WorldWideScience

Sample records for prevalence surveys-united states

  1. Shallow Water Marine UXO Detection Survey, United States Marine Corps Base, Camp Lejeune, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    rigging tow bar, and a hydrofoil control surface mounted on a 6.7 m (22 ft) ThunderJet® boat. The system was designed to be used with a 6 to 7 m (20 to...in which data collection could be conducted was 1 m (3 ft). The towing system, hydrofoil , and tiller were not designed to withstand greater sea state...platform, a down rigging tow bar, and a hydrofoil control surface mounted on a 6.7 m (22 ft) ThunderJet® boat. The system was designed to be used

  2. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the rural southern Free State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the rural southern Free State. ... The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of DM in the rural southern Free State and to investigate the contribution of risk ... A need for intervention regarding the identification and treatment of DM in these rural areas has been identified.

  3. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the rural southern Free State

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-11-13

    Nov 13, 2008 ... Background: A worldwide increase in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) has been reported and an even further increase is expected as a result of lifestyle changes. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of DM in the rural southern Free State and to investigate the contribution ...

  4. Prevalence of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia in Borno State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 37 outbreaks of CBPP were reported during the period under review with highest outbreak (8) occurring in 1990. Seasonal prevalence of the ... The disease is still endemic in Borno State and vaccination coverage was grossly inadequate. Keywords: CBPP, cattle, AGPT, prevalence, vaccination. Nigerian Veterinary ...

  5. Prevalence and causes of thrombocytopenia in an academic state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    threatening pathological conditions. To establish the cause, appropriate laboratory investigation is required. Objectives: To determine the prevalence and causes of platelet counts <100 × 109/L in state health facilities in Johannesburg, South ...

  6. The Prevalence of Cardiovascular Disease in the Lagos State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The analysis, which examines the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (ICD 9: 390-459) in Lagos State of Nigeria, was based on records obtained from the register of deaths in four Local Government Areas of the State. The result shows that there is general increase in death rates due to cardiovascular diseases over the ...

  7. Prevalence of onchocerciasis in Edo State, Nigeria | Onowhakpor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of onchocerciasis in endemic areas in Edo State,Nigeria. Methodology: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 658 respondents residing in onchocerciasis endemic areas of Edo State using a pre-tested interviewers' administered questionnaire and examination of ...

  8. Prevalence and trends in breast cancer in Lagos state, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the trends in the prevalence of breast cancer in Lagos State, Nigeria. A sample of 1000 subjects was taken from a population consisting of women between the ages of 15 and 60 years spread across the 20 Local Government Areas (LGAs) of the State. Fifty questionnaires were distributed in each LGA.

  9. Prevalence of malaria infection in children in Anambra state, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to estimate the effects of this new WHO policy on the prevalence of malaria parasite infection in children from selected communities in Anambra State, Nigeria. This study was conducted in thirteen communities purposively selected from thirteen local government areas in Anambra State using ...

  10. Prevalence and Trends in Breast Cancer in Lagos State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    Abstract. The study examined the trends in the prevalence of breast cancer in Lagos. State, Nigeria. A sample of 1000 subjects was taken from a population consisting of women between the ages of 15 and 60 years spread across the. 20 Local Government Areas (LGAs) of the State. Fifty questionnaires were distributed in ...

  11. Studies on the Prevalence of Urinary Schistosomiasis in Ogun State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: The assessment of the extent and distribution of Schistosoma infection in every region in Nigeria is important and required for formulating intervention strategies suitable for each endemic area. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis in Ogun State, South-West Nigeria. METHODS: ...

  12. The Prevalence of Malaria in Edo State, Nigeria | Mordi | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study determined the prevalence of malaria in Edo State, Nigeria. The study was cross-sectional, and lasted one year. Children of school ages participated in the study. Detection of malaria parasites was through thick blood film with Giemsa stain. There was a predilection for infection for children less than ten years.

  13. The Prevalence of Smoking among Undergraduates of Imo State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Prevalence of Smoking among Undergraduates of Imo State University Owerri, SouthEastern Nigeria. ... Nigerian Journal of General Practice ... Tobacco smoking is presently the most popular form of smoking and is practiced by over one billion of the world's population, with cigarette smoking being the most ...

  14. Prevalence and Prevention of Malaria in Pregnancy in Edo State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    ABSTRACT. The observational/longitudinal study was undertaken in Igueben Local Government Area (LGA), Edo. State, Nigeria. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of prevention on the prevalence of malaria during pregnancy. The study population comprised 4 groups viz; Group1, had 100 women.

  15. prevalence of bovine fasciolosis in major abattiors of adamawa state

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Keywords: Prevalence, Bovine, Fasciolosis, Abattoirs, Adamawa state. INTRODUCTION. Fasciolosis a parasitic disease of cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats horses and human of all ages caused by liver flukes (Armour, 1975; Ramajo et al., 2001). Fasciola a trematode belonging to the sub- class. Digenea, which is commonly ...

  16. Prevalence of nonmedical methamphetamine use in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barchha Nina

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Illicit methamphetamine use continues to be a public health concern in the United States. The goal of the current study was to use a relatively inexpensive methodology to examine the prevalence and demographic correlates of nonmedical methamphetamine use in the United States. Methods The sample was obtained through an internet survey of noninstitutionalized adults (n = 4,297 aged 18 to 49 in the United States in 2005. Propensity weighting methods using information from the U.S. Census and the 2003 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH were used to estimate national-level prevalence rates. Results The overall prevalence of current nonmedical methamphetamine use was estimated to be 0.27%. Lifetime use was estimated to be 8.6%. Current use rates for men (0.32% and women (0.23% did not differ, although men had a higher 3-year prevalence rate (3.1% than women (1.1%. Within the age subgroup with the highest overall methamphetamine use (18 to 25 year olds, non-students had substantially higher methamphetamine use (0.85% current; 2.4% past year than students (0.23% current; 0.79% past year. Methamphetamine use was not constrained to those with publicly funded health care insurance. Conclusion Through the use of an internet panel weighted to reflect U.S. population norms, the estimated lifetime prevalence of methamphetamine use among 18 to 49 year olds was 8.6%. These findings give rates of use comparable to those reported in the 2005 NSDUH. Internet surveys are a relatively inexpensive way to provide complimentary data to telephone or in-person interviews.

  17. Prevalence and Causes of Paralysis-United States, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Brian S; Courtney-Long, Elizabeth A; Fox, Michael H; Fredine, Heidi; Cahill, Anthony

    2016-10-01

    To estimate the prevalence and causes of functional paralysis in the United States. We used the 2013 US Paralysis Prevalence & Health Disparities Survey to estimate the prevalence of paralysis, its causes, associated sociodemographic characteristics, and health effects among this population. Nearly 5.4 million persons live with paralysis. Most persons with paralysis were younger than 65 years (72.1%), female (51.7%), White (71.4%), high school graduates (64.8%), married or living with a partner (47.4%), and unable to work (41.8%). Stroke is the leading cause of paralysis, affecting 33.7% of the population with paralysis, followed by spinal cord injury (27.3%), multiple sclerosis (18.6%), and cerebral palsy (8.3%). According to the functional definition, persons living with paralysis represent a large segment of the US population, and two thirds of them are between ages 18 and 64 years. Targeted health promotion that uses inclusion strategies to account for functional limitations related to paralysis can be undertaken in partnership with state and local health departments.

  18. Prevalence and Causes of Paralysis—United States, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Brian S.; Courtney-Long, Elizabeth A.; Fox, Michael H.; Fredine, Heidi; Cahill, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence and causes of functional paralysis in the United States. Methods We used the 2013 US Paralysis Prevalence & Health Disparities Survey to estimate the prevalence of paralysis, its causes, associated sociodemographic characteristics, and health effects among this population. Results Nearly 5.4 million persons live with paralysis. Most persons with paralysis were younger than 65 years (72.1%), female (51.7%), White (71.4%), high school graduates (64.8%), married or living with a partner (47.4%), and unable to work (41.8%). Stroke is the leading cause of paralysis, affecting 33.7% of the population with paralysis, followed by spinal cord injury (27.3%), multiple sclerosis (18.6%), and cerebral palsy (8.3%). Conclusions According to the functional definition, persons living with paralysis represent a large segment of the US population, and two thirds of them are between ages 18 and 64 years. Targeted health promotion that uses inclusion strategies to account for functional limitations related to paralysis can be undertaken in partnership with state and local health departments. PMID:27552260

  19. Prevalence of corporal punishment among students in Washington State schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, D C; Rauh, M J; Rivara, F P

    1995-05-01

    To determine the prevalence of corporal punishment in Washington State and the factors associated with its use in Washington elementary and secondary schools. Cross-sectional mail survey performed during the summer of 1992. All elementary and secondary schools in the state of Washington. One thousand eighteen schools (47%) responded to the survey, of which 80% were publicly funded and 63% were located in urban areas. The study sample closely resembled the profile of all schools in the state. Almost 11% of participating schools permitted corporal punishment at the time of the survey and 3.2% reported its actual use during the 1991-1992 school year, resulting in an estimated prevalence of 7.2 incidents per 1000 students per year. Sixteen percent of corporal punishment actions occurred in schools not permitting its use. Ninety percent of public schools relied on district policy regarding corporal punishment. School characteristics associated with the use of corporal punishment included rural location (crude odds ratio, 2.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.5 to 3.4), enrollment of less than 500 students (crude odds ratio, 1.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 2.7), and kindergarten to eighth-grade or kindergarten to 12th-grade enrollment (crude odds ratio, 2.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.6 to 3.9). The lack of a statewide ban on school corporal punishment at the time of this survey was associated with the continued use of corporal punishment against children in districts that continued to permit it. School policies against corporal punishment were associated with much lower prevalence. Continued efforts are needed to enact and enforce laws in the remaining states that have not yet banned corporal punishment.

  20. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites in Edo State | Mordi | International ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    questionnaire, factors which disposed to increase in the prevalence of intestinal parasites were investigated between. April 2007 and March 2008. Results: High prevalence (11.3%) of intestinal parasites was recorded in the study. Those drinking well water had the highest prevalence, followed by those who used tap water

  1. Prevalence of mammographically dense breasts in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Brian L; Gangnon, Ronald E; Burt, Veronica; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Hampton, John M; Wellman, Robert D; Kerlikowske, Karla; Miglioretti, Diana L

    2014-10-01

    National legislation is under consideration that would require women with mammographically dense breasts to be informed of their breast density and encouraged to discuss supplemental breast cancer screening with their health care providers. The number of US women potentially affected by this legislation is unknown. We determined the mammographic breast density distribution by age and body mass index (BMI) using data from 1518 599 mammograms conducted from 2007 through 2010 at mammography facilities in the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC). We applied these breast density distributions to age- and BMI-specific counts of the US female population derived from the 2010 US Census and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to estimate the number of US women with dense breasts. Overall, 43.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 43.1% to 43.4%) of women 40 to 74 years of age had heterogeneously or extremely dense breasts, and this proportion was inversely associated with age and BMI. Based on the age and BMI distribution of US women, we estimated that 27.6 million women (95% CI = 27.5 to 27.7 million) aged 40 to 74 years in the United States have heterogeneously or extremely dense breasts. Women aged 40 to 49 years (N = 12.3 million) accounted for 44.3% of this group. The prevalence of dense breasts among US women of common breast cancer screening ages exceeds 25 million. Policymakers and healthcare providers should consider this large prevalence when debating breast density notification legislation and designing strategies to ensure that women who are notified have opportunities to evaluate breast cancer risk and discuss and pursue supplemental screening options if deemed appropriate. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Prevalence of visual impairment in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Susan; Cotch, Mary Frances; Sperduto, Robert D

    2006-05-10

    The prevalence of visual impairment in the US public has not been surveyed nationally in several decades. To estimate the number of US individuals aged 12 years or older who have impaired distance vision due to uncorrected refractive error. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), using a multistage probability sampling design, included a vision evaluation in a mobile examination center. Visual acuity data were obtained from 13,265 of 14,203 participants (93.4%) who visited the mobile examination center in 1999-2002. Visual impairment was defined as presenting distance visual acuity of 20/50 or worse in the better-seeing eye. Visual impairment due to uncorrected refractive error was defined as (presenting) visual impairment that improved, aided by automated refraction results, to 20/40 or better in the better-seeing eye. Presenting distance visual acuity (measured with usual corrective lenses, if any) and distance visual acuity after automated refraction. Overall, 1190 study participants had visual impairment (weighted prevalence, 6.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 6.0%-6.8%), and of these, 83.3% could achieve good visual acuity with correction (95% CI, 80.9%-85.8%). Extrapolating these findings to the general US population, approximately 14 million individuals aged 12 years or older have visual impairment (defined as distance visual acuity of 20/50 or worse), and of these, more than 11 million individuals could have their vision improved to 20/40 or better with refractive correction. Visual impairment due to uncorrected refractive error is a common condition in the United States. Providing appropriate refractive correction to those individuals whose vision can be improved is an important public health endeavor with implications for safety and quality of life.

  3. State-specific prevalence of cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use among adults --- United States, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    The health consequences of cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use both have been well documented, including increased risk for lung, throat, oral, and other types of cancers. To assess state-specific current cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use among adults, CDC analyzed data from the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicated wide variation in self-reported cigarette smoking prevalence (range: 6.4% [U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI)] to 25.6% [Kentucky and West Virginia]) and smokeless tobacco use (range: 0.8% [USVI] to 9.1% [Wyoming]). For 15 of the states, Puerto Rico, and Guam, smoking prevalence was significantly higher among men than among women. The prevalence of smokeless tobacco use was higher among men than women in all states and territories. Smokeless tobacco use was highest among persons aged 18--24 years and those with a high school education or less. From 0.9% (Puerto Rico) to 13.7% (Wyoming) of current smokers reported also using smokeless tobacco. Clinicians should identify all tobacco use in their patients and advise those who use any tobacco product to quit. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends implementing this approach in combination with other measures, including raising excise taxes on tobacco and strengthening smoke-free policies to prevent tobacco-related deaths.

  4. State-level prevalence of cigarette smoking and treatment advice, by disability status, United States, 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Brian S; Campbell, Vincent A; Crews, John E; Malarcher, Ann; Maurice, Emmanuel; Richard, Roland A

    2007-10-01

    To our knowledge, no study has determined whether smoking prevalence is higher among people with disabilities than among people without disabilities across all U.S. states. Neither do we know whether people with disabilities and people without disabilities receive the same quality of advice about tobacco-cessation treatment from medical providers. We analyzed data from the 2004 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to estimate differences between people with and people without disabilities in smoking prevalence and the receipt of tobacco-cessation treatment advice from medical providers. We found that smoking prevalence for people with disabilities was approximately 50% higher than for people without disabilities. Smokers with disabilities were more likely than smokers without disabilities to have visited a medical provider at least once in the previous 12 months and to have received medical advice to quit. More than 40% of smokers with disabilities who were advised to quit, however, reported not being told about the types of tobacco-cessation treatment available. Ensuring that people with disabilities are included in state-based smoking cessation programs gives states an opportunity to eliminate health disparities and to improve the health and wellness of this group. Ways to reduce unmet preventive health care needs of people with disabilities include provider adoption of the Public Health Service's clinical practice guideline for treating tobacco use and dependence and the provision of smoking cessation services that include counseling and effective pharmaceutical treatment.

  5. Internet addiction: Prevalence and relation with mental states in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabe, Kentaro; Horiuchi, Fumie; Ochi, Marina; Oka, Yasunori; Ueno, Shu-Ichi

    2016-09-01

    Internet addiction disrupts the daily lives of adolescents. We investigated the prevalence of Internet addiction in junior high school students, elucidated the relation between Internet addiction and mental states, and determined the factors associated with Internet addiction in adolescents. Junior high school students (aged 12-15 years) were assessed using Young's Internet Addiction Test (IAT), the Japanese version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), and a questionnaire on access to electronic devices. Based on total IAT scores, 2.0% (male, 2.1%; female, 1.9%) and 21.7% (male, 19.8%; female, 23.6%) of the total 853 participants (response rate, 97.6%) were classified as addicted and possibly addicted, respectively. Total GHQ scores were significantly higher in the addicted (12.9 ± 7.4) and possibly addicted groups (8.8 ± 6.0) than in the non-addicted group (4.3 ± 4.6; P addicted group than in the non-addicted group. Further, accessibility to smartphones was significantly associated with Internet addiction. Students in the addicted and possibly addicted groups were considered 'problematic' Internet users. Use of smartphones warrants special attention, being among the top factors contributing to Internet addiction. © 2016 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2016 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  6. Headache yesterday in Karnataka state, India: prevalence, impact and cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Timothy J; Rao, Girish N; Kulkarni, Girish B; Gururaj, Gopalkrishna; Stovner, Lars J

    2016-12-01

    The Global Campaign against Headache has pioneered evaluation of the prevalence and impact of headache on the preceding day ("headache yesterday") as a new approach to the estimation of headache-attributed burden, avoiding recall error. We report its application in Karnataka State, southern India. In a door-to-door survey, biologically unrelated adults (aged 18-65 years) were randomly sampled from urban and rural areas in and around Bengaluru and interviewed by trained researchers using a validated, structured questionnaire. Enquiry into headache applied ICHD-II diagnostic criteria and included questions about headache on the day preceding the interview (headache yesterday [HY]). There were 2329 participants (participation proportion 92.6 %; males 1141 [49.0 %], females 1188 [51.0 %]; mean age 38.0 [±12.7] years; 1103 [47.4 %] from rural areas, 1226 [52.6 %] urban). HY was reported by 138 participants (males 33 [2.9 %], females 105 [8.8 %]): the 1-day prevalence of headache was 5.9 %. Mean duration of HY was 7.0 ± 8.5 h, so that 1.7 % of the population (5.9 % * 7.0/24), on average, had headache at any moment in time yesterday. Mean intensity on a scale of 1-3 was 2.0 [±0.8]. Lost productivity due to HY was reported by 83.3 % of participants with HY: 37.7 % able to do less than half of what they had planned and 13.0 % able to do nothing. Productivity loss at population level (being the productivity loss within the entire adult population, every single day, attributable to headache) was 3.0 %. This method of enquiry, free from recall error, confirmed a very high level of headache-attributed burden in Karnataka: previous estimates based on 3-month recall may even have been too low. Until another study is done in the country, these are the best data for all India. They demonstrate need for action nationwide to mitigate this burden, and correct action will ultimately almost certainly be cost-saving.

  7. Prevalence of β thalassemia carrier state in Sindhi community of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of β thalassemia in Sindhi community of Wardha and evaluation of risk factors. To give genetic counseling to those diagnosed as carriers. Study Design: Cross‑sectional (prevalence study). Setting: Sindhi community residing in and around Wardha. Study Period: 18 months. Materials ...

  8. State Variation in Increased ADHD Prevalence: Links to NCLB School Accountability and State Medication Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Brent D; Scheffler, Richard M; Hinshaw, Stephen P

    2015-10-01

    The study's objective was to investigate whether attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnoses from 2003 to 2011 were associated with either public school consequential accountability reforms initiated by the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act, particularly for low-income children, or with state psychotropic medication laws that prohibit public schools from recommending or requiring medication use. Logistic regression difference-in-differences models were estimated with repeated U.S. and state-representative cross-sections of responses to the 2003, 2007, and 2011 National Survey of Children's Health. Each wave included approximately 35,000 public school children between ages six and 13. From 2003 to 2007, the change in adjusted diagnostic prevalence was 2.8 percentage points higher for children ages six to 13 in households with incomes ≤185% of the federal poverty level residing in states first exposed to consequential accountability through NCLB (from 8.5% to 13.2%), compared with demographically similar children residing in other states (from 10.2% to 12.1%). From 2003 to 2011, the change in adjusted diagnostic prevalence was 2.2 percentage points lower for children ages six to 13 residing in states with a psychotropic medication law (from 8.1% to 7.8%), compared with children residing in other states (from 8.1% to 10.1%). NCLB-initiated consequential accountability reforms were associated with more ADHD diagnoses among low-income children, consistent with increased academic pressures from NCLB for this subgroup. In contrast, psychotropic medication laws were associated with fewer ADHD diagnoses, because they may indirectly reduce diagnoses via restrictions on recommending or requiring medication use. Future research should investigate whether children most affected by these policies are receiving appropriate diagnoses.

  9. State-Specific Prevalence of Tobacco Product Use Among Adults - United States, 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odani, Satomi; Armour, Brian S; Graffunder, Corinne M; Willis, Gordon; Hartman, Anne M; Agaku, Israel T

    2018-01-26

    Despite recent declines in cigarette smoking prevalence, the tobacco product landscape has shifted to include emerging tobacco products* (1,2). Previous research has documented adult use of smokeless tobacco and cigarettes by state (3); however, state-specific data on other tobacco products are limited. To assess tobacco product use in the 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia (DC), CDC and the National Cancer Institute analyzed self-reported use of six tobacco product types: cigarettes, cigars, regular pipes, water pipes, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), and smokeless tobacco products among adults aged ≥18 years using data from the 2014-2015 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS). Prevalence of ever-use of any tobacco product ranged from 27.0% (Utah) to 55.4% (Wyoming). Current (every day or some days) use of any tobacco product ranged from 10.2% (California) to 27.7% (Wyoming). Cigarettes were the most common currently used tobacco product in all states and DC. Among current cigarette smokers, the proportion who currently used one or more other tobacco products ranged from 11.5% (Delaware) to 32.3% (Oregon). Differences in tobacco product use across states underscore the importance of implementing proven population-level strategies to reduce tobacco use and expanding these strategies to cover all forms of tobacco marketed in the United States. Such strategies could include comprehensive smoke-free policies, tobacco product price increases, anti-tobacco mass media campaigns, and barrier-free access to clinical smoking cessation resources (1,4).

  10. PREVALENCE OF DENTAL FLUOROSIS: A CASE STUDY OF THE GOVERNMENT SECONDARY SCHHOOL, OGBIA, BAYELSA STATE, NIGERIA.

    OpenAIRE

    Ephraim-Emmanuel, Benson Chukwunweike; Dotimi, Doris Atibinye; Kei, Bodisere Opuowei; Joshua, Respect Isaiah

    2013-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of dental fluorosis in certain parts of the globe has been found to be increasing. In contrast to these prevalence reports in these areas, there is little or no systematic epidemiological study evaluating dental fluorosis in Bayelsa state, Nigeria. We thus studied the prevalence of dental fluorosis among school children in Ogbia town, Ogbia local government of Bayelsa state, Nigeria and evaluated the role played by potential risk factors. Method: A cross-section...

  11. Diabetes prevalence and diagnosis in US states: analysis of health surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Danaei, Goodarz; Friedman, Ari B; Oza, Shefali; Murray, Christopher JL; Ezzati, Majid

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Current US surveillance data provide estimates of diabetes using laboratory tests at the national level as well as self-reported data at the state level. Self-reported diabetes prevalence may be biased because respondents may not be aware of their risk status. Our objective was to estimate the prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes by state. Methods We estimated undiagnosed diabetes prevalence as a function of a set of health system and sociodemographic variables...

  12. Cigarette smoking prevalence among adults with HIV compared with the general adult population in the United States: cross-sectional surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mdodo, Rennatus; Frazier, Emma L; Dube, Shanta R; Mattson, Christine L; Sutton, Madeline Y; Brooks, John T; Skarbinski, Jacek

    2015-03-03

    The negative health effects of cigarette smoking and HIV infection are synergistic. To compare the prevalence of current cigarette smoking and smoking cessation between adults with HIV receiving medical care and adults in the general population. Nationally representative cross-sectional surveys. United States. 4217 adults with HIV who participated in the Medical Monitoring Project and 27 731 U.S. adults who participated in the National Health Interview Survey in 2009. The main exposure was cigarette smoking. The outcome measures were weighted prevalence of cigarette smoking and quit ratio (ratio of former smokers to the sum of former and current smokers). Of the estimated 419 945 adults with HIV receiving medical care, 42.4% (95% CI, 39.7% to 45.1%) were current cigarette smokers, 20.3% (CI, 18.6% to 22.1%) were former smokers, and 37.3% (CI, 34.9% to 39.6%) had never smoked. Compared with the U.S. adult population, in which an estimated 20.6% of adults smoked cigarettes in 2009, adults with HIV were nearly twice as likely to smoke (adjusted prevalence difference, 17.0 percentage points [CI, 14.0 to 20.1 percentage points]) but were less likely to quit smoking (quit ratio, 32.4% vs. 51.7%). Among adults with HIV, factors independently associated with greater smoking prevalence were older age, non-Hispanic white or non-Hispanic black race, lower educational level, poverty, homelessness, incarceration, substance use, binge alcohol use, depression, and not achieving a suppressed HIV viral load. Cross-sectional design with some generalizability limitations. Adults with HIV were more likely to smoke and less likely to quit smoking than the general adult population. Tobacco screening and cessation strategies are important considerations as part of routine HIV care.

  13. Prevalence and Correlates of Youth Homelessness in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Matthew H; Dworsky, Amy; Matjasko, Jennifer L; Curry, Susanna R; Schlueter, David; Chávez, Raúl; Farrell, Anne F

    2018-01-01

    Unaccompanied youth homelessness is a serious concern. Response, however, has been constrained by the absence of credible data on the size and characteristics of the population and reliable means to track youth homelessness over time. We sought to address these gaps. Using a nationally representative phone-based survey (N = 26,161), we solicited household and individual reports on different types of youth homelessness. We collected household reports on adolescents aged 13-17 and young adults aged 18-25, as well as self-reports from young adults aged 18-25. Follow-up interviews with a subsample (n = 150) provided additional information on youth experiences and enabled adjustment for inclusion errors. Over a 12-month period, approximately 3.0% of households with 13- to 17-year-olds reported explicit youth homelessness (including running away or being asked to leave) and 1.3% reported experiences that solely involved couch surfing, resulting in an overall 4.3% household prevalence of any homelessness, broadly defined. For 18- to 25-year-olds, household prevalence estimates were 5.9% for explicitly reported homelessness, 6.6% for couch surfing only, and 12.5% overall. The 12-month population prevalence estimates, available only for 18- to 25-year-olds, were 5.2%, 4.5%, and 9.7%, respectively. Incidence rates were about half as high as prevalence rates. Prevalence rates were similar across rural and nonrural counties. Higher risk of homelessness was observed among young parents; black, Hispanic, and lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) youth; and those who did not complete high school. The prevalence and incidence of youth homelessness reveal a significant need for prevention and youth-centric systems and services, as well as strategies to address disproportionate risks of certain subpopulations. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  14. Prevalence of congenital malaria in Jos, Plateau state, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study on the prevalence of congenital malaria was carried out at three hospitals within Jos Metropolis from September, 2007 to October, 2008. A total of 310 subjects, comprising of 210 pregnant women (35-40 weeks gestation) and 100 non-pregnant women attending antenatal and post natal clinics ...

  15. Prevalence and treatment of eating disorders among Hispanics/Latino Americans in the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perez, Marisol; Ohrt, Tara K.; Hoek, Hans W.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of reviewWe reviewed the recent literature on prevalence rates, and application of evidence-based treatments for eating disorders among Hispanics/Latinos residing in the United States.Recent findingsLifetime prevalence rates of anorexia nervosa are lower among Hispanic/Latinos than

  16. Prevalence of age-related macular degeneration in the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friedman, David S.; O'Colmain, Benita J.; Muñoz, Beatriz; Tomany, Sandra C.; McCarty, Cathy; de Jong, Paulus T. V. M.; Nemesure, Barbara; Mitchell, Paul; Kempen, John

    2004-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence and distribution of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in the United States by age, race/ethnicity, and gender. Summary prevalence estimates of drusen 125 microm or larger, neovascular AMD, and geographic atrophy were prepared separately for black and white persons in

  17. Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed E. Mansour

    2013-07-01

    Conclusion: The prevalence of spontaneous bacterial pleuritis in the studied group of patients with hepatic hydrothorax was 14.3%. Patients with advanced liver disease, low pleural fluid protein, or SBP are at risk for spontaneous bacterial pleuritis.

  18. Estimated prevalence of compulsive buying behavior in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koran, Lorrin M; Faber, Ronald J; Aboujaoude, Elias; Large, Michael D; Serpe, Richard T

    2006-10-01

    Compulsive buying (uncontrolled urges to buy, with resulting significant adverse consequences) has been estimated to affect from 1.8% to 16% of the adult U.S. population. To the authors' knowledge, no study has used a large general population sample to estimate its prevalence. The authors conducted a random sample, national household telephone survey in the spring and summer of 2004 and interviewed 2,513 adults. The interviews addressed buying attitudes and behaviors, their consequences, and the respondents' financial and demographic data. The authors used a clinically validated screening instrument, the Compulsive Buying Scale, to classify respondents as either compulsive buyers or not. The rate of response was 56.3%, which compares favorably with rates in federal national health surveys. The cooperation rate was 97.6%. Respondents included a higher percentage of women and people ages 55 and older than the U.S. adult population. The estimated point prevalence of compulsive buying among respondents was 5.8% (by gender: 6.0% for women, 5.5% for men). The gender-adjusted prevalence rate was 5.8%. Compared with other respondents, compulsive buyers were younger, and a greater proportion reported incomes under 50,000 US dollars. They exhibited more maladaptive responses on most consumer behavior measures and were more than four times less likely to pay off credit card balances in full. A study using clinically valid interviews is needed to evaluate these results. The emotional and functional toll of compulsive buying and the frequency of comorbid psychiatric disorders suggests that studies of treatments and social interventions are warranted.

  19. The Prevalence of HIV/AIDS Epidemic in Anambra State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    /AID prevalence in Anambra State, Nigeria. Since the discovery of Human Immune Deficiency Virus (HIV) over three decades ago, it has plundered the global populations with impunity, resulting in the death of millions of people.

  20. Prevalence of Disability and Disability Type Among Adults--United States, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney-Long, Elizabeth A; Carroll, Dianna D; Zhang, Qing C; Stevens, Alissa C; Griffin-Blake, Shannon; Armour, Brian S; Campbell, Vincent A

    2015-07-31

    Understanding the prevalence of disability is important for public health programs to be able to address the needs of persons with disabilities. Beginning in 2013, to measure disability prevalence by functional type, the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), added five questions to identify disability in vision, cognition, mobility, self-care, and independent living. CDC analyzed data from the 2013 BRFSS to assess overall prevalence of any disability, as well as specific types of disability among noninstitutionalized U.S. adults. Across all states, disabilities in mobility and cognition were the most frequently reported types. State-level prevalence of each disability type ranged from 2.7% to 8.1% (vision); 6.9% to 16.8% (cognition); 8.5% to 20.7% (mobility); 1.9% to 6.2% (self-care) and 4.2% to 10.8% (independent living). A higher prevalence of any disability was generally seen among adults living in states in the South and among women (24.4%) compared with men (19.8%). Prevalences of any disability and disability in mobility were higher among older age groups. These are the first data on functional disability types available in a state-based health survey. This information can help public health programs identify the prevalence of and demographic characteristics associated with different disability types among U.S. adults and better target appropriate interventions to reduce health disparities.

  1. Prevalence of type 1 diabetes mellitus in Karnal district, Haryana state, India

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    Kalra Sanjay

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little work has been done on the prevalence of type 1 diabetes in north India. This paper reports the prevalence of type 1 diabetes in Karnal district of Haryana state, India. Materials and methods Prevalence of type 1 diabetes was assessed by a hospital-based registry and by analysis of data contributed by chemists and other physicians. Results The overall prevalence of type 1 diabetes in Karnal district is 10.20/100,000 population, with a higher prevalence in urban (26.6/100,000 as compared to rural areas (4.27/100,000. Karnal city, with a population of 222017, has a relatively high prevalence of type 1 diabetes (31.9/100,000. The prevalence in men is higher (11.56/100,000 than in women (8.6/100,000. In the 5 to 16 years age group, the prevalence is 22.22/100,000, while in the 0-5 years age group, prevalence is 3.82/100,000. Conclusions This report highlights the urban-rural and male-female gradient in the prevalence of type 1 diabetes in Karnal, north India.

  2. Prevalence of snakebites in Taraba and Plateau States of Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Snakebite is a public health problem that plagues many rural communities in Nigeria. The full extent is hardly known due to outright unavailability of adequate medical records to indicate the incidence, mortality and morbidity in any state in Nigeria. This study was undertaken to outline the epidemiological profile of ...

  3. Prevalence

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    Mohammed Al-Darwish

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Results indicated that dental caries prevalence among school children in Qatar has reached critical levels, and is influenced by socio-demographic factors. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth values obtained in this study were the second highest detected in the Eastern Mediterranean region.

  4. Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanesse Scerri

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is a major nosocomial pathogen worldwide. Malta is one of the countries with the highest MRSA prevalence in Europe, as identified from hospital blood cultures [1]. However, community prevalence of MRSA has never previously been investigated. This study aimed at establishing the prevalence of community MRSA nasal colonization in Maltese individuals and identifying the clonal characteristics of the detected isolates. Nasal swabs were collected from 329 healthy individuals who were also asked to complete a brief questionnaire about risk factors commonly associated with MRSA carriage and infection. The swabs were transported and enriched in a nutrient broth supplemented with NaCl. The presence of MRSA was then determined by culturing on MRSA Select chromogenic agar and then confirming by several assays, including catalase, coagulase and PBP2a agglutination tests. The isolates were assayed for antibiotic susceptibilities and typed by microarray analysis to determine the clonal characteristics of each strain. The prevalence of MRSA nasal colonization in the healthy Maltese population was found to be 8.81% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.75–11.87%, much higher than that found in other studies carried out in several countries. No statistical association was found between MRSA carriage and demographics or risk factors; however, this was hindered by the small sample size. Almost all the isolates were fusidic-acid resistant. The majority were found to belong to a local endemic clone (CC5 which seems to be replacing the previously prevalent European clone UK-EMRSA-15 in the country. A new clone (CC50-MRSA-V was also characterized. The presence of such a significant community reservoir of MRSA increases the burdens already faced by the local healthcare system to control the MRSA epidemic. Colonization of MRSA in otherwise healthy individuals may represent a risk for endogenous infection and transmission to

  5. Explained and unexplained racial and regional inequality in obesity prevalence in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Keumseok; Elder, Todd E; Grady, Sue C; Darden, Joe T; Vojnovic, Igor

    2018-02-22

    There are substantial racial and regional disparities in obesity prevalence in the United States. This study partitioned the mean Body Mass Index (BMI) and obesity prevalence rate gaps between non-Hispanic blacks and non-Hispanic whites into the portion attributable to observable obesity risk factors and the remaining portion attributable to unobservable factors at the national and the state levels in the United States (U.S.) in 2010. This study used a simulated micro-population dataset combining common information from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and the U.S. Census data to obtain a reliable, large sample representing the adult populations at the national and state levels. It then applied a reweighting decomposition method to decompose the black-white mean BMI and obesity prevalence disparities at the national and state levels into the portion attributable to the differences in distribution of observable obesity risk factors and the remaining portion unexplainable with risk factors. We found that the observable differences in distribution of known obesity risk factors explain 18.5% of the mean BMI difference and 20.6% of obesity prevalence disparities between non-Hispanic blacks and non-Hispanic whites. There were substantial variations in how much the differences in distribution of known obesity risk factors can explain black-white gaps in mean BMI (-67.7% to 833.6%) and obesity prevalence (-278.5% to 340.3%) at the state level. The results from this study demonstrate that known obesity risk factors explain a small proportion of the racial, ethnic and between-state disparities in obesity prevalence in the United States. Future etiologic studies are required to further understand the causal factors underlying obesity and racial, ethnic and geographic disparities.

  6. Prevalence of anemia in children 6-59 months old in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil

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    Mônica M. Osório

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the prevalence of anemia in children 6-59 months old in Pernambuco, a state in northeastern Brazil, so as to help guide health and nutrition policies there. Methods. In 1997 a representative sample of 777 young children had their hemoglobin concentration measured. The sampling process was in three stages. First, 18 municipalities were randomly selected to represent the state and its three geographic areas (metropolitan region of Recife, urban interior, and rural interior. Next, using census lists, 45 census sectors were randomly chosen. Finally, 777 children aged 6-59 months old were selected. Blood was collected by venipuncture, and hemoglobin was measured with a portable hemoglobinometer. In the analysis, prevalence was weighted to reflect the census age distribution. Results. The prevalence of anemia among children 6-59 months old was 40.9% for the state as a whole. Prevalence in the metropolitan region of Recife was 39.6%, and it was 35.9% in the urban interior. The rural interior had the highest prevalence, 51.4%. Prevalence was twice as high in children aged 6-23 months as among those 24-59 months old, 61.8% vs. 31.0% (chi² = 77.9, P < 0.001. The mean hemoglobin concentrations in the younger and older age groups were 10.4 g/dL (standard deviation (SD = 1.5 and 11.4 g/dL (SD = 1.4, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between the sexes in terms of prevalence. Conclusions. This is the first statewide assessment of anemia prevalence among young children in Brazil. Given the very high prevalence of anemia among the children studied in Pernambuco, especially those in the age group of 6-23 months, public health interventions are needed.

  7. The prevalence of trichomoniasis in young adults in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, William C; Swygard, Heidi; Hobbs, Marcia M; Ford, Carol A; Handcock, Mark S; Morris, Martina; Schmitz, John L; Cohen, Myron S; Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Udry, J Richard

    2005-10-01

    The prevalence of trichomoniasis in the general population of the United States is unknown. This study provides the first population-based prevalence estimates of trichomoniasis among young adults in the United States. The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) is an ongoing prospective cohort study. In a cross-sectional analysis of Wave III of Add Health (N = 12,449), we determined the prevalence of trichomoniasis using a polymerase chain reaction assay. The estimated overall prevalence of trichomoniasis in U.S. young adults was 2.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8-2.7%). The prevalence was slightly higher among women (2.8%; 95% CI, 2.2-3.6%) than men (1.7%; 95% CI, 1.3-2.2%). The prevalence increased with age and varied by region, with the south having the highest prevalence (2.8%; 95% CI, 2.2-3.5%). The prevalence was highest among black women (10.5%; 95% CI, 8.3-13.3%) and lowest among white women (1.1%; 95% CI, 0.8-1.6%). Among men, the prevalence was highest among Native Americans (4.1%; 95% CI, 0.4-29.3%) and blacks (3.3%; 95% CI, 2.2-4.9%), and lowest among white men (1.3%; 95% CI, 0.9-1.8%). Trichomoniasis is moderately prevalent among the general U.S. population of young adults and disturbingly high among certain racial/ethnic groups.

  8. Estimation of live birth and population prevalence of Down syndrome in nine U.S. states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Gert; Buckley, Frank; Dever, Jennifer; Skotko, Brian G

    2017-10-01

    For all of the U.S. states with sufficient data, we estimated live birth and population prevalences for Down syndrome (DS). As social service resources vary between states, such data are important for public policy discussions and state planning. We predicted the actual and nonselective live birth prevalence, and population prevalence, for DS in nine U.S. states based on publicly available datasets from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. As of 2010, we estimated a population size for people with DS of 4,554 in MA (population prevalence 1 in 1,440), 6,101 in NJ (1 in 1,443), 14,315 in NY (1 in 1,355), 9,739 in IL (1 in 1,319), 4,354 in IN (1 in 1,491), 7,295 in MI (1 in 1,354), 9,099 in FL (1 in 2,071), 3,014 in KY (1 in 1,442), and 3,596 in AZ (1 in 1,784). The number of people living with DS has steadily increased from 1950 until 2010 in these nine U.S. states. Population prevalence would have been higher absent DS-related elective terminations. Racial and ethnic groups, other than non-Hispanic whites, comprise a growing proportion within these DS communities, particularly among younger-aged persons. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Diabetes prevalence and diagnosis in US states: analysis of health surveys

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    Oza Shefali

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current US surveillance data provide estimates of diabetes using laboratory tests at the national level as well as self-reported data at the state level. Self-reported diabetes prevalence may be biased because respondents may not be aware of their risk status. Our objective was to estimate the prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes by state. Methods We estimated undiagnosed diabetes prevalence as a function of a set of health system and sociodemographic variables using a logistic regression in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003-2006. We applied this relationship to identical variables from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (2003-2007 to estimate state-level prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes by age group and sex. We assumed that those who report being diagnosed with diabetes in both surveys are truly diabetic. Results The prevalence of diabetes in the U.S. was 13.7% among men and 11.7% among women ≥ 30 years. Age-standardized diabetes prevalence was highest in Mississippi, West Virginia, Louisiana, Texas, South Carolina, Alabama, and Georgia (15.8 to 16.6% for men and 12.4 to 14.8% for women. Vermont, Minnesota, Montana, and Colorado had the lowest prevalence (11.0 to 12.2% for men and 7.3 to 8.4% for women. Men in all states had higher diabetes prevalence than women. The absolute prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes, as a percent of total population, was highest in New Mexico, Texas, Florida, and California (3.5 to 3.7 percentage points and lowest in Montana, Oklahoma, Oregon, Alaska, Vermont, Utah, Washington, and Hawaii (2.1 to 3 percentage points. Among those with no established diabetes diagnosis, being obese, being Hispanic, not having insurance and being ≥ 60 years old were significantly associated with a higher risk of having undiagnosed diabetes. Conclusion Diabetes prevalence is highest in the Southern and Appalachian states and lowest in the Midwest and the Northeast

  10. Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence by Race/Ethnicity and Sex in the United States, National Health and Nutrition Examination ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the National Cholesterol Education Program, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome is estimated at more than 30% in the United States; however, by using the Adult Treatment Panel criteria, prevalence is estimated at about 22% ( ...

  11. [Prevalence of rhinitis allergic in populations of several states of Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancilla-Hernández, Eleazar; Medina-Ávalos, Miguel Alejandro; Barnica-Alvarado, Raúl Humberto; Soto-Candia, Diego; Guerrero-Venegas, Rosario; Zecua-Nájera, Yahvéh

    2015-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is an inflammatory disorder of the nasal mucosa, characterized by symptoms of itching, rhinorrhea, nasal congestion and sneezing induced by an IgE-mediated response. In Mexico we have reports of prevalence, with fluctuations of 5.5% to 47.7% with the question of rhinitis symptoms the past 12 months. To determine the prevalence of allergic rhinitis in schoolchildren from various states of Mexico. A descriptive study of prevalence in which a questionnaire was applied to preschool, elementary-, middle- and high-school population. It was performed in four cities in four states of Mexico: Puebla, Puebla, Tulancingo, Hidalgo, Tlaxcala, Tlaxcala and Cancun, Quintana Roo. Parents answered questionnaires of preschool and elementary school and middle- and high-school students answered their questionnaires. The study was conducted from June 2014 to January 2015. The instrument used was: questionnaire diagnosis of allergic rhinitis for epidemiological studies. Of the surveys, 8,159 completed questionnaires were obtained, in the city of Puebla: 2,267, Tulancingo, Hidalgo: 2,478, Tlaxcala, Tlaxcala: 2,574, Cancun, Quintana Roo: 840; total male: 4,190 (51%). The overall average rate of prevalence of allergic rhinitis among four states including all respondents ages was 15%. With the use of the questionnaire diagnosis of allergic rhinitis for epidemiological studies in the four cities in four different states, we found a prevalence of allergic rhinitis of 15% in ≥13 yearpopulation and 13% in ≤12 year-old children.

  12. Estimated prevalence of nematode parasitism among pet cats in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santis, Andrea C; Raghavan, Malathi; Caldanaro, Richard J; Glickman, Nita W; Moore, George E; Lewis, Hugh B; Schantz, Peter M; Glickman, Lawrence T

    2006-03-15

    To estimate prevalences of roundworm, hookworm, and whipworm infections in pet cats in the United States and identify risk factors for parasitism. Retrospective period prevalence survey. 356,086 cats examined at 359 private veterinary hospitals during 2003. Electronic medical records were searched to identify cats for which fecal flotation tests had been performed and to determine proportions of test results positive for roundworms, hookworms, and whipworms. Potential risk factors for roundworm and hookworm infection were identified by means of multivariate logistic regression analysis. A total of 80,278 tests were performed on fecal samples from 66,819 cats. Calculated prevalences of roundworm, hookworm, and whipworm infection were 2.92%, 0.63%, and 0.031%, respectively. Age, reproductive status, breed, and season were significant risk factors for roundworm infection, with cats prevalences of roundworm and hookworm infection were found. Results suggest that prevalences of nematode infections among pet cats in the United States may be lower than previously suspected on the basis of prevalences reported among cats in humane shelters and those reported in more geographically focused studies.

  13. [Overweight in children and adolescents in Pernambuco State, Brazil: prevalence and determinants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Vanessa Sá; Lira, Pedro Israel Cabral de; Oliveira, Juliana Souza; Menezes, Risia C E de; Sequeira, Leopoldina Augusta de Souza; Arruda Neto, Manoel Alexandre de; Andrade, Sonia Lúcia Lucena Sousa de; Batista Filho, Malaquias

    2012-06-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of overweight and associated risk factors in children and adolescents in Pernambuco State, Brazil, in 2006. The cross-sectional, population-based study included 1,435 individuals from 5 to 19 years of age. Poisson regression was used to evaluate the association between selected variables and overweight. Prevalence was 13.3% for overweight (95%CI: 11.6-15.1) and 3.8% for obesity. Adjusted prevalence ratios showed that higher family income, maternal schooling, possession of household consumer goods, living in urban areas, and maternal overweight were associated with overweight in children and adolescents. The high prevalence of overweight in Pernambuco emphasizes the need for public health measures targeting all families regardless of socioeconomic status.

  14. What Factors Influence Smoking Prevalence and Smoke Free Policy Enactment across the European Union Member States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanovica, Ilze; McNeill, Ann; Murray, Rachael; Britton, John

    2011-01-01

    Background Smoking prevention should be a primary public health priority for all governments, and effective preventive policies have been identified for decades. The heterogeneity of smoking prevalence between European Union (EU) Member States therefore reflects, at least in part, a failure by governments to prioritise public health over tobacco industry or possibly other financial interests, and hence potentially government corruption. The aims of this study were to test the hypothesis that smoking prevalence is higher in countries with high levels of public sector corruption, and explore the ecological association between smoking prevalence and a range of other national characteristics in current EU Member States. Methods Ecological data from 27 EU Member States were used to estimate univariate and multivariate correlations between smoking prevalence and the Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index, and a range of other national characteristics including economic development, social inclusion, quality of life and importance of religion. We also explored the association between the Corruption Perceptions Index and measures of the extent to which smoke-free policies have been enacted and are enforced. Results In univariate analysis, smoking prevalence was significantly higher in countries with higher scores for corruption, material deprivation, and gender inequality; and lower in countries with higher per capita Gross Domestic Product, social spending, life satisfaction and human development scores. In multivariate analysis, only the corruption perception index was independently related to smoking prevalence. Exposure to tobacco smoke in the workplace was also correlated with corruption, independently from smoking prevalence, but not with the measures of national smoke-free policy implementation. Conclusions Corruption appears to be an important risk factor for failure of national tobacco control activity in EU countries, and the extent to which key

  15. What factors influence smoking prevalence and smoke free policy enactment across the European Union Member States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanovica, Ilze; McNeill, Ann; Murray, Rachael; Britton, John

    2011-01-01

    Smoking prevention should be a primary public health priority for all governments, and effective preventive policies have been identified for decades. The heterogeneity of smoking prevalence between European Union (EU) Member States therefore reflects, at least in part, a failure by governments to prioritise public health over tobacco industry or possibly other financial interests, and hence potentially government corruption. The aims of this study were to test the hypothesis that smoking prevalence is higher in countries with high levels of public sector corruption, and explore the ecological association between smoking prevalence and a range of other national characteristics in current EU Member States. Ecological data from 27 EU Member States were used to estimate univariate and multivariate correlations between smoking prevalence and the Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index, and a range of other national characteristics including economic development, social inclusion, quality of life and importance of religion. We also explored the association between the Corruption Perceptions Index and measures of the extent to which smoke-free policies have been enacted and are enforced. In univariate analysis, smoking prevalence was significantly higher in countries with higher scores for corruption, material deprivation, and gender inequality; and lower in countries with higher per capita Gross Domestic Product, social spending, life satisfaction and human development scores. In multivariate analysis, only the corruption perception index was independently related to smoking prevalence. Exposure to tobacco smoke in the workplace was also correlated with corruption, independently from smoking prevalence, but not with the measures of national smoke-free policy implementation. Corruption appears to be an important risk factor for failure of national tobacco control activity in EU countries, and the extent to which key tobacco control policies have been

  16. What factors influence smoking prevalence and smoke free policy enactment across the European Union Member States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilze Bogdanovica

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Smoking prevention should be a primary public health priority for all governments, and effective preventive policies have been identified for decades. The heterogeneity of smoking prevalence between European Union (EU Member States therefore reflects, at least in part, a failure by governments to prioritise public health over tobacco industry or possibly other financial interests, and hence potentially government corruption. The aims of this study were to test the hypothesis that smoking prevalence is higher in countries with high levels of public sector corruption, and explore the ecological association between smoking prevalence and a range of other national characteristics in current EU Member States. METHODS: Ecological data from 27 EU Member States were used to estimate univariate and multivariate correlations between smoking prevalence and the Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index, and a range of other national characteristics including economic development, social inclusion, quality of life and importance of religion. We also explored the association between the Corruption Perceptions Index and measures of the extent to which smoke-free policies have been enacted and are enforced. RESULTS: In univariate analysis, smoking prevalence was significantly higher in countries with higher scores for corruption, material deprivation, and gender inequality; and lower in countries with higher per capita Gross Domestic Product, social spending, life satisfaction and human development scores. In multivariate analysis, only the corruption perception index was independently related to smoking prevalence. Exposure to tobacco smoke in the workplace was also correlated with corruption, independently from smoking prevalence, but not with the measures of national smoke-free policy implementation. CONCLUSIONS: Corruption appears to be an important risk factor for failure of national tobacco control activity in EU countries, and

  17. Prevalence of obesity among adolescents in Ile‑Ife, Osun state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Obesity is a global epidemic not just among adults but also among children and adolescents. This study described the prevalence and pattern of obesity among in‑school adolescents in Ile‑Ife, Osun State using two standard methods, Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist Hip Ratio (WHR) with a view of comparing ...

  18. Smoking in the United States Air Force: Trends, Most Prevalent Diseases and their Association with Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Talcott, Harry Lando, and Risa J. Stein. “Smoking prevalence and risk factors for smoking in a population of United States Air Force basic trainees...Stein, Risa J., Sara A. Pyle, C. Keith Haddock, W.S. Carlos Poston, Robert Bray, and Jason Williams, “ Reported stress and its relationship to tobacco

  19. Prevalence of diseases among sheep and goats in Edo State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clinical records of small ruminant (Sheep and Goat) diseases treated were collected from the veterinary clinics, Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources of three Local Government areas in Edo state, for a period of five years (1997-2002). To identify the disease occurrence and prevalence as it militates against the ...

  20. Hyperhidrosis: an update on prevalence and severity in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolittle, James; Walker, Patricia; Mills, Thomas; Thurston, Jane

    2016-12-01

    Current published estimates of the prevalence of hyperhidrosis in the United States are outdated and underestimate the true prevalence of the condition. The objectives of this study are to provide an updated estimate of the prevalence of hyperhidrosis in the US population and to further assess the severity and impact of sweating on those affected by the condition. For the purposes of obtaining prevalence, a nationally representative sample of 8160 individuals were selected using an online panel, and information as to whether or not they experience hyperhidrosis was obtained. The 393 individuals (210 female, 244 non-Hispanic white, 27 black, mean age 40.3, SE 0.64) who indicated that they have hyperhidrosis were asked further questions, including body areas impacted, severity of symptoms, age of onset, and socioemotional impact of the condition. Current results estimate the prevalence of hyperhidrosis at 4.8 %, which represents approximately 15.3 million people in the United States. Of these, 70 % report severe excessive sweating in at least one body area. In spite of this, only 51 % have discussed their excessive sweating with a healthcare professional. The main reasons are a belief that hyperhidrosis is not a medical condition and that no treatment options exist. The current study's findings with regard to age of onset and prevalence by body area generally align with the previous research. However, current findings suggest that the severity and prevalence are both higher than previously thought, indicating a need for greater awareness of the condition and its associated treatment options among medical professionals.

  1. Estimated prevalence of polysaccharide storage myopathy among overtly healthy Quarter Horses in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Molly E; Valberg, Stephanie J

    2007-09-01

    To estimate the prevalence of polysaccharide storage myopathy (PSSM) among Quarter Horses in the United States and evaluate possible relationships between muscle glycogen concentration, turnout time, and exercise level. Cross-sectional study. 164 overtly healthy Quarter Horses > 2 years old from 5 states. Horses with a history of exertional rhabdomyolysis or any other muscular disease were excluded. Muscle biopsy specimens were examined histologically for evidence of PSSM and were submitted for determination of muscle glycogen concentration. A diagnosis of PSSM was made if amylase-resistant inclusions that stained with periodic acid-Schiff stain were detected. Prevalences of PSSM on the 2 farms with a history of PSSM were 20% (1/5) and 40.7% (11/27); mean prevalence for the other 4 farms was 6.1% (8/132). Sex was not significantly associated with a diagnosis of PSSM, and age was not significantly different between horses with and without PSSM. Total histologic score, serum creatine kinase activity, and muscle glycogen concentration were significantly higher in horses with PSSM than in horses without. Results suggested that the prevalence of PSSM among overtly healthy Quarter Horses in the United States is likely to be between 6% and 12%.

  2. Prevalence and incidence of hypoparathyroidism in the United States using a large claims database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Julia; Joy, Karen; Ruscio, Aimee; Lagast, Hjalmar

    2013-12-01

    Hypoparathyroidism is a rare endocrine disorder whose incidence and prevalence have not been well defined. This study aimed to 1) estimate the number of insured adult patients with hypoparathyroidism in the United States and 2) obtain physician assessment of disease severity and chronicity. Prevalence was estimated through calculation of diagnoses of hypoparathyroidism in a large proprietary health plan claims database over a 12-month period from October 2007 through September 2008 and projected to the US insured population. Incidence was also calculated from the same database by determining the proportion of total neck surgeries resulting in either transient (≤6 months) or chronic (>6 months) hypoparathyroidism. A physician primary market research study was conducted to assess disease severity and determine the percentage of new nonsurgical patients with hypoparathyroidism. Incidence data were entered into an epidemiologic model to derive an estimate of prevalence. The diagnosis-based prevalence approach estimated 58,793 insured patients with chronic hypoparathyroidism in the United States. The surgical-based incidence approach yielded 117,342 relevant surgeries resulting in 8901 cases over 12 months. Overall, 7.6% of surgeries resulted in hypoparathyroidism (75% transient, 25% chronic). The prevalence of chronic hypoparathyroidism among insured patients included in the surgical database was estimated to be 58,625. The physician survey found that 75% of cases treated over the past 12 months were reported due to surgery and, among all thyroidectomies and parathyroidectomies and neck dissections performed in a year, 26% resulted in transient hypoparathyroidism and 5% progressed to a chronic state. In conclusion, the two claims-based methods yielded similar estimates of the number of insured patients with chronic hypoparathyroidism in the United States (~58,700). The physician survey was consistent with those calculations and confirmed the burden imposed by

  3. Prevalence of chlamydial and gonococcal infections among young adults in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, William C; Ford, Carol A; Morris, Martina; Handcock, Mark S; Schmitz, John L; Hobbs, Marcia M; Cohen, Myron S; Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Udry, J Richard

    2004-05-12

    Chlamydial and gonococcal infections are important causes of pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, and infertility. Although screening for Chlamydia trachomatis is widely recommended among young adult women, little information is available regarding the prevalence of chlamydial and gonococcal infections in the general young adult population. To determine the prevalence of chlamydial and gonococcal infections in a nationally representative sample of young adults living in the United States. Cross-sectional analyses of a prospective cohort study of a nationally representative sample of 14,322 young adults aged 18 to 26 years. In-home interviews were conducted across the United States for Wave III of The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) from April 2, 2001, to May 9, 2002. This study sample represented 66.3% of the original 18,924 participants in Wave I of Add Health. First-void urine specimens using ligase chain reaction assay were available for 12,548 (87.6%) of the Wave III participants. Prevalences of chlamydial and gonococcal infections in the general young adult population, and by age, self-reported race/ethnicity, and geographic region of current residence. Overall prevalence of chlamydial infection was 4.19% (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.48%-4.90%). Women (4.74%; 95% CI, 3.93%-5.71%) were more likely to be infected than men (3.67%; 95% CI, 2.93%-4.58%; prevalence ratio, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.03-1.63). The prevalence of chlamydial infection was highest among black women (13.95%; 95% CI, 11.25%-17.18%) and black men (11.12%; 95% CI, 8.51%-14.42%); lowest prevalences were among Asian men (1.14%; 95% CI, 0.40%-3.21%), white men (1.38%; 95% CI, 0.93%-2.03%), and white women (2.52%; 95% CI, 1.90%-3.34%). Prevalence of chlamydial infection was highest in the south (5.39%; 95% CI, 4.24%-6.83%) and lowest in the northeast (2.39%; 95% CI, 1.56%-3.65%). Overall prevalence of gonorrhea was 0.43% (95% CI, 0.29%-0.63%). Among black men and

  4. The Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome Among Soldiers of the Military Police of Bahia State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filho, Romário Teixeira Braga; D'Oliveira, Argemiro

    2014-07-01

    The mortality rate of men is generally higher than that of women, irrespective of the age group. Currently, a key concern for health care professionals is the prevalence of risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. This study aimed at assessing the prevalence of individual risk factors for cardiovascular disease as well as the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among men serving in the Military Police Corps of the state of Bahia, Brazil. This service employs mostly men, and they are known to experience high levels of occupational stress and professional victimization. We conducted a cross-sectional study among military police soldiers (n = 452) who were candidates for a military police training course in Bahia, Brazil. All candidates who attended the selection process were evaluated according to the criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Panel III in order to assess the presence of medical disorders that could contribute to cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. The authors identified a high prevalence of hypertension (55.76%), hypertriglyceridemia (50.85%), waist circumference of >102 cm (31.76%), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (30.46%), and impaired fasting glucose (28.15%) in our subjects. The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 38.54%. The authors suggest that measures should be taken to ensure that military policemen receive continued medical care, both in their professional capacity and in their personal circumstances, and that attention be focused on intervention programs. © The Author(s) 2013.

  5. Prevalence of hypothyroidism in pregnancy: An epidemiological study from 11 cities in 9 states of India

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    Dinesh Kumar Dhanwal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A previous hospital based study from Delhi revealed a high prevalence of hypothyroidism in pregnant women. Several other studies with small sample size also indicate a rising trend of prevalence of hypothyroidism during pregnancy in India. Objective: To assess prevalence of hypothyroidism in pregnant women from various states/cities across India. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional multicenter study conducted at Allahabad (Uttar Pradesh, Bengaluru (Karnataka, Chennai (Tamil Nadu, Kolkata (West Bengal, Hyderabad (Telangana, Nasik (Maharashtra, Rohtak (Haryana, Pune (Maharashtra, New Delhi (Delhi, Srinagar (Kashmir, and Vizag (Andhra Pradesh enrolling 2599 pregnant women. Estimation of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, free T4, and antithyroid peroxidase (TPO antibodies was carried out using Roche modular kit using ECLIA technology in a central laboratory. Results: We found in our study population that 13.13% of pregnant women have hypothyroidism (n = 388, using a cutoff TSH level of 4.5 μIU/ml. This prevalence was much higher using the American Thyroid Association criteria. Anti-TPO antibodies were positive in 20.74% of all pregnant women (n = 613, whereas 40% (n = 155 of hypothyroid pregnant women were positive for anti-TPO antibodies. Conclusion: This study concludes that there is a high prevalence of hypothyroidism (13.13%, majority being subclinical in pregnant women during the first trimester from India and universal screening of hypothyroidism may be desirable in our country.

  6. Prevalence, Awareness and Correlates of Hypertension Among Urban Public Workers in Ondo State, Nigeria

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    Isaac Aladeniyi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Due to the asymptomatic nature of hypertension, its diagnosis is often delayed, thus, leading to increasing morbidity and mortality. This study examines the prevalence, awareness and correlates of hypertension among apparently healthy adults working in an urban area of Ondo State, Nigeria. Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey of 4844 public service workers drawn across the 47 ministries, departments and agencies in Akure, the state capital of Ondo State, Nigeria. The WHO STEPwise questionnaire was used for data collection. Blood pressure (BP, blood sugar, weight and height measurements followed standard procedures. Hypertension was defined as BP of ≥140/90 mmHg or a history of hypertension while self-reported prior diagnosis was defined as hypertension awareness. Bivariate and logistic analysis were performed to determine the prevalence, awareness and correlates of hypertension and a p-value of <0.05 was considered significant. Results: The prevalence of hypertension was 35% while an additional 36.4% had pre-hypertension. Males had a slightly higher prevalence of hypertension (39.1% compared to females (21.3%. Of all the hypertensive participants (n=1692, only 28% were aware of their hypertension status with a higher awareness rate among females (10.8% compared to males (8.7%. After adjusting for confounders in a logistic regression model analysis, only male sex, age above 40 years, primary or no education, marriage, obesity and diabetes were independent and significant predictors of hypertension among the study participants. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of hypertension among the study participants with a high hypertension unawareness. There is a need to implement effective workplace health policy and regularly organise health screening for public civil servants in the setting to reduce the burden of undiagnosed hypertension and its accompanying complications.

  7. Estimates of Incidence and Prevalence of Visual Impairment, Low Vision, and Blindness in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Tiffany; Friedman, David S; Bradley, Chris; Massof, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Updated estimates of the prevalence and incidence rates of low vision and blindness are needed to inform policy makers and develop plans to meet the future demands for low vision rehabilitation services. To provide updated estimates of the incidence and prevalence of low vision and blindness in the United States. Visual acuity measurements as a function of age from the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, with representation of racial and ethnic groups, were used to estimate the prevalence and incidence of visual impairments. Data from 6016 survey participants, ranging in age from younger than 18 years to older than 45 years, were obtained to estimate prevalence rates for different age groups. Incidence and prevalence rates of low vision (best-corrected visual acuity [BCVA] in the better-seeing eye of United States were estimated, using the 2010 US census data by age, from the rate models applied to the census projections for 2017, 2030, and 2050. Data were collected from November 1, 2007, to October 31, 2008. Data analysis took place from March 31, 2016, to March 19, 2017. Prevalence and incidence rates of low vision and blindness in the United States. Of the 6016 people in the study, 1714 (28.4%) were younger than 18 years of age, 2358 (39.1%) were 18 to 44 years of age, and 1944 (32.3%) were 45 years of age or older. There were 2888 male (48%) and 3128 female (52%) participants. The prevalence of low vision and blindness for older adults (≥45 years) in the United States in 2017 is estimated to be 3 894 406 persons (95% CI, 3 034 442-4 862 549 persons) with a BCVA less than 20/40, 1 483 703 persons (95% CI, 968 656-2 370 513 persons) with a BCVA less than 20/60, and 1 082 790 persons (95% CI, 637 771-1 741 864 persons) with a BCVA of 20/200 or less. The estimated 2017 annual incidence (projected from 2010 census data) of low vision and blindness among older adults (≥45 years) in the United States is 481

  8. Drug use and AIDS: estimating injection prevalence in a rural state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leukefeld, Carl G; Logan, T K; Farabee, David; Clayton, Richard

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents approaches used in one rural U.S. state to describe the level of injecting drug use and to estimate the number of injectors not receiving drug-user treatment. The focus is on two broad areas of estimation that were used to present the prevalence of injecting drug use in Kentucky. The first estimation approach uses available data from secondary data sources. The second approach involves three small community studies.

  9. Hepatitis B screening and prevalence among resettled refugees - United States, 2006-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Kevin C; Taylor, Eboni M; Mamo, Blain; Herr, Nathaniel D; Cronkright, Peter J; Yun, Katherine; Altshuler, Marc; Shetty, Sharmila

    2015-06-05

    Globally, more than two billion persons have been infected at some time with the hepatitis B virus (HBV), and approximately 3.5 million refugees have chronic HBV infection. The endemicity of HBV varies by region. Because chronic hepatitis B is infectious and persons with chronic infection benefit from treatment, CDC recommends screening for HBV among all refugees who originate in countries where the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg; a marker for acute or chronic infection) is ≥2% or who are at risk for HBV because of personal characteristics such as injection drug use or household contact with an individual with HBV infection. Currently, almost all refugees are routinely screened for hepatitis B. However, prevalence rates of HBV infection in refugee populations recently resettled in the United States have not been determined. A multisite, retrospective study was performed to evaluate the prevalence of past HBV infection, current infection, and immunity among refugees resettled in the United States; to better characterize the burden of hepatitis B in this population; and to inform screening recommendations. The study incorporated surveillance data from a large state refugee health program and chart reviews from three U.S. sites that conduct medical screenings of refugees. The prevalence of HBV infection (current or past as determined by available titer levels) varied among refugees originating in different countries and was higher among Burmese refugees than among refugees from Bhutan or Iraq. Current or past HBV infection was also higher among adults (aged >18 years) and male refugees. These data might help inform planning by states and resettlement agencies, as well as screening decisions by health care providers.

  10. Prevalence of intestinal nematode parasitism among pet dogs in the United States (2003-2006).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Ahmed S; Moore, George E; Glickman, Larry T

    2009-03-01

    To estimate prevalence of intestinal nematode parasitism among pet dogs in the United States and characterize risk factors for infection. Retrospective period prevalence survey. 1,213,061 dogs examined at 547 private veterinary hospitals in 44 states from January 1, 2003, through December 31, 2006. Data were obtained from electronic medical records of all dogs that had at least 1 fecal flotation test. Risk factors for intestinal nematode parasitism were identified by means of multivariable logistic regression analysis. 2,785,248 fecal flotation tests were performed during the study period. When results for only the first test in each dog were considered, prevalences of Toxocara, Ancylostoma, and Trichuris parasitism were 5.04%, 4.50%, and 0.81%, respectively. Dogs parasitism, compared with dogs > 5.0 years old; sexually intact male and female dogs had higher odds of parasitism, compared with spayed female dogs; toy dogs had lower odds of parasitism, compared with dogs in other breed groups; and dogs living in the mountain region had lower odds of parasitism, compared with dogs living in other regions. Results suggested that age, body weight, sex, breed, and geographic region were risk factors for intestinal nematode parasitism among pet dogs in the United States.

  11. Prevalence and risk factors for bovine brucellosis in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil

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    Karina Diniz Baumgarten

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to verify that the State of Santa Catarina has maintained a low prevalence of bovine brucellosis, which would allow the state to move forward with implementing strategies for disease eradication. The state was divided into five regions. In each region, a predetermined number of randomly selected properties was sampled. In each property, blood samples were collected from randomly selected cows with ages equal to or greater than 24 months. Sera from the animals were submitted to a serial testing protocol, with screening by the buffered acidified antigen test and confirmation by the 2-mercaptoethanol test. In each property, a questionnaire was used to identify the risk factors associated with the disease. In the state, the prevalence rate of infected herds was 0.912% [0.297 - 2.11] and infected animals was 1.21% [0.09 - 4.97]. Relative to the earlier study in 2002, there was no difference. The risk factors associated with the condition of a herd infected with brucellosis were as follows: herd size ? 12 cows (OR = 7.47 [2.14 - 34.34] and the presence of flooded areas (OR = 5.68 [1.62 - 26.13]. In view of the low prevalence, it is recommended that the state proceed with the implementation of eradication strategies that are based on a surveillance system structured to detect and eliminate infected herds, and supported by an effective compensation fund for the replacement of seropositive animals. Additionally, the State should make a significant effort to educate and supervise producers to ensure the testing of breeding animals for brucellosis before introducing them into their properties.

  12. Prevalence of Specific Types of Pain Diagnoses in a Sample of United States Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kelly Ryan; Han, Jing L; Yang, Siyun; Hussaini, Syed Mohammed Qasim; Elsamadicy, Aladine A; Parente, Beth; Xie, Jichun; Pagadala, Promila; Lad, Shivanand P

    2017-02-01

    Patients with pain conditions place significant demands on health care services globally. Health economists have reported the annual economic cost of pain in the United States as high as $635 billion. A common challenge in treating patients suffering from chronic pain conditions is accurate diagnosis and treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the modern-day prevalence of individual types of pain diagnoses in adults. Retrospective analysis of Truven MarketScan® Commercial and Medicare Supplemental database. United States patient population with a pain diagnoses from 2000 to 2012. Multivariate analysis was used to determine the individual prevalence of specific types of pain diagnoses over a 13-year period. We grouped the 6,575,999 patients with ICD-9 pain diagnoses into pain groupings. We determined the prevalence of pain groupings as back pain (74.7%), chronic pain (10.4%), complex regional pain syndrome (1.2%), degenerative spine disease (63.6%), limb pain (50.0%), neuritis/radiculitis (52.8%), and post-laminectomy syndrome (14.8%). Retrospective and non-randomized study, with a patient cohort that is weighted towards recent years and commercial insurance. Coding discrepancies that are recorded and collected for patients. The demographic differences and similarities within the subgroups highlighted the concept that pain diagnoses should be considered as separate, but related entities. The present study helps us to better understand the frequency of specific pain diagnoses, and directs future studies to appropriately focus on pain diagnoses based on prevalence. This will allow increased understanding of the variation in pain diagnoses and prevent over-generalization in studies examining pain patients to more accurately reflect the varied subtypes and their economic impact.Duke University Institutional Review Board Protocol: 00053624Key words: Pain diagnoses, CRPS, neuritis, radiculitis, limb pain, degenerative spine disease, back pain, chronic pain

  13. Prevalence of and Trends in Diabetes Among Adults in the United States, 1988-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menke, Andy; Casagrande, Sarah; Geiss, Linda; Cowie, Catherine C

    2015-09-08

    Previous studies have shown increasing prevalence of diabetes in the United States. New US data are available to estimate prevalence of and trends in diabetes. To estimate the recent prevalence and update US trends in total diabetes, diagnosed diabetes, and undiagnosed diabetes using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data. Cross-sectional surveys conducted between 1988-1994 and 1999-2012 of nationally representative samples of the civilian, noninstitutionalized US population; 2781 adults from 2011-2012 were used to estimate recent prevalence and an additional 23,634 adults from 1988-2010 were used to estimate trends. The prevalence of diabetes was defined using a previous diagnosis of diabetes or, if diabetes was not previously diagnosed, by (1) a hemoglobin A1c level of 6.5% or greater or a fasting plasma glucose (FPG) level of 126 mg/dL or greater (hemoglobin A1c or FPG definition) or (2) additionally including 2-hour plasma glucose (2-hour PG) level of 200 mg/dL or greater (hemoglobin A1c, FPG, or 2-hour PG definition). Prediabetes was defined as a hemoglobin A1c level of 5.7% to 6.4%, an FPG level of 100 mg/dL to 125 mg/dL, or a 2-hour PG level of 140 mg/dL to 199 mg/dL. In the overall 2011-2012 population, the unadjusted prevalence (using the hemoglobin A1c, FPG, or 2-hour PG definitions for diabetes and prediabetes) was 14.3% (95% CI, 12.2%-16.8%) for total diabetes, 9.1% (95% CI, 7.8%-10.6%) for diagnosed diabetes, 5.2% (95% CI, 4.0%-6.9%) for undiagnosed diabetes, and 38.0% (95% CI, 34.7%-41.3%) for prediabetes; among those with diabetes, 36.4% (95% CI, 30.5%-42.7%) were undiagnosed. The unadjusted prevalence of total diabetes (using the hemoglobin A1c or FPG definition) was 12.3% (95% CI, 10.8%-14.1%); among those with diabetes, 25.2% (95% CI, 21.1%-29.8%) were undiagnosed. Compared with non-Hispanic white participants (11.3% [95% CI, 9.0%-14.1%]), the age-standardized prevalence of total diabetes (using the hemoglobin A1c, FPG, or

  14. Spatial analysis for prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus - A state investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainal, Siti Salsabilah Nabilah; Masnan, Maz Jamilah; Amin, Nor Azrita Mohd; Mohamed, Nordin

    2017-11-01

    Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic and non-communicable disease, which is characterized as the cause of premature deaths in the world. Unfortunately, Malaysia is one of the many countries facing this epidemic. Based on the increasing current trend of T2DM patients' cases from the National Diabetes Registry (NDR) Report from 2009 to 2012, there were approximately 2.6 million adults aged 18 years and above living with diabetes disease in Malaysia. Thus, this study aims to (i) perform preliminary spatial analysis for the prevalence of T2DM patients based on some factors, (ii) map the findings of the analyses according to some spatial properties, and (iii) analyze the pattern of diagnosed T2DM patients based on the studied factors. The studied population is one of the highest prevalence states of T2DM in Malaysia. This study is expected to reveal some demographic patterns that probably significant to this alarming epidemic.

  15. Incidence and prevalence of systemic sclerosis in Campo Grande, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horimoto, Alex Magno Coelho; Matos, Erica Naomi Naka; Costa, Márcio Reis da; Takahashi, Fernanda; Rezende, Marcelo Cruz; Kanomata, Letícia Barrios; Locatelli, Elisangela Possebon Pradebon; Finotti, Leandro Tavares; Maegawa, Flávia Kamy Maciel; Rondon, Rosa Maria Ribeiro; Machado, Natália Pereira; Couto, Flávia Midori Arakaki Ayres Tavares do; Figueiredo, Túlia Peixoto Alves de; Ovidio, Raphael Antonio; Costa, Izaias Pereira da

    Systemic sclerosis is an autoimmune disease which shows extreme heterogeneity in its clinical presentation and that follows a variable and unpredictable course. Although some discrepancies in the incidence and prevalence rates between geographical regions may reflect methodological differences in the definition and verification of cases, they may also reflect true local differences. To determine the prevalence and incidence of systemic sclerosis in the city of Campo Grande, state capital of Mato Grosso do Sul (MS), Brazil, during the period from January to December 2014. All health care services of the city of Campo Grande - MS with attending in the specialty of Rheumatology were invited to participate in the study through a standardized form of clinical and socio-demographic assessment. Physicians of any specialty could report a suspected case of systemic sclerosis, but necessarily the definitive diagnosis should be established by a rheumatologist, in order to warrant the standardization of diagnostic criteria and exclusion of other diseases resembling systemic sclerosis. At the end of the study, 15 rheumatologists reported that they attended patients with systemic sclerosis and sent the completed forms containing epidemiological data of patients. The incidence rate of systemic sclerosis in Campo Grande for the year 2014 was 11.9 per million inhabitants and the prevalence rate was 105.6 per million inhabitants. Systemic sclerosis patients were mostly women, white, with a mean age of 50.58 years, showing the limited form of the disease with a mean duration of the disease of 8.19 years. Regarding laboratory tests, 94.4% were positive for antinuclear antibody, 41.6% for anti-centromere antibody and 19.1% for anti-Scl70; anti-RNA Polymerase III was performed in 37 patients, with 16.2% positive. The city of Campo Grande, the state capital of MS, presented a lower incidence/prevalence of systemic sclerosis in comparison with those numbers found in US studies and close

  16. The prevalence of marijuana in suspected impaired driving cases in Washington state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couper, Fiona J; Peterson, Brianna L

    2014-10-01

    In December 2012, the possession and private use of limited quantities of marijuana and marijuana products became legal in the state of Washington. At the same time, the state's driving under the influence statutes were amended to include a per se level of 5 ng/mL delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in whole blood for drivers aged 21 years and older. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of marijuana legalization on the prevalence of marijuana in suspected impaired driving cases. The prevalence of both active THC and its metabolite carboxy-THC detected in such cases pre-legalization was compared with the prevalence post-legalization. In 2009-2012, the average yearly percentage of cases positive for THC and carboxy-THC was 19.1% (range: 18.2-20.2%) and 27.9% (range: 26.3-28.6%), respectively. In 2013, the percentages had significantly increased to 24.9 and 40.0%, respectively (P 5 ng/mL over the 5-year period. The prevalence of alcohol and the majority of other drugs in this same population of suspected impaired drivers submitted for testing did not change during this same 5-year period-marijuana was the only drug to show such an increase in frequency. Further, this observed increase remained after the data had been normalized to account for changes in laboratory testing procedures that occurred during this time period. Future studies need be conducted to ascertain whether the observed increase has had any effect on the incidence of crashes, serious injuries and/or traffic fatalities. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Prevalence of Yersinia enterocolitica in market weight hogs in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesley, Irene V; Bhaduri, Saumya; Bush, Eric

    2008-06-01

    Pigs are the major animal reservoir for Yersinia enterocolitica strains, which are potentially pathogenic for humans. The goals of this study were (i) to estimate the individual animal and on-farm prevalences of Y. enterocolitica in hogs based on tonsil samples collected during National Animal Health Monitoring System Swine 2002 study and (ii) to use these data with data previously published for fecal samples to determine on-farm risk factors for Y. enterocolitica. Tonsil swabs (1,218) and fecal samples (2,847) were collected on 124 farms located in the top 17 pork-producing states. Ten percent of tonsils (122 of 1,218 samples) were positive in irgasan-tiracillin-chlorate (ITC) enrichment broth by real-time PCR, but only 5.6% of samples (68 of 1,218) were positive after subculture on the more selective cefsulodin-irgasan-novobiocin (CIN) agar. For tonsils, the on-farm prevalence based on real-time PCR detection of the ail gene in ITC enrichment broth cultures was 32% (32 of 100 premises sampled); the prevalence based on subculture in CIN agar was 19.6% (20 of 102 premises). Results of bacteriological isolation and real-time PCR analysis of tonsils and feces were combined to estimate prevalence (individual animal and farm), which was subsequently correlated with 40 farm management practices. Four factors and their accompanying odds ratios (ORs) were identified in the final regression model: location in a central state (OR = 0.3), vaccination for Escherichia coli (OR = 3.0), percentage of deaths due to scours (OR = 3.5), and presence of meat or bone meal in grower-finisher diet (OR = 4.1).

  18. Current Estimates From the Health Interview Survey United States - July 1964 - June 1965

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-11-01

    conditions ------------------- All other acute code numbers Trouble with varicose veins Chronic nervousatrouble Diseasen of the e- - - - - -3.......... 90.296...Diseases are not used. through the nurse is counted as well as visits to phy- In the Supplementary Code, impairments are grouped sicians in clinics or...all (or nurse ) to the person to take home. Medicine ob- persons in a group represents an unduplicated count of tained as a refill of a previous

  19. Prevalence of ketosis in dairy cows in milk shed areas of Odisha state, India

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    Sangram Biswal

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to ascertain the prevalence of ketosis in dairy cows in dairy herds, milksheds, and mixed population of milk cows selected randomly in milkshed areas of Odisha state, India. Materials and Methods: The investigation was conducted in 280 private dairy herds with variable herd size of 10-15 cows comprising crossbred Jersey cows (CBJ, crossbred Holstein Friesian (CHF cows, and indigenous local breeds. The analysis of urine (Rothera’s test, milk (Ross test, and blood samples of 2760 test cows were conducted through qualitative assessment by Rothera’s test and Ross test, respectively, for the presence of ketone bodies to screen the ketotic animals. Cut-points have been decided based on β-hydroxybutyric acid level (≥1.2-1.4 mmol/L in milk. Results: We noted positive cases of ketosis with a prevalence rate of 36.7% (1014/2760 entailing 27.2% in clinical ketosis and 9.6% in subclinical ketosis. The breed wise incident rate was recorded to be the highest (38.0% in CBJs. The age-wise prevalence rate was found to be the highest (40.8% in the age group of 5.5-6.5 years. The season wise prevalence rate in 5th calver was recorded to be the highest (38.6% in summer season as compared to other seasons. The prevalence of ketosis was observed to be the highest at 56.7% on the first stage of lactation at the 1st month after 2 weeks. The incidence rates for clinical and subclinical ketosis were found to be 25.2%; 12.2%, 26.6%; 11.2% and 30.3%; 2.9% in CBJ, CHF and indigenous cows, respectively. The breed wise overall prevalence rate was recorded to be 38.0% in CBJ, 37.8% in CHF, and 33.2% in indigenous cows. Conclusion: Ketosis and subclinical ketosis is highly prevalent metabolic disorder and has severe effect on the production status of affected animal and needs to be prevented, rather than treated, by maintaining cows in good and healthy conditions. We have attempted to give great attention for diagnosis, management

  20. Prevalence of ketosis in dairy cows in milk shed areas of Odisha state, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswal, Sangram; Nayak, Dhruba Charan; Sardar, Kautuk Kumar

    2016-11-01

    The present study was conducted to ascertain the prevalence of ketosis in dairy cows in dairy herds, milksheds, and mixed population of milk cows selected randomly in milkshed areas of Odisha state, India. The investigation was conducted in 280 private dairy herds with variable herd size of 10-15 cows comprising crossbred Jersey cows (CBJ), crossbred Holstein Friesian (CHF) cows, and indigenous local breeds. The analysis of urine (Rothera's test), milk (Ross test), and blood samples of 2760 test cows were conducted through qualitative assessment by Rothera's test and Ross test, respectively, for the presence of ketone bodies to screen the ketotic animals. Cut-points have been decided based on β-hydroxybutyric acid level (≥1.2-1.4 mmol/L) in milk. We noted positive cases of ketosis with a prevalence rate of 36.7% (1014/2760) entailing 27.2% in clinical ketosis and 9.6% in subclinical ketosis. The breed wise incident rate was recorded to be the highest (38.0%) in CBJs. The age-wise prevalence rate was found to be the highest (40.8%) in the age group of 5.5-6.5 years. The season wise prevalence rate in 5 th calver was recorded to be the highest (38.6%) in summer season as compared to other seasons. The prevalence of ketosis was observed to be the highest at 56.7% on the first stage of lactation at the 1 st month after 2 weeks. The incidence rates for clinical and subclinical ketosis were found to be 25.2%; 12.2%, 26.6%; 11.2% and 30.3%; 2.9% in CBJ, CHF and indigenous cows, respectively. The breed wise overall prevalence rate was recorded to be 38.0% in CBJ, 37.8% in CHF, and 33.2% in indigenous cows. Ketosis and subclinical ketosis is highly prevalent metabolic disorder and has severe effect on the production status of affected animal and needs to be prevented, rather than treated, by maintaining cows in good and healthy conditions. We have attempted to give great attention for diagnosis, management, and control of this disease during risk stage to prevent

  1. United States-Mexico Border Diabetes Prevalence Survey: lessons learned from implementation of the project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cosío, Federico G; Díaz-Apodaca, Beatriz A; Ruiz-Holguín, Rosalba; Lara, Agustín; Castillo-Salgado, Carlos

    2010-09-01

    This paper reviews and discusses the main procedures and policies that need to be followed when designing and implementing a binational survey such as the United States of America (U.S.)-Mexico Border Diabetes Prevalence Study that took place between 2001 and 2002. The main objective of the survey was to determine the prevalence of diabetes in the population 18 years of age or older along U.S.-Mexico border counties and municipalities. Several political, administrative, financial, legal, and cultural issues were identified as critical factors that need to be considered when developing and implementing similar binational projects. The lack of understanding of public health practices, implementation of existing policies, legislation, and management procedures in Mexico and the United States may delay or cancel binational research, affecting the working relation of both countries. Many challenges were identified: multiagency/multifunding, ethical/budget clearances, project management, administrative procedures, laboratory procedures, cultural issues, and project communications. Binational projects are complex; they require coordination between agencies and institutions at federal, state, and local levels and between countries and need a political, administrative, bureaucratic, cultural, and language balance. Binational agencies and staff should coordinate these projects for successful implementation.

  2. [Trachoma prevalence in preschoolers and schoolchildren in Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil, 1992].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Norma Helen; Gattas, Vera Lúcia; Anjos, Gilberto L; Montuori, Conchita; Gentil, Rosana Maura

    2002-01-01

    Trachoma dispensaries were created in the State of São Paulo in 1938, when the incidence of trachoma was 10.9% in Botucatu. During the 1970s trachoma ceased to pose a public health problem. The disease reappeared in the 1980s, leading the São Paulo State Health Department to establish a control program as new cases were being detected in various parts of the State, including Botucatu. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of trachoma in preschoolers and schoolchildren and to implement a program to control the disease in Botucatu. A cluster sample of children were submitted to external ocular examination to detect signs of trachoma according to WHO criteria. Trachoma prevalence was 11.9% among the 1,393 children examined. All cases were treated with 1.0% tetracycline ointment and followed up periodically. Loss to follow-up increased from 1.6% for the first return visit to 62.4% for the last visit. The results showed the need to investigate the causes of non-compliance with the control program and the impact and effectiveness of treatment.

  3. Prevalence of dental caries and toothbrushing habits among preschool children in Khartoum State, Sudan.

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    Elidrissi, Sitana M; Naidoo, Sudeshni

    2016-08-01

    Dental caries in preschool children remains a major dental public health problem and affects significant numbers of children in developed and developing countries. The incidence is increasing in developing countries, such as Sudan, because of lifestyle changes, absence of oral health-preventive services and inadequate access to oral health care. This study assessed the prevalence of dental caries and toothbrushing habits among 3- to 5-year-old preschool children in Khartoum State, Sudan, and described the correlation between the mean decayed, missing and filled tooth (dmft) score for primary teeth with toothbrushing and sugar consumption. The subjects were 553 preschool children with their mothers/guardians, selected by random sampling from the kindergartens of the seven localities of Khartoum State, Sudan. Data were obtained through clinical examination using a modified World Health Organization (WHO) examination data-capture sheet and through structured administered interviews with mothers/guardians. The prevalence of dental caries was 52.4%, with a mean dmft score of 2.3. There was an increase in the dmft scores with increasing age. The frequency of children who brushed their teeth regularly at least once a day was high (83.4%), lower dmft scores were associated with starting toothbrushing earlier in life and with increased frequency of brushing per day. Eating sugar-containing food was significantly associated with dmft score. The prevalence of dental caries was found to be high among 3- to 5-year-old preschool children, and caries experience increased with age. This was mostly associated with sugar consumption and therefore calls for educational interventions to control sugar intake. The toothbrushing habit is well established in Khartoum State, Sudan, as a large number of children were found to be brushing their teeth regularly. No significant association was found between feeding habits and dmft score. © 2016 FDI World Dental Federation.

  4. Prevalence and risk factors for bovine tuberculosis in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Ricardo Augusto Dias

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A cross sectional study was carried out between May and November 2011 to investigate the epidemiological situation of bovine tuberculosis (bTB in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The state was divided into seven regions. Three hundred farms from each region, with reproductive activity, were randomly chosen and included as primary sample units. A fixed number of bovine females, older than 2 years of age, were randomly selected and tested, using the comparative cervical tuberculin test. An epidemiological questionnaire based survey was conducted in the selected farms. Our results show that in the state of São Paulo, the apparent prevalence of positive farms was 9% (95% confidence interval, 95% CI = 7.8 – 10.5%. The prevalence in the individual regions varied between 3.5% (95% CI = 1.7 ? 6.8% and 13.9% (95% CI = 10.2 – 18.8%. The apparent prevalence of positive animals in the state was 1.3% (95% CI = 0.9 – 1.7% and varied from 0.3% (95% CI = 0.2 – 0.6% to 2.5% (95% CI = 1.4 – 4.5% in the regions. The risk factors associated with tuberculosis in the state were (i number of adult females in a herd is ? 24 (Odds ratio, OR = 1.91, 95% CI = 1.32 – 2.75, (ii type of farm enterprise (dairy: OR = 2.70, 95% CI = 1.40 – 5.21; mixed: OR = 2.03, 95% CI = 1.08 – 3.82, (iii milking process (milking parlor: OR = 4.12, 95% CI = 1.46 – 11.64; portable milking machine: OR = 2.94, 95% CI = 1.42 – 6.09, and (iv pasture sharing (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.07 – 2.33. The state of São Paulo should implement a structured surveillance system to detect and mitigate the disease. Further, an efficient animal health education program, which encourages the farmers to test replacement animals for bTB prior to introduction in their herds and to avoid pasture sharing with farms of unknown sanitary conditions should also be implemented.

  5. Niche marketing production practices for beef cattle in the United States and prevalence of foodborne pathogens.

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    Fox, J Trent; Reinstein, Shelby; Jacob, Megan E; Nagaraja, T G

    2008-10-01

    Niche-marketed food products are rapidly gaining market share in today's society. Consumers are willing to pay premium prices for food perceived to be safer, healthier, more nutritious, and better tasting than conventional food. This review outlines typical production practices for niche-market beef production systems in the United States and compares prevalence estimates of foodborne pathogens in animals and produce from conventional and niche-market production systems. The two main niches for food animal production are organic and natural productions. Organic and natural beef productions are becoming increasingly popular and there is high consumer demand. Two major differences between conventional beef production systems and niche-market production systems (natural and organic) are in the use of antimicrobials and growth-promoting hormones. The impacts of these production systems on foodborne pathogens in beef cattle are variable and often data are nonexistent. Studies directly comparing conventional and niche-market production systems for dairy, swine, poultry, and produce have observed that the prevalence of foodborne pathogens was seldom statistically different between production systems, but when differences were observed, prevalence was typically greater for the niche-market production systems than the conventional production system. The published literature suggests that the perception of niche-marketed food products being safer and healthier for consumers with regard to foodborne pathogens may not be justified.

  6. Prevalence and epidemiology of chronic hepatitis C among prisoners of Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil

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    MA Pompilio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil, the number of prisoners has increased in the recent years and the control of hepatitis C virus (HCV has become more complex. The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence and identify the genotypes of HCV in prisoners as well as the factors associated with this infectious disease. Thereby, 443 men and 243 women from prisons were interviewed and subjected to blood collection. Anti-HCV reactive samples were analyzed by RT-PCR and genotyped. The overall seroprevalence of HCV infection was 4.8% (95%CI: 3.4 to 6.8%. Furthermore, the prevalence was higher in: men, injecting drug users, tattooed persons, those who were more than 50 years old, individuals who have been arrested multiple times, people with previous history of sexually transmitted disease (STD, persons who received blood transfusions or those with HIV/AIDS. The prevalence of RNA HCV by PCR was 3.0% (95%CI: 1.7 to 4.2%. Moreover, the coinfection of HIV and HCV was 33.3%. In addition, genotype 1 was the most frequent (85% followed by genotype 3 (15%. The screening strategy for HCV and other infectious diseases in inmates is important as it establishes an early diagnosis, opportunity for treatment and allows the breaking of the transmission chain.

  7. Prevalence of refractive error in the United States, 1999-2004.

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    Vitale, Susan; Ellwein, Leon; Cotch, Mary Frances; Ferris, Frederick L; Sperduto, Robert

    2008-08-01

    To describe the prevalence of refractive error in the United States. The 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) used an autorefractor to obtain refractive error data on a nationally representative sample of the US noninstitutionalized, civilian population 12 years and older. Using data from the eye with a greater absolute spherical equivalent (SphEq) value, we defined clinically important refractive error as follows: hyperopia, SphEq value of 3.0 diopters (D) or greater; myopia, SphEq value of -1.0 D or less; and astigmatism, cylinder of 1.0 D or greater in either eye. Of 14,213 participants 20 years or older who completed the NHANES, refractive error data were obtained for 12,010 (84.5%). The age-standardized prevalences of hyperopia, myopia, and astigmatism were 3.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.2%-4.0%), 33.1% (95% CI, 31.5%-34.7%), and 36.2% (95% CI, 34.9%-37.5%), respectively. Myopia was more prevalent in women (39.9%) than in men (32.6%) (P refractive error affects half of the US population 20 years or older.

  8. Prevalence of mental disorders among prisoners in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

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    Sergio Baxter Andreoli

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the prison population in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Through stratified random sampling, 1.192 men and 617 women prisoners were evaluated for the presence of psychiatric disorders by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, 2.1 version, according to definitions and criteria of International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10. The prevalence estimates of mental disorders and their respective 95% confidence intervals were calculated and adjusted for sample design through complex sample analysis. RESULTS: Lifetime and 12-month prevalence rates differed between genders. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of any mental disorder was, respectively, 68.9% and 39.2% among women, and 56.1% and 22.1% among men. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of anxious-phobic disorders was, respectively, 50% and 27.7% among women and 35.3% and 13.6% among men, of affective disorders was 40% and 21% among women and 20.8% and 9.9% among men, and of drug-related disorders was 25.2% and 1.6% among women and 26.5% and 1.3% among men. For severe mental disorders (psychotic, bipolar disorders, and severe depression, the lifetime and 12-month prevalence rates were, respectively, 25.8% and 14.7% among women, and 12.3% and 6.3% among men. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first large-scale epidemiological study performed with the prison population in Brazil, revealed high rates of psychiatric disorders among men and women. Many similarities, as well as some differences, were found between our results and those of studies conducted in other countries. The differences observed are more likely due to the peculiarities of the prison systems in each country than to the diagnostic criteria adopted in the studies. This fact reinforces the importance of conducting such studies as part of planning and development of appropriate policies for the particular mental health needs of specific prison populations.

  9. The Prevalence of Exposure to Workplace Secondhand Smoke in the United States: 2010 to 2015.

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    Dai, Hongying; Hao, Jianqiang

    2017-11-01

    To compare changes in exposure to workplace secondhand smoke (SHS) by industry of employment and occupation from 2010 to 2015. Data were collected from 2010 and 2015 National Health Interview Survey. Weighted estimates of the prevalence of exposure to workplace SHS among currently working nonsmokers in 2010 (n = 12 627) and 2015 (n = 16 399) were compared. The prevalence of exposure to workplace SHS among currently working nonsmokers was 10.0% in 2015 and 9.5% in 2010. Exposure to workplace SHS is disproportionally high among male workers, young workers, non-Hispanic blacks, Hispanics, workers with low education and low income, and workers residing in the Southern United States. Tobacco control policies have effectively reduced exposure to workplace SHS in a few white-collar and service job categories but blue-collar workers remain to have a high prevalence of exposure to workplace SHS. From 2010 to 2015, "transportation and warehousing industries" had the largest increase in SHS exposure (13.3%-21.5%, p value = .004) and "arts, entertainment, and recreation industries" had the largest decline in prevalence of exposure to SHS (20.1%-11.5%, p value = .01). In the multivariate analysis, workers with service (aOR = 1.4, p workplace SHS than those with white-collar occupations. Disparities of SHS exposure by industry, occupation, and social demographic class continue to exist. Blue-collar workers, especially those working in "transportation and construction industries," along with young workers and workers in high risk social classes are priority groups for future workplace SHS prevention. An estimated 12.6 million working nonsmokers were regularly exposed to SHS at work in 2015. We compared the changes in prevalence of exposure to workplace SHS from 2010 to 2015 by social demographic class, industry of employment and occupation. Our findings could help inform the policymakers and health practitioners to establish stronger smoke-free air laws and conduct education

  10. Prevalence of Indoor Tanning and Association With Sunburn Among Youth in the United States.

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    Guy, Gery P; Berkowitz, Zahava; Everett Jones, Sherry; Watson, Meg; Richardson, Lisa C

    2017-05-01

    Indoor tanning and sunburns, particularly during adolescence and young adulthood, increase the risk of developing skin cancer. To examine the trends in the prevalence of indoor tanning and the association between indoor tanning and sunburn among US high school students. This study pooled and examined cross-sectional data from the 2009, 2011, 2013, and 2015 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey. During 2009, 2011, 2013, and 2015, the overall response rates were 71%, 71%, 68%, and 60%, respectively, and unweighted sample sizes were 16 410, 15 425, 13 538, and 15 624, respectively. It included nationally representative samples of US high school students. Data were collected during the spring semester (January to June) in each survey cycle beginning February 9, 2009, through June 18, 2015. Prevalence of indoor tanning in the past year from 2009 to 2015 and its association with sunburn in 2015. Among high school students in the United States, the prevalence of indoor tanning decreased from 15.6% (95% CI, 13.7%-17.6%) in 2009 to 7.3% (95% CI, 6.0%-8.9%) in 2015. Decreases in indoor tanning were found among male (from 6.7% in 2009 to 4.0% in 2015) and female (from 25.4 % in 2009 to 10.6 % in 2015) students overall, non-Hispanic white (from 21.1 % in 2009 to 9.4% in 2015) and Hispanic (from 8.2% in 2009 to 4.7% in 2015) students overall, and all age groups. Among non-Hispanic white female students, the prevalence decreased from 37.4% (95% CI, 33.6%-41.4%) in 2009 to 15.2% (95% CI, 11.7%-19.5%) in 2015. In 2015, indoor tanning was associated with sunburn in the adjusted model: 82.3% (95% CI, 77.9%-86.0%) of indoor tanners had at least 1 sunburn during the preceding year compared with 53.7% (95% CI, 48.9%-58.4%) of those who did not engage in indoor tanning (P < .001). Despite declines in the prevalence of indoor tanning from 2009 to 2015 among high school students nationwide, indoor tanning remains commonplace among certain subgroups, especially non-Hispanic white female

  11. Low Prevalence of Antiretroviral Resistance Among HIV Type 1-Positive Prisoners in the Southeast United States

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    Rosen, David; Wohl, David A.; Kiziah, Nichole; Sebastian, Joseph; Eron, Joseph J.; White, Becky

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Drug-resistant HIV complicates management of HIV infection. Although an estimated 14% of all HIV-positive persons pass through a prison or jail in the United States each year, little is known about the overall prevalence of antiretroviral (ARV) resistance in incarcerated persons. All genotypic sequence data on HIV-positive prisoners in the North Carolina (NC) Department of Corrections (DOC) were obtained from LabCorp. Screening for major resistance mutations in protease (PI) and reverse transcriptase (NRTI and NNRTI) was done using Genosure and the Stanford HIV Database. For subjects with multiple genotype reports, each mutation was counted only once and considered present on all subsequent genotypes. Between October 2006 and February 2010, the NC DOC incarcerated 1,911 HIV+ individuals of whom 19.2% (n=367) had at least one genotype performed. The overall prevalence of a major resistance mutation was 28.3% (95% CI 23.7, 33.0). Among prisoners ever exposed to an ARV during incarceration (n=329) prevalence of a major resistance mutation was 29.8% (95% CI 24.9, 34.7); resistance by class was 20.4% (95% CI 16.0, 24.7) for NRTIs, 19.8% (95% CI 15.5, 24.1) for NNRTIs, and 8.8% (95% CI 5.8,11.9) for PIs. Single class drug resistance was most prevalent at 14.2% (10.2,17.7) followed by dual 12.5% (I8.9,16.0) and triple class 3.3% (1.4,5.3) resistance. The three most prevalent mutations were K103N 15.8% (12.0, 20.2), M184V 14.3% (10.7,18.5), and M41L 4.9% (2.8,7.8). In the NC DOC ARV resistance prevalence, dual and triple class drug resistance was moderate over the study period. Resistance to PIs was lower than NNRTIs and NRTIs, likely reflecting higher usage of these two classes or a lower barrier to resistance. PMID:22966822

  12. Prevalence of hypertension in the rural adult population of Osun State, southwestern Nigeria

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    Asekun-Olarinmoye EO

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available EO Asekun-Olarinmoye,1 PO Akinwusi,2 WO Adebimpe,1 MA Isawumi,3 MB Hassan,3 OA Olowe,4 OB Makanjuola,4 CO Alebiosu,2 TA Adewole51Department of Community Medicine, 2Department of Medicine, 3Department of Surgery, 4Department of Microbiology, 5Department of Chemical Pathology, College of Health Sciences, Osun State University, Osogbo, Osun State, NigeriaBackground: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of hypertension in two rural communities of Osun State, Nigeria.Methods: A consenting adult population of the Alajue and Obokun rural communities in southwestern Nigeria that presented for the screening exercise participated in this community-based cross-sectional descriptive study. Two hundred and fifty-nine respondents aged older than 18 years completed a standardized, pretested, structured questionnaire as part of activities celebrating World Kidney Day and World Glaucoma Day in 2011. Anthropometric data and blood pressure were recorded, and the data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 17.Results: The mean age of the respondents was 49.7 ± 1.6 years, 100 (38.6% were males, 84 (32.4% were farmers, and 111 (42.9% were traders. The prevalence of hypertension was 13.16% (present in 34 respondents. Seventeen (6.6% had isolated systolic hypertension, while 11 (4.2% had isolated diastolic hypertension. Two hundred and thirty-six (91.1% undertook daily exercise lasting at least 30 minutes and 48 (18.5% had ever taken antihypertensive drugs on a regular basis. Four respondents (1.6% claimed a family history of hypertension. The average body mass index (BMI among respondents was 23.4 ± 4.9 kg/m2, 51 (19.6% had a BMI of 25.0–29.9, and 30 (11.5% had a BMI ≥ 30. A significant association existed between age older than 40 years and having hypertension (P 0.05. Rates of older age and high BMI were significantly higher among hypertensives than among normotensives. Respondents with BMI < 25 had at

  13. Inside the nation's largest mental health institution: a prevalence study in a state prison system.

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    Al-Rousan, Tala; Rubenstein, Linda; Sieleni, Bruce; Deol, Harbans; Wallace, Robert B

    2017-04-20

    The United States has the highest incarceration rate in the world which has created a public health crisis. Correctional facilities have become a front line for mental health care. Public health research in this setting could inform criminal justice reform. We determined prevalence rates for mental illnesses and related comorbidities among all inmates in a state prison system. Cross-sectional study using the Iowa Corrections Offender Network which contains health records of all inmates in Iowa. The point prevalence of both ICD-9 and DSM-IV codes for mental illnesses, timing of diagnosis and interval between incarceration and mental illness diagnosis were determined. The average inmate (N = 8574) age was 36.7 ± 12.4 years; 17% were ≥50 years. The majority of inmates were men (91%) and white (65%).Obesity was prevalent in 38% of inmates, and 51% had a history of smoking. Almost half of inmates were diagnosed with a mental illness (48%), of whom, 29% had a serious mental illness (41% of all females and 27% of all males), and 26% had a history of a substance use disorder. Females had higher odds of having both a mental illness and substance use disorder. Almost all mental illness diagnoses were first made during incarceration (99%). The mean interval to diagnosis of depression, anxiety, PTSD and personality disorders were 26, 24, 21 and 29 months respectively. Almost 90% of mental illnesses were recognized by the 6 th year of incarceration. The mean interval from incarceration to first diagnosis (recognition) of a substance abuse history was 11 months. There is a substantial burden of mental illness among inmates. Racial, age and gender disparities in mental health care are coupled with a general delay in diagnosis and treatment. A large part of understanding the mental health problem in this country starts at prisons.

  14. Prevalence and pattern of amblyopia among primary school pupils in Kosofe town, Lagos state, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikuomenisan, Segun Joseph; Musa, Kareem Olatunbosun; Aribaba, Olufisayo Tade; Onakoya, Adeola Olukorede

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and pattern of amblyopia in primary school pupils in Kosofe town of Lagos State with a view to providing baseline data that may facilitate the establishment of routine school eye screening programs in primary schools in Lagos State. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted among pupils from public and private primary schools in Kosofe town. The pupils underwent visual acuity assessment with the HOTV charts, detailed ocular examinations and cycloplegic refractions. Data obtained were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20.0. A total of 1702 pupils participated in the study, out of which 899 (52.8%) were males. The age range was 4-16 years with 1630 (95.8%) pupils within the ages of 4 and 10. Amblyopia was detected in 24 (1.4%) of the screened pupils (95% confidence interval = 0.610-0.914). There was no significant sex predilection (P = 0.367) or age trend (P = 0.158) in this study although amblyopia occurred more in boys (54.2%). Refractive amblyopia (58.4%) was the most common type of amblyopia out of which anisometropic amblyopia accounted for 78.6%. Unilateral amblyopia was observed in 87.5% of the amblyopic pupils, and the left eye was more commonly affected than the right eye. All the types of amblyopia were more common within the age group of 4-10 years and in public school children (P = 0.039 and P = 0.015, respectively). The prevalence of amblyopia in this study was low and it falls within the general prevalence range for amblyopia in Nigeria.

  15. The Prevalence and Determinants of Under-Five Mortality in Benue State, Nigeria

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    Issah N. Abu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the prevalence, and the socioeconomic and demographic determinants of under-five mortality in Benue State, Nigeria. Using a purposive random sampling technique, a total of 1,500 questionnaires were administered to women aged 15 to 49 years and who have ever given birth in 30 communities from 10 sampled local government areas in the state. In addition, focus group discussions and key informant interviews formed sources of data for this research. The analysis of data was carried out using descriptive statistics, child survival analysis, and probit regression model. The pattern of the prevalence of infant and child mortality showed that there are three major child killers in the study area: malaria (38.2%, complications at birth (29.5%, and measles (16.9%. The survival probability results show that children born to parents living in an urban area have more chances (72.6% of survival, as against 71.4% for children born to parents living in a rural area. The probit regression analysis showed that the pregnancies ever had by the mothers has a greater marginal effect on child survival (6.7% than the current age of mothers at birth (3.7% and the age of mother at marriage (0.9%. Based on the findings, recommendations such as empowerment and education of mothers are suggested.

  16. Prevalence and associated risk factors for bovine brucellosis in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil

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    Erivânia Camelo de Almeida

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to characterize the epidemiology of bovine brucellosis in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. The state was divided into three regions, and in each region, approximately 300 properties were randomly sampled. From these selected properties, a pre-established number of animals were randomly selected and blood serum samples were obtained. A total of 3,901 animals were selected from 900 properties. For each selected property, an epidemiological questionnaire was administered to assess the type of farming, the animal husbandry practices and the sanitary practices that could be associated with the presence of brucellosis infection. The testing protocol consisted of screening the samples with a buffered acidified plate antigen test and retesting the positive samples with a complement fixation test (CF. One positive animal was enough to define an infected herd. The prevalence rates of infected herds and animals in the state were 4.5% [3.2; 6.4%] and 1.4% [0.7; 2.7%], respectively. By region, the prevalence rates of infected herds and animals, respectively, were as follows: Zona da Mata, 3.3% [1.8; 6.1%] and 1.7% [0.5; 3.0%]; Agreste, 7.4% [4.9; 10.9%] and 1.9% [0.8; 3.0%]; and Sertão, 1.3% [0.5; 3.5%] and 0.7% [0.0; 1.6%]. Flooded pastures (OR = 2.86 [1.37; 6.42] and the presence of 13 or more females in the herd (3rd quartile (OR = 2.65 [1.19; 5.89] were identified as risk factors. The existence of veterinary care emerged as a protective factor against bovine brucellosis in the state of Pernambuco (OR = 0.24 [0.10; 0.58].

  17. Prevalence and risk-mapping of bovine brucellosis in Maranhão State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borba, M R; Stevenson, M A; Gonçalves, V S P; Neto, J S Ferreira; Ferreira, F; Amaku, M; Telles, E O; Santana, S S; Ferreira, J C A; Lôbo, J R; Figueiredo, V C F; Dias, R A

    2013-06-01

    Between 2007 and 2009, a cross-sectional survey was carried out in Maranhão State, Brazil to estimate the seroprevalence of and risk factors for bovine brucellosis. In total, 749 herds and 6779 cows greater than two years of age were blood sampled. At the time of sampling a questionnaire to collect details on possible risk factors for bovine brucellosis was administered to the participating herd manager. A logistic regression model was developed to quantify the association between herd demographic and management characteristics and the herd-level brucellosis status. Spatial analyses were carried out to identify areas of the state where the presence of brucellosis was unaccounted-for by the explanatory variables in the logistic regression model. The estimated herd-level prevalence of brucellosis in Maranhão was 11.4% (95% CI 9.2-14) and the individual animal-level prevalence was 2.5% (95% CI 1.7-3.6). Herds with more than 54 cows older than two years of age, herds that used rented pasture to feed cattle, and the presence of wetlands on the home farm increased the risk of a herd being brucellosis positive. Infected farms were identified throughout the state, particularly in the central region and on the northwestern border. Spatial analyses of the Pearson residuals from the logistic regression model identified an area in the center of the state where brucellosis risk was not well explained by the predictors included in the final logistic regression model. Targeted investigations should be carried out in this area to determine more precisely the reasons for the unexplained disease excess. This process might uncover previously unrecognized risk factors for brucellosis in Maranhão. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevalence of epilepsy in 74,949 school children in Khartoum State, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Inaam N; Elseed, Maha A; Hamed, Ahlam A; Abdel-Rahman, Manar E; El-Sadig, Sarah M; Omer, Ilham M; Osman, Abdelgadir H; Ahmed, Ammar E; Karrar, Zein A; Salih, Mustafa A

    2017-08-01

    Data on childhood epilepsy in Sudan are scarce and the only published study on its prevalence was published in 1983. This study aimed to determine the current prevalence of epilepsy in school children in Khartoum State. This is an analytical population-based, cross-sectional study conducted in Khartoum State, Sudan. The study included students in the basic (primary) schools aged 6-14 years. Simple random sampling was used to draw a cluster of four of the seven localities comprising Khartoum State. The sample frame consisted of 1609 public schools (808,624 pupils) and 787 private schools (194,613 pupils), a total of 2396 schools (1,003,237 pupils). A sample size of 75 940 pupils was estimated and 250 schools were drawn from a sample frame of 2396 schools using a stratified random sampling technique. Consent was obtained from the headmaster/head teacher of the selected schools who arranged a meeting with the tutor/teacher responsible for each class. The study team asked whether any of the pupils was ever noticed or known to have had any kind of seizures, and a confidential letter was sent to the parents of each identified pupil. The letter included an explanation of the aims of the study, information on the research group and the kind of help the research group could offer; contact numbers and email addresses were made available if they wished to participate in this study. Those who consented to participate were then given an appointment at the Epilepsy Outpatient Department, Gaafar Ibnauf Children's Hospital, Khartoum where they were evaluated by the paediatric neurologist. Altogether, 74,949 pupils were enrolled for the study, 398 of whom were identified initially as having seizures and 332 of whom (83.4%) were identified by a paediatric neurologist. Of the 332, 303 (91.3%) proved to have epileptic seizures, 250 (82.5%) were known to have epilepsy, and 53 (17.5%) were newly diagnosed during the survey. The male to female ratio was 1.5:1. The total prevalence of

  19. Prevalence and Correlates of Trichomonas vaginalis Infection Among Men and Women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Eshan U; Gaydos, Charlotte A; Packman, Zoe R; Quinn, Thomas C; Tobian, Aaron A R

    2018-03-15

    The epidemiology of Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) infection in the United States is poorly defined. Males and females aged 18-59 years who participated in the 2013-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and provided a urine specimen were tested for TV infection (n = 4057). Participants were also examined for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection, genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, and herpes simplex virus type 2 serostatus. Weighted adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) were estimated by multivariable Poisson regression. TV infection prevalence was 0.5% and 1.8% among males and females, respectively. TV infection prevalence was 4.2% among black males, 8.9% among black females, and 0.03% and 0.8%, respectively, among males and females of other races/ethnicities. TV infection prevalence (aPR [95% confidence interval]) was positively associated with female sex (6.1 [3.3-11.3]), black race (vs other races/ethnicities; 7.9 [3.9-16.1]), older age (vs 18-24 years; 3.0 [1.2-7.1] for 25- to 39-year-olds and 3.5 [1.3-9.4] for 40- to 59-year-olds), having less than a high school education (vs completing high school or more; 2.0 [1.0-4.1]), being below the poverty level (vs at or above the poverty level; 4.0 [2.1-7.7]), and having ≥2 sexual partners in the past year (vs 0-1 sexual partners; 3.6 [2.0-6.6]). There were no TV and CT coinfections. Genital HPV detection was not independently associated with TV infection. Among persons aged 18-39 years, there was a significant racial disparity in all sexually transmitted infections examined, and this disparity was greatest for TV infection. There is a high and disproportionate burden of urinary TV infection in the adult civilian, noninstitutionalized black population in the United States that warrants intervention.

  20. Validation of a model for estimating state and local prevalence of serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Christopher G

    2009-12-01

    This study addresses an ongoing problem in mental health needs assessment. This involves estimating the prevalence of an identified problem, specifically serious mental illness (SMI), for local areas in a reliable, valid, and cost-effective manner. The aim of the study is the application and testing of a recently introduced methodology from the field of small area estimation to determining SMI rates in the 48 contiguous US states, and in local areas of Massachusetts. It uses 'regression synthetic estimation fitted using area-level covariates', to estimate a model using data from the 2001-2002 replication of the National Comorbidity Study (n = 5593) and apply it, using 2000 STF-3C Census data, to various state and local areas in the United States. The estimates are then compared with independently collected SMI indicators. The estimates show not only face validity and internal consistency, but also predictive validity. The multiple logistic model has a sensitivity of 21.1% and a specificity of 95.1%, based largely on socio-economic disparities. Pearson r validity coefficients for the area estimates range from 0.43 to 0.75. The model generates a national estimate of SMI adults of 5.5%; for the 48 states, rates ranging from 4.7% to 7.0%; and for Massachusetts towns and cities, 1.1% to 7.5%.

  1. The Prevalence of HIV by Ethnic Group Is Correlated with HSV-2 and Syphilis Prevalence in Kenya, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and the United States

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    Chris Richard Kenyon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This paper investigates two issues: do ethnic/racial groups with high HIV prevalences also have higher prevalences of other STIs? and is HIV prevalence by ethnic group correlated with the prevalence of circumcision, concurrency, or having more than one partner in the preceding year? Methods. We used Spearman’s correlation to estimate the association between the prevalence of HIV per ethnic/racial group and HSV-2, syphilis, symptoms of an STI, having more than one partner in the past year, concurrency, and circumcision in Kenya, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Results. We found that in each country HSV-2, syphilis, and symptomatic STIs were positively correlated with HIV prevalence (HSV-2: Kenya rho = 0.50, P = 0.207; South Africa rho-1, P = 0.000; USA rho-1, P = 0.000, Syphilis: Kenya rho = 0.33, P = 0.420; South Africa rho-1, P = 0.000; USA rho-1, P = 0.000, and STI symptoms: Kenya rho = 0.92, P = 0.001; South Africa rho-1, P = 0.000; UK rho = 0.87, P = 0.058; USA rho-1, P = 0.000. The prevalence of circumcision was only negatively associated with HIV prevalence in Kenya. Both having more than one partner in the previous year and concurrency were positively associated with HIV prevalence in all countries (concurrency: Kenya rho = 0.79, P = 0.036; South Africa rho-1, P = 0.000; UK 0.87, P = 0.058; USA rho-1, P = 0.000 and multiple partners: Kenya rho = 0.82, P = 0.023; South Africa rho-1, P = 0.000; UK rho = 0.87, P = 0.058; USA rho-1, P = 0.000. Not all associations were statistically significant. Conclusion. Further attention needs to be directed to what determines higher rates of partner change and concurrency in communities with high STI prevalence.

  2. Prevalence of Arthritis and Arthritis-Attributable Activity Limitation by Urban-Rural County Classification - United States, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boring, Michael A; Hootman, Jennifer M; Liu, Yong; Theis, Kristina A; Murphy, Louise B; Barbour, Kamil E; Helmick, Charles G; Brady, Terry J; Croft, Janet B

    2017-05-26

    Rural populations in the United States have well documented health disparities, including higher prevalences of chronic health conditions (1,2). Doctor-diagnosed arthritis is one of the most prevalent health conditions (22.7%) in the United States, affecting approximately 54.4 million adults (3). The impact of arthritis is considerable: an estimated 23.7 million adults have arthritis-attributable activity limitation (AAAL). The age-standardized prevalence of AAAL increased nearly 20% from 2002 to 2015 (3). Arthritis prevalence varies widely by state (range = 19%-36%) and county (range = 16%-39%) (4). Despite what is known about arthritis prevalence at the national, state, and county levels and the substantial impact of arthritis, little is known about the prevalence of arthritis and AAAL across urban-rural areas overall and among selected subgroups. To estimate the prevalence of arthritis and AAAL by urban-rural categories CDC analyzed data from the 2015 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). The unadjusted prevalence of arthritis in the most rural areas was 31.8% (95% confidence intervals [CI] = 31.0%-32.5%) and in the most urban, was 20.5% (95% CI = 20.1%-21.0%). The unadjusted AAAL prevalence among adults with arthritis was 55.3% in the most rural areas and 49.7% in the most urban. Approximately 1 in 3 adults in the most rural areas have arthritis and over half of these adults have AAAL. Wider use of evidence-based interventions including physical activity and self-management education in rural areas might help reduce the impact of arthritis and AAAL.

  3. Falls among Adult Patients Hospitalized in the United States: Prevalence and Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouldin, Erin D.; Andresen, Elena M.; Dunton, Nancy E.; Simon, Michael; Waters, Teresa M.; Liu, Minzhao; Daniels, Michael J.; Mion, Lorraine C.; Shorr, Ronald I.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to provide normative data on fall prevalence in US hospitals by unit type and to determine the 27-month secular trend in falls prior to the implementation of the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Service (CMS) rule which does not reimburse hospitals for care related to injury resulting from hospital falls. Methods We used data from the National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators (NDNQI) collected between July 1, 2006 and September 30, 2008 to estimate prevalence and secular trends of falls occurring in adult medical, medical-surgical and surgical nursing units. More than 88 million patient days (pd) of observation were contributed from 6,100 medical, surgical, and medical-surgical nursing units in 1,263 hospitals across the United States. Results A total of 315,817 falls occurred (rate=3.56 falls/1,000 pd) during the study period, of which 82,332 (26.1%) resulted in an injury (rate=0.93/1,000 pd). Both total fall and injurious fall rates were highest in medical units (fall rate=4.03/1,000 pd; injurious fall rate=1.08/1,000 pd) and lowest in surgery units (fall rate=2.76/1,000 pd; injurious fall rate=0.67/1,000 pd). Falls (0.4% decrease/quarter, pfalls (1% decrease per quarter, pfall and injurious fall prevalence varied by nursing unit type in US hospitals. Over the 27 month study, there was a small, but statistically significant, decrease in falls (pfalls (p<0.0001). PMID:23143749

  4. Obesity prevalence among youth investigated for maltreatment in the United States.

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    Helton, Jesse J; Liechty, Janet M

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence and correlates of obesity among youth investigated for maltreatment in the United States. Participants were drawn from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being II, a national probability study of 5,873 children aged birth to 17 years under investigation for maltreatment in 2008. From child weight reported by caregivers, we estimated obesity (weight-for-age ≥95th percentile) prevalence among children aged 2 through 17 (n=2,948). Sex-specific logistic regression models by developmental age were used to identify obesity risk factors, including child age, race/ethnicity, and maltreatment type. Obesity prevalence was 25.4% and was higher among boys than girls (30.0% vs. 20.8%). African American adolescent boys had a lower risk for obesity than white boys (OR=0.28, 95% CI [0.08, 0.94]). Compared with girls aged 2-5 with a neglect allegation, girls with a sexual abuse allegation were at greater risk for obesity (OR=3.54, 95% CI [1.01, 12.41]). Compared with adolescent boys with a neglect allegation, boys with a physical abuse allegation had a lower risk for obesity (OR=0.24, 95% CI [0.06, 0.99]). Adolescent girls with a prior family history of investigation were at greater risk for obesity than those without a history of investigation (OR=3.97, 95% CI [1.58, 10.02]). Youth investigated for maltreatment have high obesity rates compared with national peers. Opportunities to modify and evaluate related child welfare policies and health care practices should be pursued. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Arteriovenous Fistula Maturation in Prevalent Hemodialysis Patients in the United States: A National Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodside, Kenneth J; Bell, Sarah; Mukhopadhyay, Purna; Repeck, Kaitlyn J; Robinson, Ian T; Eckard, Ashley R; Dasmunshi, Sudipta; Plattner, Brett W; Pearson, Jeffrey; Schaubel, Douglas E; Pisoni, Ronald L; Saran, Rajiv

    2018-02-08

    Arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) are the preferred form of hemodialysis vascular access, but maturation failures occur frequently, often resulting in prolonged catheter use. We sought to characterize AVF maturation in a national sample of prevalent hemodialysis patients in the United States. Nonconcurrent observational cohort study. Prevalent hemodialysis patients having had at least 1 new AVF placed during 2013, as identified using Medicare claims data in the US Renal Data System. Demographics, geographic location, dialysis vintage, comorbid conditions. Successful maturation following placement defined by subsequent use identified using monthly CROWNWeb data. AVF maturation rates were compared across strata of predictors. Patients were followed up until the earliest evidence of death, AVF maturation, or the end of 2014. In the study period, 45,087 new AVFs were placed in 39,820 prevalent hemodialysis patients. No evidence of use was identified for 36.2% of AVFs. Only 54.7% of AVFs were used within 4 months of placement, with maturation rates varying considerably across end-stage renal disease (ESRD) networks. Older age was associated with lower AVF maturation rates. Female sex, black race, some comorbid conditions (cardiovascular disease, peripheral artery disease, diabetes, needing assistance, or institutionalized status), dialysis vintage longer than 1 year, and catheter or arteriovenous graft use at ESRD incidence were also associated with lower rates of successful AVF maturation. In contrast, hypertension and prior AVF placement at ESRD incidence were associated with higher rates of successful AVF maturation. This study relies on administrative data, with monthly recording of access use. We identified numerous associations between AVF maturation and patient-level factors in a recent national sample of US hemodialysis patients. After accounting for these patient factors, we observed substantial differences in AVF maturation across some ESRD networks, indicating a

  6. [Trichomoniasis: prevalence in the female gender in 2004-2005 in Sergipe State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Mayra Santos; Argôlo, Danilo Souza; Almeida Júnior, José Sodré; Pinheiro, Malone Santos; Brito, Ana Maria Guedes de

    2010-06-01

    Trichomoniasis is a disease caused by the protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis, which initiates a wide variety of clinical manifestations. It may be associated with human immunodeficiency virus, cervical cancer, infertility and other diseases. Its incidence ranges from 20% up to 40% in Brazil. The primary channel of transmission is by sexual contact and laboratorial diagnostic may be performed by chain polymerase reaction (CPR), culture medium isolation, fresh vaginal content exam and/or colored by Giemsa and Papanicolau methods. The later has limitations in the detection of pathologies considered sexually transmissible, like Thricomoniasis. This work deals with prevalence of Thricomoniasis in users of laboratories associated with the Ministry of Health, in the age group from 19 up to 44 years old which were submitted to Papanicolau test in 2004-2005 in Sergipe state, Brazil. Results have revealed that among 206,034 users, 7,349 have shown Thricomoniasis, being 3,788 in 2004 and 3,498 in 2005. It could be observed that the estimated prevalence in Sergipe in the biennium studied did not corroborate with the Brazilian reality, which may be attributed to the diagnostic executed.

  7. The prevalence of sexual harassment among female family practice residents in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukovich, M C

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of sexual harassment as defined by the AMA among female family practice residents in the United States. Of all 1,802 U.S.FP female resident physicians surveyed, a total of 916, or 51%, completed a survey of which 32% reported unwanted sexual advances, 48% reported use of sexist teaching material, 66% reported favoritism based on gender, 36% reported poor evaluation based on gender, 37% reported malicious gossip, 5.3% reported punitive measures based on gender, and 2.2% reported sexual assault during residency. Thirty two percent of respondents reporting sexual harassment experienced negative effects including poor self-esteem, depression, psychological sequelae requiring therapy, and in some cases, transferring training programs. Sexual harassment is a common occurrence among family practice residents during residency training. Further studies are needed to examine the effect of sexual harassment policies instituted by the American Graduate Council on Medical Education on the prevalence of sexual harassment in medical training since the time of this study.

  8. Prevalence of HPV in Adults Aged 18-69: United States, 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuillan, Geraldine; Kruszon-Moran, Deanna; Markowitz, Lauri E; Unger, Elizabeth R; Paulose-Ram, Ryne

    2017-04-01

    Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the United States (1). Some HPV types can cause genital warts and are considered low risk, with a small chance for causing cancer. Other types are considered high risk, causing cancer in different areas of the body including the cervix and vagina in women, penis in men, and anus and oropharynx in both men and women (2). This report provides the most recent national estimates of oral HPV prevalence among adults aged 18-69 from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011-2014, as well as prevalence of genital HPV among adults aged 18-59 from NHANES 2013-2014. Estimates of any HPV (37 types tested) as well as high-risk HPV (14 of the 37 types) are provided. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  9. Prevalence and prevention of malaria in pregnancy in Edo State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagbatsoma, V A; Omoike, B I

    2008-12-01

    The observational/longitudinal study was undertaken in Igueben Local Government Area (LGA), Edo State, Nigeria. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of prevention on the prevalence of malaria during pregnancy. The study population comprised 4 groups viz; Group l, had 100 women protected with Insecticide Treated bed Nets (ITNs); Group 2, another 100 treated with Sulphadoxine - pyrimethamine (SP); Group 3, 100 protected with both ITN and SP, while Group 4, were 100 unprotected others who served as control. Venous blood was collected 7 days to expected date of delivery while placental blood was collected after delivery from the subjects for parasitaemia determination. Findings showed that all protective devices used were effective against malaria. Prevention used against malaria in pregnancy is a sure safe guard against maternal morbidity/mortality and should be encouraged. It is therefore, recommended that pregnant women should be health educated to appreciate the need for malaria prevention.

  10. Factors Related to Increasing Prevalence of Resistance to Ciprofloxacin and Other Antimicrobial Drugs in Neisseria gonorrhoeae, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkcaldy, Robert D.; Reshef, David; Berman, Stuart; Weinstock, Hillard; Sabeti, Pardis; Del Rio, Carlos; Hall, Geraldine; Hook, Edward W.; Lipsitch, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Using data from the Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project, we studied changes in ciprofloxacin resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates in the United States during 2002–2007. Compared with prevalence in heterosexual men, prevalence of ciprofloxacin-resistant N. gonorrhoeae infections showed a more pronounced increase in men who have sex with men (MSM), particularly through an increase in prevalence of strains also resistant to tetracycline and penicillin. Moreover, that multidrug resistance profile among MSM was negatively associated with recent travel. Across the surveillance project sites, first appearance of ciprofloxacin resistance in heterosexual men was positively correlated with such resistance for MSM. The increase in prevalence of ciprofloxacin resistance may have been facilitated by use of fluoroquinolones for treating gonorrhea and other conditions. The prominence of multidrug resistance suggests that using other classes of antimicrobial drugs for purposes other than treating gonorrhea helped increase the prevalence of ciprofloxacin-resistant strains that are also resistant to those drugs. PMID:22840274

  11. Prevalence of physical activity and sedentary behavior among stroke survivors in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Eboneé N; Evenson, Kelly R

    2014-01-01

    The risk of stroke is greatest among adults who have experienced a previous stroke, transient ischemic attack, or myocardial infarction. Physical activity may reduce the secondary risk of stroke through mediating effects on blood pressure, vasoconstriction, and circulating lipid concentrations; however, little is known about the prevalence of physical activity and sedentary behavior among stroke survivors in the United States. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), we describe self-reported and objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behavior among adults with a self-reported history of stroke. We also contrast physical activity among stroke survivors with that of adults without stroke (unexposed) to illustrate expected behavior in the absence of disease. Fewer participants with stroke met weekly physical activity guidelines as outlined in the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans when compared with unexposed participants (17.9% vs 25.0%) according to self-reported data. In addition, participants with stroke reported less moderate (46.1% vs 54.7%) and vigorous (9.1% vs 19.6%) leisure activity compared with unexposed participants. As measured by accelerometer, time since diagnosis was inversely associated with physical activity engagement, and participants with stroke recorded more daily hours of sedentary behavior compared with unexposed participants (10.1 hours vs 8.9 hours). Findings from this study provide a basis for future work seeking to measure the impact of physical activity on the secondary prevention of stroke by characterizing the prevalence of physical activity and sedentary behavior among stroke survivors in the United States.

  12. Prevalence of Ehrlichia, Borrelia, and Rickettsial agents in Amblyomma americanum (Acari : Ixodidae) collected from nine states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mixson, T.R.; Campbell, S.R.; Gill, J.S.; Ginsberg, H.S.; Reichard, M.V.; Schultz, T.L.; Dasch, G.A.

    2006-01-01

    Ambyomma antericanum (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae) is an aggressive tick that feeds on humans during all postembryonic life stages. In many regions of the United States, it is the tick most commonly found attached to humans. Public health interest has grown recently, due to the recognition of new human pathogens transmitted by A. antericanum and the expanding distribution of the tick. A. americanum is a vector of several bacteria pathogenic to humans. Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Ehrlichia ewingii cause moderate-to-severe febrile illness. 'Rickettsia amblyommii,' a member of the spotted fever group Rickettsia, also has recently been implicated as a possible human pathogen based on serologic evidence from persons recovering from illness after a tick bite. We have determined the prevalence of infection of Ehrlichia chaffeensis, E. ewingii, 'Borrelia lonestari,' and R. amblyommii within A. americanum ticks from 29 sites in nine states. Overall infection prevalences were 4.7% for E. chaffeensis (range, 0-27%), 3.5% for E. ewingii (range, 0-18.6%), 2.5% for B. lonestari (range, 0-12.2%), and 41.2% for R. amblyommii (range, 0-84.0%). In addition, 87 ticks (4.3%) were infected with two or more bacteria. This report documents new distribution records for E. ewingii, B. lonestari, and R. amblyommii and underscores the nonhomogeneous distribution of pathogen foci of infection. Additional surveillance throughout the range of A. antericanum is warranted to increase physician and public awareness of the risk of disease to humans from exposure to the agents transmitted by this tick.

  13. Contraceptive prevalence and determinants among women of reproductive age group in Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeyemi AS

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Adewale S Adeyemi,1 Adenike I Olugbenga-Bello,2 Oluwatosin A Adeoye,3 Moshood O Salawu,3 Adesola A Aderinoye,3 Michael A Agbaje1 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 2Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology (LAUTECH, Osogbo, Osun State, 3Department of Community Medicine, LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria Background: The fertility rate in Nigeria is 5.7 children per woman. The contraceptive prevalence rate has been found to be low at 15% in 2013, compared to other countries such as the US and Pakistan. Objective: The study aimed to assess the contraceptive prevalence among women of reproductive age in Ogbomoso town, and determinants of use, with a view to make appropriate recommendations that will enhance the uptake of family planning services. Materials and methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted with 560 respondents, using a multistage sampling technique. Data were retrieved using a semi-structured, pretested questionnaire. Results: All the respondents were aware of contraception; however, only 49.7% (271 had ever used any method, while 25.4% (69 of the number who had ever used contraception were currently using a method. The methods being used were the traditional type (four [5.9%], natural type (two [3.0%], and modern type (63 [91.1%]. The predictors of contraception use included the age group of 40–49 years (odds ratio [OR] 14.1; confidence interval [CI] 3.06–73.24; P=0.0001; the married women were approximately four times more likely to use contraception than the single women (OR 4.5; CI 3.03–6.72; P<0.0001. The women with tertiary level of education were three times more likely to use contraception than those without formal education (OR 3.1; CI 1.13–9.95; P=0.0268, and the odds ratio of respondents with a positive attitude to using contraception more than those with negative attitude was 2

  14. Prevalence and risk factors for bovine tuberculosis in the State of Bahia, Brazil

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    Luciana Bahiense

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available An epidemiological study was carried out in order to characterize the bovine tuberculosis situation and to support the planning and implementation of the National Program for the Control and Eradication of Bovine Tuberculosis in the State of Bahia, owing to the importance of the disease in causing economic burdens and its impact on public health. The State was divided into four regions. In each region, properties were randomly chosen and, a pre-established number of animals was also randomly selected; these animals then subjected to the intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin diagnostic test. Animals with inconclusive test results were retested with the same diagnostic procedure within a minimum interval of 60 days. Within each sampled property, a questionnaire was administered to verify possible risk factors for the disease. In the State, the prevalence of infected herds was 1.6% [1.0–2.6] and that of infected animals 0,21% [0,07; 0,60]. In the regions, the prevalence of infected herds and infected animals were, respectively, 2,0% [1,0; 4,2%] and 2,0% [1,0; 4,2%] in region 1; , 2,9% [1,5; 5,5] and 0,66% [0,20; 2,16] in region 2; 0,3% [0,04; 2,1] and 0,02% [0,002; 0,12] in region 3; and 0,6% [0,2; 2,5] and 0,05% [0,01; 0,20] in region 4. The risk factors associated with tuberculosis infection were dairy farm (odds ratio [OR] = 9.72 or mixed farm (OR = 6.66, and size of herd ? 18 cows ? 24 months of age (OR = 8.44. In conclusion, it is recommended that the State of Bahia implement a surveillance system for the detection of herds with bovine tuberculosis to certifying them in free herds, with special attention to dairy properties, and develop a solid program of health education so that producers test animals for bovine tuberculosis before introducing them into their herds.

  15. Prevalence and correlates of self-reported state of teeth among schoolchildren in Kerala, India

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    Åstrøm Anne N

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oral health status in India is traditionally evaluated using clinical indices. There is growing interest to know how subjective measures relate to outcomes of oral health. The aims of the study were to assess the prevalence and correlates of self-reported state of teeth in 12-year-old schoolchildren in Kerala, India. Methods Cross-sectional survey data were used. The sample consisted of 838 12-year-old schoolchildren. Data was collected using clinical examination and questionnaire. The clinical oral health status was recorded using Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth (DMFT and Oral Hygiene Index – Simplified (OHI-S. The questionnaire included questions on sociodemographics, self reports of behaviour, knowledge and oral problems and a single-item measuring self-reported state and satisfaction with appearance of teeth. The Kappa values for test-retest of the questionnaire ranged from 0.55 to 0.97. Results Twenty-three per cent of the schoolchildren reported the state of teeth as bad. Multivariate logistic regression showed significant associations between schoolchildren who reported to have bad teeth and poor school performance (Odds Ratio (OR = 2.5, having bad breath (OR = 2.4, food impaction (OR = 1.7 dental visits (OR = 1.6, being dissatisfied with appearance of teeth (OR = 4.2 and caries experience (OR = 1.7. The explained variance was highest when the variables dental visits, bleeding gums, bad breath, food impaction and satisfaction with appearance were introduced into the model (19%. Conclusion A quarter of 12-year-olds reported having bad teeth. The self-reported bad state of teeth was associated with poor school performance, having bad breath and food impaction, having visited a dentist, being dissatisfied with teeth appearance and having caries experience. Information from self-reports of children might help in planning effective strategies to promote oral health.

  16. Prevalence of type 2 diabetes in the States of the co-operation council for the Arab States of the Gulf: a systematic review.

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    Layla Alhyas

    Full Text Available The recent and ongoing worldwide expansion in prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes (T2DM is a considerable risk to individuals, health systems and economies. The increase in prevalence has been particularly marked in the states of the Co-operation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf (GCC, and these trends are set to continue. We aimed to systematically review the current prevalence of T2DM within these states, and also within particular sub-populations.We identified 27 published studies for review. Studies were identified by systematic database searches. Medline and Embase were searched using terms such as diabetes mellitus, non-insulin-dependent, hyperglycemia, prevalence, epidemiology and Gulf States. Our search also included scanning reference lists, contacting experts and hand-searching key journals. Studies were judged against pre-determined inclusion and exclusion criteria, and where suitable for inclusion, data extraction and quality assessment was achieved using a specifically-designed tool. All studies where prevalence of diabetes was investigated were eligible for inclusion. The inclusion criteria required that the study population be of a GCC country, but otherwise all ages, sexes and ethnicities were included, resident and migrant populations, urban and rural, of all socioeconomic and educational backgrounds. No limitations on publication type, publication status, study design or language of publication were imposed. However, we did not include secondary reports of data, such as review articles without novel data synthesis.The prevalence of T2DM is an increasing problem for all GCC states. They may therefore benefit to a relatively high degree from co-ordinated implementation of broadly consistent management strategies. Further study of prevalence in children and in national versus expatriate populations would also be useful.

  17. Prevalence and predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder among victims of violence applying for state compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunst, Maarten; Winkel, Frans Willem; Bogaerts, Stefan

    2010-09-01

    Many studies have focused on the predictive value of victims' emotions experienced shortly after violence exposure to identify those vulnerable for development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, many victims remain unidentified during the initial recovery phase, yet may still be highly in need of psychological help after substantial time since victimization has passed. Professionals involved in the settlement of civil damage claims filed by victims of violence may play an important role in referring victims with current psychological problems to appropriate treatment services, as they are likely to maintain relations with victims until all compensation possibilities have been exhausted. As an exploratory examination of this topic, the current study investigates the potential utility of file characteristics as predictors of chronic PTSD among 686 victims of violence who had applied for state compensation with the Dutch Victim Compensation Fund (DVCF) in 2006. Identification of significant predictors is preceded by estimating prevalence rates of PTSD. Results indicate that approximately 1 of 2 victims applying for state compensation in the Netherlands still have PTSD many years after victimization and claim settlement. Age, female sex, time since victimization, acquaintance with the perpetrator, violence-related hospitalization, and compensation for immaterial damage prove to be predictive of PTSD, although female sex and immaterial damage compensation fail to reach significance after adjusting for recalled peritraumatic distress severity. Implications for policy practice as well as strengths and limitations of the study are discussed.

  18. Variations in state use of antitobacco message themes predict youth smoking prevalence in the USA, 1999-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederdeppe, Jeff; Avery, Rosemary; Byrne, Sahara; Siam, Tyseer

    2016-01-01

    This study tests relationships between the volume of advertisements (ads; public service announcements (PSAs)) employed in state antismoking campaigns, use of different themes and stylistic features in these PSAs, and state youth smoking prevalence between 1999 and 2005. We merged commercially available data on televised antismoking PSAs that aired between 1998 and 2004 with data on state tobacco control activity to test the relationship between the volume and content of youth-targeted and general-targeted/adult-targeted antismoking PSAs on youth smoking prevalence, controlling for other tobacco control efforts. We use content analysis and ordinary least squares (OLS) regression to assess which thematic and stylistic features employed in state antismoking PSAs are associated with reduced smoking prevalence. A 100-ad increase in the yearly volume of youth-targeted state antismoking PSAs was associated with a 0.1 percentage point decrease in state youth smoking rates in the following year. This relationship was driven by variation in state use of PSAs emphasising health consequences to self or others and anti-industry appeals. Controlling for appearances of these themes, use of graphic imagery and personal testimonials did not predict reduced smoking prevalence. Adult-targeted/general-targeted PSAs were not associated with youth smoking prevalence. Youth-targeted state antitobacco PSAs that emphasise the health consequences of smoking (to oneself and others) and contain anti-industry appeals are associated with reduced youth smoking rates. Future work should avoid typologies that do not account for the co-occurrence of thematic and stylistic content in antitobacco PSAs. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  19. Factors associated with HIV among female sex workers in a high HIV prevalent state of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medhi, Gajendra Kumar; Mahanta, Jagadish; Paranjape, Ramesh S; Adhikary, Rajatashuvra; Laskar, Nabjyoti; Ngully, P

    2012-01-01

    The study was carried out to assess the factors associated with HIV seropositivity among female sex workers (FSWs) in Dimapur, Nagaland, a high HIV prevalence state of India. A total of 426 FSWs were recruited into the study using respondent driven sampling (RDS). Data on demographic characteristics, sexual and injecting risk behaviours were collected from them and were tested for HIV, Syphilis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis. RDS-weighted univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the factors associated with HIV seropositivity. Consistent condom use with regular and occasional sexual clients was 9% and 16.4%, respectively. About 25% of the participants ever used and 5.7% ever injected illicit drugs. RDS adjusted HIV prevalence was 11.6%. In the univariate analysis, factors associated with HIV were initiating sexual intercourse before the age of 15 years, ≥2 years duration of sex work, serving clients at lodge/hotel, positive test result for one or more sexually transmitted infections (STIs), lifetime history of injecting drug use, lifetime history of consuming illicit drugs, ever having exchanged sex for drugs, having sexual partners who engaged in risky injecting practices and having been widowed or divorced. In multivariate analysis, factors found to be independently associated with HIV included lifetime injecting drug use, initiating sexual intercourse before the age of 15 years, positive test result for one or more STIs and having been widowed. Injecting drug use was found to be most potent independent risk factor for HIV (OR: 3.17, CI: 1.02-9.89). Because of lower consistent condom use among them, FSWs may act as bridge for HIV transmission to general population from injecting drug users (IDU) through their sexual clients. The informations from this study may be useful for enriching the HIV preventions effort for FSWs in this region.

  20. Prevalence of malocclusion and occlusal traits among adolescents and young adults in Rivers State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikins, E A; Onyeaso, C O

    2014-03-01

    A systematic and well-organized dental care program for any target population in a community requires some basic information, such as the prevalence of the condition to be assessed. Thus, the aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of malocclusion among predominantly Rivers State adolescents and to compare the results with other authors. The sample which was randomly selected from seven secondary schools comprised 620 schoolchildren, 297 (48%) males and 323 (52%) females aged 13-20 years old with a mean age of 16.74 +/- 2.0 (SD) years. The children were examined for occlusal traits which included the occlusal antero-posterior relationship (Angles classification), overjet, overbite, openbite, crossbite, spacing and crowding. The Index of Complexity, Outcome and Need (ICON) protocol was employed in their classrooms using wooden spatulae and orthodontic millimeter rulers under natural illumination. None of the subjects had undergone any form of orthodontic treatment. Results showed that about 11.8% had normal occlusions, 80.3% had Class I malocclusions, 6.3% had Class II malocclusions (Div 1, 3.9%; Div 11, 2.4%) and 1.6% had Class III malocclusions. About 70% had normal overjets, normal overbite was seen in about 56%, whilst in the maxillary arch 14.4% had crowding and 60% spacing. Open bite was present in 7.1% while crossbite was found in 17.1%. Significant gender differences were found for overbite, overjet and Angles classification (P < 0.05). Angles Class I malocclusion is the predominant occlusal pattern among these students. This finding compares favorably with other studies done in other parts of Nigeria.

  1. Prevalence of multiple chronic conditions in the United States' Medicare population

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    Dean Debbie

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In 2006, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, which administers the Medicare program in the United States, launched the Chronic Condition Data Warehouse (CCW. The CCW contains all Medicare fee-for-service (FFS institutional and non-institutional claims, nursing home and home health assessment data, and enrollment/eligibility information from January 1, 1999 forward for a random 5% sample of Medicare beneficiaries (and 100% of the Medicare population from 2000 forward. Twenty-one predefined chronic condition indicator variables are coded within the CCW, to facilitate research on chronic conditions. The current article describes this new data source, and the authors demonstrate the utility of the CCW in describing the extent of chronic disease among Medicare beneficiaries. Medicare claims were analyzed to determine the prevalence, utilization, and Medicare program costs for some common and high cost chronic conditions in the Medicare FFS population in 2005. Chronic conditions explored include diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, heart failure, cancer, chronic kidney disease (CKD, and depression. Fifty percent of Medicare FFS beneficiaries were receiving care for one or more of these chronic conditions. The highest prevalence is observed for diabetes, with nearly one-fourth of the Medicare FFS study cohort receiving treatment for this condition (24.3 percent. The annual number of inpatient days during 2005 is highest for CKD (9.51 days and COPD (8.18 days. As the number of chronic conditions increases, the average per beneficiary Medicare payment amount increases dramatically. The annual Medicare payment amounts for a beneficiary with only one of the chronic conditions is $7,172. For those with two conditions, payment jumps to $14,931, and for those with three or more conditions, the annual Medicare payments per beneficiary is $32,498. The CCW data files have tremendous value for health services research. The

  2. Prevalence of polydactyly, syndactyly, amniotic band syndrome, cleft lip, cleft palate and talipes equinovarus in Bayelsa State, Nigeria

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    Oyinbo, Charles A.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies on incidence of birth anomalies are abundant world wide, but literatures on general population prevalence of anomalies are scanty, despite the fact that structural anomaly is the 5th leading cause of years of potential life lost prior to age 65 and a major contributor to disabilities. The purpose of this study is to estimate the general population prevalence of polydactyly, syndactyly, amniotic band syndrome, cleft lip, cleft palate, and talipes equinovarus in Bayelsa State, Nigeria. Two thousand (2000 subjects domicile in Bayelsa State were randomly selected for this study. Subjects were physically screened for musculoskeletal anomalies. Individuals with genetic syndromes were excluded. Study did not discriminate between types or sub- types of any anomaly. Results show that the overall population prevalence of musculoskeletal anomalies is 13%; with a high proportion (67% of minor anomalies. The general population prevalence of these anomalies is comparable with known birth prevalence world wide. Thus suggestive that a general population prevalence estimate of an anomaly could be a useful estimate of congenital anomaly in developing countries were record keeping are largely poor.

  3. Sex- and Age-Adjusted Population Analysis of Prevalence Estimates for Hidradenitis Suppurativa in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Amit; Kirby, Joslyn S; Lavian, Jonathan; Lin, Gloria; Strunk, Andrew

    2017-08-01

    The true prevalence of hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is unknown. To establish standardized overall and group-specific prevalence estimates for HS in the United States. This retrospective analysis included a demographically heterogeneous population-based sample of more than 48 million unique patients across all US census regions. As of October 27, 2016, a total of 47 690 patients with HS were identified using electronic health record data. Standardized overall point prevalence for HS and sex-, age-, and race-specific prevalence estimates of HS in the general US population. Of the 47 690 patients with HS (26.2% men and 73.8% women), the overall HS prevalence in the US population sample was 0.10%, or 98 per 100 000 persons (95% CI, 97-99 per 100 000 persons). The adjusted prevalence in women was 137 per 100 000 (95% CI, 136-139 per 100 000), more than twice that of men (58 per 100 000; 95% CI, 57-59 per 100 000; P United States that disproportionately affects female patients, young adults, and African American and biracial patients.

  4. Rumble: Prevalence and Correlates of Group Fighting among Adolescents in the United States

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    Matt DeLisi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Group fighting is portrayed as a piece of Americana among delinquent youth, but the behavior produces significant multifaceted negative consequences. The current study examines the heterogeneity and correlates of group fighting using national-level data. Method. Employing data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health between 2002 and 2013 (n = 216,852, we examine links between group fighting and temperamental, parental, and academic factors as well as other externalizing behaviors (i.e., violence, crime, substance use. Results. The prevalence of group fighting in the United States is 14.8% with 11.33% reporting 1–2 group fights and 3.46% reporting 3+ group fights. A clear severity gradient in school functioning and academic performance, sensation seeking, parental disengagement, violence and delinquency, and substance use disorders is seen in the normative, episodic, and repeat offender groups. Conclusions. Youths who participate in 3+ group fights display the exceptionality and severity of other serious/chronic/habitual antisocial youth which suggests that group fighting should be considered a significant indicator of developing criminality.

  5. A prevalence study of faith-based healing in the rural southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Sharon K; Daaleman, Timothy P; Thaker, Samruddhi; Pathman, Donald E

    2006-06-01

    Although prayer and other spiritual practices are common among residents of the rural south, the use of faith-based healers (FBH), or healers who use prayer as their primary healing modality, has not been explored in this population. Secondary data analysis from a random digit dialing telephone survey of rural adults in eight southern states. Our overall response rate was 51% and 193 subjects (4.1%) had seen an FBH practitioner within the previous year. FBH use was significantly more common among younger respondents (OR 7.21, 95% Ci 2.00, 25.94), women (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.03, 2.14), those reporting poorer health (OR 1.83, 95% CI 1.19, 2.83), and those who believed in avoiding physicians (OR 1.82, 95% CI 1.24, 2.67). A relationship between FBH use and delayed or foregone medical care, and cost as a barrier to obtaining care was not statistically significant after controlling for other factors. Prevalence of FBH use is low, but is significantly related to younger age, female gender, poorer health status, barriers to medical care and devaluing medical care. Clinicians may consider exploring FBH usage with their younger, female patients, and those in poorer health. Policy makers should consider how FBH usage is related to various indicators of health care services demand, utilization and access.

  6. Truck drivers' traffic accidents in the State of São Paulo: prevalence and predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Lucio Garcia de; Almeida, Carlos Vinícius Dias de; Barroso, Lucia Pereira; Gouvea, Marcela Julio Cesar; Muñoz, Daniel Romero; Leyton, Vilma

    2016-12-01

    Abstract The mortality rate of traffic accidents (TA) is high in Brazil. Trucks are the second category of motor vehicles most often involved in TA. However, few studies have addressed the issue of TA among these professionals. The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of TA and their predictors in a sample of 684 truck drivers recruited in the state of São Paulo during 2012 and 2013. We requested participants to answer a research instrument on their personal and occupational data and their involvement in TA and traffic violations. A logistic regression model was developed to identify TA predictors. Almost 11% of the respondents suffered at least one TA in that timeframe. We identified the following TA predictors: having few years of experience as professional drivers (OR = 1.86; CI 95% = 1.05-3.38; p = 0.036); receiving some traffic tickets (OR = 1.91; CI 95% = 1.04-3.66; p = 0.043) and working more than 12 hours daily (OR = 1.84; CI 95% = 1.04-3.24; p = 0.034). Given those results, we suggest the development of a joint action among all the involved social stakeholders in order to negotiate truck drivers' work organization aiming at reducing behaviors that may lead to traffic accidents.

  7. Prevalence and impact of dementia-related functional limitations in the United States, 2001 to 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrighi, Henry Michael; McLaughlin, Trent; Leibman, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    These analyses examined the relationship between dementia and comorbid conditions with respect to degree of functional impairment and emotional impact. Analyses were conducted using National Health Interview Survey (2001 through 2005) data from a subset of individuals aged > or =60 years with activity limitations attributed to dementia, senility, or Alzheimer disease compared with those whose limitations were attributed to other conditions. The mean number of limited activities was 6.84 (95% confidence interval: 6.48-7.20) for persons with dementia-related limitations and 4.87 (95% confidence interval: 4.81-4.93) for those with limitations not dementia related. Both groups reported similar prevalence of diabetes, acute myocardial infarction, heart disease, prostate cancer, breast cancer, angina, and emphysema; respondents with dementia-related functional limitations were more likely to report diabetes, depression or anxiety, and vision problems as being related to functional limitations. Persons with dementia-related functional limitations were also more likely than persons with non-dementia-related functional limitations to report feeling sad, hopeless, worthless, nervous, and that "everything is an effort." Improving or maintaining functional independence in patients with dementia will likely require a multifaceted approach across disease states. Additional research will help define the impact of dementia on the development and progression of functional limitations related to comorbidities.

  8. Prevalence and Predictors of Herbal Medicine Use Among Adults in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashrash, Mohamed; Schommer, Jon C; Brown, Lawrence M

    2017-09-01

    To describe the prevalence of herbal medicine use among US adults and to assess factors associated with and predictors of herbal use. The data for herbal products use were collected from the 2015 National Consumer Survey on the Medication Experience and Pharmacists' Roles. Chi-square test was used to analyz factors associated with herbal use, and predictors of herbal use were assessed with logistic regression analysis. Factors associated with herbal supplement use include age older than 70, having a higher than high school education, using prescription medications or over-the-counter (OTC) medications, and using a mail-order pharmacy." All Disease state associated significantly with herbal use. Approximately thirty-eight percent of those who used herbals used prescription medications and 42% of those who used herbals also used an OTC medication. The most frequent conditions associated with herbal supplement use were a stroke (48.7%), cancer (43.1%), and arthritis (43.0%). Among herbal product users, factors that predicted use included having higher than school education, using OTC medications, using mail-order pharmacy, stroke, obesity, arthritis, and breathing problems. More than one-third of respondents reported using herbal supplements. Older age and higher education were associated with a higher use of herbal supplements. People with chronic diseases are more likely to use herbal medicines than others. OTC drug users and patients with stroke are more likely to use herbal medicines than others.

  9. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium Infection among Inhabitants of 2 Rural Areas in White Nile State, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Seobo; Yu, Jae-Ran; Lee, Young-Ha; Lee, Jin-Su; Jeong, Hoo-Gn; Mohamed, Abd Al Wahab Saed; Hong, Sung-Tae

    2015-12-01

    Cryptosporidium , a protozoan parasite that causes watery diarrhea, is found worldwide and is common in areas with low water hygiene. In February 2014, 866 stool samples were collected from the inhabitants of 2 rural areas in White Nile State, Sudan. These stool samples were assessed by performing modified acid-fast staining, followed by examination under a light microscope. The overall positive rate of Cryptosporidium oocysts was 13.3%. Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in 8.6% stool samples obtained from inhabitants living in the area having water purification systems and in 14.6% stool samples obtained from inhabitants living in the area not having water purification systems. No significant difference was observed in the prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection between men and women (14.7% and 14.1%, respectively). The positive rate of oocysts by age was the highest among inhabitants in their 60s (40.0%). These findings suggest that the use of water purification systems is important for preventing Cryptosporidium infection among inhabitants of these rural areas in Sudan.

  10. Monitoring obesity prevalence in the United States through bookmarking activities in online food portals.

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    Christoph Trattner

    Full Text Available Studying the impact of food consumption on people's health is a serious matter for its implications on public policy, but it has traditionally been a slow process since it requires information gathered through expensive collection processes such as surveys, census and systematic reviews of research articles. We argue that this process could be supported and hastened using data collected via online social networks. In this work we investigate the relationships between the online traces left behind by users of a large US online food community and the prevalence of obesity in 47 states and 311 counties in the US. Using data associated with the recipes bookmarked over an 9-year period by 144,839 users of the Allrecipes.com food website residing throughout the US, several hierarchical regression models are created to (i shed light on these relations and (ii establish their magnitude. The results of our analysis provide strong evidence that bookmarking activities on recipes in online food communities can provide a signal allowing food and health related issues, such as obesity to be better understood and monitored. We discover that higher fat and sugar content in bookmarked recipes is associated with higher rates of obesity. The dataset is complicated, but strong temporal and geographical trends are identifiable. We show the importance of accounting for these trends in the modeling process.

  11. Monitoring obesity prevalence in the United States through bookmarking activities in online food portals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trattner, Christoph; Parra, Denis; Elsweiler, David

    2017-01-01

    Studying the impact of food consumption on people's health is a serious matter for its implications on public policy, but it has traditionally been a slow process since it requires information gathered through expensive collection processes such as surveys, census and systematic reviews of research articles. We argue that this process could be supported and hastened using data collected via online social networks. In this work we investigate the relationships between the online traces left behind by users of a large US online food community and the prevalence of obesity in 47 states and 311 counties in the US. Using data associated with the recipes bookmarked over an 9-year period by 144,839 users of the Allrecipes.com food website residing throughout the US, several hierarchical regression models are created to (i) shed light on these relations and (ii) establish their magnitude. The results of our analysis provide strong evidence that bookmarking activities on recipes in online food communities can provide a signal allowing food and health related issues, such as obesity to be better understood and monitored. We discover that higher fat and sugar content in bookmarked recipes is associated with higher rates of obesity. The dataset is complicated, but strong temporal and geographical trends are identifiable. We show the importance of accounting for these trends in the modeling process.

  12. Breast Cancer Prevalence and Mortality among Hispanic Subgroups in the United States, 2009?2013

    OpenAIRE

    Hunt, Bijou R.

    2016-01-01

    Background. This paper presents data on breast cancer prevalence and mortality among US Hispanics and Hispanic subgroups, including Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, Central American, and South American. Methods. Five-year average annual female breast cancer prevalence and mortality rates for 2009–2013 were examined using data from the National Health Interview Survey (prevalence) and the National Center for Health Statistics and the American Community Survey (mortality rates). Results. Overall b...

  13. European Sitting Championship: Prevalence and Correlates of Self-Reported Sitting Time in the 28 European Union Member States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loyen, A; van der Ploeg, H.P.; Bauman, A.; Brug, J.; Lakerveld, J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Sedentary behaviour is increasingly recognized as an important health risk, but comparable data across Europe are scarce. The objective of this study was to explore the prevalence and correlates of self-reported sitting time in adults across and within the 28 European Union Member States.

  14. The association between states' texting regulations and the prevalence of texting while driving among U.S. high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudisill, Toni M; Zhu, Motao

    2015-12-01

    To determine which distracted driving laws were associated with decreased texting while driving among U.S. teenage drivers. Data from the 2013 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System survey were merged with states' distracted driving legislation. The prevalence of texting while driving was assessed for different laws using log-binomial regression. Approximately 39.0% of students reported texting while driving at least once in the 30 days before survey. Compared to states with universal texting bans along with young driver all cellphone bans, the adjusted ratio of texting while driving was 0.94 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.77-1.16) in states with no bans, 1.33 (95% CI, 1.11-1.58) for young driver bans only, 1.24 (95% CI, 1.00-1.52) in states with bans for young drivers but no young driver all cellphone bans, and 0.89 (95% CI, 0.66-1.19) in states with universal texting bans. The prevalence of texting was 28% less in states with delays of full licensure for texting offenses (prevalence ratio = 0.72; 95% CI, 0.59-0.88). Universal texting bans along with young driver all cellphone bans may be more effective in reducing texting while driving. Delays of full licensure may dissuade young drivers from texting and driving. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevalent Diagnosis of Orofacial Fissures in a Reference Service with Resident Cases in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul

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    Gardenal, Mirela

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The orofacial fissures are among the most frequent congenital malformations and show a clinical diversity, causing a series of severe complications permanently observed in the individual through his/her lifetime. Objective: To estimate the prevalent types of congenital orofacial fissures diagnosed in a reference service with resident cases in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul from January 2003 to December 2007. Method: An observation study of transverse incision was performed, whose data was obtained from the records at Rehabilitation Hospital of Craniofacial Anomalies (HRAC/USP/SP. To calculate the prevalence, live-born data (SINASC was used. Results: In brief, there were 271 diagnosed cases in the reference service, with the unilateral incisive trans-foramen fissures prevailing for the left side, which mostly attacked the male gender and white ethnicity. The mother's average age was 25 and her school education was from 9 to 11 years, with a history of pregnancy complications and without prior fissures. At SINASC, 98 cases of fissure were noticed for the same period, corresponding to a prevalence of 0.49 per 1,000 births. Conclusion: In the present study, it was possible to estimate the prevalence of fissure by the data from both the Hospital and SINASC, but future studies regarding the orofacial fissures epidemiology in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul and the Midwestern Region, using uniform terminology for classification purposes, are necessary to compare and follow up with the seasonal evolution of prevalence.

  16. Prevalence of Speech and Hearing Disorders in a State Penitentiary Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belenchia, Theresa A.; Crowe, Thomas A.

    1983-01-01

    Speech and hearing screening conducted with 136 penitentiary inmates revealed normal prevalence figures for articulation and fluency disorders but appreciably higher prevalence for voice and hearing disorders. Possible correlations with age levels 21-25 years and educational levels 0-6 years were noted. (Author/CL)

  17. Prevalence of insufficient, borderline, and optimal hours of sleep among high school students - United States, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Danice K; McKnight-Eily, Lela R; Lowry, Richard; Perry, Geraldine S; Presley-Cantrell, Letitia; Croft, Janet B

    2010-04-01

    We describe the prevalence of insufficient, borderline, and optimal sleep hours among U.S. high school students on an average school night. Most students (68.9%) reported insufficient sleep, whereas few (7.6%) reported optimal sleep. The prevalence of insufficient sleep was highest among female and black students, and students in grades 11 and 12. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. [Prevalence of abdominal obesity and associated factors among individuals 25 to 59 years of age in Pernambuco State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Claudia Porto Sabino; Diniz, Alcides da Silva; Arruda, Ilma Kruze Grande de; Batista Filho, Malaquias; Coelho, Poliana Cabral; Sequeira, Leopoldina Augusta de Souza; Lira, Pedro Israel Cabral de

    2013-02-01

    In order to estimate the prevalence of abdominal obesity and associated factors in Pernambuco State, Brazil, a cross-sectional population-based study was conducted in 2006, including 1,580 adults 25 to 59 years of age. Abdominal obesity was defined as waist circumference (WC) ≥ 80 cm in women and ≥ 94 cm in men. The conceptual model included demographic, socioeconomic, reproductive, and behavioral variables. Prevalence of abdominal obesity was 27.1% (95%CI: 23.8-30.7) in males and 69.9% (95%CI: 66.8-72.8) in females (p Pernambuco, and the determinants of obesity differ between the sexes.

  19. Prevalence differences of patients in vegetative state in The Netherlands and Vienna, Austria: a comparison of values and ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beljaars, Daniëlle E A; Valckx, Wilhelmina J A R M; Stepan, Christoph; Donis, Johann; Lavrijsen, Jan C M

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about prevalence of persistent vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome and comparisons between countries. The aim of this column was to explore reasons for the comparable count of patients in vegetative state found in prevalence studies in nursing homes in 1 European country (Netherlands) compared with a single European city (Vienna, Austria). The column is based on a literature review of vegetative state in The Netherlands and Vienna in the period 2007-2008, in the context of professional interactions with families and physicians of patients in vegetative state. In addition, in both countries, families and physicians were interviewed to illustrate views. Comparable between the 2 settings are the population characteristics and the definition of, and criteria, for vegetative state. A difference can be found in the development of authoritative policy guidelines in the Netherlands, after public debates and jurisdiction, which did not exist in Vienna at the time. There also seem to be different societal values concerning rehabilitation and end-of-life decisions for patients in vegetative state. The most important explanation for the vegetative state prevalence differences between the Netherlands and Vienna can be found in the different societal values about patients in vegetative state and their treatment and rehabilitation. In the Netherlands, life prolonging medical treatment, including artificial nutrition and hydration, is considered futile and can be withdrawn if there is no prospect of recovery. In Vienna, however, patients in vegetative state are regarded as severely disabled and in need of long-term rehabilitation and social reintegration. There is no end-of-life discussion in this context.

  20. Prevalence and herd-level risk factors for bovine tuberculosis in the State of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Pessôa Silva

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis is a zoonosis with worldwide distribution. Its control has a direct impact on public health and livestock production. This study estimated the prevalence of infected herds and adult bovines and evaluated risk factors associated with the presence of tuberculosis within herds in the state of Paraná. The state was divided in seven livestock regions and independent sampling was performed. A total of 1,419 farms were sampled and 16,045 animals were tested using the intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin diagnostic test. The apparent and estimated prevalence rates in farms and adult bovine animals were 2.15% (95% CI: 1.31-3.00 and 0.42% (95% CI: 0.04-0.81, respectively. It was not possible to state with 95% confidence that the disease prevalence in any region was significantly different from that in other regions. There were no positive animals in the western region, and the prevalence of positive herds and animals in the other regions ranged from 1.03% to 3.89% and 0.17% to 1.08%, respectively. The logistic regression model identified larger herd size (OR = 2.4 and mechanical cmilking (OR = 5.18 as risk factors associated with the presence of bovine tuberculosis. The combination of low prevalence with risk factors associated to larger herds and more intensive dairy farming, renders the state of Paraná a good candidate for the implementation of industry-based free-herd accreditation schemes and makes a case for planning risk-based surveillance targeted at major dairy basins.

  1. The prevalence of dentin hypersensitivity in general dental practices in the northwest United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha-Cruz, Joana; Wataha, John C; Heaton, Lisa J; Rothen, Marilynn; Sobieraj, Martin; Scott, JoAnna; Berg, Joel

    2013-03-01

    The prevalence of dentin hypersensitivity is uncertain, yet appropriate diagnosis and treatment of dentin hypersensitivity require accurate knowledge regarding its prevalence. The authors conducted a study to estimate the prevalence of dentin hypersensitivity in general dental practices and to investigate associated risk factors. The authors conducted a cross-sectional survey of 787 adult patients from 37 general dental practices within Northwest Practice-based Research Collaborative in Evidence-based DENTistry (PRECEDENT). Dentin hypersensitivity was diagnosed by means of participants' responses to a question regarding pain in their teeth and gingivae, and practitioner-investigators conducted a clinical examination to rule out alternative causes of pain. Participants recorded their pain level on a visual analog scale and the Seattle Scales in response to a one-second air blast. The authors used generalized estimating equation log-linear models to estimate the prevalence and the prevalence ratios. The prevalence of dentin hypersensitivity was 12.3 percent; patients with hypersensitivity had, on average, 3.5 hypersensitive teeth. The prevalence of dentin hypersensitivity was higher among 18- to 44-year olds than among participants 65 years or older; it also was higher in women than in men, in participants with gingival recession than in those without gingival recession and in participants who underwent at-home tooth whitening than in those who did not. Hypersensitivity was not associated with obvious occlusal trauma, noncarious cervical lesions or aggressive toothbrushing habits. One in eight participants from general practices had dentin hypersensitivity, which was a chronic condition causing intermittent, low-level pain. Patients with hypersensitivity were more likely to be younger, to be female and to have a high prevalence of gingival recession and at-home tooth whitening. Given dentin hypersensitivity's prevalence, clinicians should diagnose it only after

  2. Prevalence of intestinal parasitism of swine in a North Central State of Nigeria

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    Julius Olaniyi Aiyedun

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: The prevalence of parasites in pigs obtained in this work is a consequence of improper husbandry measures and irregular veterinary medical intervention. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(3.000: 278-281

  3. Prevalence and pattern of ocular disorders seen among artisans in Owerri, Imo State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Chukwuma Eziechila

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To determine the pattern and prevalence of ocular disorders among artisans with a view to make recommendations to the appropriate ministries for the formulation of necessary policies to preserve the ocular health status of these artisans.METHODS: This was a descriptive cross sectional study in which the sample population was selected using the proportion to size technique and simple random sampling.RESULTS: There was a high prevalence of degenerative conjunctival disorders among the artisans with pingueculum topping the list at 30.1%. Automobile mechanics had the highest prevalence for conjunctival disorders, corneal opacities, and allergic conjunctivitis. Superficial foreign bodies(74.4%were the most common work related injury observed while 13.6% of the artisans developed cataract from work related injuries.CONCLUSION: Governmental policies targeted at preserving and maintaining the ocular health of the artisans is needed to reduce the prevalence of ocular disorders noted in this study.

  4. Listeria prevalence and Listeria monocytogenes serovar diversity at cull cow and bull processing plants in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerini, Michael N; Brichta-Harhay, Dayna M; Shackelford, T Steven D; Arthur, Terrance M; Bosilevac, Joseph M; Kalchayanand, Norasak; Wheeler, Tommy L; Koohmaraie, Mohammad

    2007-11-01

    Listeria monocytogenes, the causative agent of epidemic and sporadic listeriosis, is routinely isolated from many sources, including cattle, yet information on the prevalence of Listeria in beef processing plants in the United States is minimal. From July 2005 through April 2006, four commercial cow and bull processing plants were sampled in the United States to determine the prevalence of Listeria and the serovar diversity of L. monocytogenes. Samples were collected during the summer, fall, winter, and spring. Listeria prevalence on hides was consistently higher during cooler weather (28 to 92% of samples) than during warmer weather (6 and 77% of samples). The Listeria prevalence data collected from preevisceration carcass ranged from undetectable in some warm season samples to as high as 71% during cooler weather. Listeria on postintervention carcasses in the chill cooler was normally undetectable, with the exception of summer and spring samples from one plant where > 19% of the carcasses were positive for Listeria. On hides, L. monocytogenes serovar 1/2a was the predominant serovar observed, with serovars 1/2b and 4b present 2.5 times less often and serovar 1/2c not detected on any hides sampled. L. monocytogenes serovars 1/2a, 1/2c, and 4b were found on postintervention carcasses. This prevalence study demonstrates that Listeria species are more prevalent on hides during the winter and spring and that interventions being used in cow and bull processing plants appear to be effective in reducing or eliminating Listeria contamination on carcasses.

  5. Prevalence of Cancer Screening Among Adults With Disabilities, United States, 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Steele, C. Brooke; Townsend, Julie S.; Courtney-Long, Elizabeth A.; Young, Monique

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Many studies on cancer screening among adults with disabilities examined disability status only, which masks subgroup differences. We examined prevalence of receipt of cancer screening tests by disability status and type. Methods We used 2013 National Health Interview Survey data to assess prevalence of 1) guideline-concordant mammography, Papanicolaou (Pap) tests, and endoscopy and stool tests; 2) physicians? recommendations for these tests; and 3) barriers to health-care access...

  6. Prevalence of Obesity Among Adults, by Household Income and Education - United States, 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Cynthia L; Fakhouri, Tala H; Carroll, Margaret D; Hales, Craig M; Fryar, Cheryl D; Li, Xianfen; Freedman, David S

    2017-12-22

    Studies have suggested that obesity prevalence varies by income and educational level, although patterns might differ between high-income and low-income countries (1-3). Previous analyses of U.S. data have shown that the prevalence of obesity varied by income and education, but results were not consistent by sex and race/Hispanic origin (4). Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), CDC analyzed obesity prevalence among adults (aged ≥20 years) by three levels of household income, based on percentage (≤130%, >130% to ≤350%, and >350%) of the federal poverty level (FPL) and individual education level (high school graduate or less, some college, and college graduate). During 2011-2014, the age-adjusted prevalence of obesity among adults was lower in the highest income group (31.2%) than the other groups (40.8% [>130% to ≤350%] and 39.0% [≤130%]). The age-adjusted prevalence of obesity among college graduates was lower (27.8%) than among those with some college (40.6%) and those who were high school graduates or less (40.0%). The patterns were not consistent across all sex and racial/Hispanic origin subgroups. Continued progress is needed to achieve the Healthy People 2020 targets of reducing age-adjusted obesity prevalence to <30.5% and reducing disparities (5).

  7. Prevalence of behavior problems and associated factors in preschool children from the city of Salvador, state of Bahia, Brazil

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    Letícia M. dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To identify the prevalence of internalizing and externalizing behavior problems among preschoolers from the city of Salvador, state of Bahia, Brazil, and their associations with maternal mental health and family characteristics.Methods:This was a cross-sectional study of 349 children aged 49 to 72 months, randomly selected from 20,000 households representing the range of socioeconomic and environmental conditions in Salvador. In 1999, we assessed sociodemographic variables and family environment characteristics. In 2001, we used the Child Behavior Checklist to measure and describe the frequencies of behavior problems. We conducted bivariate and multivariate analysis to estimate associations between family and maternal factors and prevalence of behavior problems.Results:The overall prevalence of behavior problems was 23.5%. The prevalence of internalizing problems was 9.7%, and that of externalizing problems, 25.2%. Behavior problems were associated with several maternal mental health variables, namely: presence of at least one psychiatric diagnosis (odds radio [OR] 3.01, 95%CI 1.75-5.18, anxiety disorder (OR 2.06, 95%CI 1.20-3.46, affective disorder (OR 2.10, 95%CI 1.21-3.65, and mental health disorders due to use of psychoactive substances (OR 2.31, 95%CI 1.18-4.55.Conclusion:The observed prevalence of child behavior problems fell within the range reported in previous studies. Maternal mental health is an important risk factor for behavior problems in preschool-aged children.

  8. Prevalence of Mansonella ozzardi among riverine communities in the municipality of Lábrea, State of Amazonas, Brazil

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    Jansen Fernandes Medeiros

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Estimate the prevalence of Mansonella ozzardi infection and calculate the parasitic infection rate (PIR in simuliid black flies in the municipality of Lábrea, State of Amazonas, Brazil. METHODS: Prevalence was measured using the thick blood smear method collected from the fingers and was related to age, sex and occupation. Simuliidae were collected with a suction apparatus, then stained with hematoxylin and dissected to verify the PIR. RESULTS: The average prevalence rate of M. ozzardi among the 694 individuals examined was 20.7%. Infection was higher in men (27.6% than in women (14.3% (p 58 (60.5%. The highest prevalence rates were observed in the retired (64%, followed by farm workers (47.1%. Infection by M. ozzardi was only identified in Cerqueirellum amazonicum (Simuliidae with a PIR of 0.6%. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed a high prevalence of M. ozzardi in the riverine communities of Lábrea due to the lack of policies regarding the treatment of microfilaremic individuals in the region and an abundance of competent vectors for M. ozzardi.

  9. An ecological study of food desert prevalence and 4th grade academic achievement in new york state school districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frndak, Seth E

    2014-12-02

    This ecological study examines the relationship between food desert prevalence and academic achievement at the school district level. Sample included 232 suburban and urban school districts in New York State. Multiple open-source databases were merged to obtain: 4(th) grade science, English and math scores, school district demographic composition (NYS Report Card), regional socioeconomic indicators (American Community Survey), school district quality (US Common Core of Data), and food desert data (USDA Food Desert Atlas). Multiple regression models assessed the percentage of variation in achievement scores explained by food desert variables, after controlling for additional predictors. The proportion of individuals living in food deserts significantly explained 4th grade achievement scores, after accounting for additional predictors. School districts with higher proportions of individuals living in food desert regions demonstrated lower 4th grade achievement across science, English and math. Food deserts appear to be related to academic achievement at the school district level among urban and suburban regions. Further research is needed to better understand how food access is associated with academic achievement at the individual level. Significance for public healthThe prevalence of food deserts in the United States is of national concern. As poor nutrition in United States children continues to spark debate, food deserts are being evaluated as potential sources of low fruit and vegetable intake and high obesity rates. Cognitive development and IQ have been linked to nutrition patterns, suggesting that children in food desert regions may have a disadvantage academically. This research evaluates if an ecological relationship between food desert prevalence and academic achievement at the school district level can be demonstrated. Results suggest that food desert prevalence may relate to poor academic performance at the school district level. Significant variation in

  10. Estimating the Impact of Raising Prices and Eliminating Discounts on Cigarette Smoking Prevalence in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marynak, Kristy L; Xu, Xin; Wang, Xu; Holmes, Carissa Baker; Tynan, Michael A; Pechacek, Terry

    2016-01-01

    The average retail price per pack of cigarettes is less than $6, which is substantially lower than the $10 per-pack target established in 2014 by the Surgeon General to reduce the smoking rate. We estimated the impact of three cigarette pricing scenarios on smoking prevalence among teens aged 12-17 years, young adults aged 18-25 years, and adults aged ≥26 years, by state: (1) $0.94 federal tax increase on cigarettes, as proposed in the fiscal year 2017 President's budget; (2) $10 per-pack retail price, allowing discounts; and (3) $10 per-pack retail price, eliminating discounts. We conducted Monte Carlo simulations to generate point estimates of reductions in cigarette smoking prevalence by state. We found that each price scenario would substantially reduce cigarette smoking prevalence. A $10 per-pack retail price eliminating discounts could result in 637,270 fewer smokers aged 12-17 years; 4,186,954 fewer smokers aged 18-25 years; and 7,722,460 fewer smokers aged ≥26 years. Raising cigarette prices and eliminating discounts could substantially reduce cigarette smoking prevalence as well as smoking-related death and disease.

  11. Prevalence of HIV infection among young adults in the United States: results from the Add Health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Martina; Handcock, Mark S; Miller, William C; Ford, Carol A; Schmitz, John L; Hobbs, Marcia M; Cohen, Myron S; Harris, Kathleen M; Udry, J Richard

    2006-06-01

    We estimated HIV prevalence rates among young adults in the United States. We used survey data from the third wave of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a random sample of nearly 19000 young adults initiated in 1994-1995. Consenting respondents were screened for the presence of antibodies to HIV-1 in oral mucosal transudate specimens. We calculated prevalence rates, accounting for survey design, response rates, and test performance. Among the 13184 participants, the HIV prevalence rate was 1.0 per 1000 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.4, 1.7). Gender-specific prevalence rates were similar, but rates differed markedly between non-Hispanic Blacks (4.9 per 1000; 95% CI=1.8, 8.7) and members of other racial/ethnic groups (0.22 per 1000; 95% CI=0.00, 0.64). Racial disparities in HIV in the United States are established early in the life span, and our data suggest that 15% to 30% of all cases of HIV occur among individuals younger than 25 years.

  12. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in urban and suburban Rivers State, Nigeria: International Diabetes Federation and Adult Treatment Panel III definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siminialayi, I M; Emem-Chioma, P C; Odia, O J

    2010-06-01

    It was not clear for a while, which of the definitions of metabolic syndrome best predicted those at risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes but recent studies have confirmed the predictive ability of various definitions of metabolic syndrome and have reported that the International Diabetes Federation definition, although more sensitive is associated with a higher false positive predictive rate. To determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, using the International Diabetes Federation and Adult Treatment Panel III definitions among adult Nigerians attending Family Medicine Clinics at two hospitals in Rivers State Nigeria. Adult subjects attending family medicine clinics at an urban and a sub-urban hospital in Rivers State, Nigeria were bled after an overnight fast, and venous blood obtained for lipid studies and fasting plasma glucose estimations. Measurements were made to determine height, weight, waist circumference and blood pressure. The data obtained was analysed using SPSS for Windows software version 12 and Epi info version 6.04D RESULTS: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 19.81% (ATP III) and 23.19% (IDF) at one centre and 34.17% (ATP III) and 35.42% (IDF) at the other centre. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome by the two definitions was significantly higher at the second centre. The difference in the prevalence rates by the two definitions was also much smaller in the second centre perhaps because the second centre had more women and the mean age of the subjects was significantly higher.

  13. The prevalence of Hymenolepis nana among preschool children of displacement communities in Khartoum state, Sudan: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Hamid, Muzamil Mahdi; Eljack, Ibrahim A; Osman, Mohammad Khatim M; Elaagip, Arwa Hassan; Muneer, Mohamed S

    2015-01-01

    Hymenolepis nana is among the most common intestinal parasitic infections causing a public health threat in poor communities in Sub-Saharan Africa. The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of H. nana infections and associated risk factors among preschool children of displacement communities in Khartoum state, Sudan. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in May 2013 in displacement camps, Khartoum state, Sudan. A simple random sample of preschool children from the displacement camps, aged between 1 and 5 years, were included. Information was collected by presenting a questionnaire and taking 500 fresh stool specimens which were examined microscopically for the presence of eggs, using direct saline and formal-ether concentration techniques. The prevalence of H. nana was determined to be 32.6% (163/500), 95% CI (28.5%-36.9%). Infections of H. nana were more prevalent among males than females, and this association was statistically significant (P Sudan. Being male, aged between 2.6 and 5.0 years, and having diarrhea were identified as important risk factors for H. nana infection. Measures including health education, environmental hygiene, water supply and treatment should be taken into account to reduce the high prevalence of H. nana. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Prevalence, management and outcomes of medically complex vulnerable elderly patients with urinary incontinence in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, X.; Chuang, C.?C.; Yang, E.; Zou, K. H.; Araiza, A. L.; Bhagnani, T.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives To assess the prevalence, patient?physician communication, treatment and health outcomes associated with urinary incontinence (UI) among the medically complex vulnerable elderly (MCVE) in the United States (US). Methods Data from the 2006 to 2012 Medicare Health Outcomes Survey (HOS) were used. MCVE patients were aged 65+ years with a HOS VE score ??3. UI was reported as a small, big or no problem. Descriptive statistics were used to assess patient?physician communication a...

  15. Racial variations in the prevalence of refractive errors in the United States: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chen-Wei; Klein, Barbara E K; Cotch, Mary Frances; Shrager, Sandi; Klein, Ronald; Folsom, Aaron; Kronmal, Richard; Shea, Steven J; Burke, Gregory L; Saw, Seang-Mei; Wong, Tien Y

    2013-06-01

    To describe racial variations in the prevalence of refractive errors among adult white, Chinese, Hispanic, and black subjects in the United States. Cross-sectional data from a prospective cohort study-the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). A total of 6000 adults aged 45 to 84 years living in the United States participated in the study. Refractive error was assessed, without cycloplegia, in both eyes of all participants using an autorefractor. After excluding eyes with cataract, cataract surgery, or previous refractive surgery, the eye with the larger absolute spherical equivalent (SE) value for each participant was used to classify refractive error. Any myopia was defined as SE of -1.0 diopters (D) or less; high myopia was defined as SE of -5.0 D or less; any hyperopia was defined as SE of +1.0 D or more; clinically significant hyperopia was defined as SE of +3.0 D or more. Astigmatism was defined as a cylinder value of +1.0 D or more. After excluding 508 participants with cataracts in both eyes, 838 participants with cataract surgery, 90 participants with laser refractive surgery, and 134 participants who refused to remove their contact lenses for the refraction measurement, 4430 adults with refractive error assessment in at least 1 eye contributed to the analysis. The prevalence of myopia among MESA participants was 25.1%, with lowest rates in Hispanic participants (14.2%), followed by black (21.5%) and white participants (31.0%), and highest rates in Chinese participants (37.2%). The overall rates of high myopia and astigmatism were 4.6% and 45.0%, respectively, with Chinese subjects also having the highest rates of high myopia (11.8%) and astigmatism (53.4%). The overall prevalence of any hyperopia was 38.2% and clinically significant hyperopia was 6.1%, with Hispanic participants having the highest rates of hyperopia (50.2%) and clinically significant hyperopia (8.8%). In multivariate analyses adjusting for age, sex, race, and study site, higher

  16. Prevalence of hypertension in three rural communities of Ife North Local Government Area of Osun State, South West Nigeria

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    Adebayo RA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Rasaaq A Adebayo,1 Michael O Balogun,1 Rufus A Adedoyin,2 Oluwayemisi A Obashoro-John,3 Luqman A Bisiriyu,4 Olugbenga O Abiodun11Department of Medicine, 2Department of Medical Rehabilitation, Obafemi Awolowo University, 3Department of Adult Education, University of Lagos, 4Department of Demography and Social Statistics, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, NigeriaBackground: The prevalence of hypertension is increasing rapidly in sub-Saharan Africa, but data are limited on hypertension prevalence. In addition, few population-based studies have been conducted recently in Nigeria on the prevalence and correlates of hypertension in both urban and rural communities. Therefore, we determined the prevalence of hypertension in adults in the three rural communities of Ipetumodu, Edunabon, and Moro, in South West Nigeria.Materials and methods: One thousand adults between 15 and 90 years of age were recruited into this cross-sectional study, over a 6-month period, using a multistage proportional stratified random sampling technique. Sociodemographic data and anthropometric variables were obtained, and resting blood pressure (BP was measured using an electronic sphygmomanometer. Diagnosis of hypertension was based on the JNC VII guidelines, the WHO/ISH 1999 guidelines, and the BP threshold of 160/95 mmHg.Results: Four hundred and eighty-six men (48.6% men and 514 women (51.4% participated in the study. Their mean age, weight, height, and body mass index were 32.3±14.7 years, 62±13 kg, 1.5±0.1 m, and 23.02 kg/m2, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension, based on the 140/90 mmHg definition, was 26.4% (Male: 27.3%; Female: 25.4%. The prevalence of hypertension, based on the 160/95 mmHg definition, was 11.8% (Male: 13.5%; Female: 10.1%. There were significant positive correlations between BP and some anthropometric indicators of obesity.Conclusion: The prevalence of hypertension in the three rural communities was 26.4%, indicating a trend

  17. Prevalence of School Bullying at State Schools in Bucaramanga city, Colombia

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    Omar Elías Torrado Duarte

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to determine the prevalence of bullying present in public educational institutions in Bucaramanga - Colombia through a cross- cutting quantitative research and a non- experimental design. The sample consisted of 1776 students ( 48.9 % female and 50.5 % male belonging to grades 4 to 11th . The study was conducted in three phases: characterization of public educational institutions Bucaramanga ; random selection of school groups on which the information was collected ; data collection and analysis . The results show a 8.1% prevalence of victimization in the case of bullying committed personally and 5% to bullying conducted through virtual means.

  18. Corporal Punishment in U.S. Public Schools: Prevalence, Disparities in Use, and Status in State and Federal Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershoff, Elizabeth T.; Font, Sarah A.

    2017-01-01

    School corporal punishment is currently legal in 19 states, and over 160,000 children in these states are subject to corporal punishment in schools each year. Given that the use of school corporal punishment is heavily concentrated in Southern states, and that the federal government has not included corporal punishment in its recent initiatives about improving school discipline, public knowledge of this issue is limited. The aim of this policy report is to fill the gap in knowledge about school corporal punishment by describing the prevalence and geographic dispersion of corporal punishment in U.S. public schools and by assessing the extent to which schools disproportionately apply corporal punishment to children who are Black, to boys, and to children with disabilities. This policy report is the first-ever effort to describe the prevalence of and disparities in the use of school corporal punishment at the school and school-district levels. We end the report by summarizing sources of concern about school corporal punishment, reviewing state policies related to school corporal punishment, and discussing the future of school corporal punishment in state and federal policy. PMID:29333055

  19. Corporal Punishment in U.S. Public Schools: Prevalence, Disparities in Use, and Status in State and Federal Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershoff, Elizabeth T; Font, Sarah A

    2016-01-01

    School corporal punishment is currently legal in 19 states, and over 160,000 children in these states are subject to corporal punishment in schools each year. Given that the use of school corporal punishment is heavily concentrated in Southern states, and that the federal government has not included corporal punishment in its recent initiatives about improving school discipline, public knowledge of this issue is limited. The aim of this policy report is to fill the gap in knowledge about school corporal punishment by describing the prevalence and geographic dispersion of corporal punishment in U.S. public schools and by assessing the extent to which schools disproportionately apply corporal punishment to children who are Black, to boys, and to children with disabilities. This policy report is the first-ever effort to describe the prevalence of and disparities in the use of school corporal punishment at the school and school-district levels. We end the report by summarizing sources of concern about school corporal punishment, reviewing state policies related to school corporal punishment, and discussing the future of school corporal punishment in state and federal policy.

  20. Prevalence of Low Back Pain Among Traffic Wardens in Lagos State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low back pain (LBP) has been found to be common among workers in certain industries and occupations. However, little is known about the prevalence of low back pain among traffic wardens in Nigeria, who are perceived to belong to the group of workers that are exposed to high occupational risks. This study was ...

  1. Breast Cancer Prevalence and Mortality among Hispanic Subgroups in the United States, 2009–2013

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    Bijou R. Hunt

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This paper presents data on breast cancer prevalence and mortality among US Hispanics and Hispanic subgroups, including Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, Central American, and South American. Methods. Five-year average annual female breast cancer prevalence and mortality rates for 2009–2013 were examined using data from the National Health Interview Survey (prevalence and the National Center for Health Statistics and the American Community Survey (mortality rates. Results. Overall breast cancer prevalence among US Hispanic women was 1.03%. Although the estimates varied slightly by Hispanic subgroup, these differences were not statistically significant. The breast cancer mortality rate for Hispanics overall was 17.71 per 100,000 women. Higher rates were observed among Cubans (17.89, Mexicans (18.78, and Puerto Ricans (19.04, and a lower rate was observed among Central and South Americans (10.15. With the exception of the rate for Cubans, all Hispanic subgroup rates were statistically significantly different from the overall Hispanic rate. Additionally, all Hispanic subgroups rates were statistically significantly higher than the Central and South American rate. Conclusion. The data reveal significant differences in mortality across Hispanic subgroups. These data enable public health officials to develop targeted interventions to help lower breast cancer mortality among the highest risk populations.

  2. Prevalence of fish diseases in fish farms in Katsina State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of fish disease in fish farms in Nigeria was investigated using data from structured questionnaire obtained during farm visits, and analysed using descriptive statistics and multiple linear regression. Findings from the study revealed that majority of the farm manager's (45.7) have less than 3 years of experience in ...

  3. Prevalence of Low Back Pain Among Traffic Wardens in Lagos State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KEY WORDS: low back pain, traffic warden, occupational health. INTRODUCTION. Low back pain (LBP) is the most prevalent musculoskeletal condition and a major cause of disability in society (Woolf and Pfleger, 2003). Low back pain also known as lumbago is a common musculoskeletal disorder affecting 80% of.

  4. Prevalence of Fleas in Sheep and Goats in Ogun State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flea samples were collected into universal bottles containing 1% formaldehyde. Location and severity of the flea on each animal were also recorded. The fleas were identified up to species level. Data on the animals, management factors and the prevalence of fleas were processed into contingency tables to establish the ...

  5. Human papillomavirus genotype prevalence in invasive penile cancers from a registry-based United States population

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    Brenda Y Hernandez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Human papillomavirus (HPV is estimated to play an etiologic role in 40%-50% of penile cancers worldwide. Estimates of HPV prevalence in U.S. penile cancer cases are limited. Methods. HPV DNA was evaluated in tumor tissue from 79 invasive penile cancer patients diagnosed in 1998-2005 within the catchment areas of 7 U.S. cancer registries. HPV was genotyped using PCR-based Linear Array and INNO-LiPA assays and compared by demographic, clinical, and pathologic characteristics and survival. Histological classification was also obtained by independent pathology review. Results. HPV DNA was present in 50 of 79 (63% of invasive penile cancer cases. Sixteen viral genotypes were detected. HPV 16, found in 46% (36/79 of all cases (72% of HPV-positive cases was the most prevalent genotype followed equally by HPV 18, 33, and 45, which each comprised 5% of all cases. Multiple genotypes were detected in 18% of viral positive cases. HPV prevalence did not significantly vary by age, race/ethnicity, population size of geographic region, cancer stage, histology, grade, penile subsite, or prior cancer history. Penile cases diagnosed in more recent years were more likely to be HPV positive. Overall survival did not significantly vary by HPV status. Conclusions. The relatively high prevalence of HPV in our study population provides limited evidence of a more prominent and, possibly, increasing role of infection in penile carcinogenesis in the U.S. compared to other parts of the world.

  6. Ectoparasites Prevalence in Small Ruminants in and around Sekela, Amhara Regional State, Northwest Ethiopia

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    Zewdu Seyoum

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and type of ectoparasites and to identify risk factors associated with ectoparasite infestations in small ruminants in and around Sekela, Northwest Ethiopia. Clinical examination and laboratory analysis were made on 304 sheep and 96 goats. The collected raw data were analyzed using χ2-test. Out of the 400 sampled animals, 182 (45.5% were infested with one or more ectoparasites. The prevalent ectoparasites observed were lice, ticks, Ctenocephalides species, Melophagus ovinus, and Demodex species. The infestation rates of ectoparasites with age and sex were significantly varied (P0.05. Body condition score was not significantly associated (P>0.05 with ectoparasites infestation in both sheep and goats. In our attempt, only two cases due to Demodex species were recorded in sheep. In conclusion, the prevalence of ectoparasites in the present study was high and this could affect the wellbeing and productivity of small ruminants. Therefore, to reduce ectoparasites prevalence and impact on the productivity and health status, planning of integrated control measures with sustainable veterinary services aiming at creating awareness about the importance and control of ectoparasites for livestock owners is required.

  7. Ectoparasites Prevalence in Small Ruminants in and around Sekela, Amhara Regional State, Northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyoum, Zewdu; Tadesse, Tsegaye; Addisu, Agerie

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and type of ectoparasites and to identify risk factors associated with ectoparasite infestations in small ruminants in and around Sekela, Northwest Ethiopia. Clinical examination and laboratory analysis were made on 304 sheep and 96 goats. The collected raw data were analyzed using χ (2)-test. Out of the 400 sampled animals, 182 (45.5%) were infested with one or more ectoparasites. The prevalent ectoparasites observed were lice, ticks, Ctenocephalides species, Melophagus ovinus, and Demodex species. The infestation rates of ectoparasites with age and sex were significantly varied (P 0.05). Body condition score was not significantly associated (P > 0.05) with ectoparasites infestation in both sheep and goats. In our attempt, only two cases due to Demodex species were recorded in sheep. In conclusion, the prevalence of ectoparasites in the present study was high and this could affect the wellbeing and productivity of small ruminants. Therefore, to reduce ectoparasites prevalence and impact on the productivity and health status, planning of integrated control measures with sustainable veterinary services aiming at creating awareness about the importance and control of ectoparasites for livestock owners is required.

  8. Acrolein and asthma attack prevalence in a representative sample of the United States adult population 2000-2009.

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    B Rey deCastro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acrolein is an air toxic and highly potent respiratory irritant. There is little epidemiology available, but US EPA estimates that outdoor acrolein is responsible for about 75 percent of non-cancer respiratory health effects attributable to air toxics in the United States, based on the Agency's 2005 NATA (National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment and acrolein's comparatively potent inhalation reference concentration of 0.02 µg/m3. OBJECTIVES: Assess the association between estimated outdoor acrolein exposure and asthma attack reported by a representative cross-sectional sample of the adult United States population. METHODS: NATA 2005 chronic outdoor acrolein exposure estimates at the census tract were linked with residences oif adults (≥18 years old in the NHIS (National Health Interview Survey 2000-2009 (n = 271,348 subjects. A sample-weighted logistic regression model characterized the association between the prevalence of reporting at least one asthma attack in the 12 months prior to survey interview and quintiles of exposure to outdoor acrolein, controlling for potential confounders. RESULTS: In the highest quintile of outdoor acrolein exposure (0.05-0.46 µg/m3, there was a marginally significant increase in the asthma attack pOR (prevalence-odds ratio [95% CI]  = 1.08 [0.98∶1.19] relative to the lowest quintile. The highest quintile was also associated with a marginally significant increase in prevalence-odds (1.13 [0.98∶1.29] in a model limited to never smokers (n = 153,820. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic exposure to outdoor acrolein of 0.05-0.46 µg/m3 appears to increase the prevalence-odds of having at least one asthma attack in the previous year by 8 percent in a representative cross-sectional sample of the adult United States population.

  9. Acrolein and asthma attack prevalence in a representative sample of the United States adult population 2000-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deCastro, B Rey

    2014-01-01

    Acrolein is an air toxic and highly potent respiratory irritant. There is little epidemiology available, but US EPA estimates that outdoor acrolein is responsible for about 75 percent of non-cancer respiratory health effects attributable to air toxics in the United States, based on the Agency's 2005 NATA (National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment) and acrolein's comparatively potent inhalation reference concentration of 0.02 µg/m3. Assess the association between estimated outdoor acrolein exposure and asthma attack reported by a representative cross-sectional sample of the adult United States population. NATA 2005 chronic outdoor acrolein exposure estimates at the census tract were linked with residences oif adults (≥18 years old) in the NHIS (National Health Interview Survey) 2000-2009 (n = 271,348 subjects). A sample-weighted logistic regression model characterized the association between the prevalence of reporting at least one asthma attack in the 12 months prior to survey interview and quintiles of exposure to outdoor acrolein, controlling for potential confounders. In the highest quintile of outdoor acrolein exposure (0.05-0.46 µg/m3), there was a marginally significant increase in the asthma attack pOR (prevalence-odds ratio [95% CI]  = 1.08 [0.98∶1.19]) relative to the lowest quintile. The highest quintile was also associated with a marginally significant increase in prevalence-odds (1.13 [0.98∶1.29]) in a model limited to never smokers (n = 153,820). Chronic exposure to outdoor acrolein of 0.05-0.46 µg/m3 appears to increase the prevalence-odds of having at least one asthma attack in the previous year by 8 percent in a representative cross-sectional sample of the adult United States population.

  10. Acrolein and Asthma Attack Prevalence in a Representative Sample of the United States Adult Population 2000 – 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    deCastro, B. Rey

    2014-01-01

    Background Acrolein is an air toxic and highly potent respiratory irritant. There is little epidemiology available, but US EPA estimates that outdoor acrolein is responsible for about 75 percent of non-cancer respiratory health effects attributable to air toxics in the United States, based on the Agency's 2005 NATA (National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment) and acrolein's comparatively potent inhalation reference concentration of 0.02 µg/m3. Objectives Assess the association between estimated outdoor acrolein exposure and asthma attack reported by a representative cross-sectional sample of the adult United States population. Methods NATA 2005 chronic outdoor acrolein exposure estimates at the census tract were linked with residences oif adults (≥18 years old) in the NHIS (National Health Interview Survey) 2000 – 2009 (n = 271,348 subjects). A sample-weighted logistic regression model characterized the association between the prevalence of reporting at least one asthma attack in the 12 months prior to survey interview and quintiles of exposure to outdoor acrolein, controlling for potential confounders. Results In the highest quintile of outdoor acrolein exposure (0.05 – 0.46 µg/m3), there was a marginally significant increase in the asthma attack pOR (prevalence-odds ratio [95% CI]  = 1.08 [0.98∶1.19]) relative to the lowest quintile. The highest quintile was also associated with a marginally significant increase in prevalence-odds (1.13 [0.98∶1.29]) in a model limited to never smokers (n = 153,820). Conclusions Chronic exposure to outdoor acrolein of 0.05 – 0.46 µg/m3 appears to increase the prevalence-odds of having at least one asthma attack in the previous year by 8 percent in a representative cross-sectional sample of the adult United States population. PMID:24816802

  11. Small-for-gestational age prevalence risk factors in central Appalachian states with mountain-top mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdosi, Hamid; Lamm, Steve H; Afari-Dwamena, Nana Ama; Dissen, Elisabeth; Chen, Rusan; Li, Ji; Feinleib, Manning

    2018-01-01

    To identify risk factors for small-for-gestational age (SGA) for counties in central Appalachian states (Kentucky (KY), Tennessee (TN), Virginia (VA), and West Virginia (WV)) with varied coal mining activities. Live birth certificate files (1990-2002) were used for obtaining SGA prevalence rates for mothers based on the coal mining activities of their counties of residence, mountain-top mining (MTM) activities, underground mining activities but no mountain-top mining activity (non-MTM), or having no mining activities (non-mining). Co-variable information, including maternal tobacco use, was also obtained from the live birth certificate. Adjusted odds ratios were obtained using multivariable logistic regression comparing SGA prevalence rates for counties with coal mining activities to those without coal mining activities and comparing SGA prevalence rates for counties with coal mining activities for those with and without mountain-top mining activities. Comparisons were also made among those who had reported tobacco use and those who had not. Both tobacco use prevalence and SGA prevalence were significantly greater for mining counties than for non-mining counties and for MTM counties than for non-MTM counties. Adjustment for tobacco use alone explained 50% of the increased SGA risk for mining counties and 75% of the risk for MTM counties, including demographic pre-natal care co-variables that explained 75% of the increased SGA risk for mining counties and 100% of the risk for MTM. The increased risk of SGA was limited to the third trimester births among tobacco users and independent of the mining activities of their counties of residence. This study demonstrates that the increased prevalence of SGA among residents of counties with mining activity was primarily explained by the differences in maternal tobacco use prevalence, an effect that itself was gestational-age dependent. Self-reported tobacco use marked the population at the increased risk for SGA in central

  12. Prevalence of Financial Fraud and Scams Among Older Adults in the United States: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnes, David; Henderson, Charles R; Sheppard, Christine; Zhao, Rebecca; Pillemer, Karl; Lachs, Mark S

    2017-08-01

    The financial exploitation of older adults was recently recognized by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as a serious public health problem. Knowledge of the prevalence of elder financial exploitation is mostly limited to the category of financial abuse, which occurs in relationships involving an expectation of trust. Little is known about the other major category of elder financial exploitation-elder financial fraud and scams, which is perpetrated by strangers. A valid estimate of elder financial fraud-scam prevalence is necessary as a foundation for research and prevention efforts. To estimate the prevalence of elder financial fraud-scam victimization in the United States based on a systematic review and meta-analysis. Multiple investigators independently screened titles and abstracts and reviewed relevant full-text records from PubMed, Medline, PsycINFO, Criminal Justice Abstracts, Social Work Abstracts, and AgeLine databases. To maximize the validity and generalizability of prevalence estimation, we restricted eligibility to general population-based studies (English speaking, 1990 onward) using state- or national-level probability sampling and collecting data directly from older adults. Information on elder financial fraud-scam prevalence and study-level characteristics was extracted independently by 2 investigators. Meta-analysis of elder financial fraud-scam prevalence used generalized mixed models with individual studies as levels of a random classification factor. We included 12 studies involving a total of 41 711 individuals in the meta-analysis. Overall pooled elder financial fraud-scam prevalence (up to 5-year period) across studies was 5.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.0%, 7.8%), with a 1-year period prevalence of 5.4% (95% CI = 3.2%, 7.6%). Studies using a series of questions describing specific fraud-scam events to measure victimization found a significantly higher prevalence (7.1%; 95% CI = 4.8%, 9.4%) than studies

  13. Fitting HIV Prevalence 1981 Onwards for Three Indian States Using the Goals Model and the Estimation and Projection Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Tarun; Dutta, Tapati; Stover, John; Godbole, Sheela; Sahu, Damodar; Boopathi, Kangusamy; Bembalkar, Shilpa; Singh, Kh Jitenkumar; Goyal, Rajat; Pandey, Arvind; Mehendale, Sanjay M

    2016-01-01

    Models are designed to provide evidence for strategic program planning by examining the impact of different interventions on projected HIV incidence. We employed the Goals Model to fit the HIV epidemic curves in Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu states of India where HIV epidemic is considered to have matured and in a declining phase. Input data in the Goals Model consisted of demographic, epidemiological, transmission-related and risk group wise behavioral parameters. The HIV prevalence curves generated in the Goals Model for each risk group in the three states were compared with the epidemic curves generated by the Estimation and Projection Package (EPP) that the national program is routinely using. In all the three states, the HIV prevalence trends for high-risk populations simulated by the Goals Model matched well with those derived using state-level HIV surveillance data in the EPP. However, trends for the low- and medium-risk populations differed between the two models. This highlights the need to generate more representative and robust data in these sub-populations and consider some structural changes in the modeling equation and parameters in the Goals Model to effectively use it to assess the impact of future strategies of HIV control in various sub-populations in India at the sub-national level.

  14. Opening the Floodgates? The Social Maladjustment Exclusion and State SED Prevalence Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiba, Russell; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Surveyed state special education directors in 50 states and District of Columbia regarding social maladjustment exclusionary clause in federal definition of serious emotional disturbance (SED). Thirty-four states included social maladjustment clause or some form of exclusion in SED definition. Found no significant relationship between presence of…

  15. Prevalence of visual impairment and refractive error in school-aged children in South Darfur State of Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saif H. Alrasheed

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Global estimates suggest there are almost 19 million visually impaired children worldwide, the major cause being uncorrected refractive error (RE. Aim: To assess the prevalence of visual impairment (VI and RE among Sudanese school-aged children. Setting: Eight randomly selected primary schools from 21 districts in South Darfur State of Sudan were involved. Methods: A school-based cross-sectional study of RE and VI in primary schoolchildren from grades 1 to 8 (children aged 6–15 years was investigated. A Refractive Error Study in Children (RESC protocol was implemented to determine the prevalence of RE and VI in these schoolaged children. Participants were enrolled through stratified multistage cluster sampling of four all-male and four all-female primary schools from South Darfur State of Sudan. Examination procedures followed the RESC protocol, which included visual acuity (VA measurements, binocular vision assessments, retinoscopy and autorefraction under cycloplegia, as well as examination of the external eye, anterior-segment, media and fundus. Results: A total of 1775 children were invited to participate in the study and 1678 were examined resulting in a participation rate of 94.5%. The findings indicated that the prevalence of uncorrected, presenting and best-corrected VA of 6/12 or worse was 6.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.9–7.9, 4.4% (95% CI, 2.9–5.9 and 1.2% (95% CI, 0.3–2.7 respectively. RE was the cause of VI in 57% of participants, retinal disorders in 13.1%, amblyopia in 5.6%, corneal opacity in 0.9%, cataract in 3.7%, with the causes of reduced vision undetermined in 10.3% and various other causes contributed 9.3%. External and anterior-segment abnormalities were observed in 10.2% of children. This was mainly allergic conjunctivitis (5.3% followed by bacterial and viral conjunctivitis (4.2%. The prevalence of myopia (≥|-0.50 D| in one or both eyes was 6.8% (95% CI, 5.3–8.3, hypermetropia (≥ 2 D was

  16. EVALUATION OF LEAD AND MERCURY PREVALENCE IN BALD EAGLES (HALIAEETUS LEUCOCEPHALUS) FROM THE MID-ATLANTIC UNITED STATES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleftheriou, Andreas; Murphy, Lisa; Welte, Sallie

    2017-09-01

    Heavy metal contamination of the environment remains a critical issue. Lead and mercury exposure, particularly, can affect avian health. Bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) ingest these metals through their diets. Lead and mercury prevalence were examined in bald eagles from three mid-Atlantic US states between 2004 and 2013. Blood samples were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometry. Wilcoxon score tests were used to detect differences in lead and mercury over time. Counties of origin for birds with clinically significant metal levels were identified. There were no temporal trends found in lead and mercury prevalence. Eagles with clinically significant lead levels (>0.6 ppm) originated from near Chesapeake and Delaware bays, but most birds with clinically significant mercury levels (>1 ppm) originated from near Delaware and Barnegat bays. These findings indicate that lead and mercury contamination persists in this region and that routine sampling of bald eagles is a useful monitoring tool.

  17. Prevalence and correlates of treatment utilization among adults with cannabis use disorder in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Zhu, He; Mannelli, Paolo; Swartz, Marvin S

    2017-08-01

    The increase in cannabis potency may have treatment implications for cannabis use disorder (CUD). Given the reported increase in prevalence of cannabis use among adults, there is a need to understand substance use treatment needs for CUD. We examined demographics and behavioral health indicators of adults aged ≥18 years that met criteria for past-year CUD (n=10,943) in the 2005-2013 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. We determined prevalence and correlates of past-year treatment use for alcohol/drug, any drug, and cannabis use related problems, to inform treatment efforts for CUD. The majority of adults with past-year CUD were young adults aged 18-25 or men, had low income, and did not attend college. Two-thirds of adults with CUD met criteria for cannabis dependence, which was comparatively common among younger adults, women, low-income or publicly insured adults, and college-educated adults. Nicotine dependence (40.92%) and alcohol (44.07%) or other drug use disorder (19.70%) were prevalent among adults with CUD. Overall, less than 13% of adults with CUD had received alcohol/drug use treatment the past year; only 7.8% received cannabis-specific treatment. There was no significant yearly variation in treatment use prevalence over 9 years. In particular, Asian-Americans, women, and college-educated adults underutilized cannabis-specific treatment. This large sample of adults with CUD reveals pervasive underutilization of cannabis-related treatment, especially in women, married adults, and those with college education, despite a high proportion of comorbid behavioral health problems. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Validation of a Previously Developed Geospatial Model That Predicts the Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in New York State Produce Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Daniel; Shiwakoti, Suvash; Bergholz, Peter; Grohn, Yrjo; Wiedmann, Martin; Strawn, Laura K

    2016-02-01

    Technological advancements, particularly in the field of geographic information systems (GIS), have made it possible to predict the likelihood of foodborne pathogen contamination in produce production environments using geospatial models. Yet, few studies have examined the validity and robustness of such models. This study was performed to test and refine the rules associated with a previously developed geospatial model that predicts the prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in produce farms in New York State (NYS). Produce fields for each of four enrolled produce farms were categorized into areas of high or low predicted L. monocytogenes prevalence using rules based on a field's available water storage (AWS) and its proximity to water, impervious cover, and pastures. Drag swabs (n = 1,056) were collected from plots assigned to each risk category. Logistic regression, which tested the ability of each rule to accurately predict the prevalence of L. monocytogenes, validated the rules based on water and pasture. Samples collected near water (odds ratio [OR], 3.0) and pasture (OR, 2.9) showed a significantly increased likelihood of L. monocytogenes isolation compared to that for samples collected far from water and pasture. Generalized linear mixed models identified additional land cover factors associated with an increased likelihood of L. monocytogenes isolation, such as proximity to wetlands. These findings validated a subset of previously developed rules that predict L. monocytogenes prevalence in produce production environments. This suggests that GIS and geospatial models can be used to accurately predict L. monocytogenes prevalence on farms and can be used prospectively to minimize the risk of preharvest contamination of produce. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Iron deficiency anaemia in pre-school (1- 6 years) in Al Shigla area (Khartoum State) :Prevalence and Aetiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, Faiza Mohamed

    1999-04-01

    iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is a public health problem throughout the world. Childhood iron deficiency anaemia. A prospective survey (systematic, cluster sampling) was carried out among pre-school children in Alshigla area (Khartoum State), to study the prevalence and aetological factors of IDA. 170 children selected for general nutritional evaluation, 110 of them for haemoglobin levels and morphological classification of anaemia, 70 for further investigations(serum iron, unsaturated iron binding capacity, total iron binding capacity). The population at Alshigla were living in poor condition 85.3% relied on water brought by tankers which showed poor hygienic standard, 90% lived in extended families 54.1% had income level less than LS 3000/day irrespective of family size or mode of spending. A sample of 170 children showed (84.1%) normal nutritional status with 4.7% severe cases with high consumption of cereals low meat, fish and poultry group and vitamin C(22.9%). Disease episodes showed 67.7% had diarrhoea, 22.4% had giardia, 12.9% had malaria and 10.6% had worm infestation. This most probably due to unsanitary living condition. Haemoglobin analysis using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent assay technique (ELISA) for 110 of the children, showed high prevalence of anaemia (96.4%), 66% prevalence of IDA. Further haematological investigations of 50 of the children confirmed them as IDA cases.Thus the high prevalence of IDA in Alshigla was multi-factorial, inadequate take of dietary iron and of vitamin C, high intake of cereals and legumes, low intake of meat, poultry and fish group (MPF),and high tea consumption, thus food provides inadequate supply of iron and were rich in inhibitors of iron absorption. In addition episodes of diseases that may influence food (hence iron) utilisation contributed to the prevalence of IDA

  20. Prevalence and impact of sleep disorders and sleep habits in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Saravanan; Seirawan, Hazem; Kumar, Satish K S; Clark, Glenn T

    2010-02-01

    Epidemiologic studies on sleep disorders in the USA have mostly focused on specific disorders in specific groups of individuals. Most studies on sleep habits and sleep-related difficulties have focused on children and adolescents. The authors describe the prevalence of the three common physician-diagnosed sleep disorders (insomnia, sleep apnea, and restless legs syndrome (RLS)) by age, gender, and race in the US population. In addition, the authors describe the sleep habits and sleep-related difficulties in carrying routine daily activities. The authors also investigate the impact of the sleep disorders on performing routine daily activities. Data from the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 6,139 individuals over the age of 16 was analyzed for sleep-related parameters. The prevalence was highest for sleep apnea (4.2%), followed by insomnia (1.2%) and RLS (0.4%). Hispanics and Whites reported longer sleep duration than Blacks by 24 to 30 min. The predominant sleep habits were snoring while sleeping (48%), feeling unrested during the day (26.5%), and not getting enough sleep (26%). Difficulty concentrating (25%) or remembering (18%) were the main sleep-related difficulties in our sample. Insomnia, sleep apnea, and RLS had the highest impact on concentration and memory. Our findings suggest that the prevalence of sleep disorders in the USA is much lower than previously reported in the literature suggesting under diagnosis of sleep disorders by primary care physicians.

  1. Prevalence and Correlates of Missing Meals Among High School Students-United States, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demissie, Zewditu; Eaton, Danice K; Lowry, Richard; Nihiser, Allison J; Foltz, Jennifer L

    2018-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and correlates of missing meals among adolescents. The 2010 National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study, a cross-sectional study. School based. A nationally representative sample of 11 429 high school students. Breakfast, lunch, and dinner consumption; demographics; measured and perceived weight status; physical activity and sedentary behaviors; and fruit, vegetable, milk, sugar-sweetened beverage, and fast-food intake. Prevalence estimates for missing breakfast, lunch, or dinner on ≥1 day during the past 7 days were calculated. Associations between demographics and missing meals were tested. Associations of lifestyle and dietary behaviors with missing meals were examined using logistic regression controlling for sex, race/ethnicity, and grade. In 2010, 63.1% of students missed breakfast, 38.2% missed lunch, and 23.3% missed dinner; the prevalence was highest among female and non-Hispanic black students. Being overweight/obese, perceiving oneself to be overweight, and video game/computer use were associated with increased risk of missing meals. Physical activity behaviors were associated with reduced risk of missing meals. Students who missed breakfast were less likely to eat fruits and vegetables and more likely to consume sugar-sweetened beverages and fast food. Breakfast was the most frequently missed meal, and missing breakfast was associated with the greatest number of less healthy dietary practices. Intervention and education efforts might prioritize breakfast consumption.

  2. Carbon dioxide emissions and change in prevalence of obesity and diabetes in the United States: an ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheutlin, Alexander R; Adar, Sara D; Park, Sung Kyun

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies suggest that increasing levels of the greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide (CO2), may influence weight gain and thus may play a role in rising trends in obesity and diabetes. We conducted an ecological study to examine the associations between CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and changes in the prevalence of obesity and diabetes in the United States. County-level data on CO2 emissions, prevalence of obesity and diagnosed diabetes, other sociodemographic factors and neighborhood characteristics related to urbanicity, and fine particles (PM2.5) between 2004 and 2008 were obtained from the Vulcan Project, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and American Community Survey. Linear mixed effect modeling of 3019 counties for the associations between average CO2 emissions and changes in diabetes and obesity prevalence between 2004 and 2008 was performed. The average obesity and diabetes prevalence increased between 2004 and 2008 by 3.65% (SD: 1.88%) and 1.65% (SD: 1.70%), respectively. A marginally significant positive association between CO2 emission and changes in obesity prevalence was found with adjustment for sociodemographic factors, indicators of urbanicity and spatial autocorrelation (p-trend=0.06). The association became weaker and nonsignificant with further adjustment for PM2.5 (p-trend=0.17). There was a significant positive association between CO2 emission and changes in diabetes prevalence before controlling for PM2.5 (p-trend=0.05) but the association became null after controlling for PM2.5 (p-trend=0.49), suggesting that PM2.5 is a critical confounder in the association between CO2 emission and changes in diabetes prevalence. This study does not support the hypothesis that CO2 emissions, a leading driver of climate change, may be linked to increasing trends in obesity and diabetes, though there was an indication of possible link between CO2 and obesity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Firearm Prevalence and Homicides of Law Enforcement Officers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swedler, David I; Simmons, Molly M; Dominici, Francesca; Hemenway, David

    2015-10-01

    In the United States, state firearm ownership has been correlated with homicide rates. More than 90% of homicides of law enforcement officers (LEOs) are committed with firearms. We examined the relationship between state firearm ownership rates and LEO occupational homicide rates. We obtained the number LEOs killed from 1996 to 2010 from a Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) database. We calculated homicide rates per state as the number of officers killed per number of LEOs per state, obtained from another FBI database. We obtained the mean household firearm ownership for each state from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Using Poisson regression and controlling for factors known to affect homicide rates, we associated firearm ownership with the homicide rates for LEOs (incidence rate ratio = 1.044; P = .005); our results were supported by cross-sectional and longitudinal sensitivity analyses. LEO homicide rates were 3 times higher in states with high firearm ownership compared with states with low firearm ownership. High public gun ownership is a risk for occupational mortality for LEOs in the United States. States could consider methods for reducing firearm ownership as a way to reduce occupational deaths of LEOs.

  4. Demographic and spatial disparity in HIV prevalence among incarcerated population in the US: A state-level analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Srimoyee

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore empirically the presence of any spatial and demographic disparity in the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection rate among the prison inmates across 48 states in the US and compare the results for 2000 and 2010. HIV infection is a severe health issue for incarcerated populations in the US. In 2010, the rate of diagnosed HIV infection among inmates in state and federal prisons was five times more than the nonincarcerated population. The National Prisoner Statistics database was used to find the demographic disparities in HIV prevalence rate based on incarceration rate, gender, race/ethnicity, the proportion of non-US citizens, and proportion of population below 18 years. State-level spatial mapping, Pearson correlation coefficient, and Moran's I statistic (univariate and bivariate) were computed based on these demographic characteristics using QGIS and Geoda software. There was a statistically significant pattern of spatial disparity in overall, male and female HIV infection rates across the state prisoners, with South and South-Eastern states facing a higher risk of infection. There was also statistically significant bivariate spatial association of HIV infection rate with the covariates: whites (negative), blacks (positive), non-US citizen (positive), and prisoners under age 18 years (positive) for both 2000 and 2010. There was a statistically significant higher HIV infection rate among the female prisoners in comparison to the male prisoners. It is of prime importance to examine the state-level disparities in HIV infection rate based on place and demographics. This is because evaluating the spatial pattern will help in accessing the relevant local information and provide federal agencies with better knowledge to target interventions and prevention programs toward the subgroup of the population at higher risk and help in controlling and reducing HIV infection prevalence.

  5. Distribution and prevalence of Cytauxzoon felis in bobcats (Lynx rufus), the natural reservoir, and other wild felids in thirteen states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shock, Barbara C; Murphy, Staci M; Patton, Laura L; Shock, Philip M; Olfenbuttel, Colleen; Beringer, Jeff; Prange, Suzanne; Grove, Daniel M; Peek, Matt; Butfiloski, Joseph W; Hughes, Daymond W; Lockhart, J Mitchell; Bevins, Sarah N; VandeWoude, Sue; Crooks, Kevin R; Nettles, Victor F; Brown, Holly M; Peterson, David S; Yabsley, Michael J

    2011-02-10

    Cytauxzoon felis, a protozoan parasite of wild and domestic felids, is the causative agent of cytauxzoonosis in domestic and some exotic felids in the United States. The bobcat (Lynx rufus) is the natural reservoir for this parasite, but other felids such as Florida panthers (Puma concolor coryii) and domestic cats may maintain long-term parasitemias and serve as reservoirs. Experimentally, two tick species, Dermacentor variabilis and Amblyomma americanum, have demonstrated the ability to transmit C. felis. These two tick species have overlapping distributions throughout much of the southeastern United States. The objective of the current study was to determine the distribution and prevalence of C. felis in free-ranging bobcat populations from 13 states including California, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Kansas, Kentucky, Missouri, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, South Carolina, and West Virginia. These states were selected because of differential vector presence; D. variabilis is present in each of these states except for the region of Colorado sampled and A. americanum is currently known to be present only in a subset of these states. Blood or spleen samples from 696 bobcats were tested for C. felis infection by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay which targeted the first ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS-1). Significantly higher prevalences of C. felis were detected from Missouri (79%, n=39), North Carolina (63%, n=8), Oklahoma (60%, n=20), South Carolina (57%, n=7), Kentucky (55%, n=74), Florida (44%, n=45), and Kansas (27%, n=41) compared with Georgia (9%, n=159), North Dakota (2.4%, n=124), Ohio (0%, n=19), West Virginia (0%, n=37), California (0%, n=26), and Colorado (0%, n=67). In addition to bobcats, seven cougars (Puma concolor) from Georgia, Louisiana, and North Dakota and one serval (Leptailurus serval) from Louisiana were tested for C. felis. Only one cougar from Louisiana was PCR positive, which represents the first

  6. The recent prevalence of Osteoporosis and low bone mass in the United States based on bone mineral density at the Femoral Neck or Lumbar Spine

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of our study was to estimate the prevalence of osteoporosis and low bone mass based on bone mineral density (BMD) at the femoral neck and the lumbar spine in adults 50 years and older in the United States (US). We applied prevalence estimates of osteoporosis or low bone mass at the femoral ...

  7. Health point prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus and pulmonary tuberculosis among patients in various parts of Delta State, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jemikalajah, Johnson D.; Okogun, Godwin Ray A.

    2009-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in the study population in Delta State of Nigeria. Two hundred and five patients suspected of HIV and TB were prospectively studied in Kwale, Agbor and Eku in Delta State of Nigeria from February 2006 to February 2008. Human immunodeficiency virus status was determined using World Health Organization systems II, and Zeihl Nelson staining technique was used for TB screening. A health point prevalence rate of 53.2%, was obtained for HIV, 49.3% for TB, and 16.6% for HIV/TB. The population of HIV positive (p=0.890, p=0.011, p=0.006) and TB positive (p=0.135, p=0.0003, p=0.0001) subjects were statistically significant among the suspected subjects while the HIV/TB positive cases were not statistically significant (p=0.987, p=0.685, p=0.731). Our study showed that HIV and PTB infections remains high in parts of Delta State in Nigeria. (author)

  8. Prevalence, correlates, and outcomes of cryptococcal antigen positivity among patients with AIDS, United States, 1986-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenney, Jennie; Bauman, Sean; Neary, Brandon; Detels, Roger; French, Audrey; Margolick, Joseph; Doherty, Brian; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2015-03-15

    Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is one of the most common causes of AIDS-related mortality worldwide, accounting for 33%-63% of all cases of adult meningitis in sub-Saharan Africa and >500 000 deaths annually. In sub-Saharan Africa, the World Health Organization recommends routinely screening AIDS patients with a CD4 count ≤100 cells/µL for cryptococcal infection. In the United States, there are no recommendations for routine screening. We aimed to determine the prevalence of cryptococcal infection and outcomes of those infected among people living with advanced AIDS in the United States, to inform updates in the prevention and management of CM. Using stored sera from participants in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study and the Women's Interagency HIV Study from 1986 to 2012, we screened 1872 specimens with CD4 T-cell counts ≤100 cells/µL for cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) using the CrAg lateral flow assay. The overall prevalence of CrAg positivity within the study population was 2.9% (95% confidence interval, .2%-3.8%). Results from multivariable analysis revealed that a previous diagnosis with CM and a CD4 count ≤50 cells/µL were significantly associated with CrAg positivity. Participants who were CrAg positive had significantly shorter survival (2.8 years) than those who were CrAg negative (3.8 years; P = .03). The prevalence of cryptococcal infection among advanced AIDS patients in the United States was high and above the published cost-effectiveness threshold for routine screening. We recommend routine CrAg screening among human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with a CD4 count ≤100 cells/µL to detect and treat early infection. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Prevalence and factors associated with unintended pregnancy among married women in an urban and rural community, Khartoum state, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majdi Mohammed Sabahelzain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Unintended or unplanned pregnancy has been a distressing reality among females in the reproductive age group particularly in developing countries. The repercussions of such events range from illegal abortions to various health related problems associated with pregnancy in mothers. The current study aimed to determine the prevalence of unintended pregnancy among married women in an urban and rural community in Khartoum state, to determine the associated factors of unintended pregnancy and to verify the reasons behind unintended pregnancy as perceived by the married women in the area. Methodology: It was a community?based; cross sectional study conducted in Riyadh and Alshekh Elfadni areas in Khartoum state. The sample size was calculated as 341. The study population were married women of reproductive age (15?49 years, selected by multistage stratified sampling. Data was collected by a pre?tested questionnaire and analysed by SPSS software. Chi square test was used to test the association between the dependent and independent variables. Level of significance was determined at 95% (P value < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Prevalence of unintended pregnancy was high at 30.2% among the study sample. Significant association (95% CI, p<0.05 was seen between unintended pregnancy and education, household size, parity and use of modern contraceptives methods Conclusion: This study concluded that the prevalence of unintended pregnancy among married women in rural and urban communities in Khartoum state is high. The unintended pregnancy increases as the level of education increases. Women with big household size and high parity are more likely to have experienced unintended pregnancy. The most important reason behind unintended pregnancy is less spacing between one pregnancy and the other.

  10. ANEMIA PREVALANCE AND RELATED FACTORS IN PREGNANT WOMEN ADMITTED TO STATE HOSPITAL

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    Riza Citil

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was performed to determine the prevalance of anemia and related nutrition and other risk factors in pregnant women who admitted to the hospital for prenatal care. Material and Methods: This descriptive and cross-sectional study to receive prenatal care to the hospital admitted 311 women participated. The data on socio-demographic characteristics of pregnant women, pregnancy information and dietary habits using a questionnaire that was collected using face to face interviews. To determine anemia in pregnant women in the hospital laboratory records made during routine pregnancy examination hemoglobin (Hb values were used. Hb values of 0.05. Similarly, pregnancy, abortion and curettage with the numbers there is no significant difference between the prevalance of anemia (p> 0.05. Using iron-multivitamin preparations in pregnant women (32.9% than those using (20.4% were seen significantly more anemia, and anemia among pregnants who drank dark tea was more prevalent than pregnants who drank light tea and the difference was significant (33,9% vs 17,2% (p<0,05. Conclusion: As a conclusion, admitted to the hospital for routine prenatal care, anemia seen in one of every four pregnant women, and not taking iron-multivitamin preparations regularly and consumption of dark tea seemed to be related with gestational anemia. Thus, anemia should be diagnosed earlier in pregnant and iron and vitamin supplements must be started; and women must be informed about the risk factors of anemia by the health stuff. [J Contemp Med 2014; 4(2.000: 76-83

  11. Differences in adolescent e-cigarette and cigarette prevalence in two policy environments: South Korea and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hong-Jun; Dutra, Lauren M; Glantz, Stanton A

    2017-09-05

    In the context of different regulatory environments, different patterns of e-cigarette use have emerged among adolescents worldwide. One example is the United States and South Korea, the latter of which has maintained much more extensive regulation of e-cigarettes. This analysis compares the prevalence of e-cigarette and conventional cigarette use between 2011 and 2015 from the Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey and the U.S. National Youth Tobacco Survey, both nationally representative samples of middle and high school students that use similar questions. E-cigarette prevalence (past 30 day) among Korean adolescents decreased from 4.7% in 2011 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.4-5.0) to 4.0% in 2015; (3.7-4.3) but increased dramatically among U.S. adolescents from 0.9% (0.7-1.2) to 11.2% (9.9-12.7). Cigarette prevalence (past 30 day) decreased in Korea from 12.1% (11.6-12.7) to 7.8% (CI: 7.3-8.3) and in the United States from 11.1% (9.5-12.6) to 6.1% (5.1-7.3). Combined prevalence of cigarette and e-cigarette use (adjusting for dual users) decreased in Korea from 13.2% (12.7-13.8) to 8.5% (8.0-9.1) but increased in the United States from 11.3% (9.7-12.9) to 14.0% (12.4-15.7). In Korea, where e-cigarettes are extensively regulated, adolescent e-cigarette use remained stable at a low level, whereas in the United States, where e-cigarette regulation has been limited, e-cigarette use increased. Combined e-cigarette plus cigarette use declined in Korea whereas it increased in the US. The restrictive policies in Korea likely contributed to lower overall tobacco product use. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Tooth surface loss, prevalence and associated risk factors among 12-14 years school children in Khartoum State, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanhouri, N M; Ziada, H M; Ahmed, G I; Kamis, A H

    2010-12-01

    Investigate Tooth Surface Loss TSL, among 12-14 years school children in Khartoum State, Sudan; evaluate pattern, severity and determine relationship between TSL, dietary habits and socio-economical status. Cross sectional survey among primary public and private schools. Cluster sample of 1,138 12 to 14-year old students from both public and private school. Mild and moderate TSL was measured on buccal, lingual/palatal surfaces of maxillary and mandibular incisors and canines and occlusal, buccal, lingual/palatal surfaces of maxillary and mandibular premolars and molars. Surfaces scored according to criterion described by the National Survey of Child Dental Health. The prevalence of TSL was found to be 74%. Mild and moderate TSL was detected on palatal surfaces of maxillary central incisors followed by occlusal surfaces of mandibular molars. TSL into the pulp was not detected. A high prevalence of 74% was found with mild and moderate TSL with no pulpal involvement. There was an association between consumption of erosive foods and the prevalence of TSL. Socio-economic status and gender did not present significant differences.

  13. Reliability of current estimates of schistosomiasis prevalence in the Rainforest Zone of the state of Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favre, Tereza C; Ximenes, Ricardo A A; Galvão, Aline F; Pereira, Ana Paula B; Wanderlei, Tereza N; Barbosa, Constança S; Pieri, Otávio S

    2006-09-01

    The Program for Schistosomiasis Control within the Unified Health System (PCE-SUS) was implemented by 1999 in the Rainforest Zone or "Zona da Mata" of Pernambuco (ZMP) aiming to carry out biennial stool surveys of whole populations through municipal health organs followed by treatment of the positives through the local units of the Family Health Program (PSF). Yearly reports from the Health Department of Pernambuco State (SES/PE) from 2002 to 2004 on the PCE-SUS surveys were assessed to evaluate whether the current estimates of prevalence in the municipalities of the ZMP are based on reliable samples so as to allow considerations on the real situation of schistosomiasis in that area. The surveys carried out in that period did not follow the major principles underlying sampling design, thus posing problems in both precision and validity of the estimates. Only 12 out of 43 municipalities had minimally reliable estimates: five with moderate prevalence (10-50%) and seven with low prevalence (plan adequate control strategies.

  14. Prevalence of Sarcocystosis in Goats slaughtered at an abattoir in Bangalore, Karnataka state

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    Ananda

    Full Text Available The specieswise prevalence of sarcocystosis in goat was recorded as 72.24 and 21.12 percent for S.capracanis and S.hircicanis species, respectively at an abatoir in Banglore. The mixed infections with both species were observed in 14.08 percent of the animals. The organ wise prevalence was found to be of 69.45, 36.10, 62.50, and 12.5 percent in oesophagus, heart, diaphragm and tongue, respectively. Morphologically both S.capracanis and S.hircicanis were microscopic, elongated, spindle-shaped and both ends were tapering. The sarcocysts of S.capracanis measured 898 to 1009 mm in length and 52 to 168 mm in width with an average of 540±50 mm and 72.5±13 mm. Where as the sarcocyst of S.hircicanis measured 760 to 1600 mm in length and 65 to 180 mm in width with average measurements of 980±10 mm and 110±3.5 mm. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(11.000: 335-337

  15. Racial/ethnic disparities in the prevalence and awareness of Hepatitis B virus infection and immunity in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H S; Rotundo, L; Yang, J D; Kim, D; Kothari, N; Feurdean, M; Ruhl, C; Unalp-Arida, A

    2017-11-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in the United States is the most common among Asians followed by non-Hispanic blacks. However, there have been few studies that describe HBV infection and immunity by racial group. Our study aimed to assess racial/ethnic disparities in the prevalence and awareness of HBV infection and immunity using nationally representative data. In the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2014, 14 722 persons had HBV serology testing. We estimated the prevalence of HBV infection, past exposure, and immunity by selected characteristics and calculated adjusted odds ratios using survey-weighted generalized logistic regression. Awareness of infection and vaccination history was also investigated. The overall prevalence of chronic HBV infection, past exposure and vaccine-induced immunity was 0.34% [95%CI 0.24-0.43], 4.30% [95%CI 3.80-4.81], and 24.4% [95%CI 23.4-25.4], respectively. The prevalence of chronic infection was 2.74% [95% CI 1.72-3.76] in Asians, 0.64% [95% CI 0.35-0.92] in non-Hispanic blacks, and 0.15% [95% CI 0.06-0.24] in non-Asian, non-blacks. Only 26.2% of those with chronic infection were aware of their infection. The prevalence of the past exposure was 21.5% [95%CI 19.3-23.7] in Asians, 8.92% [95%CI 7.84-9.99] in non-Hispanic blacks, 2.05% [95%CI 1.49-2.63] in non-Hispanic whites and 4.47% [95%CI 3.25-5.70] in Hispanics. Prevalence of vaccine-induced immunity by each race was 34.1% [95%CI: 32.0-36.2] in Asians, 25.5% [95%CI: 24.0-27.0] in non-Hispanic blacks, 24.0% [95%CI: 22.6-25.4] in non-Hispanic whites and 22.2% [95%CI: 21.3-23.3] in Hispanics. There are considerable racial/ethnic disparities in HBV infection, exposure and immunity. More active and sophisticated healthcare policies on HBV management may be warranted. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. A preliminary study of multilevel geographic distribution & prevalence of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in the state of Goa, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadev, P V M; Fulmali, P V; Mishra, A C

    2004-09-01

    Dengue virus activity has never been reported in the state of Goa. The present study was carried out to document a multilevel geographic distribution, prevalence and preliminary analysis of risk factors for the invasions of Aedes aegypti in Goa. A geographic information system (GIS) based Ae. aegypti surveys were conducted in dry (April 2002) and wet (July 2002) seasons in the rural and urban settlements. The random walk method was used for household coverage. The non-residential area visits included ancillaries of roadways, railways, air-and seaports. Simultaneous adult mosquito collections and one-larva per container technique were adopted. The Ae. aegypti larval and adult prevalence was noted in all the four urban areas in both dry (Density index (DI)= 3 to 6) and wet (DI= 5 to 7) seasons and only one out of 3 villages showed Ae aegypti presence in wet season (DI= 5 to 7). In the residential areas, hutments showed higher relative prevalence indices (Breteau index, BI=100; container index, CI=11.95; adult house index, AHI=13.33) followed by close set cement houses (BI=44.1; CI=12.0; AHI=11.24). Ae aegypti relative prevalence indices were also more for households with pets (BI=85.11; CI=12.5; AHI= 42.85); those with tap had higher risk (larval house index, LHI =32.03; relative risk, RR>2, n=256). Plastic drum was the most preferred breeding place (chi(2) = 19.81; Ptyres (chi(2) = 11.86; Ptyres, and transport tyres in non-residential areas.

  17. Prevalence and Risk of Inappropriate Sexual Behavior of Patients Toward Physical Therapist Clinicians and Students in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissonnault, Jill S; Cambier, Ziádee; Hetzel, Scott J; Plack, Margaret M

    2017-11-01

    For health care providers in the United States, the risk for nonfatal violence in the workplace is 16 times greater than that for other workers. Inappropriate patient sexual behavior (IPSB) is directed at clinicians, staff, or other patients and may include leering, sexual remarks, deliberate touching, indecent exposure, and sexual assault. Inappropriate patient sexual behavior may adversely affect clinicians, the organization, or patients themselves. Few IPSB risk factors for physical therapists have been confirmed. The US prevalence was last assessed in the 1990s. The objectives of this study were to determine career and 12-month exposure to IPSB among US physical therapists, physical therapist assistants, physical therapist students, and physical therapist assistant students and to identify IPSB risk factors. This was a retrospective and observational study. An electronic survey was developed; content validity and test-retest reliability were established. Participants were recruited through physical therapist and physical therapist assistant academic programs and sections of the American Physical Therapy Association. Inappropriate patient sexual behavior risk models were constructed individually for any, mild, moderate, and severe IPSB events reported over the past 12 months. Open-ended comments were analyzed using qualitative methods. Eight hundred ninety-two physical therapist professionals and students completed the survey. The career prevalence among respondents was 84%, and the 12-month prevalence was 47%. Statistical risk modeling for any IPSB over the past 12 months indicated the following risks: having fewer years of direct patient care, routinely working with patients with cognitive impairments, being a female practitioner, and treating male patients. Qualitative analysis of 187 open-ended comments revealed patient-related characteristics, provider-related characteristics, and abusive actions. Self-report, clinician memory, and convenience sampling are

  18. Antipathetic relationships among adolescents : Exploring prevalence, gender differences, and stability in the United States and Chile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berger, Christian; Rodkin, Philip C.; Dijkstra, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The present study approaches antipathetic relationships among adolescents in two distinct cultural contexts: Chile and United States. Antipathetic relationships have been shown to be common among adolescents; however, little is known about patterns of antipathy in this population, and its

  19. Prevalence of exertional rhabdomyolysis in endurance horses in the Pacific Northwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilberger, M S; McKenzie, E C; Payton, M E; Rigas, J D; Valberg, S J

    2015-03-01

    Exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER) is a reported syndrome in competing endurance horses; however, the prevalence and cause of ER in this population have not been defined. To determine the prevalence of ER in a sample of endurance racing horses and investigate factors, including relevant genetic defects, contributing to the occurrence of rhabdomyolysis in this group. Prospective clinical study. Riders of 101 horses participating in one of four 50-mile (80.5 km) distance races completed a comprehensive questionnaire regarding the medical history, management and performance of their horse. Serum creatine kinase activity (CK) was measured before and 4 h after completion of exercise. Hair samples were analysed by PCR for the R309H mutation in the glycogen synthase gene (GYS1) responsible for type 1 polysaccharide storage myopathy (PSSM) and the C7360G mutation in the ryanodine receptor 1 (RYR1) gene causing malignant hyperthermia (MH). Samples were obtained from 68 Arabians, 20 half-Arabians and 13 horses of other breeds. Serum CK was above the resting reference interval (145-633 u/l) in 38 horses after racing (median 883 u/l, range 658-3739) but was compatible with values previously reported in apparently healthy endurance horses. Pathological ER was suspected to occur in 4 horses with serum CK activities exceeding 10,000 u/l 4 h after racing (median 84,825 u/l; range 10,846-381,790) including 3 Arabians and one half-Arabian horse. GYS1 and RYR1 mutations were not present in hair samples from any horses. Exertional rhabdomyolysis occurred at a prevalence of 4.0% in a sample of horses participating in 50 mile distance events and all affected horses were Arabian or half-Arabian. The cause of ER in the endurance horse population remains unknown; however, ER in competing Arabian endurance horses is unlikely to be due to type 1 PSSM or MH. © 2014 EVJ Ltd.

  20. Serological prevalence of leptospirosis in cattle slaughtered in the Zango abattoir in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria

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    Emmanuel O. Ngbede

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is an occupational zoonosis caused by pathogenic leptospires. In this study, the presence and prevalence of antibodies specific to Leptospira spp. serovar Hardjo in 142 cattle slaughtered between June and July 2011 was investigated using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Five (3.50% of the 142 cattle sampled were seropositive for antibodies to Leptospira spp. serovar Hardjo. Despite the fact that there was no significant difference (p>0.05 in seropositivity between sexes and between breeds sampled, there was a significant difference (p<0.05 in sero-positivity between the different age groups examined. Leptospirosis is present in cattle slaughtered in the Zango abattoir; butchers and abattoir workers are exposed to infected animals and are at risk of being infected by Leptospira spp. serovar Hardjo.

  1. Inside the nation’s largest mental health institution: a prevalence study in a state prison system

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    Tala Al-Rousan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The United States has the highest incarceration rate in the world which has created a public health crisis. Correctional facilities have become a front line for mental health care. Public health research in this setting could inform criminal justice reform. We determined prevalence rates for mental illnesses and related comorbidities among all inmates in a state prison system. Methods Cross-sectional study using the Iowa Corrections Offender Network which contains health records of all inmates in Iowa. The point prevalence of both ICD-9 and DSM-IV codes for mental illnesses, timing of diagnosis and interval between incarceration and mental illness diagnosis were determined. Results The average inmate (N = 8574 age was 36.7 ± 12.4 years; 17% were ≥50 years. The majority of inmates were men (91% and white (65%.Obesity was prevalent in 38% of inmates, and 51% had a history of smoking. Almost half of inmates were diagnosed with a mental illness (48%, of whom, 29% had a serious mental illness (41% of all females and 27% of all males, and 26% had a history of a substance use disorder. Females had higher odds of having both a mental illness and substance use disorder. Almost all mental illness diagnoses were first made during incarceration (99%. The mean interval to diagnosis of depression, anxiety, PTSD and personality disorders were 26, 24, 21 and 29 months respectively. Almost 90% of mental illnesses were recognized by the 6th year of incarceration. The mean interval from incarceration to first diagnosis (recognition of a substance abuse history was 11 months. Conclusions There is a substantial burden of mental illness among inmates. Racial, age and gender disparities in mental health care are coupled with a general delay in diagnosis and treatment. A large part of understanding the mental health problem in this country starts at prisons.

  2. Prevalence of overweight misperception and weight control behaviors among normal weight adolescents in the United States

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    Kathleen S. Talamayan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Weight perceptions and weight control behaviors have been documented with underweight and overweight adolescents, yet limited information is available on normal weight adolescents. This study investigates the prevalence of overweight misperceptions and weight control behaviors among normal weight adolescents in the U.S. by sociodemographic and geographic characteristics. We examined data from the 2003 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS. A total of 9,714 normal weight U.S. high school students were included in this study. Outcome measures included self-reported height and weight measurements, overweight misperceptions, and weight control behaviors. Weighted prevalence estimates and odds ratios were computed. There were 16.2% of normal weight students who perceived themselves as overweight. Females (25.3% were more likely to perceive themselves as overweight than males (6.7% (p < 0.05. Misperceptions of overweight were highest among white (18.3% and Hispanic students (15.2% and lowest among black students (5.8%. Females (16.8% outnumbered males (6.8% in practicing at least one unhealthy weight control behavior (use of diet pills, laxatives, and fasting in the past 30 days. The percentage of students who practiced at least one weight control behavior was similar by ethnicity. There were no significant differences in overweight misperception and weight control behaviors by grade level, geographic region, or metropolitan status. A significant portion of normal weight adolescents misperceive themselves as overweight and are engaging in unhealthy weight control behaviors. These data suggest that obesity prevention programs should address weight misperceptions and the harmful effects of unhealthy weight control methods even among normal weight adolescents.

  3. Prevalence of endoparasites in dogs in the region of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais State

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    Paulo Roberto de Oliveira

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Durante o período de 1981 a 1986 estudou-se em cães, examinados clinicamente no Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, a prevalência de parasitos gastrintestinais. Foram atendidos 11.563 c.es de ambos os sexos, de diferentes raças e idades, dos quais 2.447 apresentaram diagnóstico coproparasitológico positivo (21,16%; destes, 1.672 com infecções simples (68,32% e 755 com infecções múltiplas (30,85%. A prevalência de infecções simples foi a seguinte: Ancylostoma spp (61,15%; Toxocara spp (24,45%; Dipylidium spp (8,28%; Isospora spp (4,62%; Trichuris spp (1,22%; Taenia spp (0,22% e Spirocerca spp (0,06%. Atenção especial foi dada aos parasitos Ancylostoma spp e Toxocara spp, responsáveis por zoonoses, cuja incidência, a partir de 1984, vem diminuindo ano a ano, e que apresentaram tendência decrescente. Em relação à faixa etária, foram encontrados 28,2% dos c.es parasitados entre 0 e 3 meses; 36,33% entre 4 e 12 meses; 18,23% entre 13 e 24 meses. Os resultados demonstraram que animais jovens de até um ano de idade foram os mais parasitados.

  4. Prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes in 15 states of India: results from the ICMR-INDIAB population-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Deepa, Mohan; Pradeepa, Rajendra; Mahanta, Jagadish; Narain, Kanwar; Das, Hiranya Kumar; Adhikari, Prabha; Rao, Paturi Vishnupriya; Saboo, Banshi; Kumar, Ajay; Bhansali, Anil; John, Mary; Luaia, Rosang; Reang, Taranga; Ningombam, Somorjit; Jampa, Lobsang; Budnah, Richard O; Elangovan, Nirmal; Subashini, Radhakrishnan; Venkatesan, Ulagamathesan; Unnikrishnan, Ranjit; Das, Ashok Kumar; Madhu, Sri Venkata; Ali, Mohammed K; Pandey, Arvind; Dhaliwal, Rupinder Singh; Kaur, Tanvir; Swaminathan, Soumya; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2017-08-01

    Previous studies have not adequately captured the heterogeneous nature of the diabetes epidemic in India. The aim of the ongoing national Indian Council of Medical Research-INdia DIABetes study is to estimate the national prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes in India by estimating the prevalence by state. We used a stratified multistage design to obtain a community-based sample of 57 117 individuals aged 20 years or older. The sample population represented 14 of India's 28 states (eight from the mainland and six from the northeast of the country) and one union territory. States were sampled in a phased manner: phase I included Tamil Nadu, Chandigarh, Jharkhand, and Maharashtra, sampled between Nov 17, 2008, and April 16, 2010; phase II included Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Karnataka, and Punjab, sampled between Sept 24, 2012, and July 26, 2013; and the northeastern phase included Assam, Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh, Tripura, Manipur, and Meghalaya, with sampling done between Jan 5, 2012, and July 3, 2015. Capillary oral glucose tolerance tests were used to diagnose diabetes and prediabetes in accordance with WHO criteria. Our methods did not allow us to differentiate between type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The prevalence of diabetes in different states was assessed in relation to socioeconomic status (SES) of individuals and the per-capita gross domestic product (GDP) of each state. We used multiple logistic regression analysis to examine the association of various factors with the prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes. The overall prevalence of diabetes in all 15 states of India was 7·3% (95% CI 7·0-7·5). The prevalence of diabetes varied from 4·3% in Bihar (95% CI 3·7-5·0) to 10·0% (8·7-11·2) in Punjab and was higher in urban areas (11·2%, 10·6-11·8) than in rural areas (5·2%, 4·9-5·4; p<0·0001) and higher in mainland states (8·3%, 7·9-8·7) than in the northeast (5·9%, 5·5-6·2; p<0·0001). Overall, 1862 (47·3%) of 3938 individuals

  5. Reasons for Electronic Cigarette Use Among Middle and High School Students - National Youth Tobacco Survey, United States, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, James; Walton, Kimp; Coleman, Blair N; Sharapova, Saida R; Johnson, Sarah E; Kennedy, Sara M; Caraballo, Ralph S

    2018-02-16

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) were the most commonly used tobacco product among U.S. middle school and high school students in 2016 (1). CDC and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) analyzed data from the 2016 National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS) to assess self-reported reasons for e-cigarette use among U.S. middle school (grades 6-8) and high school (grades 9-12) student e-cigarette users. Among students who reported ever using e-cigarettes in 2016, the most commonly selected reasons for use were 1) use by "friend or family member" (39.0%); 2) availability of "flavors such as mint, candy, fruit, or chocolate" (31.0%); and 3) the belief that "they are less harmful than other forms of tobacco such as cigarettes" (17.1%). The least commonly selected reasons were 1) "they are easier to get than other tobacco products, such as cigarettes" (4.8%); 2) "they cost less than other tobacco products such as cigarettes" (3.2%); and 3) "famous people on TV or in movies use them" (1.5%). Availability of flavors as a reason for use was more commonly selected by high school users (32.3%) than by middle school users (26.8%). Efforts to prevent middle school and high school students from initiating the use of any tobacco product, including e-cigarettes, are important to reduce tobacco product use among U.S. youths (2).

  6. Risk factors for prevalent hepatitis C virus-infection among inmates in a state prison system in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosqueda-Gomez, Juan L.; Macias-Hernandez, Alejando; Sierra-Madero, Juan G.; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Beyrer, Chris

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence of HCV-infection and identify associated factors among inmates in the State Prison System of Guanajuato in Mexico (Sep-2011 to Feb-2012). Methods Cross-sectional, observational study in 10 prisons in the State of Guanajuato in Mexico (2011–2012). We offered HCV-testing and applied audio computer-assisted self-interviews to all adults imprisoned in the State Prison System. We used a complex survey analysis to estimate the distribution of variables and its corresponding 95% confidence intervals, taking into consideration the expected cluster effect by common characteristics within prisons. Inverse probability weights were applied to correct potential biased estimates arising from non-participation in accrual activities and non-response rates. We fitted multivariate logistic regression models to identify risk-behaviors associated to HCV-infection. Results We included data of 2,519 participating inmates. Prevalence of HCV-infection was 4.9 (95%CI = 3.6–5.9). Most HCV-infected inmates were male (99%). Before being incarcerated, inmates with HCV-infection were more frequently tattooed, used and injected drugs more frequently, and were more likely to share materials for injecting, when compared with those non-infected. During incarceration, HCV-infected inmates got tattoos and used drugs more often than non-infected, including injecting-drugs and sharing materials. Injecting-drug use (OR = 7.6, 95%CI, 2.5–23.4), sharing materials for injecting-drugs (OR = 19.6, 95%CI, 4.7–81.7) and being tattooed at least once before incarceration (OR = 2.1, 95%CI, 1.1–3.9), but not during incarceration, were independently associated to HCV-infection. Conclusions The prevalence of HCV-infection among inmates in the State of Guanajuato in Mexico is considerably higher than in the general population. The most important risk factors for HCV in this inmate population were injecting-drugs and sharing materials for injections before incarceration

  7. Risk factors for prevalent hepatitis C virus-infection among inmates in a state prison system in Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo F Belaunzarán-Zamudio

    Full Text Available To estimate the prevalence of HCV-infection and identify associated factors among inmates in the State Prison System of Guanajuato in Mexico (Sep-2011 to Feb-2012.Cross-sectional, observational study in 10 prisons in the State of Guanajuato in Mexico (2011-2012. We offered HCV-testing and applied audio computer-assisted self-interviews to all adults imprisoned in the State Prison System. We used a complex survey analysis to estimate the distribution of variables and its corresponding 95% confidence intervals, taking into consideration the expected cluster effect by common characteristics within prisons. Inverse probability weights were applied to correct potential biased estimates arising from non-participation in accrual activities and non-response rates. We fitted multivariate logistic regression models to identify risk-behaviors associated to HCV-infection.We included data of 2,519 participating inmates. Prevalence of HCV-infection was 4.9 (95%CI = 3.6-5.9. Most HCV-infected inmates were male (99%. Before being incarcerated, inmates with HCV-infection were more frequently tattooed, used and injected drugs more frequently, and were more likely to share materials for injecting, when compared with those non-infected. During incarceration, HCV-infected inmates got tattoos and used drugs more often than non-infected, including injecting-drugs and sharing materials. Injecting-drug use (OR = 7.6, 95%CI, 2.5-23.4, sharing materials for injecting-drugs (OR = 19.6, 95%CI, 4.7-81.7 and being tattooed at least once before incarceration (OR = 2.1, 95%CI, 1.1-3.9, but not during incarceration, were independently associated to HCV-infection.The prevalence of HCV-infection among inmates in the State of Guanajuato in Mexico is considerably higher than in the general population. The most important risk factors for HCV in this inmate population were injecting-drugs and sharing materials for injections before incarceration. High-risk behaviors during

  8. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Enterococci Isolated from Retail Meats in the United States, 2002 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Gregory H; Nyirabahizi, Epiphanie; Crarey, Emily; Kabera, Claudine; Lam, Claudia; Rice-Trujillo, Crystal; McDermott, Patrick F; Tate, Heather

    2018-01-01

    contaminated with enterococci. We also assessed the resistance of the Enterococcus strains, commonly used as a measure of resistance to agents with Gram-positive activity, in foods. Resistance prevalence was over 25% for some antimicrobials and sample sources but was less than 1% for several of the most important therapeutic agents used in human medicine. This is a work of the U.S. Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. Foreign copyrights may apply.

  9. Prevalence, Causes and Effects of Bullying in Tertiary Institutions in Cross River State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ada, Mary Juliana; Okoli, Georgina; Obeten, Okoi Okorn; Akeke, M. N. G.

    2016-01-01

    This research is an evaluation of the impact of causes, consequences and effects of bullying in academic setting on student academic performance in tertiary institutions in Cross River State, Nigeria. The research made use of purposive and random sampling techniques made up of 302 students. Questionnaire served as the data collection instrument.…

  10. High prevalance of Toxoplasma Gondii antibodies in domestic pigs in Oaxaca State, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigs are important in the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in North America. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in 525 domestic pigs (337 backyard raised, 188 farm raised) in Oaxaca state, Mexico was determined using the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut off 1:25). Antibodies to T. gondi...

  11. Prevalence, population dynamics and host preferences of Culicoides spp. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae of livestock in Marathwada region of Maharashtra State

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    B. W. Narladkar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study is a part of a research project on integrated pest management of livestock pests with reference to Culicoides spp. Study of prevalence, population dynamics and host preferences are the important benchmarks essential for chalking out the strategies of integrated pest management of Culicoides, thus the study was aimed. Materials and Methods: Light trap collections of Culicoides midges and other tiny flies from animal shed from seventeen centers representing entire Maharashtra state were conducted. Similarly, year round collections from host sheds were envisaged to work out host preferences and population dynamics of Culicoides spp. locally prevalent. Multiple regression analysis was employed to define the environmental predictors responsible for ups and downs during different seasons occurring in the geographic region of the present study. Results: Study revealed the prevalence of Culicoides spp., Phlebotomus spp. and Simulium spp. Simultaneous study undertaken by the aid of hand net, collections of fly species from Marathwada region of Maharashtra state yielded additionally, Tabanus spp., Pangonia spp., mosquitoes and other cyclorrhaphan flies. Some of the species are vectors of livestock diseases hence map of the distribution of these pest species is for to reckon risk areas. Population dynamics study on Culicoides spp. in Marathwada region indicated that, (a Culicoides population were persistent throughout the year; (b Two peaks of population, one in the monsoon (August-September and another minor peak occurred during post monsoon/beginning of winter (November of the year. Drastic reduction in the population occurred during the month of May, which is the hottest month in the year. Culicoides collections from the sheds of different host species indicated the preferences for feeding in the ascending order of preference as cattle, sheep, buffaloes and then goats. Conclusion: Prevalence of Culicoides schultzei, Culicoides

  12. The prevalence of torture and associated symptoms in United States Iraqi refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, Cynthia L; Rabin, Mara; Lawless, Martha

    2014-12-01

    Iraqi refugees face difficulties resettling in the US, which may be partially due to high rates of torture. This study determines the rates of torture experience, primary and secondary, among Iraqi refugees in the US; and the association to physical and mental health symptoms on arrival. A retrospective review was conducted in 2011 on the post-arrival health screens of Iraqi refugees resettled in Utah in 2008 and 2009. Measures included reports of torture experience as defined by the United Nations; reports of physical and mental health symptoms at the time of screening; and association of torture to the presence of symptoms on arrival. The study included the health screens of 497 (97%) of eligible Iraqi refugees. Most experienced torture (56%) before arrival in the US Logistic regression revealed that torture was the most significant predictor of mental illness symptoms. Iraqi refugees in the US have a high prevalence of torture, and torture is associated with the presence of both mental and physical symptoms on the post-arrival health screen. This information is critical to the development of successful resettlement strategies for Iraqi refugees.

  13. Market Impacts of Reducing the Prevalence of Bovine Respiratory Disease in United States Beef Cattle Feedlots

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    Kamina Keiko Johnson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Bovine respiratory disease (BRD is a common endemic disease among North American feedlot cattle. BRD can lead to significant economic losses for individual beef cattle feedlot producers through mortality and morbidity. With promising new management and technology research that could reduce BRD prevalence, this study evaluates the potential impacts of a reduction of BRD in the US beef cattle feedlot sector. Using a multi-market, multi-commodity partial equilibrium economic model of the US agricultural industry, we evaluate the market impacts of reduced BRD to producers from various livestock, meat, and feedstuffs industries. We find that as morbidity and mortality is reduced, beef cattle producers experience losses due to increased supplies (lower beef cattle prices and increased demand for feedstuff (higher feedstuff prices. Beef cattle processors see gains as the price of beef cattle is lower, whereas feedstuff producers gain from higher feedstuff prices. Producers in the allied industries (pork, lamb, poultry, and eggs see a small reduction in returns as consumers substitute with less expensive beef products. Consumers see gains in welfare as the increase in beef cattle supply results in lower beef prices. These lower beef prices more than offset the small increases in pork, lamb, poultry, and egg prices. Overall, the potential economic welfare change due to management and technologies that reduce BRD is a net gain for the US society as a whole.

  14. Prevalence of food insecurity in Egor local government area of Edo State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omuemu, Vivian O; Otasowie, Efosa M; Onyiriuka, Ugochukwu

    2012-01-01

    Food security is access at all times to adequate, safe and nutritious food for healthy and active life. In recent times food insecurity has been a global concern particularly in developing countries. A descriptive, cross-sectional study carried out among households selected by multi-stage sampling method in Egor Local Government Area. The Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) for measurement of food access was used to assess the household food security situation. A total of 416 households were studied. The prevalence of food insecurity was 61.8%. Food insecurity was higher among households with younger heads (P = 0.159), female headed households (P = 0.114) and those with larger households (P = 0.228). Lower education status (P = 0.001) and lower household income (P = 0.001) were the significant factors affecting food insecurity. This study has revealed a very high level of food insecurity among these urban households. An urgent call to all stakeholders for strategies to improve this trend is needed.

  15. Qualitative description of the prevalence and use of anabolic androgenic steroids by United States powerlifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, L A; Wagman, D F

    1999-02-01

    Powerlifters have been suspected to be a population wherein use of anabolic androgenic steroids is prevalent (Yesalis, Herrick, & Buckley, 1988). To access commentary from these athletes on issues related to these drugs and the effectiveness of doping controls, a survey was developed. From 28 U.S. Powerlifting Team members who competed internationally since 1988, 26 were contacted by mail, and 15 questionnaires were returned. The questionnaire solicited yes/no responses and qualitative descriptions about current and previous use of anabolic androgenic steroids in powerlifting. Analysis indicated that ten U.S. Powerlifting Team members admitted to using these drugs, and five athletes admitted to beating the International Olympic Committee's doping control procedures. Reported use of anabolic androgenic steroids by these athletes was consistent with data presented by Yesalis, et al. and illustrated continued discrepancy between admitted use of these drugs prior to or during national and international events and the lack of reported positive test data. Discussion focused on the value of this study to elicit in an athlete's own words commentary specific to the use of anabolic androgenic steroids and the need for more effective doping controls.

  16. Prevalence and predictors of suicidal ideations among school going adolescents in a hilly state of India

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    Durgesh Thakur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescent suicide is an important public health issue. Suicidal ideations are often the precursor of suicide and can be targeted by appropriate and timely interventions. Aims and Objectives: To determine the prevalence of suicide ideation and to study its predictive factors among school going adolescents. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in selected senior secondary schools in Shimla district of Himachal Pradesh, India. A pre-validated, self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were applied using Epi info software for windows (CDC Atlanta software for windows. Results: A total of 218 study subjects (30.9%; confidence interval = 27.6–34.5% had suicide ideation. Discussing problems with parents (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =0.5, having good relations with school teachers (AOR = 0.6 and helpful classmates (AOR = 0.6 lowered the odds of having suicidal ideations. On the contrary, adolescents having worrying issues in family (AOR = 2.5, verbally or physically abused (AOR = 2.8 and body image conscious (AOR = 1.8 had increased odds of suicidal ideations. Conclusions: Suicidal ideation is a common experience among adolescents residing in Shimla district of North India. The supportive environment at home and in school decrease its vulnerability.

  17. Prevalence and risk factors associated with Dirofilaria immitis infection in dogs in Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria

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    Christopher Igoche Ogbaje

    2016-12-01

    Results: Out of the 186 dogs, 4 (2.15% were found to be positive for the presence of microfilaria. Out of the 4 positive cases, 3 (1.61% were microfilaria and 1 (0.54% was unidentified motile parasite. A total of 104 females were examined and only 1 (0.96% was positive, while 3 (3.66% males out of 82 examined were positive. Out of 141 older dogs examined, 4 (2.84% were positive. Hematology of the positive dogs revealed mild anemia and moderate thrombocytopenia with Mean+/-SD of 34.8+/-15.30% and 108+/-60.81x109/L, respectively. Conclusion: The study confirms Knott's technique to be the most sensitive in the diagnosis of dirofilariasis in dogs using parasitological techniques. The findings confirm the occurrence of D. immitis in dogs in Makurdi with low prevalence and that the general public are at high risk of spreading infection from the dogs. Infection is more in male and adult dogs. This work can assist in planning appropriate strategies for controlling and prevention of D. immitis infection in Nigeria. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(4.000: 338-344

  18. Prevalence and risk factors for Leptospira spp. in cattle herds in the south central region of Paraná state

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    Vanessa Y Hashimoto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies and the risk factors for Leptospira spp. infection in breeding cattle herds in the south central region of Paraná state. It was based on the statistic delineation/serological samples and information regarding the selected farms employed in the study of bovine brucellosis for Paraná state in the context of National Program for Control and Eradication of Brucellosis and Tuberculosis. A total of 1.880 females aged >24 months from 274 non vaccinated herds were studied. Serum samples were tested for antibodies against Leptospira spp. using microscopic agglutination test (MAT with 22 Leptospira serovars. The epidemiological questionnaire was applied on all the selected farms and aimed to obtain epidemiological data. Hundred eighty one of 274 herds were positive for Leptospira spp./presenting prevalence of positive herds of 66.06% (IC95%=60.12-71,65%. Presence of >43 cattle (OR=3.120; IC=1.418-6.867/animal purchase (OR=2.010; IC=1.154-3.500/rent of pastures (OR=2.925; IC=1.060-8.068 and presence of maternity paddock (OR=1.981; IC=1,068-3,676 were identified as risk factors for leptospirosis due to any serovar in the multivariate logistic regression. Risk factors for leptospirosis due to serovar Hardjo were presence of >43 cattle (OR=3.622; IC=1.512-8,677/animal purchase (OR=3.143; IC=1.557-6.342/rent of pastures (OR=4.070; IC=1.370-12.087 and presence of horses (OR=2.981; IC=1.321-6.726. These results indicate that Leptospira spp. infection is widespread in the south central region of Paraná state and that factors related to the herd characteristic and management are associated with the infection.

  19. Prevalence of bluetongue virus infection and associated risk factors among cattle in North Kordufan State, Western Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Ibrahim A; Abdalla, Mohamed A; Mohamed, Mohamed E H; Aradaib, Imadeldin E

    2014-04-24

    Bluetongue virus causes febrile disease in sheep and a fatal hemorrhagic infection in North American White-tailed deer. However, in cattle the disease is typically asymptomatic and no clinical overt disease is associated with bluetongue infection. Bluetongue virus activity has been detected in Khartoum, Sennar and South Darfur states of the Sudan. Currently, no information is available in regard to previous exposure of livestock to Bluetongue virus in North Kordufan State, the largest livestock producing region in the country. The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of bluetongue antibodies and to identify the potential risk factors associated with the presence of bluetongue antibodies among cattle in North Kordufan State, Sudan. A total of 299 bovine blood samples were collected randomly from six localities in North Kordufan State and were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of BTV-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies. The serological evidence of Bluetongue virus infection was observed in 58 out of 299 cows, accounting for a 19.4% prevalence rate among cattle in North Kordufan State. Older cattle (>2 years of age) had four times the odds to be infected with BTV compared to young cattle (OR = 4.309, CI = 1.941-9.567, p-value = 0.01). Application of preventive measures, such as spraying or dipping with insecticide protects cattle against Bluetongue infection. Application of vector control measures decreased the odds for bluetongue seropositivity by 7 times (OR = 7.408, CI = 3.111-17.637, p-value = 0.01). The results of this study indicated that age and application of routine insecticides are influential risk factors for seroprevalence of Bluetongue in cattle. Surveillance of Bluetongue virus should be extended to include other susceptible animals and to study the distribution of the insect vectors in the region to better predict and respond to BTV outbreak in the State of North Kordufan

  20. Prevalence of circumcision among men and boys aged 14 to 59 years in the United States, National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2005-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introcaso, Camille E; Xu, Fujie; Kilmarx, Peter H; Zaidi, Akbar; Markowitz, Lauri E

    2013-07-01

    In 2009, an estimated 3590 new heterosexually acquired HIV infections occurred in males in the United States. Three randomized controlled trials demonstrated that male circumcision decreased a man's risk for HIV acquisition through heterosexual sex. We describe circumcision prevalence in US males and determine circumcision prevalence among males potentially at increased risk for heterosexually acquired HIV infection. We estimated circumcision prevalence among men and boys aged 14 to 59 years using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2005-2010. We defined men and boys with 2 or more female partners in the last year as potentially at increased risk for heterosexually acquired HIV infection. Estimated circumcision prevalence was 80.5%. Prevalence varied significantly by year of birth, race/ethnicity, health insurance type, and family income. Circumcision prevalence among men and boys reporting 2 or more female partners in the last year was 80.4%, which corresponded to an estimated 3.5 million uncircumcised men and boys potentially at increased risk for heterosexually acquired HIV infection. Of these men and boys, 48.3% lacked health insurance. Circumcision prevalence in the United States differs by demographic group, and half of uncircumcised men and boys potentially at increased risk for heterosexually acquired HIV are uninsured. These data could inform recommendations and cost analyses concerning circumcision in the United States.

  1. Prevalence of institutional delivery and associated factors in Dodota Woreda (district, Oromia regional state, Ethiopia

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    Fikre Addis Alem

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Giving birth in a medical institution under the care and supervision of trained health-care providers promotes child survival and reduces the risk of maternal mortality. According to Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS 2005 and 2011, the proportion of women utilizing safe delivery service in the country in general and in Oromia region in particular is very low. About 30% of the eligible mothers received Ante Natal Care (ANC service and only 8% of the mothers sought care for delivery in the region. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of institutional delivery and understand the factors associated with institutional delivery in Dodota, Woreda, Oromia Region. Methods A community based cross sectional study that employed both quantitative and a supplementary qualitative method was conducted from Jan 10–30, 2011 in Dodota Woreda. Multi stage sampling method was used in selection of study participants and total of 506 women who gave birth in the last two years were interviewed. Qualitative data was collected through focus group discussions (FGDs. Data was entered and analyzed using EPI info 3.5.1 and SPSS version 16.0. Frequencies, binary and multiple logistic regression analysis were done, OR and 95% confidence interval were calculated. Results Only 18.2% of the mothers gave birth to their last baby in health facilities. Urban residence, educational level of mothers, pregnancy related health problems, previous history of prolonged labour, and decision made by husbands or relatives showed significant positive association with utilization of institutional delivery services (P  Conclusion Institutional Delivery is low. Increasing accessibility of the delivery services and educating husbands not only mothers appear very important factors in improving institutional delivery. Health education on the importance of institutional delivery should also address the general population. The quality and content of

  2. Prevalence of burnout among doctors of chiropractic in the northeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Shawn; Zipp, Genevieve P; Cahill, Terrence; Parasher, Raju K

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the prevalence of burnout among doctors of chiropractic (DCs) in the New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania geographical region and compare these results with burnout data from other health care professions. This exploratory study applied cross-sectional data collection methods. Using nonprobability convenience sampling, a New York-New Jersey-Pennsylvania chiropractic governance body provided contact information of a randomized sample of licensed DCs from their membership directory. Participants included any DC licensed to practice chiropractic whose primary occupation encompassed the chiropractic profession. The Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS) and a demographic questionnaire were e-mailed to a randomized sample of licensed DCs. Of the 772 surveys deployed, 90 returned the survey with usable data. Nearly 40% of the DCs reported a moderate (24%) or high (18%) level of emotional exhaustion, whereas the majority of respondents scored a high (72%) level of personal accomplishment. In total, only 2 participants (2%) met the criteria for high burnout, whereas 42 participants (47%) were low. Statistically significant relationships (P chiropractic philosophical perspectives, the public's opinion of chiropractic, and the effect of suffering from a work-related injury. When compared with data from previously published studies using the MBI-HSS for other health professions (ie, medical, nursing, physical therapy, occupational therapy, and dentistry), the values for DCs were significantly lower. The sample of DCs in this study fared more favorably on all 3 dimensions of burnout. They reported lower emotional exhaustion and depersonalization scores and higher personal accomplishment scores than their medical, nursing, physical therapy, occupational therapy, and dentistry colleagues who have been evaluated using the MBI-HSS. However, the levels of emotional exhaustion remain a concern for this professional group

  3. Prevalence of institutional delivery and associated factors in Dodota Woreda (district), Oromia regional state, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikre, Addis Alem; Demissie, Meaza

    2012-12-15

    Giving birth in a medical institution under the care and supervision of trained health-care providers promotes child survival and reduces the risk of maternal mortality. According to Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) 2005 and 2011, the proportion of women utilizing safe delivery service in the country in general and in Oromia region in particular is very low. About 30% of the eligible mothers received Ante Natal Care (ANC) service and only 8% of the mothers sought care for delivery in the region. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of institutional delivery and understand the factors associated with institutional delivery in Dodota, Woreda, Oromia Region. A community based cross sectional study that employed both quantitative and a supplementary qualitative method was conducted from Jan 10-30, 2011 in Dodota Woreda. Multi stage sampling method was used in selection of study participants and total of 506 women who gave birth in the last two years were interviewed. Qualitative data was collected through focus group discussions (FGDs). Data was entered and analyzed using EPI info 3.5.1 and SPSS version 16.0. Frequencies, binary and multiple logistic regression analysis were done, OR and 95% confidence interval were calculated. Only 18.2% of the mothers gave birth to their last baby in health facilities. Urban residence, educational level of mothers, pregnancy related health problems, previous history of prolonged labour, and decision made by husbands or relatives showed significant positive association with utilization of institutional delivery services (P Delivery is low. Increasing accessibility of the delivery services and educating husbands not only mothers appear very important factors in improving institutional delivery. Health education on the importance of institutional delivery should also address the general population. The quality and content of the ANC services need to be investigated.

  4. Tobacco use prevalence, knowledge, and attitudes among newly diagnosed tuberculosis patients in Penang State and Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awaisu, Ahmed; Nik Mohamed, Mohamad Haniki; Abd Aziz, Noorizan; Syed Sulaiman, Syed Azhar; Mohamad Noordin, Noorliza; Muttalif, Abdul Razak; Ahmad Mahayiddin, Aziah

    2010-01-12

    There is sufficient evidence to conclude that tobacco smoking is strongly linked to tuberculosis (TB) and a large proportion of TB patients may be active smokers. In addition, a previous analysis has suggested that a considerable proportion of the global burden of TB may be attributable to smoking. However, there is paucity of information on the prevalence of tobacco smoking among TB patients in Malaysia. Moreover, the tobacco-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of TB patients who are smokers have not been previously explored. This study aimed to document the prevalence of smoking among newly diagnosed TB patients and to learn about the tobacco use knowledge and attitudes of those who are smokers among this population. Data were generated on prevalence rates of smoking among newly diagnosed TB patients in the State of Penang from January 2008 to December 2008. The data were obtained based on a review of routinely collated data from the quarterly report on TB case registration. The study setting comprised of five healthcare facilities (TB clinics) located within Penang and Wilayah Persekutuan, Kuala Lumpur health districts in Malaysia, which were involved in a larger project, known as SCIDOTS Project. A 58-item questionnaire was used to assess the tobacco use knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of those TB patients who were smokers. Smoking status was determinant in 817 of 943 new cases of TB from January to December 2008. Of this, it was estimated that the prevalence rates of current- and ex-smoking among the TB patients were 40.27% (329/817) and 13.95% (114/817), respectively. The prevalence of ever-smoking among patients with TB was estimated to be 54,220 per 100,000 population. Of 120 eligible participants for the SCIDOTS Project, 88 responded to the survey (73.3% response rate) and 80 surveys were analyzed (66.7% usable rate). The mean (+/- SD) total score of tobacco use knowledge items was 4.23 +/- 2.66 (maximum possible score=11). More than half of the

  5. Tobacco use prevalence, knowledge, and attitudes among newly diagnosed tuberculosis patients in Penang State and Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

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    Mohamad Noordin Noorliza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is sufficient evidence to conclude that tobacco smoking is strongly linked to tuberculosis (TB and a large proportion of TB patients may be active smokers. In addition, a previous analysis has suggested that a considerable proportion of the global burden of TB may be attributable to smoking. However, there is paucity of information on the prevalence of tobacco smoking among TB patients in Malaysia. Moreover, the tobacco-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of TB patients who are smokers have not been previously explored. This study aimed to document the prevalence of smoking among newly diagnosed TB patients and to learn about the tobacco use knowledge and attitudes of those who are smokers among this population. Methods Data were generated on prevalence rates of smoking among newly diagnosed TB patients in the State of Penang from January 2008 to December 2008. The data were obtained based on a review of routinely collated data from the quarterly report on TB case registration. The study setting comprised of five healthcare facilities (TB clinics located within Penang and Wilayah Persekutuan, Kuala Lumpur health districts in Malaysia, which were involved in a larger project, known as SCIDOTS Project. A 58-item questionnaire was used to assess the tobacco use knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of those TB patients who were smokers. Results Smoking status was determinant in 817 of 943 new cases of TB from January to December 2008. Of this, it was estimated that the prevalence rates of current- and ex-smoking among the TB patients were 40.27% (329/817 and 13.95% (114/817, respectively. The prevalence of ever-smoking among patients with TB was estimated to be 54,220 per 100,000 population. Of 120 eligible participants for the SCIDOTS Project, 88 responded to the survey (73.3% response rate and 80 surveys were analyzed (66.7% usable rate. The mean (± SD total score of tobacco use knowledge items was 4.23 ± 2

  6. A 14-year longitudinal study of the impact of clean indoor air legislation on state smoking prevalence, USA, 1997-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Craig M; Lee, Joseph G L; Hudson, Suzanne; Hoover, Jeanne; Civils, Donald

    2017-06-01

    While clean indoor air legislation at the state level is an evidence-based recommendation, only limited evidence exists regarding the impact of clean indoor air policies on state smoking prevalence. Using state smoking prevalence data from 1997 to 2010, a repeated measures observational analysis assessed the association between clean indoor air policies (i.e., workplace, restaurant, and bar) and state smoking prevalence while controlling for state cigarette taxes and year. The impacts from the number of previous years with any clean indoor air policy, the number of policies in effect during the current year, and the number of policies in effect the previous year were analyzed. Findings indicate a smoking prevalence predicted decrease of 0.13 percentage points (p=0.03) for each additional year one or more clean indoor air policies were in effect, a predicted decrease of 0.12 percentage points (p=0.09) for each policy in effect in the current year, and a predicted decrease of 0.22 percentage points (p=0.01) for each policy in effect in the previous year on the subsequent year. Clean indoor air policies show measurable associations with reductions in smoking prevalence within a year of implementation above and beyond taxes and time trends. Further efforts are needed to diffuse clean indoor air policies across states and provinces that have not yet adopted such policies. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Rural-Urban Disparities in Obesity Prevalence Among Working Age Adults in the United States: Exploring the Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Ming; Fan, Jessie X; Kowaleski-Jones, Lori; Wan, Neng

    2018-02-01

    Higher prevalence rates of overweight and obesity in rural America have been consistently reported, but sources of these disparities are not well known. This study presented patterns and mechanisms of these disparities among working age Americans. Cross-sectional study. United States of America. The study included 10 302 participants of the 2003-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) who were 20 to 64 years old, not pregnant, and with a body mass index ranging from 18.5 to 60. Individual-level data were from NHANES including age, gender, race/ethnicity, immigrant status, education, and family income. The outcomes were prevalence of obesity and prevalence of overweight and obesity combined. Neighborhood data were constructed from the 2000 US Census providing tract-level information on family median income and built environmental features and from the 2006 ESRI ArcGIS 9.3 Data DVD providing tract-level park location information. Geographic information system (GIS) methods were used to create a measure of spatial distance to local parks capturing park accessibility. Random intercept logistic and ordinal logit regression analyses were performed. Multivariate regression results showed that the odds of obesity was higher in rural areas compared to urban areas (odds ratio = 1.358, P < .001) net of demographic controls and that this gap was largely attributable to individual educational attainment and neighborhood median household income and neighborhood built environmental features. After controlling for these hypothesized mediators, the elevated odds associated with rural residence was reduced by nearly 94% and rendered statistically insignificant. In this nationally representative cross-sectional sample, rural-urban obesity disparities were large and explained by rural-urban educational differences at the individual level and economic and built environmental differences at the neighborhood level.

  8. Prevalence and Correlates of Hashish Use in a National Sample of High School Seniors in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palamar, Joseph J.; Lee, Lily; Weitzman, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background Cannabis (marijuana) use and acceptance towards use are increasing in the US, and state-level policies are becoming more liberal. A wealth of research has been conducted to examine risk factors for use; however, studies rarely differentiate between different forms of marijuana. Objective We sought to determine prevalence of use and delineate who is at risk for use of this more potent form of marijuana. Methods We examined data from a nationally representative sample of high school seniors in the Monitoring the Future study (2007–2011; weighted N=10,597). We determined how sociodemographic factors and reasons for marijuana use correlated with recent (12-month) hashish use. Results Prevalence of recent hashish use was 6.5% and it was used by 18.3% of recent marijuana users. Hashish and other marijuana use tended to share many of the same correlates; however, associations were often stronger for hashish use. Females were consistently at low risk for use and users of other drugs were consistently at high risk for use. Black students tended to be at low risk for hashish use. Low risk of identifying as Hispanic or religious and high risk of higher personal income or going out more evenings per week for fun disappeared when controlling for other drug use. Using marijuana because the student felt he/she was “hooked” nearly doubled the odds for hashish use. Conclusions This was the first national study to examine prevalence and correlates of hashish use. These findings can inform prevention in a time of increasing popularity of marijuana use. PMID:25860964

  9. Prevalence of Extended-spectrum β-Lactamases-producing Escherichia coli from Hospitals in Khartoum State, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutasim E. Ibrahim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to determine the prevalence and assess antimicrobial susceptibility of extended- spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli isolated from clinical specimens of patients at hospitals in Khartoum State, Sudan.Methods: During April to August 2011, a total of 232 E. coli isolates were collected from various clinical specimens of patients. Isolates were identified, tested for antimicrobial susceptibility and screened for ESBL production as per standard methods. The double-disk diffusion method was used to confirm ESBL production using antimicrobial disks of ceftazidime (30 μg, cefotaxime (30 μg, with or without clavulanic acid (10 μg. A zone difference of >5 mm between disks was considered indicative of ESBL production.Results: Out of 232 E. coli isolates, 70 (30.2% were found to be positive for ESBL by the applied phenotypic methods. ESBL-producing isolates yielded high resistance rates for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (98.6%, tetracycline (88.6%, nalidixic acid (81.4% and ciprofloxacin (81.4%. The highest antimicrobial activities of ESBL-producing isolates were observed for amikacin (95.7%, followed by tobramicin (74.3% and nitrofurantoin (68.6%. Resistance to quinolones, aminoglycosides, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, nitrofurantoin and chloramphenicol was higher in ESBL than non-ESBL isolates (p<0.05. The frequency of ESBL-producing isolates varied among hospitals (18.2% to 45.1%, although a high prevalence was recorded as 45.1% at Khartoum Teaching Hospital. Wound specimens were the most common source of ESBL-producing isolates. The proportion of ESBL-producing E. coli did not differ significantly between adults and children (31% vs. 27%.Conclusion: The prevalence of ESBL-producing E. coli detected in this study is of great concern, which requires sound infection control measures including antimicrobial management and detection of ESBL-producing isolates.

  10. Correlation between "ABO" blood group phenotypes and periodontal disease: Prevalence in south Kanara district, Karnataka state, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Gurpur Prakash; Dayakar, Mundoor Manjunath; Shaila, Mulki; Dayakar, Anitha

    2012-10-01

    The correlation between certain systemic diseases and ABO blood group is a well-documented fact. The association between periodontal disease and ABO blood group is not studied in relation to a specific geographic location. Here is a study conducted on a group of patients belonging to South Kanara district of Karnataka state. A total of 750 subjects aged between 30and 38 years belonging to South Kanara district were selected on random basis. The study subjects were segregated into healthy/mild gingivitis, moderate/severe gingivitis, and periodontitis group, based on Loe and Silness index and clinical attachment loss as criteria. The study group was further categorized and graded using Ramfjord's periodontal disease index. Blood samples were collected to identify ABO blood group. Prevalence of blood group O was more in South Kanara district, followed by blood groups B and A, and the least prevalent was AB. The percentage distribution of subjects with blood groups O and AB was more in healthy/mild gingivitis group (group I) and moderate/severe gingivitis group (group II), while subjects with blood groups B and A were more in periodontitis group III. There was increased prevalence of subjects with blood groups O and AB with healthy periodontium, while subjects with blood groups B and A showed inclination toward diseased periodontium. There is a correlation existing between periodontal disease and ABO blood group in this geographic location. This association can be due to various blood group antigens acting as receptors for infectious agents associated with periodontal disease. This broad correlation between periodontal disease and ABO blood group also points toward susceptibility ofthe subjects with certain blood groups to periodontal disease.

  11. Prevalence and risk factors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex infection in slaughtered cattle at Jos South Abattoir, Plateau State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeke, Lilian Akudo; Cadmus, Simeon; Okeke, Ikenna Osemeka; Muhammad, Maryam; Awoloh, Oluchi; Dairo, David; Waziri, Endie Ndadilnasiya; Olayinka, Adebola; Nguku, Patrick Mboyo; Fawole, Olufunmilayo

    2014-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is widespread yet poorly controlled in Nigeria hence posing a public health threat. This study determined the prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) and factors associated with MTC among slaughtered cattle at Jos South Abattoir in Plateau State, Nigeria. We conducted a cross sectional study in which we collected 168 lung samples systematically from 485 slaughtered cattle from May-June, 2012, and tested for acid fast bacilli (AFB) using Ziehl-Neelsen test and a duplex polymerase chain reaction technique (PCR) for MTC detection. Data on cattle socio-demographic characteristics and risk factors for zoonotic BTB infection was obtained and analyzed using Epi info version 3.5.3 to determine frequency, proportions, and prevalence odds ratios. Multiple logistic regression was done at 95% Confidence Interval (CI). The mean age of the cattle was 5.6 ± 1.3 years and (108) 64.3% were females. Majority were indigenous White Fulani breed of cattle (58.5%) and about half (54.8%) were slightly emaciated. Prevalence of MTB complex was 21.4% by AFB test and 16.7% by duplex PCR. Of 33 (19.6%) lungs with lesions, 27 (81.8%) were positive for AFB; while of 135 (80.4%) lungs without lesions, 9 (6.7%) were positive for AFB. Lungs with lesions were 52 times more likely to test positive to AFB test compared to tissues without lesions (AOR=52.3; 95% CI: 16.4-191.8). The presence of MTC in cattle signifies its potential risk to public health. Presence of lesions on lungs is a reliable indicator of MTC infection that meat inspectors should look out for.

  12. Prevalence, management and outcomes of medically complex vulnerable elderly patients with urinary incontinence in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, X; Chuang, C-C; Yang, E; Zou, K H; Araiza, A L; Bhagnani, T

    2015-12-01

    To assess the prevalence, patient-physician communication, treatment and health outcomes associated with urinary incontinence (UI) among the medically complex vulnerable elderly (MCVE) in the United States (US). Data from the 2006 to 2012 Medicare Health Outcomes Survey (HOS) were used. MCVE patients were aged 65+ years with a HOS VE score ≥ 3. UI was reported as a small, big or no problem. Descriptive statistics were used to assess patient-physician communication and treatment. Multivariable regression analyses were performed to assess the association of small or big UI problems with various outcomes. The annual UI prevalence increased among MCVE [from 35.8% (2006) to 38.6% (2012)]. MCVE with big UI problems communicated with their physicians more often than those with small UI problems (77.9% and 49.6%, respectively); however, treatment of UI remained low (48.5% and 29.1%, respectively). Physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) scores were lower among MCVE with small or big UI problems compared with those with no UI problems, respectively. The decrements in PCS and MCS scores associated with big UI problems were greater than the decrements associated with any of the other assessed conditions. MCVE with small or big UI problems, respectively, were more likely to report past falls, depression and activity daily living limitations vs. those without UI. The odds of having experienced these outcomes were greater for those with big UI vs. small UI problems. Urinary incontinence prevalence in the USA increased among MCVE from 2006 to 2012, although treatment of UI remained low. UI problems, particularly big UI problems, adversely impact health outcomes. Efforts to better identify and manage UI among the MCVE are needed. © 2015 The Authors. International Journal of Clinical Practice Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. The incidence and prevalence of juvenile-onset recurrent respiratory papillomatosis in the Free State province of South Africa and Lesotho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seedat, R Y

    2014-12-01

    Although the estimated incidence and prevalence of juvenile-onset recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (JORRP) has been determined in countries in North America and Europe and in Australia, no studies have attempted to determine the incidence or prevalence of JORRP in African countries. The aim of this study is to determine the incidence and prevalence of JORRP in the Free State province of South Africa and Lesotho. This was a retrospective study in which the records of all patients with JORRP from the Free State province of South Africa or Lesotho treated at Universitas Academic Hospital or by otorhinolaryngologists in private practice between 1 January 2011 and 31 December 2013 were reviewed. The estimated incidence and prevalence of JORRP in the Free State were 1.34 and 3.88 per 100,000 population respectively while the estimated incidence and prevalence in Lesotho were 0.49 and 1.04 per 100,000 population respectively. However, these figures are probably an underestimation. The incidence and prevalence calculated for the Free State were generally higher than those found in other studies, while those calculated for Lesotho was similar to those obtained in other studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Prevalence of symptoms of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis among adult females in the United States.

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    Berry, Sandra H; Elliott, Marc N; Suttorp, Marika; Bogart, Laura M; Stoto, Michael A; Eggers, Paul; Nyberg, Leroy; Clemens, J Quentin

    2011-08-01

    Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis is a poorly understood condition that can cause serious disability. We provide the first population based symptom prevalence estimate to our knowledge among United States adult females. We developed and validated 2 case definitions to identify bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis symptoms. Beginning in August 2007 we telephoned United States households, seeking adult women with bladder symptoms or a bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis diagnosis. Second stage screening identified those subjects who met case definition criteria. Each completed a 60-minute interview on the severity and impact of bladder symptoms, health care seeking and demographics. Data collection ended in April 2009. Using population and nonresponse weights we calculated prevalence estimates based on definitions spanning a range of sensitivity and specificity. We used United States Census counts to estimate the number of affected women in 2006. The random sample included 146,231 households, of which 131,691 included an adult female. Of these households 32,474 reported an adult female with bladder symptoms or diagnosis, of which 12,752 completed the questionnaire. Based on the high sensitivity definition 6.53% (95% CI 6.28, 6.79) of women met symptom criteria. Based on the high specificity definition 2.70% (95% CI 2.53, 2.86) of women met the criteria. These percentages translated into 3.3 to 7.9 million United States women 18 years old or older with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis symptoms. Symptom severity and impact were comparable to those of adult women with established diagnoses. However, only 9.7% of the women reported being assigned a bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis diagnosis. Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis symptoms are widespread among United States women and associated with considerable disability. These results suggest bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis may be underdiagnosed. Copyright

  15. Prevalence of bluetongue virus antibodies and associated risk factors among cattle in East Darfur State, Western Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khair, Hadia Om; Adam, Ibrahim A; Bushara, Shakir B; Eltom, Kamal H; Musa, Nasreen O; Aradaib, Imadeldin E

    2014-02-07

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an insect-transmitted virus, which causes bluetongue disease (BT) in sheep and a fatal hemorrhagic infection in North American white-tailed deer. However, in cattle the disease is typically asymptomatic and no overt clinical signs of disease appear to be associated with BTV infection. Serological evidence and isolation of different BTV serotypes have been reported in Sudan, however, no information is currently available in regard to previous exposure of Sudanese livestock to BTV infection in East Darfur State, Sudan. To determine the prevalence of BTV antibodies and to identify the potential risk factors associated with BTV infection among cattle in East Darfur State, Sudan. A total of 224 blood samples were collected randomly from five localities in East Darfur State, Sudan. The serum samples were screened for detection of BTV-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA). Serological evidence of BTV infection was observed in 150 out of 224 animals accounting for a 67% prevalence rate among cattle in East Darfur State. Older cattle (>2 years of age) were six times more likely to be infected with BTV (OR = 6.62, CI = 2.87-15.26, p-value = 0.01). Regarding animal source (contact with other herds) as a risk factor, it was shown that cattle purchased from market or introduced from other herds were 3 times at higher risk of being infected with BTV (OR = 3.87, CI = 1.07-13.87, p value = 0.03). Exposure of cattle to the insect vector increased the risk of contracting BTV infection by six times compared to non-exposed cattle (OR = 6.44, CI = 1.53-27.08, p value = 0.01). The present study indicated that age, animal source and the intensity of the insect vector are influential risk factors for BTV infection in cattle in the Darfur region. Surveillance for BTV infection should be extended to include other susceptible ruminants and to study the distribution of the insect vectors to better

  16. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in preschool children in the region of Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Ana Lúcia Ribeiro Gonçalves

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Children are an important high-risk group for helminth and protozoa infections. Daycare centers are environments where children have proven to be more susceptible to acquiring intestinal parasites. Thus, the purpose of this study was to verify the prevalence of intestinal parasites in children who attended the two daycare centers maintained by the local government of Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. METHODS: Fecal samples were collected from 133 children (73 children at the Public Preschool for Early Childhood Education, PPECE A, and 60 at the PPECE B following identification according to sex and age and agreement to participate by parents or guardians who signed the free, informed consent form. The samples were examined by the Lutz method. RESULTS: Coproparasitological tests performed on 133 children showed that 29.3% of them were parasitized for enteroparasites or commensals, 6.7% of the children presented polyparasitism. Among the protozoa, Giardia lamblia were the most prevalent and Hymenolepis nana were the most frequent among the helminths. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, analysis of the results showed that intestinal parasites still represent a public health problem, especially among children and in areas where the socioeconomic and educational conditions are less favorable.

  17. Irrigation Is Significantly Associated with an Increased Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in Produce Production Environments in New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Daniel; Wiedmann, Martin; Strawn, Laura K

    2015-06-01

    Environmental (i.e., meteorological and landscape) factors and management practices can affect the prevalence of foodborne pathogens in produce production environments. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria species (including L. monocytogenes), Salmonella, and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in produce production environments and to identify environmental factors and management practices associated with their isolation. Ten produce farms in New York State were sampled during a 6-week period in 2010, and 124 georeferenced samples (80 terrestrial, 33 water, and 11 fecal) were collected. L. monocytogenes, Listeria spp., Salmonella, and STEC were detected in 16, 44, 4, and 5% of terrestrial samples, 30, 58, 12, and 3% of water samples, and 45, 45, 27, and 9% of fecal samples, respectively. Environmental factors and management practices were evaluated for their association with terrestrial samples positive for L. monocytogenes or other Listeria species by univariate logistic regression; analysis was not conducted for Salmonella or STEC because the number of samples positive for these pathogens was low. Although univariate analysis identified associations between isolation of L. monocytogenes or Listeria spp. from terrestrial samples and various water-related factors (e.g., proximity to wetlands and precipitation), multivariate analysis revealed that only irrigation within 3 days of sample collection was significantly associated with isolation of L. monocytogenes (odds ratio = 39) and Listeria spp. (odds ratio = 5) from terrestrial samples. These findings suggest that intervention at the irrigation level may reduce the risk of produce contamination.

  18. PREVALENCE OF MUSCULOSKELETAL SYMPTOMS IN DENTAL STUDENTS AND DOCENTS THE STATE UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHWEST BAHIA, JEQUIÉ CAMPUS

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    Ismar Eduardo Martins Filho

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The dentists are professionals who has stood out among the health professions when it relates to musculoskeletal disorders due to repetitive movements. This study aimed to identify the occurrence of these musculoskeletal pain in teachers and students of the dentistry course at the State University of Bahia (UESB and compare these groups. The study was conducted using the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire(NMQ, where there are specific questions about ergonomics, prevalence and frequency of pain / discomfort. The sample consisted of 17 teachers and 102 students who perform clinical practice dentistry course of this university. The results show that 82% of students and 71% of docents have any pain or musculoskeletal discomfort in different parts of the body. The students had a higher prevalence musculoskeletal than docents. The students have also increased knowledge about the origin and development of the disease, but it does not perform prevention. This study did not measure whether students are getting better or worse over the musculoskeletal pains during its formation and later professional career. But points out that knowledge of ergonomics, in regular physical activity can change a situation unfavorable musculoskeletal pain, to a favorable situation of these professionals.

  19. Prevalence of Streptococcus agalactiae colonization in pregnant women from the 18th Health Region of Paraná State

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    Simone Cristina Castanho Sabaini de Melo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of GBS colonization in pregnant women in a public health service. Methods A study of 496 pregnant women at 35-37 gestational weeks was conducted from September 2011 to March 2014 in 21 municipalities of the 18th Health Region of Paraná State. Vaginal and anorectal samples of each woman were plated on sheep blood agar, and in HPTH and Todd-Hewitt enrichment broths. Results Of the 496 pregnant women, 141 (28.4% were positive for GBS based on the combination of the three culture media with vaginal and anorectal samples. The prevalence was 23.7% for vaginal samples and 21.9% for anorectal ones. Among the variables analyzed in this study, only urinary infection was a significant factor (0.026 associated with GBS colonization in women. Conclusions Based on these results, health units should performs universal screening of pregnant women and hospitals should provide adequate prophylaxis, when indicated.

  20. Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Oral Human Papillomavirus Infection With Multiple Genotypes in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Thanh Cong; Tran, Ly Thi-Hai; Thai, Thuy Nhu; Shete, Sanjay S; Vidrine, Damon J; Sturgis, Erich M

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of and risk factors for oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection with multiple genotypes in the United States. Data were from the nationally representative 2009-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. This analysis comprised 9257 participants for whom data on oral HPV (37 genotypes) and associated risk factors were available. The weighted prevalence of multitype (2-6 types) oral HPV infection was 1.5% (2.5% for men, 0.4% for women) in the whole sample and 19.7% (22.0% for men, 12.1% for women) in those who had any type of oral HPV positivity. Most multitype oral HPV cases (83.8%) harbored one or more oncogenic types. In the adjusted multinominal logistic regression model, being male (relative risk ratio [RRR] = 3.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.57-8.65), being a current cigarette smoker (RRR = 2.57; 95% CI, 1.23-5.36), and having a new sex partner in the past year (RRR = 2.10; 95% CI, 1.03-4.28) were associated with an increased risk of multitype oral HPV infection over single-type HPV infection. Men, smokers, and those who had new sexual partners were at a significantly higher risk for multitype oral HPV infection.

  1. Prevalence of Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 and 2 among blood donors in Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil

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    Márcia Poinho EncarnaçÃo de Morais

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 and 2 (HTLV-1/2 is endemic in Brazil, but few studies have investigated the seroprevalence of HTLV and its subtypes among blood donors in the capital city Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil. Aim: To estimate the seroprevalence of HTLV-1/2 and to identify circulating subtypes among blood donors in Manaus. Materials and Methods: Blood donors (2001-2003 were screened for HTLV-1/2 antibodies by ELISA. Positive results were confirmed and subtyped by Western blot assays. Prevalence rates were calculated and compared with demographic data. Results: Among the 87,402 individuals screened, 116 (0.13% were seropositive for HTLV-1/2. A second sample (76/116 was collected and retested by HTLV-1/2 ELISA, of which only 41/76 were positive. Western blot confirmed HTLV infection in 24/41 retested blood donors [HTLV-1 (n=16, HTLV-2 (n=5 and HTLV-untypable (n=3]. Discussion: HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 are prevalent among blood donors in Manaus. However, additional studies are needed to comprehend the epidemiology of HTLV-1/2 in Amazonas not only to understand the pathophysiology of the disease providing adequate medical assistance, but also to reduce or block virus transmission.

  2. Oral Contraceptive Use and Prevalence of Self-Reported Glaucoma or Ocular Hypertension in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ye Elaine; Kakigi, Caitlin; Barbosa, Diego; Porco, Travis; Chen, Rebecca; Wang, Sophia; Li, Yingjie; Singh, Kuldev; Pasquale, Louis R; Lin, Shan C

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the association between oral contraceptive (OC) use and glaucoma prevalence in the United States. Cross-sectional study. A total of 3406 female participants, aged 40 years or older, from the 2005 to 2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, who reported a presence or absence of glaucoma or ocular hypertension completed both the vision and the reproductive health questionnaires and underwent eye examinations. Multivariate regression analysis was used to assess the correlation between OC use and self-reported glaucoma or ocular hypertension (n = 231 cases), controlling for potential confounders, including age, ethnicity, systemic comorbidities such as hypertension and stroke, ocular diseases such as cataract and diabetic retinopathy, and reproductive health factors, including age at menopause, age at menarche, history of hormone replacement therapy, and gynecological surgical history. The outcome variable was self-reported glaucoma or ocular hypertension. After adjusting for confounders, those with ≥3 years of OC use had greater odds (odds ratio, 1.94; 95% confidence interval, 1.22-3.07) of self-reported glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Other factors associated with higher glaucoma or ocular hypertension prevalence included older age, African American race, and later age at menarche. Oral contraceptive use may be associated with increased risk of self-reported glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Prevalence of Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 and 2 among blood donors in Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Márcia Poinho EncarnaçÃo de; Gato, Cynara Melo; Maciel, Lucinei Alves; Lalwani, Pritesh; Costa, Cristóvão Alves; Lalwani, Jaila Dias Borges

    2017-12-21

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 and 2 (HTLV-1/2) is endemic in Brazil, but few studies have investigated the seroprevalence of HTLV and its subtypes among blood donors in the capital city Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil. To estimate the seroprevalence of HTLV-1/2 and to identify circulating subtypes among blood donors in Manaus. Blood donors (2001-2003) were screened for HTLV-1/2 antibodies by ELISA. Positive results were confirmed and subtyped by Western blot assays. Prevalence rates were calculated and compared with demographic data. Among the 87,402 individuals screened, 116 (0.13%) were seropositive for HTLV-1/2. A second sample (76/116) was collected and retested by HTLV-1/2 ELISA, of which only 41/76 were positive. Western blot confirmed HTLV infection in 24/41 retested blood donors [HTLV-1 (n=16), HTLV-2 (n=5) and HTLV-untypable (n=3)]. HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 are prevalent among blood donors in Manaus. However, additional studies are needed to comprehend the epidemiology of HTLV-1/2 in Amazonas not only to understand the pathophysiology of the disease providing adequate medical assistance, but also to reduce or block virus transmission.

  4. Disease Prevalence and Use of Health Care among a National Sample of Black and White Male State Prisoners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, David L.; Hammond, Wizdom P.; Wohl, David A.; Golin, Carol E.

    2014-01-01

    U.S. prisons have a court-affirmed mandate to provide health care to prisoners. Given this mandate, we sought to determine whether use of prison health care was equitable across race using a nationally-representative sample of Black and White male state prisoners. We first examined the prevalence of health conditions by race. Then, across all health conditions and for each of 15 conditions, we compared the proportion of Black and White male prisoners with the condition who received health care. For most conditions including cancer, heart disease, and liver-related disorders, the age-adjusted prevalence of disease among Blacks was lower than among Whites (p<.05). Blacks were also modestly more likely than Whites to use health care for existing conditions (p<.05), particularly hypertension, cerebral vascular accident/brain injury, cirrhosis, flu-like illness, and injury. The observed racial disparities in health and health care use are different from those among non-incarcerated populations. PMID:22643475

  5. The prevalence of iodine deficiency in women of reproductive age in the United States of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollowell, Joseph G; Haddow, James E

    2007-12-01

    To review the iodine status of women as assessed through National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys from 1971 to 2002. National normative estimates of iodine status of the civilian, non-institutionalized population in the United States of America. Women of reproductive age and pregnant women. In the United States of America, iodine began to be added to the diet in the 1920s. An excessive iodine intake was documented by the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES I) in the 1970s which reported a median urinary iodine (UI) concentration of 320 microg l-1. In the NHANES III survey, conducted between 1988 and 1994, the median UI concentration had decreased to 145 microg l-1, while 14.9% of women aged 15-44 years and 6.9% of pregnant women had a UI concentration 50 microg l-1. The concentrations of serum T4 and thyroid-stimulating hormone of women with a low UI concentration did not, however, indicate an iodine deficiency. Further studies of the association between iodine excretion and biochemical and physiological changes should be undertaken to better understand women's needs for iodine and to develop criteria to monitor them in pregnancy. Because of the potential harm caused by iodine deficiency during pregnancy, we support the use of iodine supplements for all pregnancies while these data are being collected.

  6. Prevalence of Dementia, Emotional State and Physical Performance among Older Adults in the Metropolitan Area of Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico

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    Irma E. Velázquez-Brizuela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Dementia affects memory, thinking, language, judgment, and behavior. Depression, is common in older adults with dementia. The concomitance of dementia and depression increases disability with impaired activities of daily living (ADL, increasing the chances of institutionalization and mortality. Methods. Cross-sectional study of a population 60 years and older who live in the State of Jalisco, Mexico. A total of 1142 persons were assessed regarding their cognitive function, emotional state, and physical performance. Door-to-door interview technique was assigned in condition with multistage probability random sampling. Cognitive function, depression and functional disability were assessed by applying standardized Minimental State Examination (Folstein, Geriatric Depression Scale, and the Katz index, respectively. Diagnosis of dementia was performed according to the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the Fourth Edition. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results. Prevalence of demency was 9.5% (63.35% women, and 36.7% men. Demency was associated with being woman, being older than 70 years, low level of education, not having the economic benefit of retirement, being single or living without a partner, low level of education, suffering from depression and have functional disability in ADL. Conclusion. Dementia is more common in women and is related to depression and disability.

  7. [Prevalence of diabetes mellitus and associated factors in indigenous women in Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Glênio Alves de; Souza, Maria Cristina Corrêa de; Lima, Rosangela da Costa

    2016-09-12

    This study's objective was to estimate the prevalence of abnormal casual capillary blood glucose, suggestive of diabetes mellitus, and the associations with socioeconomic, demographic, anthropometric, and clinical factors in indigenous women in Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. This was a cross-sectional study with a probabilistic sample of women 18 to 59 years of age in the Bororó and Jaguapiru villages. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect data, and statistical analysis used the Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, and generalized linear model tests. Of the 385 women, 7% showed abnormal casual capillary blood glucose, suggestive of diabetes mellitus. In the final generalized linear model, the following remained associated with the outcome: age (p diabetes mellitus.

  8. [Dental fluorosis prevalence in Mexican localities of 27 states and the D.F.: six years after the publication of the Salt Fluoridation Mexican Official Regulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt-Lineares, Armandor; Irigoyen-Camacho, María Esther; Mejía-González, Adriana; Zepeda-Zapeda, Marco; Sánchez-Pérez, Leonor

    2013-01-01

    To identify the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis in communities located in 28 states of Mexico. The National Dental Caries Survey 2001 (NDCS2001) data base was analyzed. The information of 26,893 students, ages 12 and 15 years old, of 27 states and the Federal District was examined. Dean's dental fluorosis index was applied by standardized examiners. The fluorosis prevalence and the Community Fluorosis Index (FCI) were calculated. The fluorosis prevalence was 27.9% (95% CI 24.4, 28.5). A statistical significance difference in the fluorosis prevalence was observed among the states studied (p < 0.0001). The lowest prevalence was detected in Morelos (3.2%) and the highest in Durango (88.8%). In 18 (64.3%) of the states included more than 90% of the participants showed very mild or lower levels of the dental fluorosis index. A low level of the FCI was found in the localities belonging to 19 (67.9%) of the states studied (FCI < 0.4). The lowest FCI was found in Colima, Yucatán and Morelos. The highest FCI were found in Durango, Zacatecas, Aguascalientes and San Luis Potosí (1 ≤ ICF). This information indicates that in these states dental fluorosis is a public health problem. Two-thirds of the states had localities with low prevalence of dental fluorosis; however, approximately, one-third of the states investigated the fluorosis levels showed the need of a reduction in fluoride exposure among the young population.

  9. Prevalence and risk factors for Giardia spp. infection in a large national sample of pet dogs visiting veterinary hospitals in the United States (2003-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Ahmed S; Glickman, Larry T; Camp, Joseph W; Lund, Elizabeth; Moore, George E

    2013-07-01

    Estimates of the prevalence of intestinal infection of dogs with Giardia spp. in the United States vary widely. Risk factors for infection in a large sample of dogs over an extended period of time have not been well characterized. A national, electronic database of medical records was used to estimate the prevalence and identify risk factors for Giardia spp. infection among dogs visiting Banfield Pet Hospital™ located in 43 states in the United States. The overall prevalence of Giardia spp. Infection was 0.44% (95% CI: 0.43-0.45%) in approximately 2.5 million owned dogs who had a fecal flotation test performed from January 2003 to December 2009. A steady decrease in annual prevalence was observed, from a high of 0.61% in 2003 to 0.27% in 2009. Seasonal increases in prevalence were noted during the winter and summer months. Giardia spp. prevalence was highest in the Mountain region, especially Colorado (2.63%; 95% CI: 2.53-2.73%), and in puppies ≤0.5 year of age (0.63%; 95% CI: 0.61-0.64%). It was lowest for dogs of mixed breeding compared with pure breeds. Infection risk was 25-30% greater in sexually intact dogs compared to spayed and neutered dogs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Increasing Hepatitis B Vaccine Prevalence Among Refugee Children Arriving in the United States, 2006–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Kailey; Mamo, Blain; Matheson, Jasmine; Payton, Colleen; Scott, Kevin C.; Song, Lihai; Stauffer, William M.; Stone, Barbara L.; Young, Janine; Lin, Henry

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To determine whether the addition of hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine to national immunization programs improved vaccination rates among refugee children, a marginalized population with limited access to care. Methods. The sample included 2291 refugees younger than 19 years who completed HBV screening after arrival in the United States. Children were categorized by having been born before or after the addition of the 3-dose HBV vaccine to their birth country’s national immunization program. The outcome was serological evidence of immunization. Results. The odds of serological evidence of HBV immunization were higher for children born after the addition of HBV vaccine to their birth country’s national immunization program (adjusted odds ratio = 2.54; 95% confidence interval = 2.04, 3.15). Conclusions. National HBV vaccination programs have contributed to the increase in HBV vaccination coverage observed among US-bound refugee children. Public Health Implications. Ongoing public health surveillance is needed to ensure that vaccine rates are sustained among diverse, conflict-affected, displaced populations. PMID:27310356

  11. Work disability in the United States, 1968-2015: Prevalence, duration, recovery, and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laditka, James N; Laditka, Sarah B

    2018-04-01

    The United States workforce is aging. At the same time more people have chronic conditions, for longer periods. Given these trends the importance of work disability, physical or nervous problems that limit a person's type or amount of work, is increasing. No research has examined transitions among multiple levels of work disability, recovery from work disability, or trends. Limited research has focused on work disability among African Americans and Hispanics, or separately for women and men. We examined these areas using data from 30,563 adults in the 1968-2015 Panel Study of Income Dynamics. We estimated annual probabilities of work disability, recovery, and death with multinomial logistic Markov models. Microsimulations accounting for age and education estimated outcomes for African American, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic white women and men. Results from these nationally representative data suggested that the majority of Americans experience work disability during working life. Most spells ended with recovery or reduced severity. Among women, African Americans and Hispanics had less moderate and severe work disability than whites. Among men, African Americans became severely work disabled more often than whites, recovered from severe spells more often and had shorter severe spells, yet had more severe work disability at age 65. Hispanic men were more likely to report at least one spell of severe work disability than whites; they also had substantially more recovery from severe work disability, and a lower percentage of working years with work disability. Among African Americans and Hispanics, men were considerably more likely than women to have severe work disability at age 65. Work disability declined significantly across the study period for all groups. Although work disability has declined over several decades, it remains common. Results suggest that the majority of work disability spells end with recovery, underscoring the importance of rehabilitation and

  12. Analysis of the Ocular Refractive State in Fighting Bulls: Astigmatism Prevalence

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    Juan M. Bueno

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to describe the ocular refractive state (ORS of fighting bulls. The study consisted of 90 ophthalmological healthy animals (85 in post-mortem and 5 in living conditions, resp.. The ORS of the eyes (2 per animal was determined using streak retinoscopy. In vivo animals were assessed at a fighting bull farm facility. Post-mortem measurements were carried out at a local arena. The ORS along the horizontal meridian ranged between −1.00 and +2.50 diopters (D, with a mean of +0.66±0.85 D in post-mortem animals. Values for in vivo conditions were similar (+0.75±0.46 D. Left and right eyes were highly correlated in both sets (p<0.001. A fairly good correlation was also observed when comparing living and post-mortem eyes in the same animals. Anisometropia ≥ 1.00 D was diagnosed in 3 animals. Astigmatism (≥+0.5 D was detected in 93% of the eyes. To our knowledge, the ORS of the fighting bull has been reported for the first time. Although values vary among individuals, all eyes presented a marked astigmatism. Whereas the horizontal meridian was slightly hyperopic, the vertical meridian was always closer to emmetropia. These results represent a starting point to understand the ocular optics of this kind of animals, which might benefit the selection of animals at the farm before being sent to the bullfighting arena.

  13. High prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in domestic pigs in Oaxaca State, Mexico.

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    Alvarado-Esquivel, C; Estrada-Malacón, M A; Reyes-Hernández, S O; Pérez-Ramírez, J A; Trujillo-López, J I; Villena, I; Dubey, J P

    2012-12-01

    Pigs are important in the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in North America. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in 525 domestic pigs (337 backyard raised, 188 farm raised) in Oaxaca State, Mexico was determined using the modified agglutination test (MAT, cutoff 1:25). Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 58 (17.2%) of the 337 backyard pigs with MAT titers of 1:25 in 10, 1:50 in 12, 1:100 in 18, 1:200 in 6, 1:400 in 6, 1:800 in 3, and 1:1,600 in 3. Seropositive pigs were found in 39 (37.9%) of 103 homes in all 7 municipalities surveyed. Seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in backyard pigs varied with age, gender, geographic region, climate, and altitude. High seroprevalence was found in pigs ≥ 9-mo-old (40%), in females (40%), in pigs from the Istmo region (33.3%), and in those raised in a tropical climate (65%). Seroprevalence was higher (24.5%) in pigs raised at 100-660 m above sea level than in those at 20-60 m of altitude (14.2%). With respect to farm pigs, only 1 (0.5%, MAT titer 1:100) of 188 pigs from 5 farms was positive for anti- T. gondii antibodies. The results affirm that the management system (outdoor vs. indoor system with biosecurity) is a key factor in the epidemiology of porcine toxoplasmosis. Because there is no national system of determining the T. gondii infection status at the time of slaughter, precautions should be taken while handling pig carcasses, and all pork should be cooked thoroughly before human consumption.

  14. Changes in Caries Experience, Untreated Caries, Sealant Prevalence, and Preventive Behavior Among Third-Graders in New York State, 2002–2004 and 2009–2012

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    Tavares, Vinicius; Kandhari, Priyanka; Moss, Mark; Jolaoso, I. Adeyemi

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study assessed changes in caries experience, untreated caries, sealant prevalence, and preventive behavior among third-grade children in New York State to monitor progress toward state health objectives. Methods We analyzed children's data from the 2002–2004 (n=10,865) and 2009–2012 (n=6,758) New York State Oral Health Survey. We calculated differences in weighted percentages and 95% confidence intervals for caries experience, untreated caries, sealant prevalence, and preventive behavior. We used logistic regression procedures to assess the independent effects and interaction terms on dental caries experience. Results The percentage of children with dental caries and untreated caries decreased from 54.1% and 33.0% in 2002–2004 to 45.2% and 23.6% in 2009–2012, respectively. While this decrease was not uniform across income subgroups, the prevalence of sealants, a key measure of the use of preventive services, increased significantly from 16.7% to 36.0% among lower-income children. Conclusions Measurable improvement in reducing dental caries prevalence among third-grade children has been made in New York State, but this improvement was not uniform across subgroups. Specifically, disease prevalence among lower-income children remained high, underscoring the need to strengthen existing programs and identify additional policy and programmatic interventions. PMID:26346760

  15. Idiopathic urethritis in young men in the United States: prevalence and comparison to infections with known sexually transmitted pathogens.

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    Wetmore, Catherine M; Manhart, Lisa E; Golden, Matthew R

    2009-11-01

    Urethritis is the most common male reproductive tract disease syndrome; yet 20-50% of diagnosed cases have no defined etiology, and few population-level data exist on the prevalence or etiology of the syndrome. We estimated the prevalence of urethritis among young men in the United States and compared correlates of idiopathic cases to correlates of detected infections with sexually transmitted pathogens. Questionnaire data and urine specimens from 5,447 men aged 18-27 years participating in Wave III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were analyzed. Symptomatic urethritis was defined as self-reported dysuria or urethral discharge in the past 24hours. Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Mycoplasma genitalium were identified using nucleic acid amplification tests. Idiopathic urethritis (IU) was defined as urethral symptoms in the absence of these four pathogens. Stratified weighted analyses generated population-based estimates. Urethritis was reported by 1.2% (95% CI=.8-1.6%) of men, of whom 82.4% (61.1-93.3%) had IU. Men with previous STD diagnoses (aOR=9.3 [95% CI=3.0-28.7]), or fewer (1-4) or no lifetime vaginal sex partners (aOR=7.5 [2.9-19.3] and aOR=7.2 [1.9-27.4]), were more likely to have IU compared with men without urethral symptoms or identified pathogens, whereas men of Native American or Asian/Pacific Islander descent (aOR=.04 [.01-.2]) and heavy drinkers (aOR=.08 [.03-.2]) were less likely to have IU. Unlike infection with known pathogens, IU was not associated with black race, Hispanic ethnicity, or age at sexual debut. Urethral symptoms were rarely associated with known pathogens. IU and known pathogens were associated with distinct characteristics.

  16. Prevalence and risk factors associated with bovine genital campylobacteriosis and bovine trichomonosis in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil.

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    de Oliveira, Júnior Mário Baltazar; da Silva, Gesika Maria; Batista Filho, Antônio Fernando Barbosa; de Melo Borges, Jonas; de Oliveira, Pollyanne Raysa Fernandes; Brandespim, Daniel Friguglietti; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido; Pinheiro, José Wilton

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis and Tritrichomonas foetus infection in cows from dairy herds in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. In total, 383 samples of cervico-vaginal mucus were collected from cows on 21 herds in 19 districts. Genomic DNA was extracted from the samples and submitted for polymerase chain reaction analysis. An investigative questionnaire was used to analyze the risk factors, using questions related to reproductive and hygiene/sanitation management. A prevalence of 1.8% (0.8-3.9%; confidence interval (CI) 95%) and 33.4% (28.7-38.4%; CI 95%) was found for C. fetus subsp. venerealis and T. foetus, respectively. In terms of the number of foci, 28.6% of the herds contained at least one animal that was positive for C. fetus subsp. venerealis and 90.5% for T. foetus. The present study identified herds larger than 100 animals as a risk factor for bovine genital campylobacteriosis (OR = 7.2; CI 1.3-38.4%; p = 0.020) and the use of natural breeding as a risk factor for bovine trichomonosis (OR = 2.4; CI 1.1-5.9%; p = 0.041). In conclusion, C. fetus subsp. venerealis and T. foetus infections occurred in the region studied and high numbers of foci were found. Thus, prophylaxis and control measures, such as diagnosis, separation, and sexual rest for infected females, are suggested. An artificial insemination program with early rigorous sanitary care should be implemented on the properties in order to avoid the spread of agents in the herds.

  17. Prevalence and causes of musculoskeletal impairment in Mahabubnagar District, Telangana State, India: results of a population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smythe, Tracey; Mactaggart, Islay; Kuper, Hannah; Murthy, G V S; Lavy, Christopher; Polack, Sarah

    2017-11-01

    Musculoskeletal impairments (MSI) are the leading contributor to global years lived with disability. Comparable epidemiological data on MSI is lacking, and are needed to inform health and rehabilitative services. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and causes of MSI in Telangana State, India. A population-based survey used probability proportionate to size and compact-segment sampling to select 51 clusters of 80 individuals (all ages). Participants were screened using seven questions and any participant who screened positive underwent standardized examination by a physiotherapist for MSI presence, severity and diagnosis. Data were also collected on vision and hearing impairment, depression and self-reported difficulties with physical functioning. The prevalence of MSI was 19.6% (95% CI: 16.7-22.8%) and this increased with age. The majority (82%; 574/699) of MSI was classified as mild, 11% as moderate and 7% as severe. Over half (57%) of MSI diagnoses were acquired non-traumatic causes, with degenerative joint disease being the most common. There was a high unmet need for physiotherapy services (3% attended vs. 40% recommended). One-fifth (21%) of MSI cases also had at least one of vision (10%) or hearing (11%) impairment or depression (3%). MSI is common among persons living in Mahabubnagar District, particularly older adults. These estimates can inform public health initiatives for the planning of health and rehabilitation services. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Metabolic syndrome in patients with high blood pressure in Cuiabá-Mato Grosso State: prevalence and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Gilberto Paulo Pereira; Scala, Luiz César Nazário; Alves, Carlos José; França, Giovanny Vinícius Araújo de; Cassanelli, Tatiane; Jardim, Paulo César Brandão Veiga

    2009-06-01

    Metabolic Syndrome (MS) is a cluster of predisposing factors for cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus, whose epidemiological characteristics are poorly known at regional and national levels. To estimate the prevalence of MS and its associated factors in a sample of patients with high blood pressure in the urban area of Cuiabá, Mato Grosso State. This was a cross-sectional study (May to November 2007) in a sample of 120 patients with high blood pressure (aged > or = 20 years), paired by gender and selected by the systematic sampling of a source population of 567 patients with high blood pressure in Cuiabá. All patients answered to home inquiries to provide sociodemographic and life habits data. The following measurements were taken: blood pressure; body mass index (BMI); waist and hip circumferences; plasma glucose, insulin, and lipid levels; homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA); C-reactive protein, uric acid and fibrinogen levels. High blood pressure criterion: average systolic blood pressure > or = 140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure > or = 90 mmHg; and Metabolic Syndrome diagnosis according to the I Brazilian Directive for Metabolic Syndrome and the NCEP-ATP III criteria. 120 patients (60 women), with high blood pressure and an average age of 58.3 +/- 12.6 years, were analyzed. We found a MS prevalence of 70.8% (95%CI 61.8 to 78.8), predominantly among women (81.7% vs. 60.0%; p=0.009), with no difference between adults (71.4%) and elderly patients (70.2%). The multiple regression analysis showed a positive association between MS and BMI > or = 25 kg/m(2), insulin resistance and family history of high blood pressure. A high prevalence of MS was observed among patients with high blood pressure living in Cuiabá, with a significant association with BMI > or = 25 kg/m(2), insulin resistance (HOMA index) and, especially, a family history of high blood pressure. These results suggest the need for deeper studies on this

  19. Age of initiation, Determinants and Prevalence of Cigarette Smoking among Teenagers in Mushin Local Government Area of Lagos State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiola, Ao; Balogun, Os; Odukoya, Oo; Olatona, Fa; Odugbemi, To; Moronkola, Rk; Solanke, Aa; Akintunde, Oj; Fatoba, Oo

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoking constitutes a major threat to the health and wellbeing of teenagers. While smoking has been on decline in the developed countries, the reverse is the case in developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine the age of initiation, determinants and prevalence of cigarette smoking among teenagers in Mushin Local Government Area of Lagos state, Nigeria. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study among 475 teenagers selected by multistage sampling. A pre-tested, structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. The study was carried out in November, 2014. Response rate was 84.6%. Mean age of the respondents was 16.4±1.65years. Range and mean age of initiation of cigarette smoking were 7 to 17 years and 12.0±3.32 years respectively. Teenagers who were above 15 years (OR:5.13, 95%CI: 0.87-30.26), males (OR:5.19, 95%CI: 1.57-17.18), married (OR:8.41, 95%CI: 1.04- 63.35), had ≤primary school education(OR:4.31, 95%CI: 1.07-17.33), influenced by friends(OR:308.84, 95%CI: 84.87-1123.81), and influenced by advertisements (OR:27.83, 95%CI: 3.92-197.64) were more likely to have initiated cigarette smoking. Furthermore, teenagers who were males (OR:12.77, 95%CI: 2.90-56.28), married (OR:19.24, 95%CI: 2.05-180.45), had ≤primary school education(OR:7.85, 95%CI: 2.37-26.01), influenced by friends(OR:28.56, 95%CI: 10.86-75.07), and influenced by advertisements (OR:5.95, 95%CI: 1.72-20.61) were more likely to be current cigarette smokers. In addition, 24.9% had initiated cigarette smoking while 14.7% were current smokers of cigarette. Mean age of initiation of cigarette smoking was 12.0±3.32 years. Determinants of cigarette smoking were age, gender, marital status, educational background, friends and advertisements. Life time prevalence of cigarette smoking was higher than prevalence of current cigarette smokers. Cigarette smoking reduction programs should take these factors into consideration.

  20. Trends in prevalence of overweight and obesity in adults in 26 Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District from 2006 to 2012.

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    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Andrade, Silvania Caribé; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Bernal, Regina Tomie Ivata; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2014-01-01

    To describe the annual evolution of the prevalence of overweight and obesity in the adult population of the 26 Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District from 2006 to 2012. Annual interviews (around 54,000 per year) from VIGITEL (Surveillance System of Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases through Telephone Interviews) were used. Self-reported weight and height were used to estimate body mass index and nutritional status. Prevalence estimates of overweight and obesity are presented according to gender, age and schooling and to each city. Linear regression model was used to evaluate the time trend of prevalence. Prevalence of overweight in adults in the 27 cities monitored by VIGITEL increased from 43.2% (2006) to 51.0% (2012), with an annual increase rate of 1.37%. Prevalence of obesity increased from 11.6% to 17.4%, with an annual increase rate of 0.89%. The study showed a statistically significant increase in the prevalence of overweight in all cities, and for both genders, all age groups and all levels of schooling. Similar trends were also verified for obesity. If the trends verified from 2006 to 2012 are maintained, in ten years, around two-thirds of the adults in Brazilian state capitals will be overweight, and a quarter will be obese. This perspective requests urgent response from government and intersectoral actions to combat the obesogenic environment.

  1. Trends in prevalence of overweight and obesity in adults in 26 Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District from 2006 to 2012

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    Deborah Carvalho Malta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the annual evolution of the prevalence of overweight and obesity in the adult population of the 26 Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District from 2006 to 2012. METHODS: Annual interviews (around 54,000 per year from VIGITEL (Surveillance System of Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases through Telephone Interviews were used. Self-reported weight and height were used to estimate body mass index and nutritional status. Prevalence estimates of overweight and obesity are presented according to gender, age and schooling and to each city. Linear regression model was used to evaluate the time trend of prevalence. RESULTS: Prevalence of overweight in adults in the 27 cities monitored by VIGITEL increased from 43.2% (2006 to 51.0% (2012, with an annual increase rate of 1.37%. Prevalence of obesity increased from 11.6% to 17.4%, with an annual increase rate of 0.89%. The study showed a statistically significant increase in the prevalence of overweight in all cities, and for both genders, all age groups and all levels of schooling. Similar trends were also verified for obesity. CONCLUSIONS: If the trends verified from 2006 to 2012 are maintained, in ten years, around two-thirds of the adults in Brazilian state capitals will be overweight, and a quarter will be obese. This perspective requests urgent response from government and intersectoral actions to combat the obesogenic environment.

  2. Coal workers' pneumoconiosis and progressive massive fibrosis are increasingly more prevalent among workers in small underground coal mines in the United States.

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    Laney, A Scott; Attfield, Michael D

    2010-06-01

    To determine whether the prevalence of coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) or progressive massive fibrosis (PMF) among United States underground miners is associated with mine size. We examined chest radiographs from 1970 to 2009 of working miners who participated in the National Coal Workers Health Surveillance Program for the presence of small and large opacities consistent with pneumoconiosis, based upon the International Labour Organization classification system. A total of 145 512 miners contributed 240 067 radiographs for analysis. From the 1990s to the 2000s, the prevalence of radiographic CWP increased among miners in mines of all sizes, while miners working in mines with fewer than 50 employees had a significantly higher prevalence of CWP compared to miners who worked in mines with 50 or more employees (pmine size was significant for all decades. Since 1999, miners from small mines were five times more likely to have radiographic evidence of PMF (1.0% of miners) compared to miners from larger mines (0.2% of miners) with a prevalence ratio of 5.0 and 95% CI 3.3 to 7.5. The prevalence of CWP among United States coal miners is increasing in mines of all sizes, while CWP and PMF are much more prevalent among workers from underground mines with fewer than 50 workers.

  3. Waist circumference, BMI and the prevalence of self-reported diabetes among the elderly of the United States and six cities of Latin America and the Caribbean.

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    Barceló, A; Gregg, E W; Pastor-Valero, M; Robles, S C

    2007-12-01

    Using data from the Salud Bienestar y Envejecimiento (SABE) project and the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2004), we examined the prevalence of obesity and diagnosed diabetes among older adults in the Americas; we also examined the association of age, sex, level of education, weight status, waist circumference, smoking, and race/ethnicity with diabetes among older adults. The prevalence of diagnosed diabetes was highest in the US Blacks and Mexican Americans, followed by Bridgetown and Mexico City (22% for each) and lowest in Santiago, Montevideo, Havana, and US Whites (13-15%). Diagnosed diabetes was significantly associated with BMI among participants from Bridgetown, Sao Paulo, and the three US ethnic groups, while it was associated with waist circumference in all sites except Mexico City. Our findings suggest major geographical and ethnic variation in the prevalence of diagnosed diabetes among older adults. Waist circumference was more consistently associated with the prevalence of diagnosed diabetes than BMI. Higher prevalences of diabetes are found among the elderly of African or Mexican descent in the United States and in other countries of the Americas when compared to the prevalence among whites in the United States and in other Latin American countries with populations of predominant Western European descent.

  4. Factors associated with history of drug use among female sex workers (FSW in a high HIV prevalence state of India

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    Medhi Gajendra

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The intersection between illicit drug use and female commercial sex work has been identified as an important factor responsible for rising HIV prevalence among female sex workers (FSW in several northeastern states of India. But, little is know about the factors associated with the use of drugs among FSWs in this region. The objective of the paper was to describe the factors associated with history of drug use among FSWs in Dimapur, an important commercial hub of Nagaland, which is a high HIV prevalence state of India. Methods FSWs were recruited using respondent driven sampling (RDS, and were interviewed to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics and HIV risk behaviours. Biological samples were tested for HIV, syphilis gonorrhea and Chlamydia. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with drug use. Results Among the 426 FSWs in the study, about 25% (n = 107 reported having ever used illicit drugs. Among 107 illicit drug users, 83 (77.6% were non-injecting and 24 (22.4% were injecting drug users. Drug-using FSWs were significantly more likely to test positive for one or more STIs (59% vs. 33.5%, active syphilis (27.1% vs. 11.4% and Chlamydia infection (30% vs. 19.9% compared to their non-drug using peers. Drug-using FSWs were also significantly more likely to be currently married, widowed or separated compared with non-drug-using FSWs. In multiple logistic regression analysis, being an alcohol user, being married, having a larger volume of clients, and having sexual partners who have ever used or shared injecting drugs were found to be independently associated with illicit drug use. Conclusions Drug-using FSWs were more vulnerable to STIs including HIV compared to their non-drug using peers. Several important factors associated with being an FSW who uses drugs were identified in this study and this knowledge can be used to plan more effectively targeted harm reduction strategies

  5. Prevalence of avian haematozoa in São Paulo state, Brazil Prevalência de hematozoários de aves do Estado de São Paulo, Brazil

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    C. B. Woodworth-Lynas

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available The blood parasites of 15,574 birds representing 266 species of 43 families from primarily three areas in São Paulo State, Brazil were examined for haematozoa. Only 1240 (8.0% of 121 species fo 32 families were infected with blood parasites. This prevalence was similar to that reported in a previous study. Species of Haemoproteus were the most commonly encountered haematozoans (38.9%, followed by microfilaria (30.7%, Trypanosoma (13.7%, Plasmodium (7.5% and Leucocytozoon (0.8%. Prevalence of parasitism was significantly different between the three major areas sampled. It was shown that this was due in part to differences in the avifaunas at both the familial and species levels. Prevalence varied markedly in only one of the 10 years of the study. Monthly fluctuations in prevalence were largely due to changes in relative proportions of highlytion of both. Prevalences of both microfilaria and Trypanosoma were higher than reported for any other similar survey in the world.Analisamos o sangue de 15.574 aves que representam 266 espécies entre 43 famílias, para revelar a presença de hematozoários. Somente 1.240 (8,0% de 121 espécies entre 32 famílias estavam infectadas com parasitas sanguíneos. Esta prevalência era semelhante àquele relatada em estudos anteriores. Espécies de Haemoproteus foram os hematozomas mais comuns encontrados (38,9%, seguidos por microfilária (30,7% - Trypanosoma (13,7%, Plasmodium (7,5% e Leucocytozoon (0,8%. A prevalência do prasitismo foi significativamente diferente nas amostras das três áreas maiores. Foi demonstrado que isto se deve em parte às diferenças da avifauna, tanto no que se refere às famílias, como às espécies. A prevalência só variou significativamente num dos anos, durante os dez do estudo. As altas flutuações mensais de prevalência foram devidas a alterações nas proporções relativas das famílias aviárias que apresentaram níveis altos e baixos de infecção, entre os meses ou

  6. Reduced Prevalence of Obesity in 14 Disadvantaged Black Communities in the United States: A Successful 4-Year Place-Based Participatory Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Youlian; Siegel, Paul Z; Garraza, Lucas G; Xu, Ye; Yin, Shaoman; Scardaville, Melissa; Gebreselassie, Tesfayi; Stephens, Robert L

    2016-08-01

    To assess the impact of a large-scale place-based intervention on obesity prevalence in Black communities. The Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health across the United States (REACH US) project was conducted in 14 predominantly Black communities in California, Illinois, Massachusetts, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Virginia, Washington, and West Virginia. We measured trends from 2009 to 2012 in the prevalence of obesity. We used Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data to compare these trends with trends among non-Hispanic Whites and non-Hispanic Blacks in the United States and in the 10 states where REACH communities were located, and with a propensity score-matched national sample of non-Hispanic Blacks. The age-standardized prevalence of obesity decreased in REACH US communities (P = .045), but not in the comparison populations (P = .435 to P = .996). The relative change was -5.3% in REACH US communities versus +2.4% in propensity score-matched controls (P value for the difference = .031). The net effect on the reduction of obesity prevalence was about 1 percentage point per year for REACH. Obesity prevalence was reduced in 14 disadvantaged Black communities that participated in the REACH project.

  7. Prevalence of anti-pestivirus antibodies and risk factors in dairy goats from the semiarid region of Paraíba State, Northeastern Brazil

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    Maria Luana Cristiny Rodrigues Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available t The aim of this survey was to determine the prevalence of anti-pestivirus antibodies in dairy goats from the semiarid region of the Paraíba state, Northeastern Brazil, as well as to identify risk factors associated with the flock-level prevalence. A total of 1,092 dairy goats from 110 flocks randomly selected in the county of Monteiro, Paraíba state, during March 2009 to March 2010, were used. In each selected flock a epidemiological questionnaire was applied to verify the occurrence of possible factors that could be associated with the flock-level prevalence. For the serological diagnosis of Pestivirus infection the serum neutralization test, using the BVDV-1 NADL strain, was carried out. Flock-level prevalence was 6.36% (95% CI = 2.60% – 12.67% and animal-level prevalence was 0.82% (95% CI = 0.38% – 1.56%. Not to perform vermifugation (odds ratio = 10.49; p = 0.035 and to perform navel cut and disinfection (odds ratio = 12.73; p = 0.034 were identified as risk factors. These results indicate viral circulation in dairy goats in the semiarid region of the Paraíba state.

  8. Prevalence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections among men and women entering the National Job Training Program--United States, 2004-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Heather; Satterwhite, Catherine Lindsey

    2012-01-01

    National notifiable disease data indicate that there were 99 cases of gonorrhea for every 100,000 persons in the United States in 2009, the lowest recorded gonorrhea rate in US history. However, the extent to which declining case reports signify a reduction in prevalence is unknown. Gonorrhea prevalence was estimated among 16- to 24-year-old men and women entering the National Job Training Program (NJTP) between 2004 and 2009. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the probability of testing positive for gonorrhea over time. A total of 95,184 men and 91,697 women were screened for gonorrhea upon entry to the NJTP between 2004 and 2009. For women, gonorrhea prevalence increased from 2004 (2.6%) to 2006 (2.9%), then decreased steadily through 2009 (1.8%). For men, prevalence increased from 2004 (1.3%) to 2005 (1.6%), then decreased through 2009 (0.9%). Gonorrhea prevalence among black women decreased from 3.6% in 2004 to 2.5% in 2009 and was 2 to 4 times higher than prevalence among white women. Likewise, prevalence among black men decreased from 2.0% to 1.5% and was 8 to 22 times higher than prevalence among white men. After adjusting for gonorrhea risk factors, the odds of women and men testing positive for gonorrhea decreased by 50% and 40%, respectively, from 2004 to 2009. Declining trends in gonorrhea infection among NJTP entrants are similar to those observed in gonorrhea case report data, suggesting that the decrease in case reports is due to a decrease in prevalence. However, targeted interventions are needed to reduce gonorrhea infections in populations with disproportionate risk.

  9. Diabetes and Hypertension Prevalence in Homeless Adults in the United States: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurer, Linda N.; Plumb, Ellen J.; Jackson, Jeffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    We estimated hypertension and diabetes prevalence among US homeless adults compared with the general population, and investigated prevalence trends. We systematically searched 5 databases for published studies (1980–2014) that included hypertension or diabetes prevalence for US homeless adults, pooled disease prevalence, and explored heterogeneity sources. We used the National Health Interview Survey for comparison. We included data from 97 366 homeless adults. The pooled prevalence of self-reported hypertension was 27.0% (95% confidence interval = 23.8%, 29.9%; n = 43 studies) and of diabetes was 8.0% (95% confidence interval = 6.8%, 9.2%; n = 39 studies). We found no difference in hypertension or diabetes prevalence between the homeless and general population. Additional health care and housing resources are needed to meet the significant, growing burden of chronic disease in the homeless population. PMID:25521899

  10. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections among young married women in Thiruvarur district of Tamil Nadu state in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejoice Puthuchira Ravi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs are now recognized as a serious global threat to the health of population. Objectives: To assess the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections among young married scheduled castes women in Thiruvarur district of Tamilnadu state in India. Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in 28 villages selected using multistage sampling technique for selecting 605 women in the age group of 15-24 years during July 2010-April 2011. Data analysis was by use of SPSS version-17, with statistical significance set at p-value of 0.05. Results: Around 8.8% of women experienced sexually transmitted infections among the study population. The proportion of women who experienced STIs was seven times higher among illiterates (46.9% than women who completed secondary education (6%. The women in households in the high standard of living index (SLI were less likely to experience STIs (1.7% than women in low SLI (15.6%. The agricultural laborers were 1.145 times more likely to experience STIs than non-agricultural workers (OR=0.251. Conclusions: The main causes for sexual health problems were found to be the less education and lowest SLI among women. It is recommended that policy makers should be introduce community intervention programs to increase the awareness regarding sexual health issues among rural population. 

  11. Prevalence of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in sheep and dogs from Guarapuava farms, Paraná State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanelli, P R; Freire, R L; Vidotto, O; Marana, E R M; Ogawa, L; De Paula, V S O; Garcia, J L; Navarro, I T

    2007-04-01

    Sheep and dog blood samples were collected from nine farms in the county of Guarapuava, Paraná, Brazil. The indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) was used to detect Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies. Herein, serum samples from 305 sheep were evaluated, being 29 (9.5%) and 157 (51.5%) seropositives to N. caninum and T. gondii, respectively. Seven (29.1%) and five (20.8%) out of 24 dogs were seropositives to N. caninum and T. gondii, respectively. There were no differences among the sheep serology for N. caninum and reproductive problems, management and animal feeding variables, neurological problems and presence of other animals species on the farm (P>or=0.05). The simultaneous frequency of antibodies between N. caninum and T. gondii was 5.2% in the herds. Age, breed, farm size, semi-intensive activity, mineral salt supplementation, water origin, stage of the pregnancy when reproduction problems occurred, neurological problems in lambs, presence of rodents in the food room and pasture cat access were identified as associated factors for the occurrence of toxoplasmosis in sheep (Pdogs for N. caninum and T. gondii and breed, age and sex (P>or=0.05). The present work is the first report on serum prevalence of N. caninum in sheep from the state of Paraná, Brazil.

  12. An ecological study of food desert prevalence and 4th grade academic achievement in New York State school districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth E. Frndak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. This ecological study examines the relationship between food desert prevalence and academic achievement at the school district level. Design and methods. Sample included 232 suburban and urban school districts in New York State. Multiple open-source databases were merged to obtain: 4th grade science, English and math scores, school district demographic composition (NYS Report Card, regional socioeconomic indicators (American Community Survey, school district quality (US Common Core of Data, and food desert data (USDA Food Desert Atlas. Multiple regression models assessed the percentage of variation in achievement scores explained by food desert variables, after controlling for additional predictors.Results. The proportion of individuals living in food deserts significantly explained 4th grade achievement scores, after accounting for additional predictors. School districts with higher proportions of individuals living in food desert regions demonstrated lower 4th grade achievement across science, English and math. Conclusions. Food deserts appear to be related to academic achievement at the school district level among urban and suburban regions. Further research is needed to better understand how food access is associated with academic achievement at the individual level.

  13. Prevalence and pattern of rape among girls and women attending Enugu State University Teaching Hospital, southeast Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohayi, Robsam S; Ezugwu, Euzebus C; Chigbu, Chibuike O; Arinze-Onyia, Susan U; Iyoke, Chukwuemeka A

    2015-07-01

    To determine the prevalence and pattern of rape in Enugu, southeast Nigeria. A prospective descriptive study was conducted among female survivors of rape who presented at the emergency gynecologic and/or forensic unit of Enugu State University Teaching Hospital between February 2012 and July 2013. Data were collected via a pretested interviewer-administered questionnaire. Among 1374 gynecologic emergencies, there were 121 (8.8%) rape cases. The mean age of the rape survivors was 13.1±8.1 years. Ninety (74.4%) survivors were younger than 18 years. At least 72 hours had passed since the rape for 74 (61.2%) cases. The perpetrator was known to 74 (82.2%) patients younger than 18 years and 18 (58.1%) aged at least 18 years (P=0.013). The location of the rape was the bush or an uncompleted building for 36 (29.8%) and the perpetrator's residence for another 36 (29.8%). Four (3.3%) individuals became pregnant after the rape. A considerable proportion of patients with gynecologic emergencies had been raped. Individuals should be encouraged to report to the hospital quickly to prevent unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Child Physical Abuse Prevalence, Characteristics, Predictors, and Beliefs about Parent-Child Violence in South Asian, Middle Eastern, East Asian, and Latina Women in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maker, Azmaira H.; Shah, Priti V.; Agha, Zia

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined the prevalence, characteristics, beliefs, and demographic predictors of parent-child physical violence among South Asian, Middle Eastern, East Asian, and Latina women in the United States. Two hundred fifty-one college-educated women from a middle to high SES (South Asian/Middle Eastern, n = 93; East Asian, n = 72;…

  15. Prevalence and Correlates of Elopement in a Nationally Representative Sample of Children with Developmental Disabilities in the United States.

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    Bridget Kiely

    Full Text Available Despite increased awareness and concern about children with developmental disabilities wandering away from adult supervision, there is a paucity of research about elopement. This is the first study to examine and report the prevalence and correlates of elopement in a nationally representative sample of school-age children in the United States with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD and/or cognitive impairment. Data were obtained from the CDC's "Pathways" Survey, a follow-up telephone survey of the parents of 4,032 children with a developmental condition. 3,518 children that had ASD, intellectual disability (ID, and/or developmental delay (DD at the time of survey administration were included for analysis. Children were divided into three condition groups: ASD-only; ID/DD-only; ASD+ID/DD. Logistic regression analyses were used to compare the prevalence of elopement and rates of preventive measure use (barriers and/or electronic devices across condition groups, and to examine the clinical and demographic correlates of elopement. T-tests were also performed to compare scores on the Children's Social Behavior Questionnaire (CSBQ between wanderers and non-wanderers. Overall, 26.7% of children had reportedly eloped within the previous year, most commonly from public places. Children with ASD-only and ASD+ID/DD were more likely to have eloped than those with ID/DD-only. Across all groups, wanderers scored higher than non-wanderers on five out of six CSBQ subscales; they were more likely not to realize when there is danger, to have difficulty distinguishing between strangers and familiar people, to show sudden mood changes, to over-react to everything/everyone, to get angry quickly, to get lost easily, and to panic in new situations or if change occurs. Even after controlling for elopement history, parents of children in the ASD+ID/DD group were more likely than those in the other condition groups to report using physical or electronic measures to prevent

  16. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella isolated from a poultry farm and processing plant environment in the state of Kuwait

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Zenki, Sameer; Al-Nasser, Affaf; Al-Safar, AbdulAmir

    2007-01-01

    rates of 10%, 1.5%, 0.7%, 0.2%, 13.5%, and 12.6% for hatching eggs, litter, feed, drinkers, bird rinse and ceca, respectively. No Salmonella were detected in any of the paper liner, water, or air samples. Out of 360 samples collected from the processing plant, the overall percentage prevalence...... the farm included hatching eggs, paper liners, litter, feed, water, drinkers, air, bird rinse, and ceca. While samples collected from the processing plant included carcass rinse and ceca. Out of 2882 samples collected from the farm, the overall percentage prevalence of Salmonella was 5.4% with prevalence...... of Salmonella was 4.7% with prevalence rates of 6.1% and 3.3% for carcass rinse and ceca samples, respectively. Salmonella Enteritidis was the most prevalent serotype. All of the isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic and 10 different resistance profiles were found among 173 isolates of Salmonella...

  17. Chlamydia prevalence among women and men entering the National Job Training Program: United States, 2003-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterwhite, Catherine Lindsey; Tian, Lin H; Braxton, Jimmy; Weinstock, Hillard

    2010-02-01

    To analyze 5-year prevalence trends in Chlamydia trachomatis infections among high-risk young men and women aged 16 to 24 years entering the National Job Training Program, where universal screening is required. Entrance exams conducted in over 100 National Job Training Program centers from 2003 to 2007 were considered. Women provided cervical specimens tested using either a DNA hybridization probe (PACE 2, Gen-Probe, San Diego, CA) or a strand displacement amplification test (SDA, BD ProbeTec ET, Becton-Dickinson, Sparks, MD). In the absence of a pelvic exam, urine specimens were tested using SDA. PACE 2 testing was performed predominately from 2002 to 2005; from 2005 to 2007, SDA was used. All male testing was conducted using SDA on urine specimens. Chlamydia prevalence trends were assessed for women and men, using logistic regression models. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR), 95% confidence intervals (CI), and P-values were calculated. Approximately 15,000 women and 30,000 men were screened annually for chlamydia. Among both sexes, adjusted prevalence declined significantly from 2003 to 2007. In 2003, crude prevalence among women was 9.9%; in 2007, prevalence was 13.7%. However, after controlling for covariates, including increasingly sensitive tests, the model indicated a significant declining prevalence trend (AOR: 0.95, CI: 0.93-0.97, 4.6% decrease in odds per year). Among men, crude prevalence in 2003 was 8.4%; in 2007, prevalence was 8.3%; after controlling for possible confounding, a significant decline in prevalence was also detected (AOR: 0.98, CI: 0.96-0.99, 1.9% decrease in odds per year). In a relatively stable, high-risk population of young women and men, adjusted chlamydia prevalence declined from 2003 to 2007. Test technology plays a critical role in interpreting rates and should be considered whenever chlamydia rates are examined.

  18. A Bayesian spatio-temporal model for forecasting the prevalence of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi, causative agent of Lyme disease, in domestic dogs within the contiguous United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella C Watson

    Full Text Available This paper models the prevalence of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in domestic dogs in the United States using climate, geographic, and societal factors. We then use this model to forecast the prevalence of antibodies to B. burgdorferi in dogs for 2016. The data available for this study consists of 11,937,925 B. burgdorferi serologic test results collected at the county level within the 48 contiguous United States from 2011-2015. Using the serologic data, a baseline B. burgdorferi antibody prevalence map was constructed through the use of spatial smoothing techniques after temporal aggregation; i.e., head-banging and Kriging. In addition, several covariates purported to be associated with B. burgdorferi prevalence were collected on the same spatio-temporal granularity, and include forestation, elevation, water coverage, temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, population density, and median household income. A Bayesian spatio-temporal conditional autoregressive (CAR model was used to analyze these data, for the purposes of identifying significant risk factors and for constructing disease forecasts. The fidelity of the forecasting technique was assessed using historical data, and a Lyme disease forecast for dogs in 2016 was constructed. The correlation between the county level model and baseline B. burgdorferi antibody prevalence estimates from 2011 to 2015 is 0.894, illustrating that the Bayesian spatio-temporal CAR model provides a good fit to these data. The fidelity of the forecasting technique was assessed in the usual fashion; i.e., the 2011-2014 data was used to forecast the 2015 county level prevalence, with comparisons between observed and predicted being made. The weighted (to acknowledge sample size correlation between 2015 county level observed prevalence and 2015 forecasted prevalence is 0.978. A forecast for the prevalence of B. burgdorferi antibodies in domestic dogs in 2016 is also provided. The forecast presented from

  19. The Recent Prevalence of Osteoporosis and Low Bone Mass in the United States Based on Bone Mineral Density at the Femoral Neck or Lumbar Spine1

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Nicole C; Looker, Anne C; Saag, Kenneth G; Curtis, Jeffrey R; Delzell, Elizabeth S; Randall, Susan; Dawson-Hughes, Bess

    2014-01-01

    The goal of our study was to estimate the prevalence of osteoporosis and low bone mass based on bone mineral density (BMD) at the femoral neck and the lumbar spine in adults 50 years and older in the United States (US). We applied prevalence estimates of osteoporosis or low bone mass at the femoral neck or lumbar spine (adjusted by age, sex, and race/ethnicity to the 2010 Census) for the non-institutionalized population age 50 years and older from the National Health and Nutrition Examination...

  20. A prospective echocardiographic evaluation of pulmonary hypertension in chronic hemodialysis patients in the United States: prevalence and clinical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumudha Ramasubbu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Kumudha Ramasubbu1, Anita Deswal1, Cheryl Herdejurgen2, David Aguilar1, Adaani E Frost21Section of Cardiology, Michael E DeBakey VA Medical Center and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA; 2Section of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USABackground: Pulmonary hypertension (PH, a disease which carries substantial morbidity and mortality, has been reported to occur in 25%–45% of dialysis patients. No prospective evaluation of the prevalence or clinical significance of PH in chronic dialysis patients in the United States (US has been undertaken.Methods: Echocardiograms were performed prospectively in chronic hemodialysis patients prior to dialysis at a single dialysis center. PH was defined as a tricuspid regurgitant jet ≥2.5 m/s and “more severe PH” as ≥3.0 m/s. Clinical outcomes recovered were all-cause hospitalizations and death at 12 months.Results: In a cohort of 90 patients, 42 patients (47% met the definition of PH. Of those, 18 patients (20% met the definition of more severe PH. At 12 months, mortality was significantly higher in patients with PH (26% compared with patients without PH (6%. All-cause hospitalizations were similar in patients with PH and without PH. Echocardiographic findings suggesting impaired left ventricular function and elevated pulmonary capillary wedge pressure were significantly associated with PH.Conclusion: This prospective cross-sectional study of a single dialysis unit suggests that PH may be present in nearly half of US dialysis patients and when present is associated with increased mortality. Echocardiographic findings demonstrate an association between elevated filling pressures, elevated pulmonary artery pressures, and higher mortality, suggesting that the PH may be secondary to diastolic dysfunction and compounded by volume overload.Keywords: renal failure, pulmonary hypertension, diastolic dysfunction

  1. Trends in the Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment, and Control of Hypertension Among Young Adults in the United States, 1999 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiyi; Moran, Andrew E

    2017-10-01

    Overall hypertension prevalence has not changed in the United States in recent decades although awareness, treatment, and control improved. However, hypertension epidemiology and its temporal trends may differ in younger adults compared with older adults. Our study included 41 331 participants ≥18 years of age from 8 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (1999-2014) and estimated temporal trends of hypertension, awareness, treatment, and control among young adults (age, 18-39 years) compared with middle-age (age, 40-59 years) and older adults (age, ≥60 years). In 2013 to 2014, 7.3% of the US young adults had hypertension. During 1999 to 2014, young adults saw larger increases in hypertension awareness, treatment, and control than did older adults. However, all of these components of hypertension control were lower among young adults compared with middle-aged or older adults (74.7% younger versus 81.9% middle versus 88.4% older for awareness; 50.0% versus 70.3% versus 83.0% for treatment; and 40.2% versus 56.7% versus 54.4% for control). Worse hypertension awareness, treatment, and control in young adults overall were mostly driven by worse measures in young adult men compared with young adult women. More frequent healthcare visits by young adult women explained ≈28% of the sex-related difference in awareness, 60% of the difference in treatment, and 52% of the difference in control. These findings suggest that improved access to and engagement in medical care might improve hypertension control in young adults, particularly young adult men, and reduce life-time cardiovascular risk. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Prevalence and correlates of the perpetration of cyberbullying among in-school adolescents in Oyo State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olumide, Adesola O; Adams, Patricia; Amodu, Olukemi K

    2016-05-01

    Cyberharassment/cyberbullying is a global problem that has been inadequately investigated in developing countries. In this paper, we present findings on the prevalence and predictors of perpetration of cyberbullying among in-school adolescents in Oyo state, Nigeria. A total of 653 students were selected via multi-stage sampling. Information on history of perpetrating harassment via an electronic medium in the 3-month period preceding the survey was obtained. Respondents' mean age was 14.2±2.2 years and 51.3% were females. All respondents had personal mobile phones and about half had Internet access. About 40% accessed the Internet every day while about 48% accessed it at least once to several times a week and <5% accessed it about once every 2 weeks. One hundred and fifty-six (23.9%) had harassed someone electronically, 260 (39.8%) had been victimized, and 137 (21.0%) were both victims and perpetrators. Common modes of harassment were via phone calls 99 (63.5%), chat rooms 70 (44.9%), and text messages 60 (38.5%). Students who had been victims of cyberbullying (OR=21.76, 95% CI=12.64-37.47) and those with daily Internet access (OR=2.32, 95% CI=1.28-4.19) had significantly higher Oods of being perpetrators. About a quarter of students were perpetrators of cyberbullying, and the correlates of perpetration were history of cyber victimization and daily Internet access. Intervention programs must be instituted for victims as well as frequent users of the Internet to curb the problem in the study area.

  3. Change in Obesity Prevalence across the United States Is Influenced by Recreational and Healthcare Contexts, Food Environments, and Hispanic Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Candice A; Slack, Tim; Martin, Corby K; Broyles, Stephanie T; Heymsfield, Steven B

    2016-01-01

    To examine change in county-level adult obesity prevalence between 2004 and 2009 and identify associated community characteristics. Change in county-level adult (≥20 years) obesity prevalence was calculated for a 5-year period (2004-2009). Community measures of economic, healthcare, recreational, food environment, population structure, and education contexts were also calculated. Regression analysis was used to assess community characteristics associated (pobesity prevalence. Mean±SD change in obesity prevalence was 5.1±2.4%. Obesity prevalence decreased in 1.4% (n = 44) and increased in 98% (n = 3,060) of counties from 2004-2009. Results showed that both baseline levels and increases in physically inactive adults were associated with greater increases in obesity prevalence, while baseline levels of and increases in physician density and grocery store/supercenter density were related to smaller increases in obesity rates. Baseline levels of the Hispanic population share were negatively linked to changing obesity levels, while places with greater Hispanic population growth saw greater increases in obesity. Most counties in the U.S. experienced increases in adult obesity prevalence from 2004 to 2009. Findings suggest that community-based interventions targeting adult obesity need to incorporate a range of community factors, such as levels of physical inactivity, access to physicians, availability of food outlets, and ethnic/racial population composition.

  4. Point prevalence and incidence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in captive elephants in the United States of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Melissa; Isaza, Ramiro; Prins, Cindy; Hernandez, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Captive elephants infected with tuberculosis are implicated as an occupational source of zoonotic tuberculosis. However, accurate estimates of prevalence and incidence of elephant tuberculosis from well-defined captive populations are lacking in the literature. Studies published in recent years contain a wide range of prevalence estimates calculated from summary data. Incidence estimates of elephant tuberculosis in captive elephants are not available. This study estimated the annual point prevalence, annual incidence, cumulative incidence, and incidence density of tuberculosis in captive elephants within the USA during the past 52 years. We combined existing elephant census records from captive elephants in the USA with tuberculosis culture results obtained from trunk washes or at necropsy. This data set included 15 years where each elephant was screened annually. Between 1960 and 1996, the annual point prevalence of tuberculosis complex mycobacteria for both species was 0. From 1997 through 2011, the median point prevalence within the Asian elephant population was 5.1%, with a range from 0.3% to 6.7%. The incidence density was 9.7 cases/1000 elephant years (95% CI: 7.0-13.4). In contrast, the annual point prevalence during the same time period within the African elephant population remained 0 and the incidence density was 1.5 cases/1000 elephant years (95% CI: 0.7-4.0). The apparent increase in new cases noted after 1996 resulted from a combination of both index cases and the initiation of mandatory annual tuberculosis screening in 1997 for all the elephants. This study found lower annual point prevalence estimates than previously reported in the literature. These discrepancies in prevalence estimates are primarily due to differences in terminology and calculation methods. Using the same intensive testing regime, the incidence of tuberculosis differed significantly between Asian and African elephants. Accurate and species specific knowledge of prevalence and

  5. The Prevalence of Sexual Behavior Stigma Affecting Gay Men and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men Across Sub-Saharan Africa and in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahlman, Shauna; Sanchez, Travis Howard; Sullivan, Patrick Sean; Ketende, Sosthenes; Lyons, Carrie; Charurat, Manhattan E; Drame, Fatou Maria; Diouf, Daouda; Ezouatchi, Rebecca; Kouanda, Seni; Anato, Simplice; Mothopeng, Tampose; Mnisi, Zandile; Baral, Stefan David

    2016-07-26

    There has been increased attention for the need to reduce stigma related to sexual behaviors among gay men and other men who have sex with men (MSM) as part of comprehensive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention and treatment programming. However, most studies focused on measuring and mitigating stigma have been in high-income settings, challenging the ability to characterize the transferability of these findings because of lack of consistent metrics across settings. The objective of these analyses is to describe the prevalence of sexual behavior stigma in the United States, and to compare the prevalence of sexual behavior stigma between MSM in Southern and Western Africa and in the United States using consistent metrics. The same 13 sexual behavior stigma items were administered in face-to-face interviews to 4285 MSM recruited in multiple studies from 2013 to 2016 from 7 Sub-Saharan African countries and to 2590 MSM from the 2015 American Men's Internet Survey (AMIS), an anonymous Web-based behavioral survey. We limited the study sample to men who reported anal sex with a man at least once in the past 12 months and men who were aged 18 years and older. Unadjusted and adjusted prevalence ratios were used to compare the prevalence of stigma between groups. Within the United States, prevalence of sexual behavior stigma did not vary substantially by race/ethnicity or geographic region except in a few instances. Feeling afraid to seek health care, avoiding health care, feeling like police refused to protect, being blackmailed, and being raped were more commonly reported in rural versus urban settings in the United States (Pharassment as the most common form of stigma. Disclosure of same-sex practices to family members increased prevalence of reported stigma from family members within all geographic settings (Psexual behavior stigma among MSM in the United States appears to have a high absolute burden and similar pattern as the same forms of stigma reported by

  6. PREVALENCE OF SOME DISEASES OF DOGS AND CATS AT THE STATE GOVERNMENT VETERINARY CLINIC IN MAIDUGURI (NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. William, S.U.R. Chaudhari1 and N.N. Atsandac2

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available A 3-year (retrospective study was conducted to determine the prevalence of diseases; clinical conditions of dogs and cats presented at the Government Veterinary Clinic, Maiduguri from January 1995 to December 1997. The prevalent diseases; conditions of dogs included helminthosis (19.19%, accidental injury (18.18%, tick infestation ( 15.15% , canine distemper (8.42% , diarrhoea ( 6.73%, mange ( 7.41%, rabies (5.05% and babesiosis (4.71%, Prevalent diseases/conditions of cats included helminthosis (26.67%. tick infestation ( 8.89%. diarrhea ( 16.67%, nutritional deficiencies ( 15.56% and respiratory infections ( 12.22%. Of highest prevalence in both dogs and cats was helminthosis (20.93%, followed by tick infestation (13. 70% and diarrhea (9.04% suggesting a poor husbandy of these pets in Maiduguri area. Cases of automobile accidental injury of dogs were also high, probably due to the same factors of poor husbandry.

  7. Prevalence of physician-diagnosed systemic lupus erythematosus in the United States: results from the third national health and nutrition examination survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Michael M

    2004-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of physician-diagnosed systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in a national population-based sample in the United States. Data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) were used to estimate the prevalence of self-reported physician-diagnosed SLE. Adult participants (age > or = 17; sample n = 20,050) were asked if they had been diagnosed with SLE by a physician. All medications currently being taken by survey participants were recorded. Two definitions were used to classify participants with SLE: self-reported physician diagnosis and self-reported physician diagnosis and a current prescription for antimalarials, corticosteroids, or other immunosuppressive medications. The prevalence of SLE in adults age > or = 17 based on self-reported physician diagnosis was 241 per 100,000 (95% confidence interval [CI] 130-352). The prevalence of SLE in adults age > or = 17 based on self-reported physician diagnosis and current prescription for antimalarials, corticosteroids, or immunosuppressive medications was 53.6 per 100,000 (95% CI 12.2-95.0). Among adult women, the prevalence of treated SLE was 100 per 100,000 (95% CI 19.8-179.3). Projecting a prevalence of 100 per 100,000 to the population of the United States, approximately 108,300 adult women had a self-reported physician diagnosis of SLE and were receiving specific treatment in 2000. This estimate is a reasonable lower boundary, as it does not include undiagnosed persons or those not being treated with antimalarials, corticosteroids, or immunosuppressive medications.

  8. Prevalence of hypertension in three rural communities of Ife North Local Government Area of Osun State, South West Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebayo, Rasaaq A; Balogun, Michael O; Adedoyin, Rufus A; Obashoro-John, Oluwayemisi A; Bisiriyu, Luqman A; Abiodun, Olugbenga O

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of hypertension is increasing rapidly in sub-Saharan Africa, but data are limited on hypertension prevalence. In addition, few population-based studies have been conducted recently in Nigeria on the prevalence and correlates of hypertension in both urban and rural communities. Therefore, we determined the prevalence of hypertension in adults in the three rural communities of Ipetumodu, Edunabon, and Moro, in South West Nigeria. One thousand adults between 15 and 90 years of age were recruited into this cross-sectional study, over a 6-month period, using a multistage proportional stratified random sampling technique. Sociodemographic data and anthropometric variables were obtained, and resting blood pressure (BP) was measured using an electronic sphygmomanometer. Diagnosis of hypertension was based on the JNC VII guidelines, the WHO/ISH 1999 guidelines, and the BP threshold of 160/95 mmHg. Four hundred and eighty-six men (48.6%) men and 514 women (51.4%) participated in the study. Their mean age, weight, height, and body mass index were 32.3±14.7 years, 62±13 kg, 1.5±0.1 m, and 23.02 kg/m(2), respectively. The prevalence of hypertension, based on the 140/90 mmHg definition, was 26.4% (Male: 27.3%; Female: 25.4%). The prevalence of hypertension, based on the 160/95 mmHg definition, was 11.8% (Male: 13.5%; Female: 10.1%). There were significant positive correlations between BP and some anthropometric indicators of obesity. The prevalence of hypertension in the three rural communities was 26.4%, indicating a trend towards increasing prevalence of hypertension. There was also a significant positive correlation between anthropometric indicators of obesity and BP in this population.

  9. Prevalence and effect of schistosome and soil-transmitted helminth infection on labour input in rice-growing communities of Ogun State, Nigeria

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    Sammy Olufemi Sam-Wobo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH are public health problems in communities which lack basic social amenities with poor hygienic conditions. Studies were carried out to determine the prevalence and effect of schistosomes and soil-transmitted helminths infection on labour input on rice production in 9 rice-growing communities of Ogun State. Parasitological examinations of urine and faecal samples, and structured questionnaires were conducted on 243 consented individuals from May 2009 to March 2010. The results showed an overall prevalence of 17% for Ascaris lumbricoides, 12% for hookworms, 2% for Trichuris trichiura, 1% for Schistosoma haematobium and 1% for Schistosoma mansoni. A. lumbricoides and hookworms were more prevalent in Agbajege (25%, and varied in the other 8 communities. T. trichiura was prevalent in three communities, Agbajege (5%, Akodu (4.2%, and Moloko-Asipa (4.8 %; S. haematobium was prevalent only in Ayedere (2.6% and Lufoko (8%, while S. mansoni was prevalent only in Moloko-Asipa (9.5%. Infections among the gender were varied as 26.3 % of males and 33.8 % of females had an overall prevalence of: A. lumbricoides (16.8%, hookworms (11.8%, T. trichiura (1.6%, S. haematobium (1.1% and S. mansoni (1.1%. On frequency of infection to incapacitation per year, 45% of respondents were incapacitated 1-2 times, 27% 3-4 times and 19% were incapacitated more than 4 times. Understanding the effect of these two diseases will not only improve the health status of residents but also increase their productivity and ensure food security.

  10. Unemployment in the United States after traumatic brain injury for working-age individuals: prevalence and associated factors 2 years postinjury.

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    Cuthbert, Jeffrey P; Harrison-Felix, Cynthia; Corrigan, John D; Bell, Jeneita M; Haarbauer-Krupa, Juliet K; Miller, A Cate

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of unemployment and part-time employment in the United States for working-age individuals completing rehabilitation for a primary diagnosis of traumatic brain injury (TBI) between 2001 and 2010. Secondary data analysis. Acute inpatient rehabilitation facilities. Patients aged 16 to 60 years at injury who completed inpatient rehabilitation for TBI between 2001 and 2010. Unemployment; Part-time employment. The prevalence of unemployment for persons in the selected cohort was 60.4% at 2-year postinjury. Prevalence of unemployment at 2-year postinjury was significantly associated with the majority of categories of age group, race, gender, marital status, primary inpatient rehabilitation payment source, education, preinjury vocational status, length of stay, and Disability Rating Scale. The direction of association for the majority of these variables complement previous research in this area, with only Hispanic ethnicity and the FIM Cognitive subscale demonstrating disparate findings. For those employed at 2-year postinjury, the prevalence of part-time employment was 35.0%. The model of prevalence for part-time employment at 2-year postinjury was less robust, with significant relationships with some categorical components of age group, gender, marital status, primary payment source, preinjury vocational status, and Disability Rating Scale. The prevalence of unemployment for patients completing inpatient rehabilitation for TBI was substantial (60.4%). The majority of factors found to associate with 2 years' unemployment were complementary of previously published research; however, these were often smaller in magnitude than previous reports. The prevalence of part-time employment was also an issue for this cohort and included 35.0% of all employed individuals. In regard to the determination of factors associated with part-time employment, additional analyses that include more fine-grained factors associated with employment, including physical

  11. Prevalence of Hospitalized Live Births Affected by Alcohol and Drugs and Parturient Women Diagnosed with Substance Abuse at Liveborn Delivery: United States, 1999–2008

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    Pan, I-Jen; Yi, Hsiao-ye

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe prevalence trends in hospitalized live births affected by placental transmission of alcohol and drugs, as well as prevalence trends among parturient women hospitalized for liveborn delivery and diagnosed with substance abuse problems in the United States from 1999 to 2008. Comparison of the two sets of trends helps determine whether the observed changes in neonatal problems over time were caused by shifts in maternal substance abuse problems. Methods This study independently identified hospitalized live births and maternal live born deliveries from discharge records in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, one of the largest hospital administrative databases. Substance-related diagnosis codes on the records were used to identify live births affected by alcohol and drugs and parturient women with substance abuse problems. The analysis calculated prevalence differences and percentage changes over the 10 years, with Loess curves fitted to 10-year prevalence estimates to depict trend patterns. Linear and quadratic trends in prevalence were simultaneously tested using logistic regression analyses. The study also examined data on costs, primary expected payer, and length of hospital stays. Results From 1999 to 2008, prevalence increased for narcotic- and hallucinogen-affected live births and neonatal drug withdrawal syndrome but decreased for alcohol- and cocaine-affected live births. Maternal substance abuse at delivery showed similar trends, but prevalence of alcohol abuse remained relatively stable. Substance-affected live births required longer hospital stays and higher medical expenses, mostly billable to Medicaid. Conclusions The findings highlight the urgent need for behavioral intervention and early treatment for substance-abusing pregnant women to reduce the number of substance-affected live births. PMID:22688539

  12. Prevalence of hospitalized live births affected by alcohol and drugs and parturient women diagnosed with substance abuse at liveborn delivery: United States, 1999-2008.

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    Pan, I-Jen; Yi, Hsiao-ye

    2013-05-01

    To describe prevalence trends in hospitalized live births affected by placental transmission of alcohol and drugs, as well as prevalence trends among parturient women hospitalized for liveborn delivery and diagnosed with substance abuse problems in the United States from 1999 to 2008. Comparison of the two sets of trends helps determine whether the observed changes in neonatal problems over time were caused by shifts in maternal substance abuse problems. This study independently identified hospitalized live births and maternal live born deliveries from discharge records in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, one of the largest hospital administrative databases. Substance-related diagnosis codes on the records were used to identify live births affected by alcohol and drugs and parturient women with substance abuse problems. The analysis calculated prevalence differences and percentage changes over the 10 years, with Loess curves fitted to 10-year prevalence estimates to depict trend patterns. Linear and quadratic trends in prevalence were simultaneously tested using logistic regression analyses. The study also examined data on costs, primary expected payer, and length of hospital stays. From 1999 to 2008, prevalence increased for narcotic- and hallucinogen-affected live births and neonatal drug withdrawal syndrome but decreased for alcohol- and cocaine-affected live births. Maternal substance abuse at delivery showed similar trends, but prevalence of alcohol abuse remained relatively stable. Substance-affected live births required longer hospital stays and higher medical expenses, mostly billable to Medicaid. The findings highlight the urgent need for behavioral intervention and early treatment for substance-abusing pregnant women to reduce the number of substance-affected live births.

  13. Cyberbullying Prevalence among United States Middle and High School Aged Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Quality Assessment

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    Selkie, Ellen M.; Fales, Jessica L.; Moreno, Megan A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cyberbullying has established links to physical and mental health problems including depression, suicidality, substance use, and somatic symptoms. Quality reporting of cyberbullying prevalence is essential to guide evidence-based policy and prevention priorities. The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate study quality and reported prevalence among cyberbullying research studies conducted in populations of US adolescents of middle and high school age. Methods Searches of peer-reviewed literature published through June 2015 for “cyberbullying” and related terms were conducted using PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL Plus, and Web of Science. Included manuscripts reported cyberbullying prevalence in general populations of U.S. adolescents between the ages of 10 and 19. Using a review tool based on the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement, reviewers independently scored study quality on study methods, results reporting, and reported prevalence. Results Search results yielded 1,447 manuscripts; 81 manuscripts representing 58 unique studies were identified as meeting inclusion criteria. Quality scores ranged between 12 and 37 total points out of a possible 42 points (M = 26.7, SD = 4.6). Prevalence rates of cyberbullying ranged as follows: perpetration, 1% to 41%; victimization, 3% to 72%; and overlapping perpetration and victimization, 2.3% to 16.7%. Conclusions Literature on cyberbullying in US middle and high school aged students is robust in quantity but inconsistent in quality and reported prevalence. Consistent definitions and evidence-based measurement tools are needed. PMID:26576821

  14. Cigarette smoking prevalence by occupation in the United States. A comparison between 1978 to 1980 and 1987 to 1990.

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    Nelson, D E; Emont, S L; Brackbill, R M; Cameron, L L; Peddicord, J; Fiore, M C

    1994-05-01

    We analyzed data from 1987 to 1990 National Health Interview Surveys and compared them with 1978 to 1980 National Health Interview Surveys data to determine changes in cigarette smoking prevalence by occupation. During this period, cigarette smoking prevalence declined from 31.7% to 24.2% among white-collar workers, from 43.7% to 39.2% among blue-collar workers, and from 37.2% to 34.5% among service workers. For occupational groups, the largest significant declines in smoking prevalence occurred among male sales workers (10.5 percentage points), female and male managers and administrators (9.9 and 8.7 percentage points), female professional and technical workers (8.0 percentage points), and male transportation equipment operatives (7.5 percentage points). Analyses of 1987 to 1990 detailed occupation codes revealed that roofers (57.8%) and crane and tower operators (57.6%) had the highest prevalences of cigarette smoking, whereas physicians (5.4%) and clergy (6.5%) had the lowest smoking prevalences. Since 1978 to 1980, the differences in smoking prevalence by occupation have widened, providing further evidence that smoking has moved from a relatively common behavior practiced by most segment of society to one that has become more concentrated among selected subpopulations. Health professionals need to play an important role in encouraging smoking cessation among workers and in advising management and labor about the benefits of strong work-site smoking policies.

  15. Prevalence of dental anomalies on panoramic radiographs in a population of the state of Pará, Brazil.

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    Goncalves-Filho, Antonio Jg; Moda, Larissa B; Oliveira, Roberta P; Ribeiro, Andre Luis Ribeiro; Pinheiro, João Jv; Alver-Junior, S Rgio M

    2014-01-01

    Dental anomalies (DAs) are the result of disorders that are able to modify the shape, number, size, and structure of teeth. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of DAs using panoramic radiographs in a population of the City of Belém, northern Brazil. In this study, 487 panoramic radiographs were evaluated searching for DAs. Dental records were reviewed for diagnostic confirmation. DAs related to the shape, number, size, and structure of teeth were investigated. Our results showed a DA prevalence of 56.9%. The most prevalent DA was taurodontism, which was present in 27.19% of cases. Root dilaceration was the second most prevalent DA in adults, whereas hypodontia was the second most prevalent DA in children. A total of 13 DAs were found. Dental anomalies were present in over half of the sample, and most of them were related to the shape of the teeth. Although there was a high prevalence of shape-related DAs, these alterations are generally of lower severity, and most do not require specific treatment. However, in 19.25% of cases, DAs were found involving the number, size and structure of the teeth. These DAs should be diagnosed and treated early, avoiding thus more serious complications.

  16. The Prevalence of Sexual Behavior Stigma Affecting Gay Men and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men Across Sub-Saharan Africa and in the United States

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    Sanchez, Travis Howard; Sullivan, Patrick Sean; Ketende, Sosthenes; Lyons, Carrie; Charurat, Manhattan E; Drame, Fatou Maria; Diouf, Daouda; Ezouatchi, Rebecca; Kouanda, Seni; Anato, Simplice; Mothopeng, Tampose; Mnisi, Zandile; Baral, Stefan David

    2016-01-01

    Background There has been increased attention for the need to reduce stigma related to sexual behaviors among gay men and other men who have sex with men (MSM) as part of comprehensive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention and treatment programming. However, most studies focused on measuring and mitigating stigma have been in high-income settings, challenging the ability to characterize the transferability of these findings because of lack of consistent metrics across settings. Objective The objective of these analyses is to describe the prevalence of sexual behavior stigma in the United States, and to compare the prevalence of sexual behavior stigma between MSM in Southern and Western Africa and in the United States using consistent metrics. Methods The same 13 sexual behavior stigma items were administered in face-to-face interviews to 4285 MSM recruited in multiple studies from 2013 to 2016 from 7 Sub-Saharan African countries and to 2590 MSM from the 2015 American Men’s Internet Survey (AMIS), an anonymous Web-based behavioral survey. We limited the study sample to men who reported anal sex with a man at least once in the past 12 months and men who were aged 18 years and older. Unadjusted and adjusted prevalence ratios were used to compare the prevalence of stigma between groups. Results Within the United States, prevalence of sexual behavior stigma did not vary substantially by race/ethnicity or geographic region except in a few instances. Feeling afraid to seek health care, avoiding health care, feeling like police refused to protect, being blackmailed, and being raped were more commonly reported in rural versus urban settings in the United States (PAfrica, and Southern Africa, MSM reported verbal harassment as the most common form of stigma. Disclosure of same-sex practices to family members increased prevalence of reported stigma from family members within all geographic settings (PAfrica. However, participants in both West Africa (PAfrica (PSub

  17. Infection related never events in pediatric patients undergoing spinal fusion procedures in United States: prevalence and predictors.

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    Veerajalandhar Allareddy

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence and predictors of infection related never events (NE associated with spinal fusion procedures (SFP in children (age < = 18 years in the United States. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of the Nationwide Inpatient Sample for the years 2004 to 2008. All pediatric hospitalizations that underwent SFP were selected for analysis. The main outcomes measures include occurrence of certain NE's. The association between the occurrence of a NE and factors (patient & hospital related were examined using multivariable logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Of 56,465 hospitalizations, 61.7% occurred among females. The average age was 13.7 y and two-thirds were whites. The major insurance payer was private insurance (67.4%. About 82% of all hospitalizations occurred on an elective basis. Teaching hospitals accounted for a majority of hospitalizations (87.9%. Two-thirds were posterior fusion techniques, 52.3% had underlying musculoskeletal deformities, and the most frequently present co-morbid conditions (CMC included paralysis (10.9%, chronic pulmonary disease (9.7%, and fluid/electrolyte disorders (7.6%. Overall rate of occurrence of a NE was 4.8%. Post-operative pneumonia was the most frequently occurring NE (2.9%. Female gender (OR = 0.78 and elective admissions (OR = 0.66 were associated with lower risk of NE occurrence. Medicaid coverage (OR = 1.46, primary diagnosis of other acquired deformities (OR = 1.82, spinal cord injury (OR = 6.94, other nervous system disorders (OR = 2.84 were associated with higher risk of NE occurrence. Among CMC, those with chronic blood loss anemia (OR = 2.57, coagulopathy (OR = 1.97, depression (OR = 2, drug abuse (OR = 3.71, fluid/electrolyte disorders (OR = 2.62, neurological disorders (OR = 1.72, paralysis (OR = 1.75, renal failure (OR = 5.45, and weight loss (OR = 4.61 were risk factors for higher odds of a NE occurrence. Hospital teaching status, region, hospital size, and

  18. Mansonella ozzardi in Brazil: prevalence of infection in riverine communities in the Purus region, in the state of Amazonas.

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    Medeiros, Jansen Fernandes; Py-Daniel, Victor; Barbosa, Ulysses Carvalho; Izzo, Thiago Junqueira

    2009-02-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of Mansonella ozzardi infection and to estimate the parasitic infection rate (PIR) in simuliid black flies in the municipality of Pauini, Amazonas, Brazil. We used thick blood films to examine 921 individuals in 35 riverine communities along the Pauini and Purus Rivers. Simuliids were caught in several communities. Flies were identified, stained with haematoxylin and dissected. Overall, 44 (24.86%) of 177 riverines were infected in communities on the Pauini River and 183 (24.19%) of 744 on the Purus. The prevalence was higher in men (31.81% and 29.82%) than in women (17.98% and 19.18%) and occurred in most age groups. The prevalence increased sharply in the 28-37 (50% and 42.68%) age group and increased in the older age classes. The highest prevalence was in farmers (44% and 52.17%, respectively) in the Pauini and Purus Rivers. Only Cerqueirellum amazonicum (Simuliidae) transmits M. ozzardi in this municipality, and we found a PIR of 0-8.43% and infectivity rate of 0-3.61%. These results confirm that rates of M. ozzardi infection are high in Pauini and suggest that its prevalence may be far greater than has been previously reported due to the absence of a program for treating the population.

  19. Mansonella ozzardi in Brazil: prevalence of infection in riverine communities in the Purus region, in the state of Amazonas

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    Jansen Fernandes Medeiros

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of Mansonella ozzardi infection and to estimate the parasitic infection rate (PIR in simuliid black flies in the municipality of Pauini, Amazonas, Brazil. We used thick blood films to examine 921 individuals in 35 riverine communities along the Pauini and Purus Rivers. Simuliids were caught in several communities. Flies were identified, stained with haematoxylin and dissected. Overall, 44 (24.86% of 177 riverines were infected in communities on the Pauini River and 183 (24.19% of 744 on the Purus. The prevalence was higher in men (31.81% and 29.82% than in women (17.98% and 19.18% and occurred in most age groups. The prevalence increased sharply in the 28-37 (50% and 42.68% age group and increased in the older age classes. The highest prevalence was in farmers (44% and 52.17%, respectively in the Pauini and Purus Rivers. Only Cerqueirellum amazonicum (Simuliidae transmits M. ozzardi in this municipality, and we found a PIR of 0-8.43% and infectivity rate of 0-3.61%. These results confirm that rates of M. ozzardi infection are high in Pauini and suggest that its prevalence may be far greater than has been previously reported due to the absence of a program for treating the population.

  20. Prevalence of Obesity Among Youths by Household Income and Education Level of Head of Household - United States 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Cynthia L; Carroll, Margaret D; Fakhouri, Tala H; Hales, Craig M; Fryar, Cheryl D; Li, Xianfen; Freedman, David S

    2018-02-16

    Obesity prevalence varies by income and education level, although patterns might differ among adults and youths (1-3). Previous analyses of national data showed that the prevalence of childhood obesity by income and education of household head varied across race/Hispanic origin groups (4). CDC analyzed 2011-2014 data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to obtain estimates of childhood obesity prevalence by household income (≤130%, >130% to ≤350%, and >350% of the federal poverty level [FPL]) and head of household education level (high school graduate or less, some college, and college graduate). During 2011-2014 the prevalence of obesity among U.S. youths (persons aged 2-19 years) was 17.0%, and was lower in the highest income group (10.9%) than in the other groups (19.9% and 18.9%) and also lower in the highest education group (9.6%) than in the other groups (18.3% and 21.6%). Continued progress is needed to reduce disparities, a goal of Healthy People 2020. The overall Healthy People 2020 target for childhood obesity prevalence is <14.5% (5).

  1. Increased Prevalence of Celiac Disease in Patients with Unexplained Infertility in the United States: A Prospective Study

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    Lebwohl, Benjamin; Wang, Jeffrey; Lee, Susie K.; Murray, Joseph A.; Sauer, Mark V.; Green, Peter H. R.

    2011-01-01

    Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder which can present with a variety of non-gastrointestinal manifestations. In women, it may manifest with an assortment of gynecologic or obstetric disorders. Some reports have linked female infertility with undiagnosed celiac disease. Though there are a number of studies from Europe and the Middle East, only two prior American studies have examined the prevalence of “silent” celiac disease in a female infertility population. We prospectively performed serologic screening for celiac disease in 188 infertile women (ages 25–39). While we did not demonstrate an increased prevalence of celiac disease in our overall infertile female population, we were able to detect a significantly increased prevalence (5.9%) of undiagnosed celiac disease among women presenting with unexplained infertility (n=51). Our findings suggest the importance of screening infertile female patients, particularly those with unexplained infertility, for celiac disease. PMID:21682114

  2. Prevalence of HCV infection and associated factors among illicit drug users in Breves, State of Pará, northern Brazil

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    Suzy Danielly Barbosa Pacheco

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Illicit drug users (DUs are vulnerable to hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. The shared use of illicit drugs is the main method of HCV transmission. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Breves, in northern Brazil. We surveyed 187 DUs to determine the prevalence of and factors associated with HCV infection. Results: The prevalence of anti-HCV antibodies was 36.9%, and the prevalence of hepatitis C virus-ribonucleic acid (HCV-RNA was 31%. Hepatitis C virus infection was associated with tattoos, intravenous drug use, shared use of equipment for drug use, drug use for longer than 3 years, and daily drug use. Conclusions: Strategies for preventing and controlling HCV transmission should be implemented among DUs.

  3. Prevalência de infecção por Vibrio cholerae O1 no Município de Manacapuru, Amazonas, Brasil (1992 Prevalence of Vibrio cholerae O1 infection in Manacapuru, Amazonas State, Brazil (1992

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    Eloisa da Graça do Rosario Gonçalves

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Na presente investigação foi determinada a prevalência de infecção por Vibrio cholerae O1 em 1.196 indivíduos, moradores da cidade de Manacapuru, Amazonas, mediante técnicas de microtitulação dos anticorpos séricos vibriocidas e soroaglutinação somática em tubos. Paralelamente, procurou-se avaliar a influência de condições de moradia e de características individuais como possíveis fatores de risco para a infecção. Como indicativos de infecção por V.cholerae O1, consideraram-se os títulos vibriocidas ou = 1:40 e/ou aglutinantes ou = 1:80. A prevalência de infecção foi de 25,7%, não tendo havido diferença estatisticamente significante (p>0,05 quando confrontada com o padrão de domicílio, instalação sanitária, fonte e tratamento da água para consumo e destino dado ao lixo domiciliar, como também não houve em relação ao sexo e profissão. Quanto à ocupação e ao local do domicílio, à faixa etária e ao grau de instrução, houve diferenças estatisticamente significantes na prevalência de infecção (pThis study focused on the prevalence of V.cholerae O1 infection in 1,196 individuals living in Manacapuru, Amazonas State, through microtitering of vibriocidal antibody and somatic agglutination test. The role of living conditions and individual characteristics as possible risk factors for infection was also assessed. Vibriocidal titers or = 1: 40 and/or agglutinating titers or = 1: 80 were considered indicators of V.cholerae O1 infection. Infection prevalence was 25.7%. There was no significant statistical difference (p = 0.05 when analyzed against housing patterns, sanitary facilities, source and treatment of water, destination of domestic waste, sex, or profession. Household location, number of occupants/household, age, and schooling showed significant statistical differences in infection prevalence (p = 0.05.

  4. Heterogeneity of malaria prevalence in alluvial gold mining areas in Northern Mato Grosso State, Brazil Heterogeneidade da prevalência de malária em garimpos do norte de Mato Grosso, Brasil

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    Alisson Flávio Barbieri

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes factors affecting the risk of malaria among individuals working in wildcat gold mining camps (garimpos in northern Mato Grosso State in the Brazilian Amazon. Historically, such mining camps have the locations with the highest malaria prevalence in the Brazilian Amazon. However, little attention has focused on understanding the disease from the internal perspective of the mining camps themselves, such as the mining population's characteristics and its spatial organization. This paper adopts a stepwise logistic model to identify spatial, occupational-exposure, and cultural factors that affect malaria prevalence. According to the results, differences among individuals working and/or living in the gold mining areas could produce different exposure to the disease and thus to different risk of malaria prevalence. Understanding these differences may provide an important tool for identifying risk profiles in the gold mining and related population and for informing programs for prevention and treatment of malaria in the Amazon.O artigo analisa fatores que afetam o risco de malária entre garimpeiros de ouro no norte de Mato Grosso, Brasil. Historicamente, os garimpos apresentam a maior prevalência de malária da Amazônia Legal brasileira. Entretanto, até o momento houve pouca investigação no sentido de compreender a doença desde a perspectiva interna dos próprios garimpos, ou seja, através das características da população garimpeira e da sua organização espacial. O artigo adota um modelo logístico stepwise para identificar fatores territoriais, culturais e de exposição ocupacional que afetam a prevalência da malária. Com base nos resultados, diferenças entre indivíduos que trabalham e/ou vivem nas áreas de garimpo poderiam produzir variações na exposição à doença, levando a um risco diferenciado de prevalência de malária. A compreensão dessas diferenças pode representar uma ferramenta importante para

  5. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Prevalence, Severity, and Outcomes in the United States: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Nicole E; Oji, Stefany; Mufti, Arjmand R; Browning, Jeffrey D; Parikh, Neehar D; Odewole, Mobolaji; Mayo, Helen; Singal, Amit G

    2018-02-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in the United States, affecting 75-100 million Americans. However, the disease burden may not be equally distributed among races or ethnicities. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to characterize racial and ethnic disparities in NAFLD prevalence, severity, and prognosis. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases through August 2016 for studies that reported NAFLD prevalence in population-based or high-risk cohorts, NAFLD severity including presence of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and significant fibrosis, and NAFLD prognosis including development of cirrhosis complications and mortality. Pooled relative risks, according to race and ethnicity, were calculated for each outcome using the DerSimonian and Laird method for a random-effects model. We identified 34 studies comprising 368,569 unique patients that characterized disparities in NAFLD prevalence, severity, or prognosis. NAFLD prevalence was highest in Hispanics, intermediate in Whites, and lowest in Blacks, although differences between groups were smaller in high-risk cohorts (range 47.6%-55.5%) than population-based cohorts (range, 13.0%-22.9%). Among patients with NAFLD, risk of NASH was higher in Hispanics (relative risk, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.98-1.21) and lower in Blacks (relative risk, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.60-0.87) than Whites. However, the proportion of patients with significant fibrosis did not significantly differ among racial or ethnic groups. Data were limited and discordant on racial or ethnic disparities in outcomes of patients with NAFLD. In a systematic review and meta-analysis, we found significant racial and ethnic disparities in NAFLD prevalence and severity in the United States, with the highest burden in Hispanics and lowest burden in Blacks. However, data are discordant on racial or ethnic differences in outcomes of patients with NAFLD. Copyright © 2018 AGA Institute. Published by

  6. Prevalence of type 2 diabetes and impaired fasting glucose: cross-sectional study of multiethnic adult population at the United States-Mexico border.

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    Díaz-Apodaca, Beatriz A; Ebrahim, Shah; McCormack, Valerie; de Cosío, Federico G; Ruiz-Holguín, Rosalba

    2010-09-01

    To estimate prevalence of type 2 diabetes (diabetes) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) in the border region between the United States of America and Mexico, by ethnic origin and country of residence; identify risk factors associated with both conditions; and explore the extent to which these factors account for cross-border or ethnic disparities in prevalence. From April 2001 to November 2002, Phase I of the U.S.-Mexico Border Diabetes Prevention and Control Project, a prevalence study of diabetes and its risk factors, was conducted at the U.S.-Mexico border using multistage cluster sampling. A questionnaire was administered on diabetes (self-reported) and lifestyle and a physical examination and blood sample were obtained. A total of 4,027 adults participated in the study: 2,120 Hispanics from the Mexican side of the border and 1,437 Hispanics and 470 non-Hispanics (of whom 385 were classified as "white") from the U.S. side of the border. The age-adjusted prevalence of self-reported and unrecognized diabetes in Hispanics was 15.4% (16.6% on the Mexican side of the border and 14.7% on the U.S. side). The age-adjusted prevalence of IFG was similar on both sides of the border (14.1% on the Mexican side and 13.6% on the U.S. side). Established risk factors for diabetes (e.g., age, obesity, and family history) were relevant and there was an inverse relationship between diabetes and education and socioeconomic level. While diabetes prevalence is high on both sides of the U.S.-Mexico border, one-third of the cases remain undiagnosed, suggesting a need for development and implementation of a public health program for prevention, diagnosis, and control of diabetes in the region.

  7. Prevalence of Obesity among Adults from Rural and Urban Areas of the United States: Findings from NHANES (2005-2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Befort, Christie A.; Nazir, Niaman; Perri, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Rural residents have higher rates of chronic diseases compared to their urban counterparts, and obesity may be a major contributor to this disparity. This study is the first analysis of obesity prevalence in rural and urban adults using body mass index classification with measured height and weight. In addition, demographic, diet, and…

  8. High trait shame undermines the protective effects of prevalence knowledge on state shame following HPV/CIN diagnosis in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory A.; Segerstrom, Suzanne C.; Logue, Christen T.; Studts, Jamie L.

    2017-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV), and the related, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), are common yet poorly understood physical conditions. The diagnosis of HPV often elicits shame and guilt, which in turn may undermine psychological and physical health. The current study compared shame and guilt responses to diagnosis among two groups: women diagnosed with HPV/CIN and women diagnosed with Epstein–Barr Virus (EBV/IM). Eighty women recently diagnosed with HPV/CIN or EBV/IM completed measures of shame- and guilt-proneness, shame and guilt following diagnosis, and disease knowledge including prevalence estimates (HPV and EBV, respectively). HPV/CIN (vs. EBV/IM) predicted more diagnosis-related shame and guilt. Estimates of high prevalence interacted with diagnosis and shame-proneness to predict diagnosis-related shame. Simple slope analyses indicated that in women with HPV/CIN reporting low-to-average shame-proneness, high prevalence estimates reduced diagnosis-related shame; however, women high in shame-proneness experienced high diagnosis-related shame regardless of more accurate prevalence estimates. Women high in shame-proneness appear to be particularly vulnerable to HPV-related shame even when they are aware that it is very common. PMID:28417294

  9. Prevalence, Patterns, and Predictors of T'ai Chi and Qigong Use in the United States: Results of a Nationally Representative Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauche, Romy; Wayne, Peter M; Dobos, Gustav; Cramer, Holger

    2016-04-01

    This study examined the prevalence, patterns, and predictors of t'ai chi and qigong use in the U.S. general population. Cross-sectional survey. Data from the 2012 National Health Interview Survey (n = 34,525). Weighted frequencies were used to analyze lifetime and 12-month prevalence and patterns of use. Independent predictors of practice were analyzed by using logistic regression models. Analyzes were conducted in 2015. The lifetime and 12-month prevalence of t'ai chi/qigong practice were 3.1% and 1.2%, respectively. The 12-month prevalence was associated with age older than 30 years; being African American, Asian, or other ethnic origin; living in the West; being college educated and single; and being a light to heavy alcohol consumer. Almost 39% of users attended formal classes. T'ai chi/qigong was practiced for wellness/disease prevention and to improve energy, immune function, athletic performance, or memory/concentration. Stress, arthritis, and joint problems were the most frequent specific health problems for practice. Despite an only marginal increase of t'ai chi/qigong practice in the United States over the past 10 years, the proportion of minorities among practitioners has increased significantly. Gaps between clinical application and research are discussed.

  10. Prevalence and distribution of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections in urban and indigenous schoolchildren in Ortigueira, State of Paranà, Brasil: implications for control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scolari, C; Torti, C; Beltrame, A; Matteelli, A; Castelli, F; Gulletta, M; Ribas, M; Morana, S; Urbani, C

    2000-04-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections represent a major public health problem in poor and developing countries. During the period September-October 1998 we conducted an epidemiological survey of STH infections in schoolchildren of an urban area (group A) and an indigenous reserve (group B), in the Municipality of Ortigueira, State of Paranà, Brazil, to assess potential benefits of mass treatment. Stool samples were examined for helminth eggs by quantitative (Kato-Katz) technique to determine the prevalence and intensity of intestinal parasitic infection. Moreover, we examined the relationship between prevalence and intensity of STH infections and housing/hygienic factors (by means of a 7-item questionnaire). 236 schoolchildren aged 5-15 years were enrolled, 136 in group A and 100 in group B. The prevalence of STH infections was significantly higher in group B (93%) than in group A (22%) (P STH infections and prevalence of high-intensity infections with most housing/hygienic variables. On the basis of these results, mass treatment and educational interventions were suggested for the indigenous community, whereas target treatment and educational interventions were suggested for the urban community. Even in a geographically homogeneous area different epidemiological realities can be found, which in turn can influence infection levels and control programmes.

  11. [Prevalence of giardiasis and intestinal parasites in pre-school children from homes being attended as part of a state programme in Armenia, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo-Gómez, Jorge M; Lora, Fabiana; Henao, Luz H; Mejía, Shirley; Gómez-Marín, Jorge E

    2005-01-01

    Determining the prevalence of giardiasis and intestinal parasitism in pre-school children from the Instituto Colombiano de Bienestar Familiar (ICBF). Three serial faecal samples were collected from 328 children following informed consent from their legal guardians. Microscopic and macroscopic tests were made using 1% Lugol, 0.83% saline solution, saline-eosin solution and Kato Katz and Ritchie's test as a confirming test. Positive samples were preserved in saline formol solution. Pathogen parasites had the following prevalence frequencies: 2.4% for Ascaris lumbricoides, 0.6% for Hymenolepsis nana, 2.1% for Trichuris trichura, 6.1% for Blastocystis hominis and 13% for Giardia lamblia. The results of this work showed low helminth frequency compared to that for protozoa; control strategies using single doses of Albendazol are therefore not useful. The most prevalent pathogen parasite was Giardia lamblia in children from the ICBF in Armenia. Periodic surveillance of parasites in children is thereby recommended. The prevalence of Giardia lamblia was not statistically related to the children's nutritional state. Most Giardia-infected children were asymptomatic.

  12. Prevalence of Glaucoma in the United States: The 2005–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Priya; Zhao, Di; Guallar, Eliseo; Ko, Fang; Boland, Michael V.; Friedman, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the prevalence of glaucoma in the US population based on optic nerve head photography, to estimate the prevalence of glaucoma awareness, and to identify demographic and ocular risk factors for being unaware of having glaucoma. Methods The study included 5746 men and women 40 years of age and older participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005–2008. Each participant had 45° photographs of the macula and optic disc of both eyes. Fundus photographs were first graded by a reading center, and those with a cup-to-disc ratio (CDR) ≥ 0.6 were regraded by three glaucoma specialists to determine the presence or absence of glaucoma. Analyses were performed using NHANES weights to account for the complex multistage probability sampling design. Results The estimated overall prevalence of glaucoma in the US civilian, noninstitutionalized population 40 years of age and older was 2.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7%–2.6%). Glaucoma affected 2.9 million individuals, including 1.4 million women; 1.5 million men; 2.3 million people 60 years of age and older; and 0.9 million blacks, Mexican Americans, and people of other races. The prevalence of glaucoma was highest in non-Hispanic blacks, followed by non-Hispanic whites, Mexican Americans, and others. Over half of participants with glaucoma were unaware that they had the disease. Conclusions The prevalence of glaucoma based on optic nerve fundus photography assessment in the general US population 40 years of age and older was 2.1%. Approximately half of glaucoma cases were previously undiagnosed. Studies to determine whether and how to identify undiagnosed glaucoma are an important next step. PMID:27168366

  13. Prevalence of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease in Sexually Experienced Women of Reproductive Age - United States, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreisel, Kristen; Torrone, Elizabeth; Bernstein, Kyle; Hong, Jaeyoung; Gorwitz, Rachel

    2017-01-27

    Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a clinical syndrome of the female reproductive tract characterized by inflammation of the endometrium, fallopian tubes, or peritoneum (1). PID occurs when microorganisms ascend from the vagina or cervix to the fallopian tubes and other upper genital tract structures (1). PID can result from untreated bacterial infections, including chlamydia and gonorrhea, and can lead to infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain (1). Because there is no single diagnostic test for PID, clinicians rely on nonspecific signs and symptoms for diagnosis. The purpose of these analyses was to assess the burden of self-reported PID in a nationally representative sample using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2013-2014 cycle. Starting in 2013, NHANES female participants aged 18-44 years were asked about a lifetime history of PID diagnosis. Based on these data, the estimated prevalence of self-reported lifetime PID was 4.4% in sexually experienced women of reproductive age (18-44 years). The prevalence of self-reported lifetime PID was highest in women at increased risk, such as women reporting a previous sexually transmitted infection (STI) diagnosis. Stratified by race/ethnicity and having a previous STI diagnosis, non-Hispanic black (black) and non-Hispanic white (white) women reporting a previous STI diagnosis had nearly equal self-reported lifetime PID prevalence (10.0% versus 10.3%). However, the lifetime prevalence of PID among black women was 2.2 times that among white women if no previous STI was diagnosed (6.0% versus 2.7%). These findings suggest that PID is prevalent and associated with previous STI diagnoses; therefore, it is important for clinicians to screen female patients for chlamydia and gonorrhea to reduce the incidence of PID.

  14. Sero-prevalence of Taenia spp. infections in cattle and pigs in rural farming communities in Free State and Gauteng provinces, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotetsi-Khambule, A M; Njiro, S; Katsande, T C; Thekisoe, O M M; Harrison, L J S

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine sero-prevalence of bovine and porcine cysticercosis in cattle and pigs in rural farming communities in Free State and Gauteng Provinces, Republic of South Africa. Blood samples were collected for a period of twelve months from live cattle (n=1315; 1159) and pigs (n=436; 240) and the serum extracted and stored before analysis by a monoclonal antibody based (HP10) antigen detection ELISA. Results revealed a generally high sero-prevalence and wide distribution throughout the two provinces with Free State having a higher sero-prevalence in both cattle and pigs (23% and 34%) than Gauteng province (15% and 14%). Consumption of infected meat that is either not inspected/missed at meat inspection; poor livestock management practices and limited sanitation in rural communities might have contributed to the occurrence of Taenia spp. infections in the two provinces. It is therefore, recommended that cysticercosis status of animals be established before slaughter. This would assist in ensuring that infected animals are not slaughtered for human consumption or zoonosis preventive measures are taken. Furthermore, public awareness programs on life cycles of T. saginata, T. solium and T. hydatigena and the use of more sensitive diagnostic tools are recommended as part of effective control strategies against taeniid infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Multilaboratory Survey To Evaluate Salmonella Prevalence in Diarrheic and Nondiarrheic Dogs and Cats in the United States between 2012 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimschuessel, Renate; Grabenstein, Michael; Guag, Jake; Nemser, Sarah M; Song, Kyunghee; Qiu, Junshan; Clothier, Kristin A; Byrne, Barbara A; Marks, Stanley L; Cadmus, Kyran; Pabilonia, Kristy; Sanchez, Susan; Rajeev, Sreekumari; Ensley, Steve; Frana, Timothy S; Jergens, Albert E; Chappell, Kimberly H; Thakur, Siddhartha; Byrum, Beverly; Cui, Jing; Zhang, Yan; Erdman, Matthew M; Rankin, Shelley C; Daly, Russell; Das, Seema; Ruesch, Laura; Lawhon, Sara D; Zhang, Shuping; Baszler, Timothy; Diaz-Campos, Dubraska; Hartmann, Faye; Okwumabua, Ogi

    2017-05-01

    Eleven laboratories collaborated to determine the periodic prevalence of Salmonella in a population of dogs and cats in the United States visiting veterinary clinics. Fecal samples (2,965) solicited from 11 geographically dispersed veterinary testing laboratories were collected in 36 states between January 2012 and April 2014 and tested using a harmonized method. The overall study prevalence of Salmonella in cats (3 of 542) was Salmonella -positive dogs were significantly more likely to have consumed raw food ( P = 0.01), to have consumed probiotics ( P = 0.002), or to have been given antibiotics ( P = 0.01). Rural dogs were also more likely to be Salmonella positive than urban ( P = 0.002) or suburban ( P = 0.001) dogs. In the 67 isolates, 27 unique serovars were identified, with three dogs having two serovars present. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 66 isolates revealed that only four of the isolates were resistant to one or more antibiotics. Additional characterization of the 66 isolates was done using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and whole-genome sequencing (WGS). Sequence data compared well to resistance phenotypic data and were submitted to the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). This study suggests an overall decline in prevalence of Salmonella -positive dogs and cats over the last decades and identifies consumption of raw food as a major risk factor for Salmonella infection. Of note is that almost half of the Salmonella -positive animals were clinically nondiarrheic. Copyright © 2017 Reimschuessel et al.

  16. Prevalence and correlates of hypertension-outcome of a free medical screening in Oke-Ogun area of Oyo state, Nigeria, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shittu, Rasaki O; Odeigah, Louis O; Fakorede, Kasali O; Sikiru, Biliaminu A; Sule, Abdullateef G; Musah, Yusuf; Adeyemi, Folorunsho M

    2018-02-01

    Literature abounds on prevalence of hypertension in Nigeria and urban areas of Oyo state but none in Oke-Ogun geopolitical zone, which constitutes 10 local governments of the 33 in Oyo state, despite the fact that they have high genetic and environmental predisposition to developing high blood pressure. The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of high blood pressure and associated risk factors among indigenes of Oke-ogun, Oyo state. A total of 10,000 respondents were recruited using proportionate sampling techniques. Hypertension was defined according to Joint National Committee-8 criteria. The fasting plasma glucose of the respondents were classified as normal (≤6 mmol/L), prediabetes (6.1-6.9 mmol/L), and diabetes (≥7 mmol/L). Body mass index was calculated as weight (kg)/height (m 2 ) and classified as malnutrition/underweight (state. Their low socioeconomic status, low educational background, malnutrition, and genetic predisposition were identified risk factors. Copyright © 2018 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Prevalence and risk factors associated with Leptospira spp. infection in technified swine farms in the state of Alagoas, Brazil: risk factors associated with Leptospira spp. in swine farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valença, R M B; Mota, R A; Castro, V; Anderlini, G A; Pinheiro Júnior, J W; Brandespim, D F; Valença, S R F A; Guerra, M M P

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and to identify the risk factors associated with Leptospira spp. infection in technified pig farms in the state of Alagoas, Brazil. To compose sample for the prevalence study, 342 pigs were used (312 sows and 30 boars) proceeding from seven swine farms distributed in five districts of the state of Alagoas, Brazil. The infection's serological diagnosis was performed by microscopic agglutination test. The risk factors analysis was performed using research questionnaires consisting of objective questions related to the breeder, the general characteristics of the property, and the productive, reproductive and sanitary management. Prevalence of 16.1% (55/342) of pigs seropositive was obtained. The associated risk factors were not performing quarantine (P = 0.003, OR = 5.43, CI = 1.79-16.41) and the use of artificial insemination (P = 0.023, OR = 3.38, CI = 1.18-9.66). A significant association of sow infection with the increased number of stillborn and mummified foetuses was found, as well as with the increased frequency of oestrus recurrence and the increased weaning-to-oestrus interval of seropositive sows. One might state that Leptospira spp. infection is disseminated in technified pig farms in the State of Alagoas, favouring reproductive failures and the impairment of zootechnical performance in these properties. The risk factors identified in this study are facilitators in the infecting agent dissemination and should be adjusted to control the disease in the herds studied. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Plasmodium falciparum malaria in pregnancy: prevalence of peripheral parasitaemia, anaemia and malaria care-seeking behaviour among pregnant women attending two antenatal clinics in Edo State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enato, E F O; Mens, P F; Okhamafe, A O; Okpere, E E; Pogoson, E; Schallig, H D F H

    2009-05-01

    This study evaluated malaria care-seeking behaviour, as well as the prevalence of parasitaemia and anaemia among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics of two tertiary healthcare facilities in Edo State, Nigeria. Malaria was highly prevalent in the study group (20% by microscopy and estimated 25% by PCR), but parasitaemia and incidence decreased with increasing number of pregnancies. Although the level of education of the study participants was relatively high, antimalarial control measures during pregnancy were found to be poorly utilised by the women and malaria care-seeking was often delayed. A minority of the interviewed pregnant women said they had received sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine-based intermittent preventive therapy (IPT) during current pregnancy. Moreover, the use of inferior antimalaria treatment (e.g. chloroquine) was frequent. The majority of the pregnant women, mainly primigravidae, were anaemic. Efforts to improve antimalaria healthcare must be intensified, targeting pregnant women, particularly the primigravidae and secundigravidae and the healthcare providers.

  19. [Prevalence and factors associated with violence suffered by incarcerated women for drug trafficking in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil: a cross-sectional study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Valquíria Pereira; da Silva, Maria Arleide; Noronha Neto, Carlos; Falbo Neto, Gilliatt Hanois; Chaves, Cynthia Vasconcelos; Bello, Rodrigo Pereira

    2014-07-01

    The scope of this study was to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with the violence suffered by women accused of drug trafficking in the 24 months prior to incarceration in the Women's Penal Colony in the State of Pernambuco. A cross-sectional study including 290 women aged 18 and above, with up to twelve months imprisonment, was performed for the data collection period. A questionnaire was applied to research the socioeconomic and demographic variables and the characteristics of violence and drug trafficking. All of the participants signed a consent form. The association between variables and intensity of exposure and response were determined by the chi-square test and the values (p drug trafficking. A high prevalence of some form of violence suffered were observed in the population studied and the partner was the most frequent perpetrator (44.1%), calling for the authorities to pay greater attention in the actions of prevention of such violence.

  20. Serum concentrations of vitamin D and parathyroid hormone and prevalent metabolic syndrome among adults in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Earl S; Zhao, Guixiang; Li, Chaoyang; Pearson, William S

    2009-12-01

    Some reports suggest that concentrations of vitamin D are inversely, whereas concentrations of parathyroid hormone (PTH) are directly, associated with prevalent metabolic syndrome. Because of lingering uncertainty about these associations, we examined the cross-sectional associations between serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) and PTH with metabolic syndrome in a representative sample of adults in the US. We used data from 1705 participants in the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Vitamin D was measured by radioimmunoassay, whereas PTH was measured using an electrochemiluminescent process. The mean concentration of vitamin D for participants with and without metabolic syndrome was 20.3 and 22.9 ng/mL, respectively (P = 0.001). The mean concentration of PTH for participants with and without metabolic syndrome was 44.5 and 41.0 pg/mL, respectively (P = 0.002). The age-adjusted mean concentrations of vitamin D (P for linear trend syndrome increased. After adjusting for age, gender, physical activity, urinary albumin creatinine ratio, and concentrations of C-reactive protein and calcium, concentrations in the highest quintile of vitamin D [prevalence ratio (PR) = 0.59; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.44-0.79], but not PTH (PR = 1.18; 95% CI 0.97-1.43), was significantly associated with prevalent metabolic syndrome. Concentrations of vitamin D, but not PTH, were significantly associated with prevalent metabolic syndrome among US adults. Published 2009. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  1. Onchocerca in Horses from Western Canada and the Northwestern United States: An Abattoir Survey of the Prevalence of Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polley, L.

    1984-01-01

    In an abattoir survey of 383 horses from the four western provinces of Canada and 240 horses from Washington, Montana and North Dakota prevalences of Onchocerca sp of 11.8% and 25.8% respectively have been demonstrated by umbilical skin specimen examinations. The results of this survey are discussed in relation to the parasite's natural history and its clinical significance in western Canada. PMID:17422371

  2. Prevalent and incident use of androgen deprivation therapy among men with prostate cancer in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Scott M; Kuo, Yong-Fang; Shahinian, Vahakn B

    2011-01-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer increased substantially through the 1990s, but more recent national trends regarding incident and prevalent use have been incompletely characterized. Linked Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare data were used to study patterns of ADT utilization. Prevalence of ADT in the male Medicare population was estimated by examining a cohort of prostate cancer patients and a 5% noncancer control population, from 1991 to 2005. ADT use across different indications was examined for men with incident cancers from 2000 to 2002. Nested logit models were used to examine determinants of ADT use in men with lower risk prostate cancer not treated definitively by surgery or radiation. Prevalent ADT use increased through the 1990s, peaked in 2000 at 3.17% of all male Medicare beneficiaries, subsequently stabilized, then dropped in 2005 to 2.92%. Between 2000 and 2002, use in incident prostate cancer was stable, with 44.8% use in all cases, 15% of cases as an adjuvant with radiation, and 14% as a primary therapy. In the nested logit model, predictors of ADT use in a lower risk setting were older age, higher stage and grade, and elevated prostate-specific antigen levels. Following a period of rapid expansion during the 1990s, incident and prevalent use of ADT has leveled, and may be starting to decline. Further research is needed to monitor how reductions in reimbursement for GnRH agonists will affect appropriate use of ADT as well as use in settings where its benefits may be marginal. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Tobacco use prevalence, knowledge, and attitudes among newly diagnosed tuberculosis patients in Penang State and Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Awaisu, Ahmed; Nik Mohamed, Mohamad Haniki; Abd Aziz, Noorizan; Syed Sulaiman, Syed Azhar; Mohamad Noordin, Noorliza; Muttalif, Abdul Razak; Ahmad Mahayiddin, Aziah

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background There is sufficient evidence to conclude that tobacco smoking is strongly linked to tuberculosis (TB) and a large proportion of TB patients may be active smokers. In addition, a previous analysis has suggested that a considerable proportion of the global burden of TB may be attributable to smoking. However, there is paucity of information on the prevalence of tobacco smoking among TB patients in Malaysia. Moreover, the tobacco-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of...

  4. The prevalence of overweight and its risk factors among adolescents in an urban city in Edo State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omuemu, V O; Omuemu, C E

    2010-06-01

    The prevalence of overweight is rising even in countries with significant rates of undernutrition. This is exacerbated by westernization of lifestyles and the image of prosperity associated with overweight. Children are not spared and the health consequences may become apparent in the near future. This study assessed the prevalence of overweight among adolescents in an urban city in a developing country. This cross-sectional study conducted from September to December 2005 involved 300 adolescents selected by cluster sampling in Benin-city, Nigeria. Overweight and risk of overweight were defined as Body mass index (BMI)-for-age > or = 95th percentile and BMI-for-age 85th to overweight while 52.7% were at risk of overweight. Risk factors of overweight identified were consumption of snacks (64.3%), soft drinks (85.7%) and physical inactivity (69.7%). Being overweight was significantly associated with consumption of snacks, soft drinks, physical inactivity and positive family history of obesity, (p overweight suggests that the already high prevalence of overweight will increase in the near future. Preventive measures are required to forestall this increase.

  5. Health state utility values of high prevalence mental disorders in Australia: results from the National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalopoulos, Cathrine; Engel, Lidia; Le, Long Khanh-Dao; Magnus, Anne; Harris, Meredith; Chatterton, Mary Lou

    2018-04-09

    High prevalence mental disorders including depression, anxiety and substance use disorders are associated with high economic and disease burden. However, there is little information regarding the health state utility values of such disorders according to their clinical severity using comparable instruments across all disorders. This study reports utility values for high prevalence mental disorders using data from the 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing (NSMHWB). Utility values were derived from the AQoL-4D and analysed by disorder classification (affective only (AD), anxiety-related only (ANX), substance use only (SUB) plus four comorbidity groups), severity level (mild, moderate, severe), symptom recency (reported in the past 30 days), and comorbidity (combination of disorders). The adjusted Wald test was applied to detect statistically significant differences of weighted means and the magnitude of difference between groups was presented as a modified Cohen's d. In total, 1526 individuals met criteria for a 12-month mental disorder. The mean utility value was 0.67 (SD = 0.27), with lower utility values associated with higher severity levels and some comorbidities. Utility values for AD, ANX and SUB were 0.64 (SD = 0.25), 0.71 (SD = 0.25) and 0.81 (SD = 0.19), respectively. No differences in utility values were observed between disorders within disorder groups. Utility values were significantly lower among people with recent symptoms (within past 30 days) than those without; when examined by diagnostic group, this pattern held for people with SUB, but not for people with ANX or AD. Health state utility values of people with high prevalence mental disorders differ significantly by severity level, number of mental health comorbidities and the recency of symptoms, which provide new insights on the burden associated with high prevalence mental disorders in Australia. The derived utility values can be used to populate future

  6. Prevalência da hemoglobina S no Estado do Paraná, Brasil, obtida pela triagem neonatal Prevalence of hemoglobin S in the State of Paraná, Brazil, based on neonatal screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra M. Watanabe

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available O Ministério da Saúde instituiu o Programa Nacional de Triagem Neonatal através da Portaria nº. 822/GM, incluindo a pesquisa das hemoglobinopatias nos recém-nascidos. No Paraná, é realizada pela Fundação Ecumênica de Proteção ao Excepcional. Determinou-se a prevalência da hemoglobina S em homozigose, heterozigose e Sbeta-talassemia no estado. O sangue coletado em papel filtro foi examinado por focalização isoelétrica e cromatografia líquida de alta precisão (HPLC. De janeiro de 2002 a dezembro de 2004, foram triados 548.810 recém-nascidos e detectados 21 recém-nascidos com os resultados FS, dois FSA e/ou FS e quatro FSA. Após exames confirmatórios aos seis meses de idade, 12 foram definidos como anemia falciforme, com prevalência de 2,2:100 mil recém-nascidos; a interação Sbeta-talassemia foi confirmada em quinze (2,7:100 mil recém-nascidos; e 8.321 recém-nascidos foram diagnosticados como heterozigotos para HbS (1.500:100 mil recém-nascidos. A prevalência da HbS no Paraná é menor do que nas regiões Centro-Oeste, Norte e Nordeste do país. Origem étnica da população, óbitos fetais e casamentos preferenciais podem estar contribuindo para não haver maior número de homozigotos no estado. A interação Sbeta-talassemia sugere presença de povos euro-mediterrâneos na miscigenação dessa população.The Brazilian Ministry of Health created the National Neonatal Screening Program under ruling no. 822/2001, including neonatal screening for hemoglobinopathies. In the State of Paraná, neonatal screening is conducted by the Ecumenical Foundation for the Protection of the Handicapped. The prevalence rates were determined for homozygous and heterozygous hemoglobin S and Sbeta-thalassemia. Blood samples drawn on filter paper were examined by isoelectric focusing (IEF and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. From January 2002 to December 2004, 548,810 newborns were screened, with the detection of 21 with FS

  7. Prevalence of Sexual Harassment and its Associated Factors among Registered Nurses Working in Government Hospitals in Melaka State, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhaila, O; Rampal, K G

    2012-10-01

    This study focuses on sexual harassment, a form of psycological hazard that female registered nurses face throughout their day to day routine. The objective of this study is to find the prevalence of sexual harassment among female registered nurses working in government hospitals in Melaka, Malaysia and factors affecting them. This is a cross sectional study conducted on 455 female registered nurses who have worked more than one year in the present 3 government hospitals in Melaka, Malaysia. A validated and pre tested questionnaires were given for the respondents to answer. Before respondents answer the questionaires, they are required to read the definition and the forms of sexual harassment provided. This is to help them to understand the correct definition and forms of sexual harassment that they could have experienced. The researcher is available during the distribution of the questionnaires and the respondents are free to ask the researcher anything that they do not understand about it. The results of this study show that the prevalence of sexual harassment among these nurses was 51.2% with the past one year incidence recorded at 22.8%. The most common forms of sexual harassment were verbal (46.6% ), visual (24.8% ), psycological (20.9%), physical (20.7%) and non -verbal (16.7% ). The study showed that 74.7% of the victims suffered from psychological effects brought upon by their encounter with various types of sexual harrasement at work. The study also found that the victims' self-perception of their physicality was a contributing factor to the prevalance of this situation. Those who were pretty, with attractive body figure, a friendly character and easy going had a higher prevalence of sexual harassment in the workplace. Meanwhile, those who were strict, and those who had a fierce character were not prone to sexual harassment. The prevalence of sexual harassment among registered nurses in the workplace found in this study was high and self-perception profile

  8. Prevalência de constipação intestinal entre estudantes de medicina de uma instituição no Noroeste Paulista Prevalence of constipation among medical students of an institution in Northwestern São Paulo State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caren Trisóglio

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: A constipação intestinal (CI é uma doença altamente prevalente em países ocidentais, apresenta etiologia complexa e multifatorial, e cursa com importantes impactos do ponto de vista médico e socioeconômico; é possível que profissionais da saúde e estudantes de medicina, dada a natureza de suas atividades profissionais e hábitos de vida, apresentem taxas de prevalência mais elevadas da doença, se comparados à população geral. Objetivos: Determinar a taxa de prevalência de CI entre estudantes de medicina de uma instituição de ensino segundo critérios diagnósticos estabelecidos na literatura e compará-la às taxas relatadas entre a população geral. Pacientes e Métodos: Realizou-se estudo transversal através da aplicação de questionários individuais a 360 estudantes de medicina de uma instituição do noroeste paulista, dos quais 150 (42% responderam; a definição de CI se deu através dos critérios de Roma III. Resultados: A taxa geral de prevalência de CI foi de 35%; houve predominância da doença entre o sexo feminino (55%; pIntroduction: Constipation is a highly prevalent disease in the Western world. It has a complex and multifactorial etiology, and courses with important impacts from a medical and socio-economical point of view. It is possible that health professionals and medical students, given the nature of their professional activities, trend to present higher rates of the disease in comparison to the general population. Objectives: To determine the prevalence rates of constipation among students of a single medical school according to diagnostic criteria in the literature, and to compare them with those reported among the general population. Patients and Methods: A transversal study was carried out with a sample of 360 medical students of a single medical school in Northwestern São Paulo State, by means of a self-administered questionnaire; a total of 150 students (42% completed the

  9. Corporal Punishment in U.S. Public Schools: Prevalence, Disparities in Use, and Status in State and Federal Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Gershoff, Elizabeth T.; Font, Sarah A.

    2016-01-01

    School corporal punishment is currently legal in 19 states, and over 160,000 children in these states are subject to corporal punishment in schools each year. Given that the use of school corporal punishment is heavily concentrated in Southern states, and that the federal government has not included corporal punishment in its recent initiatives about improving school discipline, public knowledge of this issue is limited. The aim of this policy report is to fill the gap in kn...

  10. Prevalence, demographic and psychosocial correlates for school truancy among students aged 13-15 in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) member states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl

    2017-11-01

    Truancy among adolescents may negatively affect the achievement of academic goals. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence and correlates of school truancy in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) member states. The analysis included 28 419 school children aged 13-15 years from seven ASEAN member states that participated in the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) between 2007 and 2013. The overall prevalence of past 30 day truancy across six ASEAN countries (excluding Brunei) was 24.8%; ranging from below 20% in Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam to more than 30% in Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, and the Philippines. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, socio-demographic factors (older age, being male, the experience of hunger), externalising behaviour (tobacco use, alcohol use, having been in a physical fight, being bullied, having sustained an injury), and lack of protective social-familial factors (lack of peer support and lack of parental or guardian support) were found to be associated with truancy. High rates of truancy were found in ASEAN member states calling for interventions aimed to reduce truancy considering identified associated factors.

  11. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder Among Children Aged 8 Years - Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, 11 Sites, United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baio, Jon; Wiggins, Lisa; Christensen, Deborah L; Maenner, Matthew J; Daniels, Julie; Warren, Zachary; Kurzius-Spencer, Margaret; Zahorodny, Walter; Robinson Rosenberg, Cordelia; White, Tiffany; Durkin, Maureen S; Imm, Pamela; Nikolaou, Loizos; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn; Lee, Li-Ching; Harrington, Rebecca; Lopez, Maya; Fitzgerald, Robert T; Hewitt, Amy; Pettygrove, Sydney; Constantino, John N; Vehorn, Alison; Shenouda, Josephine; Hall-Lande, Jennifer; Van Naarden Braun, Kim; Dowling, Nicole F

    2018-04-27

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD). 2014. The Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network is an active surveillance system that provides estimates of the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) among children aged 8 years whose parents or guardians reside within 11 ADDM sites in the United States (Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, Georgia, Maryland, Minnesota, Missouri, New Jersey, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Wisconsin). ADDM surveillance is conducted in two phases. The first phase involves review and abstraction of comprehensive evaluations that were completed by professional service providers in the community. Staff completing record review and abstraction receive extensive training and supervision and are evaluated according to strict reliability standards to certify effective initial training, identify ongoing training needs, and ensure adherence to the prescribed methodology. Record review and abstraction occurs in a variety of data sources ranging from general pediatric health clinics to specialized programs serving children with developmental disabilities. In addition, most of the ADDM sites also review records for children who have received special education services in public schools. In the second phase of the study, all abstracted information is reviewed systematically by experienced clinicians to determine ASD case status. A child is considered to meet the surveillance case definition for ASD if he or she displays behaviors, as described on one or more comprehensive evaluations completed by community-based professional providers, consistent with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) diagnostic criteria for autistic disorder; pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS, including atypical autism); or Asperger disorder. This report provides updated ASD prevalence estimates for children aged 8 years during the 2014 surveillance year, on the basis of DSM

  12. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder Among Children Aged 8 Years — Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, 11 Sites, United States, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Lisa; Christensen, Deborah L.; Maenner, Matthew J; Daniels, Julie; Warren, Zachary; Kurzius-Spencer, Margaret; Zahorodny, Walter; Robinson Rosenberg, Cordelia; White, Tiffany; Durkin, Maureen S.; Imm, Pamela; Nikolaou, Loizos; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn; Lee, Li-Ching; Harrington, Rebecca; Lopez, Maya; Fitzgerald, Robert T.; Hewitt, Amy; Pettygrove, Sydney; Constantino, John N.; Vehorn, Alison; Shenouda, Josephine; Hall-Lande, Jennifer; Van Naarden Braun, Kim; Dowling, Nicole F.

    2018-01-01

    Problem/Condition Autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Period Covered 2014. Description of System The Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network is an active surveillance system that provides estimates of the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) among children aged 8 years whose parents or guardians reside within 11 ADDM sites in the United States (Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, Georgia, Maryland, Minnesota, Missouri, New Jersey, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Wisconsin). ADDM surveillance is conducted in two phases. The first phase involves review and abstraction of comprehensive evaluations that were completed by professional service providers in the community. Staff completing record review and abstraction receive extensive training and supervision and are evaluated according to strict reliability standards to certify effective initial training, identify ongoing training needs, and ensure adherence to the prescribed methodology. Record review and abstraction occurs in a variety of data sources ranging from general pediatric health clinics to specialized programs serving children with developmental disabilities. In addition, most of the ADDM sites also review records for children who have received special education services in public schools. In the second phase of the study, all abstracted information is reviewed systematically by experienced clinicians to determine ASD case status. A child is considered to meet the surveillance case definition for ASD if he or she displays behaviors, as described on one or more comprehensive evaluations completed by community-based professional providers, consistent with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) diagnostic criteria for autistic disorder; pervasive developmental disorder–not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS, including atypical autism); or Asperger disorder. This report provides updated ASD prevalence estimates for children aged 8

  13. [Prevalence of untreated caries in deciduous teeth in urban and rural areas in the state of São Paulo, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos Mello, Tatiana Ribeiro; Antunes, Jose Leopoldo Ferreira; Waldman, Eliseu Alves

    2008-02-01

    To describe the prevalence of dental caries in children with deciduous teeth in urban and rural areas in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, and to identify associated factors. The study included 24 744 children (5-7 years of age) examined as part of an epidemiological survey on oral health carried out in the state of São Paulo (Levantamento Epidemiológico de Saúde Bucal do Estado de São Paulo). Multilevel analysis was used to investigate whether the prevalence of untreated caries was associated with the sociodemographic characteristics of the children examined or with the socioeconomic aspects of the participating cities. Being black or brown (adjusted odds ratio (OR)=1.27), attending school in rural areas (adjusted OR=1.88), and attending public school (adjusted OR=3.41) were identified as determinants for an increased probability of presenting deciduous teeth with untreated caries. Being a female (adjusted OR=0.83) was identified as a protective factor. The negative coefficients obtained for second-level independent variables indicate that the oral health profile of the cities included in the study were positively impacted by a higher municipal human development index (beta=-0.47) and fluoridated drinking water (beta=-0.32). The prevalence of untreated caries is influenced by individual and sociodemographic factors. The present study provides epidemiological information concerning the rural areas in the state of São Paulo. This information is useful for strategic planning and for establishing guidelines for oral health actions in local health systems, thereby contributing to oral health equity.

  14. Prevalence and Disparities in Tobacco Product Use Among American Indians/Alaska Natives - United States, 2010-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odani, Satomi; Armour, Brian S; Graffunder, Corinne M; Garrett, Bridgette E; Agaku, Israel T

    2017-12-22

    An overarching goal of Healthy People 2020 is to achieve health equity, eliminate disparities, and improve health among all groups.* Although significant progress has been made in reducing overall commercial tobacco product use, † disparities persist, with American Indians or Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) having one of the highest prevalences of cigarette smoking among all racial/ethnic groups (1,2). Variations in cigarette smoking among AI/ANs have been documented by sex and geographic location (3), but not by other sociodemographic characteristics. Furthermore, few data exist on use of tobacco products other than cigarettes among AI/ANs (4). CDC analyzed self-reported current (past 30-day) use of five tobacco product types among AI/AN adults from the 2010-2015 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH); results were compared with six other racial/ethnic groups (Hispanic; non-Hispanic white [white]; non-Hispanic black [black]; non-Hispanic Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander [NHOPI]; non-Hispanic Asian [Asian]; and non-Hispanic multirace [multirace]). Prevalence of current tobacco product use was significantly higher among AI/ANs than among non-AI/ANs combined for any tobacco product, cigarettes, roll-your-own tobacco, pipes, and smokeless tobacco. Among AI/ANs, prevalence of current use of any tobacco product was higher among males, persons aged 18-25 years, those with less than a high school diploma, those with annual family income <$20,000, those who lived below the federal poverty level, and those who were never married. Addressing the social determinants of health and providing evidence-based, population-level, and culturally appropriate tobacco control interventions could help reduce tobacco product use and eliminate disparities in tobacco product use among AI/ANs (1).

  15. Prevalence and patterns of use of mantra, mindfulness and spiritual meditation among adults in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Adam; Lam, Chun Nok; Stussman, Barbara; Yang, Hui

    2017-06-15

    Despite a growing body of scientific literature exploring the nature of meditation there is limited information on the characteristics of individuals who use it. This is particularly true of comparative studies examining prevalence and predictors of use of various forms of meditation. A secondary analysis was conducted using data from the 2012 National Health Interview Survey (n = 34,525). Three popular forms of meditation were compared-mantra, mindfulness, and spiritual-to determine lifetime and 12-month use related to key sociodemographic, health behavior, health status, and healthcare access variables. The 12-month prevalence for meditation practice was 3.1% for spiritual meditation, 1.9% for mindfulness meditation, and 1.6% for mantra meditation. This represents approximately 7.0, 4.3, and 3.6 million adults respectively. A comparison across the three meditation practices found many similarities in user characteristics, suggesting interest in meditation may be more related to the type of person meditating than to the type of practice selected. Across meditation styles use was more prevalent among respondents who were female, non-Hispanic White, college educated, physically active; who used other complementary health practices; and who reported depression. Higher utilization of conventional healthcare services was one of the strongest predictors of use of all three styles. In addition to similarities, important distinctions were observed. For example, spiritual meditation practice was more prevalent among former drinkers. This may reflect use of spiritual meditation practices in support of alcohol treatment and sobriety. Reasons for use of meditation were examined using the sample of respondents who practiced mindfulness meditation. Wellness and prevention (74%) was a more common reason than use to treat a specific health condition (30%). Common reasons for use included stress management (92%) and emotional well-being (91%), and to support other health

  16. [Prevalence of digestive system cancer patients covered by the Mexican Institute of Social Security of the State of Sinaloa, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Moctezuma, G A; Valenzuela-Hernández, T; Rubio-Cárdenas, B; Avila-Vergara, M A; Haro-García, L

    1997-01-01

    To determine the frequency of malignant neoplasia of the digestive tract in patients seen at the IMSS concentration hospital in Culiacán, Sinaloa, México. From 32,097 histopathologic studies performed at No. 1 Regional General Hospital Pathology Department in Culiacán, Sinaloa, 406 were identified as digestive tract malignant neoplasia (DTMN); patient's age and gender were analyzed as well as involvement site and histological type. Benign and metastasic neoplasias were excluded. DTMN prevalence: 1.26%; more affected: 60-69 years; male predominance (66%), p Sinaloa patients if other hospital registrations are considered. There are possible regional factors that may contribute to this behavior.

  17. Prevalence and causes of visual impairment according to World Health Organization and United States criteria in an aged, urban Scandinavian population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Helena; Vinding, T; Nielsen, N V

    2001-01-01

    eligible persons, 946 (96.9%) could be examined. Information about best-corrected visual acuity (VA) was obtained from 944 cooperative persons (96.7%). METHODS: Data from the Copenhagen City Eye Study were used to assess the cause-specific prevalence of visual impairment as defined by the World Health...... Organization (WHO) (VA worse than 20/60-20/400 in the better eye) and the criteria used most commonly in the United States (VA worse than 20/40 but better than 20/200 in the better eye). Eligible subjects underwent an extensive ophthalmologic examination at The National University Hospital of Denmark. MAIN...

  18. Prevalência de helmintos intestinais em três mesorregiões do Estado de Minas Gerais Prevalence of intestinal helminths in three regions of Minas Gerais State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar dos Santos Carvalho

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um levantamento das helmintoses intestinais em 18.973 escolares do primeiro grau (7 a 14 anos, da rede pública do Estado de Minas Gerais, utilizando o método de Kato-Katz de exame de fezes (duas lâminas por amostra. Foram estudadas 3 mesorregiões: Triângulo Mineiro/Alto Paranaíba (60 municípios, Noroeste de Minas (13 e Sul/Sudoeste (144. Entre os escolares examinados, 15.545 (82% estavam negativos, 2.863 (15% monoparasitados e 565 (3% poliparasitados. A prevalência de A. lumbricoides foi de 10,3%, de T. trichiura 4,7%, de ancilostomídeos 2,9%, de E. vermicularis 1,2%, de H. nana 0,4% e de Taenia sp 0,2%. As maiores prevalências de helmintos/mesorregião foram de 24,2% para T. trichiura e 18,7% para A. lumbricoides (Sul/Sudoeste e 12,1% para ancilostomídeos e 0,7% para Taenia sp (Noroeste de Minas. As helmintoses intestinais continuam sendo um grave problema de saúde pública, inclusive em áreas onde as condições socioeconômicas são mais favoráveis.A parasitological assay of feces, through the Kato-Katz method, was undertaken in 18,973 schoolchildren (7 to 14 years old, at primary school level, from a public school of the State of Minas Gerais. Three mesoregions were studied: Triângulo Mineiro/ Alto Paraíba ( 60 municipalities; northwest Minas Gerais (13 and south/south-west regions of Minas Gerais (144. Among the examined children, 15,545 (82% were negative; 2,863 (15% were infected with a single species of helminthes and 565 (3% were infected by more than one species. The prevalence rates were: A. lumbricoides 10.3%; T. trichiura 4.7%; hookworm 2.9%; E. vermicularis 1.2%; H. nana 0.4% and Taenia sp 0.2%. The largest helminthes prevalence/mesoregion were for T. trichiura (24.2% and A. lumbricoides (18.7% in the south/south-west region; hookworm (12.1% and Taenia sp (0.7% in the northwest region of Minas Gerais. Intestinal helminthiasis is still regarded as a serious public health problem, including regions where

  19. Prevalence and causes of visual impairment according to World Health Organization and United States criteria in an aged, urban Scandinavian population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Helena; Vinding, T; Nielsen, N V

    2001-01-01

    Organization (WHO) (VA worse than 20/60-20/400 in the better eye) and the criteria used most commonly in the United States (VA worse than 20/40 but better than 20/200 in the better eye). Eligible subjects underwent an extensive ophthalmologic examination at The National University Hospital of Denmark. MAIN...... OUTCOME MEASURES: Best-corrected VA and primary causes of visual impairment. RESULTS: The prevalence of low vision according to the WHO definition ranged from 2.6% in subjects aged 70 to 74 years to 4.8% in subjects 75 to 80 years of age, with an age-adjusted relative prevalence of 1.58%. Using the U.......S. definition, the overall age-adjusted prevalence of visual impairment was 2.9%. The causes of visual impairment according to the WHO criteria were age-related macular degeneration (AMD) (44.4%), cataract (33.3%), glaucoma in combination with cataract (11.1%), myopic macular degeneration (5.6%), and diabetic...

  20. Prevalence of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders in children in the State of Puebla, Mexico, evaluated with the research diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders (RDC/TMD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyaho-Bernal, Angeles; Lara-Muñoz, Ma Del Carmen; Espinosa-De Santillana, Irene; Etchegoyen, Graciela

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was to describe the prevalence of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in children of the State of Puebla, Mexico. A descriptive observational study was performed. After calculating sample size, children who met the following selection criteria were included: registered at an official elementary school, either sex, ages between 8 and 12 years, who accept to participate in the study and whose parents have signed the informed consent forms. The Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders were used by calibrated researchers (Kappa 90) under the same conditions. Descriptive statistics were applied by using SPSSv15 software. The study included 235 children, 129 (54.9%) female and 106 (45.1%) male, of average age 9.31 + 1.2 years. Prevalence of signs and symptoms was 33.2%, and predominately muscular (82%), 48.1% showed signs of muscular pain and 19.1% joint pain. 63.4% showed signs of alteration in the mouth opening pattern, 39.1% presented joint sounds on opening or closing the mouth and 20.4% on mandibular excursions. The high prevalence of signs and symptoms related to temporomandibular disorders, in particular in children with mixed dentition, shows the importance of TMD evaluation during this period, when morphological changes associated to growth and craniofacial development prevail.

  1. PCR prevalence of Ranavirus in free-ranging eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) at rehabilitation centers in three southeastern US states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allender, Matthew C; Abd-Eldaim, Mohamed; Schumacher, Juergen; McRuer, David; Christian, Larry S; Kennedy, Melissa

    2011-07-01

    Ranaviruses (genus Ranavirus) have been observed in disease epidemics and mass mortality events in free-ranging amphibian, turtle, and tortoise populations worldwide. Infection is highly fatal in turtles, and the potential impact on endangered populations could be devastating. Our objectives were to determine the prevalence of ranavirus DNA in blood and oral swabs, report associated clinical signs of infection, and determine spatial distribution of infected turtles. Blood and oral swabs were taken from 140 eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) that were presented to the wildlife centers at the University of Tennessee (UT; n=39), Wildlife Center of Virginia (WCV; n=34), and North Carolina State University (NCSU; n=36), as well as a free-ranging nonrehabilitation population near Oak Ridge, Tennessee (OR; n=39) March-November 2007. Samples were evaluated for ranavirus infection using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting a conserved portion of the major capsid protein. Two turtles, one from UT and one from NCSU, had evidence of ranavirus infection; sequences of PCR products were 100% homologous to Frog Virus 3. Prevalence of ranavirus DNA in blood was 3, 0, 3, and 0% for UT, WCV, NCSU, and OR, respectively. Prevalence in oral swab samples was 3, 0, and 0% for UT, WCV, and NCSU, respectively. Wildlife centers may be useful in detection of Ranavirus infection and may serve as a useful early monitoring point for regional disease outbreaks.

  2. [Prevalence of infection by Toxocara in schoolchildren in the community of El Moján, Zulia state, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pedrique, María Eugenia; Díaz-Suárez, Odelis; Estévez, Jesús; Cheng-Ng, Rosita; Araujo-Fernández, Merle; Castellano, José; Araujo, José; Cabrera, Lilibeth

    2004-12-01

    The systemic Toxocariasis or migrant larva is a helminto-zoonosis caused by the migration of nematode larvae through human tissues mainly, of the canine helminth Toxocara canis, which can infect humans, especially children. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anti-T. canis antibodies in an infantile population. Serum samples of 73 children of either sex with ages between 4 and 6 years were examined. The determination of anti-Toxocara antibodies was carried out through an ELISA test (using excretory/secretory antigen from the Toxocara larvae). The statistical analysis was carried out through the Chi square test, the Fisher exact test and the correlation of Spearman. The overall prevalence of infection was 9.72%, the highest percentage (50%) was observed in 4 year-old children (3/6), there were significant differences among the ages. No differences were observed with regard to sex. An inverse correlation was observed between the age and ELISA positivity. These results suggest that the toxocariasis is frequent in children from this community.

  3. Prevalência de obesidade em localidade do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, 1987 Prevalence of obesity in a County town of S. Paulo State, Brazil, 1987

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Amaro de Lolio

    1991-02-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a prevalência de obesidade na população urbana de 18-74 anos residente em 1987 no Município de Araraquara, SP, Brasil, cidade média agro industrial de 150.000 habitantes, situada a 250 km a noroeste da Capital do Estado. Foram estudados 1.126 habitantes, 502 do sexo masculino e 624 do feminino, selecionados por uma amostragem equiprobabilística por conglomerados. A prevalência de sobrepeso (Quetelet 25-29,9 kg/m² foi de 26,9% para o sexo masculino e de 27,7% para o feminino. A prevalência de obesidade (Quetelet maior ou igual a 30,0 kg/m² foi de 10,2% para o sexo masculino e de 14,7% para o feminino. Estas percentagens são bastante elevadas quando se as compara com as de países afluentes anglo-saxões. Discutem-se as causas do fenômeno, já que a cidade é um Município afluente de economia agroindustrial. Quando se definiram critérios próprios para Araraquara (P85 e P95 do Quetelet para a idade de 20-29 anos por sexo verificou-se que o padrão "magro" para o Município é mais magro do que o similar norte-americano, o que torna criticável a extensão de critérios de corte oriundos de outras localidades para regiões de características diferentes.The prevalence of obesity in Araraquara, a county of 150,000 inhabitants situated 250 km from S. Paulo, Brazil was studied. The study population, of 18-74 yrs. of age, resident in the urban area in 1987, was composed of 1,126 inhabitants, 502 males and 624 females, selected through a cluster equiprobabilistic sampling process. The prevalence of overweight (Quetelet 25-29.9 Kg/m² was 26.9% for males and 27.7% for females. The prevalence of obesity (Quetelet equal or greater than 30.0 kg/m² was 10.2% for males and 14.7% for females. These percentages are high when compared with those of affluent Anglo-saxon countries. The reasons for this phenomenon are discussed in the light of the fact that the economy of the city is affluent and is dependent on agroind

  4. Prevalence of autism spectrum disorder among children aged 8 years - autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network, 11 sites, United States, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-28

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD). 2010. The Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network is an active surveillance system in the United States that provides estimates of the prevalence of ASD and other characteristics among children aged 8 years whose parents or guardians live in 11 ADDM sites in the United States. ADDM surveillance is conducted in two phases. The first phase consists of screening and abstracting comprehensive evaluations performed by professional providers in the community. Multiple data sources for these evaluations include general pediatric health clinics and specialized programs for children with developmental disabilities. In addition, most ADDM Network sites also review and abstract records of children receiving special education services in public schools. The second phase involves review of all abstracted evaluations by trained clinicians to determine ASD surveillance case status. A child meets the surveillance case definition for ASD if a comprehensive evaluation of that child completed by a qualified professional describes behaviors consistent with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) diagnostic criteria for any of the following conditions: autistic disorder, pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (including atypical autism), or Asperger disorder. This report provides updated prevalence estimates for ASD from the 2010 surveillance year. In addition to prevalence estimates, characteristics of the population of children with ASD are described. For 2010, the overall prevalence of ASD among the ADDM sites was 14.7 per 1,000 (one in 68) children aged 8 years. Overall ASD prevalence estimates varied among sites from 5.7 to 21.9 per 1,000 children aged 8 years. ASD prevalence estimates also varied by sex and racial/ethnic group. Approximately one in 42 boys and one in 189 girls living in the ADDM Network communities were identified as having ASD

  5. Trends in Obesity Prevalence Among Children and Adolescents in the United States, 1988-1994 Through 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Cynthia L; Carroll, Margaret D; Lawman, Hannah G; Fryar, Cheryl D; Kruszon-Moran, Deanna; Kit, Brian K; Flegal, Katherine M

    2016-06-07

    Previous analyses of obesity trends among children and adolescents showed an increase between 1988-1994 and 1999-2000, but no change between 2003-2004 and 2011-2012, except for a significant decline among children aged 2 to 5 years. To provide estimates of obesity and extreme obesity prevalence for children and adolescents for 2011-2014 and investigate trends by age between 1988-1994 and 2013-2014. Children and adolescents aged 2 to 19 years with measured weight and height in the 1988-1994 through 2013-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Survey period. Obesity was defined as a body mass index (BMI) at or above the sex-specific 95th percentile on the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) BMI-for-age growth charts. Extreme obesity was defined as a BMI at or above 120% of the sex-specific 95th percentile on the CDC BMI-for-age growth charts. Detailed estimates are presented for 2011-2014. The analyses of linear and quadratic trends in prevalence were conducted using 9 survey periods. Trend analyses between 2005-2006 and 2013-2014 also were conducted. Measurements from 40,780 children and adolescents (mean age, 11.0 years; 48.8% female) between 1988-1994 and 2013-2014 were analyzed. Among children and adolescents aged 2 to 19 years, the prevalence of obesity in 2011-2014 was 17.0% (95% CI, 15.5%-18.6%) and extreme obesity was 5.8% (95% CI, 4.9%-6.8%). Among children aged 2 to 5 years, obesity increased from 7.2% (95% CI, 5.8%-8.8%) in 1988-1994 to 13.9% (95% CI, 10.7%-17.7%) (P obesity increased from 11.3% (95% CI, 9.4%-13.4%) in 1988-1994 to 19.6% (95% CI, 17.1%-22.4%) (P Obesity increased among adolescents aged 12 to 19 years between 1988-1994 (10.5% [95% CI, 8.8%-12.5%]) and 2013-2014 (20.6% [95% CI, 16.2%-25.6%]; P obesity among children aged 6 to 11 years (3.6% [95% CI, 2.5%-5.0%] in 1988-1994 to 4.3% [95% CI, 3.0%-6.1%] in 2013-2014; P = .02) and adolescents aged 12 to 19 years (2.6% [95% CI, 1.7%-3.9%] in 1988-1994 to

  6. Prevalência de tracoma em pré-escolares e escolares no Município de Botucatu, São Paulo, Brasil, 1992 Trachoma prevalence in preschoolers and schoolchildren in Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil, 1992

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    Norma Helen Medina

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Em 1938, foram criados os Dispensários de Tracoma em São Paulo, entre eles, o de Botucatu, onde a incidência de tracoma era de 10,9%. Na década de 70, o tracoma passou a não ser mais um problema de saúde pública. A doença reapareceu no início dos anos 80, levando a Secretaria de Estado da Saúde de São Paulo (SES-SP, a implantar um programa de controle, detectando-se casos novos em diversos locais, inclusive em Botucatu. Realizou-se esta investigação com o objetivo de conhecer a prevalência do tracoma em escolares e pré-escolares da rede de ensino, e implantar um programa de controle da doença em Botucatu, São Paulo. As crianças foram submetidas a exame ocular externo para detectar sinais de tracoma, seguindo os critérios da Organização Mundial da Saúde. Foram examinadas 1.393 crianças, encontrando-se uma prevalência de tracoma de 11,9%. Todos os casos foram tratados com pomada de tetraciclina a 1,0% e controlados. Durante os controles, observou-se um aumento da freqüência de faltosos de 1,6% no primeiro retorno a 62,4% para último retorno. Os resultados revelaram a necessidade de se conhecer melhor as causas da não-aderência ao programa e o seu impacto na efetividade do tratamento do tracoma.Trachoma dispensaries were created in the State of São Paulo in 1938, when the incidence of trachoma was 10.9% in Botucatu. During the 1970s trachoma ceased to pose a public health problem. The disease reappeared in the 1980s, leading the São Paulo State Health Department to establish a control program as new cases were being detected in various parts of the State, including Botucatu. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of trachoma in preschoolers and schoolchildren and to implement a program to control the disease in Botucatu. A cluster sample of children were submitted to external ocular examination to detect signs of trachoma according to WHO criteria. Trachoma prevalence was 11.9% among the 1,393 children examined

  7. The Recent Prevalence of Osteoporosis and Low Bone Mass in the United States Based on Bone Mineral Density at the Femoral Neck or Lumbar Spine1

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    Wright, Nicole C; Looker, Anne C; Saag, Kenneth G; Curtis, Jeffrey R; Delzell, Elizabeth S; Randall, Susan; Dawson-Hughes, Bess

    2016-01-01

    The goal of our study was to estimate the prevalence of osteoporosis and low bone mass based on bone mineral density (BMD) at the femoral neck and the lumbar spine in adults 50 years and older in the United States (US). We applied prevalence estimates of osteoporosis or low bone mass at the femoral neck or lumbar spine (adjusted by age, sex, and race/ethnicity to the 2010 Census) for the non-institutionalized population age 50 years and older from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2010 to 2010 US Census population counts to determine the total number of older US residents with osteoporosis and low bone mass. There were over 99 million adults 50 years and older in the US in 2010. Based on an overall 10.3% prevalence of osteoporosis, we estimated that in 2010 10.2 million older adults had osteoporosis. The overall low bone mass prevalence was 43.9%, from which we estimated that 43.4 million older adults had low bone mass. We estimated that 7.7 million non-Hispanic White, 0.5 million non-Hispanic Black, and 0.6 million Mexican American adults had osteoporosis and another 33.8, 2.9, and 2.0 million had low bone mass, respectively. When combined, osteoporosis and low bone mass at the femoral neck or lumbar spine affected an estimated 53.6 million older US adults in 2010. Although most of the individuals with osteoporosis or low bone mass were non-Hispanic White women, a substantial number of men and women from other racial/ethnic groups also had osteoporotic BMD or low bone mass. PMID:24771492

  8. The recent prevalence of osteoporosis and low bone mass in the United States based on bone mineral density at the femoral neck or lumbar spine.

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    Wright, Nicole C; Looker, Anne C; Saag, Kenneth G; Curtis, Jeffrey R; Delzell, Elizabeth S; Randall, Susan; Dawson-Hughes, Bess

    2014-11-01

    The goal of our study was to estimate the prevalence of osteoporosis and low bone mass based on bone mineral density (BMD) at the femoral neck and the lumbar spine in adults 50 years and older in the United States (US). We applied prevalence estimates of osteoporosis or low bone mass at the femoral neck or lumbar spine (adjusted by age, sex, and race/ethnicity to the 2010 Census) for the noninstitutionalized population aged 50 years and older from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2010 to 2010 US Census population counts to determine the total number of older US residents with osteoporosis and low bone mass. There were more than 99 million adults aged 50 years and older in the US in 2010. Based on an overall 10.3% prevalence of osteoporosis, we estimated that in 2010, 10.2 million older adults had osteoporosis. The overall low bone mass prevalence was 43.9%, from which we estimated that 43.4 million older adults had low bone mass. We estimated that 7.7 million non-Hispanic white, 0.5 million non-Hispanic black, and 0.6 million Mexican American adults had osteoporosis, and another 33.8, 2.9, and 2.0 million had low bone mass, respectively. When combined, osteoporosis and low bone mass at the femoral neck or lumbar spine affected an estimated 53.6 million older US adults in 2010. Although most of the individuals with osteoporosis or low bone mass were non-Hispanic white women, a substantial number of men and women from other racial/ethnic groups also had osteoporotic BMD or low bone mass. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  9. Prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility profiles of Listeria monocytogenes contamination of chicken flocks and meat in Oyo State, south-western Nigeria: Public health implications.

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    Ishola, O O; Mosugu, J I; Adesokan, H K

    2016-09-01

    Food contamination with Listeria monocytogenes is on the increase posing threats to public health with growing trends in food products recalls due to suspected Listeria contamination. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility profiles of Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) among 71 randomly selected poultry farms in Oyo State, Nigeria. A total of 450 samples comprising cloacal swabs (426) and randomly selected dressed chicken meat (24) were cultured for Lm isolation using BrillianceTM Selective Listeria Agar with antibiotics and microbial load count with Nutrient Agar. Further identification was done using microscopic, biochemical characterization and antibiotic sensitivity tests. Data were analysed using bivariate analysis and student t-test. An overall prevalence of 91.8% Lm contamination was obtained comprising 91.5% (390/426) in cloacal swabs and 95.8% (23/24) in meat. The prevalence of Lm in cloacal samples was significantly associated with poultry type (p = 0.008) and breed (p = 0.000. In addition, all the flocks had at least one positive sample yielding 100% flock prevalence. Antibiotic sensitivity test revealed that most of the isolates were resistant to common antibiotics like Ampicillin-cloxacillin and cefuroxime. The results revealed a high level of contamination with Lm in the poultry flock and meat and the observed resistance to most common antibiotics has implications for future disease control as well as public health. There is need to step up routine screening of food animal products for Listeria contamination as well as measures towards reducing such contaminations.

  10. Prevalence of vaccine preventable diseases and utilization of routine immunizations services by parents of under‐one children in a semi‐urban community of Sokoto State, Nigeria

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    Kaoje AU

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Vaccine preventable diseases are categories of diseases that could be prevented by immunization. They affect children of less than five years of age. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of vaccine preventable diseases and utilization of routine immunization services among parents/caregivers of under‐one children in Bodinga town of Sokoto State, Nigeria. Methods The study was community based and a descriptive cross sectional epidemiological study design was used. Four hundred households participated in the survey and were selected using a two stage sampling technique. A structured interviewer administered questionnaire with closed and some open‐ ended questions was used to collect the survey data through face‐to‐face interview. Data collected were entered into computer and analyzed using the SPSS version 23. Results were presented in simple tables for clarity. Results Measles was found to be the most prevalent vaccine preventable diseases in the community, while Hepatitis B has the least prevalence and mortality from these diseases was found to be 3%. Majority of the respondent were aware of Poliomyelitis as vaccine preventable disease and only few were aware of Hepatitis B vaccination. The percentage of fully vaccinated children was very low (4.75% while about one‐third of the children were not immunized at all. The socio‐cultural factors found to affect the utilization of routine immunization services includes: place of delivery (more for the hospital delivery, educational level and occupation of child’s parent affect positively more especially the mother. The major reason for not taking the children for immunization was Father’s refusal. Conclusion The study revealed that measles is the most prevalent vaccine preventable disease in the study area. The awareness of vaccine preventable diseases was found to be low except for poliomyelitis. Strengthening routine immunization including demand creation

  11. Overweight and obesity prevalence among Indian women by place of residence and socio-economic status: Contrasting patterns from 'underweight states' and 'overweight states' of India.

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    Sengupta, Angan; Angeli, Federica; Syamala, Thelakkat S; Dagnelie, Pieter C; van Schayck, C P

    2015-08-01

    Evidence from developing countries demonstrates a mixed relationship of overweight/obesity with socioeconomic status (SES) and place of residence. Theory of nutrition transition suggests that over the course of development, overweight first emerges among rich and urban people before spreading among rural and poor people. India is currently experiencing a rapid rise in the proportion of overweight and obese population especially among adult women. Under the backdrop of huge socio-economic heterogeneity across the states of India, the inter-state scenario of overweight and obesity differs considerably. Hence, this paper investigates the evolution over time of overweight and obesity among ever-married Indian women (15-49 years) from selected 'underweight states' (Bihar, Orissa and Madhya Pradesh, where underweight proportion is predominant) and 'overweight states' (Kerala, Delhi and Punjab, where overweight is the prime concern), in relation to a few selected socio-economic and demographic indicators. This study analysed National Family Health Surveys- NFHS-2 (1998-99) and NFHS-3 (2005-06) following Asian population specific BMI cut-offs for overweight and obesity. The results confirm that within India itself the relationship of overweight and obesity with place of residence and SES cannot be generalized. Results from 'overweight states' show that the overweight problem has started expanding from urban and well-off women to the poor and rural people, while the rural-urban and rich-poor difference has disappeared. On the other hand in 'underweight states' overweight and obesity have remained socially segregated and increasing strongly among urban and richer section of the population. The rate of rise of overweight and obesity has been higher in rural areas of 'OW states' and in urban areas of 'UW states'. Indian policymakers thus need to design state-specific approaches to arrest the rapid growth of overweight and its penetration especially towards under

  12. PREVALENCE OF HALLUX ABDUCTO VALGUS AMONG VARIOUS GROUPS IN ANAMBRA STATE OF NIGERIA; Predominio de hallux abducto valgus entre varios grupos en el estado de anambra de Nigeria

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    Chijioke Mmadueke Okeke

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Hallux Abducto Valgus is characterized by lateral deviation of the proximal phalanx of the hallux, medial deviation of the first metatarsal bone, and subluxation of the first metartasophalangeal joint. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of hallux abducto valgus among residents of Anambra State of Nigeria. The study was a cross sectional descriptive study, using a structured questionnaire. It was conducted among male and female subjects in the following occupational groups: Farmers, Traders, Medical student, Nursing student, Road Safety Corps, Police and the Military. A total of 1033 subjects within the age range of 15 to 74 years were studied. Hallux abducto valgus was identified by inspection of the foot. Prevalence of hallux abducto valgus in the study population was 12.9%. Hallux abducto valgus was more prevalent in males (14.3% than in females (11.2%. Bilateral affectation of hallux abducto valgus (5.5% was more prevalent than unilateral affectation (Right – 2.6%, left – 4.7%. Prevalence of hallux abducto valgus increased with increment in age. The prevalence of hallux abducto valgus among various occupational groups include: Police (18.0%, Road Safety Corps (16.7%, Nursing students (10%, Military (20%, Medical students (9.9%, Traders (8.3% and farmers (17.0%. The prevalence of hallux abducto valgus in our study was 12.9%. The prevalence increased with increasing age and hallux abducto valgus was more prevalent in males than in females. Hallux Abducto Valgus es caracterizado por la desviación lateral del falange próximo del hallux, la desviación intermedia del primer hueso metatarsal, y el subluxation del primer empalme metartasophalangeal. El objetivo de este estudio era determinar el predominio del valgus del abducto del hallux entre residentes del estado de Anambra de Nigeria. El estudio era un estudio descriptivo representativo, usando un cuestionario estructurado. Fue conducido entre los temas masculinos

  13. Prevalence and Characteristics of Autism Spectrum Disorder Among Children Aged 8 Years--Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, 11 Sites, United States, 2012.

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    Christensen, Deborah L; Baio, Jon; Van Naarden Braun, Kim; Bilder, Deborah; Charles, Jane; Constantino, John N; Daniels, Julie; Durkin, Maureen S; Fitzgerald, Robert T; Kurzius-Spencer, Margaret; Lee, Li-Ching; Pettygrove, Sydney; Robinson, Cordelia; Schulz, Eldon; Wells, Chris; Wingate, Martha S; Zahorodny, Walter; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

    2016-04-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD). 2012. The Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network is an active surveillance system that provides estimates of the prevalence and characteristics of ASD among children aged 8 years whose parents or guardians reside in 11 ADDM Network sites in the United States (Arkansas, Arizona, Colorado, Georgia, Maryland, Missouri, New Jersey, North Carolina, South Carolina, Utah, and Wisconsin). Surveillance to determine ASD case status is conducted in two phases. The first phase consists of screening and abstracting comprehensive evaluations performed by professional service providers in the community. Data sources identified for record review are categorized as either 1) education source type, including developmental evaluations to determine eligibility for special education services or 2) health care source type, including diagnostic and developmental evaluations. The second phase involves the review of all abstracted evaluations by trained clinicians to determine ASD surveillance case status. A child meets the surveillance case definition for ASD if one or more comprehensive evaluations of that child completed by a qualified professional describes behaviors that are consistent with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision diagnostic criteria for any of the following conditions: autistic disorder, pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (including atypical autism), or Asperger disorder. This report provides ASD prevalence estimates for children aged 8 years living in catchment areas of the ADDM Network sites in 2012, overall and stratified by sex, race/ethnicity, and the type of source records (education and health records versus health records only). In addition, this report describes the proportion of children with ASD with a score consistent with intellectual disability on a standardized intellectual ability test, the age at which the earliest known

  14. Prevalence of diarrheogenic Escherichia coli and rotavirus among children from Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Rodrigues J.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In a one-year prospective study carried out to define the role of rotavirus and Escherichia coli in local childhood diarrhea, we determined the prevalence of both agents in 54 diarrheic children attending a health center in Botucatu. Diarrheogenic E. coli (DEC strains were characterized by O:H serotyping, a search for virulence genetic markers, and assays of adherence to HEp-2 cells. Except for enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC, no other DEC category was detected in the children's stools. Both EAEC and rotavirus were isolated from 22 of the 54 (41.0% diarrheic children as single agents or in combination with other enteropathogens. However, when considering the presence of a single agent, EAEC was dominant and isolated from 20.4% of the patients, whereas rotavirus was detected in 14.8%. These results indicate that rotavirus and EAEC play a significant role as agents of childhood diarrhea in the local population.

  15. Impact of routine hepatitis B immunization on the prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus infection in the marshall islands and the federated States of micronesia.

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    Bialek, Stephanie R; Helgenberger, Louisa; Fischer, Gayle E; Bower, William A; Konelios, Mailynn; Chaine, Jean-Paul; Armstrong, Gregory; Williams, Ian T; Bell, Beth P

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of routine hepatitis B (HB) vaccination on the prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection among children in Pacific Island countries where HBV infection was highly endemic, we conducted HB serosurveys during 2000 to 2007 among women of childbearing age born before implementation of HB vaccination and among children born after its implementation. Serum specimens were collected from children aged 2 to 6 years and their mothers in Chuuk, Federated States of Micronesia in 2000, children aged 2 to 9 years and their mothers in Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia in 2005, and 5- to 9-year-old children and prenatal clinic patients in 2007 in Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI). Specimens were tested for HB surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibodies to HB core antigen (total anti-HBc). HB vaccination coverage was determined from health department vaccination registries. We defined chronic HBV infection as the presence of HBsAg. Birthdose and 3 dose HB vaccination coverage was 48% and 87%, respectively, in Chuuk, 87% and 90% in Pohnpei, and 49% and 93% in RMI. Chronic HBV infection prevalence among children was 2.5% (9/362) in Chuuk, 1.5% (7/478) in Pohnpei and 1.8% (6/331) in RMI. Chronic HBV infection prevalence among women was 9.2% (21/229) in Chuuk, 4.4% (10/229) in Pohnpei, and 9.5% (11/116) in RMI. Hepatitis B vaccination has resulted in a substantial decline in chronic infection in children in the Pacific Islands. HB vaccine effectiveness is high in this region, despite challenges in providing HB vaccine at birth and completing vaccination series on schedule.

  16. Trends in the prevalence of thrombocytopenia among individuals iInfected with hepatitis C Virus in the United States, 1999-2008

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    Kauf Teresa L

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thrombocytopenia is associated with the natural history of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection and anti-viral therapy. Recent, national estimates of the clinical burden of thrombocytopenia among HCV-infected individuals in the United States are unavailable. Bi-yearly data from the 1999-2000 to 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES were used to examine the prevalence of thrombocytopenia among HCV-infected individuals in the United States. Results Among 467 HCV-infected individuals in the survey (weighted population = 3,597,039, mean weighted age was 46.7 years (standard deviation = 15.5 and 61.7% were male. Overall, 7.6% met the study definition of TCP at the 150 × 109/L threshold; 4.5%, 2.0%, and 0.8% had platelet counts below 125, 100, and 75 × 109/L, respectively. The 2-year weighted prevalences of thrombocytopenia (150 × 109/L threshold from 1999-2008 were 4.9%, 8.6%, 6.5%, 4.1%, and 12.9%. The unadjusted biannual time trend (odds ratio was 1.16 (95% confidence interval = 0.82-1.64. In the two adjusted models, the odds by time ranged from 1.24-1.40, depending on whether the model included demographic or laboratory variables or both, but did not reach statistical significance. Age was positively and significantly related to thrombocytopenia status. Conclusions As the HCV-infected population ages, the prevalence of thrombocytopenia is expected to rise. This study provides limited evidence of such an effect at the national level.

  17. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and HIV infection among pregnant women in Ibadan North Local Government, Oyo State.

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    Awobode, H O; Olubi, I C

    2014-12-01

    Toxoplasmosis, a disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii poses a risk of congenital infection during pregnancy in infected women. The disease poses a threat of ocular and neurological sequelae in congenitally ilfected infants and HIV patients; however, there is little valuable information on its prevalence in Ibadan. A cross sectional study of pregnant women attending antenatal care in three primary healthcare centres in Ibadan was carried out. 179 women were screened for T gondii infection using PCR, 83 of these were also screened for HIV. Forty nine (27.4%) were positive for T gondii, and 2(2.4%) were HIV positive (P = 0.002, OR = 0.28, CL = 95%). 27 (15.1%) of the infected women were in third trimester, with 20 (11.2%) and 2 (1.1%) in second and first trimester respectively. 18 (10.1%) positive cases were identified among the primigravidas and 31 (17.2%) among the multigravidas. Risk factors associated with Toxoplasma infection were assessed, and the source of drinking water and the types of animals around habitation were found to be significantly associated with the presence of Toxoplasma infection (P = 0.002, OR = 2.109 and P = 0.004, OR = 1.693 respectively). The high prevalence among women in third trimester may indicate high risk of congenital infection, and the significant association found between the source of drinking water and infection suggests environmental contamination as a major possible mode of infection. The need to educate pregnant women about the transmission mechanisms of T. gondii, and the effects of the infection on neonates and babies is pertinent in order to effectively control Toxoplasma infection.

  18. Prevalência de disfonia em professores do ensino público estadual afastados de sala de aula Prevalence of vocal dysfunction in teachers from the state education, licensed from classroom

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    Lucia Cristina Fernandes Antunes Provenzano

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: identificar a prevalência da disfonia, gerando afastamento de sala de aula, em docentes do Ensino Médio da Rede Estadual de Educação. MÉTODOS: foi realizado um levantamento exploratório de prontuários médicos de professores afastados de sala de aula, durante os anos de 2005 e 2006, registrados na Superintendência Central de Perícias Médicas e Saúde Ocupacional do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. De uma amostra total de 554 professores lecionando durante o período analisado, foram pesquisados 130 prontuários de docentes licenciados por diversos diagnósticos, procurando-se identificar os afastamentos com diagnóstico médico de disfonia. RESULTADOS: evidenciou-se que, apesar das elevadas taxas de prevalência de sinais e sintomas vocais negativos entre os professores relatados em outras pesquisas, apenas 6,9% afastaram-se de sala de aula por disfonia. Os resultados possibilitam, ainda, reflexões acerca da relação existente entre voz, corpo, respiração e emoção, no contexto da docência. CONCLUSÃO: conclui-se que mesmo a disfonia sendo um problema frequente no trabalho docente, pouco se conhece sobre os dados oficiais de professores afastados de sala de aula por esse comprometimento. Torna-se necessário maior número de pesquisas para que os responsáveis por decisões políticas, sejam alertados e sensibilizados quanto à importância do assunto, em termos sociais e econômicos para o País. Ressalta-se a necessidade de que o trabalho fonoaudiológico desenvolvido com os professores tenha cunho transdisciplinar, e que, de forma intersetorial e harmônica, programas e políticas de prevenção e promoção da saúde vocal possam ser oferecidos à classe docente.PURPOSE: to identify the prevalence of the vocal dysfunction which caused medical leave among high school teachers from the "State Education System". METHODS: a survey was conducted analyzing school teachers' medical reports who were licensed for medical leave in

  19. Spatial vulnerability of fine particulate matter relative to the geographic disparities of adult's diabetes prevalence in the United States

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    Chien, Lung-Chang; Alamgir, Hassanat; Yu, Hwa-Lung

    2015-04-01

    Potentially larger regional effects of climate change have been revealed on the elevation of fine particulate matter (≤ 2.5 µg in diameter; PM2.5) in the U.S. In addition, recent research supports a link between diabetes and PM2.5 in both laboratory and epidemiology studies. However, research investigating the potential relationship of the spatial vulnerability of diabetes to concomitant PM2.5 levels is still sparse, and the level of diabetes geographic disparities attributed to PM2.5 levels has yet to be evaluated. We conducted a Bayesian structured additive regression modeling approach to determine whether long-term exposure to PM2.5 is spatially associated with diabetes prevalence after adjusting for the socioeconomic status of county residents. This study utilizes the following data sources from 2004-2010: the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, the American Community Survey, and the Environmental Protection Agency. We also conducted spatial comparisons with low, median-low, median-high, and high levels of PM2.5 concentrations. When PM2.5 concentrations increased 1 µg/m3, the increase in the relative risk percentage for diabetes ranged from -5.47% (95% credible interval = -6.14, -4.77) to 2.34% (95% CI = 2.01, 2.70), where 1,323 of 3,109 counties (42.55%) displayed diabetes vulnerability with significantly positive relative risk percentages. These vulnerable counties are more likely located in the Southeast, Central, and South Regions of the U.S. A similar spatial vulnerability pattern for concentrations of low PM2.5 levels was also present in these same three regions. A clear cluster of vulnerable counties at median-high PM2.5 level was found in Michigan. This study identifies the spatial vulnerability of diabetes prevalence associated with PM2.5, and thereby provides the evidence needed to prompt and establish enhanced surveillance that can monitor diabetes vulnerability in areas with low PM2.5 pollution.

  20. Prevalence of Obesity among Children and Adolescents in the United States and Canada. NCHS Data Brief. Number 211

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    Carroll, Margaret D.; Navaneelan, Tanya; Bryan, Shirley; Ogden, Cynthia L.

    2015-01-01

    About one-quarter of Canadian adults and more than one-third of adults in the United States are obese. Obese children are at risk of becoming obese adults and can experience immediate health consequences such as psychosocial stress, elevated blood pressure and cholesterol, and abnormal glucose tolerance. Monitoring trends in childhood obesity is…

  1. The Prevalence of Exercise Prescription-Related Course Offerings in United States Pharmacy School Curricula: Exercise is Medicine

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    Dirks-Naylor, Amie J.; Griffiths, Carrie L.; Gibson, Jacob L.; Luu, Jacqueline A.

    2016-01-01

    Exercise training has proven to be beneficial in the prevention of disease. In addition, exercise can improve the pathogenesis and symptoms associated with a variety of chronic disease states and can attenuate drug-induced adverse effects. Exercise is a drug-free polypill. Because the benefits of exercise are clear and profound, Exercise is…

  2. DECREASING PREVALENCE OF THE ACUTE/SUBACUTE CLINICAL FORM OF PARACOCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS IN MATO GROSSO DO SUL STATE, BRAZIL

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    Larissa Rodrigues Fabris

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available With the objective to evaluate the behavior of paracoccidioidomycosis in the last three decades, clinical and epidemiological data of 595 patients admitted to clinical services of the Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul from 1980 to 2009 were investigated. Gender, age distribution, clinical form, comorbidity with tuberculosis or AIDS, and mortality were compared by decades of clinical admission. It was shown that during the three decades there was a decrease in women percentage, and the same manner occurred a reduction in participants in the age group of 20 to 39 years. Moreover, the acute/subacute forms have been diminished in the period. These fluctuations are closely related and can be simultaneously analyzed. Increased AIDS co-infection prevalence from the first to the second decade was also revealed, coinciding with the appearance of the retroviral epidemic and stabilizing during the third decade. No change in the tuberculosis co-infection rate was observed (overall = 6.9%. It reinforces the importance of this co-morbidity. The overall mortality rate remained steady at 6.7%, not varying significantly from one decade to another. The persistent mortality rate calls attention to the importance of this neglected disease.

  3. DECREASING PREVALENCE OF THE ACUTE/SUBACUTE CLINICAL FORM OF PARACOCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS IN MATO GROSSO DO SUL STATE, BRAZIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabris, Larissa Rodrigues; Andrade, Úrsulla Vilella; Santos, Aline Ferreira Dos; Marques, Ana Paula da Costa; de Oliveira, Sandra Maria do Valle Leone; Mendes, Rinaldo Pôncio; Paniago, Anamaria Mello Miranda

    2014-01-01

    With the objective to evaluate the behavior of paracoccidioidomycosis in the last three decades, clinical and epidemiological data of 595 patients admitted to clinical services of the Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul from 1980 to 2009 were investigated. Gender, age distribution, clinical form, comorbidity with tuberculosis or AIDS, and mortality were compared by decades of clinical admission. It was shown that during the three decades there was a decrease in women percentage, and the same manner occurred a reduction in participants in the age group of 20 to 39 years. Moreover, the acute/subacute forms have been diminished in the period. These fluctuations are closely related and can be simultaneously analyzed. Increased AIDS co-infection prevalence from the first to the second decade was also revealed, coinciding with the appearance of the retroviral epidemic and stabilizing during the third decade. No change in the tuberculosis co-infection rate was observed (overall = 6.9%). It reinforces the importance of this co-morbidity. The overall mortality rate remained steady at 6.7%, not varying significantly from one decade to another. The persistent mortality rate calls attention to the importance of this neglected disease. PMID:24626413

  4. Prevalence and correlates of heterosexual anal and oral sex in adolescents and adults in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leichliter, Jami S; Chandra, Anjani; Liddon, Nicole; Fenton, Kevin A; Aral, Sevgi O

    2007-12-15

    Heterosexual anal and oral sex are related to the acquisition of sexually transmitted infections, including human immunodeficiency virus infection. We examined the correlates of heterosexual anal and oral sex in the general population, using data from the National Survey of Family Growth. The sample included 12,571 men and women aged 15-44 years (79% response rate). One-third of men and women had ever had anal sex, and three-quarters had ever had oral sex. Condom use during last oral or anal sex was relatively uncommon. In separate models for men and women, having ever had anal sex was associated with white race, age of 20-44 years, and having had a non-monogamous sex partner. White race, age of 20-44 years, being married, and having higher numbers of lifetime sex partners were related to having ever given oral sex in men and women. Giving oral sex was associated with having a non-monogamous sex partner in men. Ever receiving oral sex was associated with white race and a non-monogamous sex partner in men and women. It would be beneficial to track the prevalence of heterosexual anal and oral sex and associated condom use on a more frequent basis.

  5. The prevalence of and attitudes toward neonatal functional echocardiography use and training in the United States: a survey of neonatal intensive care unit medical directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachinger, S; Stansfield, R B; Ensing, G; Schumacher, R

    2014-01-01

    Internationally, neonatologists are increasingly performing functional echocardiography to evaluate the hemodynamic status and cardiac function in neonates. The purpose of this study was to describe the current prevalence of and attitudes toward the use and training of neonatologists in functional echocardiography in the United States. An anonymous survey was sent to United States neonatal intensive care unit medical directors. Neonatologists scored availability of echocardiography and attitudes toward the use and training of neonatologists in functional echocardiography. Response rate was 43.7% (247 of 565 surveys sent) and captured 95% of the neonatal-perinatal training programs. Nine percent of units had a functional echocardiography trained neonatologist; eight percent of the neonatal-perinatal training programs offered functional echocardiography training. There was no difference in the timely ability to obtain hemodynamic status with echocardiography in units compared by the presence of functional echocardiography trained neonatologists (mean = 3.13 vs. 2.67, p = 0.08) and fellowships (mean = 2.69 vs. 2.72, p = 0.85). Overall positive attitudes (mean = 14.6 ± 3.46) towards the training of neonatologists in functional echocardiography did not correlate with the perceived timely availability of echocardiography support (mean = 2.72 ± 1.43, r = -0.11, p = 0.1). Functional echocardiography use and training is not prevalent in the United States. There are positive attitudes toward the training of neonatologists in functional echocardiography that are independent of the presence of fellowships, neonatologists with echocardiography training, and the perceived availability of echocardiography support.

  6. Prevalence of serum antibodies to hantavirus in a rural population from the southern state of Santa Catarina, Brazil

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    Gregório Wrublevski Pereira

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Rodent-borne hantaviruses cause severe human diseases. We completed a serological survey of hantavirus infection in rural inhabitants of Turvo County, in the southern State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, in which seropositivity for hantavirus was correlated to previous disease in the participants. METHODS: The levels of IgG antibodies to hantavirus Araraquara in the sera of 257 individuals were determined using an immunoenzymatic assay. RESULTS: IgG antibodies to hantavirus were found in 2.3% of the participants. All seropositive participants reported previous disease with symptoms suggestive of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Human infections causing unreported cardiopulmonary syndrome probably occur in the southern State of Santa Catarina.

  7. Prevalência, reconhecimento e controle da hipertensão arterial sistêmica no estado do Rio Grande do Sul Prevalence, awareness, and control of systemic arterial hypertension in the state of Rio Grande do Sul

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    Iseu Gus

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a prevalência dos fatores de risco das doenças cardiovasculares, em particular, a hipertensão arterial sistêmica na população adulta do RS, seu nível de reconhecimento e controle, além dos fatores associados. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, de base populacional, com amostragem aleatória por conglomerado, em 918 adultos >20 anos, realizada de 1999-2000, tendo hipertensão arterial sistêmica definida como pressão arterial >140/90 ou uso atual de anti-hipertensivos. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de hipertensão arterial sistêmica foi de 33,7% (n=309, sendo que 49,2% desconheciam ser hipertensos; 10,4% tinham conhecimento de ser hipertensos, mas não seguiam o tratamento; 30,1% seguiam o tratamento, mas não apresentavam controle adequado e 10,4% seguiam tratamento anti-hipertensivo com bom controle. Após análise multivariada, as características associadas significativamente com a presença de hipertensão arterial sistêmica foram: idade (OR=1,06, obesidade (OR=3,03 e baixa escolaridade (OR=1,82; as mesmas características foram associadas à falta de reconhecimento da hipertensão: idade (OR=1,05, obesidade (OR=2,46 e baixa escolaridade (OR=2,17. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência de hipertensão arterial sistêmica no RS manteve-se em níveis constantes nas últimas décadas, e seu grau de reconhecimento apresentou discreta melhora. Entretanto, o nível de controle da hipertensão arterial sistêmica não apresentou crescimento. Este estudo permitiu definir um grupo-alvo - pessoas de maior idade, obesas e de baixa escolaridade - tanto para campanhas diagnósticas, como para a obtenção de maior controle de níveis pressóricos.OBJECTIVE: To report the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, particularly of systemic arterial hypertension, in the adult population of the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, in addition to the public's level of awareness, hypertensive control, and associated factors. METHODS: A cross

  8. Spatial and Temporal Factors Associated with an Increased Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in Spinach Fields in New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Daniel; Wiedmann, Martin; Strawn, Laura K

    2015-09-01

    While rain and irrigation events have been associated with an increased prevalence of foodborne pathogens in produce production environments, quantitative data are needed to determine the effects of various spatial and temporal factors on the risk of produce contamination following these events. This study was performed to quantify these effects and to determine the impact of rain and irrigation events on the detection frequency and diversity of Listeria species (including L. monocytogenes) and L. monocytogenes in produce fields. Two spinach fields, with high and low predicted risks of L. monocytogenes isolation, were sampled 24, 48, 72, and 144 to 192 h following irrigation and rain events. Predicted risk was a function of the field's proximity to water and roads. Factors were evaluated for their association with Listeria species and L. monocytogenes isolation by using generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs). In total, 1,492 (1,092 soil, 334 leaf, 14 fecal, and 52 water) samples were collected. According to the GLMM, the likelihood of Listeria species and L. monocytogenes isolation from soil samples was highest during the 24 h immediately following an event (odds ratios [ORs] of 7.7 and 25, respectively). Additionally, Listeria species and L. monocytogenes isolates associated with irrigation events showed significantly lower sigB allele type diversity than did isolates associated with precipitation events (P = <0.001), suggesting that irrigation water may be a point source of L. monocytogenes contamination. Small changes in management practices (e.g., not irrigating fields before harvest) may therefore reduce the risk of L. monocytogenes contamination of fresh produce. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. The state of OA: a large-scale analysis of the prevalence and impact of Open Access articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piwowar, Heather; Priem, Jason; Larivière, Vincent; Alperin, Juan Pablo; Matthias, Lisa; Norlander, Bree; Farley, Ashley; West, Jevin; Haustein, Stefanie

    2018-01-01

    Despite growing interest in Open Access (OA) to scholarly literature, there is an unmet need for large-scale, up-to-date, and reproducible studies assessing the prevalence and characteristics of OA. We address this need using oaDOI, an open online service that determines OA status for 67 million articles. We use three samples, each of 100,000 articles, to investigate OA in three populations: (1) all journal articles assigned a Crossref DOI, (2) recent journal articles indexed in Web of Science, and (3) articles viewed by users of Unpaywall, an open-source browser extension that lets users find OA articles using oaDOI. We estimate that at least 28% of the scholarly literature is OA (19M in total) and that this proportion is growing, driven particularly by growth in Gold and Hybrid. The most recent year analyzed (2015) also has the highest percentage of OA (45%). Because of this growth, and the fact that readers disproportionately access newer articles, we find that Unpaywall users encounter OA quite frequently: 47% of articles they view are OA. Notably, the most common mechanism for OA is not Gold, Green, or Hybrid OA, but rather an under-discussed category we dub Bronze: articles made free-to-read on the publisher website, without an explicit Open license. We also examine the citation impact of OA articles, corroborating the so-called open-access citation advantage: accounting for age and discipline, OA articles receive 18% more citations than average, an effect driven primarily by Green and Hybrid OA. We encourage further research using the free oaDOI service, as a way to inform OA policy and practice.

  10. The state of OA: a large-scale analysis of the prevalence and impact of Open Access articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Piwowar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite growing interest in Open Access (OA to scholarly literature, there is an unmet need for large-scale, up-to-date, and reproducible studies assessing the prevalence and characteristics of OA. We address this need using oaDOI, an open online service that determines OA status for 67 million articles. We use three samples, each of 100,000 articles, to investigate OA in three populations: (1 all journal articles assigned a Crossref DOI, (2 recent journal articles indexed in Web of Science, and (3 articles viewed by users of Unpaywall, an open-source browser extension that lets users find OA articles using oaDOI. We estimate that at least 28% of the scholarly literature is OA (19M in total and that this proportion is growing, driven particularly by growth in Gold and Hybrid. The most recent year analyzed (2015 also has the highest percentage of OA (45%. Because of this growth, and the fact that readers disproportionately access newer articles, we find that Unpaywall users encounter OA quite frequently: 47% of articles they view are OA. Notably, the most common mechanism for OA is not Gold, Green, or Hybrid OA, but rather an under-discussed category we dub Bronze: articles made free-to-read on the publisher website, without an explicit Open license. We also examine the citation impact of OA articles, corroborating the so-called open-access citation advantage: accounting for age and discipline, OA articles receive 18% more citations than average, an effect driven primarily by Green and Hybrid OA. We encourage further research using the free oaDOI service, as a way to inform OA policy and practice.

  11. Herd-level prevalence and risk factors for bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in cattle in the State of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Leise Gomes; Nogueira, Adriana Hellmeister de Campos; De Stefano, Eliana; Pituco, Edviges Maristela; Ribeiro, Cláudia Pestana; Alves, Clebert José; Oliveira, Tainara Sombra; Clementino, Inácio José; de Azevedo, Sérgio Santos

    2016-01-01

    Serological surveys based on a planned sampling on bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection in Brazilian cattle herds are scarce. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine herd- and animal-level seroprevalences and to identify risk factors associated with herd-level seroprevalence for BVDV infection in the State of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil, from September 2012 to January 2013. The state was divided into three sampling strata, and for each stratum, the prevalence of herds infected with BVDV and the prevalence of seropositive animals was estimated by a two-stage sampling survey. In total, 2443 animals were sampled from 478 herds. A virus-neutralization test was used for BVDV antibody detection. A herd was considered positive when at least one seropositive animal was detected. The herd- and animal-level prevalences in the State of Paraíba were 65.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 61.1-69.7%) and 39.1% (95% CI = 33.1-45.6%), respectively. The frequency of seropositive animals per herd ranged from 10 to 100% (median of 50%). The risk factors identified were as follows: more than six calves aged ≤12 months (odds ratio (OR) = 3.72; 95% CI = 2.08-6.66), animal purchasing (OR = 1.66; 95% CI = 1.08-2.55), pasture rental (OR = 2.15; 95% CI = 1.35-3.55), and presence of veterinary assistance (OR = 2.04; 95% CI = 1.10-3.79). Our findings suggest that the implementation of control and prevention measures among farmers, with the aim of preventing dissemination of the agent in the herds, is necessary. Special attention should be given to addressing the identified risk factors, such as sanitary control prior to animal purchasing and to discourage the pasture rental, as well as to encourage the vaccination in the herds.

  12. Prevalência do uso de produtos derivados do tabaco e fatores associados em mulheres no Paraná, Brasil Prevalence of tobacco use and associated factors among women in Paraná State, Brazil

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    Isabel C. Scarinci

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a prevalência do uso de produtos derivados do tabaco e o perfil demográfico de mulheres fumantes no Paraná, Brasil. Foi um estudo transversal de base populacional com amostragem por cluster envolvendo 2.153 mulheres com 18 anos de idade ou mais em sete cidades. A prevalência do uso do tabaco fumado foi de 13,4% variando de 10% (Cascavel a 19% (Irati. Na análise multivariada, cidade, estado civil e escolaridade foram significativamente associados ao uso do tabaco. Mulheres em Irati (OR = 2,08; IC95%: 1,22-3,54 foram mais propensas a serem fumantes que mulheres em Cambé. As casadas ou viúvas foram menos propensas a serem fumantes (OR = 0,47; IC95%: 0,30-0,73 e OR = 0,43; IC95%: 0,22-0,87 que as solteiras. Mulheres em união estável foram mais propensas a serem fumantes que as solteiras (OR = 2,49; IC95%: 1,12-5,53 e mulheres com curso superior foram menos propensas a serem fumantes que as com primeiro grau ou menos (OR = 0,41; IC95%: 0,22-0,87. Estes resultados confirmam a necessidade de programas de controle do tabaco que levem em consideração as questões de gênero e regiões.This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of tobacco use and to describe the demographic profile of female smokers in Paraná State, Brazil. The study used a cross-sectional population-based design with cluster sampling (n = 2,153 of women 18 years or older in seven cities. Prevalence of smoking was 13.4%, ranging from 10% in Cascavel to 19% in Irati. According to multivariate analysis, city of residence, marital status, and schooling were significantly associated with tobacco use. Women in Irati (OR = 2.08; 95%CI: 1.22-3.54 were more likely to smoke than those in Cambé. Married women and widows were less likely to smoke (OR = 0.47; 95%CI: 0.30-0.73 and OR = 0.43; 95%CI: 0.22-0.87 than single women. Women living with a partner (but not married were more likely to smoke than single women (OR = 2.49; 95%CI: 1.12-5.53, and

  13. Prevalence of anti-Neospora caninum antibodies in cattle from the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil Prevalência de anticorpos anti-Neospora caninum em rebanhos bovinos de Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil

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    Leandra M. Oshiro

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular parasite that can infect domestic and wild canids, as well as ruminants and equines. It was described in 1988 and has been known as a major cause of abortion in bovines and neuromuscular alterations and death in dogs. To estimate the prevalence of bovine neosporosis in the 22 municipalities of the so-called Estrato 1 subregion of the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso do Sul, blood samples were collected from cows aged 24 months and older, from December 2003 to March 2004. During sample collection, a questionnaire was used to gather data of epidemiological interest. The samples were subjected to serological diagnosis (indirect fluorescence antibody test - IFAT. Prevalences of 14.9% (449/2488 and 69.8% (143/205 were found for the animals and herds sampled, respectively. The variable found to be associated with seropositivity to N. caninum was abortion (OR 2.52; CI 1.25-5.06. The results revealed the presence of infection by N. caninum in the herds investigated, drawing attention to its role as a potential cause of abortion in cattle in Mato Grosso do Sul.Neospora caninum é um parasita intracelular obrigatório que pode infectar canídeos domésticos e selvagens, ruminantes e eqüídeos. Esse parasita foi descrito em 1988 e, desde sua descoberta, tem emergido como uma das principais causas de aborto em bovinos, além de causar alterações neuromusculares e morte em cães. Para estimar a prevalência da neosporose bovina em 22 municípios que compõem a sub-região denominada Estrato 1 do estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, foram analisados soros obtidos no período de dezembro de 2003 a março de 2004 de fêmeas com idade igual ou superior a 24 meses. Durante a colheita das amostras foi preenchido um questionário com informações de interesse epidemiológico. A determinação da presença de anticorpos anti-N. caninum foi feita pela Reação de Imunofluorescência Indireta, sendo as prevalências encontradas

  14. Baseline integrated behavioural and biological assessment among most at-risk populations in six high-prevalence states of India: design and implementation challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidel, Tobi; Adhikary, Rajatashuvra; Mainkar, Mandar; Dale, Jayesh; Loo, Virginia; Rahman, Motiur; Ramesh, Banadakoppa M; Paranjape, Ramesh S

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents key methodological approaches and challenges in implementing and analysing the first round of the integrated biobehavioural assessment of most-at-risk populations, conducted in conjunction with evaluation of Avahan, the India AIDS initiative. The survey collected data on HIV risk behaviours, sexually transmitted infections and HIV prevalence in 29 districts in six high-prevalence states of India. Groups included female sex workers and clients, men who have sex with men, injecting drug users and truck drivers. Strategies for overcoming some challenges of the large-scale surveys among vulnerable populations, including sampling hidden populations, involvement of the communities targeted by the survey, laboratory and quality control in remote, non-clinic field settings, and data analysis and data use are presented. Satisfying the need for protocols, guidelines and tools that allowed for sufficient standardization, while being tailored enough to fit diverse local situations on such a large scale, with so many implementing partners, emerged as a major management challenge. A major lesson from the first round is the vital importance of investing upfront time in tailoring the sampling methods, data collection instruments, and analysis plan to match measurement objectives. Despite the challenges, the integrated biobehavioural assessment was a huge achievement, and was largely successful in providing previously unavailable information about the HIV situation among populations that are critical to the curtailment of HIV spread in India. Lessons from the first round will be used to evolve the second round into an exercise with increased evaluative capability for Avahan.

  15. Comparison of small mammal prevalence of Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana in five foci of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Campeche, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wynsberghe, N R; Canto-Lara, S B; Sosa-Bibiano, E I; Rivero-Cárdenas, N A; Andrade-Narváez, F J

    2009-01-01

    In the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico, 95% of the human cases of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis are caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana with an incidence rate of 5.08 per 100,000 inhabitants. Transmission is limited to the winter months (November to March). One study on wild rodents has incriminated Ototylomys phyllotis and Peromyscus yucatanicus as primary reservoirs of L. (L.) mexicana in the focus of La Libertad, Campeche. In the present study, the prevalence of both infection and disease caused by L. (L.) mexicana in small terrestrial mammals were documented during five transmission seasons (1994-2004) in five foci of Leishmaniasis in the state of Campeche. Foci separated by only 100 km, with similar relative abundances of small mammals, were found to differ significantly in their prevalence of both symptoms and infection. Transmission rates and reservoir species seemed to change in space as well as in time which limited the implementation of effective control measures of the disease even in a small endemic area such as the south of the Yucatan Peninsula.

  16. Population-based assessment of prevalence and risk factors for pterygium in the South Indian state of Andhra Pradesh: the Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmamula, Srinivas; Khanna, Rohit C; Rao, Gullapalli N

    2013-08-09

    To describe the prevalence and risk factors for pterygium in a population-based sample of individuals aged 30 years and older in South Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. A cross-sectional study was conducted in one urban and three rural locations in which 10,293 subjects were examined. All the subjects underwent comprehensive eye examination and a detailed interview by trained professionals. Pterygium was defined as fleshy fibro vascular growth, crossing the limbus, and typically seen on the nasal conjunctiva in either eye. Data were analyzed for 5586 subjects who were aged 30 years and older at the time of participation. The mean age of the participants was 47.5 years (SD 13 years; range 30-102 years). In total, 46.4% were male, 56.7% had no education, 52.2% of them were involved in outdoor occupations, and 25% belonged to urban area. The prevalence of pterygium was 11.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.9-12.6). The multiple logistic regression analysis revealed significantly higher odds of pterygium among older age groups, rural residents (odds ratio [OR]: 1.8; 95% CI: 1.4-2.4; P > 0.01), and those involved in outdoor occupations (OR: 1.8; 95% CI: 1.5-2.2, P India.

  17. Prevalence of juvenile idiopathic arthritis in children aged 6 to 12 years in Embu das Artes, state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Edson; Terreri, Maria Teresa R A; Hilário, Maria Odete E; Len, Claudio A

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to study the prevalence of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) in school children in the city of Embu das Artes in São Paulo State. 2880 school children from seven public schools, aged between 6 and 12 years, were evaluated (clinical findings) by a pediatric rheumatologist. A board certified Pediatric Rheumatologist evaluated the subjects with suspected inflammatory arthropathy. Children with higher suspicion were referred to a specialized service. One hundred and forty-one children have presented abnormalities on examination of musculoskeletal system, with isolated pain on palpation the most common finding in the first evaluation (60.9%), with improvement in almost all cases in the second examination. Most of the abnormalities were related to recent injuries or congenital malformations. Six children have clinical findings suggestive of chronic arthropathy and were referred to a specialized pediatric rheumatology clinic. Of these, a 12 year-old girl fulfilled the criteria for JIA. The other diagnoses were aseptic necrosis of the hip (P = 1) of and post-trauma synovitis (P = 4). The prevalence of JIA in children aged between 6 and 12 years was 1/2.880 (or 0.34/1.000).

  18. [Prevalence and associated risk factors of arterial hypertension in Sobremonte and Ojo de Agua Departments in Cordoba State].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedraza, Antonio; Camino Willhuber, Gastón; Chaile, Iván

    2008-01-01

    Arterial Hypertension (AH) is a disease with multiple risk factors (RF), and it is one of the most important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of AH in Sobremonte area and its correlation to other risk factors. The study was done in an special programme called "Solidarity in Health" (SIH) supported by the College of Medicine at the National University of Córdoba, which provided primary care to residents of Cachi Yaco (Sobremonte Department). It is an small village near Santiago del Estero province located in 226 km from Córdoba city. They went to the city and they examined the patients at the the "French and Berutti" school for nine consecutive years (2000-2008). Sobremonte area is the poorest deparment in the province of Córdoba and it has the highest rate of lowest socio-economic development, and a very deficient health care system.. The only hospital providing primary care is in San Francisco del Chañar, and the access is not free. The study involved the determination of the arterial pressure (AP) according to the seventh "JNC"criteria, body mass index (BMI), levels of alcohol consumption, exercise, salt consumption, diabetes and smoking in all the patients. Additionally, three water samples from different representative zones were collected and tested for sodium concentration. 471 patients were included. The incidence of AH was 43.5% of the patients. (51% men and 36% women). Higher incidence of AH was found in patients between 50 and 59 years old. There was a stadistical difference in the BMI, diabetes, and alcohol consumption between healthy patients and patients with AH. There was not any correlation between AH and exercise. We found higher levels of sodium in the water of this area and it was between 13-35 higher than in C6rdoba city and it was correlated with AH. We conclude that the increased sodium consumption is one of the most important risk factor of AH in this population.

  19. EVALUATION OF CIRCUMSPOROZOITE PROTEIN OF Plasmodium vivax TO ESTIMATE ITS PREVALENCE IN OIAPOQUE , AMAPÁ STATE, BRAZIL, BORDERING FRENCH GUIANA

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    Margarete do Socorro Mendonça GOMES

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Malaria is a major health problem for people who live on the border between Brazil and French Guiana. Here we discuss Plasmodium vivax distribution pattern in the town of Oiapoque, Amapá State using the circumsporozoite (CS gene as a marker. Ninety-one peripheral blood samples from P. vivax patients have been studied. Of these, 64 individuals were from the municipality of Oiapoque (Amapá State, Brazil and 27 patients from French Guiana (August to December 2011. DNA extraction was performed, and a fragment of the P. vivax CS gene was subsequently analyzed using PCR/RFLP. The VK210 genotype was the most common in both countries (48.36% in Brazil and 14.28% in French Guiana, followed by the P. vivax-like (1.10% in both Brazil and French Guiana and VK247 (1.10% only in Brazil in single infections. We were able to detect all three CS genotypes simultaneously in mixed infections. There were no statistically significant differences either regarding infection site or parasitaemia among individuals with different genotypes. These results suggest that the same genotypes circulating in French Guiana are found in the municipality of Oiapoque in Brazil. These findings suggest that there may be a dispersion of parasitic populations occurring between the two countries. Most likely, this distribution is associated with prolonged and/or more complex transmission patterns of these genotypes in Brazil, bordering French Guiana.

  20. High Triatoma brasiliensis Densities and Trypanosoma cruzi Prevalence in Domestic and Peridomestic Habitats in the State of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil: The Source for Chagas Disease Outbreaks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilioso, Mauricio; Folly-Ramos, Elaine; Rocha, Fabiana Lopes; Rabinovich, Jorge; Capdevielle-Dulac, Claire; Harry, Myriam; Marcet, Paula L; Costa, Jane; Almeida, Carlos Eduardo

    2017-06-01

    AbstractA total of 2,431 Triatoma brasiliensis were collected from 39 populations of Paraíba (PB) and Rio Grande do Norte (RN) states, Brazil. In PB, Trypanosoma cruzi infection was not detected in either peridomestic or domestic vector populations. In contrast, in RN, T. brasiliensis was detected with high parasite prevalence in these ecotopes (30.7-40.0%). Moreover, peridomicile insect population densities were more than double the average densities of all other settings evaluated (19.17 versus disease transmission to humans, recent outbreaks have been detected in four municipalities of RN state. Our results clearly evidence a worrisome proximity between infected vectors and humans in RN. Indeed, finding of infected T. brasiliensis inside homes is routinely recorded by local vector control surveillance staff around the outbreak area, challenging the current and conventional view that vector transmissions are controlled in northeastern Brazil. This scenario calls for strengthening vector control surveillance and interventions to prevent further Chagas transmission, especially in RN State.

  1. [Prevalence of Anophelines (Diptera: Culicidae) during sunset in areas of the Itaipu Hydroelectric plant in Guaíra county, state of Paraná, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, A E; de Mello, R P; Lopes, C M; Alencar, J; Gentile, C

    1997-01-01

    Systematic collections of anophelines were conducted from November 1994 to August 1995 from 18:00 to 20:00 hr using Shannon traps and human-bait along the lake margin which forms the Itaipu Hydroelectric reservoir, State of Paraná, Brazil. Species prevalence was studied at 15 min intervals. Anopheles albitarsis sensu latu and An. galvaoi, were the most frequently collected mosquitoes. All Anopheles species populations peaked between 18:45 and 19:30 hr. The observations illustrate the existence of a haematophagic activity cycle during the early evening hours: exogenous stimulus (the beginning of sunset)-->Shannon trap (light attraction)-->human bait (haematophagy)-->rest and digestion-->exogenous stimulus-->Shannon trap or surrounding vegetation. The greater abundance of An. albitarsis collected in human-bait and Shannon trap suggests it may be a potential malaria vector in the region.

  2. Prevalence of excessive body fat among adolescents of a south Brazilian metropolitan region and State capital, associated risk factors, and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbricht, Leandra; de Campos, Mariane Ferreira; Esmanhoto, Eduardo; Ripka, Wagner Luis

    2018-03-02

    The prevalence of overweight/obesity has become a major concern for public health in developing countries. Risk factors need to be well documented so that these countries develop public policies to fight the problem. Thus, the objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of excess fat among adolescents of a South Brazilian State Capital associated with risk factors and their consequences. This study was conducted between 2014 and 2016 with adolescents aged 11-18 years. The following body composition measurements were collected: body mass, height, waist circumference, fat mass and bone mineral density (this latter through dual energy X-ray absorptiometry). Biochemical data as glucose, total cholesterol, and triglycerides were also collected. Finally, socioeconomic questionnaires were applied, as well as questionnaires regarding: the education level of guardians, active transportation, time spent with sedentary activities and physical activities. Odds ratios and chi-square test were applied in statistical analysis. Data from 675 adolescents, from which 70% were males, were analyzed. The mean age was 14.7 ± 1.8 years. The prevalence of excess fat was 18.2% in boys and 92.1% in girls. As for sedentary lifestyle and physical inactivity, having one of these factors increased the risk of being overweight by 7.9 times for boys and 3.0 times for girls. In boys, there was a significant association between excess fat and waist circumference (p = 0.000; OR = 13.5; CI = 7.0-25.9), physical activity level (p = 0.000; OR = 4.0; CI = 2.5-6.5), triglycerides (p = 0.019; OR = 2.2; CI = 1.1-4.2) and total cholesterol (p = 0.000; OR = 2.6; CI = 1.6-4.5). In girls, there was an association between having excess fat and an increase in total cholesterol (p = 0.000; OR = 8.0; CI = 2.6-24.4). The high prevalence of excess fat was greater than what was described by some studies conducted in developed countries

  3. Prevalence of depression and associated clinical and socio-demographic factors in people living with lymphatic filariasis in Plateau State, Nigeria.

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    James Obindo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Lymphatic filariasis is a chronic, disabling and often disfiguring condition that principally impacts the world's poorest people. In addition to the well-recognised physical disability associated with lymphedema and hydrocele, affected people often experience rejection, stigma and discrimination. The resulting emotional consequences are known to impact on the quality of life and the functioning of the affected individuals. However, the management of this condition has focused on prevention and treatment through mass drug administration, with scant attention paid to the emotional impact of the condition on affected individuals. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and severity of depression among individuals with physical disfigurement from lymphatic filariasis in Plateau State, Nigeria.A cross-sectional 2-stage convenience study was conducted at 5 designated treatment centers across Plateau State, Nigeria. All available and consenting clients with clearly visible physical disfigurement were recruited. A semi-structured socio-demographic questionnaire, Rosenberg Self-esteem and a 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9 were administered at the first stage. Those who screened positive (with a PHQ-9 score of five and above were further interviewed using the Depression module of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI.Ninety-eight individuals met the criteria and provided consent. Twenty percent of the respondents met criteria for depression, with the following proportions based on severity: Mild (42.1%, Moderate (31.6% and Severe (26.3%. History of mental illness (OR 40.83, p = 0.008; Median duration of the illness was 17 years (IQR 7.0-30 years and being unemployed (OR 12.71, p = 0.003 were predictive of depression. High self-esteem was negatively correlated (OR 0.09, p<0.004.Prevalence of depression is high among individuals with lymphatic filariasis and depression in sufferers is associated with low self-esteem and low

  4. Prevalence and Level of Listeria monocytogenes in Ice Cream Linked to a Listeriosis Outbreak in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y I; Burall, Laurel S; Macarisin, Dumitru; Pouillot, Régis; Strain, Errol; DE Jesus, Antonio J; Laasri, Anna; Wang, Hua; Ali, Laila; Tatavarthy, Aparna; Zhang, Guodong; Hu, Lijun; Day, James; Kang, Jihun; Sahu, Surasri; Srinivasan, Devayani; Klontz, Karl; Parish, Mickey; Evans, Peter S; Brown, Eric W; Hammack, Thomas S; Zink, Donald L; Datta, Atin R

    2016-11-01

    A most-probable-number (MPN) method was used to enumerate Listeria monocytogenes in 2,320 commercial ice cream scoops manufactured on a production line that was implicated in a 2015 listeriosis outbreak in the United States. The analyzed samples were collected from seven lots produced in November 2014, December 2014, January 2015, and March 2015. L. monocytogenes was detected in 99% (2,307 of 2,320) of the tested samples (lower limit of detection, 0.03 MPN/g), 92% of which were contaminated at ice cream products linked to a listeriosis outbreak provided a unique data set for further understanding the risk associated with L. monocytogenes contamination for highly susceptible populations.

  5. Community violence and childhood asthma prevalence in peripheral neighborhoods in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil Violência comunitária e prevalência de asma em crianças na periferia de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil

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    Guilherme da Costa Alves

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify degrees of exposure to community violence reported by parents and guardians of children from four to 12 years of age and the association with childhood asthma symptoms. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 1,232 parents/guardians in 24 peripheral neighborhoods in Salvador, the capital of Bahia State, Brazil. The authors investigated asthma symptoms in children and acts of violence in the community. More than 75% of parents/guardians had been exposed to community violence in the previous year, with 20% reporting high levels of exposure. Children that were more exposed to violence showed higher asthma prevalence (28.4% as compared to non-exposed children (16.4%. Children exposed to maximum levels of violence were nearly twice as likely to present asthma symptoms (adjusted OR = 1.94; 95%CI: 1.12-3.36. The study highlighted the relevance of community violence as a risk factor for asthma and the need for further research to elucidate methodological issues.O objetivo deste artigo foi identificar o grau de violência comunitária relatado por cuidadores de crianças entre quatro e 12 anos, além da influência dessa exposição na ocorrência de sintomas de asma nas crianças. Realizou-se um estudo transversal com 1.232 cuidadores residentes na cidade de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil. Investigaram-se sintomas de asma nas crianças e atos violentos na comunidade. Aproximadamente 75% dos cuidadores foram vítimas de violência comunitária no último ano, com 20% convivendo com graus elevados deste fenômeno. Encontrou-se prevalência de 28,4% de sintomas asmáticos entre crianças expostas ao grau máximo de violência, e 16,4% entre as não expostas. Encontrou-se associação estatisticamente significante entre exposição ao nível máximo de violência e ocorrência de sintomas asmáticos (OR ajustada = 1,94; IC95%: 1,12-3,36. Nossos achados sugerem a importância da violência comunitária como um dos fatores de risco

  6. Prevalência de anticorpos antivírus da arterite dos eqüinos em cavalos criados no Estado de São Paulo Prevalence of equine arteritis virus specific antibodies in horses of São Paulo State, Brazil

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    M.C.C.S.H. Lara

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Utilizou-se a prova de soroneutralização em microplacas para detecção de anticorpos antivírus da arterite dos eqüinos em 659 amostras de soro sangüíneo de animais criados no Estado de São Paulo. A prevalência de anticorpos na população estudada foi igual a 18,2%. A raça Mangalarga foi a que apresentou maior taxa de prevalência, 33,3%. Animais na faixa etária de 6 a 24 meses de idade apresentaram a maior taxa de prevalência, 30,4%, e as fêmeas apresentaram prevalência de 22, 9%, mais alta do que nos machos.With the purpose of studying the prevalence of equine viral arteritis in horses raised in São Paulo State, Brazil, by the standard microtiter serum neutralization test, 659 serum samples were investigated. The prevalence of antibodies in the horse population was 18.2%, which was significantly higher in Mangalarga horses (33.3% than in any other breed (Thoroughbred, Arab, Quarter Horse, mixed breeds and others. The distribuition of horses by age showed that horses between 6 to 24 months of age (30.4% had a higher prevalence (30.4% rate than others. The female horses prevalence rate of 22.9% was significantly higher than in male horses.

  7. Length of Residence in the United States is Associated With a Higher Prevalence of Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Immigrants: A Contemporary Analysis of the National Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commodore-Mensah, Yvonne; Ukonu, Nwakaego; Obisesan, Olawunmi; Aboagye, Jonathan Kumi; Agyemang, Charles; Reilly, Carolyn M; Dunbar, Sandra B; Okosun, Ike S

    2016-11-04

    Cardiometabolic risk (CMR) factors including hypertension, overweight/obesity, diabetes mellitus, and hyperlipidemia are high among United States ethnic minorities, and the immigrant population continues to burgeon. Hypothesizing that acculturation (length of residence) would be associated with a higher prevalence of CMR factors, the authors analyzed data on 54, 984 US immigrants in the 2010-2014 National Health Interview Surveys. The main predictor was length of residence. The outcomes were hypertension, overweight/obesity, diabetes mellitus, and hyperlipidemia. The authors used multivariable logistic regression to examine the association between length of US residence and these CMR factors.The mean (SE) age of the patients was 43 (0.12) years and half were women. Participants residing in the United States for ≥10 years were more likely to have health insurance than those with income ratio, age, and sex, immigrants residing in the United States for ≥10 years were more likely to be overweight/obese (odds ratio [OR], 1.19; 95% CI, 1.10-1.29), diabetic (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.17-1.73), and hypertensive (OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.05-1.32) than those residing in the United States for <10 years. In an ethnically diverse sample of US immigrants, acculturation was associated with CMR factors. Culturally tailored public health strategies should be developed in US immigrant populations to reduce CMR. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  8. Wikipedia usage estimates prevalence of influenza-like illness in the United States in near real-time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIver, David J; Brownstein, John S

    2014-04-01

    Circulating levels of both seasonal and pandemic influenza require constant surveillance to ensure the health and safety of the population. While up-to-date information is critical, traditional surveillance systems can have data availability lags of up to two weeks. We introduce a novel method of estimating, in near-real time, the level of influenza-like illness (ILI) in the United States (US) by monitoring the rate of particular Wikipedia article views on a daily basis. We calculated the number of times certain influenza- or health-related Wikipedia articles were accessed each day between December 2007 and August 2013 and compared these data to official ILI activity levels provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). We developed a Poisson model that accurately estimates the level of ILI activity in the American population, up to two weeks ahead of the CDC, with an absolute average difference between the two estimates of just 0.27% over 294 weeks of data. Wikipedia-derived ILI models performed well through both abnormally high media coverage events (such as during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic) as well as unusually severe influenza seasons (such as the 2012-2013 influenza season). Wikipedia usage accurately estimated the week of peak ILI activity 17% more often than Google Flu Trends data and was often more accurate in its measure of ILI intensity. With further study, this method could potentially be implemented for continuous monitoring of ILI activity in the US and to provide support for traditional influenza surveillance tools.

  9. Prevalência de talassemias e hemoglobinas variantes no estado de Goiás, Brasil Prevalence of thalassemias and variant hemoglobins in the state of Goiás, Brazil

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    Paulo Roberto de Melo-Reis

    2006-12-01

    frequency in the Brazilian population is very variable depending on the racial groups typical of each region. The settlement of Goiás, that had its beginning after discovery in 1726 owing to the search for gold, was composed basically by Portuguese and African slaves, a context that favored the racial mixing among them. Considering that these groups present genes for abnormal hemoglobins with varied frequencies it is expected the finding of these genetic abnormalities within our population. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of thalassemies and variant hemoglobins in the population of Goiás. For this purpose the sample was composed by 404 participating students from several graduate courses of the Catholic University of Goiás originally from 55 cities of the state of Goiás. Laboratory tests were used taking into account the historical and demographic factors of the population. The prevalence of hereditary anemias by thalassemias and variant hemoglobins in Goiás was 10.1%, in which the decreasing order of these abnormalities was: alfa heterozygous thalassemy (5.2%; heterozygous hemoglobin S (Hb AS (2.2%; heterozygous hemoglobin C (Hb AC (1%; beta short thalassemy (0.7%; association between alpha thalassemy and heterozygous for hemoglobin S (0.5%; association between alpha thalassemy and heterozygous for hemoglobin C (0.3%; and heterozygous for hemoglobin D (0.3%. No homozygosity was found in the study group. This study demonstrates the need for large scale screening in human populations for epidemiological studies of the thalassemies and variant hemoglobins in the state of Goiás.

  10. Acral melanocytic lesions in the United States: Prevalence, awareness, and dermoscopic patterns in skin-of-color and non-Hispanic white patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madankumar, Reshmi; Gumaste, Priyanka V; Martires, Kathryn; Schaffer, Panta R; Choudhary, Sonal; Falto-Aizpurua, Leyre; Arora, Harleen; Kallis, Penelope J; Patel, Shailee; Damanpour, Shadi; Sanchez, Margaret I; Yin, Natalie; Chan, Aegean; Sanchez, Miguel; Polsky, David; Kanavy, Holly; Grichnik, James M; Stein, Jennifer A

    2016-04-01

    Acral lentiginous melanoma has increased mortality compared with other melanoma subtypes and disproportionately affects ethnic minorities. Acral melanocytic lesions have not been well studied in diverse populations of the United States. We sought to assess the prevalence, awareness, and dermoscopic patterns of acral melanocytic lesions in skin-of-color and non-Hispanic white patients. We prospectively examined the palms and soles of 1052 patients presenting to dermatology clinics in New York, NY, and Miami, FL, from October 2013 to April 2015. Acral melanocytic lesions were observed in 36% of our cohort. Skin-of-color patients were more likely to have acral melanocytic lesions than non-Hispanic white patients (P white patients. The majority of lesions demonstrated benign dermoscopic patterns. We observed 2 lesions with the parallel ridge pattern in our cohort, both found to be atypical nevi on biopsy specimen. Patients often lacked awareness of the presence of their lesions. Interobserver variability in assessing dermoscopic patterns is a limitation. Melanocytic lesions of the palms and soles are common, particularly in a cohort of multiple ethnicities from the United States. Dermoscopy of acral lesions is an important clinical tool for diagnosis and management of these lesions. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cataract prevalence in Central-West region of São Paulo State, Brazil Prevalência de catarata na região centro-oeste do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

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    Gabriel Arantes Carlos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Cataract is considered the main preventable cause of blindness and visual impairment mainly in poor countries. This study was done to evaluate if cataract is still an important cause of blindness in Central-West region of State of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with a systematically randomized sample of households in five cities located in Central-West region of São Paulo State, Brazil. The sample consisted of 4,229 individuals (8,458 eyes of all ages. All household members were considered eligible. They were submitted to a complete ophthalmological examination (visual acuity with and without visual correction, biomicroscopy, fundoscopy, tonometry, and refractometry. Cataract diagnosis was given to eyes presenting lens opacity in biomicroscopy exam, according to Lens Opacities Classification System II (LOCS II. Eye with a best correction, presenting visual deficiency or blindness caused by cataract was considered after excluded other pathologies that decrease visual acuity (VA. We considered as visual deficiency eyes with 0.05 OBJETIVO: A catarata é a principal causa tratável de cegueira e deficiência visual em países subdesenvolvidos. Este estudo foi realizado para avaliar se a catarata continua sendo uma importante causa de cegueira no centro-oeste do Estado de São Paulo. MÉTODOS: Um estudo transversal, de caráter observacional, realizado em cinco cidades da região centro-oeste do Estado de São Paulo, para as quais o centro de referência é a cidade de Botucatu. A amostra estabelecida para este estudo, de forma aleatória, seria composta por 5.555 indivíduos, sendo que foram examinados 4.229 indivíduos (8.458 olhos, ou seja, 78% da amostra pretendida. Os indivíduos foram submetidos a um exame oftalmológico completo que consistia em avaliação da acuidade visual (com e sem correção, tonometria, biomicroscopia, fundoscopia e exame refracional. O diagnóstico de catarata foi dado aos

  12. Short communication: Prevalence of methicillin resistance in coagulase-negative staphylococci and Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bulk milk on organic and conventional dairy farms in the United States.

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    Cicconi-Hogan, K M; Belomestnykh, N; Gamroth, M; Ruegg, P L; Tikofsky, L; Schukken, Y H

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. in bulk tank milk samples from 288 organic and conventional dairy farms located in New York, Wisconsin, and Oregon from March 2009 to May 2011. Due to recent publications reporting the presence mecC (a mecA homolog not detected by traditional mecA-based PCR methods), a combination of genotypic and phenotypic approaches was used to enhance the recovery of methicillin-resistant organisms from bulk tank milk. In total, 13 isolates were identified as methicillin resistant: Staph. aureus (n=1), Staphylococcus sciuri (n=5), Staphylococcus chromogenes (n=2), Staphylococcus saprophyticus (n=3), Staphylococcus agnetis (n=1), and Macrococcus caseolyticus (n=1). The single methicillin-resistant Staph. aureus isolate was identified from an organic farm in New York, for an observed 0.3% prevalence at the farm level. The methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci prevalence was 2% in the organic population and 5% in the conventional population. We did not identify mecC in any of the isolates from our population. Of interest was the relatively high number of methicillin-resistant Staph. sciuri recovered, as the number of isolates from our study was considerably higher than those recovered from other recent studies that also assessed milk samples. Our research suggests that the presence of a potential methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus reservoir in milk, and likely the dairy farm population in the United States, is independent of the organic or conventional production system. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis Among 6–12-Year-Old School Children of Mahabubnagar District, Telangana State, India − A Cross-Sectional Study

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    Kola S Reddy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Telangana state in southern India has many areas which have high–low fluoride levels in drinking water, and Mahabubnagar district is one among them, where people are affected with dental and skeletal fluorosis, with the majority belonging to low socio-economic status. Aims: To assess the prevalence of dental fluorosis in school going children of Mahabubnagar district and also to assess fluoride levels in drinking water from different areas of Mahabubnagar district. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 2000 children in the age group 6–12 years in different areas of Mahabubnagar district. Dental fluorosis status was assessed by using Modified Dean’s Fluorosis Index. Alizarin visual method was used to estimate fluoride levels in water. The data collected were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: Dental fluorosis in primary and permanent dentition was 15 and 70.3%, respectively. In the northern part of Mahabubnagar district, primary dentition was more affected by fluorosis whereas in southern part, the permanent dentition was more affected. The prevalence of dental fluorosis in primary dentition was more in 6–7-year-old children (35.5%, and in permanent dentition, it was more in 9–10-year-old children (70%. The fluoride level in drinking water was more in Kosghi, Kalwakurthy (2.0 ppm. Conclusion: Dental fluorosis was more in 10-year-old and less in 6-year-old children. It was more in eastern and northern zones of Mahabubnagar district and less in local villages of Mahabubnagar.

  14. Prevalence and incrimination of Anopheles fluviatilis species S (Diptera: Culicidae in a malaria endemic forest area of Chhattisgarh state, central India

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    Nanda Nutan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chhattisgarh state in central India is highly endemic for malaria and contributes about 13% of annually reported malaria cases in the country with predominance of P. falciparum. Entomological investigations were carried out in a tribal forested area of district Bastar located in the southern part of Chhattisgarh state to record the prevalence of sibling species of Anopheles fluviatilis and An. culicifacies complexes. The vector species complexes were investigated at sibling species level for their biology in terms of resting and feeding behavior and malaria transmission potential. Methods Indoor resting vector mosquitoes collected during 2010–2011 were identified to sibling species by cytotaxonomy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay. The blood meal source analysis and incrimination studies were done at sibling species level by counter current immunoelectrophoresis and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA respectively. Results Analysis of sibling species composition revealed predominance of An. fluviatilis species S in the study area, which was found to be highly anthropophagic and rested in human dwellings whereas the sympatric species T was primarily zoophagic. Incrimination studies showed high sporozoite rate in species S, thereby confirming its vectorial efficiency. An. culicifacies was encountered in low numbers and comprised species B and C in almost equal proportion. Both these species were found to be exclusively zoophagic. Conclusion The observations made strongly suggest that species S of Fluviatilis Complex is the principal vector of malaria in certain forest areas of district Bastar, Chhattisgarh state and should be the target species for vector control operation. Vector control strategies based on biological characteristics of Fluviatilis S will lead to substantial decline in malaria incidence in such areas.

  15. Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis and coinfection with Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the United States as determined by the Aptima Trichomonas vaginalis nucleic acid amplification assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginocchio, C C; Chapin, K; Smith, J S; Aslanzadeh, J; Snook, J; Hill, C S; Gaydos, C A

    2012-08-01

    Our aim was to determine Trichomonas vaginalis prevalence using the Aptima Trichomonas vaginalis assay (ATV; Gen-Probe) and the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae coinfections in U.S. women undergoing screening for C. trachomatis/N. gonorrhoeae. Discarded urogenital samples from 7,593 women (18 to 89 years old) undergoing C. trachomatis/N. gonorrhoeae screening using the Aptima Combo 2 assay (Gen-Probe) in various clinical settings were tested with ATV. Overall, T. vaginalis, C. trachomatis, and N. gonorrhoeae prevalences were 8.7%, 6.7%, and 1.7%, respectively. T. vaginalis was more prevalent than C. trachomatis or N. gonorrhoeae in all age groups except the 18- to 19-year-old group. The highest T. vaginalis prevalence was in women ≥ 40 years old (>11%), while the highest C. trachomatis prevalence (9.2%) and N. gonorrhoeae prevalence (2.2%) were in women 40 years, while C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae prevalence is lowest in that age group. Higher T. vaginalis prevalence in women of >40 years is probably attributed to the reason for testing, i.e., symptomatic status versus routine screening in younger women. Coinfections were relatively low. High T. vaginalis prevalence in all age groups suggests that women screened for C. trachomatis/N. gonorrhoeae, whether asymptomatic or symptomatic, should be screened for T. vaginalis.

  16. Child physical abuse: prevalence, characteristics, predictors, and beliefs about parent-child violence in South Asian, Middle Eastern, East Asian, and Latina women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maker, Azmaira H; Shah, Priti V; Agha, Zia

    2005-11-01

    The present study examined the prevalence, characteristics, beliefs, and demographic predictors of parent-child physical violence among South Asian, Middle Eastern, East Asian, and Latina women in the United States. Two hundred fifty-one college-educated women from a middle to high SES (South Asian/Middle Eastern, n = 93; East Asian,n = 72; Latina,n = 86) completed a self-report survey on childhood experiences and beliefs regarding physical abuse. Seventy-three percent of the South Asian and Middle Eastern sample, 65% of the East Asian sample, and 78% of the Latina sample reported experiencing at least one type of physical abuse. Significant differences in characteristics and perpetrators of abuse were found across groups. Demographic factors did not predict physical abuse. Experiencing physical abuse was the only predictor for acceptance of physical discipline and as a parental privilege or right across groups. Implications of alternate cultural models of family violence based on beliefs and exposure to violence are discussed.

  17. Analyzing the some biochemical parameters of diabetes mellitus and obese patients who applied to Siirt State Hospital endocrine polyclinic and their prevalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karageçili, Hasan; Yerlikaya, Emrah; Aydin, Ruken Zeynep

    2016-04-01

    Obesity and diabetes are major public health problems throughout the World. Obese individuals body mass index (BMI) is >30 kg/m2. Obesity is characterized by increased waist circumference, total body fat and hyperglycemia. The increased triglyceride and cholesterol level is also shown in obese individuals. The development of obesity is largely due to the consumption of high energy food and sedentary lifestyle. This study was held with the participation of patients applied to Siirt State Hospital endocrine policlinic for treatment. Our aim is to try to determine the biochemical relation and border line of obese and obese+diabetes mellitus patients. Patients and control group lipid profiles were studied in the hospital biochemisty laboratory. Laboratory results of diabetes+obese, obese and control groups were evaluated. Patients and control samples blood serum levels were compared according to their lipid profiles. In 2015, 735 diabetes mellitus type 2 patients applied to Endocrine polyclinic. Some of these patient's serum levels were evaluated. Difference between diabetes+obese and diabetes groups were near critical level for LDL and trigliserid. There were not observed statistically significant difference between groups in terms of HDL and cholesterol. There were found significant difference between groups for blood glucose pdiabetes patients blood serum values nearly close to each other. Obese subjects were been diabetic obese with age. In women obesity and diabetes mellitus prevalence were seen too much.

  18. Prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to rabies virus in serum of seven species of insectivorous bats from Colorado and New Mexico, United States

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    Bowen, Richard A.; O'Shea, Thomas J.; Shankar, Vidya; Neubaum, Melissa A.; Neubaum, Daniel J.; Rupprecht, Charles E.

    2013-01-01

    We determined the presence of rabies-virus-neutralizing antibodies (RVNA) in serum of 721 insectivorous bats of seven species captured, sampled, and released in Colorado and New Mexico, United States in 2003-2005. A subsample of 160 bats was tested for rabies-virus RNA in saliva. We sampled little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) at two maternity roosts in Larimer County, Colorado; big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) at three maternity roosts in Morgan County, Colorado; and big brown bats at five maternity roosts in Larimer County. We also sampled hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus) and silver-haired bats (Lasionycteris noctivagans) captured while drinking or foraging over water in Bernalillo County, New Mexico and at various locations in Larimer County. Big brown bats, little brown bats, long-legged myotis (Myotis volans), long-eared myotis (Myotis evotis), and fringed myotis (Myotis thysanodes) were also sampled over water in Larimer County. All species except long-eared myotis included individuals with RVNA, with prevalences ranging from 7% in adult female silver-haired bats to 32% in adult female hoary bats. None of the bats had detectable rabies-virus RNA in oropharyngeal swabs, including 51 bats of 5 species that had RVNA in serum. Antibody-positive bats were present in nine of the 10 maternity colonies sampled. These data suggest that wild bats are commonly exposed to rabies virus and develop a humoral immune response suggesting some degree of viral replication, but many infections fail to progress to clinical disease.

  19. High prevalence anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies, among blood donors in the State of Puebla, a non-endemic area of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Guillén, M C; Barnabé, C; Guégan, J F; Tibayrenc, M; Velásquez-Rojas, M; Martínez-Munguía, J; Salgado-Rosas, H; Torres-Rasgado, E; Rosas-Ramírez, M I; Pérez-Fuentes, R

    2002-10-01

    Blood transfusion is the second most common transmission route of Chagas disease in many Latin American countries. In Mexico, the prevalence of Chagas disease and impact of transfusion of Trypanosoma cruzi-contaminated blood is not clear. We determined the seropositivity to T. cruzi in a representative random sample, of 2,140 blood donors (1,423 men and 647 women, aged 19-65 years), from a non-endemic state of almost 5 millions of inhabitants by the indirect hemagglutination (IHA) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests using one autochthonous antigen from T. cruzi parasites, which were genetically characterized like TBAR/ME/1997/RyC-V1 (T. cruzi I) isolated from a Triatoma barberi specimen collected in the same locality. The seropositivity was up to 8.5% and 9% with IHA and ELISA tests, respectively, and up to 7.7% using both tests in common. We found high seroprevalence in a non-endemic area of Mexico, comparable to endemic countries where the disease occurs, e.g. Brazil (0.7%), Bolivia (13.7%) and Argentina (3.5%). The highest values observed in samples from urban areas, associated to continuous rural emigration and the absence of control in blood donors, suggest unsuspected high risk of transmission of T. cruzi, higher than those reported for infections by blood e.g. hepatitis (0.1%) and AIDS (0.1%) in the same region.

  20. High prevalence anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies, among blood donors in the State of Puebla, a non-endemic area of Mexico

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    MC Sánchez-Guillén

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Blood transfusion is the second most common transmission route of Chagas disease in many Latin American countries. In Mexico, the prevalence of Chagas disease and impact of transfusion of Trypanosoma cruzi-contaminated blood is not clear. We determined the seropositivity to T. cruzi in a representative random sample, of 2,140 blood donors (1,423 men and 647 women, aged 19-65 years, from a non-endemic state of almost 5 millions of inhabitants by the indirect hemagglutination (IHA and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA tests using one autochthonous antigen from T. cruzi parasites, which were genetically characterized like TBAR/ME/1997/RyC-V1 (T. cruzi I isolated from a Triatoma barberi specimen collected in the same locality. The seropositivity was up to 8.5% and 9% with IHA and ELISA tests, respectively, and up to 7.7% using both tests in common. We found high seroprevalence in a non-endemic area of Mexico, comparable to endemic countries where the disease occurs, e.g. Brazil (0.7%, Bolivia (13.7% and Argentina (3.5%. The highest values observed in samples from urban areas, associated to continuous rural emigration and the absence of control in blood donors, suggest unsuspected high risk of transmission of T. cruzi, higher than those reported for infections by blood e.g. hepatitis (0.1% and AIDS (0.1% in the same region.

  1. Prevalence of seropositivity to pandemic influenza A/H1N1 virus in the United States following the 2009 pandemic.

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    Carrie Reed

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: 2009 pandemic influenza A/H1N1 (A(H1N1pdm09 was first detected in the United States in April 2009 and resulted in a global pandemic. We conducted a serologic survey to estimate the cumulative incidence of A(H1N1pdm09 through the end of 2009 when pandemic activity had waned in the United States. METHODS: We conducted a pair of cross sectional serologic surveys before and after the spring/fall waves of the pandemic for evidence of seropositivity (titer ≥40 using the hemagglutination inhibition (HI assay. We tested a baseline sample of 1,142 serum specimens from the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, and 2,759 serum specimens submitted for routine screening to clinical diagnostic laboratories from ten representative sites. RESULTS: The age-adjusted prevalence of seropositivity to A(H1N1pdm09 by year-end 2009 was 36.9% (95%CI: 31.7-42.2%. After adjusting for baseline cross-reactive antibody, pandemic vaccination coverage and the sensitivity/specificity of the HI assay, we estimate that 20.2% (95%CI: 10.1-28.3% of the population was infected with A(H1N1pdm09 by December 2009, including 53.3% (95%CI: 39.0-67.1% of children aged 5-17 years. CONCLUSIONS: By December 2009, approximately one-fifth of the US population, or 61.9 million persons, may have been infected with A(H1N1pdm09, including around half of school-aged children.

  2. Prevalence of Internet gaming disorder in German adolescents: diagnostic contribution of the nine DSM-5 criteria in a state-wide representative sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehbein, Florian; Kliem, Sören; Baier, Dirk; Mößle, Thomas; Petry, Nancy M

    2015-05-01

    Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is included as a condition for further study in Section 3 of the DSM-5. Nine criteria were proposed with a threshold of five or more criteria recommended for diagnosis. The aims of this study were to assess how the specific criteria contribute to diagnosis and to estimate prevalence rates of IGD based on DSM-5 recommendations. Large-scale, state-representative school survey using a standardized questionnaire. Germany (Lower Saxony). A total of 11 003 ninth-graders aged 13-18 years (mean = 14.88, 51.09% male). IGD was assessed with a DSM-5 adapted version of the Video Game Dependency Scale that covered all nine criteria of IGD. In total, 1.16% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.96, 1.36] of respondents were classified with IGD according to DSM-5 recommendations. IGD students played games for longer periods, skipped school more often, had lower grades in school, reported more sleep problems and more often endorsed feeling 'addicted to gaming' than their non-IGD counterparts. The most frequently reported DSM-5 criteria overall were 'escape adverse moods' (5.30%) and 'preoccupation' (3.91%), but endorsement of these criteria rarely related to IGD diagnosis. Conditional inference trees showed that the criteria 'give up other activities', 'tolerance' and 'withdrawal' were of key importance for identifying IGD as defined by DSM-5. Based on a state-wide representative school survey in Germany, endorsement of five or more criteria of DSM-5 internet gaming disorder (IGD) occurred in 1.16% of the students, and these students evidence greater impairment compared with non-IGD students. Symptoms related to 'give up other activities', 'tolerance' and 'withdrawal' are most relevant for IGD diagnosis in this age group. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  3. A prevalência da tuberculose no estado do Acre El predominio de la tuberculosis en el estado de Acre The prevalence of tuberculosis in the state of Acre

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    Analdemyra da Costa Moreira

    2004-12-01

    de coinfección entre TB/SIDA y VHI/TB se notificaron cinco casos. La cobertura poblacional del programa en todos los años estuvo dentro de la franja de 90%, y de los 22 municipios 6 (27,3% todavía no poseen ninguna acción de control de la enfermedad.It is a descriptive study with the aim of studying the prevalence of tuberculosis in the State of Acre from 1995 to 2001. The data were collected from the forms of the Program for Tuberculosis Control of the Health and Sanitation Office. The data show that the incidence has been maintaining an average of 343.7 new cases a year. The pulmonary type was the most prevalent one, accounting for 90.0%. Among the age groups, the 20-49 age range, with 1,347 (56.0% and the 60 and over-60 age range, with 412 (17.0%, stand out. From 1998 to 2001 the male sex was the most attacked one by the disease, when the year 2000 accounted for 58.2% of the cases. The average of the cure rate was 71.0% and abandonment of treatment was 14.8% in 2001 and 32.3% in 1995. The smallest percentage of death occurred in 1995 (1.0% and the largest one in 1997 (7.0%. Five cases were notified for the occurrence of coinfection between TB/AIDS and HIV/TB. The program's population coverage was within 90% every year. From the 22 cities, 6 (27.3% still do not have any action for controlling the disease.

  4. Maternal exposure to ozone and PM2.5 and the prevalence of orofacial clefts in four U.S. states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Ying; Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Herdt, Michele L.; Lupo, Philip J.; Flanders, W. Dana; Liu, Yang; Shin, Mikyong; Canfield, Mark A.; Kirby, Russell S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: While there is some evidence that maternal exposure to ambient air pollution is associated with orofacial clefts in offspring, the epidemiologic studies have been largely equivocal. We evaluated whether maternal exposure to elevated county-level ambient fine particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm (PM 2.5 ) and ozone during early gestation was associated with a higher prevalence of orofacial clefts. Methods: Birth data consisting of 4.7 million births from 2001 to 2007 were obtained from National Birth Defects Prevention Network for four states — Arizona, Florida, New York (excluding New York City), and Texas. The air pollution exposure assessment for gestational weeks 5–10 was based on county-level average concentrations of PM 2.5 and ozone data generated using a Bayesian fusion model available through CDC's Environmental Public Health Tracking Network. Two outcomes were analyzed separately: cleft lip with or without cleft palate, cleft palate alone. In logistic regression analyses, we adjusted for factors that were suspected confounders or modifiers of the association between the prevalence of orofacial clefts and air pollution, i.e., infant sex, race-ethnicity, maternal education, smoking status during pregnancy, whether this was mother's first baby, maternal age. Results: Each 10 µg/m 3 increase in PM 2.5 concentration was significantly associated with cleft palate alone (OR =1.43, 95% CI: 1.11–1.86). There was no significant association between PM 2.5 concentration and cleft lip with or without cleft palate. No associations were observed between ozone exposure and the two outcomes of orofacial clefts. Conclusions: Our study suggests that PM 2.5 significantly increased the risk of cleft palate alone, but did not change the incidence of cleft lip with or without palate. Ozone levels did not correlate with incidence of orofacial clefts. - Highlights: • This is a large study with about 4.7 million births and 7000

  5. Prevalence and associated risk factors of malaria among adults in East Shewa Zone of Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Frew; Fogarty, Andrew W; Deressa, Wakgari

    2017-07-17

    Malaria is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. The disease is prevalent in over 75% of the country's area making it the leading public health problems in the country. Information on the prevalence of malaria and its associated factors is vital to focus and improve malaria interventions. A cross-sectional study was carried out from October to November 2012 in East Shewa zone of Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. Adults aged 16 or more years with suspected malaria attending five health centers were eligible for the study. Logistic regression models were used to examine the effect of each independent variable on risk of subsequent diagnosis of malaria. Of 810 suspected adult malaria patients who participated in the study, 204 (25%) had microscopically confirmed malaria parasites. The dominant Plasmodium species were P. vivax (54%) and P. falciparum (45%), with mixed infection of both species in one patient. A positive microscopic result was significantly associated with being in the age group of 16 to 24 years [Adjusted Odds Ratio aOR 6.7; 95% CI: 2.3 to 19.5], 25 to 34 years [aOR 4.2; 95% CI: 1.4 to 12.4], and 35 to 44 years [aOR 3.7; 95% CI: 1.2-11.4] compared to 45 years or older; being treated at Meki health center [aOR 4.1; 95% CI: 2.4 to 7.1], being in Shashemene health center [aOR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.5 to 4.5], and living in a rural area compared to an urban area [aOR 1.7; 95% CI: 1.1 to 2.6)]. Malaria is an important public health problem among adults in the study area with a predominance of P. vivax and P. falciparum infection. Thus, appropriate health interventions should be implemented to prevent and control the disease.

  6. Quantitative Analyses about Market- and Prevalence-Based Needs for Adapted Physical Education Teachers in the Public Schools in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiabei

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze quantitative needs for more adapted physical education (APE) teachers based on both market- and prevalence-based models. The market-based need for more APE teachers was examined based on APE teacher positions funded, while the prevalence-based need for additional APE teachers was analyzed based on students…

  7. Prevalence of coronary heart disease risk factors and screening for high cholesterol levels among young adults, United States, 1999-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuklina, Elena V; Yoon, Paula W; Keenan, Nora L

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have reported low rates of screening for high cholesterol levels among young adults in the United States. Although recommendations for screening young adults without risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD) differ, all guidelines recommend screening adults with CHD, CHD equivalents, or 1 or more CHD risk factors. This study examined national prevalence of CHD risk factors and compliance with the cholesterol screening guidelines among young adults. National estimates were obtained using results for 2,587 young adults (men aged 20 to 35 years; women aged 20 to 45 years) from the 1999-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. We defined high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) as levels higher than the goal specific for each CHD risk category outlined in the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines. About 59% of young adults had CHD or CHD equivalents, or 1 or more of the following CHD risk factors: family history of early CHD, smoking, hypertension, or obesity. In our study, the overall screening rate in this population was less than 50%. Moreover, no significant difference in screening rates between young adults with no risk factors and their counterparts with 1 or more risk factors was found even after adjustment for sociodemographic and health care factors. Approximately 65% of young adults with CHD or CHD equivalents, 26% of young adults with 2 or more risk factors, 12% of young adults with 1 risk factor, and 7% with no risk factor had a high level of LDL-C. CHD risk factors are common in young adults but do not appear to alter screening rates. Improvement of risk assessment and management for cardiovascular disease among young adults is warranted.

  8. Verifying the prevalence, properties, and congruent hydraulics of at-many-stations hydraulic geometry (AMHG) for rivers in the continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Caitline A.; Gleason, Colin J.

    2018-01-01

    Hydraulic geometry (HG) has long enabled daily discharge estimates, flood risk monitoring, and water resource and habitat assessments, among other applications. At-many-stations HG (AMHG) is a newly discovered form of HG with an evolving understanding. AMHG holds that there are temporally and spatially invariant ('congruent') depth, width, velocity, and discharge values that are shared by all stations of a river. Furthermore, these river-wide congruent hydraulics have been shown to link at-a-station HG (AHG) in space, contrary to previous expectation of AHG as spatially unpredictable. To date, AMHG has only been thoroughly examined on six rivers, and its congruent hydraulics are not well understood. To address the limited understanding of AMHG, we calculated AMHG for 191 rivers in the United States using USGS field-measured data from over 1900 gauging stations. These rivers represent nearly all geologic and climatic settings found in the continental U.S. and allow for a robust assessment of AMHG across scales. Over 60% of rivers were found to have AMHG with strong explanatory power to predict AHG across space (defined as r2 > 0.6, 118/191 rivers). We also found that derived congruent hydraulics bear little relation to their observed time-varying counterparts, and the strength of AMHG did not correlate with any available observed or congruent hydraulic parameters. We also found that AMHG is expressed at all fluvial scales in this study. Some statistically significant spatial clusters of rivers with strong and weak AMHG were identified, but further research is needed to identify why these clusters exist. Thus, this first widespread empirical investigation of AMHG leads us to conclude that AMHG is indeed a widely prevalent natural fluvial phenomenon, and we have identified linkages between known fluvial parameters and AMHG. Our work should give confidence to future researchers seeking to perform the necessary detailed hydraulic analysis of AMHG.

  9. Gender differences in the prevalence of Tuberculous Lymphadenitis at the State of Penang, Malaysia: Findings from a cross-sectional study

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    Ridhwan Abdullah

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of tuberculous lymphadenitis on the basis of gender in the northern state of Malaysia.Materials and Methods: Current study was divided into two phases (Retrospective and Prospective, which was conducted at the Department of Chest in General Hospital Penang. Patient records were reviewed retrospectively, and prospectively to identify patients with confirmed diagnosis of tuberculous lymphadenitis under the clinical signs and symptoms, and laboratory tests from January 2006 to December 2008. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16.Results: One hundred and nine patients (7.2% with confirmed tuberculosis lymphadenitis cases were found,among 1516 of total TB cases. The mean age of the patients was 36.4±12.87. The male to female ratio was 1.4:1. Ethnically,45 (41.3% were Malay followed by Chinese 37 (33.9%.Among the risk factors were, HIV and diabetes mellitus, 17(15.6% and 11(10.0% respectively. Cough and fever were the most common symptoms in both gender groups. Night sweat,cough, shortness of breathing were observed more in male than female, while swelling of lymph nodes, loss of appetite,loss of weight, haemoptysis, and chest pain were higher in female. In the majority, 90 (82.5% positive results were obtained by fine needle aspiration (FNA cytology. Overall sixtytwo (56.9% patients were successfully treated, 5 (4.6%patients died during the treatment, while male were higher in successfully treated (59.7%.Conclusion: Incidence of TB Lymphadenitis was found higher among Malay men. Diabetes mellitus and HIV are the most commonly reported risk factors and co-morbidities playing an important role in treatment success while, 12 months treatment were observed among 10 (9.2% of cases. Treatment successful rate were higher in male as compare to female.

  10. Prevalence and correlates of alcohol and tobacco use among pregnant women in the United States: Evidence from the NSDUH 2005-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sehun; Reingle Gonzalez, Jennifer M; Salas-Wright, Christopher P; Vaughn, Michael G; DiNitto, Diana M

    2017-04-01

    Alcohol and tobacco use during pregnancy are among the strongest and most preventable risk factors for adverse neonatal health outcomes, but few developmentally sensitive, population-based studies of this phenomenon have been conducted. To address this gap, the present study examined the prevalence and correlates of alcohol and tobacco use among pregnant adolescents (aged 12-17) and adults (aged 18-44) in the United States. Data were derived from the population-based National Survey of Drug Use and Health (80,498 adolescent and 152,043 adult women) between 2005 and 2014. Findings show disconcerting levels of past-month use among pregnant women with 11.5% of adolescent and 8.7% of adult women using alcohol, and 23.0% of adolescent and 14.9% of adult women using tobacco. Compared to their non-pregnant counterparts, pregnant adolescents were less likely to report past 30-day alcohol use (AOR=0.52, 95% CI=0.36-0.76), but more likely to report past 30-day tobacco use (AOR=2.20, 95% CI=1.53-3.18). Compared to their non-pregnant adult counterparts, pregnant adults were less likely to report using alcohol (AOR=0.06, 95% CI=0.05-0.07) and tobacco (AOR=0.47, 95% CI=0.43-0.52). Compared to pregnant abstainers, pregnant women reporting alcohol/tobacco use were more likely to have had a major depressive episode in the past 12months, report criminal justice system involvement, and endorse comorbid alcohol/tobacco use. Given alcohol and tobacco's deleterious consequences during pregnancy, increased attention to reducing use is critical. Findings suggest that tobacco use is especially problematic for both adolescents and adults and is strongly linked with depression and criminal justice involvement, especially among adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevalence. Ascice. faotic dogs.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    reproduction. body weight evaluation and other existing ph}siological and pathological condn1ons. REFERE:\\CES. Datong. P. G. (2003). Seasonal Prevalence of Ascites in Dogs. '\\atonal Diploma project in. Animal I lealth and production Technology. FCAHPT. I'\\\\ RI. Vom .. Plateau State Pp 1-. 28. Gourley. I. M., and Vasseur ...

  12. Prevalence, risk factors and genotypes of hepatitis B infection among HIV-infected patients in the State of MS, Central Brazil

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    Solange Zacalusni Freitas

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: This study demonstrates the low prevalence of HIV-HBV infection and also highlights the need for early vaccination against HBV as well as testing for HBV, HCV and HDV in all HIV-infected individuals.

  13. Age-specific prevalence of Epstein-Barr virus infection among individuals aged 6-19 years in the United States and factors affecting its acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfour, Henry H; Sifakis, Frangiscos; Sliman, Joseph A; Knight, Jennifer A; Schmeling, David O; Thomas, William

    2013-10-15

     Data on the age-specific prevalence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection are relevant for determining when to administer a prophylactic vaccine. Comparison of demographic groups could identify factors associated with its acquisition.  The National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) examine a representative sample of the US population. Serum specimens from NHANES participants 6-19 years old were tested for EBV antibody by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). A random portion was also tested by indirect immunofluorescence (IFA). Prevalence estimates and risk-factor comparisons used demographic data and sampling weights in logistic regression models.  Serum specimens collected between 2003 and 2010 from 9338 individuals participating in NHANES were tested. The concordance between EIA and IFA findings was 96.7%. The overall age-adjusted EBV antibody prevalence declined from 72% in 2003-2004 to 65% in 2009-2010 (P = .027). The prevalence in 2009-2010 by age group was as follows: 6-8 years, 50%; 9-11 years, 55%; 12-14 years, 59%; 15-17 years, 69%; and 18-19 years, 89%. Within each race/ethnicity group, younger age, health insurance coverage, higher household income, and education level were significantly associated with a lower prevalence of EBV antibody.  The EBV antibody prevalence declined in US individuals aged 6-19 years from 2003-2004 to 2009-2010, mainly because of the decrease among non-Hispanic white participants. The declining antibody prevalence over time and the consistently high observed prevalence among participants aged 12-19 years support broad use of EBV vaccine before 12 years of age.

  14. Prevalência de enteroparasitoses na população do município de Maria Helena, Paraná Prevalence of enteroparasitosis in the population of Maria Helena, Paraná State

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    Simone Aparecida dos Santos

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available O estudo epidemiológico dos parasitas intestinais tem por objetivo determinar as principais doenças e seus respectivos agentes etiológicos que se encontram distribuídos por todo o mundo, de forma endêmica ou epidêmica. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a prevalência de infecção por enteroparasitoses, em qual idade há sua maior prevalência, relacionando a infecção com a idade, o sexo e a região em que a pessoa vive, no município de Maria Helen (PR. A coleta de dados foi realizada de junho de 2004 a maio de 2006. Foram analisadas 431 amostras de fezes pelo método de sedimentação espontânea e centrífugo-flutuação. A prevalência de enteroparasitoses foi de 16%, sendo os enteroparasitas mais frequentes: Endolimax nana (6,5%, Entamoeba coli (3,5%, Giardia intestinalis (6,3%, Ascaris lumbricoides (1,4%, Strongyloides stercoralis (0,7%, Entrobius vermicularis (0,7%, Ancilostomídeo (0,2%, Entamoeba hystolitica e Taenia sp (0,2%. O poliparasitismo foi detectado em 3,2% das amostras. A faixa etária que apresentou maior prevalência foi de zero a nove anos, porém não houve diferença estatística entre os fatores analisados, uma vez que p>0,05. Diante desses resultados, conclui-se que o município apresenta características similares em relação à zona rural e urbana.The epidemiological study on intestinal parasites has the purpose of determining the main diseases and their respective etiologic agents, which are endemically or epidemically spread worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate the enteroparasitosis infection prevalence, in which age group they prevail, relating the infection with age, gender, and the region in which the person lives, in the city of Maria Helena - PR. Data collection was performed from June of 2004 to May of 2006. 431 samples of feces were analyzed through the spontaneous sedimentation and centrifugal fluctuation methods. The enteroparasitosis prevalence was of 16%, being the most frequent

  15. Lower Prevalence of Celiac Disease and Gluten-Related Disorders in Persons Living in Southern vs Northern Latitudes of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unalp-Arida, Aynur; Ruhl, Constance E; Choung, Rok Seon; Brantner, Tricia L; Murray, Joseph A

    2017-06-01

    The association between prevalence of celiac disease and geographic region is incompletely understood, but the occurrence of several autoimmune disorders has been found to vary along a North-South gradient. We examined geographic, demographic, and clinical factors associated with prevalence of celiac disease and gluten-free diet in the United States. In a population-based study, we analyzed data on gluten-related conditions from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, from 2009 through 2014, on 22,277 participants 6 years and older. We identified persons with celiac disease based on results of serum tests for IgA against tissue transglutaminase and endomysium or on both a health care provider diagnosis and adherence to a gluten-free diet. Gluten avoidance without celiac disease was defined as adherence to a gluten-free diet without a diagnosis of celiac disease. We compared mean serum levels of biochemical and nutritional markers based on status of gluten-related conditions. We found 0.7% of participants to have celiac disease and 1.1% of participants to avoid gluten without celiac disease. Celiac disease was more common among individuals who lived at latitudes of 35°-39° North (odds ratio, 3.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-7.1) or at latitudes of 40° North or more (odds ratio, 5.4; 95% CI, 2.6-11.3) than individuals who lived at latitudes below 35° North, independent of race or ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and body mass index. Gluten avoidance without celiac disease was more common among individuals who lived at latitudes of 40° North or more, independent of demographic factors and body mass index. Participants with undiagnosed celiac disease (identified by positive results from serologic tests) had lower mean levels of vitamin B-12 and folate (data collected from 2009 through 2012) than persons without celiac disease. Participants with a health care provider diagnosis of celiac disease had a lower mean level of hemoglobin than persons

  16. HPV prevalence, E6 sequence variation and physical state of HPV16 isolates from patients with cervical cancer in Sichuan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Ai-Dong; Wu, En-Qi; Yu, Xiang-Hui; Jiang, Chun-Lai; Jin, Ying-Hua; Wu, Yong-Ge; Chen, Yue; Chen, Yan; Shan, Ya-Ming; Zhang, Guo-Nan; Fan, Ying; Zha, Xiao; Kong, Wei

    2007-01-01

    Infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (hr-HPV) is an important factor associated with cervical cancer. The genetic mutation of HPV16 E6 and integration of HPV16 DNA in the cervical carcinoma tissues are considered important genetic changes in cervical lesion progression. But the studies of hr-HPV epidemiology are relatively less in the area of Sichuan, China. Therefore, we investigated the prevalence of 9 high-risk subtypes and analyzed the genetic mutation characteristic of HPV16 E6 and physical state of HPV16 DNA. The fragments of L1 and E6 genes were amplified by PCR or nested PCR and then directly sequenced. Further, the multiplex PCR for HPV16 E2 and E6 genes was performed for detection of integration. HPV16, 58 and 18 were prominent, accounting for 78.6%, 20.0% and 9.7%, respectively in 145 isolates. E6 variants revealed that the European (EP) prototype and East Asia (EA) strain were 26 (23.0%) and 34 (30.1%), respectively. Furthermore, there were 14 base substitutions in E6 regions of the study group, of which 12 resulted in amino acid changes and the rest was silent mutation. Significantly, the 240G substitution exactly located the P53 degradation site. Overall, 8 of 114 (7.0%) isolates only contained integrated HPV16 DNA, 43 (37.7%) only contained episomal DNA and 63 (55.3%) contained both integrated and episomal DNA. The proportion of disruption of an intact E2 gene in the patients with cervical cancer is much lower than that in the previous studies. HPV16, 58 and 18 were mainly prevailing subtypes in patients with cervical cancer from Sichuan areas, China and EP/EA strains were predominant in these areas. Some mutations of E6 gene, which lead to the amino acid changes, may be more potentially carcinogenic and the proportion of disruption of an intact E2 gene is much lower.

  17. Prevalence and Assessment of Various Risk Factors among Oral Cancer Cases in a Rural Area of Maharashtra State, India - An Epidemiological Study

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    Hemant J. Pawar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The 'organ distribution' of cancer is often strikingly dissimilar in different groups of population and varies greatly from one community to another and also differs in different communities in the same geographical location, depending on the practices, lifestyles and the influence of deleterious habits like use of tobacco and or alcohol of the people. Among various cancers affecting the human body, oral cancer accounts for nearly one third of it. Objectives: i To find out the relative frequency of oral cancer in relation to other sites from Hospital Based Cancer Registry (HBCR ii To find out the various risk factors associated with oral cancer and iii To recommend appropriate preventive measures. Methodology: A hospital based retrospective cross sectional study was conducted through case records of oral cancer patients who reported in the year 2013 to Pravara Rural HBCR, Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Rural Medical College and Pravara Rural Hospital, Loni, Maharashtra state, India. The case files and registers of oral cancer cases were reviewed to collect personal and clinical data about sex, age, occupation, marital status, education, socioeconomic status, habits like tobacco chewing and cigarette smoking. A predesigned performa (a core form by HBCR programme was used to collect the data. The statistical analysis was done using SYSTAT for Windows version 12 and categorical data was analysed by using Chi-square test. Results: In all1328 patients of all cancers visited the hospital during the period January 2013 to December 2013. Out of these, 349 (26.28% were of oral cancer cases. The sex wise distribution revealed 256 (73.25% among males and 93(26.65% among females. Mean age of the patients was 54.98 years, ranging from 15- 78 years, 31.23% were more than 65 years of age. The most oral cancer sites among the males and females were those of tongue (37.82% and buccal mucosa (32.95% respectively. Tobacco related cancer

  18. Prevalência da infecção pelo Schistosoma mansoni em dois municípios do Estado de Alagoas Prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infection in two municipalities of the State of Alagoas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danylo César Correia Palmeira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Estudos preliminares indicam uma provável expansão da esquistossomose em Alagoas. Este trabalho analisa a ocorrência do Schistosoma mansoni em escolares de dois municípios, localizados nas bacias hidrográficas dos rios Mundaú e Paraíba. MÉTODOS: O grupo de estudo foi constituído por 690 escolares da zona urbana, com idade entre sete e 15 anos. Foram aplicados interrogatórios socioeconômicos e foram usados exames parasitológicos para diagnostico da esquistossomose (métodos de Kato e de Lutz. Foram tratados os casos positivos e foram ministradas palestras para alunos e familiares sobre educação sanitária. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de Schistosoma mansoni foi de 24,9%. A associação entre esquistossomose e outras parasitoses foi significativa em relação à tricuríase (pINTRODUCTION: Preliminary studies indicate a probable schistosomiasis expansion in Alagoas. This work analyzes the occurrence of Schistosoma mansoni in students from two municipalities, located in the Mundaú and Paraíba rivers basins. METHODS: The study group consisted of 690 students in the urban area, aged between seven and 15 years. A standardized socio-economic questionnaire was filled out and parasitological tests were used to diagnosis schistosomiasis (Lutz and Kato methods. Positive cases were treated and students and their families were lectured about health education. RESULTS: The Schistosoma mansoni prevalence was 24.9%. The association between schistosomiasis and other parasitic diseases was significant in relation to trichuriasis (p <0.05. Only 50% of infected children lived in brick homes with sanitation and public water supply. Among them, 48.1% used to go usually to the water collections and 55.8% of them knew rivers snails. The concordance analysis between the Lutz and Kato methods showed disagreement in 54.2%, with greater sensitivity for the Lutz technique (76.4%. CONCLUSIONS: The indices obtained characterize the municipalities

  19. PREVALENCE OF ANTIBODY ANTI-LEPTOSPIRE IN BULLS OF THE MICROREGION OF GOIÂNIA GOIAS STATE – BRAZIL PREVALÊNCIA DE ANTICORPOS ANTILEPTOSPIRA EM MACHOS BOVINOS NA MICRORREGIÃO DE GOIÂNIA

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    Francisco de Carvalho Dias Filho

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was to study the prevalence of sera agglutinins anti-leptospira in bulls in Goiânia Micro-Region. Sixty farms were chosen randomly in according to sorovars presented and the tax of prevalence of them. The correlation of the prevalence of the leptospirosis were establish with the type of herd (beef or dairy and the occurrence of abortions in farms. One hundred forty samples bulls from “Goiânia Micro-Region” were analyzed (MG regarding 60 properties. The sera reagents prevalence was 74.28% and . presented titles with variation of dilution from 1:100 to 1:800. The prevalence of the sera varieties, presents in this “Goiania Micro-Region”, was the following: wolffi (19.23%; hardjo (15.38%; djasiman and grippotyphosa (5.76%; shermani (4.80%; patoc (1.92%; andamana, castellonis, copenhageni, hebdomadis, sentot and tarassovi (0.96%. According to these results, it was possible to conclude that leptospirosis is an endemic agent in this part of Goiás State and there were not any relationship with production system or abortions and prevalence. KEY WORDS: Leptospirosis, cattle, bull, prevalence. Os objetivos deste experimento foram estudar a prevalência de soroaglutininas antileptospira em reprodutores bovinos na microrregião de Goiânia trabalhando com propriedades escolhidas de forma aleatória e quais os sorovares presentes e a taxa de prevalência dos mesmos. Estabelecer a correlação da prevalência com a aptidão do rebanho e a ocorrência de abortos nas propriedades. Foram analisadas 140 amostras da microregião de Goiânia (MG referentes a 60 propriedades. A prevalência de sororeagentes foi 74,28% e apresentaram títulos com variação de diluição de 1:100 a 1:800. A prevalência dos sorovares, presentes na microrregião de Goiânia, foi a seguinte: wolffi (19,23%; hardjo (15,38%; djasiman e grippotyphosa (5,76%; shermani (4,80%; patoc (1,92%; andamana, castellonis, copenhageni, hebdomadis, sentot e

  20. Analysis of the state of morbidity and prevalence of illnesses of the skeletal-muscular system in Ukraine and Volhynia areal

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    Andriychuk O.Y.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of morbidity and prevalence of illnesses of the skeletal-muscular system, modern problems of diagnostics, treatment and rehabilitation of patients with arthrosis, is considered. The level of morbidity is analysed, prevalence and primary output on disability, caused by illnesses of the skeletal-muscular system in Ukraine and Volhynia area. The last researches of modern problems of medical rehabilitation are considered with the use of physical therapy procedures, ground of principles of a stage restoration treatment of patients with arthrosis.

  1. A comparison of the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in the United States (US) and Korea in young adults aged 20 to 39 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study estimated and compared the prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome and its individual components in young adults (ages 20-39 years) in the US and Korea using 2003-2004 US and 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. The mean body mass index and rate of metabolic abn...

  2. Prevalências de ideação, plano e tentativa de suicídio: um inquérito de base populacional em Campinas, São Paulo, Brasil Prevalence of suicidal ideation, suicide plans, and attempted suicide: a population-based survey in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Neury José Botega

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi estimar as prevalências ao longo da vida de ideação, planos e tentativas de suicídio na população. Quinhentos e quinze indivíduos residentes em Campinas, São Paulo, Brasil, foram selecionados utilizando-se amostragem estratificada por conglomerados e avaliados por entrevista do Estudo Multicêntrico de Intervenção no Comportamento Suicida. Calculamos prevalências ponderadas, com os respectivos intervalos de 95% de confiança (IC95%. As prevalências foram de 17,1% (IC95%: 12,9;21,2 para ideação, 4,8% (IC95%: 2,8;6,8 para planos e 2,8% (IC95%: 0,09;4,6 para tentativas de suicídio. O comportamento suicida foi mais freqüente em mulheres e em adultos jovens. A existência de um plano de como tirar a própria vida, em termos de freqüência, situa-se próximo da tentativa (relação de 5:3. De cada três tentativas de suicídio, apenas uma chegou a ser atendida em um serviço médico. As prevalências se assemelham à maioria dos estudos de outros países. É essencial coletar diretamente na comunidade informações sobre o comportamento suicida, abarcando-o em sua abrangência.This study aimed to estimate the lifetime prevalence rates for suicidal ideation, suicide plans, and attempted suicide, based on a cluster sample of 515 residents of Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil. The Multisite Intervention Study on Suicidal Behavior interview was performed, and lifetime prevalence rates and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI were calculated. Lifetime prevalence rates were 17.1% (95%CI: 12.9-21.2 for suicidal ideation, 4.8% (95%CI: 2.8-6.8 for suicide plans, and 2.8% (95%CI: 0.09-4.6 for attempted suicide. Suicidal behavior was more frequent among women and young adults. The suicide plan/attempt ratio was approximately 5:3. Only one-third of those who attempted suicide contacted a health service following the attempt. Prevalence rates for suicidal behavior were similar to most studies from other countries. Suicide prevention

  3. Automedicação em idosos residentes em Campinas, São Paulo, Brasil: prevalência e fatores associados Self-medication in the elderly population of Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil: prevalence and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Antunes de Oliveira

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi avaliar a prevalência e fatores associados à automedicação em idosos e identificar os principais fármacos consumidos sem prescrição. Estudo transversal de base populacional, com amostra estratificada por conglomerados e em dois estágios realizado em Campinas, São Paulo, Brasil, em 2008-2009. Dos 1.515 idosos, 80,4% referiram uso de ao menos um medicamento nos três dias anteriores à pesquisa. Desses, 91,1% relataram consumo exclusivo de medicamentos prescritos e o restante (8,9%, uso simultâneo de prescritos e não prescritos. Após ajuste, idade > 80 anos, hipertensão arterial, presença de doenças crônicas, uso de serviços de saúde, realização de consultas odontológicas e filiação a plano médico de saúde estiveram associadas negativamente, e renda per capita, positivamente à automedicação. Os fármacos sem prescrição mais consumidos foram dipirona, AAS, diclofenaco, Ginkgo biloba, paracetamol e homeopáticos. Sobretudo entre idosos, a assistência farmacêutica deve ser priorizada para evitar o uso incorreto de medicamentos e garantir o acesso aos fármacos necessários ao tratamento.The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and causative factors associated with self-medication in the elderly and identify the main drugs consumed without prescription. A cross-sectional population-based study with stratified clustered two-stage sampling was performed in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil in 2008 and 2009. Of the 1,515 elderly studied, 80.4% reported using at least one drug duringthe three days preceding the survey. Of these, 91.1% reported the use of prescription drugs only and the remainder (8.9% reported simultaneous use of prescribed and non prescribed drugs. After adjustment, a negative association between age > 80 years, hypertension, chronic diseases, use of health services, dental consultations and adherence to a medical plan,and self-medication was found, whereas a positive association was

  4. Violência contra idosos no ambiente doméstico: prevalência e fatores associados (Recife/PE Violence against the elderly in the home environment: prevalence and associated factors (Recife, State of Pernambuco

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    Andrezza Marques Duque

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo teve como objetivo de determinar a prevalência e os fatores associados à violência doméstica contra pessoas idosas. Estudo de corte transversal com 274 sujeitos, com 60 anos ou mais, de ambos os sexos. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevistas nos domicílios ou nas USF a partir de roteiro estruturado em três blocos: questionário com informações biodemográficas e sociodemográficas; duas escalas de avaliação e; instrumento para identificação de violência. Entre os entrevistados, 20,8% relataram ter sofrido pelo menos um dos tipos de violência em seu ambiente doméstico. Observou-se associação entre os que moravam com um número maior de indivíduos, entre as mulheres e idosos dependentes para as atividades instrumentais da vida diária. Após o modelo de regressão logística, apenas as variáveis sexo e arranjo familiar mostraram-se associadas significativamente, havendo evidência de maior ocorrência entre os que coabitavam com seis ou mais moradores e as mulheres. Estes achados evidenciam a magnitude e gravidade do problema e alerta para a necessidade de ações no combate à violência contra a pessoa idosa.The scope of this paper was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with domestic violence against the elderly. It is a cross-sectional study with 274 subjects, aged 60 years or more, of both sexes. Data were collected through interviews at home or in the USF based on a script structured in three parts: questionnaire with socio-demographic and bio-demographic information, two rating scales and a tool for identifying abuse. Among the respondents, 20.8% reported having experienced at least one type of violence in their home environment. An association was revealed between those living with a greater number of individuals, among women and elderly people who are dependent for day-to-day activities. After applying the logistic regression model, only the variables of sex and family configuration

  5. Patient-reported prevalence and symptomatic burden of uterine fibroids among women in the United States: findings from a cross-sectional survey analysis

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    Fuldeore MJ

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mahesh J Fuldeore, Ahmed M Soliman Health Economics and Outcomes Research, AbbVie Inc., North Chicago, IL, US Purpose: To estimate the prevalence of women diagnosed with uterine fibroids and the associated symptom burden in the US.Patients and methods: Responses of women aged 18–54 years, who completed an online survey, were analyzed. Data were weighted based on age, education, race, geographic region, income, and propensity score to derive national estimates of the prevalence of women diagnosed with uterine fibroids and associated symptom burden. Weighted means and percentages were reported. Prevalence across age and ethnic groups was examined. Symptom burden among women with and without uterine fibroids was compared using weighted logistic regressions.Results: Of 59,411 respondents who met study inclusion criteria, 7.7% reported receiving a diagnosis of uterine fibroids. Of these, 5,670 women (1,402 in the uterine fibroid group and 4,268 in the control group were excluded from analysis because they had a hysterectomy. Among the non-hysterectomized study participants, 3,031 self-reported a diagnosis of uterine fibroids (prevalence: 5.8%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.5%–6.1%; prevalence increased as women aged and was greatest in the 50–54 age group (11.4%; 95% CI: 10.4%–12.4%. In addition, prevalence was greater in black vs white women (9.8%; 95% CI: 8.7%–11.0% vs 5.4%; 95% CI: 5.1%–5.7%. A greater percentage of women with uterine fibroids (vs those without experienced severe heavy menstrual bleeding (16.7% vs 7.7%, severe constipation/bloating/diarrhea (7.7% vs 4.7%, severe passage of clots (6.7% vs 2.4%, severe spotting/bleeding between periods (1.7% vs 1.0%, and severe pelvic pressure (1.6% vs 0.6%. Among uterine fibroid patients with these typical uterine fibroid-related symptoms, 56.4%, 32.3%, 26.4%, 25.8%, and 20.4% reported heavy menstrual bleeding, passage of clots, spotting/bleeding between periods, constipation

  6. Corporal Punishment in U.S. Public Schools: Prevalence, Disparities in Use, and Status in State and Federal Policy. Social Policy Report. Volume 30, Number 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershoff, Elizabeth T.; Font, Sarah A.

    2016-01-01

    School corporal punishment is currently legal in 19 states, and over 160,000 children in these states are subject to corporal punishment in schools each year. Given that the use of school corporal punishment is heavily concentrated in Southern states, and that the federal government has not included corporal punishment in its recent initiatives…

  7. Infant feeding and allergy prevention: a review of current knowledge and recommendations. A EuroPrevall state of the art paper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, K.E.C.; Allen, K.; Edwards, C.A.

    2009-01-01

    of firm evidence the recommendations differ widely. This review has been developed as part of EuroPrevall, a European multicentre research project funded by the European Union, to document the differing feeding recommendations made across Europe, to investigate the current evidence base for any allergy......The relationship between infant feeding patterns and the later development of food allergies has been the focus of much debate and research over the last decade. National recommendations have been made by many countries on how to feed infants to reduce the risk of food allergy but due to the lack...... prevention feeding recommendations and to identify areas where further research is needed. This review will also provide information which, when combined with the infant feeding data collected as part of EuroPrevall, will give an indication of compliance to national feeding guidelines which can be utilised...

  8. The prevalence of sexual violence in prison: the state of the knowledge base and implications for evidence-based correctional policy making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Tonisha R; Pratt, Travis C

    2008-06-01

    The issue of prison violence and misconduct has been the subject of considerable academic attention, yet particularized areas of violent victimization within prisons have gone relatively unnoticed. One such area involves sexual violence in prisons. Scholars have argued that sexual violence contributes to a host of institutional and individual-level problems, yet the primary limitation of this body of literature is that it has been largely confined to methodologically questionable studies of prison rape prevalence. The purpose of this study, therefore, is to critically take stock of what is and what is not currently known about the prevalence of prison sexual violence. In doing so, it highlights the direction that future research should take so that evidence-based policies concerning prison sexual violence may be developed.

  9. Prevalence of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and Type 2 in Persons Aged 14-49: United States, 2015-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuillan, Geraldine; Kruszon-Moran, Deanna; Flagg, Elaine W; Paulose-Ram, Ryne

    2018-02-01

    Herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) are common, lifelong infections, which often have no symptoms (1). People with symptoms may have painful blisters or sores at the site of infection (2,3). The viruses are transmitted through contact with an infected person’s lesion, mucosal surface, or genital or oral secretions. This report provides recent national estimates of HSV-1 and HSV-2 antibody prevalence from the 2015–2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) among persons aged 14–49 by age, sex, and race and Hispanic origin, and examines trends in prevalence by race and Hispanic origin from 1999–2000 to 2015–2016. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  10. Infant feeding and allergy prevention: a review of current knowledge and recommendations. A EuroPrevall state of the art paper.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Grimshaw, K E C

    2009-10-01

    The relationship between infant feeding patterns and the later development of food allergies has been the focus of much debate and research over the last decade. National recommendations have been made by many countries on how to feed infants to reduce the risk of food allergy but due to the lack of firm evidence the recommendations differ widely. This review has been developed as part of EuroPrevall, a European multicentre research project funded by the European Union, to document the differing feeding recommendations made across Europe, to investigate the current evidence base for any allergy prevention feeding recommendations and to identify areas where further research is needed. This review will also provide information which, when combined with the infant feeding data collected as part of EuroPrevall, will give an indication of compliance to national feeding guidelines which can be utilised to assess the effectiveness of current dissemination and implementation strategies.

  11. Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence by Race/Ethnicity and Sex in the United States, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Justin Xavier; Chaudhary, Ninad; Akinyemiju, Tomi

    2017-03-16

    Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors associated with increased risk of multiple chronic diseases, including cancer and cardiovascular disease. The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome overall, by race and sex, and to assess trends in prevalence from 1988 through 2012. We analyzed data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for 1988 through 2012. We defined metabolic syndrome as the presence of at least 3 of these components: elevated waist circumference, elevated triglycerides, reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high blood pressure, and elevated fasting blood glucose. Data were analyzed for 3 periods: 1988-1994, 1999-2006, and 2007-2012. Among US adults aged 18 years or older, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome rose by more than 35% from 1988-1994 to 2007-2012, increasing from 25.3% to 34.2%. During 2007-2012, non-Hispanic black men were less likely than non-Hispanic white men to have metabolic syndrome (odds ratio [OR], 0.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.66-0.89). However, non-Hispanic black women were more likely than non-Hispanic white women to have metabolic syndrome (OR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.02-1.40). Low education level (OR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.32-1.84) and advanced age (OR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.67-1.80) were independently associated with increased likelihood of metabolic syndrome during 2007-2012. Metabolic syndrome prevalence increased from 1988 to 2012 for every sociodemographic group; by 2012, more than a third of all US adults met the definition and criteria for metabolic syndrome agreed to jointly by several international organizations.

  12. Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence by Race/Ethnicity and Sex in the United States, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Justin Xavier; Chaudhary, Ninad

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors associated with increased risk of multiple chronic diseases, including cancer and cardiovascular disease. The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome overall, by race and sex, and to assess trends in prevalence from 1988 through 2012. Methods We analyzed data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for 1988 through 2012. We defined metabolic syndrome as the presence of at least 3 of these components: elevated waist circumference, elevated triglycerides, reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high blood pressure, and elevated fasting blood glucose. Data were analyzed for 3 periods: 1988–1994, 1999–2006, and 2007–2012. Results Among US adults aged 18 years or older, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome rose by more than 35% from 1988–1994 to 2007–2012, increasing from 25.3% to 34.2%. During 2007–2012, non-Hispanic black men were less likely than non-Hispanic white men to have metabolic syndrome (odds ratio [OR], 0.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.66–0.89). However, non-Hispanic black women were more likely than non-Hispanic white women to have metabolic syndrome (OR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.02–1.40). Low education level (OR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.32–1.84) and advanced age (OR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.67–1.80) were independently associated with increased likelihood of metabolic syndrome during 2007–2012. Conclusion Metabolic syndrome prevalence increased from 1988 to 2012 for every sociodemographic group; by 2012, more than a third of all US adults met the definition and criteria for metabolic syndrome agreed to jointly by several international organizations. PMID:28301314

  13. Prevalence Of Hypertension And Awareness Of The Causes And Effects Of Hypertension In Rural And Urban Communities Of Enugu State Nigeria

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    Chinyere Okeke

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Developing countries face the double burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases and of the later hypertension is the most common. It is a major public health challenge with an ever increasing global prevalence which inherently increases the global disease burden whereas awareness of this disease and its determinants are poor. It contributes to about 500000 deaths every year. This was a cross-sectional descriptive community survey carried out in urban and rural communities of Enugu southeast Nigeria. A multi-staged sampling technique was used to recruit 260 participants and data was collected by administering questionnaires. Blood pressure measurement and weight of all the subjects were done. These were analysed using EPI info statistical software version 6.04. The result shows that the prevalence of hypertension in urban and rural areas was 15.4 and 13.8 respectively but was not statistically significantly different. About 17.6 and 23 were perceived hypertensives for urban and rural areas respectively. From the study 17 and 44.5 of urban and rural respondents respectively have suffered from hypertension related illnesses stroke kidney disease heart disease and eye problem. Approximately 45 of urban respondents and 83.7 of rural respondents believed that hypertension can be cured. The source of information and general knowledge of hypertension in urban and rural area was statistically significant pamp88040.05. In the urban area their method of cure include drugs and lifestyle modification while in the rural areas drugs and spiritual means was their way of curing the disease. Prevalence and awareness of hypertension is higher in the urban areas however both communities are grossly unaware of the hypertensive associated diseases. Proper health education is recommended to reduce the prevalence of complications of the disease change the trend and ultimately reduce the death in our environment.

  14. Prevalence of postural alterations in students of Basic Education in the city of Vila Velha, Espírito Santo state, Brazil

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    Paula Lopes Rodrigues

    Full Text Available Introduction Human posture goes through a series of changes in the course of body growth and development, i.e., in childhood and adolescence. Moreover, during these phases, individuals are subject to risk behaviors for spinal problems, especially those related to the use of backpacks and to poor sitting posture. Objective This study aimed to detect the prevalence of postural alterations in school children enrolled in the UMEF Vila Olímpica, Vila Velha, Espírito Santo. Methods We evaluated 513 schoolchildren in the orthostatic position and in the anterior, posterior and side view. The following structures were analyzed: head, shoulder, the cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine, pelvis and lower limbs. Results There was a high prevalence of postural deviations: rotated or tilted head, elevated shoulder and pelvis, valgus or varus knee, head protraction, alterations of the thoracic spine, anteriorized shoulders, pelvis in anteversion, knees semiflexion or hyperextension and cavus or planus feet. Conclusion Our results suggest that there is a high prevalence of postural alterations in students in the school network of Vila Velha (ES. This could be detected through public health policies, such as the federal government´s Health at School Program (PSE.

  15. Early sexual debut: prevalence and risk factors among secondary school students in Ido-ekiti, Ekiti state, South-West Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durowade, Kabir Adekunle; Babatunde, Oluwole Adeyemi; Omokanye, Lukman Omotayo; Elegbede, Olusegun Elijah; Ayodele, Lawrence Majekodunmi; Adewoye, Kayode Razaq; Adetokunbo, Stella; Olomofe, Charles O; Fawole, Adegboyega A; Adebola, Oyebola Eyitayo; Olaniyan, Temitope O

    2017-09-01

    Early adolescent sexual activity remains a recurring problem with negative psychosocial and health outcomes. The age at sexual debut varies from place to place and among different individuals and is associated with varying factors. The aim was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of early sexual debut among secondary school students in Ido-Ekiti, South-West Nigeria. This was a cross-sectional study. The respondents were selected using multi-stage sampling technique. Pre-tested, semi-structured, self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 15. More than two-thirds, 40(67.8%), had early sexual debut. The prevalence of early sexual debut was about 11%. The mean age of sexual debut was 13.10±2.82; the mean age for early sexual debutants was 11.68±1.98. The mean number of sexual partners was 2.44±1.99. Male gender, having friends who engaged in sexual activities had association with early sexual exposure (p<0.05). Alcohol intake had the strongest strength of association for early sexual debut among the students. The high prevalence of early sexual exposure among the students calls for urgent interventions to stem the trend. This will help to reduce the devastating negative psycho-social and health sequels.

  16. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in relation to CD4 counts and anaemia among HIV-infected patients in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinbo, Frederick O; Okaka, Christopher E; Omoregie, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Parasitic infections continue to take their toll on HIV positive patients by influencing the blood qualitatively and quantitatively. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in relation to anaemia and CD4 counts among HIV-infected patients in Benin City, Nigeria. Using a serial sampling method, a total of 2000 HIV-infected patients were recruited on their first visit prior to highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital from August 2007 to August 2009. Stool and blood samples were collected from each patient. The stool samples were processed using the modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique to microscopically identify the oocysts of Cryptosporidium species, Isospora belli, Cyclospora species and spores of Microsporidium species while saline and iodine preparations were used for identifying the ova, cysts and parasites of Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, Taenia spp and other parasites. The blood specimens were equally analyzed using the flow cytometry for CD4+ T-lymphocyte count and autoanalyzer - sysmex kx - 21 for haemoglobin concentration. The overall prevalence of anaemia was 93.3% while 18% had parasitic infections. There was a significant relationship between CD4 count <200cells/microL and anaemia (P<0.0001). Cryptosporidium species (P= 0.005), A. lumbricoides (P=0.035), hookworm and Taenia species (P=0.014) were associated with anaemia. Anaemia was associated with CD4 count while Cryptosporidium species, Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm and Taenia species were the intestinal parasitic agents associated with anaemia. In conclusion the prevalence of anaemia in HIV-infected patients is high low CD4 count is a significant risk factor of acquiring anaemia. Except for isosporiasis, cryptosporidiosis, A. lumbricoides, hookworm and Taenia species in HIV infected individuals are parasitic agents associated with anaemia. Routine screening for intestinal parasites and

  17. Multilevel Analysis of the Predictors of HIV Prevalence among Pregnant Women Enrolled in Annual HIV Sentinel Surveillance in Four States in Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamattoor, Usha; Thomas, Tinku; Banandur, Pradeep; Rajaram, S; Duchesne, Thierry; Abdous, Belkacem; Washington, Reynold; Ramesh, B M; Moses, Stephen; Alary, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Heterogeneity of the HIV epidemic across districts of south India is reflected in HIV positivity among antenatal clinic (ANC) attendees. Along with individual factors, contextual factors also need consideration for effective HIV interventions. Thus, identifying district and individual level factors that influence ANC HIV positivity assumes importance to intervene effectively. Data on HIV sentinel surveillance among the ANC population were obtained from the National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) between years 2004 and 2007. Data from serial cross-sectional studies among female sex workers (FSWs) conducted during this time period in 24 districts were used to generate district level variables corresponding to parameters concerning this high risk population. Other district level data were obtained from various official/governmental agencies. Multilevel logistic regression was used to identify individual and district level factors associated with ANC-HIV positivity. The average ANC-HIV prevalence from 2004 to 2007 in the 24 integrated biological and behavioural assessments (IBBA) districts ranged from 0.25 to 3.25%. HIV positivity was significantly higher among ANC women with age ≥ 25 years [adjusted odds ratio (AOR):1.49; 95% confidence interval (95%CI):1.27 to 1.76] compared to those with ageindustry/factory workers/hotel staff (AOR:1.59; 95%CI:1.26 to 2.01) compared to unemployed. District level HIV prevalence among FSWs (AOR:1.03; 95%CI:1.0 to 1.05) and percentage women marrying under 18 years were significantly associated with ANC-HIV positivity (AOR:1.02; 95%CI:1.00 to 1.04). Illiteracy of the woman, higher HIV prevalence among FSWs and early marriage were associated with HIV positivity among pregnant women in southern India. In addition to targeted HIV preventive interventions among FSWs, studying and changing the behavior of FSW clients and addressing structural drivers of the epidemic might indirectly help reduce HIV infection among women in southern India.

  18. The prevalence of malnutrition and its associated risk factors among women of reproductive age in Ziway Dugda district, Arsi Zone, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferede, Abebe; Lemessa, Firaol; Tafa, Mesfin; Sisay, Solomon

    2017-11-01

    Adequate nutrition is an important factor to determine the health and well-being of women, children and society as a whole. Although various nutritional policies were formulated and aimed at reducing malnutrition at the global level, the magnitude of malnutrition (body mass index [BMI] malnutrition and to identify the associated risk factors among women of reproductive age. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Ziway Dugda district in Ethiopia among 430 women of reproductive age between September 20 and November 21, 2015. A systematic sampling method was used to select the study participants. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used to determine the prevalence of malnutrition and to identify associated independent risk factors such as women's age, housing conditions, drinking water sources, habits of hand washing, dietary intake and food insecurity. The mean values of weight, height and BMI of the study participants were 51 kg, 157 cm and 18.1 kg/m 2 , respectively. Prevalence of malnutrition (BMI malnutrition among women of the same age group compared to women from food secured households. A high prevalence of malnutrition (48.6%) was observed among women of reproductive age. Although nutrient-rich foods were available, their consumption appears insufficient. Hence, it is strongly recommended to have behavioural change communication for enhancing adequate intake of a diversified diet and to promote environmental and hygienic conditions of women through improving their socio-economic status. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Oncohematological diseases in the Vale do Paraíba, State of São Paulo: demographic aspects, prevalences and incidences

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    Fernando Callera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Based on the necessity of detailed information that supports effective strategies to improve cancer outcomes in the different regions of Brazil, the aims of this study were to report demographic aspects and to calculate the prevalence and incidence rates of oncohematological diseases in the region of Vale do Paraíba. METHODS: This is a multicentric prospective study carried out from October 2009 to March 2010. A total of 500 over 19-year-old patients were enrolled. Data such as type of healthcare insurance, gender, age, ethnic classification, place of residence, schooling, income, body mass index, new cases and the period between the first symptoms and a definite diagnosis were collected. The prevalence and incidence rates were calculated according to an estimated number of 1,319,800 inhabitants. RESULTS: The prevalence and incidence rates per 100,000 inhabitants in the period of six months were, respectively: acute myeloid leukemia 1.5 and 0.7; acute lymphoblastic leukemia 0.5 and 0.1; chronic lymphocytic leukemia 2.4 and 0.4; chronic myeloid leukemia 6.2 and 0.8; Hodgkin's lymphoma 2.9 and 0.9; non-Hodgkin lymphoma 9.8 and 4.3; multiple myeloma 5.7 and 0.7; myelodysplastic syndromes 2.1 and 0.2 and myeloproliferative syndromes 5.1 and 0.3. CONCLUSION: Giving the paucity of data in this field of investigation, our data may be useful for comparisons with those of other regions of Brazil and will assist in the implementation of treatment programs of oncohematological diseases in this region.

  20. School Resources and Engagement in Technical Assistance Programs Is Associated with Higher Prevalence of Salad Bars in Elementary School Lunches in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam; Turner, Lindsey; Adams, Marc A; Bruening, Meg; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2016-03-01

    Salad bars have been promoted as a strategy for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption in schools. To examine school-level resources and programs associated with the presence of salad bars in elementary schools and to assess whether there were differential changes in salad bar prevalence based on school-level resources and programs before and after the new US Department of Agriculture schools meals standards were proposed (January 2011) and implemented (July 2012). Repeated cross-sectional design. Data were collected annually between 2006-2007 and 2013. Nationally representative sample of 3,956 elementary schools participating in the National School Lunch Program. School personnel (ie, administrators and foodservice staff) provided data using a mail-back survey. Presence of salad bars in school was the primary outcome variable. School-level programs and resources were investigated as independent variables. Weighted logistic regression analyses examined associations between dependent and independent variables controlling for school demographic characteristics. Prevalence of salad bars increased significantly from 17.1% in 2006-2007 to 29.6% in 2012-2013. The prevalence of salad bars was significantly higher among schools that participated in the Team Nutrition program (odds ratio [OR] 1.37, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.70), the Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.13 to 1.95), a Farm to School program (OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.36 to 2.33), and where school meals were provided by a foodservice management company (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.97). No association was found for schools with full-service kitchen, school gardens, those offering nutrition education, or those with dietitians/nutritionists on staff. Prevalence of salad bars increased significantly after the US Department of Agriculture school meal guidelines were proposed and implemented. It is likely that schools are using salad bars to offer a variety of fruits and vegetables to students, and

  1. Prevalence and Correlates of Fire-Setting in the United States: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Vaughn, Michael G.; Fu, Qiang; DeLisi, Matt; Wright, John Paul; Beaver, Kevin M.; Perron, Brian E.; Howard, Matthew O.

    2009-01-01

    Fire-setting is a serious and costly form of antisocial behavior. Our objective in this study was to examine the prevalence and correlates of intentional fire-setting behavior in the U. S. Data were derived from a nationally representative sample of U.S. residents 18 years and older. Structured psychiatric interviews (N = 43,093) were completed by trained lay interviewers between 2001-2002. Fire-setting and DSM-IV mood, anxiety, substance use and personality disorders were assessed with the A...

  2. Comparison of prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake based on body weight status of adults in the United States: an analysis of NHANES 2001-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Sanjiv; Reider, Carroll; Brooks, James R; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2015-01-01

    To compare micronutrient intake status of those overweight and those obese with normal weight adults. Using total nutrient intake (from foods and supplements) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001-2008, we determined usual intakes for micronutrients using the National Cancer Institute methodology in adults (n = 18,177). Only subjects with reliable dietary records were included and pregnant and lactating females were excluded. Subjects were categorized by body weight status as either normal weight (body mass index [BMI] weight adults, obese adults had about 5% to 12% lower (p weight adults have lower micronutrient intake and higher prevalence of micronutrient inadequacy.

  3. Individual and neighborhood-level socioeconomic characteristics in relation to smoking prevalence among black and white adults in the Southeastern United States: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Sarah S; Sonderman, Jennifer S; Mumma, Michael T; Signorello, Lisa B; Blot, William J

    2011-11-21

    Low individual-level socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with higher prevalence of cigarette smoking. Recent work has examined whether neighborhood-level SES may affect smoking behavior independently from individual-level measures. However, few comparisons of neighborhood-level effects on smoking by race and gender are available. Cross-sectional data from adults age 40-79 enrolled in the Southern Community Cohort Study from 2002-2009 (19, 561 black males; 27, 412 black females; 6, 231 white males; 11, 756 white females) were used in Robust Poisson regression models to estimate prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for current smoking in relation to individual-level SES characteristics obtained via interview and neighborhood-level SES characteristics represented by demographic measures from US Census block groups matched to participant home addresses. Several neighborhood-level SES characteristics were modestly associated with increased smoking after adjustment for individual-level factors including lower percentage of adults with a college education and lower percentage of owner-occupied households among blacks but not whites; lower percentage of households with interest, dividends, or net rental income among white males; and lower percentage of employed adults among black females. Lower neighborhood-level SES is associated with increased smoking suggesting that cessation programs may benefit from targeting higher-risk neighborhoods as well as individuals.

  4. Prevalence of Streptococcus equi subsp. equi in horses and associated risk factors in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libardoni, Felipe; Machado, Gustavo; Gressler, Letícia Trevisan; Kowalski, Ananda Paula; Diehl, Gustavo Nogueira; dos Santos, Lucila Carboneiro; Corbellini, Luis Gustavo; de Vargas, Agueda Castagna

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of equine strangles and to identify associated risk factors for this disease through a cross-sectional study of nasal swabs. Nasal swabs (n=1010) from healthy equines (absence of nasal discharge, lymphadenopathy and cough) from 341 farms were plated on 5% blood agar; of these horses, 24 were identified as positive for Streptococcus equi through isolation, PCR and DNA sequencing. The estimated prevalence for individual animals was 2.3%, and for herds, it was 5.86%. Statistical analysis identified the following as associated risk factors: the number of group events that were attended by the equines (PR: 1.06); the sharing of food containers (PR: 3.74); and at least one previous positive diagnosis of strangles on the farm (PR: 3.20). These results constitute an epidemiological contribution to the horse industry and may support measures for the future control of the disease. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.