribution measurements discussed. To develop new processing methods for very thin dielectric layers, a new type of single barrier layer multilayer is discussed, and work on the thermal evaporation of oriented crystalline antimony sulphur iodide describe.

  13. Studying bacterial multispecies biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røder, Henriette Lyng; Sørensen, Søren Johannes; Burmølle, Mette

    2016-01-01

    The high prevalence and significance of multispecies biofilms have now been demonstrated in various bacterial habitats with medical, industrial, and ecological relevance. It is highly evident that several species of bacteria coexist and interact in biofilms, which highlights the need for evaluating...... the approaches used to study these complex communities. This review focuses on the establishment of multispecies biofilms in vitro, interspecies interactions in microhabitats, and how to select communities for evaluation. Studies have used different experimental approaches; here we evaluate the benefits...... and drawbacks of varying the degree of complexity. This review aims to facilitate multispecies biofilm research in order to expand the current limited knowledge on interspecies interactions. Recent technological advances have enabled total diversity analysis of highly complex and diverse microbial communities...

  14. Options Study - Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Wigeland; T. Taiwo; M. Todosow; W. Halsey; J. Gehin

    2010-09-01

    The Options Study has been conducted for the purpose of evaluating the potential of alternative integrated nuclear fuel cycle options to favorably address the issues associated with a continuing or expanding use of nuclear power in the United States. The study produced information that can be used to inform decisions identifying potential directions for research and development on such fuel cycle options. An integrated nuclear fuel cycle option is defined in this study as including all aspects of the entire nuclear fuel cycle, from obtaining natural resources for fuel to the ultimate disposal of used nuclear fuel (UNF) or radioactive wastes. Issues such as nuclear waste management, especially the increasing inventory of used nuclear fuel, the current uncertainty about used fuel disposal, and the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation have contributed to the reluctance to expand the use of nuclear power, even though it is recognized that nuclear power is a safe and reliable method of producing electricity. In this Options Study, current, evolutionary, and revolutionary nuclear energy options were all considered, including the use of uranium and thorium, and both once-through and recycle approaches. Available information has been collected and reviewed in order to evaluate the ability of an option to clearly address the challenges associated with the current implementation and potential expansion of commercial nuclear power in the United States. This Options Study is a comprehensive consideration and review of fuel cycle and technology options, including those for disposal, and is not constrained by any limitations that may be imposed by economics, technical maturity, past policy, or speculated future conditions. This Phase II report is intended to be used in conjunction with the Phase I report, and much information in that report is not repeated here, although some information has been updated to reflect recent developments. The focus in this Options Study was to

  15. Centrifugal compressor case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckert, B.

    2010-10-15

    Three centrifugal compressors at a pipeline station were retrofitted with higher head impellers in 2008. The owners of the station experienced vibration problems over the following 2 years that caused transmitter and position failures that were assumed to be flow-induced pulsations. A vibration and pulsation analysis indicated that the shell mode piping vibration excited by the blade pass pulsation was responsible for the failures. This study outlined factors that contributed to the vibration problem. Interferences between the compressor and shell mode piping natural frequencies were predicted, and potential excitation sources were examined. The study demonstrated how centrifugal vibration analyses can be used during the design phase to avoid costly adjustments. Recommendations included the addition of stiffeners to alter the shell modes, and the addition of constrained layer damping material to reduce resonant responses. 2 refs., 1 tab., 12 figs.

  16. Studies on Aspergillus flavus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padwal-Desai, S.R.; Ghanekar, A.S.; Sreenivasan, A.

    1976-01-01

    In vitro studies were conducted on conidia of Aspergillus flavus Link (aflatoxin producing) and Aspergillus flavus oryzae (non-toxigenic) strains isolated and identified in this laboratory. These strains differed in resistance to heat and gamma radiation, the toxigenic strain being more resistant to both treatments. Results of tests on dose-modifying factors indicated that composition, temperature and pH of suspending media affected radiation resistance. On the other hand, the size of the initial population and the age of the conidia did not influence the radiation resistance of either strain. Studies on thermal inactivation of the conidia suggested that the temperature employed was more important than the time of heat treatment. Conidia of both strains showed a synergistic effect of combined heat and radiation treatments, although a heat-radiation sequence was more effective than a radiation-heat sequence. (author)

  17. Study on market policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-02-01

    In April 2007 the Dutch Minister of Economic Affairs promised the Lower House a study of the development of the public interests of quality, accessibility and efficiency after the introduction of market liberalization. In the debate on market liberalization in May 2007 the Minister complied with the Lower House?s request to include the consequences of the market liberalization operations on sectoral employment and labor conditions. This study addresses two questions: (1) Which developments occurred in the field of public interests quality, accessibility and efficiency and labor conditions since the introduction of market liberalization? and (2) What general findings and conclusions can be drawn from the implemented market liberalization policy in various sectors? What lessons can be learned for the future? Several sectors have been examined, including large energy users; renewable energy; energy market for medium users; energy (gas and electricity) [nl

  18. Iron absorption studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekenved, G.

    1976-01-01

    The main objective of the present work was to study iron absorption from different iron preparations in different types of subjects and under varying therapeutic conditions. The studies were performed with different radioiron isotope techniques and with a serum iron technique. The preparations used were solutions of ferrous sulphate and rapidly-disintegrating tablets containing ferrous sulphate, ferrous fumarate and ferrous carbonate and a slow-release ferrous sulphate tablet of an insoluble matrix type (Duroferon Durules). The serum iron method was evaluated and good correlation was found between the serum iron response and the total amount of iron absorbed after an oral dose of iron given in solution or in tablet form. New technique for studying the in-vivo release properties of tablets was presented. Iron tablets labelled with a radio-isotope were given to healthy subjects. The decline of the radioactivity in the tablets was followed by a profile scanning technique applied to different types of iron tablets. The release of iron from the two types of tablets was shown to be slower in vivo than in vitro. It was found that co-administration of antacids and iron tablets led to a marked reduction in the iron absorption and that these drugs should not be administered sumultaneously. A standardized meal markedly decreased the absorbability of iron from iron tablets. The influence of the meal was more marked with rapidly-disintegrating than with slow-release ferrous sulphate tablets. The absorption from rapidly-disintegrating and slow-release ferrous sulphate tablets was compared under practical clinical conditions during an extended treatment period. The studies were performed in healthy subjects, blood donors and patients with iron deficiency anaemia and it was found that the absorption of iron from the slow-release tablets was significantly better than from the rapidly-disintegrating tablets in all three groups of subjects. (author)

  19. Radioactive waste repository study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    This is the first part of a report of a preliminary study for Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. It considers the requirements for an underground waste repository for the disposal of wastes produced by the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Program. The following topics are discussed with reference to the repository: 1) underground layout, 2) cost estimates, 3) waste handling, 4) retrievability, decommissioning, sealing and monitoring, and 5) research and design engineering requirements. (author)

  20. Study in Classroom Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Ahonen, Lauri; Cowley, Benjamin; Torniainen, Jari; Ukkonen, Antti; Vihavainen, Arto; Puolamäki, Kai

    2016-01-01

    It is known that periods of intense social interaction result in shared patterns in collaborators? physiological signals. However, applied quantitative research on collaboration is hindered due to scarcity of objective metrics of teamwork effectiveness. Indeed, especially in the domain of productive, ecologically-valid activity such as programming, there is a lack of evidence for the most effective, affordable and reliable measures of collaboration quality. In this study we investigate synchr...