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Sample records for prevalence results matrix

  1. Matrix theory selected topics and useful results

    CERN Document Server

    Mehta, Madan Lal

    1989-01-01

    Matrices and operations on matrices ; determinants ; elementary operations on matrices (continued) ; eigenvalues and eigenvectors, diagonalization of normal matrices ; functions of a matrix ; positive definiteness, various polar forms of a matrix ; special matrices ; matrices with quaternion elements ; inequalities ; generalised inverse of a matrix ; domain of values of a matrix, location and dispersion of eigenvalues ; symmetric functions ; integration over matrix variables ; permanents of doubly stochastic matrices ; infinite matrices ; Alexander matrices, knot polynomials, torsion numbers.

  2. SALTSTONE MATRIX CHARACTERIZATION AND STADIUM SIMULATION RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.

    2009-07-30

    SIMCO Technologies, Inc. was contracted to evaluate the durability of the saltstone matrix material and to measure saltstone transport properties. This information will be used to: (1) Parameterize the STADIUM{reg_sign} service life code, (2) Predict the leach rate (degradation rate) for the saltstone matrix over 10,000 years using the STADIUM{reg_sign} concrete service life code, and (3) Validate the modeled results by conducting leaching (water immersion) tests. Saltstone durability for this evaluation is limited to changes in the matrix itself and does not include changes in the chemical speciation of the contaminants in the saltstone. This report summarized results obtained to date which include: characterization data for saltstone cured up to 365 days and characterization of saltstone cured for 137 days and immersed in water for 31 days. Chemicals for preparing simulated non-radioactive salt solution were obtained from chemical suppliers. The saltstone slurry was mixed according to directions provided by SRNL. However SIMCO Technologies Inc. personnel made a mistake in the premix proportions. The formulation SIMCO personnel used to prepare saltstone premix was not the reference mix proportions: 45 wt% slag, 45 wt% fly ash, and 10 wt% cement. SIMCO Technologies Inc. personnel used the following proportions: 21 wt% slag, 65 wt% fly ash, and 14 wt% cement. The mistake was acknowledged and new mixes have been prepared and are curing. The results presented in this report are assumed to be conservative since the excessive fly ash was used in the SIMCO saltstone. The SIMCO mixes are low in slag which is very reactive in the caustic salt solution. The impact is that the results presented in this report are expected to be conservative since the samples prepared were deficient in slag and contained excess fly ash. The hydraulic reactivity of slag is about four times that of fly ash so the amount of hydrated binder formed per unit volume in the SIMCO saltstone samples is

  3. On the resultant property of the Fisher information matrix of a vector ARMA process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, A.; Mélard, G.; Spreij, P.

    2004-01-01

    A matrix is called a multiple resultant matrix associated to two matrix polynomials when it becomes singular if and only if the two matrix polynomials have at least one common eigenvalue. In this paper a new multiple resultant matrix is introduced. It concerns the Fisher information matrix (FIM) of

  4. LDEF results for polymer matrix composite experiment AO 180

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennyson, R. C.

    1992-01-01

    This report represents a summary of the results obtained to-date on a polymer matrix composite experiment (AO 180) located at station D-12, about 82 deg off the 'ram' direction. Different material systems comprised of graphite, boron, and aramid (Kevlar) fiber reinforcements were studied. Although previous results were presented on in-situ thermal-vacuum cycling effects, particularly dimensional changes associated with outgassing, additional comparative data will be shown from ground-based tests on control and flight samples. The system employed was fully automated for thermal-vacuum cycling using a laser interferometer for monitoring displacements. Erosion of all three classes of materials due to atomic oxygen (AO) will also be discussed, including angle of incidence effects. Data from this experiment will be compared to published results for similar materials in other LDEF experiments. Composite materials' erosion yields will be presented on an AO design nomogram useful for estimating total material loss for given exposure conditions in low Earth orbit (LEO). Optical properties of these materials will also be compared with control samples. A survey of the damage caused by micrometeoroids/debris impacts will be addressed as they relate to polymer matrix composites. Correlations between hole size and damage pattern will be given. Reference to a new nomogram for estimating the number distribution of micrometeoroid/debris impacts for a given space structure as a function of time in LEO will be addressed based on LDEF data.

  5. Insect phylogenomics: results, problems and the impact of matrix composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letsch, Harald O; Meusemann, Karen; Wipfler, Benjamin; Schütte, Kai; Beutel, Rolf; Misof, Bernhard

    2012-08-22

    In this study, we investigated the relationships among insect orders with a main focus on Polyneoptera (lower Neoptera: roaches, mantids, earwigs, grasshoppers, etc.), and Paraneoptera (thrips, lice, bugs in the wide sense). The relationships between and within these groups of insects are difficult to resolve because only few informative molecular and morphological characters are available. Here, we provide the first phylogenomic expressed sequence tags data ('EST': short sub-sequences from a c(opy) DNA sequence encoding for proteins) for stick insects (Phasmatodea) and webspinners (Embioptera) to complete published EST data. As recent EST datasets are characterized by a heterogeneous distribution of available genes across taxa, we use different rationales to optimize the data matrix composition. Our results suggest a monophyletic origin of Polyneoptera and Eumetabola (Paraneoptera + Holometabola). However, we identified artefacts of tree reconstruction (human louse Pediculus humanus assigned to Odonata (damselflies and dragonflies) or Holometabola (insects with a complete metamorphosis); mayfly genus Baetis nested within Neoptera), which were most probably rooted in a data matrix composition bias due to the inclusion of sequence data of entire proteomes. Until entire proteomes are available for each species in phylogenomic analyses, this potential pitfall should be carefully considered.

  6. Predictors of dyspnea prevalence: Results from the BOLD study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grønseth, Rune; Vollmer, William M.; Hardie, Jon A.; Ólafsdóttir, Inga Sif; Lamprecht, Bernd; Buist, A. Sonia; Gnatiuc, Louisa; Gulsvik, Amund; Johannessen, Ane; Enright, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Dyspnea is a cardinal symptom for cardiorespiratory diseases. No study has assessed worldwide variation in dyspnea prevalence or predictors of dyspnea. We used cross-sectional data from population-based samples in 15 countries of the BOLD study to estimate prevalence of dyspnea in the full sample as well as in an a priori defined low-risk group (few risk factors or dyspnea-associated diseases). Dyspnea was defined by the modified Medical Research Council questions. We used ordered logistic regression analysis to study the association of dyspnea with site, sex, age, education, smoking habits, low/high BMI, self-reported disease, and spirometry results. Of the 9,484 participants, 27% reported any dyspnea. In the low-risk subsample (N=4,329), 16% reported some dyspnea. In multivariate analyses, all covariates were correlated to dyspnea, but only 13% of dyspnea variation was explained. Women reported more dyspnea than men (odds ratio ≈ 2.1). When forced vital capacity (FVC) fell below 60% of predicted, dyspnea was much more likely. There was considerable geographical variation in dyspnea, even when we adjusted for known risk factors and spirometry results. We were only able to explain 13% of dyspnea variation. PMID:24176991

  7. Exact results for quantum chaotic systems and one-dimensional fermions from matrix models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simons, B.D.; Lee, P.A.; Altshuler, B.L.

    1993-01-01

    We demonstrate a striking connection between the universal parametric correlations of the spectra of quantum chaotic systems and a class of integrable quantum hamiltonians. We begin by deriving a non-perturbative expression for the universal m-point correlation function of the spectra of random matrix ensembles in terms of a non-linear supermatrix σ-model. These results are shown to coincide with those from previous studies of weakly disordered metallic systems. We then introduce a continuous matrix model which describes the quantum mechanics of the Sutherland hamiltonian describing particles interacting through an inverse-square pairwise potential. We demonstrate that a field theoretic approach can be employed to determine exact analytical expressions for correlations of the quantum hamiltonian. The results, which are expressed in terms of a non-linear σ-model, are shown to coincide with those for analogous correlation functions of random matrix ensembles after an appropriate change of variables. We also discuss possible generalizations of the matrix model to higher dimensions. These results reveal a common mathematical structure which underlies branches of theoretical physics ranging from continuous matrix models to strongly interacting quantum hamiltonians, and universalities in the spectra of quantum chaotic systems. (orig.)

  8. Prevalence of tobacco use among adults in South Africa: Results ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Data on tobacco use have informed the effectiveness of South Africa (SA)'s tobacco control strategies over the past 20 years. Objective. To estimate the prevalence of tobacco use in the adult SA population according to certain demographic variables, and identify the factors influencing cessation attempts ...

  9. Investigation of the Results of Combined Reclamation on the Particular Stages of Grain Matrix Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łucarz M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, there were presented the results of research on combined mechanical and thermal regeneration of waste moulding sand with furfuryl resin originated from one of national foundries manufacturing aluminium alloys castings. Attempts of mechanical reclamation were led on the REGMAS reclaimer enabling to realize preliminary and primary reclamation with use of two modes of mechanical interactions on waste moulding sand. In the first attempt the reclaimer worked without any additional regenerating elements, and as the second solution, the reclaimer operated with additional crushing and abrasive elements to increase the result of primary reclamation. Thermal reclamation was led in the prototypic thermal reclaimer, enabling to fully control the process of grain matrix recovery. As a result of completed investigations the small efficiency of mechanical reclamation was determined. However, use of combined regeneration allowed for obtaining grain matrix of high purity. Thermal regeneration was conducted in prototypic thermal reclaimer. Evaluation of reclaim (reclaimed material quality was carried out in the way of iginition losses and grain-size analysis, surface morphology and also by executing of strength testing of moulding sand prepared on obtained grain matrix for the particular reclamation operations.

  10. Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Al-Darwish

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Results indicated that dental caries prevalence among school children in Qatar has reached critical levels, and is influenced by socio-demographic factors. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth values obtained in this study were the second highest detected in the Eastern Mediterranean region.

  11. Macrophage-mediated proteolytic remodeling of the extracellular matrix in atherosclerosis results in neoepitopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøt-Arkil, Helene; Barascuk, Natasha; Register, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    in almost all stages of atherosclerosis, by both initiating atherosclerotic plaques and degrading them through the secretion of proteolytic enzymes leading to rupture. This review summarizes the literature on the role of macrophages and their proteolytic activity on proteins in the extracellular matrix (ECM...... of the constituents of the ECM of the atherosclerotic plaque. At present it is not clear which proteases play pivotal roles at distinct stages of pathogenesis, rather that the combined proteolytic potential with some proteases at early stages and other at later stages may result in plaque rupture. This macrophage...

  12. Field-Scale Effective Matrix Diffusion Coefficient for FracturedRock: Results From Literature Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Quanlin; Liu, Hui Hai; Molz, Fred J.; Zhang, Yingqi; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.

    2005-03-28

    Matrix diffusion is an important mechanism for solutetransport in fractured rock. We recently conducted a literature survey onthe effective matrix diffusion coefficient, Dem, a key parameter fordescribing matrix diffusion processes at the field scale. Forty fieldtracer tests at 15 fractured geologic sites were surveyed and selectedfor study, based on data availability and quality. Field-scale Dem valueswere calculated, either directly using data reported in the literature orby reanalyzing the corresponding field tracer tests. Surveyed dataindicate that the effective-matrix-diffusion-coefficient factor FD(defined as the ratio of Dem to the lab-scale matrix diffusioncoefficient [Dem]of the same tracer) is generally larger than one,indicating that the effective matrix diffusion coefficient in the fieldis comparatively larger than the matrix diffusion coefficient at therock-core scale. This larger value could be attributed to the manymass-transfer processes at different scales in naturally heterogeneous,fractured rock systems. Furthermore, we observed a moderate trend towardsystematic increase in the emDFmDDF value with observation scale,indicating that the effective matrix diffusion coefficient is likely tobe statistically scale dependent. The FD value ranges from 1 to 10,000for observation scales from 5 to 2,000 m. At a given scale, the FD valuevaries by two orders of magnitude, reflecting the influence of differingdegrees of fractured rock heterogeneity at different sites. In addition,the surveyed data indicate that field-scale longitudinal dispersivitygenerally increases with observation scale, which is consistent withprevious studies. The scale-dependent field-scale matrix diffusioncoefficient (and dispersivity) may have significant implications forassessing long-term, large-scale radionuclide and contaminant transportevents in fractured rock, both for nuclear waste disposal and contaminantremediation.

  13. FIELD-SCALE EFFECTIVE MATRIX DIFFUSION COEFFICIENT FOR FRACTURED ROCK: RESULTS FROM LITERATURE SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Q.; Hui-Hai Liu; Molz, F.J.; Zhang, Y.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    2005-01-01

    Matrix diffusion is an important mechanism for solute transport in fractured rock. We recently conducted a literature survey on the effective matrix diffusion coefficient, D m e , a key parameter for describing matrix diffusion processes at the field scale. Forty field tracer tests at 15 fractured geologic sites were surveyed and selected for the study, based on data availability and quality. Field-scale D m e values were calculated, either directly using data reported in the literature or by reanalyzing the corresponding field tracer tests. Surveyed data indicate that the effective-matrix-diffusion-coefficient factor F D (defined as the ratio of D m e to the lab-scale matrix diffusion coefficient [D m ] of the same tracer) is generally larger than one, indicating that the effective matrix diffusion coefficient in the field is comparatively larger than the matrix diffusion coefficient at the rock-core scale. This larger value can be attributed to the many mass-transfer processes at different scales in naturally heterogeneous, fractured rock systems. Furthermore, we observed a moderate trend toward systematic increase in the F D value with observation scale, indicating that the effective matrix diffusion coefficient is likely to be statistically scale dependent. The F D value ranges from 1 to 10,000 for observation scales from 5 to 2,000 m. At a given scale, the F D value varies by two orders of magnitude, reflecting the influence of differing degrees of fractured rock heterogeneity at different sites. In addition, the surveyed data indicate that field-scale longitudinal dispersivity generally increases with observation scale, which is consistent with previous studies. The scale-dependent field-scale matrix diffusion coefficient (and dispersivity) may have significant implications for assessing long-term, large-scale radionuclide and contaminant transport events in fractured rock, both for nuclear waste disposal and contaminant remediation

  14. Short and long carbon fibre reinforced Cu-matrix composites: microstructural results and structural origin of properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchgraber, W.

    1997-01-01

    Carbon fibre reinforced copper matrix composites possess properties of copper, i.e. excellent thermal and electrical conductivities, and properties of carbon fibre, i.e. a small thermal expansion coefficient. Since the desirable properties of the composite can be obtained by selecting the amount, type and orientation of the carbon fibres, it is considered to be suitable for use as electric and electronic materials. This lecture focuses on two-dimensional isotropic carbon fibre reinforced copper matrix composites with long or short carbon fibres. Short carbon fibre reinforced copper matrix composites have been produced by hot-pressing of copper coated short carbon fibres. During hot-pressing, the carbon fibres take on a preferred orientation in a plane perpendicular to the hot pressing direction. Within this plane the fibre orientation is random. Long carbon fibre reinforced copper matrix composites have been made by hot pressing of monolayers consisting of copper coated long carbon fibres. Different orientations of the monolayers will be compared. Both the physical and mechanical properties of the discussed composites are strongly influenced not only by the properties of its individual constituents, but also by the microstructure and properties of the fibre matrix interface. The problem of poor wettability of the carbon fibre by the copper matrix will be discussed. The microstructure of several types of carbon fibre reinforced copper matrix composites will be discussed. Their thermophysical properties will be compared with microstructural results. (author)

  15. FIELD-SCALE EFFECTIVE MATRIX DIFFUSION COEFFICIENT FOR FRACTURED ROCK:RESULTS FROM LITERATURE SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Q. Zhou; Hui-Hai Liu; F.J. Molz; Y. Zhang; G.S. Bodvarsson

    2005-04-08

    Matrix diffusion is an important mechanism for solute transport in fractured rock. We recently conducted a literature survey on the effective matrix diffusion coefficient, D{sub m}{sup e}, a key parameter for describing matrix diffusion processes at the field scale. Forty field tracer tests at 15 fractured geologic sites were surveyed and selected for the study, based on data availability and quality. Field-scale D{sub m}{sup e} values were calculated, either directly using data reported in the literature or by reanalyzing the corresponding field tracer tests. Surveyed data indicate that the effective-matrix-diffusion-coefficient factor F{sub D} (defined as the ratio of D{sub m}{sup e} to the lab-scale matrix diffusion coefficient [D{sub m}] of the same tracer) is generally larger than one, indicating that the effective matrix diffusion coefficient in the field is comparatively larger than the matrix diffusion coefficient at the rock-core scale. This larger value can be attributed to the many mass-transfer processes at different scales in naturally heterogeneous, fractured rock systems. Furthermore, we observed a moderate trend toward systematic increase in the F{sub D} value with observation scale, indicating that the effective matrix diffusion coefficient is likely to be statistically scale dependent. The F{sub D} value ranges from 1 to 10,000 for observation scales from 5 to 2,000 m. At a given scale, the F{sub D} value varies by two orders of magnitude, reflecting the influence of differing degrees of fractured rock heterogeneity at different sites. In addition, the surveyed data indicate that field-scale longitudinal dispersivity generally increases with observation scale, which is consistent with previous studies. The scale-dependent field-scale matrix diffusion coefficient (and dispersivity) may have significant implications for assessing long-term, large-scale radionuclide and contaminant transport events in fractured rock, both for nuclear waste disposal

  16. Validation of Spectral Unmixing Results from Informed Non-Negative Matrix Factorization (INMF) of Hyperspectral Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, L.; Coddington, O.; Pilewskie, P.

    2017-12-01

    Hyperspectral instruments are a growing class of Earth observing sensors designed to improve remote sensing capabilities beyond discrete multi-band sensors by providing tens to hundreds of continuous spectral channels. Improved spectral resolution, range and radiometric accuracy allow the collection of large amounts of spectral data, facilitating thorough characterization of both atmospheric and surface properties. We describe the development of an Informed Non-Negative Matrix Factorization (INMF) spectral unmixing method to exploit this spectral information and separate atmospheric and surface signals based on their physical sources. INMF offers marked benefits over other commonly employed techniques including non-negativity, which avoids physically impossible results; and adaptability, which tailors the method to hyperspectral source separation. The INMF algorithm is adapted to separate contributions from physically distinct sources using constraints on spectral and spatial variability, and library spectra to improve the initial guess. Using this INMF algorithm we decompose hyperspectral imagery from the NASA Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO), with a focus on separating surface and atmospheric signal contributions. HICO's coastal ocean focus provides a dataset with a wide range of atmospheric and surface conditions. These include atmospheres with varying aerosol optical thicknesses and cloud cover. HICO images also provide a range of surface conditions including deep ocean regions, with only minor contributions from the ocean surfaces; and more complex shallow coastal regions with contributions from the seafloor or suspended sediments. We provide extensive comparison of INMF decomposition results against independent measurements of physical properties. These include comparison against traditional model-based retrievals of water-leaving, aerosol, and molecular scattering radiances and other satellite products, such as aerosol optical thickness from

  17. Preliminary results from the application of risk matrix method for safety assessment in industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez G, A.; Cruz, D.; Truppa, W.; Aravena, M.; Tamayo, B.

    2015-09-01

    Although the uses of ionizing radiation in industry are subject to procedures that provide a high level of safety, experience has shown that equipment failure, human errors, or the combination of both that can trigger accidental exposures may occur. Traditionally, the radiation safety checks whether these industrial practices (industrial radiography, industrial irradiators, among others) are sufficiently safe to prevent similar accidental exposures already occurred, so that becomes dependent on the published information and not always answers questions like: What other events can occur, or what other risks are present? Taking into account the results achieved by the Foro Iberoamericano de Organismos Reguladores Radiologicos y Nucleares, its leading position in the use of techniques of risk analysis in radioactive facilities and the need to develop a proactive approach to the prevention of accidents arising from the use of ionizing radiations in the industry, it intends to apply the risk analysis technique known as Risk Matrix to a hypothetical reference entity for the region in which industrial radiography is performed. In this paper the results of the first stage of this study are shown, that is the identification of initiating events (IE) and barriers that help mitigate the consequences of such IE, so that can appreciate the applicability of this method to industrial radiography services, to reduce the risk to acceptable levels. The fundamental advantage associated with the application of this methodology is that can be applied by the professionals working in the service and identifies specific weaknesses that from the point of view of safety there, so they can be prioritized resources depending on risk reduction. (Author)

  18. Income Distribution across Ethnic Groups in Malaysia : Results from a New Social Accounting Matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saari, M. Yusof; Dietzenbacher, Erik; Los, Bart

    A new social accounting matrix is constructed for Malaysia for the year 2000 to analyze sources of income inequality among ethnic groups in Malaysia. The analysis reveals that income inequality can be decomposed into the interaction of: (i) hourly wages; (ii) working hours per week; and (iii) number

  19. Interpreting in vitro micronucleus positive results: simple biomarker matrix discriminates clastogens, aneugens, and misleading positive agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce, Steven M; Bemis, Jeffrey C; Mereness, Jared A; Spellman, Richard A; Moss, Jocelyn; Dickinson, Donna; Schuler, Maik J; Dertinger, Stephen D

    2014-08-01

    The specificity of in vitro mammalian cell genotoxicity assays is low, as they yield a high incidence of positive results that are not observed in animal genotoxicity and carcinogenicity tests, that is, "misleading" or "irrelevant" positives. We set out to develop a rapid and effective follow-up testing strategy that would predict whether apparent in vitro micronucleus-inducing effects are due to a clastogenic, aneugenic, or secondary irrelevant mode(s) of action. Priority was given to biomarkers that could be multiplexed onto flow cytometric acquisition of micronucleus frequencies, or that could be accomplished in parallel using a homogeneous-type assay. A training set of 30 chemicals comprised of clastogens, aneugens, and misleading positive chemicals was studied. These experiments were conducted with human TK6 cells over a range of closely spaced concentrations in a continuous exposure design. In addition to micronucleus frequency, the following endpoints were investigated, most often at time of harvest: cleaved Parp-positive chromatin, cleaved caspase 3-positive chromatin, ethidium monoazide bromide-positive chromatin, polyploid nuclei, phospho-histone H3-positive (metaphase) cells, tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester-negative cells, cellular ATP levels, cell cycle perturbation, and shift in γ-H2AX fluorescence relative to solvent control. Logistic regression was used to identify endpoints that effectively predict chemicals' a priori classification. Cross validation using a leave-one-out approach indicated that a promising base model includes γ-H2AX shift and change in phospho-histone H3-positive events (25/30 correct calls). Improvements were realized when one or two additional endpoints were included (26-30/30 correct calls). These models were further evaluated with a test set of 10 chemicals, and also by evaluating 3 chemicals at a collaborating laboratory. The resulting data support the hypothesis that a matrix of high throughput-compatible biomarkers can

  20. Prevalence estimates of chronic kidney disease in Canada: results of a nationally representative survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Paul; Vasa, Priya; Brenner, Darren; Iglar, Karl; McFarlane, Phil; Morrison, Howard; Badawi, Alaa

    2013-01-01

    Background: Chronic kidney disease is an important risk factor for death and cardiovascular-related morbidity, but estimates to date of its prevalence in Canada have generally been extrapolated from the prevalence of end-stage renal disease. We used direct measures of kidney function collected from a nationally representative survey population to estimate the prevalence of chronic kidney disease among Canadian adults. Methods: We examined data for 3689 adult participants of cycle 1 of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (2007–2009) for the presence of chronic kidney disease. We also calculated the age-standardized prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors by chronic kidney disease group. We cross-tabulated the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) with albuminuria status. Results: The prevalence of chronic kidney disease during the period 2007–2009 was 12.5%, representing about 3 million Canadian adults. The estimated prevalence of stage 3–5 disease was 3.1% (0.73 million adults) and albuminuria 10.3% (2.4 million adults). The prevalence of diabetes, hypertension and hypertriglyceridemia were all significantly higher among adults with chronic kidney disease than among those without it. The prevalence of albuminuria was high, even among those whose eGFR was 90 mL/min per 1.73 m2 or greater (10.1%) and those without diabetes or hypertension (9.3%). Awareness of kidney dysfunction among adults with stage 3–5 chronic kidney disease was low (12.0%). Interpretation: The prevalence of kidney dysfunction was substantial in the survey population, including individuals without hypertension or diabetes, conditions most likely to prompt screening for kidney dysfunction. These findings highlight the potential for missed opportunities for early intervention and secondary prevention of chronic kidney disease. PMID:23649413

  1. Derivation of the first-order transformation matrix for a simple Wien filter and comparison to results of numerical integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurd, J.W.

    1987-08-15

    The first-order transformation matrix is derived for a simple Wien filter. The Wien filter is approximated by square-edged, homogeneous, transverse E and B fields. The results are compared to results of numerical integration through a Wien filter with and without fringe fields. The derived transformation matrix is presently used in the first-order optics code TRACE to tune the 750 keV polarized proton injection transport at LAMPF. The Wien filter is used to precess the spin of the polarized proton beam.

  2. Derivation of the first-order transformation matrix for a simple Wien filter and comparison to results of numerical integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, James W.

    1987-08-01

    The first-order transformation matrix is derived for a simple Wien filter. The Wien filter is approximated by square-edged homogeneous, transverse E and B fields. The results are compared to results of numerical integration through a Wien filter with and without fringe fields. The derived transformation matrix is presently used in the first-order optics code TRACE to tune the 750 keV polarized proton injection transport at LAMPF. The Wien filter is used to precess the spin of the polarized proton beam.

  3. Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed E. Mansour

    2013-07-01

    Conclusion: The prevalence of spontaneous bacterial pleuritis in the studied group of patients with hepatic hydrothorax was 14.3%. Patients with advanced liver disease, low pleural fluid protein, or SBP are at risk for spontaneous bacterial pleuritis.

  4. Prevalence of chronic pancreatitis: Results of a primary care physician-based population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capurso, Gabriele; Archibugi, Livia; Pasquali, Piera; Aceti, Alessandro; Balducci, Paolo; Bianchi, Patrizia; Buono, Francesco; Camerucci, Stefano; Cantarini, Rosanna; Centofanti, Sergio; Colantonio, Patrizia; Cremaschi, Riccarda; Crescenzi, Sergio; Di Mauro, Caterina; Di Renzi, Davide; Filabozzi, Andrea; Fiorillo, Alfonso; Giancaspro, Giuseppe; Giovannetti, Paola; Lanna, Giuseppe; Medori, Claudio; Merletti, Emilio; Nunnari, Enzo; Paris, Francesca; Pavone, Marco; Piacenti, Angela; Rossi, Almerindo; Scamuffa, Maria Cristina; Spinelli, Giovanni; Taborchi, Marco; Valente, Biagio; Villanova, Antonella; Chiriatti, Alberto; Delle Fave, Gianfranco

    2017-05-01

    Data on chronic pancreatitis prevalence are scanty and usually limited to hospital-based studies. Investigating chronic pancreatitis prevalence in primary care. Participating primary care physicians reported the prevalence of chronic pancreatitis among their registered patients, environmental factors and disease characteristics. The data were centrally reviewed and chronic pancreatitis cases defined according to M-ANNHEIM criteria for diagnosis and severity and TIGAR-O classification for etiology. Twenty-three primary care physicians participated in the study. According to their judgment, 51 of 36.401 patients had chronic pancreatitis. After reviewing each patient data, 11 turned out to have definite, 5 probable, 19 borderline and 16 uncertain disease. Prevalence was 30.2/100.000 for definite cases and 44.0/100.000 for definite plus probable cases. Of the 16 patients with definite/probable diagnosis, 8 were male, with mean age of 55.6 (±16.7). Four patients had alcoholic etiology, 5 post-acute/recurrent pancreatitis, 6 were deemed to be idiopathic. Four had pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, 10 were receiving pancreatic enzymes, and six had pain. Most patients had initial stage and non-severe disease. This is the first study investigating the prevalence of chronic pancreatitis in primary care. Results suggest that the prevalence in this context is higher than in hospital-based studies, with specific features, possibly representing an earlier disease stage. Copyright © 2016 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanesse Scerri

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is a major nosocomial pathogen worldwide. Malta is one of the countries with the highest MRSA prevalence in Europe, as identified from hospital blood cultures [1]. However, community prevalence of MRSA has never previously been investigated. This study aimed at establishing the prevalence of community MRSA nasal colonization in Maltese individuals and identifying the clonal characteristics of the detected isolates. Nasal swabs were collected from 329 healthy individuals who were also asked to complete a brief questionnaire about risk factors commonly associated with MRSA carriage and infection. The swabs were transported and enriched in a nutrient broth supplemented with NaCl. The presence of MRSA was then determined by culturing on MRSA Select chromogenic agar and then confirming by several assays, including catalase, coagulase and PBP2a agglutination tests. The isolates were assayed for antibiotic susceptibilities and typed by microarray analysis to determine the clonal characteristics of each strain. The prevalence of MRSA nasal colonization in the healthy Maltese population was found to be 8.81% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.75–11.87%, much higher than that found in other studies carried out in several countries. No statistical association was found between MRSA carriage and demographics or risk factors; however, this was hindered by the small sample size. Almost all the isolates were fusidic-acid resistant. The majority were found to belong to a local endemic clone (CC5 which seems to be replacing the previously prevalent European clone UK-EMRSA-15 in the country. A new clone (CC50-MRSA-V was also characterized. The presence of such a significant community reservoir of MRSA increases the burdens already faced by the local healthcare system to control the MRSA epidemic. Colonization of MRSA in otherwise healthy individuals may represent a risk for endogenous infection and transmission to

  6. Endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms with matrix coils: immediate posttreatment results, clinical outcome and follow-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimchi, T.J.; Spears, J.; Lee, S.K.; Ter Brugge, K. [University Health Network, University of Toronto, Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto Western Hospital, Toronto, ON (Canada); Willinsky, R.A. [University Health Network, University of Toronto, Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto Western Hospital, Toronto, ON (Canada); Toronto Western Hospital, Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2007-03-15

    Endovascular aneurysm repair with coils has become a safe and effective alternative to surgical clipping. Efforts have been made to create coils that will facilitate aneurysm healing and reduce recurrence. The purpose of this study was to review the safety and durability of our aneurysm treatment using Matrix coils. A total of 39 aneurysms in 38 patients, aged 30 to 77 years, were treated using Matrix coils in 42 procedures. Two procedures were unsuccessful, and 12 were done using only Matrix coils. Aneurysm volume, packing density and percentage length of Matrix coils were calculated. The treatment results, procedural complication rate and clinical outcome were analyzed. Follow-up examinations were available for 34 procedures with a mean follow-up of 4.9 months (maximum 13.5 months). Angiographic results were similar to those following the use of platinum coils, with complete occlusion or a residual neck in 82.5% of procedures. Six procedures (14%) were complicated with platelet aggregation. Recanalization occurred in 32% of the patients. Nine patients (26%) had major recanalization and were retreated. One patient had a re-bleed 5 months after the treatment resulting in severe disability. The mean packing density of 39.2% in the recanalized aneurysms was similar to that in the nonrecanalized group. In our series, treatment with Matrix coils had a complication rate similar to that reported with platinum coils. However, we had a higher percentage of major recanalizations requiring retreatment. We believe that the absorption of the polymer contributes to the failure of formation of a stable scar within the aneurysm. (orig.)

  7. The Prevalence of Tuberculosis in Zambia: Results from the First National TB Prevalence Survey, 2013-2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kapata, Nathan; Chanda-Kapata, Pascalina; Ngosa, William; Metitiri, Mine; Klinkenberg, Eveline; Kalisvaart, Nico; Sunkutu, Veronica; Shibemba, Aaron; Chabala, Chishala; Chongwe, Gershom; Tembo, Mathias; Mulenga, Lutinala; Mbulo, Grace; Katemangwe, Patrick; Sakala, Sandra; Chizema-Kawesha, Elizabeth; Masiye, Felix; Sinyangwe, George; Onozaki, Ikushi; Mwaba, Peter; Chikamata, Davy; Zumla, Alimuddin; Grobusch, Martin P.

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis in Zambia is a major public health problem, however the country does not have reliable baseline data on the TB prevalence for impact measurement; therefore it was among the priority countries identified by the World Health Organization to conduct a national TB prevalence survey. To

  8. Reasons for discrepancy between incidence and prevalence of epilepsy in lower income countries: Epilepsia's survey results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathern, Gary W; Beninsig, Laurie; Nehlig, Astrid

    2015-02-01

    From July to August 2014, Epilepsia conducted an online survey seeking opinions that explained the discrepancy between the incidence and prevalence of epilepsy in lower income countries. Data on cumulative incidence suggest a higher rate of active epilepsy than reported in lifetime prevalence surveys. This study reports the findings of that poll addressing the proposal in our Controversy in Epilepsy series that it could be from increased death rates. The survey consisted of a question addressing possible reasons to explain the discrepancy between the incidence and prevalence of epilepsy. Another four questions addressed demographic information. There were 34 responders who completed the survey. Half (50%) of the responders felt that the discrepancy between cumulative incidence and lifetime prevalence was due to lack of uniform definitions and misclassification of patients in study design, 23.5% said the discrepancy was due to a higher mortality from diseases and conditions such as trauma and infections associated with epilepsy, 23.5% indicated that the stigma of epilepsy prevented people from acknowledging their disease in prevalence surveys, and 2.9% felt it was from poor access to qualified medical personal and utilization of medical treatments that increased death rates directly related to epilepsy. Within the limitations of sample size, the results of this survey support that the discrepancy between the incidence and prevalence of epilepsy in lower income regions of the world is due to problems in acquiring the data and stigma rather than higher mortality from diseases associated with epilepsy and repeated seizures. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 International League Against Epilepsy.

  9. The International Prevalence Study on Physical Activity: results from 20 countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowles Heather R

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity (PA is one of the most important factors for improving population health, but no standardised systems exist for international surveillance. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ was developed for international surveillance. The purpose of this study was a comparative international study of population physical activity prevalence across 20 countries. Methods Between 2002–2004, a standardised protocol using IPAQ was used to assess PA participation in 20 countries [total N = 52,746, aged 18–65 years]. The median survey response rate was 61%. Physical activity levels were categorised as "low", "moderate" and "high". Age-adjusted prevalence estimates are presented by sex. Results The prevalence of "high PA" varied from 21–63%; in eight countries high PA was reported for over half of the adult population. The prevalence of "low PA" varied from 9% to 43%. Males more frequently reported high PA than females in 17 of 20 countries. The prevalence of low PA ranged from 7–41% among males, and 6–49% among females. Gender differences were noted, especially for younger adults, with males more active than females in most countries. Markedly lower physical activity prevalence (10% difference with increasing age was noted in 11 of 19 countries for males, but only in three countries for women. The ways populations accumulated PA differed, with some reporting mostly vigorous intensity activities and others mostly walking. Conclusion This study demonstrated the feasibility of international PA surveillance, and showed that IPAQ is an acceptable surveillance instrument, at least within countries. If assessment methods are used consistently over time, trend data will inform countries about the success of their efforts to promote physical activity.

  10. Socioeconomic Status and Stroke Prevalence in Morocco: Results from the Rabat-Casablanca Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Thomas; Baglione, Quentin; Audibert, Martine; Viallefont, Anne; Mourji, Fouzi; El Alaoui Faris, Mustapha

    2014-01-01

    Background Stroke is a growing public health concern in low- and middle- income countries. Improved knowledge about the association between socioeconomic status and stroke in these countries would enable the development of effective stroke prevention and management strategies. This study presents the association between socioeconomic status and the prevalence of stroke in Morocco, a lower middle-income country. Methods Data on the prevalence of stroke and stroke-related risk factors were collected during a large population-based survey. The diagnosis of stroke in surviving patients was confirmed by neurologists while health, demographic, and socioeconomic characteristics of households were collected using structured questionnaires. We used Multiple Correspondence Analysis to develop a wealth index based on characteristics of the household dwelling as well as ownership of selected assets. We used logistic regressions controlling for multiple variables to assess the statistical association between socioeconomic status and stroke. Findings Our results showed a significant association between household socioeconomic status and the prevalence of stroke. This relationship was non-linear, with individuals from both the poorest (mainly rural) and richest (mainly urban) households having a lower prevalence of stroke as compared to individuals with medium wealth level. The latter belonged mainly to urban households with a lower socioeconomic status. When taking into account the urban population only, we observed that a third of poorest households experienced a significantly higher prevalence of stroke compared to the richest third (OR = 2.06; CI 95%: 1.09; 3.89). Conclusion We conclude that individuals from the most deprived urban households bear a higher risk of stroke than the rest of the population in Morocco. This result can be explained to a certain extent by the higher presence of behavioral risk factors in this specific category of the population, which leads in

  11. Socioeconomic status and stroke prevalence in Morocco: results from the Rabat-Casablanca study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Engels

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Stroke is a growing public health concern in low- and middle- income countries. Improved knowledge about the association between socioeconomic status and stroke in these countries would enable the development of effective stroke prevention and management strategies. This study presents the association between socioeconomic status and the prevalence of stroke in Morocco, a lower middle-income country. METHODS: Data on the prevalence of stroke and stroke-related risk factors were collected during a large population-based survey. The diagnosis of stroke in surviving patients was confirmed by neurologists while health, demographic, and socioeconomic characteristics of households were collected using structured questionnaires. We used Multiple Correspondence Analysis to develop a wealth index based on characteristics of the household dwelling as well as ownership of selected assets. We used logistic regressions controlling for multiple variables to assess the statistical association between socioeconomic status and stroke. FINDINGS: Our results showed a significant association between household socioeconomic status and the prevalence of stroke. This relationship was non-linear, with individuals from both the poorest (mainly rural and richest (mainly urban households having a lower prevalence of stroke as compared to individuals with medium wealth level. The latter belonged mainly to urban households with a lower socioeconomic status. When taking into account the urban population only, we observed that a third of poorest households experienced a significantly higher prevalence of stroke compared to the richest third (OR = 2.06; CI 95%: 1.09; 3.89. CONCLUSION: We conclude that individuals from the most deprived urban households bear a higher risk of stroke than the rest of the population in Morocco. This result can be explained to a certain extent by the higher presence of behavioral risk factors in this specific category of the population

  12. Prevalence of positive microbiology results from donor cornea tissue in different methods of corneal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Sumit; Said, Bishoy; Farid, Marjan; Steinert, Roger F

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of positive microbiology results (culture and/or Gram stain) in donor cornea tissue with newer transplant methods and to assess if the results subsequently correlate with higher incidence of clinical infection. A retrospective review of the microbiology records of 569 consecutive corneal transplants from July 2006 through July 2010 was performed to evaluate positive microbiology results in routine evaluation of cornea donor tissue. Microbiologic results were available for 544 of 569 transplants. The remaining 25 cases did not have specimens submitted for microbiologic analysis. In cases with results available, 46 (8.5%) positive reports occurred. In 10 of the 46 cases, Gram stain results were positive with subsequent negative cultures. Analysis revealed that the prevalence of positive results was 6 in 137 (4.4%), 14 in 127 (11.0%), and 26 in 271 (9.6%) for femtosecond laser-enabled keratoplasty, Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty, and conventional penetrating keratoplasty, respectively; 9 femtosecond deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty had no positive results. There was no significant relationship between the types of transplant procedures and the occurrence of positive microbiologic results (P = 0.08). The overall incidence of clinical infection was found to be 0.4% (2 of 569); however, only 1 case (1 of 569 or 0.2%), which was a Candida albicans infection after Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty, was attributable to the donor. Of 25 cases in which microbiology studies were not performed, none developed a clinical infection. Prevalence of positive microbiologic results and subsequent infections do not appear to be increased with the method of donor handling used for newer techniques for keratoplasty.

  13. Persistent visual impairment in multiple sclerosis: prevalence, mechanisms and resulting disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasse, Laurence; Vukusic, Sandra; Durand-Dubief, Françoise; Vartin, Cristina; Piras, Carolina; Bernard, Martine; Pélisson, Denis; Confavreux, Christian; Vighetto, Alain; Tilikete, Caroline

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this article is to evaluate in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients the prevalence of persistent complaints of visual disturbances and the mechanisms and resulting functional disability of persistent visual complaints (PVCs). Firstly, the prevalence of PVCs was calculated in 303 MS patients. MS-related data of patients with or without PVCs were compared. Secondly, 70 patients with PVCs performed an extensive neuro-ophthalmologic assessment and a vision-related quality of life questionnaire, the National Eye Institute Visual Functionary Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ-25). PVCs were reported in 105 MS patients (34.6%). Patients with PVCs had more frequently primary progressive MS (30.5% vs 13.6%) and more neuro-ophthalmologic relapses (1.97 vs 1.36) than patients without PVCs. In the mechanisms/disability study, an afferent visual and an ocular-motor pathways dysfunction were respectively diagnosed in 41 and 59 patients, mostly related to bilateral optic neuropathy and bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia. The NEI-VFQ 25 score was poor and significantly correlated with the number of impaired neuro-ophthalmologic tests. Our study emphasizes the high prevalence of PVC in MS patients. Regarding the nature of neuro-ophthalmologic deficit, our results suggest that persistent optic neuropathy, as part of the progressive evolution of the disease, is not rare. We also demonstrate that isolated ocular motor dysfunctions induce visual disability in daily life.

  14. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Teen Pregnancy in Vietnam: Results from Two National Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huong Nguyen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study asked two broad questions: (1 what is the prevalence of teen pregnancy in contemporary Vietnam; and (2 what selected social, family, and individual factors are associated with teen pregnancy in Vietnam? The study utilized Vietnam Survey Assessment of Vietnamese Youth surveys conducted in 2003 and 2008 to answer the two research questions within the context of fast political, economic, and social change in Vietnam in the last two decades. Results of this study show that the prevalence of pregnancy among Vietnamese teenagers in the surveys was stable at 4%, or 40 pregnancies per 1000 adolescent girls aged 14 to 19. Age, experience of domestic violence, and early sexual debut were positively correlated with higher odds of teenage pregnancy for both survey cohorts; however, being an ethnic minority, educational attainment, sexual education at school, Internet use, and depressive symptoms were significantly related to teenage pregnancy only in the 2008 cohort.

  15. Prevalence and Progression of Osteoporosis in Patients With COPD. Results From TORCH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferguson, Gary T; Calverley, Peter M A; Anderson, Julie A

    2009-01-01

    was recorded. RESULTS: At baseline, 18% of men and 30% of women had osteoporosis and 42% of men and 41% of women had osteopenia based on BMD assessments. 43% of subjects completed all testing. Changes in BMD at the hip and lumbar spine > 3 years were small. No significant differences were observed between......BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis is common in patients with COPD but its prevalence and progression are not well characterized. Concerns have been raised over the possible deleterious effect of long-term therapy with inhaled corticosteroids on bone density in this population. Here we investigated the long...... and similar for all treatments (5.1-6.3%). CONCLUSIONS: Osteoporosis is highly prevalent in patients with COPD, irrespective of gender. In the TORCH study, no significant effect on BMD was detected for inhaled corticosteroid therapy compared with placebo....

  16. Prevalence and Treatment Management of Oropharyngeal Candidiasis in Cancer Patients: Results of the French Candidoscope Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gligorov, Joseph; Bastit, Laurent; Gervais, Honorine; Henni, Mehdi; Kahila, Widad; Lepille, Daniel; Luporsi, Elisabeth; Sasso, Giuseppe; Varette, Charles; Azria, David

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this pharmaco-epidemiological study was to evaluate the prevalence of oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) in cancer patients treated with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Signs and symptoms of OPC were noted for all patients. Antifungal therapeutic management was recorded in OPC patients. Patients receiving local antifungal treatments were monitored until the end of treatment. Results: Enrolled in the study were 2,042 patients with solid tumor and/or lymphoma treated with chemotherapy and/or another systemic cancer treatment and/or radiotherapy. The overall prevalence of OPC was 9.6% (95% confidence interval, 8.4%-11.0%] in this population. It was most frequent in patients treated with combined chemoradiotherapy (22.0%) or with more than two cytotoxic agents (16.9%). Local antifungal treatments were prescribed in 75.0% of OPC patients as recommended by guidelines. The compliance to treatment was higher in patients receiving once-daily miconazole mucoadhesive buccal tablet (MBT; 88.2%) than in those treated with several daily mouthwashes of amphotericin B (40%) or nystatin (18.8%). Conclusion: OPC prevalence in treated cancer patients was high. Local treatments were usually prescribed as per guidelines. Compliance to local treatments was better with once-daily drugs.

  17. HELICOBACTER PYLORI PREVALENCE IN PATIENTS WITH CELIAC DISEASE: results from a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan LASA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Some previously published studies have suggested an inverse relationship between celiac disease and Helicobacter pylori, raising the possibility of the protective role Helicobacter pylori could have against celiac disease development. Nevertheless, this association is inconclusive. Objectives To determine the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in celiac subjects. Methods Between January 2013 and June 2014, patients over 18 years old undergoing upper endoscopy who required both gastric and duodenal biopsies were included for analysis. Enrolled subjects were divided in two groups: those with a diagnosis of celiac disease and those without a celiac disease diagnosis. Helicobacter pylori infection prevalence was compared between groups. Among celiac patients, endoscopic markers of villous atrophy as well as histological damage severity were compared between those with and without Helicobacter pylori infection. Results Overall, 312 patients were enrolled. Seventy two of them had a diagnosis of celiac disease. Helicobacter pylori infection prevalence among celiac disease patients was 12.5%, compared to 30% in non-celiac patients [OR=0.33 (0.15-0.71]. There was not a significant difference in terms of the severity of villous atrophy in patients with Helicobacter pylori infection compared to those without it. There was a slight increase in the prevalence of endoscopic markers in those Helicobacter pylori-negative celiac subjects. Conclusion Helicobacter pylori infection seems to be less frequent in celiac patients; among those celiac subjects with concomitant Helicobacter pylori infection, histological damage degree and presence of endoscopic markers suggesting villous atrophy seem to be similar to those without Helicobacter pylori infection.

  18. Prevalence of Buruli ulcer in Akonolinga health district, Cameroon: results of a cross sectional survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaudia Porten

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Buruli ulcer (BU is a chronic, indolent necrotizing disease of the skin and underlying tissues caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, which may result in functional incapacity. In 2002, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF opened a BU programme in Akonolinga Hospital, Cameroon, offering antibiotic treatment, surgery and general medical care. Six hundred patients have been treated in the project to date. However, due to the nature of the disease and its stigmatization, determining the exact prevalence and burden of disease is difficult and current estimates may not reflect the magnitude of the problem. The objectives of this survey were to estimate the prevalence of BU in the health district of Akonolinga, describe the geographic extension of the highly endemic area within the health district, and determine the programme coverage and its geographical distribution. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a cross-sectional population survey using centric systematic area sampling (CSAS. A 15x15 km grid (quadrats of 225 km(2 was overlaid on a map of Akonolinga district with its position chosen to maximize the area covered by the survey. Quadrats were selected if more than 50% of the quadrat was inside of the health district. The chiefdom located closest to the centre of each quadrat was selected and Buruli cases were identified using an active case finding strategy (the sensitivity of the strategy was estimated by capture-recapture. WHO-case definitions were used for nodules, plaque, ulcer, oedema and sequelae. Out of a total population of 103,000 inhabitants, 26,679 were surveyed within the twenty quadrats. Sensitivity of the case finding strategy was estimated to be 84% (95%CI 54-97%. The overall prevalence was 0.47% (n = 105 for all cases including sequelae and 0.25% (n = 56 for active stages of the disease. Five quadrats had a high prevalence of >0.6% to 0.9%, 5 a prevalence >0.3% to 0.6% and 10 quadrats <0.3%. The quadrats with the high

  19. Testing the usability of the Rapid Impact Assessment Matrix (RIAM) method for comparison of EIA and SEA results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuitunen, Markku; Jalava, Kimmo; Hirvonen, Kimmo

    2008-01-01

    This study examines how the results of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) could be compared using the Rapid Impact Assessment Matrix (RIAM) method. There are many tools and techniques that have been developed for use in impact assessment processes, including scoping, checklists, matrices, qualitative and quantitative models, literature reviews, and decision-support systems. While impact assessment processes have become more technically complicated, it is recognized that approaches including simpler applications of available tools and techniques are also appropriate. The Rapid Impact Assessment Matrix (RIAM) is a tool for organizing, analysing and presenting the results of a holistic EIA. RIAM was originally developed to compare the impact of alternative procedures in a single project. In this study, we used RIAM to compare the environmental and social impact of different projects, plans and programs realized within the same geographical area. RIAM scoring is based on five separate criteria. The RIAM criteria were applied to the impact that was considered to be the most significant in the evaluated cases, and scores were given both on environmental and social impact. Our results revealed that the RIAM method could be used for comparison and ranking of separate and distinct projects, plans, programs and policies, based on their negative or positive impact. Our data included 142 cases from the area of Central Finland that is covered by the Regional Council of Central Finland. This sample consisted of various types of projects, ranging from road construction to education programs that applied for EU funding

  20. Inert matrix fuel performance during the first two irradiation cycles in a test reactor: comparison with modelling results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellwig, Ch.; Kasemeyer, U.

    2003-06-01

    In the inert matrix fuel (IMF) type investigated at Paul Scherrer Institut, plutonium is dissolved in the yttrium stabilised zirconium oxide (YSZ), a highly radiation resistant cubic phase with additions of erbium as burnable poison for reactivity control. A first irradiation experiment of YSZ based IMF is ongoing in the OECD Material Test Reactor in Halden together with mixed oxide fuel. The results of the first two cycles for IMF to a burnup of some 105 kW d cm -3 are presented and the modelling results in comparison with the experimental results are shown. A first approximation for a simple swelling model for this YSZ based IMF can be given. Possible fission gas release mechanisms are briefly discussed. The implications of the modelling results are discussed.

  1. Influence of matrix attachment installation load on movement and resultant forces in implant overdentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Takaharu; Nagao, Kan; Ishida, Yuichi; Tomotake, Yoritoki; Ichikawa, Tetsuo

    2015-02-01

    This in vitro study investigated the effect of attachment installation conditions on the load transfer and denture movements of implant overdentures, and aims to clarify the differences among the three types of attachments, namely ball, Locator, and magnet attachments. Three types of attachments, namely ball, Locator, and magnetic attachments were used. An acrylic resin mandibular edentulous model with two implants placed in the bilateral canine regions and removable overdenture were prepared. The two implants and bilateral molar ridges were connected to three-axis load-cell transducers, and a universal testing machine was used to apply a 50 N vertical force to each site of the occlusal table in the first molar region. The denture movement was measured using a G(2) motion sensor. Three installation conditions, namely, the application of 0, 50, and 100 N loads were used to install each attachment on the denture base. The load transfer and denture movement were then evaluated. The resultant force decreased with increasing installation load for all attachments. In particular, the resultant force on implants on the loading side of the Locator attachment significantly decreased when the installation load was increased from 0 to 50 N, and that for magnetic attachment significantly decreased when the installation load was increased from 50 to 100 N. For the residual ridges on the loading side, the direction of the forces for all attachments changed to downward with increasing installation load. Furthermore, the yaw Euler angle increased with increasing installation load for the magnetic attachment. Subject to the limitations of this study, the use of any installation load greater than 0 N is recommended for the installation of ball and Locator attachments on a denture base. Regarding magnetic attachments, our results also recommend installation on a denture base using any installation load greater than 0 N, and suggest that the resultant force acting on the implant can be

  2. Particle-Reinforced Aluminum Matrix Composites (AMCs—Selected Results of an Integrated Technology, User, and Market Analysis and Forecast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Schmidt

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The research and development of new materials such as particle-reinforced aluminum matrix composites (AMCs will only result in a successful innovation if these materials show significant advantages not only from a technological, but also from an economic point of view. Against this background, in the Collaborative Research Center SFB 692, the concept of an integrated technology, user, and market analysis and forecast has been developed as a means for assessing the technological and commercial potential of new materials in early life cycle stages. After briefly describing this concept, it is applied to AMCs and the potential field of manufacturing aircraft components. Results show not only technological advances, but also considerable economic potential—the latter one primarily resulting from the possible weight reduction being enabled by the increased yield strength of the new material.

  3. PREVALENCE OF SELF-REPORTED SPINAL PAIN IN BRAZIL: RESULTS OF THE NATIONAL HEALTH RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIZA GOMES SANTOS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To identify the prevalence and distribution of cases of self-reported spinal disorders by persons who are 18 years or older living in Brazil according to sociodemographic variables. Methods: We used the Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde (PNS, national health research, developed by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE in partnership with the Ministry of Health. The data obtained from the website of IBGE System of Automatic Recovery - SIDRA were analyzed using the SPSS Statistics software version 20.0, IBM. Results: In Brazil 19% of the adult population report chronic spinal pain, 15.26% (± 4.56 men and 20.08% (+/- 4.11 women. After the age of 60, the prevalence is higher. Regarding skin color 18.26% (± 3.53 are white, 17.27% (± 6.65 are black and 17.93% (± 4.05 are brown, with no statistical difference. As for education, 23.55% (±5.70 had low or absent schooling (p < 0.001. The southern region of Brazil has the highest percentage (23.3% of adults with chronic problems in the spine, and the state with the highest percentage is Paraná, with 26%. Conclusions: The results showed that there is a relationship between spinal pain and sociodemographic characteristics, pointing to the southern region as the most affected by spinal disorders when compared to other regions of the country.

  4. Gambling in the Mist of Economic Crisis: Results From Three National Prevalence Studies From Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olason, Daniel Thor; Hayer, Tobias; Brosowski, Tim; Meyer, Gerhard

    2015-09-01

    In October 2008 all three major banks in Iceland went bankrupt with serious consequences for Icelandic society. The national currency lost more than half of its value and there was a sharp increase in household debts and prices for domestic goods. Very little is known about the potential effects of economic recessions on gambling participation and problem gambling. This study reports on the results of three national prevalence studies conducted before and after the economic collapse in Iceland. The same methodology and measures were used in all three studies to ensure their comparability and the studies included in total N = 8.249 participants. There was an increase in past year gambling participation which extended across most gambling types. Only participation on EGMs declined significantly after the economic collapse. Past year prevalence of problematic gambling increased but further examination revealed that this increase is most probably explained by an increase in card and internet gambling among young men. Moreover, those who experienced financial difficulties due to the economic recession were 52% more likely to have bought a lottery ticket during the recession compared to those who were not affected financially. Overall, the results indicate that serious national economic recessions have differential effects on gambling behavior.

  5. The Neutrino mass matrix after Kamland and SNO salt enhanced results

    CERN Document Server

    Aliani, P; Picariello, M; Torrente-Lujan, E

    2003-01-01

    An updated analysis of all available neutrino oscillation evidence in Solar experiments including the latest SNO ES,CC and NC data (254d live time, NaCL enhanced efficiency) is presented. We obtain, for the fraction of active oscillating neutrinos: sin^2alpha=(\\Phi_{NC}-\\Phi_{CC})/(\\Phi_{SSM}-\\Phi_{CC})=0.94^{+0.0.065}_{-0.060 } nearly 20\\sigma from the pure sterile oscillation case. The fraction of oscillating sterile neutrinos cos^2\\alpha \\lsim 0.12 (1 sigma CL). At face value, these results might slightly favour the existence of a small sterile oscillating sector. In the framework of two active neutrino oscillations we determine individual neutrino mixing parameters and their errors we obtain Delta m^2= 7.01\\pm 0.08 \\times 10^{-5} eV^2, tan^2 theta=0.42^{+0.12}_{-0.07}. The main difference with previous analysis is a better resolution in parameter space. In particular the secondary region at larger mass differences (LMAII) is now excluded at 95% CL. The combined analysis of solar and Kamland data concludes...

  6. The prevalence of adult congenital heart disease, results from a systematic review and evidence based calculation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Bom, Teun; Bouma, Berto J.; Meijboom, Folkert J.; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Mulder, Barbara J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The prevalence of adult patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) has been reported with a high degree of variability. Prevalence estimates have been calculated using birth rate, birth prevalence, and assumed survival and derived from large administrative databases. To report more robust

  7. Relationship between the prevalence of depressive symptoms and metabolic syndrome. Results of the SOPKARD Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Katarzyna; Radziłłowicz, Piotr; Zdrojewski, Tomasz; Pakalska-Korcala, Anna; Chwojnicki, Kamil; Piwoński, Jerzy; Ignaszewska-Wyrzykowska, Agata; Załuga, Lukasz; Mielczarek, Milena; Landowski, Jerzy; Wyrzykowski, Bogdan

    2006-05-01

    Depression is a newly recognised risk factor for ischaemic heart disease (IHD). The results of many studies show that depression may contribute to the development of components of metabolic syndrome, such as arterial hypertension, obesity and glycaemic abnormalities. Thus it may have a significant impact on IHD development and worsen the course of an already established disorder. Evaluation of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and depression among Sopot inhabitants aged 50 or 60 years. This study involved 795 consecutive inhabitants of Sopot (477 female and 318 male) who were invited in 2003 and 2004 to participate in screening examinations in the programme of primary prevention of arterial hypertension, diabetes and lipid abnormalities -- SOPKARD. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed according to the NCEP ATP III guidelines. Beck's Depression Inventory was used for the assessment of depressive symptoms. Metabolic syndrome was recognised in 32% of participants (in 31% of women and in 33% of men). The distribution of particular elements of metabolic syndrome was as follows: elevated blood pressure was found in 63% of subjects (female -- 58%, male -- 70%), abnormal fasting glucose in 24% (female -- 21%, male -- 28%), visceral (abdominal) obesity in 33% (female -- 38%, male -- 26%), elevated triglyceride level in 34% (female - 28%, male - 42%) and decreased HDL level in 26% (female -- 28%, male -- 23%). Symptoms of depression were found in 37% of studied subjects (42% of females, 28% of males). Metabolic syndrome was observed more frequently in subjects with depressive symptoms compared to those without depressive symptoms in the whole group (35% vs 28%, p obesity was observed more frequently in males with depressive symptoms than in those without depressive symptoms (37% vs 21%, p depression more often had a higher fasting serum glucose concentration when compared to those without depression (25% vs 18%, pwomen, a high prevalence of depression symptoms was noted

  8. Prevalence of the Chiari/hydrosyringomyelia complex in adults with spina bifida: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, G V; McCann, J P; Craig, J J; Crone, M

    2000-12-01

    To establish the prevalence of Chiari malformations and hydrocephalus (HS) in adults with spina bifida (SB). Adults with SB have recently been shown to be at risk from significant deterioration arising from the C/HS complex. Little is known about the prevalence of these malformations in adulthood, their natural history, risk factors for deterioration and optimum management. Patients are recruited from a clinic for adults with SB and hydrocephalus, routinely questioned about recent changes in neurological symptoms and a full neurological examination performed. Functional assessments include: Barthel Index; Nottingham EADL; Nine Hole Peg Test; 10 metre timed walk test. Sagittal T1 and TSE (turbo spin-echo) magnetic resonance images (MRI) of the cranio-cervical junction and spinal cord are obtained using a 1.0-T MRI system with a phased-array surface coil. Scans are reported blindly. 76 patients have been assessed, 40 female, 36 male, mean age 27.5 years. Of these, 48 (63.2%) have symptoms +/- signs compatible with C/HS, but only 18 (23.7%) have reported new, potentially relevant, neurological symptoms over the previous 12 months. Of 25 patients undergoing MRI so far, 19 (76%) have had Chiari malformations and 12 (48%) have had HS. None of those with a negative scan have had signs/symptoms suggestive of the C/HS complex but a negative clinical evaluation has been unable to exclude such pathology. These early results suggest that the prevalence of the C/HS complex is high in adults with SB and cannot be predicted by neurological examination alone. Given past experience, the need for continued neurological follow up in a large proportion of the SB population throughout adulthood is likely to be essential.

  9. Prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis in the French West Indies: Results of the EPPPRA study in Martinique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunier, Lauren; Bleterry, Marie; Merle, Sylvie; Derancourt, Christian; Polomat, Katlyn; Dehlinger, Véronique; Deligny, Christophe; Jean-Baptiste, Georges; Arfi, Serge; Banydeen, Rishika; De Bandt, Michel

    2017-07-01

    Studies suggest that rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is less frequent in African populations. However, no recent precise data exists for Afro-Caribbeans. The EPPPRA project is a prospective epidemiological survey to describe prevalence and clinical aspects of RA in the French West Indies (Martinique, Guadeloupe, French Guiana). EPPPRA involved all rheumatologists from the French West Indies who included all patients with a known clinical diagnosis of RA, during a one-year period. We outline here results for Martinique. EPPPRA estimated an overall world age-standardized prevalence of RA at 0.10% [95% CI 0.09% to 0.11%] in Martinique, with a high female predominance (88.1%) and 93.1% of self-reported Afro-Caribbeans. Mean age at diagnosis was 49.6±16.0 years. A majority of subjects presented at least 4 criteria points from the 1987 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) classification (94.4%) and at least 6 points (78.2%) from the 2010 ACR/European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) classification. A high immune seropositivity rate was highlighted (84.2%). Despite functional impact observed in 40.5% of patients, 71.4% presented a low disease activity level. Methotrexate was the most common ongoing treatment (73%), followed by biotherapies (24.4%). Numerous patients (68.6%) received a steroid regimen. Cardiovascular risk factors were very frequent, contrasting with a very low tobacco use (8.7%), CONCLUSION: This work outlines low standardized prevalence of RA in a French Afro-Caribbean population with specific characteristics (high female predominance, high immune seropositivity, low tobacco use). Despite easy access to care and biotherapies, approximately half of RA patients still present destructive disease with functional impact. Copyright © 2016 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Prevalence and Cardiovascular Associations of Diabetic Retinopathy and Maculopathy: Results from the Gutenberg Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raum, Philipp; Lamparter, Julia; Ponto, Katharina A.; Peto, Tunde; Hoehn, René; Schulz, Andreas; Schneider, Astrid; Wild, Philipp S.; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Mirshahi, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Objective Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of blindness in people of working age. The purpose of this paper is to report the prevalence and cardiovascular associations of diabetic retinopathy and maculopathy (DMac) in Germany. Research Design and Methods The Gutenberg Health Study (GHS) is a population-based study with 15,010 participants aged between 35 at 74 years from the city of Mainz and the district of Mainz-Bingen. We determined the weighted prevalence of DR and DMac by assessing fundus photographs of persons with diabetes from the GHS data base. Diabetes was defined as HbA1c ≥ 6.5%, known diagnosis diabetes mellitus or known diabetes medication. Furthermore, we analysed the association between DR and cardiovascular risk factors and diseases. Results Overall, 7.5% (1,124/15,010) of the GHS cohort had diabetes. Of these, 27.7% were unaware of their disease and thus were newly diagnosed by their participation in the GHS. The prevalence of DR and DMac was 21.7% and 2.3%, respectively among patients with diabetes. Vision-threatening disease was present in 5% of the diabetic cohort. In the multivariable analysis DR (all types) was associated with age (Odds Ratio [95% confidence interval]: 0.97 [0.955–0.992]; p = 0.006) arterial hypertension (1.90 [1.190–3.044]; p = 0.0072) and vision-threatening DR with obesity (3.29 [1.504–7.206]; p = 0.0029). DR (all stages) and vision-threatening DR were associated with duration of diabetes (1.09 [1.068–1.114]; p<0.0001 and 1.18 [1.137–1.222]; p<0.0001, respectively). Conclusions Our calculations suggest that more than a quarter-million persons have vision-threatening diabetic retinal disease in Germany. Prevalence of DR was lower in the GHS compared to East-Asian studies. Associations were found with age, arterial hypertension, obesity, and duration of diabetes mellitus. PMID:26075604

  11. Prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of diabetes mellitus in rural China: results from Shandong Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, F; Qian, D; Chen, J; Hu, D; Hou, M; Chen, S; Wang, P

    2016-04-01

    To estimate the prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of diabetes in rural areas in Shandong Province, China. The Luxemburg-WHO-Shandong Project on Rural Health Personnel Training and Chronic Disease Control, a cross-sectional study, examined 16 375 rural residents aged 25 years and over using multistage cluster sampling in April 2007. An overnight fasting blood specimen was collected to measure plasma glucose and a 2-h 75-g oral glucose tolerance test was conducted among people with a fasting blood glucose of ≥ 6.1 mmol/l. Information on the history of diabetes and hypoglycaemic medication was obtained using a standard questionnaire. Diabetes and prediabetes were defined according to the 1999 World Health Organization diagnostic criteria. Overall, the prevalence rates for diabetes, prediabetes and previously diagnosed diabetes in the rural population were estimated to be 3.5%, 6.0% and 1.2%, respectively. Among those with diabetes, only 34.8% were aware of their condition, 30.6% were currently undergoing medication treatment, and 11.5% achieved glycaemic control. These results indicate that diabetes has become a public health problem in poor rural areas of China and the rates of awareness, treatment and control of diabetes were relatively low. There is an urgent need for strategies aimed at the prevention and treatment of diabetes in the rural population in Shandong Province, China. © 2015 Diabetes UK.

  12. Inhibition of Matrix Metalloproteinases Protects Mice from Ascending Infection and Chronic Disease Manifestations Resulting from Urogenital Chlamydia muridarum Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Imtiaz, Muhammad T.; Schripsema, Justin H.; Sigar, Ira M.; Kasimos, John N.; Ramsey, Kyle H.

    2006-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) are a family of host-derived enzymes involved in the turnover of extracellular matrix molecules. We have previously reported enhanced expression of matrix metalloproteinases in Chlamydia muridarum urogenital tract infection of female mice. Kinetics and patterns of MMP expression as well as enhanced expression in susceptible strains of mice in the prior study implied a role for MMP in pathogenesis. To explore this further, we infected a susceptible strain of mic...

  13. Results of epidemiological studies on the prevalence of iodine deficiency disorders in the Republic of Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.I. Ismailov

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. In spite of the works performed against iodine deficiency disorders (IDD, they still remain severe in Uzbekistan. The purpose of the study was to investigate the dynamics of the prevalence of IDD among the population in the Republic of Uzbekistan. Materials and methods. Epidemiological study of IDD in the Republic of Uzbekistan has been performed according to the World Health Organization (WHO recommendations. Degree of thyroid enlargement was determined according to the WHO classification. Such indexes, as assessment of urinary iodine concentration and evaluation of salt iodine concentration, have been analyzed. The data were compared with the results of previous years’ studies. Results. Estimation of the severity of IDD by the level of ioduria showed that the proportion of severe iodine deficiency (less than 20 μg/l decreased from 94.4 % in 1998 to 21.4 % in 2004, to 1.9 % in 2010 and to 1.9 % in 2016. The optimal level of iodine intake (more than 100 μg/l increased from 0 % in 1998 to 46.3 % in 2004, to 63.7 % in 2010 and 76.3 % in 2016. Comparative analysis of the prevalence of degree I and II diffuse goiter showed that in total the proportion of this disease was 72.8 % in 1998, 58.8 % in 2004, 40.2 % in 2010 and 28.3 % in 2016. Conclusions. The acceptance of law of Uzbekistan “On prevention of iodine deficiency diseases” in 2007 has substantially decreased the prevalence of IDD in Uzbekistan. Nevertheless, despite of large scale actions, our study of ioduria and salt iodine content in 2016 indicated that about 25 % of people in the country still prone to IDD.

  14. Derivation of the first order transformation matrix for a simple Wien filter and comparison to results of numerical integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurd, J.V.

    1986-01-01

    One of the elements of the 750-keV polarized H/sup -/ injection transport at LAMPF is a Wien (E x B) filter. The Wien filter is used to process the spin of the polarized H/sup -/ ions to the appropriate orientation needed by the experiments. The proton-spin orientation is changed several times during a production cycle. At each new setting of the Wien filter, the beam is focused differently and the beam transport must be returned for an optimum match into the linac. The transport is tuned interactively using the first-order optics code TRACE. The first-order transformation matrix for a simple Wien filter is developed for use in TRACE and the transformation is compared to results of numerical integration to determine the validity of the first-order approximation.

  15. The prevalence of chromium allergy in Denmark is currently increasing as a result of leather exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, J P; Jensen, P; Carlsen, B C

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chromium allergy has traditionally been caused by occupational skin contact with cement. In 1983, Danish legislation made the addition of ferrous sulphate compulsory in cement to reduce the water-soluble chromium content to not more than 2 ppm. An effect from this intervention has...... previously been demonstrated among Danish construction workers. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the development of chromium allergy among patients with dermatitis tested between 1985 and 2007 in Denmark. Furthermore, to determine causative exposures in patients with chromium allergy. PATIENTS AND METHODS......: A retrospective analysis of patch test data was performed (n = 16,228) and charts from patients with chromium allergy were reviewed. Comparisons were made using a chi(2) test. Logistic regression analyses were used to test for associations. RESULTS: The prevalence of chromium allergy decreased significantly from...

  16. Radiation defects in solid matrix as a physical base of EPR-dosimetry. The results of international experiment 'Intercomparison'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pivovarov, S.P.; Rukhin, A.B.; Seredavina, T.A.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The very high sensitivity of EPR method at radiation defects in solid matrixes registration caused for last decade an intensive development of a new field - EPR-dosimetry. The suitable work substances had been found in a result of prolonged wide investigations, that allowed successful development both an operative dosimetry, and, that is especially important, the retrospective one. Nowadays the retrospective dosimetry on tooth enamel is adopted by IAEA and WHO as the main method of the radiation accidents consequences analysis for suffered population. In the report the methodical peculiarities of EPR-dosimetry are reviewed, the possible sources of the dose characteristics nonlinearity occurrence are analyzed as well other sources of errors and the ways of their elimination are considered. The review of the results of the international experiments 'Intercomparison' on EPR-dosimetry on tooth enamel series, held for last years under IAEA aegis is given. Practically all leading worldwide labs, including NMR laboratory of the INP NNC RK, took part in these experiments. The main goal was estimation of accuracy, sensitivity and reproducibility of summary dose values, having been reconstructed on base of EPR-signal of radiation defects in tooth enamel. The last experiment 'Intercomparison 3' has shown a considerable progress achieved lately in this area. Now the Japanese scientists from Hiroshima are preparing a further continuation of these Intercomparisons. Researches of radiation-induced EPR signals, stabilized in solid matrix, have been found out also rather useful and productive for the purposes of geological and archaeological dating, in criminalistics, in radiation chemistry and so on. Probably, this method will be rather perspective and at identification of radiation-sterilized food-stuffs, which come up now on world markets more and more often, however, studies in this direction are still on an incipient stage only

  17. Modal correlation of test and finite element results using cross orthogonality with a reduced mass matrix obtained by modal reduction and NASTRAN's Generalized Dynamic Reduction solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Derek; Budynas, Richard G.

    A common procedure for performing a cross orthogonality check for the purpose of modal correlation between the test and the finite element analysis results incorporates the Guyan reduction method to obtain a reduced mass matrix. This paper describes a procedure which uses NASTRAN's Generalized Dynamic Reduction solution routine which is much more accurate than the standard Guyan reduction solution and which offers the advantage of not requiring the selection of mdof. Using NASTRAN's DMAP programming methods, a modal reduction of the full analytical mass matrix is performed based on the accelerometer locations and the analytical modal matrix results. The accuracy of the procedure is illustrated in two case studies.

  18. Estimating the global prevalence of zinc deficiency: results based on zinc availability in national food supplies and the prevalence of stunting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ryan Wessells

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adequate zinc nutrition is essential for adequate growth, immunocompetence and neurobehavioral development, but limited information on population zinc status hinders the expansion of interventions to control zinc deficiency. The present analyses were conducted to: (1 estimate the country-specific prevalence of inadequate zinc intake; and (2 investigate relationships between country-specific estimated prevalence of dietary zinc inadequacy and dietary patterns and stunting prevalence. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: National food balance sheet data were obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Country-specific estimated prevalence of inadequate zinc intake were calculated based on the estimated absorbable zinc content of the national food supply, International Zinc Nutrition Consultative Group estimated physiological requirements for absorbed zinc, and demographic data obtained from United Nations estimates. Stunting data were obtained from a recent systematic analysis based on World Health Organization growth standards. An estimated 17.3% of the world's population is at risk of inadequate zinc intake. Country-specific estimated prevalence of inadequate zinc intake was negatively correlated with the total energy and zinc contents of the national food supply and the percent of zinc obtained from animal source foods, and positively correlated with the phytate: zinc molar ratio of the food supply. The estimated prevalence of inadequate zinc intake was correlated with the prevalence of stunting (low height-for-age in children under five years of age (r = 0.48, P<0.001. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: These results, which indicate that inadequate dietary zinc intake may be fairly common, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, allow inter-country comparisons regarding the relative likelihood of zinc deficiency as a public health problem. Data from these analyses should be used to determine

  19. Prevalence and comorbidity of tic disorder in Israeli adolescents: results from a national mental health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Tamar; Tamir, Inbal; Zimmerman-Brenner, Sharon; Friling, Michal; Apter, Alan

    2013-02-01

    Tic disorders are common causes of morbidity in Israel but their prevalence in this country needs further study. To assess the prevalence of mental disorders in Israeli youth including tic disorders, as part of the Israel Survey of Mental Health among Adolescents (ISMEHA). The ISMEHA was conducted in a representative sample of 957 adolescents aged 14-17 and their mothers during 2004-2005. We interviewed the adolescents and their mothers in their homes and collected demographic information about the use of services. We also administered a psychiatric interview, the Development and Well-Being Assessment inventory (DAWBA), which included a question on tic disorder. The prevalence of tic disorders was calculated based on the adolescents' and maternal reports. The relationships among demographic data, comorbidity rates, help-seeking behaviors and tic disorder are presented. The prevalence of tics was 1.3% according to maternal reports and 4.4% according to adolescents' reports. The prevalence correlated with externalizing disorders and learning disabilities. A higher prevalence of tics was found in the Arab population compared with Jewish adolescents. The prevalence of tic disorders in Israel, as measured by a direct question in this epidemiological study, and associated comorbidities concurs with previous reports. The complexities of prevalence estimations, comorbidities, demographic correlates, and help-seeking behaviors are discussed.

  20. Severe root resorption resulting from orthodontic treatment: Prevalence and risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maués, Caroline Pelagio Raick; do Nascimento, Rizomar Ramos; Vilella, Oswaldo de Vasconcellos

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of severe external root resorption and its potential risk factors resulting from orthodontic treatment. METHODS: A randomly selected sample was used. It comprised conventional periapical radiographs taken in the same radiology center for maxillary and mandibular incisors before and after active orthodontic treatment of 129 patients, males and females, treated by means of the Standard Edgewise technique. Two examiners measured and defined root resorption according to the index proposed by Levander et al. The degree of external apical root resorption was registered defining resorption in four degrees of severity. To assess intra and inter-rater reproducibility, kappa coefficient was used. Chi-square test was used to assess the relationship between the amount of root resorption and patient's sex, dental arch (maxillary or mandibular), treatment with or without extractions, treatment duration, root apex stage (open or closed), root shape, as well as overjet and overbite at treatment onset. RESULTS: Maxillary central incisors had the highest percentage of severe root resorption, followed by maxillary lateral incisors and mandibular lateral incisors. Out of 959 teeth, 28 (2.9%) presented severe root resorption. The following risk factors were observed: anterior maxillary teeth, overjet greater than or equal to 5 mm at treatment onset, treatment with extractions, prolonged therapy, and degree of apex formation at treatment onset. CONCLUSION: This study showed that care must be taken in orthodontic treatment involving extractions, great retraction of maxillary incisors, prolonged therapy, and/or completely formed apex at orthodontic treatment onset. PMID:25741825

  1. Severe root resorption resulting from orthodontic treatment: Prevalence and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Pelagio Raick Maués

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of severe external root resorption and its potential risk factors resulting from orthodontic treatment. METHODS: A randomly selected sample was used. It comprised conventional periapical radiographs taken in the same radiology center for maxillary and mandibular incisors before and after active orthodontic treatment of 129 patients, males and females, treated by means of the Standard Edgewise technique. Two examiners measured and defined root resorption according to the index proposed by Levander et al. The degree of external apical root resorption was registered defining resorption in four degrees of severity. To assess intra and inter-rater reproducibility, kappa coefficient was used. Chi-square test was used to assess the relationship between the amount of root resorption and patient's sex, dental arch (maxillary or mandibular, treatment with or without extractions, treatment duration, root apex stage (open or closed, root shape, as well as overjet and overbite at treatment onset. RESULTS: Maxillary central incisors had the highest percentage of severe root resorption, followed by maxillary lateral incisors and mandibular lateral incisors. Out of 959 teeth, 28 (2.9% presented severe root resorption. The following risk factors were observed: anterior maxillary teeth, overjet greater than or equal to 5 mm at treatment onset, treatment with extractions, prolonged therapy, and degree of apex formation at treatment onset. CONCLUSION: This study showed that care must be taken in orthodontic treatment involving extractions, great retraction of maxillary incisors, prolonged therapy, and/or completely formed apex at orthodontic treatment onset.

  2. Sex differences in the prevalence, symptoms, and associated features of migraine, probable migraine and other severe headache: results of the American Migraine Prevalence and Prevention (AMPP) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buse, Dawn C; Loder, Elizabeth W; Gorman, Jennifer A; Stewart, Walter F; Reed, Michael L; Fanning, Kristina M; Serrano, Daniel; Lipton, Richard B

    2013-09-01

    the prevalence of migraine and PM, but not for other severe headache. Adjusted female to male prevalence ratios ranged from 1.48 to 3.25 across the lifetime for migraine and from 1.22 to 1.53 for PM. Sex differences were also observed in associated symptomology, aura, headache-related disability, healthcare resource utilization, and diagnosis for migraine and PM. Despite higher rates of migraine diagnosis by a healthcare professional, females with migraine were less likely than males to be using preventive pharmacologic treatment for headache. In this large, US population sample, both migraine and PM were more common among females, but a sex difference was not observed in the prevalence of other severe headache. The sex difference in migraine and PM held true across age and for most other sociodemographic variables with the exception of race for PM. Females with migraine and PM had higher rates of most migraine symptoms, aura, greater associated impairment, and higher healthcare resource utilization than males. Corresponding sex differences were not observed among individuals with other severe headache on the majority of these comparisons. Results suggest that PM is part of the migraine spectrum whereas other severe headache types are not. Results also substantiate existing literature on sex differences in primary headaches and extend results to additional headache types and related factors. © 2013 American Headache Society.

  3. Actual interaction effects between policy measures for energy efficiency-A qualitative matrix method and quantitative simulation results for households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boonekamp, Piet G.M.

    2006-01-01

    Starting from the conditions for a successful implementation of saving options, a general framework was developed to investigate possible interaction effects in sets of energy policy measures. Interaction regards the influence of one measure on the energy saving effect of another measure. The method delivers a matrix for all combinations of measures, with each cell containing qualitative information on the strength and type of interaction: overlapping, reinforcing, or independent of each other. Results are presented for the set of policy measures on household energy efficiency in the Netherlands for 1990-2003. The second part regards a quantitative analysis of the interaction effects between three major measures: a regulatory energy tax, investment subsidies and regulation of gas use for space heating. Using a detailed bottom-up model, household energy use in the period 1990-2000 was simulated with and without these measures. The results indicate that combinations of two or three policy measures yield 13-30% less effect than the sum of the effects of the separate measures

  4. Sinus Augmentation with Biomimetic Nanostructured Matrix: Tomographic, Radiological, Histological and Histomorphometrical Results after 6 Months in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Scarano

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many bone substitutes have been applied for sinus regeneration procedures, such as autogenous bone, inorganic bovine bone, porous and resorbable hydroxyapatite, tricalcium phosphate, bioactive glass, and blood clots. The aim of the present study was a tomographic, histological and histomorphometrical evaluation in humans, of specimens retrieved from sinuses augmented with MgHA/collagen-based scaffolds, after a healing period of 6 months.Materials and Methods: Eleven healthy patients and a total of 15 sinuses were included in this study. The maxillary sinuses were filled with commercial MgHA/collagen-based scaffolds (RegenOss with a porous three-dimensional (3D structure (Fin-Ceramica Faenza S.p.A., Faenza, Italy. These grafts have a composite design, that replicate the organization of bone structure, obtained by a technique in which a specific hybrid organic–inorganic composite is spontaneously built by a biological mechanism. The CBCT scans were done before the procedure, after the surgical protocol (T1, and 6 months after sinus surgery (T2 for implantology. Bone specimens were stored in 10% formalin solution, embedded in a glycolmethacrylate resin and sectioned by a high-precision diamond disc. Histologic and histomorphometric analysis were carried out to evaluate the graft reabsorption and bone healing.Results: The mean volume after graft elevation, calculated for each of the 15 sinuses, was 2,906 mm3 in the immediate postoperative period (5–7 days, ranging from 2,148.8 to 3,146.4 mm3. In the late postoperative period (6 months it was 2,806.7 mm3, ranging from 2,010.9 to 3,008.9 mm3. The sinuses were completely healed and no residual MgHA/collagen-based scaffolds were visible. Osteoblasts appeared actively secreting bone matrix and marrow spaces contained moderate numbers of stromal cells and vascular network. Osteoblasts were observed actively secreting osteoid matrix. The tissues present in the samples were composed of 1.9

  5. Point Prevalence of Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease in New Zealand in 2015: Initial Results from the PINZ Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Robert N; Evans, Helen M; Appleton, Laura; Bishop, Jonathan; Chin, Simon; Mouat, Stephen; Gearry, Richard B; Day, Andrew S

    2017-08-01

    The incidence of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) around the world is increasing. However, there is a scarcity of data on the epidemiology of pediatric IBD in the Southern Hemisphere. This study aimed to document the point prevalence of pediatric IBD in New Zealand on June 30, 2015. All patients in New Zealand, under 16 years of age, with a diagnosis of IBD on June 30, 2015 were identified. Demographic and disease phenotypic details were collected and entered into a secure database. Age-specific population data for New Zealand were obtained and national and regional prevalence rates were calculated. The point prevalence of pediatric IBD, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and inflammatory bowel disease unclassified in New Zealand on June 30, 2015 was (95% confidence intervals) 21.7 (18.9-24.8), 16.5 (14.0-19.2), 3.3 (2.2-4.6), and 1.9 (1.2-3.0) per 100,000 children, respectively. There was a striking disparity between the prevalence rates in the North and South Islands. The point prevalence of pediatric IBD in New Zealand represents the first-ever national, population-based prevalence rates of pediatric IBD published. Results from the Paediatric IBD in New Zealand (PINZ) study are also the first to show markedly higher prevalence rates of IBD in the southern part of a country compared with its northern counterpart. Ongoing prospective ascertainment of the incidence of pediatric IBD is required.

  6. Prevalence of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis in renal insufficiency patients: Results of the FINEST study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janus, Nicolas [Department of Nephrology, Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital, 83 boulevard de l' Hopital, 75013 Paris (France)], E-mail: nicolas.janus@psl.aphp.fr; Launay-Vacher, Vincent; Karie, Svetlana [Department of Nephrology, Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital, 83 boulevard de l' Hopital, 75013 Paris (France); Clement, Olivier [Department of Radiology, Georges Pompidou European Hospital, Paris (France); Ledneva, Elena [Department of Nephrology, Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital, 83 boulevard de l' Hopital, 75013 Paris (France); Frances, Camille [Department of Dermatology, Tenon Hospital, Paris (France); Choukroun, Gabriel [Department of Nephrology, Amiens University Hospital, Amiens (France); Deray, Gilbert [Department of Nephrology, Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital, 83 boulevard de l' Hopital, 75013 Paris (France)

    2010-02-15

    Purpose: Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) is characterized by widespread tissue fibrosis, mainly affecting the skin. Gadolinium chelates have been implicated in the onset of NSF in patients with renal impairment (RI). The FINEST study (FIbrose Nephrogenique SysTemique) was designed to determine the prevalence of NSF after magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in French RI patients. Materials and methods: We studied all patients with RI who had at least one MRI examination during a one-year period, with or without gadolinium chelate administration. Data were collected retrospectively from 9 Nephrology Departments in France, and included sex, age, renal function, type of gadolinium administered, and subsequent cutaneous disorders. If a patient presented a cutaneous disorder, a skin biopsy was performed to confirm the diagnostic. Results: The 308 eligible patients had a mean age of 59.9 years, 59% were men, and 54% had stage 5 RI. 75% of those 308 patients received a Gadolinium chelate. Among those patients who received a gadolinium chelate, 76% received gadoterate, 20% gadopentetate, 3% gadodiamide and 1% gadobenate. No cutaneous disorders were recorded after MRI. Conclusion: These results confirm that NSF is a rare disease. Based on a reported frequency, {approx}3.5% in patients with glomerular filtration rate <30 ml/min/1.73 m{sup 2}), some cases should have been observed in our study which included 308 patients. Most patients received gadoterate, a macrocyclic gadolinium chelate for which no case of NSF has been observed worldwide. This suggests that more stable macrocyclic agents may be less likely to induce NSF.

  7. The trend of pressure ulcer prevalence rates in German hospitals: results of seven cross-sectional studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottner, Jan; Wilborn, Doris; Dassen, Theo; Lahmann, Nils

    2009-05-01

    Pressure ulcer prevalence rates provide useful information about the magnitude of this health problem. Only limited information on pressure ulcers in Germany was available before 2001. The purpose of this study was to compare results of seven pressure ulcer prevalence surveys which were conducted annually between 2001 and 2007 and to explore whether pressure ulcer prevalence rates decreased. The second aim was to evaluate if the measured prevalence rates of our sample could be generalised for all German hospitals. Results of seven point pressure ulcer prevalence studies conducted in 225 German hospitals were analysed. Chi-square tests, chi-square trend tests and one-way ANOVA to assess differences and trends across the years were applied. The sample was stratified according to pressure ulcer risk and speciality. Finally, study samples were compared with the potential population. In total data of 40,247 hospital patients were analysed. The overall pressure ulcer prevalence rate in German hospitals was 10.2%. Patient samples of each year were comparable regarding gender, age and pressure ulcer risk. Pressure ulcer prevalence rates decreased from 13.9% (year 2001) to 7.3% (year 2007) (pcare units remained stable. With some limitations our study results are representative for all hospitals within Germany. It is highly probable that the decrease of prevalence rates was due to an increased awareness of the pressure ulcer problem in Germany and subsequent efforts to improve pressure ulcer prevention and treatment. The quality of clinical practice regarding pressure ulcer prevention and treatment has improved. However, pressure ulcers are still relevant and require attention. In 2007, one out of 10 hospital patients who were at pressure ulcer risk had at least one pressure related skin damage.

  8. [Prevalence of anemia in Mexican children and adolescents: Results from three national surveys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cruz-Góngora, Vanessa; Villalpando, Salvador; Mundo-Rosas, Verónica; Shamah-Levy, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    To describe the prevalence of anemia in Mexican children and adolescents from ENSANUT 2012. Data had the power to make distinctions at the national, regional and rural/urban dwelling. Hemoglobin was measured by Hemocue. Descriptions were made by adjusted frequencies and 95%CI. Confounders were tested in a logistic regression models. The prevalence of anemia in 2012 was: in children 1-4 y, 23.3%; 5-11y, 10.1%, and 12-19 y, 5.6%. The prevalence in female adolescents was 7.7% and 3.6% in males. Reductions in the prevalence of anemia from 1999 was 8.3pp in <5y, 5.1pp in children 5-11y and 3.6pp from 2006 in adolescents. Despite the decrease in the prevalence of anemia in children 1-4 y in the last 13 years, it still is of great concern. There is a need of awareness among social and medical communities about this, to extend the distribution of micronutrient supplements in children <3y, and to promote nutritional education to incentive mothers to provide foods rich in iron.

  9. [Prevalence of non-fatal road traffic injuries in Mexico: results from ENSANUT 2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Burgos, Leticia; Medina-Solís, Carlo E; Pérez-Núñez, Ricardo; Híjar-Medina, Martha; Aracena-Genao, Belkis; Hidalgo-Solórzano, Elisa; Palma-Coca, Oswaldo

    2008-01-01

    To determine non-fatal road traffic injuries (NFRTI) prevalence and its distribution in Mexico. Data from ENSANUT Survey 2006 were used. Using simple random sampling, one adult, one adolescent and one child were selected in each household, constituting a final sample of 94,197 representing an N of 102,886,482 people. The dependent variable was the prevalence of road traffic injuries (RTI) during the 12 months prior to the survey. The general accident prevalence was 6.0%; 16.7% corresponded to NFRTI. Men in the 20 to 44 age group living in urban areas and with high socioeconomic status had a higher RTI prevalence (p<0.05). Jalisco, Aguascalientes and Sonora were states with the highest prevalence of RTI, while Guerrero, Michoacan and Oaxaca were those with the lowest. NFRTI are frequent in Mexico and they are concentrated among men in productive ages in urban areas; they are associated with socioeconomic status at the individual level and with the state's development at the population level.

  10. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome among older adults in Ecuador: Results of the SABE survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orces, Carlos H; Gavilanez, Enrique Lopez

    2017-12-01

    To describe the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among older adults in Ecuador. A secondary objective was to examine the relationship between metabolic syndrome and its components and insulin resistance among non-diabetic participants. The National Survey of Health, Wellbeing, and Aging survey was used to examine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome according to demographic, behavioral, and health characteristics of the participants. Logistic regression models adjusted for covariates were used to examine the independent association of metabolic syndrome and its components and insulin resistance in non-diabetic older adults. Of 2298 participants with a mean age of 71.6 (SD 8.1) years, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 66.0% (95% CI, 62.6%, 69.3%) in women and 47.1% (95% CI, 43.2%, 50.9) in men. However, even higher prevalence rates were seen among literate individuals, residents from urban areas of the coastal and Andes Mountains region, obese subjects, those diagnosed with diabetes, and participants with≥2 comorbidities. Overall, abdominal obesity followed by elevated blood pressure were the metabolic syndrome components more prevalent and associated with insulin resistance among older Ecuadorians. Moreover, after adjustment for covariates, older adults defined as having metabolic syndrome had a 3-fold higher odds of having insulin resistance as compared with those without. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is high among older adults in Ecuador. The present findings may assist public health authorities to implement programs of lifestyle and behavioral modification targeting older adults at increased risk for this cardio metabolic disorder. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevalence and risk factors of depressive episodes among student population in Wroclaw - epidemiological study results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagdańska, Marta; Kiejna, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify risk factors and estimate prevalence of depressive episodes among Wroclaw's universities students. Polish adaptation of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was implemented to gather epidemiological data from 370 students of public universities in Wroclaw. Proportional stratified sampling was performed to obtain distinct, independent strata representing sex, year of study and educational profiles. Randomisation was ensured by recruitment procedures. Prevalence of depressive episodes among students in Wroclaw is high - 14.7% throughout life, 9.8% within 12 months prior to the interview. High prevalence of severe and moderate depressive episodes seems to be worrisome (respectively 5.1% and 6.6% throughout life, 3.8% and 3.9% within 12 months prior to the study). Year of study, profile and lack of partner relationship remain risk factor for depression. High prevalence of depressive episodes indicates the need for prevention and therapy based on epidemiological data and tailored to the students' needs. Depression among students requires further epidemiological studies.

  12. Prevalence and Determinants of Suicide Ideation among Lebanese Adolescents: Results of the GSHS Lebanon 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfoud, Ziyad R.; Afifi, Rema A.; Haddad, Pascale H.; DeJong, Jocelyn

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined prevalence and risk factors for suicide ideation in 5038 Lebanese adolescents using Global School Health Survey data. Around 16% of Lebanese adolescents thought of suicide. Multivariate logistic regression models showed that risk factors for suicide ideation included poor mental health (felt lonely, felt worried, felt…

  13. Prevalence and correlates of somatoform disorders in the elderly: Results of a European study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehoust, Maria Christina; Schulz, Holger; Härter, Martin; Volkert, Jana; Sehner, Susanne; Drabik, Anna; Wegscheider, Karl; Canuto, Alessandra; Weber, Kerstin; Crawford, Mike; Quirk, Alan; Grassi, Luigi; DaRonch, Chiara; Munoz, Manuel; Ausin, Berta; Santos-Olmo, Anna; Shalev, Arieh; Rotenstein, Ora; Hershkowitz, Yael; Strehle, Jens; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Andreas, Sylke

    2017-03-01

    Somatoform disorders have rarely been addressed in epidemiological and health care services studies of the elderly. The few existing studies vary considerably in their methodologies limiting comparability of findings. Data come from the MentDis_ICF65+ study, in which a total of 3142 community-dwelling respondents aged 65-84 years from six different countries were assessed by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview adapted to the needs of the elderly (CIDI65+). The 12-month prevalence rate for any somatoform disorders was found to be 3.8, whereby the prevalence for somatization disorder according to DSM-IV was 0%, the prevalence for abridged somatization was 1.7% and the rate for 12-months somatoform pain disorder was 2.6%. We found a significant variation by study centre (p < 0.005). There was a significant gender difference for pain disorder, but not for abridged somatization. Significant age-related effects revealed for both disorder groups. Somatoform disorders were found to be associated with other mental disorders [odds ratio (OR) anxiety =4.8, OR affective disorders 3.6], as well as with several impairments and disabilities. Somatoform disorders are prevalent, highly impairing conditions in older adults, which are often associated with other mental disorders and should receive more research and clinical attention. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Studies in cow’s milk allergy: results from the Dutch EuroPrevall birth cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrus, N.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    Cow’s milk allergy is a common disease in infancy. However, until recently accurate numbers were not available. To investigate how many infants suffered from cow’s milk allergy, the EuroPrevall study was designed. In this European, multicentre study, nine European hospitals followed over 12,000

  15. Results of single and repeat dose studies of the oral matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor marimastat in healthy male volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Andrew W; Brown, Peter D; Moore, Jeff; Galloway, W Alan; Cornish, Alan G; Lenehan, Terence J; Lynch, Kevin P

    1998-01-01

    Aims To assess the tolerability and pharmacokinetic profile of single and repeat doses of the oral matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor marimastat in healthy male volunteers. Methods A total of 31 subjects participated in two placebo-controlled, rising-dose studies. The first study assessed the pharmacokinetics and tolerability of single doses of marimastat of 25, 50, 100, 200, 400 and 800 mg. In the second study, continuous dosing over 6.5 days with three incremental dose levels of 50, 100 and 200 mg twice daily was assessed. Full pharmacokinetic profiles were obtained on days 0 and 6, and trough concentrations were measured on all days. For each pharmacokinetic profile in the studies, summary measures including Cmax, tmax, elimination half-life and AUC were calculated. Urinary drug weights were also measured. All adverse events were documented, and haematological and biochemical variables, vital signs and ECGs were monitored throughout the study. Results Peak plasma concentrations were observed at 1.5–3 h for all subjects at all doses. Peak levels were approximately proportional to dose, as was drug exposure as calculated by AUC. Data from both studies indicate that the terminal elimination half-life is of the order of 8–10 h, and that there is no unexpected drug accumulation. Marimastat was well-tolerated, with adverse effects being mild and occurring with similar frequency to placebo. Small but reversible elevations in liver transaminases were noted with repeat dosing of marimastat, the most significant of these occurring at a dose of 200 mg twice daily. Conclusion Single and repeat oral doses of marimastat in healthy male subjects appear to be well-tolerated. The drug is rapidly absorbed with high peak levels achieved. It has a terminal elimination half-life of 8–10 h which would support twice daily dosing in further clinical trials. PMID:9489589

  16. Prevalence of probable Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms: result from a Spanish sample of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrillo-Urbina, Alberto José; García-Hermoso, Antonio; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente; Pardo-Guijarro, María Jesús; Ruiz-Hermosa, Abel; Sánchez-López, Mairena

    2018-03-15

    The aims of our study were to: (i) determine the prevalence of children aged 4 to 6 years with probable Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms in the Spanish population; and (ii) analyse the association of probable ADHD symptoms with sex, age, type of school, origin (native or foreign) and socio-economic status in these children. This cross-sectional study included 1189 children (4 to 6 years-old) from 21 primary schools in 19 towns from the Ciudad Real and Cuenca provinces, Castilla-La Mancha region, Spain. The ADHD Rating Scales IV for parents and teachers was administered to determine the probability of ADHD. The 90th percentile cut-off was used to establish the prevalence of inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity and combined subtype. The prevalence of children with probable ADHD symptoms was 5.4% (2.6% inattention subtype symptoms, 1.5% hyperactivity/impulsivity subtype symptoms, and 1.3% combined subtype symptoms). Children aged 4 to 5 years showed a higher prevalence of probable ADHD in the inattention subtype symptoms and in total of all subtypes than children aged 6 years, and children with low socio-economic status reported a higher prevalence of probable ADHD symptoms (each subtype and total of all of them) than those with medium and high socio-economic status. Early diagnosis and an understanding of the predictors of being probable ADHD are needed to direct appropriate identification and intervention efforts. These screening efforts should be especially addressed to vulnerable groups, particularly low socio-economic status families and younger children.

  17. Prevalence and awareness of diabetes mellitus among a rural population in China: results from Liaoning Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X; Guan, H; Zheng, L; Li, Z; Guo, X; Yang, H; Yu, S; Sun, G; Li, W; Hu, W; Guo, L; Pan, G; Xing, L; Zhang, Y; Sun, Y

    2015-03-01

    To clarify the diabetes prevalence trends among the rural population in northern China. All eligible permanent residents aged ≥ 35 years in selected rural villages of Liaoning province were invited to participate in the study. A total of 11 600 people completed all questionnaires and were included in the study. The response rate was 85.3%. Fasting plasma glucose levels were measured after at least 12 h of fasting and diabetes was diagnosed according to WHO criteria, i.e. fasting plasma glucose ≥ 7 mmol/l and/or being on treatment for diabetes. Impaired fasting glucose was defined according to the 1997 and the 2010 American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria (6.1-6.9 and 5.6-6.9 mmol/l, respectively). Previous diagnoses of diabetes were assessed on the basis of self-reports. The prevalence of diabetes among adults in the rural population was 10.6% (10.0% in men and 11.1% in women). The prevalence of impaired fasting glucose was 13.0 and 36.1% according to the 1997 and the 2010 ADA criteria, respectively. The prevalence of previously diagnosed diabetes was 4.3% among the whole population (3.3% in men and 5.1% in women). The prevalence of previously diagnosed diabetes was 34.8% in men and 50.2% in women. Only 29.6% of men and 42% of women with diabetes had taken oral hypoglycaemic agents or insulin to lower their blood sugar. In multivariate analysis, age, drinking habits, BMI, dyslipidaemia and family history of diabetes were identified as independent risk factors for diabetes, and occupational physical activity, smoking and lean meat intake were identified as independent protective factors for diabetes. The prevalence of diabetes and impaired fasting glucose were found to be high in this rural population. Although the rate of treatment of people with diabetes has increased, the glycaemic control rate was still at a low level. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2014 Diabetes UK.

  18. Prevalence and Correlates of Internet Gaming Problem among Internet Users: Results from an Internet Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Mythily; Chua, Boon Yiang; Abdin, Edimansyah; Pang, Shirlene; Satghare, Pratika; Vaingankar, Janhavi A; Verma, Swapna; Ong, Say How; Picco, Louisa; Chong, Siow Ann

    2016-05-01

    The current study aimed to establish the prevalence of internet gaming disorder (IGD) and its association with demographic characteristics, game genre, game use (time spent on gaming), as well as psychological distress, social phobia and well-being among current online gamers in Singapore. A total of 1251 participants aged 13 to 40 years completed the study which was administered as a web survey. The online questionnaire was designed using QuestionPro, and consisted of 8 sections and 105 questions. The 9-item Internet Gaming Disorder Questionnaire was used to establish the prevalence of IGD in the study. A series of logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between IGD, demographic characteristics and game genre, as well as IGD and psychological distress, social phobia and well-being. The prevalence of IGD established using a cutoff of 5 among those who were current online gamers was 17.7%. Multiple logistic regressions revealed that those meeting criteria of IGD were more likely to be older, reported an earlier age of onset of playing online games, had primary and secondary education versus tertiary education, were currently students versus being currently employed and played massively multiplayer online role-playing games. Distress and social anxiety were higher while satisfaction with life was significantly lower among those who met criteria for IGD than those who did not meet the criteria. The prevalence of IGD and its negative consequences in our sample of current online gamers was significant and point towards the need for further clinical studies and innovative interventions to address the problem.

  19. Prevalence and Cardiovascular Associations of Diabetic Retinopathy and Maculopathy: Results from the Gutenberg Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raum, Philipp; Lamparter, Julia; Ponto, Katharina A; Peto, Tunde; Hoehn, René; Schulz, Andreas; Schneider, Astrid; Wild, Philipp S; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Mirshahi, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of blindness in people of working age. The purpose of this paper is to report the prevalence and cardiovascular associations of diabetic retinopathy and maculopathy (DMac) in Germany. The Gutenberg Health Study (GHS) is a population-based study with 15,010 participants aged between 35 at 74 years from the city of Mainz and the district of Mainz-Bingen. We determined the weighted prevalence of DR and DMac by assessing fundus photographs of persons with diabetes from the GHS data base. Diabetes was defined as HbA1c ≥ 6.5%, known diagnosis diabetes mellitus or known diabetes medication. Furthermore, we analysed the association between DR and cardiovascular risk factors and diseases. Overall, 7.5% (1,124/15,010) of the GHS cohort had diabetes. Of these, 27.7% were unaware of their disease and thus were newly diagnosed by their participation in the GHS. The prevalence of DR and DMac was 21.7% and 2.3%, respectively among patients with diabetes. Vision-threatening disease was present in 5% of the diabetic cohort. In the multivariable analysis DR (all types) was associated with age (Odds Ratio [95% confidence interval]: 0.97 [0.955-0.992]; p = 0.006) arterial hypertension (1.90 [1.190-3.044]; p = 0.0072) and vision-threatening DR with obesity (3.29 [1.504-7.206]; p = 0.0029). DR (all stages) and vision-threatening DR were associated with duration of diabetes (1.09 [1.068-1.114]; pdiabetic retinal disease in Germany [corrected].Prevalence of DR was lower in the GHS compared to East-Asian studies. Associations were found with age, arterial hypertension, obesity, and duration of diabetes mellitus.

  20. Prevalence and development of workplace health promotion in Germany: results of the IAB Establishment Panel 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollederer, Alfons; Wießner, Frank

    2015-10-01

    Based on survey data from the IAB Establishment Panel, the investigation aims to examine the prevalence of workplace health promotion among German establishments and its determinants. The IAB Establishment Panel 2012 comprises interviews with 15,556 establishments of all sizes and industrial sectors in Germany. We first present some descriptive statistics and then analyse the determinants of the prevalence of workplace health promotion by means of a probit regression. In 2012, 27 % of the interviewed establishments reported providing workplace health promotion measures on a voluntary basis. 64 % of all employees do work in establishments with workplace health promotion. From 2002 to 2012, the share of establishments with workplace health promotion increased by 8 % points. The strongest increase was observed in establishments in Western Germany and establishments with work councils. Most popular among the measures of workplace health promotion are employee surveys and analysis of the sickness absence. The vast majority of establishments provide only single measures. The econometric analysis shows that industrial sector, size of establishment, expected problems with human resources and the existence of a work council are important factors for workplace health promotion. Only a minority of establishments are committed to workplace health promotion, while these establishments provide the majority of jobs in Germany. Our analysis displays considerable disparities in terms of prevalence as well as potential for further extensions. This could be taken more into account when discussing innovative approaches of workplace health promotion.

  1. Behavioural addictions in adolescents and young adults: results from a prevalence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villella, Corrado; Martinotti, Giovanni; Di Nicola, Marco; Cassano, Maria; La Torre, Giuseppe; Gliubizzi, Maria Daniela; Messeri, Immacolata; Petruccelli, Filippo; Bria, Pietro; Janiri, Luigi; Conte, Gianluigi

    2011-06-01

    Our study aims to assess the prevalence of behavioural addictions in an adolescent population, evaluating the effects of gender and age, and to assess the correlations among different behavioural addictions. 2853 high school students were assessed in order to evaluate the prevalence of behavioural addictions such as Pathological Gambling (PG), Compulsive Buying (CB), Exercise Addiction (EA), Internet Addiction (IA), and Work Addiction (WA), in a population of Italian adolescents. The South Oaks Gambling Screen-Revised Adolescent (SOGS-RA), the Compulsive Buying Scale (CBS), the Exercise Addiction Inventory (EAI), the Internet Addiction Test (IAT), and the Work Addiction Risk Test (WART), were compiled anonymously by the students. Overall prevalence was 7.0% for PG, 11.3% for CB, 1.2% for IA, 7.6% for WA, 8.5% for EA. PG and EA were more common among boys, while gender had no effect on the other conditions. CB was more common among younger (addictive behaviours is in line with the hypothesis of a common psychopathological dimension underlying these phenomena. Further studies are needed to assess personality traits and other clinical disorders associated with these problems behaviours.

  2. Variation of brine compositions resulting from flow from matrix or fracture permeability, investigated by high pressure laboratory experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poszwa, A. C.; Coleman, M. L.; Pouya, A.; Ader, M.; Bounenni, A.

    2003-04-01

    Planning oil production from a chalk reservoir oilfield is difficult because the matrix usually has low permeability despite its high porosity. Most oil is thought to come from fracture porosity but the matrix contribution should increase as compaction occurs during production. To better understand the respective contributions from matrix and fracture, we studied the geochemical characteristics of fluids using high-pressure brine flow experiments on chalk cores. During the experiment axial load was changed relative to confining pressure to induce fractures and to close them again. We used chlorine stable isotope variations to study fluid pathway, because chlorine is a chemically conservative element in sedimentary systems and its isotopes fractionate only with physical processes like diffusion or adsorption that could occur mainly in the chalk matrix. A first experiment was performed on a very porous chalk from Henley (on-shore UK) and using a low-salinity brine. Large variations of brine Cl isotope composition were observed (from -0.56 to +0.08 per mil). The variations were correlated positively with the brine flux through the chalk and the permeability of the rock, both parameters controlled by the rock fracturing. A second experiment used brine with salinity similar to that of seawater. In this case, chemical and isotopic variations were not significant. From the beginning, the chalk structure seems to have been destroyed very quickly (induced fracture porosity collapsed) possibly because of the fluid nature, so that whatever pressure was applied, the permeability did not change significantly. Using Valhall reservoir chalk (offshore Norwegian North Sea) and fluid half the salinity of seawater in a third experiment, we obtained a large range of permeabilities. Brine isotopic trends were very similar on average to those of the first experiment even though variations were smaller (Cl isotopes from -0.09 to +0.29 per mil) and not significantly correlated simply to

  3. Rock specific hydraulic fracturing and matrix acidizing to enhance a geothermal system — Concepts and field results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Günter; Blöcher, Guido; Reinicke, Andreas; Brandt, Wulf

    2011-04-01

    Enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) are engineered reservoirs developed to extract economic amounts of heat from low permeability and/or porosity geothermal resources. To enhance the productivity of reservoirs, a site specific concept is necessary to actively make reservoir conditions profitable using specially adjusted stimulation treatments, such as multi fracture concepts and site specific well path design. The results of previously performed stimulation treatments in the geothermal research well GtGrSk4/05 at Groß Schönebeck, Germany are presented. The reservoir is located at a 4100-4300 m depth within the Lower Permian of the NE German Basin with a bottom-hole temperature of 150 °C. The reservoir rock is classified by two lithological units from bottom to top: volcanic rocks (andesitic rocks) and siliciclastics ranging from conglomerates to fine-grained sandstones (fluvial sediments). The stimulation treatments included multiple hydraulic stimulations and an acid treatment. In order to initiate a cross-flow from the sandstone layer, the hydraulic stimulations were performed in different depth sections (two in the sandstone section and one in the underlying volcanic section). In low permeability volcanic rocks, a cyclic hydraulic fracturing treatment was performed over 6 days in conjunction with adding quartz in low concentrations to maintain a sustainable fracture performance. Flow rates of up to 150 l/s were realized, and a total of 13,170 m 3 of water was injected. A hydraulic connection to the sandstone layer was successfully achieved in this way. However, monitoring of the water level in the offsetting well EGrSk3/90, which is 475 m apart at the final depth, showed a very rapid water level increase due to the stimulation treatment. This can be explained by a connected fault zone within the volcanic rocks. Two gel-proppant treatments were performed in the slightly higher permeability sandstones to obtain long-term access to the reservoir rocks. During each

  4. Prevalence of wine intolerance: results of a survey from Mainz, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigand, Petra; Blettner, Maria; Saloga, Joachim; Decker, Heinz

    2012-06-01

    Wine is an ancient food product, ubiquitous across cultures all over the world. Its effects on health have been extensively studied, yet there have been only a few case reports of wine intolerance or wine allergy. We studied the prevalence of self-reported wine intolerance in the adult population of Mainz, Germany. In 2010, a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence of wine intolerance among adults in Mainz, a city in the wine-cultivating area of Rhine-Hesse. 4000 persons randomly chosen from population lists were asked to fill out a questionnaire about their alcohol intake and the occurrence of various intolerance reactions and allergy-like symptoms after drinking wine. Of the 4000 who received the questionnaire, 948 (23.7%) filled it out and returned it to us. 68 (7.2% of respondents) reported intolerance to wine and/or allergy-like symptoms after drinking wine. Self-reported wine intolerance was more prevalent in women than in men (8.9% vs. 5.2%, p = 0.026). Wine-intolerant persons also more commonly reported intolerance to beer and alcohol in general. Allergy-like symptoms were more common after the consumption of red wine. The most commonly reported reactions to wine were cutaneous flushing, itch, and nasal congestion. Wine intolerance was found to be more common than expected. The data reported here are less suggestive of an immunologically mediated allergy than of intolerance to alcohol, biogenic amines, or other ingredients of wine.

  5. Prevalence of dementia-associated disability among Chinese older adults: results from a national sample survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Zhang, Lei; Du, Wei; Pang, Lihua; Guo, Chao; Chen, Gong; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2015-03-01

    Due to rapid population aging and a tidal wave of dementia, dementia has become an urgent public health issue in China. Few large-scale surveys on dementia have been conducted in China and little was known about the magnitude of dysfunction and disability caused by dementia. In this study, using national sample survey data, we aimed to describe the prevalence rate of dementia-associated disability, its associated factors, and daily activities and social functions of people with dementia-associated disability in Chinese older adults. We used the second China National Sample Survey on Disability, comprising 2,526,145 persons from 771,797 households. Identification for dementia was based on consensus manuals. Standard weighting procedures were used to construct sample weights considering the multistage stratified cluster sampling survey scheme. Population weighted numbers, weighted prevalence, and the odd ratios (ORs) were calculated. The prevalence rate of dementia-associated disability was 4.64% (95% CI: 4.26-5.01) and it accounted for 41.03% of mental disability among Chinese older adults. Urban residence (OR: 1.33 [1.12-1.57]), older age (80+ years) (OR: 4.12 [3.38-.03]), illiteracy (OR: 1.79 [1.27-2.53]), and currently not married (OR: 1.15 [1.00-1.32]) were associated with increased risk of dementia-associated disability. Compared with those with mental disability of other causes and those with other types of disabilities, older adults with dementia-asscoiated disability were more likely to have severe or extreme difficulty in daily activities and social functions. Countermeasures are warranted to obtain a more precise overview of dementia in China, and strategies on enhancing early identification, treatment, and rehabilitation should be developed for people with dementia. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Prevalence of alcohol and other psychoactive substances in drivers in general traffic. Part I: General results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houwing, Sjoerd; Hagenzieker, Marjan; Mathijssen, René

    2011-01-01

    DRUID (Driving under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol and Medicines) aimed to combat the problem of driving under the influence of psychoactive substances by providing a solid scientific base for European policy makers. It brought together experienced organisations in Europe to assemble...... of offenders and withdrawal of driving licenses (www.druid-project.eu). The main objective of WP2 of DRUID was to assess the situation in Europe regarding the prevalence and risk of the use of illicit drugs, alcohol and psychoactive medicinal drugs by drivers. The main aim of this study was to obtain more...

  7. Prevalence and Cardiovascular Associations of Diabetic Retinopathy and Maculopathy: Results from the Gutenberg Health Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Raum

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy (DR is the leading cause of blindness in people of working age. The purpose of this paper is to report the prevalence and cardiovascular associations of diabetic retinopathy and maculopathy (DMac in Germany.The Gutenberg Health Study (GHS is a population-based study with 15,010 participants aged between 35 at 74 years from the city of Mainz and the district of Mainz-Bingen. We determined the weighted prevalence of DR and DMac by assessing fundus photographs of persons with diabetes from the GHS data base. Diabetes was defined as HbA1c ≥ 6.5%, known diagnosis diabetes mellitus or known diabetes medication. Furthermore, we analysed the association between DR and cardiovascular risk factors and diseases.Overall, 7.5% (1,124/15,010 of the GHS cohort had diabetes. Of these, 27.7% were unaware of their disease and thus were newly diagnosed by their participation in the GHS. The prevalence of DR and DMac was 21.7% and 2.3%, respectively among patients with diabetes. Vision-threatening disease was present in 5% of the diabetic cohort. In the multivariable analysis DR (all types was associated with age (Odds Ratio [95% confidence interval]: 0.97 [0.955-0.992]; p = 0.006 arterial hypertension (1.90 [1.190-3.044]; p = 0.0072 and vision-threatening DR with obesity (3.29 [1.504-7.206]; p = 0.0029. DR (all stages and vision-threatening DR were associated with duration of diabetes (1.09 [1.068-1.114]; p<0.0001 and 1.18 [1.137-1.222]; p<0.0001, respectively.Our calculations suggest that approximately 142 000 persons aged between 35 and 74 years have vision threatening diabetic retinal disease in Germany [corrected].Prevalence of DR was lower in the GHS compared to East-Asian studies. Associations were found with age, arterial hypertension, obesity, and duration of diabetes mellitus.

  8. Ethnic differences in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome: results from a multi-ethnic population-based survey in Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Rampal

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increasing disproportionately among the different ethnicities in Asia compared to the rest of the world. This study aims to determine the differences in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome across ethnicities in Malaysia, a multi-ethnic country. METHODS: In 2004, we conducted a national cross-sectional population-based study using a stratified two-stage cluster sampling design (N = 17,211. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute/American Heart Association (IDF/NHLBI/AHA-2009 criteria. Multivariate models were used to study the independent association between ethnicity and the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome. RESULTS: The overall mean age was 36.9 years, and 50.0% participants were female. The ethnic distribution was 57.0% Malay, 28.5% Chinese, 8.9% Indian and 5.0% Indigenous Sarawakians. The overall prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 27.5%, with a prevalence of central obesity, raised triglycerides, low high density lipoprotein cholesterol, raised blood pressure and raised fasting glucose of 36.9%, 29.3%, 37.2%, 38.0% and 29.1%, respectively. Among those <40 years, the adjusted prevalence ratios for metabolic syndrome for ethnic Chinese, Indians, and Indigenous Sarawakians compared to ethnic Malay were 0.81 (95% CI 0.67 to 0.96, 1.42 (95% CI 1.19 to 1.69 and 1.37 (95% CI 1.08 to 1.73, respectively. Among those aged ≥40 years, the corresponding prevalence ratios were 0.86 (95% CI 0.79 to 0.92, 1.25 (95% CI 1.15 to 1.36, and 0.94 (95% CI 0.80, 1.11. The P-value for the interaction of ethnicity by age was 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Malaysia was high, with marked differences across ethnicities. Ethnic Chinese had the lowest prevalence of metabolic syndrome, while ethnic Indians had the highest. Indigenous Sarawakians showed a marked increase in metabolic

  9. Preliminary systems-interaction results from the Digraph Matrix Analysis of the Watts Bar Nuclear Power Plant safety-injection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacks, I.J.; Ashmore, B.C.; Champney, J.M.; Alesso, H.P.

    1983-06-01

    This report provides preliminary results generated by a Digraph Matrix Analysis (DMA) for a Systems Interaction analysis performed on the Safety Injection System of the Tennessee Valley Authority Watts Bar Nuclear Power Plant. An overview of DMA is provided along with a brief description of the computer codes used in DMA

  10. Medication errors in pediatric inpatients: prevalence and results of a prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Paula; Leyton, Andrea; Mariani, Gonzalo; Ceriani Cernadas, José María

    2008-09-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and characteristics of medication errors in pediatric and neonatal inpatients and to measure the impact of interventions to reduce medication errors. A preintervention and postintervention cross-sectional study was conducted of a sample of prescriptions that were ordered by physicians and medications that were administered by nurses to patients at the NICU, PICU, and general pediatric settings at the Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires Department of Pediatrics in 2002 and 2004. Number and type of errors, time shift on which they occurred, and whether they had any kind of adverse event on the patient were recorded. Medication errors were stratified according to physicians' and nurses' status. Several interventions, including incorporating a positive safety culture without a punitive management of errors and specific prescribing and drug-administration recommendations were implemented between the 2 phases of the study. A total of 590 prescriptions and 1174 drug administrations for 95 patients in the first phase of the study and 1144 prescriptions with 1588 drug administrations for 92 patients in the second phase were evaluated. The prevalence of medication error rate in the second phase was 7.3% (199 of 2732) and 11.4% (201 of 1764) in the first phase. The risk difference was -4.1%. The development of a program mainly centered on the promotion of a cultural change in the approach to medical errors can effectively diminish medication errors in neonates and children.

  11. Prevalence of Multifocal Primary Hyperhidrosis and Symptom Severity Over Time: Results of a Targeted Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Dee Anna; Ballard, Angela M; Hunt, Niquette L; Pieretti, Lisa J; Pariser, David M

    2016-12-01

    There is a paucity of data on the prevalence of multifocal primary hyperhidrosis and changes in hyperhidrosis severity over time. The goal of this study was to better understand multifocal primary hyperhidrosis, prevalence and distribution of hyperhidrosis by focal site, age of onset of symptoms by focal area, and change in hyperhidrosis severity over time and with seasons. The International Hyperhidrosis Society, through an unrestricted research grant from Revance Therapeutics, conducted an online survey of registered visitors to its Web site. Participants identified as having "excessive sweating" and opted to participate in the survey (23 questions) after an e-mail invitation. The survey data illustrate that multifocal primary hyperhidrosis is more common than previously believed and that multifocal hyperhidrosis is more common than singular focal hyperhidrosis (81% of patients reported 3 or more focal hyperhidrotic sites). The data also show that sweating symptom severity does not improve with age but stays the same or gets worse and is "bothersome" throughout the year. Recognition of the chronic and multifocal nature of primary hyperhidrosis is useful for treating hyperhidrosis patients long term and illustrates a need for treatments or treatment combinations that are effective for multiple body areas.

  12. Prevalence and Progression of Osteoporosis in Patients With COPD. Results From TORCH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferguson, Gary T; Calverley, Peter M A; Anderson, Julie A

    2009-01-01

    -term effects of fluticasone propionate (FP) alone, salmeterol (SAL) alone, and their combination (SFC) on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone fractures in moderate-severe COPD patients in the TORCH study. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled study conducted at 88 United...... States centers involving 658 patients (a sub-set of 6184 international subjects in TORCH). Placebo, SAL 50 mug, FP 500 mug or SFC 50/500 mug twice daily were given for 3 years. Baseline and yearly BMD at the hip and lumbar spine were performed. Incidence of traumatic and nontraumatic bone fractures...... and similar for all treatments (5.1-6.3%). CONCLUSIONS: Osteoporosis is highly prevalent in patients with COPD, irrespective of gender. In the TORCH study, no significant effect on BMD was detected for inhaled corticosteroid therapy compared with placebo....

  13. Sociodemographic Moderators of Environment-Physical Activity Associations: Results From the International Prevalence Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Lilian G; Conway, Terry L; Bauman, Adrian; Kerr, Jacqueline; Elder, John P; Arredondo, Elva M; Sallis, James F

    2018-01-01

    Associations between the built environment and physical activity (PA) may vary by sociodemographic factors. However, such evidence from international studies is limited. This study tested the moderating effects of sociodemographic factors on associations between perceived environment and self-reported total PA among adults from the International Prevalence Study. Between 2002 and 2003, adults from 9 countries (N = 10,258) completed surveys assessing total PA (International Physical Activity Questionnaire-short), perceived environment, and sociodemographics (age, gender, and education). Total PA was dichotomized as meeting/not meeting (a) high PA levels and (b) minimum PA guidelines. Logistic models tested environment by sociodemographic interactions (24 total). Education and gender moderated the association between safety from crime and meeting high PA levels (interaction P environment-PA associations. International efforts to improve built environments are needed to promote health-enhancing PA and maintain environmental sustainability.

  14. Prevalence and determinants of metabolic syndrome in Qatar: results from a National Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Thani, Mohamed Hamad; Al-Thani, Al Anoud Mohammed; Cheema, Sohaila; Sheikh, Javaid; Mamtani, Ravinder; Lowenfels, Albert B; Al-Chetachi, Walaa Fattah; Almalki, Badria Ali; Hassan Khalifa, Shamseldin Ali; Haj Bakri, Ahmad Omar; Maisonneuve, Patrick

    2016-09-06

    To determine optimum measurements for abdominal obesity and to assess the prevalence and determinants of metabolic syndrome in Qatar. National health survey. Qatar National STEPwise Survey conducted by the Supreme Council of Health during 2012. 2496 Qatari citizens aged 18-64 representative of the general population. Measure of obesity (body mass index, waist circumference or waist-to-height ratio) that best identified the presence of at least 2 other factors of metabolic syndrome; cut-off values of waist circumference; frequency of metabolic syndrome. Waist circumference ≥102 for men and ≥94 cm for women was the best predictor of the presence of other determinants of metabolic syndrome (raised blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol). Using these values, we identified 28% of Qataris with metabolic syndrome, which is considerably lower than the estimate of 37% calculated using the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Restricting the analysis to participants without known elevated blood pressure, elevated blood sugar or diabetes 16.5% would be classified as having metabolic syndrome. In a multivariable logistic regression analysis, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome increased steadily with age (OR=3.40 (95% CI 2.02 to 5.74), OR=5.66 (3.65 to 8.78), OR=10.2 (5.98 to 17.6) and OR=18.2 (7.01 to 47.5) for those in the age group '30-39', '40-49', '50-59', '60-64' vs '18-29'; pdefinition of metabolic syndrome in Qatar. Approximately 28% of adult Qatari citizens satisfy the criteria for metabolic syndrome, which increased significantly with age. Education and physical activity were inversely associated with this syndrome. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. Intraoperative floppy iris and prevalence of intraoperative complications: results from ophthalmic surgery outcomes database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollman, David E; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Luis A; Chomsky, Amy; Daly, Mary K; Baze, Elizabeth; Lawrence, Mary

    2014-06-01

    To estimate the prevalence of untoward events during cataract surgery with the use of pupillary expansion devices and intraoperative floppy iris (IFIS). Retrospective analysis of 4923 cataract surgery cases from the Veterans Affairs Ophthalmic Surgical Outcomes Data Project. Outcomes from 5 Veterans Affairs medical centers were analyzed, including use of alpha-blockers (both selective and nonselective), IFIS, intraoperative iris trauma, intraoperative iris prolapse, posterior capsular tear, anterior capsule tear, intraoperative vitreous prolapse, and use of pupillary expansion devices. P values were calculated using the χ(2) test. A total of 1254 patients (25.5%) took alpha-blockers preoperatively (selective, 587; nonselective, 627; both, 40). Of these 1254 patients, 428 patients (34.1%) had documented IFIS. However, 75.2% of patients with IFIS (428/569) had taken alpha-blockers preoperatively (P < .00001). A total of 430 patients (8.7%) had a pupillary expansion device used during their cataract surgery, of which 186 patients (43.4%) had IFIS (P < .0001). Eighty-six patients with IFIS had at least 1 intraoperative complication and 39 patients with IFIS had more than 1 intraoperative complication (P < .001). The use of either selective or nonselective alpha-antagonists preoperatively demonstrated a significant risk of IFIS. Nonselective alpha-antagonists caused IFIS at a higher prevalence than previously reported. This study did demonstrate statistically significant increased odds of surgical complications in patients with IFIS vs those without IFIS in all groups (those taking selective and nonselective alpha-antagonists and also those not taking medications). Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Tuberculosis and pregnancy--Results of a study in a high prevalence area in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Anjali; Mahadevan, Neila; Girling, Joanna

    2006-05-01

    The aim of the study was to characterise the incidence, type and presentation of tuberculosis in pregnancy over a 5-year period in women booked for antenatal care in a District General Hospital located in a high prevalence area in London. We also aimed to identify any problems and difficulties in the diagnosis and management of tuberculosis associated with pregnancy. Retrospective review of computer records and hospital notes over a period of 5 years from January 1997 to December 2001. Demographic and clinical data were collected for all the cases identified. All women with tuberculosis who conceived on antituberculous treatment, or had onset of symptoms or diagnosis made in pregnancy or the immediate postpartum period (6 weeks), and booked for antenatal care at a District General Hospital located in an area of high prevalence for tuberculosis (52.2 per 100,000 population in Ealing, Hammersmith and Hounslow Health authority according to the National Tuberculosis Survey of England and Wales in 1998). Thirty-two women were identified over the 5-year period, giving an incidence of 252/100,000 deliveries. The number of cases increased from 3 in 1997 to 10 in each of 2000 and 2001. All of these women were from ethnic minorities and 88% of them were immigrants with the median interval from arrival in UK being 2 years. Fifty-three percent were diagnosed with extrapulmonary tuberculosis, 38% with pulmonary tuberculosis and 9% had both. The median duration of symptoms prior to presentation was 31 days (being longer in women with extrapulmonary tuberculosis); the longest was 10 years. The median interval from presentation of symptoms to diagnosis was 32 days and the majority of women started treatment immediately. The commonest reason for a delay in diagnosis was late presentation (52%), followed by non-specific symptoms (in 38%). There was a trend towards late presentation among recent immigrants (odds ratio 2.14, 95% confidence interval 0.44-10.53) and those having

  17. Prevalence of HIV-1 infection in Zanzibar: results from a national HIV-1 serosurvey 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnyika, Kagoma S; Makwaya, Cyprian K; Lyamuya, Elgeus F; Nyamuryekung'e, Klinton; Ndyetabura, Felix E; Dahoma, Mohamed U J; Ali, Salim; Mzee, S

    2012-09-01

    To determine the prevalence of HIV-1 infection in Pemba and Zanzibar islands We used an interviewer-administered questionnaire that consisted of pre-coded and open-ended questions consisting of 29 items. The questionnaire was developed in English and translated into Swahili language before use. The questionnaire was pilot tested and modified before use. A total of 30 Shehias were randomly selected for the survey out of a total of 248 Shehias. A Shehia is the smallest government administrative unit in Pemba and Zanzibar that consists of two to three villages. The study sample was obtained through cluster random sampling of 76 households from each Shehia. Informed consent was sought from the Head of household and from each potential eligible participant. Eligibililty criteria included all persons aged 12 years and above who slept overnight in the selected household at the time of the study. Exclusion criteria included non-residents of Zanzibar and Pemba such as tourists, Informed consent from persons below the age of 18 years were witnessed and ratified by their parents, guardians, caretakers or neighbours. All consenting participants were included in the study sample. Blood sports were collected using filters and tested for HIV-1 using ELISA test at the Zanzibar Reference Laboratory. Samples found positive for ELISA were subjected to a 2nd ELISA test. The total number of persons who participated in the survey was 5852 out of 5868 eligible persons giving the overall response rate of 99.7%. Of the 5852 persons who participated in the survey, 41% (N = 2414) were males and 59% N = 3455) were females. The overall mean age of the study population was 30.4 years with age ranging from 12-65 years. The overall prevalence of HIV-1 infection was 0.6% with more women being significantly affected than men (0.9% versus 0.2%; adjusted OR = 2.88, 95% CI = 1.16-7.12). Of the 5852 persons who participated in the survey, 5.7% admitted having had casual partner in the past 6 months and

  18. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 ablation in dystrophin-deficient mdx muscles reduces angiogenesis resulting in impaired growth of regenerated muscle fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Daigo; Nakamura, Akinori; Fukushima, Kazuhiro; Yoshida, Kunihiro; Takeda, Shin'ichi; Ikeda, Shu-ichi

    2011-05-01

    Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) are a family of endopeptidases classified into subgroups based on substrate preference in normal physiological processes such as embryonic development and tissue remodeling, as well as in various disease processes via degradation of extracellular matrix components. Among the MMPs, MMP-9 and MMP-2 have been reported to be up-regulated in skeletal muscles in the lethal X-linked muscle disorder Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), which is caused by loss of dystrophin. A recent study showed that deletion of the MMP9 gene in mdx, a mouse model for DMD, improved skeletal muscle pathology and function; however, the role of MMP-2 in the dystrophin-deficient muscle is not well known. In this study, we aimed at verifying the role of MMP-2 in the dystrophin-deficient muscle by using mdx mice with genetic ablation of MMP-2 (mdx/MMP-2(-/-)). We found impairment of regenerated muscle fiber growth with reduction of angiogenesis in mdx/MMP-2(-/-) mice at 3 months of age. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A), an important angiogenesis-related factor, decreased in mdx/MMP-2(-/-) mice at 3 months of age. MMP-2 had not a critical role in the degradation of dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC) components such as β-dystroglycan and β-sarcoglycan in the regeneration process of the dystrophic muscle. Accordingly, MMP-2 may be essential for growth of regenerated muscle fibers through VEGF-associated angiogenesis in the dystrophin-deficient skeletal muscle.

  19. Residential proximity to major roadways and prevalent hypertension among postmenopausal women: results from the Women's Health Initiative San Diego Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirwa, Kipruto; Eliot, Melissa N; Wang, Yi; Adams, Marc A; Morgan, Cindy G; Kerr, Jacqueline; Norman, Gregory J; Eaton, Charles B; Allison, Matthew A; Wellenius, Gregory A

    2014-10-01

    Living near major roadways has been linked with increased risk of cardiovascular events and worse prognosis. Residential proximity to major roadways may also be associated with increased risk of hypertension, but few studies have evaluated this hypothesis. We examined the cross-sectional association between residential proximity to major roadways and prevalent hypertension among 5401 postmenopausal women enrolled into the San Diego cohort of the Women's Health Initiative. We used modified Poisson regression with robust error variance to estimate the association between prevalence of hypertension and residential distance to nearest major roadway, adjusting for participant demographics, medical history, indicators of individual and neighborhood socioeconomic status, and for local supermarket/grocery and fast food/convenience store density. The adjusted prevalence ratios for hypertension were 1.22 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.39), 1.13 (1.00, 1.27), and 1.05 (0.99, 1.12) for women living ≤100, >100 to 200, and >200 to 1000 versus >1000 m from a major roadway (P for trend=0.006). In a model treating the natural log of distance to major roadway as a continuous variable, a shift in distance from 1000 to 100 m from a major roadway was associated with a 9% (3%, 16%) higher prevalence of hypertension. In this cohort of postmenopausal women, residential proximity to major roadways was positively associated with the prevalence of hypertension. If causal, these results suggest that living close to major roadways may be an important novel risk factor for hypertension. © 2014 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  20. Matrix inequalities

    CERN Document Server

    Zhan, Xingzhi

    2002-01-01

    The main purpose of this monograph is to report on recent developments in the field of matrix inequalities, with emphasis on useful techniques and ingenious ideas. Among other results this book contains the affirmative solutions of eight conjectures. Many theorems unify or sharpen previous inequalities. The author's aim is to streamline the ideas in the literature. The book can be read by research workers, graduate students and advanced undergraduates.

  1. Preliminary Results of a Consecutive Series of Large & Massive Rotator Cuff Tears Treated with Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repairs Augmented with Extracellular Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Consigliere

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recurrence rate of rotator cuff tears is still high despite the improvements of surgical techniques, materials used and a better knowledge of the healing process of the rotator cuff tendons. Large to massive rotator cuff tears are particularly associated with a high failure rate, especially in elderly. Augmentation of rotator cuff repairs with extracellular matrix or synthetic patches has gained popularity in recent years with the aim of reducing failure.The aim of this study was to investigate the outcome of rotator cuff repairs augmented with denatured extracellular matrix in a series of patients who underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair for large to massive tears.Methods: Ten consecutive patients, undergoing arthroscopic rotator cuff repair with extracellular matrix augment for large and massive tears, were prospectively enrolled into this single surgeon study. All repairs were performed arthroscopically with a double row technique augmented with extracellular matrix. Oxford Shoulder Score, Constant Score and pain visual analogue scale (VAS were used to monitor the shoulder function and outcome pre-operatively and at three, six and 12-month follow-up. Minimum follow up was tree months. Mean follow up was 7 months.Results: Mean Constant score improved from 53 (SD=4 pre-operatively to 75 (SD=11 at final follow up. Mean Oxford score also increased from 30 (SD=8 pre-operatively to 47 (SD=10 at the final follow up. The visual analogue scale (VAS improved from seven out of 10 (SD=2 preoperatively to 0.6 (SD=0.8 at final follow up. Additionally, there was significant improvement at three months mark in Constant score. Conclusion: Arthroscopic repair and augmentation of large and massive rotator cuff tears with extracellular matrix patch has good early outcome.

  2. Crosslinkable mixed matrix membranes with surface modified molecular sieves for natural gas purification: I. Preparation and experimental results

    KAUST Repository

    Ward, Jason K.

    2011-07-01

    Dense film mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) comprised of SSZ-13 dispersed in a crosslinkable polyimide (PDMC) were fabricated and evaluated for carbon dioxide/methane separations. MMMs containing 25% (w/w) as-received (AR) SSZ-13 exhibited a carbon dioxide permeability of 153 Barrers with a carbon dioxide/methane ideal selectivity of 34.7 at 65. psia and 35 °C. This represents a permeability enhancement of 129% and a decline in selectivity of 4.7% over neat PDMC (PCO2=66.9 Barrers, αCO2/CH4=36.4). A sieve surface modification procedure was developed with the aim of improving SSZ-13/PDMC MMM transport properties. MMMs containing 25% (w/w) surface modified (SM) SSZ-13 exhibited a carbon dioxide permeability of 148 Barrers and carbon dioxide/methane selectivity of 38.9 at 65. psia and 35 °C, representing enhancements in both permeability and selectivity of 121% and 6.9%, respectively. Mixed gas permeation analyses of MMMs containing SM-SSZ-13 using a 10% carbon dioxide/90% methane mixture shows that permeability and selectivity enhancements of 47% and 13%, respectively, over neat PDMC are possible at 700. psia and 35 °C. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  3. Headache impact of chronic and episodic migraine: results from the American Migraine Prevalence and Prevention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buse, Dawn; Manack, Aubrey; Serrano, Daniel; Reed, Michael; Varon, Sepideh; Turkel, Catherine; Lipton, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The Headache Impact Test-6 (HIT-6) has been demonstrated to be a reliable and valid measure that assesses the impact of headaches on the lives of persons with migraine. Originally used in studies of episodic migraine (EM), HIT-6 is finding increasing applications in chronic migraine (CM) research. (1) To examine the headache-impact on persons with migraine (EM and CM) using HIT-6 in a large population sample; (2) to identify predictors of headache-impact in this sample; (3) to assess the magnitude of effect for significant predictors of headache-impact in this sample. The American Migraine Prevalence and Prevention study is a longitudinal, population-based study that collected data from persons with severe headache from 2004 to 2009 through annual, mailed surveys. Respondents to the 2009 survey who met International Classification of Headache Disorders 2 criteria for migraine reported at least 1 headache in the preceding year, and completed the HIT-6 questionnaire were included in the present analysis. Persons with migraine were categorized as EM (average headache days per month) or CM (average ≥15 headache days per month). Predictors of headache-impact examined include: sociodemographics; headache days per month; a composite migraine symptom severity score (MSS); an average pain severity rating during the most recent long-duration headache; depression; and anxiety. HIT-6 scores were analyzed both as continuous sum scores and using the standard, validated categories: no impact; some impact; substantial impact; and severe impact. Group contrasts were based on descriptive statistics along with linear regression models. Multiple imputation techniques were used to manage missing data. There were 7169 eligible respondents (CM = 373, EM = 6554). HIT-6 scores were normally distributed. After converting sum HIT-6 scores to the standard categories, those with CM were significantly more likely to experience "severe" headache impact (72.9% vs 42.3%) and had higher odds of

  4. Neutral kaon mixing beyond the Standard Model with nf=2+1 chiral fermions. Part 1: bare matrix elements and physical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garron, Nicolas; Hudspith, Renwick J.; Lytle, Andrew T.

    2016-01-01

    We compute the hadronic matrix elements of the four-quark operators relevant for K 0 −K̄ 0 mixing beyond the Standard Model. Our results are from lattice QCD simulations with n f =2+1 flavours of domain-wall fermion, which exhibit continuum-like chiral-flavour symmetry. The simulations are performed at two different values of the lattice spacing (a∼0.08 and a∼0.11 fm) and with lightest unitary pion mass ∼300 MeV. For the first time, the full set of relevant four-quark operators is renormalised non-perturbatively through RI-SMOM schemes; a detailed description of the renormalisation procedure is presented in a companion paper. We argue that the intermediate renormalisation scheme is responsible for the discrepancies found by different collaborations. We also study different normalisations and determine the matrix elements of the relevant four-quark operators with a precision of ∼5% or better.

  5. Chern-Simons Theories with Fundamental Matter: A Brief Review of Large N Results Including Fermi-Bose Duality and the S-matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadia, Spenta R.

    We begin with a few words about Salam's contribution to the growth of String Theory in India. In the technical talk we review results in SU(N) Chern-Simons plus vector matter theories in 2+1 dim in the large N limit. The dressing of charged matter by Chern-Simons gauge fields leads to anyons that interpolate between fermions and bosons and lead to a duality symmetry between fermionic and bosonic theories. The S-matrix (defined in the large N limit) besides exhibiting this duality, also exhibits novel properties due to the presence of anyons. The S-matrix is not analytic, like in Aharonov-Bohm scattering, and satisfies modified crossing symmetry relations.

  6. Epidemiology of hepatitis E virus in China: results from the Third National Viral Hepatitis Prevalence Survey, 2005-2006.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyuan Jia

    Full Text Available In China, hepatitis E virus (HEV is prevalent and causes disease, but its epidemiological profile is not well understood. We used a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect total antibodies to hepatitis E virus in 15,862 serum samples collected during the Third National Viral Hepatitis Prevalence Survey. The results were analyzed to calculate estimates of HEV seroprevalence and to examine the effects of some putative risk factors. The seroprevalence of HEV in the general Chinese population during the period from 2005 through 2006 was 23.46% (95% confidence interval [CI], 18.41%-28.50%. The farming population, the age group of 15-60 year olds, and those living in the Midwest or Mideast region and in Xinjiang province had the highest seroprevalence estimates. The prevalence of HEV is high in China. The seroprevalence rate of HEV shows an unbalanced distribution among areas with different geographic location and economic development levels. The characteristics of the distribution associated may be due to the route of HEV transmission (via contaminated water or animal reservoirs. Within the same region, the seroprevalence of HEV is generally increased with age.

  7. Prevalence and determinants of disability among adults in Malaysia: results from the National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Ani Ahmad

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reliable national data on disability which is internationally comparable is needed in Malaysia. This study aims to examine the prevalence of disability among adults in Malaysia and its determinants, particularly the socioeconomic factors and comorbidities. Methods This study was based on the disability module, which is part of the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2015. This survey was implemented using a multi-stage stratified sampling design. A locally validated Washington Group questionnaire was used to collect data on disability. Results Based on the definition of having at least one domain scored "a lot of difficulty or unable to do at all" or at least “some difficulty” scored in two domains, the prevalence of disability among adults in Malaysia was 11.8% (95% CI: 11.15, 12.53. Logistic regression analysis performed showed that population at risk of having disability in Malaysia were those of older people, ethnic minority, low level of education, single, obese, physically inactive and having mental health problems. Among older people, disability was significantly higher among those with no formal education, having mental health problems and physically inactive. Conclusions The prevalence of disability among adults in Malaysia is comparable to WHO estimates and most developing countries. Planning for healthcare services should consider at-risk population, particularly older people and those from disadvantaged background to ensure equity healthcare.

  8. N-CDAD in Canada: Results of the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program 1997 N-CDAD Prevalence Surveillance Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, Meaghen; Ofner-Agostini, Marianna; Miller, Mark; Paton, Shirley; Gourdeau, Marie; Ishak, Magued

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A 1996 preproject survey among Canadian Hospital Epidemiology Committee (CHEC) sites revealed variations in the prevention, detection, management and surveillance of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD). Facilities wanted to establish national rates of nosocomially acquired CDAD (N-CDAD) to understand the impact of control or prevention measures, and the burden of N-CDAD on health care resources. The CHEC, in collaboration with the Laboratory Centre for Disease Control (Health Canada) and under the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program, undertook a prevalence surveillance project among selected hospitals throughout Canada. OBJECTIVE: To establish national prevalence rates of N-CDAD. METHODS: For six weeks in 1997, selected CHEC sites tested all diarrheal stools from inpatients for either C difficile toxin or C difficile bacteria with evidence of toxin production. Questionnaires were completed for patients with positive stool assays who met the case definitions. RESULTS: Nineteen health care facilities in eight provinces participated in the project. The overall prevalence of N-CDAD was 13.0% (95% CI 9.5% to 16.5%). The mean number of N-CDAD cases were 66.3 cases/100,000 patient days (95% CI 37.5 to 95.1) and 5.9 cases/1000 patient admissions (95% CI 3.4 to 8.4). N-CDAD was found most frequently in older patients and those who had been hospitalized for longer than two weeks in medical or surgical wards. CONCLUSIONS: This national prevalence surveillance project, which established N-CDAD rates, is useful as 'benchmark' data for Canadian health care facilities, and in understanding the patterns and impact of N-CDAD. PMID:18159321

  9. Comparison of visual field test results obtained through Humphrey matrix frequency doubling technology perimetry versus standard automated perimetry in healthy children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Kocabeyoglu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims : The aim of this study was to compare the visual field test results in healthy children obtained via the Humphrey matrix 24-2 threshold program and standard automated perimetry (SAP using the Swedish interactive threshold algorithm (SITA-Standard 24-2 test. Materials and Methods: This prospective study included 55 healthy children without ocular or systemic disorders who underwent both SAP and frequency doubling technology (FDT perimetry visual field testing. Visual field test reliability indices, test duration, global indices (mean deviation [MD], and pattern standard deviation [PSD] were compared between the 2 tests using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and paired t-test. The performance of the Humphrey field analyzer (HFA 24-2 SITA-standard and frequency-doubling technology Matrix 24-2 tests between genders were compared with Mann-Whitney U-test. Results: Fifty-five healthy children with a mean age of 12.2 ± 1.9 years (range from 8 years to 16 years were included in this prospective study. The test durations of SAP and FDT were similar (5.2 ± 0.5 and 5.1 ± 0.2 min, respectively, P = 0.651. MD and the PSD values obtained via FDT Matrix were significantly higher than those obtained via SAP (P < 0.001, and fixation losses and false negative errors were significantly less with SAP (P < 0.05. A weak positive correlation between the two tests in terms of MD (r = 0.352, P = 0.008 and PSD (r = 0.329, P = 0.014 was observed. Conclusion: Children were able to complete both the visual test algorithms successfully within 6 min. However, SAP testing appears to be associated with less depression of the visual field indices of healthy children. FDT Matrix and SAP should not be used interchangeably in the follow-up of children.

  10. Prevalence of HIV-1 infection in Zanzibar: Results from a national ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood sports were collected using filters and tested for HIV-1 using ELISA test at the Zanzibar Reference Laboratory. Samples found positive for ELISA were subjected to a 2nd ELISA test. Results: The total number of persons who participated in the survey was 5852 out of 5868 eligible persons giving the overall response ...

  11. Prevalence and Duties of Collegiate Human Sexuality Peer Helpers: Results of a National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Scott M.; Black, David R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to assess human sexuality peer helper use among college student health centers nationwide. Results from 358 institutions indicate that 53.9% of centers use peers for educational programming, prevention efforts, and/or counseling initiatives. When adjusting for institutions that sponsor a program (n = 193), the M…

  12. The prevalence of abnormal results of annual investigations among diabetic patients with different risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Faris, Eiad A.

    2000-01-01

    The basic theme of this study was to promote the use of risk approach and encourage selectively in requesting laboratory investigations. The objective was to estimate the proportion of abnormal results obtained from routinely requested annual investigations among the whole study population and the odds ratio of abnormal test results among patients with certain risk factors. A total of 459 diabetic patients aged 12 years and over, attending the primary care clinics of a university hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, were included in this study. In this cross-sectional study, analysis of associations between patient's demographic characteristics and clinical findings (independent variables), and the results of annual investigations were conducted. A multiple logistic regression analysis was carried to identify certain independent variables associated with abnormal investigations. The proportion of patients who had abnormal electrocardiogram (ECG) was 23%, chest X-ray (CXR) 26% and liver function test (LFT) 9%. High systolic blood pressure (BP) and age were found to be important determinants of abnormal ECG and CXR. Patients who had high systolic BP (>140mm Hg) were found to be 2.39 times more likely to have abnormal ECG (OR=2.39), and their odds ratio of abnormal CXR was 2.33. Furthermore, for each 10-year increment in age, there was a 43% increased likelihood of abnormal ECG and 295 increase of abnormal CXR. Smokers were nine times more likely to have abnormal LFT (OR=9.26, 95% CI=2.29 tp 37.5). The disease duration and obesity were not found to have and independent association with the possibility of having abnormal results. The study results led to some tentative suggestions on guidelines for clinicians in their decision either to request annual investigations for all diabetic patients, or to restrict some investigations to certain group of patients. This was discussed and compared with the findings from the literature and other authorities recommendations. (author)

  13. The prevalence of discrimination across racial groups in contemporary America: Results from a nationally representative sample of adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian B Boutwell

    Full Text Available A large body of social science research is devoted to understanding the causes and correlates of discrimination. Comparatively less effort has been aimed at providing a general prevalence estimate of discrimination using a nationally representative sample. The current study is intended to offer such an estimate using a large sample of American respondents (N = 14,793 while also exploring perceptions regarding why respondents felt they were discriminated against. The results provide a broad estimate of self-reported discrimination experiences-an event that was only reported by about one-quarter of all sample members-across racial and ethnic categories.

  14. Assessment of measurement result uncertainty in determination of 210Pb with the focus on matrix composition effect in gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iurian, A.R.; Pitois, A.; Kis-Benedek, G.; Migliori, A.; Padilla-Alvarez, R.; Ceccatelli, A.

    2016-01-01

    Reference materials were used to assess measurement result uncertainty in determination of 210 Pb by gamma-ray spectrometry, liquid scintillation counting, or indirectly by alpha-particle spectrometry, using its daughter 210 Po in radioactive equilibrium. Combined standard uncertainties of 210 Pb massic activities obtained by liquid scintillation counting are in the range 2–12%, depending on matrices and massic activity values. They are in the range 1–3% for the measurement of its daughter 210 Po using alpha-particle spectrometry. Three approaches (direct computation of counting efficiency and efficiency transfer approaches based on the computation and, respectively, experimental determination of the efficiency transfer factors) were applied for the evaluation of 210 Pb using gamma-ray spectrometry. Combined standard uncertainties of gamma-ray spectrometry results were found in the range 2–17%. The effect of matrix composition on self-attenuation was investigated and a detailed assessment of uncertainty components was performed. - Highlights: • Confirmed 210 Pb certified values by LSC and alpha-particle spectrometry ( 210 Po). • Assessed 210 Po measurement result uncertainty by alpha-particle spectrometry. • Matrix composition effect on gamma-ray spectrometry measurement result uncertainty. • Assessment of 210 Pb measurement result uncertainty by gamma-ray spectrometry. • Comparison of techniques and approaches: ‘fit-for-purpose’ considerations.

  15. Matrix theory

    CERN Document Server

    Franklin, Joel N

    2003-01-01

    Mathematically rigorous introduction covers vector and matrix norms, the condition-number of a matrix, positive and irreducible matrices, much more. Only elementary algebra and calculus required. Includes problem-solving exercises. 1968 edition.

  16. Human papillomavirus prevalence and type-distribution in cervical glandular neoplasias: Results from a European multinational epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holl, Katsiaryna; Nowakowski, Andrzej M; Powell, Ned; McCluggage, W Glenn; Pirog, Edyta C; Collas De Souza, Sabrina; Tjalma, Wiebren A; Rosenlund, Mats; Fiander, Alison; Castro Sánchez, Maria; Damaskou, Vasileia; Joura, Elmar A; Kirschner, Benny; Koiss, Robert; O'Leary, John; Quint, Wim; Reich, Olaf; Torné, Aureli; Wells, Michael; Rob, Lukas; Kolomiets, Larisa; Molijn, Anco; Savicheva, Alevtina; Shipitsyna, Elena; Rosillon, Dominique; Jenkins, David

    2015-12-15

    Cervical glandular neoplasias (CGN) present a challenge for cervical cancer prevention due to their complex histopathology and difficulties in detecting preinvasive stages with current screening practices. Reports of human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and type-distribution in CGN vary, providing uncertain evidence to support prophylactic vaccination and HPV screening. This study [108288/108290] assessed HPV prevalence and type-distribution in women diagnosed with cervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS, N = 49), adenosquamous carcinoma (ASC, N = 104), and various adenocarcinoma subtypes (ADC, N = 461) from 17 European countries, using centralised pathology review and sensitive HPV testing. The highest HPV-positivity rates were observed in AIS (93.9%), ASC (85.6%), and usual-type ADC (90.4%), with much lower rates in rarer ADC subtypes (clear-cell: 27.6%; serous: 30.4%; endometrioid: 12.9%; gastric-type: 0%). The most common HPV types were restricted to HPV16/18/45, accounting for 98.3% of all HPV-positive ADC. There were variations in HPV prevalence and ADC type-distribution by country. Age at diagnosis differed by ADC subtype, with usual-type diagnosed in younger women (median: 43 years) compared to rarer subtypes (medians between 57 and 66 years). Moreover, HPV-positive ADC cases were younger than HPV-negative ADC. The six years difference in median age for women with AIS compared to those with usual-type ADC suggests that cytological screening for AIS may be suboptimal. Since the great majority of CGN are HPV16/18/45-positive, the incorporation of prophylactic vaccination and HPV testing in cervical cancer screening are important prevention strategies. Our results suggest that special attention should be given to certain rarer ADC subtypes as most appear to be unrelated to HPV. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of UICC.

  17. Prevalence of overactive bladder in China, Taiwan and South Korea: Results from a cross-sectional, population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Yao-Chi; Liu, Shih-Ping; Lee, Kyu-Sung; Liao, Limin; Wang, Jianye; Yoo, Tag Keun; Chu, Romeo; Sumarsono, Budiwan

    2017-10-02

    The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of overactive bladder (OAB) in individuals aged ≥40 years in China, Taiwan, and South Korea. The present cross-sectional population-representative Internet-based study investigated OAB symptoms in men and women aged ≥40 years using the overactive bladder symptom score. Additional instruments included the International Index of Erectile Function (men only) and the Sexual Quality of Life - Female (women only) questionnaires, as well as Patient Perception of Bladder Condition (PPBC). In all, 8284 individuals participated in the study. The prevalence of OAB was 20.8% overall (women 22.1%, men 19.5%) and increased significantly with age, from 10.8% in those aged 40-44 years to 27.9% in those aged >60 years (P = .001). The presence of comorbid conditions (e.g. neurological disease, diabetes) was associated with a significantly increased prevalence of OAB. Increasing symptom severity was associated with significantly worsening patient perception of bladder condition responses. Just under half (48%) of those with no OAB had no lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), whereas 88% of those with severe symptoms had all 3 LUTS (International Continence Society definition) symptom categories (voiding, post-micturition, and storage symptoms). Of those without OAB, 10% reported visiting healthcare professionals for urinary symptoms, compared with 64% of those with severe OAB symptoms (P = .001). Increased symptom severity was significantly associated with lower sexual quality of life in both men and women. OAB symptoms were found to affect 1 in 5 individuals aged ≥40 years in China, Taiwan, and South Korea, becoming more common with increasing age. The results suggest that many more individuals with OAB could benefit by consulting healthcare professionals. © 2017 The Authors. LUTS Published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  18. Influence of Type 2 Diabetes on Prevalence of Key Periodontal Pathogens, Salivary Matrix Metalloproteinases, and Bone Remodeling Markers in Sudanese Adults with and without Chronic Periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasaan Gassim Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the influence of type 2 diabetes on the occurrence of six periodontal pathogens in plaque samples of patients with and without chronic periodontitis. Levels of salivary MMP-8, MMP-9, RANKL, and OPG were also investigated. The study enrolled 31 patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic periodontitis (DM + CP, 29 with chronic periodontitis (CP, and 20 with type 2 diabetes (DM. Questionnaire-guided interviews were conducted and plaque index, bleeding on probing, and pocket depth were recorded. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR was utilized to determine the prevalence of the bacteria. The levels of salivary molecules were determined by enzyme immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The CP group had the highest prevalence of P. gingivalis (81.5%, followed by the DM + CP (59.3% and DM (55.0% groups (P>0.05. Similar trends were observed for P. intermedia and T. denticola. The prevalence of T. forsythia was 100% in both periodontitis groups compared to 90% in the DM group. There were no significant differences between the groups regarding the concentrations of MMP-8, MMP-9, or OPG. RANKL concentrations were below the detection limit. Our data show that type 2 diabetes has no significant influence on the prevalence of the investigated periodontal pathogens, or the levels of salivary MMP-8, MMP-9, and OPG.

  19. Prevalence of pathological internet use in a representative German sample of adolescents: results of a latent profile analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartberg, Lutz; Kriston, Levente; Kammerl, Rudolf; Petersen, Kay-Uwe; Thomasius, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Pathological internet use is of increasing significance in several industrial nations. We surveyed a representative German quota sample of 1,723 adolescents (aged 14-17 years) and 1 caregiver each. We conducted a latent profile analysis to identify a high-risk group for pathological internet use. Overall, 3.2% of the sample formed a profile group with pathological internet use. In contrast to other published studies, the results of the latent profile analysis were verified not only by self-assessments of the youth's but also by external ratings of the caregivers. In addition to the pathological internet use, the high-risk group showed lower levels of family functioning and life satisfaction as well as more problems in family interactions. The results showed a considerable prevalence of pathological internet use in adolescents and emphasized the need for preventive and therapeutic approaches. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Collagen in the spicule organic matrix of the gorgonian Leptogorgia virgulata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsley, R. J.; Tsuzaki, M.; Watabe, N.; Mechanic, G. L.

    1990-01-01

    Decalcification of the calcareous spicules from the gorgonian Leptogorgia virgulata reveals an organic matrix that may be divided into water insoluble and soluble fractions. The insoluble fraction displays characteristics typical of collagen, which is an unusual component of an invertebrate calcium carbonate structure. This matrix fraction exhibits a collagenous amino acid profile and behavior upon SDS-PAGE. Furthermore, the reducible crosslink, dihydroxylysinonorleucine (DHLNL), is detected in this fraction. The composition of the matrix varies seasonally; i.e., the collagenous composition is most prevalent in the summer. These results indicate that the insoluble matrix is a dynamic structure. Potential roles of this matrix in spicule calcification are discussed.

  1. Prevalence and clinical features of Thought-Perception-Sensitivity Symptoms: results from a community survey of Korean high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Nam-In; Park, Tae-Won; Yang, Jong-Chul; Oh, Keun-Young; Shim, Shi-Ha; Chung, Young-Chul

    2012-08-15

    Epidemiologic research indicates that psychosis and depression most frequently develop during adolescence. Hence, an efficient strategy for improving youth mental health would be to focus on detection of early-stage psychosis and depression in adolescence. In this study, 1461 high school students were surveyed using self-report scales. Students who scored equal to or above the cut-off value on any of the scales and who agreed to a further examination proceeded to a second assessment, using the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia and Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental States along with self-reporting scales. The estimated prevalence of adolescents at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis and of depression-spectrum disorders was 1.26 and 3.69% respectively. Compared with the normal group, experiences of bullying, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts were significantly higher in these two groups; the subjects at UHR for psychosis were found to have significantly lower academic performance and lower ratings on SCRS; and submissive behavior was more prevalent in the depression-spectrum group. Our results reveal several clinical features of adolescents at UHR for psychosis and with depression-spectrum disorder and underscore the importance of accurate assessment of and early appropriate care for these adolescents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Prevalence of traumatic brain injury and epilepsy among prisoners in France: Results of the Fleury TBI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, E; Watier, L; Fix, M; Weiss, J J; Chevignard, M; Pradat-Diehl, P

    2016-01-01

    The first aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of TBI and epilepsy in a French prison population and to study variables known to be associated with TBI. The second aim was to compare prisoners with and without a history of TBI. All offenders (females, males and juveniles) admitted consecutively to Fleury-Mérogis prison over a period of 3 months were included in the study. During the admission procedure, offenders were interviewed by healthcare staff using a self-reported questionnaire. In all, 1221 prisoners were included. The rates of TBI and epilepsy were high, with a prevalence of 30.6% and 5.9%, respectively. Psychiatric care, anxiolytic and antidepressant treatment, use of alcohol and cannabis were all significantly higher among offenders with a history of TBI. Moreover, the number of times in custody and the total time spent in jail over the preceding 5 years were significantly higher among offenders with a history of TBI. These results provide further evidence that specific measures need to be developed such as, first of all, screening for TBI upon arrival in prison.

  3. Hamstring contractures in children with spastic cerebral palsy result from a stiffer extracellular matrix and increased in vivo sarcomere length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lucas R; Lee, Ki S; Ward, Samuel R; Chambers, Henry G; Lieber, Richard L

    2011-05-15

    Cerebral palsy (CP) results from an upper motoneuron (UMN)lesion in the developing brain. Secondary to the UMNl esion,which causes spasticity, is a pathological response by muscle - namely, contracture. However, the elements within muscle that increase passive mechanical stiffness, and therefore result in contracture, are unknown. Using hamstring muscle biopsies from pediatric patients with CP (n =33) and control (n =19) patients we investigated passive mechanical properties at the protein, cellular, tissue and architectural levels to identify the elements responsible for contracture. Titin isoform, the major load-bearing protein within muscle cells, was unaltered in CP. Correspondingly, the passive mechanics of individual muscle fibres were not altered. However, CP muscle bundles, which include fibres in their constituent ECM, were stiffer than control bundles. This corresponded to an increase in collagen content of CP muscles measured by hydroxyproline assay and observed using immunohistochemistry. In vivo sarcomere length of CP muscle measured during surgery was significantly longer than that predicted for control muscle. The combination of increased tissue stiffness and increased sarcomere length interact to increase stiffness greatly of the contracture tissue in vivo. These findings provide evidence that contracture formation is not the result of stiffening at the cellular level, but stiffening of the ECM with increased collagen and an increase of in vivo sarcomere length leading to higher passive stresses.

  4. A prospective longitudinal study of the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder resulting from childbirth events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcorn, K L; O'Donovan, A; Patrick, J C; Creedy, D; Devilly, G J

    2010-11-01

    Childbirth has been linked to postpartum impairment. However, controversy exists regarding the onset and prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after childbirth, with seminal studies being limited by methodological issues. This longitudinal prospective study examined the prevalence of PTSD following childbirth in a large sample while controlling for pre-existing PTSD and affective symptomatology. Pregnant women in their third trimester were recruited over a 12-month period and interviewed to identify PTSD and anxiety and depressive symptoms during the last trimester of pregnancy, 4-6 weeks postpartum, 12 weeks postpartum and 24 weeks postpartum. Of the 1067 women approached, 933 were recruited into the study. In total, 866 (93%) were retained to 4-6 weeks, 826 (89%) were retained to 12 weeks and 776 (83%) were retained to 24 weeks. Results indicated that, uncontrolled, 3.6% of women met PTSD criteria at 4-6 weeks postpartum, 6.3% at 12 weeks postpartum and 5.8% at 24 weeks postpartum. When controlling for PTSD and partial PTSD due to previous traumatic events as well as clinically significant anxiety and depression during pregnancy, PTSD rates were less at 1.2% at 4-6 weeks, 3.1% at 12 weeks and 3.1% at 24 weeks postpartum. This is the first study to demonstrate the occurrence of full criteria PTSD resulting from childbirth after controlling for pre-existing PTSD and partial PTSD and clinically significant depression and anxiety in pregnancy. The findings indicate that PTSD can result from a traumatic birth experience, though this is not the normative response.

  5. Matrix completion by deep matrix factorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jicong; Cheng, Jieyu

    2018-02-01

    Conventional methods of matrix completion are linear methods that are not effective in handling data of nonlinear structures. Recently a few researchers attempted to incorporate nonlinear techniques into matrix completion but there still exists considerable limitations. In this paper, a novel method called deep matrix factorization (DMF) is proposed for nonlinear matrix completion. Different from conventional matrix completion methods that are based on linear latent variable models, DMF is on the basis of a nonlinear latent variable model. DMF is formulated as a deep-structure neural network, in which the inputs are the low-dimensional unknown latent variables and the outputs are the partially observed variables. In DMF, the inputs and the parameters of the multilayer neural network are simultaneously optimized to minimize the reconstruction errors for the observed entries. Then the missing entries can be readily recovered by propagating the latent variables to the output layer. DMF is compared with state-of-the-art methods of linear and nonlinear matrix completion in the tasks of toy matrix completion, image inpainting and collaborative filtering. The experimental results verify that DMF is able to provide higher matrix completion accuracy than existing methods do and DMF is applicable to large matrices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Listeria monocytogenes Circulating in Rabbit Meat Products and Slaughterhouses in Italy: Prevalence Data and Comparison Among Typing Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cesare, Alessandra; Parisi, Antonio; Mioni, Renzo; Comin, Damiano; Lucchi, Alex; Manfreda, Gerardo

    2017-03-01

    Rabbit meat has outstanding dietetic and nutritional properties. However, few data on microbiological hazards associated with rabbit productions are available. In this study, the presence of Listeria monocytogenes was determined in 430 rabbit carcasses, 256 rabbit meat cuts and products, and 599 environmental sponges collected from four Italian rabbit slaughterhouses over a period of 1 year. Prevalence of L. monocytogenes among the 1285 rabbit meat and environmental samples was 11%, with statistically significant differences between slaughterhouses. The highest prevalence (33.6%) was observed in rabbit meat cuts and products; the majority of positive environmental samples were collected from conveyor belts. Overall, 27.9% and 14.3% of rabbit cuts and carcasses, respectively, had L. monocytogenes counts higher than 1 colony-forming unit (CFU)/10 g. A selection of 123 isolates from positive samples was genotyped and serotyped to determine genetic profiles and diversity among L. monocytogenes isolates contaminating different slaughterhouses and classes of products investigated. Discriminatory power and concordance among the results obtained using multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), automated EcoRI ribotyping, and serotyping were assessed. The isolates selected for typing were classified into serotypes 1/2a (52.8%), 1/2c (32.5%), and 1/2b (14.6%). The majority of the isolates were classified as ST14 (34.1%), ST9 (35.5%), ST121 (17.9%), and ST224 (14.6%). The greatest discriminatory power was observed with the MLVA typing, followed by MLST, PFGE, and ribotyping. The best bidirectional concordance was achieved between PFGE and MLST. There was 100% correlation between both MLST and MLVA with serotype. Moreover, a high unidirectional correspondence was observed between MLVA and both MLST and PFGE, as well as between PFGE and both MLST and serotyping. The results of this

  7. Development of a 32-detector CdTe matrix for the SVOM ECLAIRs X/Gamma camera: Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacombe, K.; Nasser, G.; Amoros, C.; Atteia, J.-L.; Barret, D.; Billot, M.; Cordier, B.; Gevin, O.; Godet, O.; Gonzalez, F.; Houret, B.; Landé, J.; Lugiez, F.; Mandrou, P.; Martin, J.-A.; Marty, W.; Mercier, K.; Pons, R.; Rambaud, D.; Ramon, P.; Rouaix, G.; Waegebaert, V.

    2013-12-01

    ECLAIRs, a 2D coded-mask imaging telescope on the Sino-French SVOM space mission, will detect and locate gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) between 4 and 150 keV. The detector array is an assembly of 6400 Schottky CdTe detectors of size 4×4×1 mm3, biased from -100 V to -600 V and operated at -20 °C to minimize the leakage current and maximize the polarization time. The remarkable low-energy threshold is achieved through various steps: an extensive detectors selection, a low-noise 32 channels ASIC study, and the design of an innovative detection module called XRDPIX formed by a thick film ceramic holding 32 detectors, a high voltage grid and an HTCC substrate housing the ASIC within a hermetic cavity. In this paper, we describe the XRDPIX module and explain the results of first tests to measure the linearity and compare the sources of noise, such as leakage currents and the Equivalent Noise Charge (ENC) measured on ASIC Ceramics. We confront these values with the energy threshold and spectral resolution made with dedicated test benches. Finally, we present the superposition of 32 calibrated spectra of one XRDPIX module, showing the excellent homogeneity of the 32 detectors and the achievement of a detection threshold at 4 keV over the entire module.

  8. A New Human-Derived Acellular Dermal Matrix for Breast Reconstruction Available for the European Market: Preliminary Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folli, Secondo; Curcio, Annalisa; Melandri, Davide; Bondioli, Elena; Rocco, Nicola; Catanuto, Giuseppe; Falcini, Fabio; Purpura, Valeria; Mingozzi, Matteo; Buggi, Federico; Marongiu, Francesco

    2018-04-01

    The introduction of acellular dermal matrices (ADMs) contributed to the growing diffusion of direct-to-implant breast reconstruction (DTI-BR) following mastectomy for breast cancer. According to specific legislations, European specialists could not benefit from the use of human-derived ADMs, even though most evidence in the literature are available for this kind of device, showed optimal outcomes in breast reconstruction. The Skin Bank of the Bufalini Hospital (Cesena, Italy) obtained in 2009 the approval for the production and distribution of a new human cadaver-donor-derived ADM (named with the Italian acronym, MODA, for matrice omologa dermica acellulata) from the Italian National Transplant Center and National Health Institute. We report preliminary results of MODA application in direct-to-implant breast reconstruction following nipple-areola complex (NAC)-sparing mastectomy for breast cancer treatment. We prospectively enrolled all women undergoing NAC-sparing mastectomy for breast cancer and DTI-BR in our breast surgical unit from June 2015 to January 2017. We enrolled a selected population without previous chest wall irradiation, not being heavy tobacco smokers or diabetic, with a BMI MODA in direct-to-implant breast reconstruction following NAC-sparing mastectomy for breast cancer treatment. This is particularly relevant for the European market, where no other human-derived devices are available for breast reconstruction due to regulatory restrictions. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  9. Neutral kaon mixing beyond the Standard Model with n{sub f}=2+1 chiral fermions. Part 1: bare matrix elements and physical results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garron, Nicolas [Theoretical Physics Division, Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Liverpool,Brownlow Hill, Liverpool, L69 3BX (United Kingdom); Hudspith, Renwick J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University,4700 Keele Street, Toronto, Ontario, M3J 1P3 (Canada); Lytle, Andrew T. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow,University Avenue, Glasgow, G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Collaboration: The RBC/UKQCD collaboration

    2016-11-02

    We compute the hadronic matrix elements of the four-quark operators relevant for K{sup 0}−K̄{sup 0} mixing beyond the Standard Model. Our results are from lattice QCD simulations with n{sub f}=2+1 flavours of domain-wall fermion, which exhibit continuum-like chiral-flavour symmetry. The simulations are performed at two different values of the lattice spacing (a∼0.08 and a∼0.11 fm) and with lightest unitary pion mass ∼300 MeV. For the first time, the full set of relevant four-quark operators is renormalised non-perturbatively through RI-SMOM schemes; a detailed description of the renormalisation procedure is presented in a companion paper. We argue that the intermediate renormalisation scheme is responsible for the discrepancies found by different collaborations. We also study different normalisations and determine the matrix elements of the relevant four-quark operators with a precision of ∼5% or better.

  10. High HPV-51 prevalence in invasive cervical cancers: results of a pre-immunization survey in North Sardinia, Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Piana

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human Papilloma virus (HPV is recognized as the etiological agent of benign and malignant ano-genital lesions. The most prevalent genotypes associated with cervical carcinoma are HPV-16 and -18 worldwide. However, recent studies have emphasized the role of other genotypes, such as HPV-51, in the pathogenesis of cervical dysplasia. The aim of the study was to estimate the burden of HPV-51 infection in invasive cervical malignant lesions in Northern Sardinia, Italy. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An observational, retrospective, prevalence, mono-center study was carried out to evaluate the presence of HPV genotypes in tissues biopsies of cervical lesions (CIN-1, CIN-2, CIN-3 and invasive carcinoma gathered from 1996 to 2009. Biological samples were collected from women admitted consecutively to a tertiary university hospital situated in Sassari, Italy. Molecular methods were used to identify 28 oncogenic HPV types. A total of 155 formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded cervical tissue samples were analyzed. Approximately half of the cervical lesions were classified as invasive carcinoma. HPV-DNA was detected in 71% of the samples, with a higher frequency (100% in those categorized as invasive neoplasia. Mono- or co-infections were demonstrated in 45.8% and 25.8% of the cervical samples, respectively. Overall, the most prevalent HPV types were -16 (49% and -51 (19.4%, with an increased frequency of detection associated with the severity of the cervical lesions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This survey highlights for the first time the relevant role of HPV-51 infection in the pathogenesis of invasive cervical cancer prior to the introduction of a vaccination program. Although a selection bias could have influenced the results, other recent studies have described the impact of HPV-51. This remarkable epidemiological element should be carefully evaluated, particularly in the view of opting for preventive vaccines, whose cross-protection patterns

  11. Prevalence of dyslipidaemia in statin-treated patients in Ireland: Irish results of the DYSlipidaemia International Study (DYSIS).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Horgan, S

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Statins are proven to reduce cardiovascular risk; however, substantial risk remains in patients on statin therapy. Persisting dyslipidaemia is likely to play a contributory role. AIM: To assess the prevalence of persisting lipid abnormalities in patients treated with statins. METHODS: DYSIS was a cross-sectional study of 22,063 patients in Europe and Canada. 900 Irish patients participated. All patients were >\\/= 45 years and treated with statins for >\\/= 3 months. Data were collected from the patients\\' records. ESC guidelines were used to classify risk and to define lipid levels. RESULTS: Mean age was 66.1 years with women representing 40.7%. 78.6% were high-risk patients; that is 53.9% with cardiovascular disease (CVD), 20.1% with diabetes and 15.9% with a SCORE risk >\\/= 5%. Total cholesterol was not at goal in 34.4% of all patients. LDL-C was elevated in 30.8% of all patients and in 30% at high risk. Low HDL-C was found in 34.7% of high-risk patients compared to 16.9% of patients with an ESC score <5%. In diabetics without CVD, low HDL-C and elevated TGs were found in 46 and 44.3%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Despite statin therapy, a significant number of patients have persistent dyslipidaemia. While LDL-C targets are suboptimal in three out of ten patients, the prevalence of low HDL-C and high TGs in high-risk patients is greater than one in three. A more integrated approach to the treatment of patients with dyslipidaemia is warranted. Clinical trials are needed to assess the impact of therapies that raise HDL-C and lower elevated TGs.

  12. High Prevalence of HIV Drug Resistance Among Newly Diagnosed Infants Aged <18 Months: Results From a Nationwide Surveillance in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inzaule, Seth C; Osi, Samuels J; Akinbiyi, Gbenga; Emeka, Asadu; Khamofu, Hadiza; Mpazanje, Rex; Ilesanmi, Oluwafunke; Ndembi, Nicaise; Odafe, Solomon; Sigaloff, Kim C E; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F; Akanmu, Sulaimon

    2018-01-01

    WHO recommends protease-inhibitor-based first-line regimen in infants because of risk of drug resistance from failed prophylaxis used in prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT). However, cost and logistics impede implementation in sub-Saharan Africa, and >75% of children still receive nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based regimen (NNRTI) used in PMTCT. We assessed the national pretreatment drug resistance prevalence of HIV-infected children aged resistance surveillance protocol. We used remnant dried blood spots collected between June 2014 and July 2015 from 15 early infant diagnosis facilities spread across all the 6 geopolitical regions of Nigeria. Sampling was through a probability proportional-to-size approach. HIV drug resistance was determined by population-based sequencing. Overall, in 48% of infants (205 of 430) drug resistance mutations (DRM) were detected, conferring resistance to predominantly NNRTIs (45%). NRTI and multiclass NRTI/NNRTI resistance were present at 22% and 20%, respectively, while resistance to protease inhibitors was at 2%. Among 204 infants with exposure to drugs for PMTCT, 57% had DRMs, conferring NNRTI resistance in 54% and multiclass NRTI/NNRTI resistance in 29%. DRMs were also detected in 34% of 132 PMTCT unexposed infants. A high frequency of PDR, mainly NNRTI-associated, was observed in a nationwide surveillance among newly diagnosed HIV-infected children in Nigeria. PDR prevalence was equally high in PMTCT-unexposed infants. Our results support the use of protease inhibitor-based first-line regimens in HIV-infected young children regardless of PMTCT history and underscore the need to accelerate implementation of the newly disseminated guideline in Nigeria.

  13. Prevalence of STI related consultations in general practice: results from the second Dutch National Survey of General Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bergen, Jan EAM; Kerssens, Jan J; Schellevis, Francois G; Sandfort, Theo G; Coenen, Ton J; Bindels, Patrick J

    2006-01-01

    Background The role of the GP in the care of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is unclear. Aim We studied the prevalence of STI related consultations in Dutch general practice in order to obtain insight into the contribution of the GP in STI control. Design of study A descriptive study. Setting The study took place within the framework of the second Dutch National Survey of General Practice in 2001, a large nationally representative population-based survey. Method During 1 year, data of all patient contacts with the participating GPs were recorded in electronic medical records. Contacts for the same health problem were clustered into disease episodes and their diagnosis coded according to the International Classification of Primary Care. All STI and STI related episodes were analysed. Results In total, 1 524 470 contacts of 375 899 registered persons in 104 practices were registered during 1 year and 2460 STI related episodes were found. The prevalence rate of STI was 39 per 10 000 persons and of STI/HIV related questions 23 per 10 000. More than half of all STIs were found in highly urbanised areas and STIs were overrepresented in deprived areas. Three quarters of all STIs diagnosed in the Netherlands are made in general practice. An important number of other reproductive health visits in general practice offer opportunities for meaningful STI counselling and tailored prevention. Discussion GPs contribute significantly to STI control, see the majority of patients with STI related symptoms and questions and are an important player in STI care. In particular, GPs in urban areas and inner-city practices should be targeted for accelerated sexual health programmes. PMID:16464323

  14. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in Portugal: Results from the First Portuguese Health Examination Survey (INSEF 2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaio, Vânia; Antunes, Liliana; Namorado, Sónia; Barreto, Marta; Gil, Ana; Kyslaya, Irina; Rodrigues, Ana Paula; Santos, Ana; Bøhler, Linn; Castilho, Emília; Vargas, Patrícia; do Carmo, Isabel; Nunes, Baltazar; Dias, Carlos Matias

    Obesity is recognised as a serious public health issue, due to its associated morbidity and mortality. This study aimed at estimating the prevalence of overweight and obesity in the Portuguese population through direct measurements obtained by the 1st National Health Examination Survey (INSEF 2015) and to identify its associated sociodemographic factors. INSEF was a nationally representative cross-sectional prevalence study conducted on 4911 Portuguese adults aged 25-74 years, in 2015. Height and weight were measured according to the European Health Examination Survey procedures. Poisson regression was used to estimate the adjusted prevalence ratios of overweight and obesity according to age, marital status, occupational activity, education, urbanization of living area and smoking status. Overall prevalences of overweight and obesity were 39.1% and 28.6%, respectively. The prevalence of overweight was higher among men (45.5% vs 33.2%) while the prevalence of obesity was higher among women (32% vs 25%). The sociodemographic factors associated with overweight and obesity were age, marital status and education. Smoking status was associated with overweight and obesity but only in women. INSEF suggests that a high prevalences of overweight and obesity are found in older individuals, married, with lower education levels and non-smoking women. Public health interventions are urgently required for obesity prevention, namely throughout health literacy strategies. Copyright © 2017 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Trends in HIV & syphilis prevalence and correlates of HIV infection: results from cross-sectional surveys among women attending ante-natal clinics in Northern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumogola Yusufu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sentinel surveillance for HIV in ante-natal clinics (ANC remains the primary method for collecting timely trend data on HIV prevalence in most of sub-Saharan Africa. We describe prevalence of HIV and syphilis infection and trends over time in HIV prevalence among women attending ante-natal clinics (ANC in Magu district and Mwanza city, part of Mwanza region in Northern Tanzania. HIV prevalence from ANC surveys in 2000 and 2002 was 10.5% and 10.8% respectively. In previous rounds urban residence, residential mobility, the length of time sexually active before marriage, time since marriage and age of the partner were associated with HIV infection. Methods A third round of HIV sentinel surveillance was conducted at ante-natal clinics in Mwanza region, Tanzania during 2006. We interviewed women attending 27 ante-natal clinics. In 15 clinics we also anonymously tested women for syphilis and HIV infection and linked these results to the questionnaire data. Results HIV prevalence was 7.6% overall in 2006 and 7.4% at the 11 clinics used in previous rounds. Geographical variations in HIV prevalence, apparent in previous rounds, have largely disappeared but syphilis prevalence is still higher in rural clinics. HIV prevalence has declined in urban clinics and is stable in rural clinics. The correlates of HIV infection have changed over time. In this round older age, lower gravidity, remarriage, duration of marriage, sexual activity before marriage, long interval between last birth and pregnancy and child death were all associated with infection. Conclusions HIV prevalence trends concur with results from a community-based cohort in the region. Correlates of HIV infection have also changed and more proximate, individual level factors are now more important, in line with the changing epidemiology of infection in this population.

  16. Prevalence and Mental Health Correlates of Harassment and Discrimination in the Workplace: Results from a National Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rospenda, Kathleen M.; Richman, Judith A.; Shannon, Candice A.

    2008-01-01

    This study describes past-year prevalence and effects on mental health and drinking outcomes for harassment and discrimination in the workplace (HDW) in a nationally-representative random-digit dial phone survey conducted in 2003–2004 (n=2,151). HDW measures included experiences and perceptions of sexual harassment and generalized workplace harassment, and perceived harassment or discrimination due to race/ethnicity. Prevalence was examined by sex, race, age, occupation, marital status, and e...

  17. Ethnic Differences in the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome: Results from a Multi-Ethnic Population-Based Survey in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Rampal, Sanjay; Mahadeva, Sanjiv; Guallar, Eliseo; Bulgiba, Awang; Mohamed, Rosmawati; Rahmat, Ramlee; Arif, Mohamad Taha; Rampal, Lekhraj

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increasing disproportionately among the different ethnicities in Asia compared to the rest of the world. This study aims to determine the differences in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome across ethnicities in Malaysia, a multi-ethnic country. METHODS: In 2004, we conducted a national cross-sectional population-based study using a stratified two-stage cluster sampling design (N = 17,211). Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the I...

  18. Prevalence, diagnosis, and management of diabetes mellitus among older Chinese: results from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yaohui; Crimmins, Eileen M; Hu, Peifeng; Shen, Yang; Smith, James P; Strauss, John; Wang, Yafeng; Zhang, Yuan

    2016-04-01

    To estimate prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM), success in diagnosing, and methods of diabetes management in China. China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study, a representative survey of the Chinese population at least 45 years old, is used to estimate diabetes and prediabetes prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment and their associations with residence, socioe-conomic, and demographic factors. Almost 60 % of middle-aged and elderly Chinese have prediabetes or diabetes in 2011-2012. DM prevalence increases with age, but the oldest group is least likely to be diagnosed. Prevalence is higher with higher body mass index, fasting cholesterol, and larger waist circumference. Higher prevalence is found in urban areas among residents with urban registration status (the Chinese administrative registration system or hukou), especially in coastal regions. Better rates of diagnosis, management, and education regarding diabetes are strongly associated with urban hukou, living in coastal areas, and in families with higher per capita expenditures, the appropriate economic resources measure in China. Diagnosis and management of diabetes is highly differential within China but recent efforts to improve health systems are succeeding in reducing undiagnosed disease. Current high prevalence of prediabetes suggests a more intensive effort is required in the future.

  19. Ethnic differences in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome: results from a multi-ethnic population-based survey in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampal, Sanjay; Mahadeva, Sanjiv; Guallar, Eliseo; Bulgiba, Awang; Mohamed, Rosmawati; Rahmat, Ramlee; Arif, Mohamad Taha; Rampal, Lekhraj

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increasing disproportionately among the different ethnicities in Asia compared to the rest of the world. This study aims to determine the differences in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome across ethnicities in Malaysia, a multi-ethnic country. In 2004, we conducted a national cross-sectional population-based study using a stratified two-stage cluster sampling design (N = 17,211). Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute/American Heart Association (IDF/NHLBI/AHA-2009) criteria. Multivariate models were used to study the independent association between ethnicity and the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome. The overall mean age was 36.9 years, and 50.0% participants were female. The ethnic distribution was 57.0% Malay, 28.5% Chinese, 8.9% Indian and 5.0% Indigenous Sarawakians. The overall prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 27.5%, with a prevalence of central obesity, raised triglycerides, low high density lipoprotein cholesterol, raised blood pressure and raised fasting glucose of 36.9%, 29.3%, 37.2%, 38.0% and 29.1%, respectively. Among those Malaysia was high, with marked differences across ethnicities. Ethnic Chinese had the lowest prevalence of metabolic syndrome, while ethnic Indians had the highest. Indigenous Sarawakians showed a marked increase in metabolic syndrome at young ages.

  20. [Prevalence of hearing impairment in northwestern Germany. Results of an epidemiological study on hearing status (HÖRSTAT)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Gablenz, P; Holube, I

    2015-03-01

    A pure-tone average of 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz in the better ear (PTA-4) is the international standard criterion set by the World Health Organization (WHO) to describe hearing loss. Presently, there are no epidemiological data on hearing loss in Germany based on this criterion. A representative sample of adults from Oldenburg and Emden were invited for a hearing assessment. This article analyzes the association between hearing loss and age, sex, noise, occupation, and educational level. Age- and sex-specific prevalence rates following the WHO classification are compared with international findings. According to the WHO classification, the prevalence of hearing impairment in the study cohort (n=1,866) is approx. 16%. In men, who more commonly work in noisy jobs, a higher prevalence rate is observed than in women of the same age. Nevertheless, sex differences in the present study are smaller than those reported in most international studies. PTA-4 is approximately the same for men and women when effects of occupational noise are controlled, but differences in prevalence between occupational areas are still significant. Compared with international findings, age-specific prevalence rates in HÖRSTAT are low. In the synopsis of epidemiological studies of the past 25 years, a trend toward decreasing prevalence in middle and higher age groups can be observed.

  1. Unitarity of CKM Matrix

    CERN Document Server

    Saleem, M

    2002-01-01

    The Unitarity of the CKM matrix is examined in the light of the latest available accurate data. The analysis shows that a conclusive result cannot be derived at present. Only more precise data can determine whether the CKM matrix opens new vistas beyond the standard model or not.

  2. Matrix calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Bodewig, E

    1959-01-01

    Matrix Calculus, Second Revised and Enlarged Edition focuses on systematic calculation with the building blocks of a matrix and rows and columns, shunning the use of individual elements. The publication first offers information on vectors, matrices, further applications, measures of the magnitude of a matrix, and forms. The text then examines eigenvalues and exact solutions, including the characteristic equation, eigenrows, extremum properties of the eigenvalues, bounds for the eigenvalues, elementary divisors, and bounds for the determinant. The text ponders on approximate solutions, as well

  3. Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in South Korean adults: results from the Korea Medical Insurance Corporation (KMIC) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, S H; Appel, L J; Suh, I; Whelton, P K; Kim, I S

    1998-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in South Korea. Data were obtained from the Korea Medical Insurance Corporation (KMIC) which provides insurance to civil servants and private school workers. The study sample included female workers, ages 35 to 59 (n = 67,861), and a systematic random sample of insured male workers, ages 35 to 59 (n = 115,200), who attended insurance examinations in 1990 and 1992. Prevalence estimates were age-adjusted to reflect the Korean population, ages 35 to 59, in 1990. The prevalence of hypertension (systolic blood pressure > or = 140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure > or = 90 mmHg) was 28.9% in men and 15.9% in women. The prevalence of hypercholesterolemia (total cholesterol > or = 240 mg/dl) was 8.9% and 10.4% in men and women, respectively. Smoking was highly prevalent in men (57.4%) and uncommon in women (0.6%). The prevalence of a fasting blood sugar > or = 126 mg/dl was 4.7% in men and 1.3% in women. Among men, 74.4% had one or more of the cardiovascular risk factors under study. Among women, 29.0% had one or more of the risk factors. With advancing age, the prevalence of risk factors became more numerous, for both men and women. In order to avert the ongoing epidemic of cerebrovascular disease and the emerging problem of ischemic heart disease, prevention and treatment of modifiable risk factors must become an important health priority in South Korea.

  4. Matrix superpotentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, Anatoly G.; Karadzhov, Yuri

    2011-07-01

    We present a collection of matrix-valued shape invariant potentials which give rise to new exactly solvable problems of SUSY quantum mechanics. It includes all irreducible matrix superpotentials of the generic form W=kQ+\\frac{1}{k} R+P, where k is a variable parameter, Q is the unit matrix multiplied by a real-valued function of independent variable x, and P and R are the Hermitian matrices depending on x. In particular, we recover the Pron'ko-Stroganov 'matrix Coulomb potential' and all known scalar shape invariant potentials of SUSY quantum mechanics. In addition, five new shape invariant potentials are presented. Three of them admit a dual shape invariance, i.e. the related Hamiltonians can be factorized using two non-equivalent superpotentials. We find discrete spectrum and eigenvectors for the corresponding Schrödinger equations and prove that these eigenvectors are normalizable.

  5. Sunbed Use Prevalence and Associated Skin Health Habits: Results of a Representative, Population-Based Survey among Austrian Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haluza, Daniela; Simic, Stana; Moshammer, Hanns

    2016-01-01

    Recreational sunbed use accounts for the main non-solar source of exposure to ultraviolet radiation in fair-skinned Western populations. Indoor tanning is associated with increased risks for acute and chronic dermatological diseases. The current community-based study assessed the one-year prevalence of sunbed use and associated skin health habits among a representative, gender-balanced sample of 1500 Austrian citizens. Overall one-year prevalence of sunbed use was 8.9% (95% confidence interval (CI) 7.5%–10.4%), with slightly higher prevalence in females (9.2%, 95% CI 7.3%–11.2%) compared to males (8.6%, 95% CI 6.7%–10.6%). Factors predicting sunbed use were younger age (by trend decreasing with older age), place of living, smoking, skin type (by trend increasing with darker skin), sun exposure, motives to tan, and use of UV-free tanning products. Despite media campaigns on the harmful effects of excessive sunlight and sunbed exposure, we found a high prevalence of self-reported sunbed use among Austrian citizens. From a Public (Skin) Health perspective, the current research extends the understanding of prevailing leisure time skin health habits in adding data on prevalence of sunbed use in the general Austrian population. PMID:26907308

  6. Prevalence and etiology of amblyopia in Southern India: results from screening of school children aged 5-15 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganekal, Sunil; Jhanji, Vishal; Liang, Yuanbo; Dorairaj, Syril

    2013-08-01

    To determine the prevalence and etiology of amblyopia in school children. A total of 4020 school children aged between 5 and 15 years were screened in a population-based, cross-sectional study. Best corrected visual acuity and detailed ophthalmic evaluation were performed in all participants. Amblyopia associated with degraded visual input due to high refractive error was labeled ametropic amblyopia. Anisometropic amblyopia was diagnosed in participants with interocular refractive error difference ≥1 diopter. Strabismic amblyopia included that due to conflicting visual inputs between the eyes due to squint. Stimulus deprivation amblyopia was defined as amblyopia due to obstruction of the visual axis. Prevalence of amblyopia was 1.1% (n = 44). The number of boys with amblyopia (n = 25, 57%) was slightly higher than the number of girls with amblyopia (n = 19, 43%; p = 0.6). A total of 28 (63.7%) children had mild to moderate amblyopia, whereas 16 (36.3%) had severe amblyopia. Underlying amblyogenic causes were ametropia (50%), anisometropia (40.9%), strabismus (6.8%), visual deprivation (4.5%) and combined causes (2.2%). No statistically significant difference was noted in the prevalence of amblyopia between rural (1.2%) and urban (0.9%) children (p = 0.5). In this study, the prevalence of amblyopia was 1.1% of the school children. Ametropia and anisometropia were the most common causes of amblyopia. We did not find any significant difference in amblyopia prevalence between rural and urban school children.

  7. [Prevalence of dyslipidemias in Mexico city and Its relation to other cardiovascular risk factors. Results from the CARMELA study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo-de la Peña, Jorge; de Jesús-Pérez, Ramón; Schargrodsky, Herman; Champagne, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of dyslipidemias in Mexico city and its relation to other cardiovascular risk factors. A cross sectional study was conducted to measure cardiovascular risk factors in Mexico City. All subjects were interviewed and anthropometric measures performed, as well as cholesterol, high-density lipoproteins (HDL-C) and triglycerides. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C) values were calculated. Means- as well as dyslipidemia-weighted prevalence were measured, with 95% confidence intervals. 833 males and 889 females were studied. The prevalence of cholesterol ≥ 240 mg/dl was 16.4% (95% CI: 14.2-18.7), and 34.1% (95% CI: 31.6-36.5) had values between 200 and 240 mg/dl. Very high values of triglycerides were seen in 2.6% of studied subjects and 29.9% (95% CI: 26.9-32.8) had high values. The prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia was higher in males (43.3%) than females (23%). Mean values of assessed parameters were in general higher in those with other cardiovascular risk factors. Lipid values in the population of Mexico City are high and so is the prevalence of dyslipidemias. There is an urgent need to implement health policies directed to diminish cardiovascular risk factors, mainly dyslipidemias.

  8. Acceptance, Prevalence and Indications for Robot-Assisted Laparoscopy - Results of a Survey Among Urologists in Germany, Austria and Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imkamp, Florian; Herrmann, Thomas R W; Tolkach, Yuri; Dziuba, Sebastian; Stolzenburg, Jens U; Rassweiler, Jens; Sulser, Tullio; Zimmermann, Uwe; Merseburger, Axel S; Kuczyk, Markus A; Burchardt, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Robotic-assisted laparoscopy (RAL) is being widely accepted in the field of urology as a replacement for conventional laparoscopy (CL). Nevertheless, the process of its integration in clinical routines has been rather spontaneous. To determine the prevalence of robotic systems (RS) in urological clinics in Germany, Austria and Switzerland, the acceptance of RAL among urologists as a replacement for CL and its current use for 25 different urological indications. To elucidate the practice patterns of RAL, a survey at hospitals in Germany, Austria and Switzerland was conducted. All surgically active urology departments in Germany (303), Austria (37) and Switzerland (84) received a questionnaire with questions related to the one-year period prior to the survey. The response rate was 63%. Among the participants, 43% were universities, 45% were tertiary care centres, and 8% were secondary care hospitals. A total of 60 RS (Germany 35, Austria 8, Switzerland 17) were available, and the majority (68%) were operated under public ownership. The perception of RAL and the anticipated superiority of RAL significantly differed between robotic and non-robotic surgeons. For only two urologic indications were more than 50% of the procedures performed using RAL: pyeloplasty (58%) and transperitoneal radical prostatectomy (75%). On average, 35% of robotic surgeons and only 14% of non-robotic surgeons anticipated RAL superiority in some of the 25 indications. This survey provides a detailed insight into RAL implementation in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. RAL is currently limited to a few urological indications with a small number of high-volume robotic centres. These results might suggest that a saturation of clinics using RS has been achieved but that the existing robotic capacities are being utilized ineffectively. The possible reasons for this finding are discussed, and certain strategies to solve these problems are offered. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Prevalence of anemia in children 1 to 12 years of age: results from a nationwide probabilistic survey in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villalpando Salvador

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology and analyze factors associated with iron deficiency anemia in a probabilistic sample of the Encuesta Nacional de Nutrición 1999 (ENN-99 [National Nutritional Survey 1999 (NNS-99]. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The sample included 8 111 children aged 1 to 12 years, and was nationaly representative by rural and urban strata and by four geographical regions. Capillary hemoglobin was measured using a portable photometer (HemoCue. The analysis of the determining factors of anemia was performed by odds ratios derived from a logistic regression model and multiple regression models. RESULTS: The prevalence of anemia was 50% in infants <2 years of age, with no significant differences between urban and rural strata or among regions. It varied between 14 and 22% in 6-11 year-old children and was higher in the South region and among the indigenous children. Dietary intake of iron was 50% of the recommended daily allowance in children <2 years of age, but not in older children. Phytate (»500-800 mg/d and tannin (»19 mg/d intakes were very high in children over 7 years of age. Hemoglobin was positively associated with nutritional status of children (p=0.01, socioeconomic status (p range 0.05-0.001, duration of lactation in children under 2 years of age (p=0.1, and iron and calcium intake (p=0.02, but not with folic acid or vitamin B12 intake. Hemoglobin was negatively associated with maternal education (p=0.01 in older children, but not in those under 2 years of age. CONCLUSIONS: We present evidence of an alarming national epidemic of anemia, particularly marked in children 12 to 24 months of age. The control of anemia should be considered as an urgent national concern given its grave consequences on the physical and mental development of these children and on their long-term health.

  10. Prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C infection in Libya: results from a national population based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daw, Mohamed A; El-Bouzedi, Abdallah

    2014-01-09

    Libya is one of the largest countries in Africa and has the longest coast in the Mediterranean basin facing southern Europe. High rates of prevalence of viral hepatitis have been observed in various regions in Africa, but the prevalence in Libya is not well documented. We report on a large-scale nationwide study that evaluated the epidemiology of hepatitis B and hepatitis C in Libya and assessed the risk factors involved. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2008 on 65,761 individuals all over Libya. The country was divided into 12 regions according to the population density and sampling within each region was carried out under the supervision of the National Centre for Prevention of Infectious Diseases. Serum samples were collected from both males and females of all ages in both urban and rural areas and tested for HBsAg for hepatitis B and anti-HCV antibody for hepatitis C. Prevalence rates were determined in regions and in different groups and correlated with different demographic and risk factors involved in the spread of these viruses. The prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses varied regionally across the country. The overall prevalence of hepatitis B was 2.2% (95% CI 2.1%-2.3%) and was higher among males than females (1.4:1.0). Hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence was 1.2% (95% CI 1.1-1.3) and it increased gradually after the age of 30 years (0.7-0.9% for hepatitis, particularly for HCV. Hospital admission, surgical operation, blood transfusion, and intravenous drug use were the main risk factors, and they were associated independently with a higher prevalence rate of viral hepatitis. Libya may be considered an area of low-intermediate endemicity for hepatitis B virus infection, with lower rates in young age groups, and an area of low endemicity for hepatitis C. The prevalence of hepatitis B and C across Libya is not homogeneous, with indications of the effect of the higher rates in some neighbouring countries. Libya should adopt full coverage

  11. Matrix comparison, Part 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Jesper Wiborg; Borlund, Pia

    2007-01-01

    The present two-part article introduces matrix comparison as a formal means for evaluation purposes in informetric studies such as cocitation analysis. In the first part, the motivation behind introducing matrix comparison to informetric studies, as well as two important issues influencing...... such comparisons, matrix generation, and the composition of proximity measures, are introduced and discussed. In this second part, the authors introduce and thoroughly demonstrate two related matrix comparison techniques the Mantel test and Procrustes analysis, respectively. These techniques can compare...... and evaluate the degree of monotonicity between different proximity measures or their ordination results. In common with these techniques is the application of permutation procedures to test hypotheses about matrix resemblances. The choice of technique is related to the validation at hand. In the case...

  12. Prevalence and Correlates of Hearing and Visual Impairments in European Nursing Homes: Results From the SHELTER Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yamada, Y.; Vlachova, M.; Richter, T.; Finne-Soveri, H.; Gindin, J.; van der Roest, H.G.; Denkinger, M.D.; Bernabei, R.; Onder, G.; Topinkova, E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Visual and hearing impairments are known to be related to functional disability, cognitive impairment, and depression in community-dwelling older people. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of sensory impairment in nursing home residents, and whether sensory impairment is

  13. [Lifetime prevalence and age of onset of mental disorders in Peru: results of the World Mental Health Study, 2005].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiestas, Fabián; Piazza, Marina

    2014-01-01

    To determine the lifetime prevalence of 18 mental disorders and to establish the pattern that those disorders have with the age of onset in five cities of Peru. As part of the World Mental Health Survey, the study in Peru followed a probabilistic multistage sample of people between 18 and 65 years old in Lima, Chiclayo, Arequipa, Huancayo and Iquitos. The desktop version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was administered. The lifetime prevalence of at least one mental disorder was 29% (SE 1.2), and the prevalence of at least two or three was 10.5% (SE 0.7) and 4% (SE 0.4), respectively. Anxiety disorders were more common with 14.9% (SE 0.9) prevalence, followed by mood disorders with 8.2% (SE 0.5), impulse control disorders with 8.1% (SE 0.8), and substance use disorders (5.8%; SE 0.3). The age of onset was earlier for anxiety disorders (15 years old) and for impulse control disorders (20 years old). Younger respondents were more likely to have a mental disorder. Almost a third of the adult population of five cities in Peru has had some psychiatric disorder at a given time in their lives, and comorbidity is common. Most disorders begin before age 30.

  14. Prevalence of STI related consultations in general practice: results from the second Dutch National Survey of General Practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergen, J.E.A.M. van; Kerssens, J.J.; Schellevis, F.G.; Sandfort, T.G.; Coenen, T.J.; Bindels, P.J.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The role of the GP in the care of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is unclear.Aim:We studied the prevalence of STI related consultations in Dutch general practice in order to obtain insight into the contribution of the GP in STI control.Design of study: A descriptive

  15. Prevalence of STI related consultations in general practice: results from the second Dutch National Survey of General Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bergen, Jan E. A. M.; Kerssens, Jan J.; Schellevis, Francois G.; Sandfort, Theo G.; Coenen, Ton J.; Bindels, Patrick J.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The role of the GP in the care of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is unclear.Aim:We studied the prevalence of STI related consultations in Dutch general practice in order to obtain insight into the contribution of the GP in STI control. DESIGN OF STUDY: A descriptive study.

  16. The adult prevalence of HIV in Zambia: results from a population based mobile testing survey conducted in 2013-2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chanda-Kapata, Pascalina; Kapata, Nathan; Klinkenberg, Eveline; William, Ngosa; Mazyanga, Liwewe; Musukwa, Katoba; Kawesha, Elizabeth Chizema; Masiye, Felix; Mwaba, Peter

    2016-01-01

    To estimate the adult prevalence of HIV among the adult population in Zambia and determine whether demographic characteristics were associated with being HIV positive. A cross sectional population based survey to asses HIV status among participants aged 15 years and above in a national tuberculosis

  17. Prevalence and Mental Health Correlates of Harassment and Discrimination in the Workplace: Results from a National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rospenda, Kathleen M.; Richman, Judith A.; Shannon, Candice A.

    2009-01-01

    This study describes past-year prevalence and effects on mental health and drinking outcomes for harassment and discrimination in the workplace (HDW) in a nationally representative random digit dial phone survey conducted in 2003-2004 (n = 2,151). HDW measures included experiences and perceptions of sexual harassment (SH) and generalized workplace…

  18. Prevalence and mental health correlates of harassment and discrimination in the workplace: results from a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rospenda, Kathleen M; Richman, Judith A; Shannon, Candice A

    2009-05-01

    This study describes past-year prevalence and effects on mental health and drinking outcomes for harassment and discrimination in the workplace (HDW) in a nationally representative random digit dial phone survey conducted in 2003-2004 (n = 2,151). HDW measures included experiences and perceptions of sexual harassment (SH) and generalized workplace harassment (GWH), and perceived harassment or discrimination because of race or ethnicity. Prevalence was examined by sex, race, age, occupation, marital status, and education. Effects of HDW were assessed controlling for demo-graphics and job and life stressors. Experiencing multiple types of HDW was common. SH was more prevalent among women, and Blacks and those of other or mixed race or ethnicity experienced the highest levels of HDW overall. HDW variables explained additional variance in problem drinking and mental health beyond life and job stressors, particularly for women. This study demonstrates that HDW is a prevalent problem associated with poor mental health and problem drinking in the U.S. workforce.

  19. Prevalence of HIV infection among young adults in the United States: results from the Add Health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Martina; Handcock, Mark S; Miller, William C; Ford, Carol A; Schmitz, John L; Hobbs, Marcia M; Cohen, Myron S; Harris, Kathleen M; Udry, J Richard

    2006-06-01

    We estimated HIV prevalence rates among young adults in the United States. We used survey data from the third wave of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a random sample of nearly 19000 young adults initiated in 1994-1995. Consenting respondents were screened for the presence of antibodies to HIV-1 in oral mucosal transudate specimens. We calculated prevalence rates, accounting for survey design, response rates, and test performance. Among the 13184 participants, the HIV prevalence rate was 1.0 per 1000 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.4, 1.7). Gender-specific prevalence rates were similar, but rates differed markedly between non-Hispanic Blacks (4.9 per 1000; 95% CI=1.8, 8.7) and members of other racial/ethnic groups (0.22 per 1000; 95% CI=0.00, 0.64). Racial disparities in HIV in the United States are established early in the life span, and our data suggest that 15% to 30% of all cases of HIV occur among individuals younger than 25 years.

  20. Hospital Infection Society prevalence survey of Healthcare Associated Infection 2006: comparison of results between Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzpatrick, F

    2008-07-01

    As part of the Third Healthcare Associated Infection (HCAI) Prevalence Survey of the United Kingdom and Ireland, HCAI point prevalence surveys were carried out in Northern Ireland (NI) and the Republic of Ireland (RoI). Here we explore the potential benefits of comparing results from two countries with different healthcare systems, which employed similar methodologies and identical HCAI definitions. Forty-four acute adult hospitals in the RoI and 15 in NI participated with a total of 11 185 patients surveyed (NI 3644 patients and RoI 7541). The overall HCAI prevalence was 5.4 and 4.9 in NI and the RoI, respectively. There was no significant difference in prevalence rates of HCAI, device-related HCAI or HCAI associated with bloodstream infection but there was a difference in meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus-related HCAI (P = 0.02) between the two countries. There were significantly more urinary tract infections and Clostridium difficile infections recorded in NI (P = 0.002 and P < 0.001). HCAIs were more prevalent in patients aged >65 years and in the intensive care unit in both countries. HCAIs were also more prevalent if patients were mechanically ventilated, had had recent non-implant surgery (RoI) or had more recorded HCAI risk factors. This is the first time that HCAI prevalence rates have been directly compared between NI and the RoI. By closely examining similarities and differences between HCAI prevalence rates in both countries it is hoped that this will influence healthcare planning and at the same time reassure the public that HCAI is important and that measures are being taken to combat it.

  1. [Differences in the prevalence of malnutrition resulting from using a national growth reference or an international growth reference].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyhenart, Evelia Edith; Orden, Alicia Bibiana

    2005-09-01

    To evaluate if using an international growth reference versus a national growth reference leads to differences in the prevalences of low weight-for-height (wasting) and low height-for-age (stunting) in a sample of children 8 to 14 years old. A cross-sectional study was carried out with a sample of 1,470 school-children (both boys and girls) in the city of La Plata, in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Based on the data on weight and height, Z-scores were calculated with regard to the reference values from the United States of America's first and second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES I and NHANES II), and the reference values for Argentina from the Argentine Pediatric Society. The prevalences of wasting and stunting were calculated, using as the cutoff point two standard deviations below the median of the reference. The prevalences were compared using the chi-squared test with Yates' correction, and odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated. The international reference was positively associated with a higher prevalence of stunting in the entire sample (OR = 5.12; 95% CI: 3.27 to 8.05), in the boys (OR = 4.36; 95% CI: 2.43 to 7.93), and in the girls (OR = 6.32; 95% CI: 3.10 to 13.27). The prevalence of wasting was similar with both references. The distribution of height-for-age was skewed to the left with respect to the international reference and to the right with respect to the Argentine reference, while the distribution of weight-for-height overlapped both references. The differences in the prevalences of stunting calculated according to the two references that were used indicate a different nutritional status for the population studied. The increase in the height of the children with respect to the Argentine reference points to the presence of a positive secular trend, and the increase can explain part of the differences in the prevalence of stunting.

  2. Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in screening-detected diabetes mellitus: results from the Gutenberg Health Study (GHS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponto, Katharina A; Koenig, Jochem; Peto, Tunde; Lamparter, Julia; Raum, Philipp; Wild, Philipp S; Lackner, Karl J; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Mirshahi, Alireza

    2016-09-01

    Individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus may experience an asymptomatic period of hyperglycaemia, and complications may already be present at the time of diagnosis. We aimed to determine the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in patients with newly diagnosed (screening-detected) type 2 diabetes. The Gutenberg Health Study is a population-based study with 15,010 participants aged between 35 and 74 years. We determined the weighted prevalence of diabetic retinopathy by assessing fundus photographs. Screening-detected type 2 diabetes was defined as an HbA1c concentration of 6.5% (47.5 mmol/mol) or more, no medical diagnosis of diabetes and no intake of insulin or oral glucose-lowering agents. Of 14,948 participants, 1377 (9.2%) had diabetes mellitus. Of these, 347 (25.2%) had newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes detected by the screening. Overall, the weighted prevalence of screening-detected type 2 diabetes was 2.1%. Fundus photos were evaluable for 285 (82.1%) participants with newly diagnosed diabetes. The weighted prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in screening-detected type 2 diabetes was 13.0%; 12% of participants had a mild non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy and 0.6% had a moderate non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Diabetic retinopathy was proliferative in 0.3%. No cases of severe non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy or diabetic maculopathy were found. Thirty (14.9%) of 202 and six (7.2%) of 83 individuals with and without concomitant arterial hypertension, respectively, had diabetic retinopathy (OR 2.54, 95% CI 1.06, 7.14). Visual acuity did not differ between individuals with and without diabetic retinopathy . In this large European study, the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in screening-detected type 2 diabetes was 13%. Only a very small proportion of participants with detected diabetic retinopathy needed treatment.

  3. [Probable Mental Health Disorders Prevalence in Children With Chronic Conditions. Results From the National Mental Health Survey of Colombia 2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Ramirez, Sandra; Tamayo Martínez, Nathalie; Rodriguez, Maria Nelcy; Rodríguez, Andrea; Rengifo, Henrey

    2016-12-01

    The prevalence of chronic conditions is increasing globally and this phenomenon covers pediatric populations. There is a relationship between chronic conditions and mental health problems, which has been insufficiently studied in the case of children. To measure the frequency of problems and mental disorders in the Colombian population between 7 and 11 years, depending on the presence or absence of chronic conditions. The information pertains to the National Survey of Mental Health of Colombia 2015, an observational cross-sectional nationally representative for the group between 7 and 11 years old. Mental problems where measure with the Reporting Questionnaire for Children (RQC), the 12 month prevalence of seven mental disorders were assessed using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version parents (DISC-P) and a list of chronic conditions. Univariate and stratification analysis of the data were performed. 41.6% of the children with no chronic conditions, 56.7% of the children with 1 chronic condition and 70.8% in those with 2 or more have at least one RQC symptom; the highest prevalence of mental health symptoms are those with chronic inflammatory lung disease, followed by diabetes mellitus and allergies. The prevalence of one or more mental disorders in children without chronic conditions is 3.1% while those with at least 1 is 13.8%. A higher prevalence of mental disorders in children and its association with chronic conditions justifies further studies that address this issue and develop strategies with multidisciplinary interventions. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes in 15 states of India: results from the ICMR-INDIAB population-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Deepa, Mohan; Pradeepa, Rajendra; Mahanta, Jagadish; Narain, Kanwar; Das, Hiranya Kumar; Adhikari, Prabha; Rao, Paturi Vishnupriya; Saboo, Banshi; Kumar, Ajay; Bhansali, Anil; John, Mary; Luaia, Rosang; Reang, Taranga; Ningombam, Somorjit; Jampa, Lobsang; Budnah, Richard O; Elangovan, Nirmal; Subashini, Radhakrishnan; Venkatesan, Ulagamathesan; Unnikrishnan, Ranjit; Das, Ashok Kumar; Madhu, Sri Venkata; Ali, Mohammed K; Pandey, Arvind; Dhaliwal, Rupinder Singh; Kaur, Tanvir; Swaminathan, Soumya; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2017-08-01

    identified as having diabetes had not been diagnosed previously. States with higher per-capita GDP seemed to have a higher prevalence of diabetes (eg, Chandigarh, which had the highest GDP of US$ 3433, had the highest prevalence of 13·6%, 12.8-15·2). In rural areas of all states, diabetes was more prevalent in individuals of higher SES. However, in urban areas of some of the more affluent states (Chandigarh, Maharashtra, and Tamil Nadu), diabetes prevalence was higher in people with lower SES. The overall prevalence of prediabetes in all 15 states was 10·3% (10·0-10·6). The prevalence of prediabetes varied from 6·0% (5·1-6·8) in Mizoram to 14·7% (13·6-15·9) in Tripura, and the prevalence of impaired fasting glucose was generally higher than the prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance. Age, male sex, obesity, hypertension, and family history of diabetes were independent risk factors for diabetes in both urban and rural areas. There are large differences in diabetes prevalence between states in India. Our results show evidence of an epidemiological transition, with a higher prevalence of diabetes in low SES groups in the urban areas of the more economically developed states. The spread of diabetes to economically disadvantaged sections of society is a matter of great concern, warranting urgent preventive measures. Indian Council of Medical Research and Department of Health Research, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Physical inactivity prevalence and trends among Mexican adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) 2006 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Catalina; Janssen, Ian; Campos, Ismael; Barquera, Simón

    2013-11-11

    Lifestyles such as unhealthy diets and the lack of physical activity have been contributed to the increased prevalence of obesity. In 2012, the world health organization published the first global recommendation for physical activity and health. People who do not meet at least 150 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity are considered to be physically inactive. The prevalence of physical inactivity worldwide is 31%, however there is insufficient data from prevalence and trends of physical inactivity in Mexican population. The purposes of this study are to describe the physical inactivity prevalence and recent trends in Mexican adults and to examine the association between physical inactivity with biologic and sociodemographic characteristics. Representative samples of 17,183 and 10,729 adults (aged 20 to 69 years) who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) in 2006 and 2012, respectively. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was assessed using the short form version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), which was administered in face-to-face interviews. Self-reported IPAQ MVPA levels were adjusted using an equation derived from a previous validation study. Participants were considered inactive if they engaged in <150-minutes/week of moderate physical activity or <75 minutes/week of vigorous physical activity according to WHO classification criteria. The prevalence of physical inactivity was significantly higher in 2012 (19.4%, 95% CI: 18.1, 20.7) than in 2006 (13.4%, 95% CI: 12.5, 14.5). Adults in the obese category, 60-69 age group, and those in the highest socioeconomic status tertile were more likely to be physically inactive. The proportion of the Mexican adult population who do not meet the minimum WHO physical activity criteria has increased by 6% points between 2006 and 2012. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity, the aging of the population, and the shift in socioeconomic status in

  6. Prevalence of trachoma in the Far North region of Cameroon: results of a survey in 27 Health Districts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaise Noa Noatina

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cameroon is known to be endemic with trachoma. To appreciate the burden of the disease and facilitate the national planning of trachoma control in the integrated control program for the neglected tropical diseases, an epidemiological mapping of trachoma was conducted in the Far North region in 2010-11. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional, cluster random sampling survey was carried out. The survey focused on two target populations: children aged 1 to 9 years for the prevalence of active trachoma and those aged 15 and over for the prevalence of trichiasis (TT. The sample frame was an exhaustive list of villages and neighborhoods of Health Districts (HDs. The World Health Organization simplified trachoma grading system was used for the recognition and registration of cases of trachoma. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 48,844 children aged 1 to 9 years and 41,533 people aged 15 and over were examined. In children aged 1-9 years, the overall prevalence of trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF was 11.2% (95% confidence intervals (CI: 11.0-11.5%. More girls were affected than boys (p = 0.003. Thirteen (13 of 27 HDs in the region showed TF prevalence of ≥10%. The overall TT prevalence was 1.0% (95% CI: 0.9-1.1%. There were estimated 17193 (95% CI: 12576-25860 TT cases in the region. The prevalence of blindness was 0.04% (95% CI: 0.03-0.07% and visual impairment was 0.09% (95% CI: 0.07-0.13%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The survey confirmed that trachoma is a public health problem in the Far North region with 13 HDs qualified for district-level mass drug administration with azithromycin. It provided a foundation for the national program to plan and implement the SAFE strategy in the region. Effort must be made to find resources to provide the surgical operations to the 17193 TT cases and prevent them from becoming blind.

  7. Matrix thermalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craps, Ben [Theoretische Natuurkunde, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), and International Solvay Institutes, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Evnin, Oleg [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Thanon Phayathai, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Theoretische Natuurkunde, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), and International Solvay Institutes, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Nguyen, Kévin [Theoretische Natuurkunde, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), and International Solvay Institutes, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2017-02-08

    Matrix quantum mechanics offers an attractive environment for discussing gravitational holography, in which both sides of the holographic duality are well-defined. Similarly to higher-dimensional implementations of holography, collapsing shell solutions in the gravitational bulk correspond in this setting to thermalization processes in the dual quantum mechanical theory. We construct an explicit, fully nonlinear supergravity solution describing a generic collapsing dilaton shell, specify the holographic renormalization prescriptions necessary for computing the relevant boundary observables, and apply them to evaluating thermalizing two-point correlation functions in the dual matrix theory.

  8. Prevalent and Incident Vertebral Deformities in Midlife Women: Results from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail A Greendale

    Full Text Available Vertebral fractures are the most common type of osteoporotic fracture among women, but estimates of their prevalence and incidence during middle-age are limited. The development of vertebral morphometry (VM using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA makes it more feasible to measure VM in large, longitudinal, observational studies. We conducted this study to: 1 contribute to the scant knowledge of the prevalence, incidence and risk factors for vertebral deformities in middle-aged women; and 2 to evaluate the performance of DXA-based VM measurement in a large, community based sample.The sample is derived from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN, a multi-site, community-based, longitudinal cohort study of the MT. Using Hologic QDR 4500A instruments, we acquired initial VM measurements in 1446 women during calendar years 2004-2007; in 2012-2013, a follow-up VM was obtained in 1108. Annually, lumbar spine (LS and femoral neck (FN bone mineral density (BMD were measured and participant characteristics were assessed with standardized instruments. Multivariable logistic regression models examined the relations between prevalent deformity and relevant characteristics. Analyses of characteristics associated with prevalent deformity were restricted to 824 women who had not taken bone active medications since SWAN baseline. We calculated incident deformity per person year (PY of observation, standardized to 1000 person-years.The cranial portion of the VM image yielded the lowest proportions of readable vertebrae: from T4 through T6, between 43% and 63% of vertebral bodies were evaluable. Greater BMI was associated with fewer readable levels (B = -0.088, p<0.0001. In the baseline sample of 1446 women, the prevalence of vertebral deformity was 3.2% (95% CI: 2.3, 4.1. The relative odds of deformity increased by 61% per SD decrement in baseline LS BMD (p = 0.02 and were 67% greater per SD decrement in baseline FN BMD (p = 0.04. Odds of

  9. Prevalence and correlates of ADHD among adolescents in a Beirut community sample: results from the BEI-PSY Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ghossoub, Elias; Ghandour, Lilian A.; Halabi, Fadi; Zeinoun, Pia; Shehab, Al Amira Safa; Maalouf, Fadi T.

    2017-01-01

    Background This study aims to investigate the prevalence, correlates and treatment seeking behavior related to ADHD among adolescents from Lebanon. Methods Five hundred and ten adolescents were recruited through multistage stratified cluster sampling of households in Beirut, and separately interviewed along with one parent/legal guardian, using the DAWBA. All adolescents completed the PRQ and the SDQ; the parent/legal guardian also completed the SDQ and provided basic demographic information,...

  10. The role of public policies in reducing smoking prevalence: results from the Michigan SimSmoke tobacco policy simulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, David T; Huang, An-Tsun; Havumaki, Joshua S; Meza, Rafael

    2016-05-01

    Michigan has implemented several of the tobacco control policies recommended by the World Health Organization MPOWER goals. We consider the effect of those policies and additional policies consistent with MPOWER goals on smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths (SADs). The SimSmoke tobacco control policy simulation model is used to examine the effect of past policies and a set of additional policies to meet the MPOWER goals. The model is adapted to Michigan using state population, smoking, and policy data starting in 1993. SADs are estimated using standard attribution methods. Upon validating the model, SimSmoke is used to distinguish the effect of policies implemented since 1993 against a counterfactual with policies kept at their 1993 levels. The model is then used to project the effect of implementing stronger policies beginning in 2014. SimSmoke predicts smoking prevalence accurately between 1993 and 2010. Since 1993, a relative reduction in smoking rates of 22 % by 2013 and of 30 % by 2054 can be attributed to tobacco control policies. Of the 22 % reduction, 44 % is due to taxes, 28 % to smoke-free air laws, 26 % to cessation treatment policies, and 2 % to youth access. Moreover, 234,000 SADs are projected to be averted by 2054. With additional policies consistent with MPOWER goals, the model projects that, by 2054, smoking prevalence can be further reduced by 17 % with 80,000 deaths averted relative to the absence of those policies. Michigan SimSmoke shows that tobacco control policies, including cigarette taxes, smoke-free air laws, and cessation treatment policies, have substantially reduced smoking and SADs. Higher taxes, strong mass media campaigns, and cessation treatment policies would further reduce smoking prevalence and SADs.

  11. Prevalence and social burden of active chronic low back pain in the adult Portuguese population: results from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Nélia; Rodrigues, Ana; Eusébio, Mónica; Ramiro, Sofia; Machado, Pedro; Canhão, Helena; Branco, Jaime C

    2016-02-01

    To determine the prevalence of active chronic low back pain (CLBP) in the adult Portuguese population; to compare the active CLBP population with the population without CLBP; and to explore factors associated with active CLBP. The present study was conducted under the scope of EpiReumaPt a population-based study. Active CLBP was self-reported and considered if present on the day of the interview and for ≥90 days. Prevalence estimates were calculated. Association of active CLBP with quality of life, functional ability and healthcare consumption were evaluated. Factors associated with active CLBP were identified through logistic regression. Among 10.661 EpiReumaPt subjects, 1487 self-reported active CLBP. The prevalence of active CLBP was 10.4 % (95 % CI 9.6; 11.9 %). After adjustment, active CLBP subjects had a higher likelihood for anxiety symptoms (OR 2.77), early retirement due to disease (OR 1.88) and more physician visits (β = 2.65). Factors significantly and independently associated with the presence of active CLBP were: female gender (OR 1.34), overweight/obesity (OR 1.27), presence of self-reported rheumatic musculoskeletal disease (RMD) (OR 2.93), anxiety symptoms (OR 2.67), age (OR 1.02) and higher number of self-reported comorbidities (OR 1.12). Active CLBP is highly prevalent in the Portuguese population and is associated with disability and with a high consumption of healthcare resources. Female gender, older age, anxiety symptoms, overweight/obesity, the presence of other RMD and the number of comorbidities were independently associated with the presence of active CLBP. These factors should be taken into account when new cohort prospective studies will be developed.

  12. Prevalence and determinants of disability among adults in Malaysia: results from the National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS) 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Noor Ani; Mohamad Kasim, Noraida; Mahmud, Nur Azna; Mohd Yusof, Yusniza; Othman, Salimah; Chan, Ying Ying; Abd Razak, Mohamad Aznuddin; Yusof, Muslimah; Omar, Maisarah; Abdul Aziz, Fazly Azry; Jamaluddin, Rasidah; Ibrahim Wong, Norazizah; Aris, Tahir

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Reliable national data on disability which is internationally comparable is needed in Malaysia. This study aims to examine the prevalence of disability among adults in Malaysia and its determinants, particularly the socioeconomic factors and comorbidities. Methods This study was based on the disability module, which is part of the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2015. This survey was implemented using a multi-stage stratified sampling design. A locally validated Washi...

  13. Prevalence of visual impairment due to uncorrected refractive error: Results from Delhi-Rapid Assessment of Visual Impairment Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senjam, Suraj Singh; Vashist, Praveen; Gupta, Noopur; Malhotra, Sumit; Misra, Vasundhara; Bhardwaj, Amit; Gupta, Vivek

    2016-05-01

    To estimate the prevalence of visual impairment (VI) due to uncorrected refractive error (URE) and to assess the barriers to utilization of services in the adult urban population of Delhi. A population-based rapid assessment of VI was conducted among people aged 40 years and above in 24 randomly selected clusters of East Delhi district. Presenting visual acuity (PVA) was assessed in each eye using Snellen's "E" chart. Pinhole examination was done if PVA was refractive error were recorded with questionnaires. Of 2421 individuals enumerated, 2331 (96%) individuals were examined. Females were 50.7% among them. The mean age of all examined subjects was 51.32 ± 10.5 years (standard deviation). VI in either eye due to URE was present in 275 individuals (11.8%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.5-13.1). URE was identified as the most common cause (53.4%) of VI. The overall prevalence of VI due to URE in the study population was 6.1% (95% CI: 5.1-7.0). The elder population as well as females were more likely to have VI due to URE (odds ratio [OR] = 12.3; P prevalence of VI due to URE among the urban adult population of Delhi is still high despite the availability of abundant eye care facilities. The majority of reported barriers are related to human behavior and attitude toward the refractive error. Understanding these aspects will help in planning appropriate strategies to eliminate VI due to URE.

  14. Prevalence of treatment-resistant hypertension and important associated factors-results from the Swedish Primary Care Cardiovascular Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmqvist, Lina; Boström, Kristina Bengtsson; Kahan, Thomas; Schiöler, Linus; Hasselström, Jan; Hjerpe, Per; Wettermark, Björn; Manhem, Karin

    2016-11-01

    We aimed to describe the prevalence, treatment, and associated comorbidity of treatment-resistant hypertension (TRH). This registry-based cohort study from The Swedish Primary Care Cardiovascular Database assessed 53,090 hypertensive patients attending primary care. Patients adherent to antihypertensive treatment measured by pharmacy fills and with proportion of days covered ≥80% were included. The prevalence of TRH was 17% when considering all current TRH definitions. Adherence to mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists differed between TRH- and non-TRH patients (8 vs. 4%). Higher frequencies (prevalence ratio and 95% confidence intervals) of diabetes mellitus (1.59, 1.53-1.66), heart failure (1.55, 1.48-1.64), atrial fibrillation (1.33, 1.27-1.40), ischemic heart disease (1.25, 1.20-1.30), and chronic kidney disease (1.38, 1.23-1.54) were seen in patients with TRH compared to patients without TRH. These findings, in a population with valid data on medication adherence, emphasize a broad preventive approach for these high-risk patients. Copyright © 2016 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevalence and Causes of Visual Impairment in Fundong District, North West Cameroon: Results of a Population-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oye, Joseph; Mactaggart, Islay; Polack, Sarah; Schmidt, Elena; Tamo, Violet; Okwen, Marvice; Kuper, Hannah

    2017-12-01

    To estimate the prevalence and causes of visual impairment in Fundong Health District, North West Cameroon. A total of 51 clusters of 80 people (all ages) were sampled with probability proportionate to size and compact segment sampling. Visual acuity (VA) was measured with a tumbling "E" chart. An ophthalmic nurse examined people with VAimpairments were assessed using clinical examination, and self-reported visual problems using the Washington Group Short Set. In total, 4080 people were enumerated of whom 3567 were screened (response rate 87%). The overall prevalence of visual impairment was 2.3% (95% CI 1.8-3.0%) and blindness was 0.6% (0.3-1.0%). The prevalence of both blindness and visual impairment increased rapidly with age, so that the vast majority of cases of visual impairment (84%) and blindness (82%) were in people aged 50+. Posterior segment disease and cataract were the main causes of blindness and visual impairment, with refractive error also an important cause of visual impairment. Cataract surgical coverage (proportion of all cataracts that had received surgery) was relatively high (87% of people at VAvisual impairment, 22% had a physical impairment or epilepsy and 30% had a hearing impairment. Self-reported difficulties in vision were relatively closely related to clinical measures of visual impairment. Ophthalmic programmes in Cameroon need to incorporate control of posterior segment diseases while also working to improve outcomes after cataract surgery.

  16. Prevalence and control of high blood pressure in primary care: results from the German Metabolic and Cardiovascular Risk Study (GEMCAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balijepalli, Chakrapani; Bramlage, Peter; Lösch, Christian; Zemmrich, Claudia; Humphries, Karin H; Moebus, Susanne

    2014-06-01

    Contemporary epidemiological data on blood pressure readings, hypertension prevalence and control in unselected patient populations covering a broad age range are scarce. The aim here is to report the prevalence of high blood pressure and to identify factors associated with blood pressure control in a large German primary care sample. We used data from the German Metabolic and Cardiovascular Risk Study including 35 869 patients aged 18-99 years. High blood pressure was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg or using antihypertensive therapy. Factors associated with blood pressure control among patients receiving antihypertensive therapy were examined using multiple logistic regressions to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. The prevalence of high blood pressure, uncontrolled high blood pressure and untreated high blood pressure was 54.8%, 21.3% and 17.6%, respectively. Age >50 years (1.52; 1.40-1.65), male sex (1.30; 1.20-1.41), elevated waist circumference (1.55; 1.45-1.65), high cholesterol (1.24; 1.16-1.33), high triglycerides (1.11; 1.04-1.19) and concomitant diabetes (1.29; 1.20-1.40) were independently associated with uncontrolled high blood pressure. In a majority of patients we observed hypertension despite treatment for high blood pressures. Studies examining the reasons for treatment failure are highly warranted.

  17. Prevalence and determinants of disability among adults in Malaysia: results from the National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS) 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Noor Ani; Mohamad Kasim, Noraida; Mahmud, Nur Azna; Mohd Yusof, Yusniza; Othman, Salimah; Chan, Ying Ying; Abd Razak, Mohamad Aznuddin; Yusof, Muslimah; Omar, Maisarah; Abdul Aziz, Fazly Azry; Jamaluddin, Rasidah; Ibrahim Wong, Norazizah; Aris, Tahir

    2017-09-29

    Reliable national data on disability which is internationally comparable is needed in Malaysia. This study aims to examine the prevalence of disability among adults in Malaysia and its determinants, particularly the socioeconomic factors and comorbidities. This study was based on the disability module, which is part of the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2015. This survey was implemented using a multi-stage stratified sampling design. A locally validated Washington Group questionnaire was used to collect data on disability. Based on the definition of having at least one domain scored "a lot of difficulty or unable to do at all" or at least "some difficulty" scored in two domains, the prevalence of disability among adults in Malaysia was 11.8% (95% CI: 11.15, 12.53). Logistic regression analysis performed showed that population at risk of having disability in Malaysia were those of older people, ethnic minority, low level of education, single, obese, physically inactive and having mental health problems. Among older people, disability was significantly higher among those with no formal education, having mental health problems and physically inactive. The prevalence of disability among adults in Malaysia is comparable to WHO estimates and most developing countries. Planning for healthcare services should consider at-risk population, particularly older people and those from disadvantaged background to ensure equity healthcare.

  18. Increased prevalence of atrial fibrillation after the Great East Japan Earthquake: Results from the Fukushima Health Management Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hitoshi; Ohira, Tetsuya; Takeishi, Yasuchika; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Yasumura, Seiji; Satoh, Hiroaki; Kawasaki, Yukihiko; Takahashi, Atsushi; Sakai, Akira; Ohtsuru, Akira; Kobashi, Gen; Ozasa, Kotaro; Yamashita, Shunichi; Kamiya, Kenji; Abe, Masafumi

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that control of cardiovascular risk factors deteriorates among residents after a natural disaster. This study assessed the hypothesis that the prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF) increased among residents in the evacuation zone of Fukushima prefecture after the Great East Japan Earthquake. This longitudinal study examined subjects aged 40-90 years using data collected from 26,163 participants (11,628 men and 14,535 women) sourced from general health checkups conducted in twelve communities, including the evacuation zone specified by the government, between 2008 and 2010. The study obtained 12-lead ECG tracings and conducted follow-up examinations from June 2011 to the end of March 2013. A total of 12,410 participants (5704 men and 6706 women, follow-up proportion: 47%) received follow-up examinations after the earthquake, with an average follow-up of 1.4 years. The prevalence of AF increased among participants after the earthquake (before: 1.9% vs. after: 2.4%, Pearthquake, with multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) of 3.07 (1.55-6.08) and 1.87 (1.19-2.94), respectively. The prevalence of AF increased among residents in the evacuation zone of Fukushima prefecture after the Great East Japan Earthquake, with excess alcohol intake and obesity associated with an increased risk of AF. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of glacial/post-glacial weathering compared with hydrothermal alteration - implications for matrix diffusion. Results from drillcore studies in porphyritic quartz monzodiorite from Aespoe SE Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landstroem, Ove [Studsvik Eco and Safety AB, Nykoeping (Sweden); Tullborg, Eva-Lena [Terralogica AB, Graabo (Sweden); Eriksson, Gunda; Sandell, Yvonne [Studsvik Nuclear AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2001-08-01

    The effects of hydrothermal + subsequent low temperature alteration and glacial/post-glacial weathering have been studied in two cores of quartz monzodiorite. One core (YA 1192) was drilled into the hydrothermally altered wall rock of a water-conducting fracture exposed at 170 m depth in the access tunnel to the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. The other one (Bas 1) was drilled from an outcrop with a glacially polished surface, 1 km north of the YA 1192 site. Both drill cores were sectioned into mm-thick slices perpendicular to the core axis. The fracture filling of the YA 1192 core, the weathered surface of the BAS 1 core and the different slices were analysed for major and trace elements and isotopes of U and Th. The altered zone of the YA 1192 core extends to approx. 2.5 cm from the fracture surface. The alteration (mainly plagioclase {yields} albite + sericite + epidote) has resulted in a higher porosity and formation of sorbing secondary minerals (e.g. sericite), favouring matrix diffusion. Increased Br concentrations in the altered zone are indicative of saline water in pores and micro fractures i.e. the presence of a diffusion medium. 234U/238U activity ratios > 1 and increased Cs in the altered zone are then interpreted as diffusion of U and Cs from fracture groundwater and subsequent sorption. The U migration is geologically recent (< 1 Ma). The 2.5 cm altered zone (corresponding to the zone of active matrix diffusion) significantly exceeds the visible red staining zone (0.5 cm) caused by hematite/FeOOH micrograins, emphasizing the need of microscopy to identify zones of alteration. The conspicuous weathering at the BAS 1 site is confined to a narrow rim of the bedrock surface (approx. 0.2-0.5 cm thick). Mass balance calculations for this rim (based on immobility of K) indicate that mechanical erosion has dominated over chemical dissolution processes (is roughly 10 times greater). The chemical weathering has affected mainly plagioclase and chlorite resulting

  20. Distribution of zeros of the S-matrix of chaotic cavities with localized losses and coherent perfect absorption: non-perturbative results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyodorov, Yan V.; Suwunnarat, Suwun; Kottos, Tsampikos

    2017-07-01

    We employ the random matrix theory framework to calculate the density of zeroes of an M-channel scattering matrix describing a chaotic cavity with a single localized absorber embedded in it. Our approach extends beyond the weak-coupling limit of the cavity with the channels and applies for any absorption strength. Importantly it provides an insight for the optimal amount of loss needed to realize a chaotic coherent perfect absorbing trap. Our predictions are tested against simulations for two types of traps: a complex network of resonators and quantum graphs.

  1. Higher self-reported prevalence of hypertension among Moluccan-Dutch than among the general population of The Netherlands: results from a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wal, Junus M; Bodewes, Adee J; Agyemang, Charles O; Kunst, Anton E

    2014-12-15

    Several studies in The Netherlands revealed ethnic disparities in hypertension prevalence, but none have focused on the Moluccan-Dutch, a migrant group from Indonesia that settled in The Netherlands in 1951. The Moluccan-Dutch are considered to be fairly well integrated in Dutch society. The aim of this study was to compare hypertension prevalence among the Moluccan-Dutch to the native Dutch and to explore the contribution of known risk factors. A health interview survey was conducted from August 2012 till March 2013 among nineteen Moluccan neighborhoods, resulting in the inclusion of 708 participants. The primary outcome variable was self-reported prevalence of hypertension. Explanatory variables were BMI, exercise, smoking, alcohol intake and mental health status. Data on the control group was extracted from the Dutch National Health Survey 2011, using a similar questionnaire. Differences in risk factor exposure were explored using Chi-square tests and the contribution of risk factors, separately and combined, was explored using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Moluccan-Dutch showed higher odds for reporting hypertension when compared to native Dutch, after adjusting for age and level of education (OR = 1.38; 95% CI = 1.13-1.69) and additional risk factors (OR = 1.49; 95% CI = 1.19-1.88). A higher prevalence of hypertension was found in both Moluccan-Dutch men (26.4% vs. 16.7%; p < 0.001) and women (26.7% vs. 17.9%; p < 0.001), when compared to the control group. Not only middle-aged, but also young Moluccan-Dutch men showed higher prevalence of hypertension. The Moluccan-Dutch may be at increased risk for reporting hypertension. These results suggest that long-term stay over several generations does not necessarily result in similar levels of hypertension prevalence as the host population.

  2. Biophysical stimulation improves clinical results of matrix-assisted autologous chondrocyte implantation in the treatment of chondral lesions of the knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collarile, Marco; Sambri, Andrea; Lullini, Giada; Cadossi, Matteo; Zorzi, Claudio

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) on clinical outcome in patients who underwent arthroscopic matrix-assisted autologous chondrocyte implantation (MACI) for chondral lesions of the knee. Thirty patients affected by grade III and IV International Cartilage Repair Society chondral lesions of the knee underwent MACI. After surgery, patients were randomly assigned to either experimental group (PEMFs 4 h per day for 60 days) or control group . Clinical outcome was evaluated through International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) subjective knee evaluation form, Visual Analog Scale, Short Form-36 (SF-36) and EuroQoL before surgery and 1, 2, 6, and 60 months postoperative. Mean size of chondral lesion was 2.4 ± 0.6 cm 2 in the PEMFs group and 2.5 ± 0.5 cm 2 in the control one. No differences were found between groups at baseline. IKDC score increased in both groups till 6 months, but afterward improvement was observed only in the experimental group with a significant difference between groups at 60 months (p = 0.001). A significant difference between groups was recorded at 60 months for SF-36 (p = 0.006) and EuroQol (p = 0.020). A significant pain reduction was observed in the experimental group at 1-, 2- and 60-month follow-up. Biophysical stimulation with PEMFs improves clinical outcome after arthroscopic MACI for chondral lesions of the knee in the short- and long-term follow-up. Biophysical stimulation should be considered as an effective tool in order to ameliorate clinical results of regenerative medicine. The use of PEMFs represents an innovative therapeutic approach for the survival of cartilage-engineered constructs and consequently the success of orthopaedic surgery. II.

  3. [Prevalence and Comorbidity of Self-Reported Diagnosis of Burnout Syndrome in the General Population - Results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maske, Ulrike E; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G; Seiffert, Ingeburg; Jacobi, Frank; Hapke, Ulfert

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence and comorbid mental disorders of self-reported diagnosis of burnout syndrome in the general population of Germany. Methods: In the German Health Interview and Examination Survey (DEGS1) self-reported diagnosis of a burnout syndrome made by a physician or psychotherapist was assessed in a standardized interview (N = 7987). For N = 4483 mental disorders were determined with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Weighted lifetime and 12-month prevalences were calculated. Results: Lifetime prevalence of diagnosed burnout syndrome was 4.2 % (women 5.2 %, men 3.3 %), 12-month prevalence was 1.5 % (women 1.9 %, men 1.1 %). Highest prevalences were found in 40 - 59 year olds, in people with middle and high socio-economic status and in women with low and men with high social support. Among the 12-month cases, 70.9 % had at least one DSM-IV disorder. Associations were found for the diagnosis of burnout syndrome with somatoform, affective and anxiety disorders. Conclusion: The diagnosis of burnout syndrome is less frequently given and reported than expected. People with a burnout diagnosis often have a manifest mental disorder. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. No further increase in the parent reported prevalence of allergies in Bavarian preschool children: Results from three cross-sectional studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Alisa; Herr, Caroline; Hendrowarsito, Lana; Meyer, Nicole; Nennstiel-Ratzel, Uta; von Mutius, Erika; Bolte, Gabriele; Colon, Diana; Kolb, Stefanie

    2016-07-01

    After three decades of an increase in the prevalence of asthma and allergies, new findings show a plateau in the prevalence of industrialized nations. The objective of this study was to determine whether there was a change in the parent reported prevalence of asthma and allergies among Bavarian preschool children since 2004. A parent questionnaire was administered as part of the Bavarian school entrance examination in three cross-sectional studies from 2004/2005, 2006/2007 and 2012/2013. The questionnaire included items on allergy testing history, identified allergens, symptoms (e.g. wheezing, itchy eyes, rash), medically diagnosed asthma, hay fever and atopic dermatitis. Logistic regression was performed to observe time patterns and adjust for risk factors. Data were available for 6350 (2004/2005), 6483 (2006/2007) and 5052 (2012/2013) individuals. Symptoms and diseases were more frequent in boys, except for allergies which affect the skin. From 2004 to 2012 the parent reported prevalence of asthma (2.6% to 2.8%), hay fever (4.7% to 4.0%) and atopic dermatitis (12.4% to 11.1%) either remained quite stable or decreased not significantly. Results from these three cross-sectional surveys of parent reports suggest that the parent reported prevalences of asthma and allergies are quite stable with small fluctuations since 2004 for Bavarian preschool children. Future research is needed to determine if this trend will continue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevalence, correlates, and treatment of lifetime suicidal behavior among adolescents: results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nock, Matthew K; Green, Jennifer Greif; Hwang, Irving; McLaughlin, Katie A; Sampson, Nancy A; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Kessler, Ronald C

    2013-03-01

    Although suicide is the third leading cause of death among US adolescents, little is known about the prevalence, correlates, or treatment of its immediate precursors, adolescent suicidal behaviors (ie, suicide ideation, plans, and attempts). To estimate the lifetime prevalence of suicidal behaviors among US adolescents and the associations of retrospectively reported, temporally primary DSM-IV disorders with the subsequent onset of suicidal behaviors. Dual-frame national sample of adolescents from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement. Face-to-face household interviews with adolescents and questionnaires for parents. A total of 6483 adolescents 13 to 18 years of age and their parents. Lifetime suicide ideation, plans, and attempts. The estimated lifetime prevalences of suicide ideation, plans, and attempts among the respondents are 12.1%, 4.0%, and 4.1%, respectively. The vast majority of adolescents with these behaviors meet lifetime criteria for at least one DSM-IV mental disorder assessed in the survey. Most temporally primary (based on retrospective age-of-onset reports) fear/anger, distress, disruptive behavior, and substance disorders significantly predict elevated odds of subsequent suicidal behaviors in bivariate models. The most consistently significant associations of these disorders are with suicide ideation, although a number of disorders are also predictors of plans and both planned and unplanned attempts among ideators. Most suicidal adolescents (>80%) receive some form of mental health treatment. In most cases (>55%), treatment starts prior to onset of suicidal behaviors but fails to prevent these behaviors from occurring. Suicidal behaviors are common among US adolescents, with rates that approach those of adults. The vast majority of youth with suicidal behaviors have preexisting mental disorders. The disorders most powerfully predicting ideation, though, are different from those most powerfully predicting conditional

  6. Self-mutilation and suicidal behaviour in children and adolescents: prevalence and psychosocial correlates: results of the BELLA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Franz; Parzer, Peter; Brunner, Romuald

    2008-12-01

    To investigate the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of suicidal behaviour in a representative sample of children and adolescents in Germany. Suicidal behaviour was assessed in the BELLA study in a sample of 2,863 families with children aged 7-17 using the corresponding questions from the child behavior check list and the youth self report. Self-reported as well as parent-reported measures of overall mental health problems, anxiety, depression, aggressive and delinquent behaviour, attention deficit-/hyperactivity as well as health-related quality of life were also administered. Self-mutilation and/or suicidal attempts within the last six months were reported by 2.9% of the adolescents 11-17 years of age. Suicidal thoughts were reported by 3.8% of the same group of adolescents. The prevalence rates reported by the parents were 1.4% for self-mutilation and/or suicidal attempts and 2.2% for suicidal thoughts. The prevalence of parent-reported self-mutilation/suicidal attempts in children below 11 years of age was very low. Youth reporting suicidal behaviour were older than youth not reporting suicidal behaviour. Children and adolescents exhibiting suicidal behaviour reported significantly more general mental health problems, depressive symptoms, anxiety, and hyperactivity as well as lower health-related quality of life. There is a strong connection between suicidal behaviour and emotional and behavioural problems, especially with symptoms of depression, anxiety and hyperactivity. The association observed between attention deficit-/hyperactivity and suicidal behaviour requires further investigation. The differences in the extent of reported suicidal behaviour in adolescents between the self- and parent-ratings and the degree of confidentiality in the collection of the data are subjects for future research.

  7. Prevalence, correlates, and comorbidities of four DSM-IV specific phobia subtypes: results from the Korean Epidemiological Catchment Area study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Sohn, Jee Hoon; Hong, Jin Pyo; Chang, Sung Man; Lee, Young Moon; Jeon, Hong Jin; Cho, Seong-Jin; Bae, Jae Nam; Lee, Jun Young; Son, Jung-Woo; Cho, Maeng Je

    2013-10-30

    Although several studies have detected differences in clinical features among specific phobias, there is a shortage of detailed national data on the on the DSM-IV SP subtypes, particularly in the Asian population. To examine the prevalence, demographic and other correlates, and co-morbidities of DSM-IV SP subtypes in a nationwide sample of Korean adults. We recruited 6510 participants aged 18-64 years for this study. Lay interviewers used the Composite International Diagnostic Interview to assess participants. We analyzed socio-demographics, health-related correlates and frequencies of comorbid mental disorders among participants with SP and each subtypes compared to unaffected adults. The prevalence of lifetime DSM-IV SP was 3.8%, and animal phobias were the most prevalent type of SP. Blood-injection-injury phobia was negatively associated with education, whereas situational phobia was positively associated with education. The strongest mental disorder comorbidity was associated with situational phobia; there is a higher probability of comorbid mood (OR=5.73, 95% CI=2.09-15.73), anxiety (OR=7.54, 95% CI=2.34-24.28), and somatoform disorders (OR=7.61, 95% CI=1.64-35.22) with this subtype. Blood-injection-injury phobia was highly associated with alcohol dependence (OR=9.02, 95% CI=3.54-23.02). Specific phobias are heterogeneous with respect to socio-demographic characteristics and comorbidity pattern. Implications of the usefulness of current subtype categories should continue to be investigated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevalence and risk of psychiatric disorders as a function of variant rape histories: results from a national survey of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinzow, Heidi M; Resnick, Heidi S; McCauley, Jenna L; Amstadter, Ananda B; Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Kilpatrick, Dean G

    2012-06-01

    Rape is an established risk factor for mental health disorders, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive episodes (MDE), and substance use disorders. The majority of studies have not differentiated substance-involved rape or examined comorbid diagnoses among victims. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of common trauma-related psychiatric disorders (and their comorbidity) in a national sample of women, with an emphasis on distinguishing between rape tactics. A secondary objective was to estimate the risk for psychiatric disorders among victims of variant rape tactics, in comparison to non-victims. A nationally representative population-based sample of 3,001 non-institutionalized, civilian, English or Spanish speaking women (aged 18-86 years) participated in a structured telephone interview assessing rape history and DSM-IV criteria for PTSD, MDE, alcohol abuse (AA), and drug abuse (DA). Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression analyses were employed. Women with rape histories involving both substance facilitation and forcible tactics reported the highest current prevalence of PTSD (36%), MDE (36%), and AA (20%). Multivariate models demonstrated that this victim group was also at highest risk for psychiatric disorders, after controlling for demographics and childhood and multiple victimization history. Women with substance-facilitated rapes reported higher prevalence of substance abuse in comparison to women with forcible rape histories. Comorbidity between PTSD and other psychiatric disorders was higher among rape victims in comparison to non-rape victims. Researchers and clinicians should assess substance-facilitated rape tactics and attend to comorbidity among rape victims. Empirically supported treatments are needed to address the complex presentations observed among women with variant rape histories.

  9. Prevalence and independent risk factors for erectile dysfunction in Spain: results of the Epidemiologia de la Disfuncion Erectil Masculina Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Morales, A; Sanchez-Cruz, J J; Saenz de Tejada, I; Rodriguez-Vela, L; Jimenez-Cruz, J F; Burgos-Rodriguez, R

    2001-08-01

    We determined the prevalence of and risks factors for erectile dysfunction in Spain in a cross-sectional study. A total of 2,476 noninstitutionalized Spanish men 25 to 70 years old were interviewed at home and answered a self-administered questionnaire of 71 items, including 2 instruments to define erectile dysfunction, a simple self-assessment question to estimate erectile function and the International Index of Erectile Function. Data on disease, medication and toxic habits were also obtained. With an overall participation rate of 75% the prevalence of erectile dysfunction according to the simple question was 12.1%. According to the erectile function domain of the International Index of Erectile Function the overall prevalence was 18.9%. Several independent risk factors were significantly associated with the probability of erectile dysfunction. Some differences arose according to the tool used to define the condition. However, there was a strong relationship of patient age with frequency or severity no matter which instrument was used to define erectile dysfunction. Diabetes (age adjusted odds ratio 4), high blood pressure (odds ratio 1.58), high cholesterol (1.63), peripheral vascular disorder (2.63), lung disease (3.11), prostate disease (2.93), cardiac problems (1.79), rheumatism (2.37) and allergy (3.08) were significantly associated with erectile dysfunction. Drug intake, which respondents called medication for nerves and sleeping pills, correlated strongly (odds ratio 2.78 and 4.27, respectively), as did tobacco use (2.5) and alcohol consumption (1.53). This study provides data on the prevalence of and risks factors for erectile dysfunction in Spain. The relationship of erectile dysfunction with certain risk factors, such as cardiovascular risk factors and drugs intake, are well known and our study corroborates these associations. Other associations with erectile dysfunction, such as prostate disease, allergy and rheumatism, support findings in previous

  10. N-CDAD in Canada: Results of the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program 1997 N-CDAD Prevalence Surveillance Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meaghen Hyland

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A 1996 preproject survey among Canadian Hospital Epidemiology Committee (CHEC sites revealed variations in the prevention, detection, management and surveillance of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD. Facilities wanted to establish national rates of nosocomially acquired CDAD (N-CDAD to understand the impact of control or prevention measures, and the burden of N-CDAD on health care resources. The CHEC, in collaboration with the Laboratory Centre for Disease Control (Health Canada and under the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program, undertook a prevalence surveillance project among selected hospitals throughout Canada.

  11. Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Irish critical care units: results of a pilot prevalence survey, June 2011.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burns, K

    2012-11-10

    The epidemiology of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) in Ireland is changing, with an increase in the number of reported cases in late 2010 and early 2011. Reported cases were predominantly linked to critical care units. In June 2011, a four-week national pilot survey took place in 40 Irish critical care units (37 adult and three paediatric) to examine the prevalence of rectal carriage of CPE and inform national CPE screening guidelines. A total of 760 screening swabs were taken over the study period, and CPE were not detected in any of the participating critical care units.

  12. Prevalence of cluster headache in the Republic of Georgia: results of a population-based study and methodological considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katsarava, Z; Dzagnidze, A; Kukava, M

    2009-01-01

    We present a study of the general-population prevalence of cluster headache in the Republic of Georgia and discuss the advantages and challenges of different methodological approaches. In a community-based survey, specially trained medical residents visited 500 adjacent households in the capital...... city, Tbilisi, and 300 households in the eastern rural area of Kakheti. They interviewed all (n = 1145) biologically unrelated adult occupants using a previously validated questionnaire. The household responses rates were 92% in Tbilisi and 100% in Kakheti. The survey identified 32 persons...... approach, which has an obvious advantage of high-quality data collection, but is very demanding of manpower and time....

  13. Cytokine-induced endogenous procollagenase stored in the extracellular matrix of soft connective tissue results in a burst of collagen breakdown following its activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, E.; Everts, V.; Beertsen, W.

    1996-01-01

    Numerous data strongly suggest the involvement of cytokines and the matrix metalloproteinase collagenase (MMP-1) in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. Recently, we have demonstrated that, upon culturing under the influence of IL-1 alpha + EGF, a large amount of inactive procollagenase (MMP-1) is

  14. The Reciprocal Pascal Matrix

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    The reciprocal Pascal matrix is the Hadamard inverse of the symmetric Pascal matrix. We show that the ordinary matrix inverse of the reciprocal Pascal matrix has integer elements. The proof uses two factorizations of the matrix of super Catalan numbers.

  15. Risk/prevention indicators for the prevalence of dental caries in schoolchildren: results from the Italian OHSAR Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perinetti, G; Caputi, S; Varvara, G

    2005-01-01

    The Italian Oral Health of Schoolchildren of the Abruzzo Region (OHSAR) Survey was designed to assess indicators associated with the prevalence of caries in both the primary and permanent dentitions in the same schoolchildren, and it comprised a representative sample of 5,938 7-, 9- and 11-year-old schoolchildren from three provinces within the region of Abruzzo, Italy, a low fluoride concentration area. Gender, age, geographic location, socioeconomic level, dietary and oral hygiene habits, and the use of F supplements were all considered as indicators. The subsequent multivariate analyses showed that the socioeconomic level, snack consumption frequency, consumption of sweets and the use of F supplements were mostly associated with caries prevalence in both dentitions. Other indicators, such as gender, age, geographic location, between-meal snack consumption frequency, consumption of sweet drinks, toothbrushing frequency and onset of regular toothbrushing habits also showed some significant associations with dental caries across the age groups and/or dentitions. Of interest, the consumption of commercial bottled mineral water was also seen to be a preventive indicator for dental caries of the primary dentition, particularly in the 7-year-old group. The consumption of sweet snacks, use of interdental floss and kind of toothbrush mainly used (manual or electric) did not show any relevant association with the outcomes. The strong effect of the geographic location, socioeconomical level and the preventive effects of commercial bottled mineral water are worth further investigation. Copyright 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Is the HIV epidemic stable among MSM in Mexico? HIV prevalence and risk behavior results from a nationally representative survey among men who have sex with men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Bautista-Arredondo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent evidence points to the apparent increase of HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men (MSM in different settings with concentrated epidemics, including the Latin American region. In 2011, Mexico implemented an ambitious HIV prevention program in all major cities, funded by the Global Fund to Fight Aids, Tuberculosis and Malaria. The program was intended to strengthen the prevention response for the most at risk populations: MSM and injecting drug users. This paper presents the HIV prevalence results of a nationally representative baseline survey in 24 Mexican cities throughout the 5 regions in the country and reports the socio-demographic and sexual risk behaviors that predict the probability of infection. METHODS: The survey was implemented in two phases. We first identified and characterized places where MSM gather in each city and then conducted in a second phase, a seroprevalence survey that included rapid HIV testing and a self-administered questionnaire. The prevalence of HIV was estimated by adjusting for positive predicted value. We applied a probit model to estimate the probability of having a positive result from the HIV test as a function of socio-demographic characteristics and self-reported sexual risk behaviors. RESULTS: We found an overall HIV prevalence among MSM gathering in meeting points of 16.9% [95% CI: 15.6-18.3], significantly higher than previously reported estimates. Our regression results suggest that the risk of infection increases with age, with the number of sexual partners, and among those who play a receptive sexual role, and the risk decreases with higher education. DISCUSSION: Our findings suggest a higher HIV prevalence among MSM than previously acknowledged and that a significant regional variability exist throughout the country. These two findings combined, signal an important dynamic in the epidemic that should be better understood and promptly addressed with strong prevention efforts

  17. Prevalence and correlates of recent injecting drug use among gay and bisexual men in Australia: Results from the FLUX study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, H; Zablotska-Manos, I; Hammoud, M; Jin, F; Lea, T; Bourne, A; Iversen, J; Bath, N; Grierson, J; Degenhardt, L; Prestage, G; Maher, L

    2018-02-08

    While illicit drug use is prevalent among gay and bisexual men (GBM) in Australia, little is known about the factors associated with injecting drug use among GBM. The Following Lives Undergoing Change (FLUX) study is a national, online prospective observational cohort investigating drug use among Australian GBM. Eligible participants were men living in Australia who were aged 16.5 years or older, identified as gay or bisexual or had sex with at least one man in the last year. We examined baseline data for associations between socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics and recent (last six months) injecting using log-binomial regression. Of 1995 eligible respondents, 206 (10.3%) reported ever injecting drugs and 93 (4.7%) had injected recently, most commonly crystal (91.4%) and speed (9.7%). Among recent injectors, only 16 (17.2%) reported injecting at least weekly; eight (8.6%) reported recent receptive syringe sharing. Self-reported HIV and HCV prevalence was higher among recent injectors than among other participants (HIV: 46.2% vs 5.0%, p drug classes (adjusted prevalence ratio (APR) = 1.31, 95% Confidence Interval (95%CI) 1.21-1.41), longer time since initiating party drug use (APR = 1.02, 95%CI 1.01-1.04), greater numbers of sex partners (2-10 sex partners: APR = 3.44, 95%CI 1.45-8.20; >10 sex partners: APR = 3.21, 95%CI 1.30-7.92), group sex (APR = 1.42, 95%CI 1.05-1.91) and condomless anal intercourse with casual partners (APR = 1.81, 95%CI 1.34-2.43) in the last six months. Observed associations between injecting and sexual risk reflect a strong relationship between these practices among GBM. The intersectionality between injecting drug use and sex partying indicates a need to integrate harm reduction interventions for GBM who inject drugs into sexual health services and targeted sexual health interventions into Needle and Syringe Programs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevalence and causes of musculoskeletal impairment in Mahabubnagar District, Telangana State, India: results of a population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smythe, Tracey; Mactaggart, Islay; Kuper, Hannah; Murthy, G V S; Lavy, Christopher; Polack, Sarah

    2017-11-01

    Musculoskeletal impairments (MSI) are the leading contributor to global years lived with disability. Comparable epidemiological data on MSI is lacking, and are needed to inform health and rehabilitative services. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and causes of MSI in Telangana State, India. A population-based survey used probability proportionate to size and compact-segment sampling to select 51 clusters of 80 individuals (all ages). Participants were screened using seven questions and any participant who screened positive underwent standardized examination by a physiotherapist for MSI presence, severity and diagnosis. Data were also collected on vision and hearing impairment, depression and self-reported difficulties with physical functioning. The prevalence of MSI was 19.6% (95% CI: 16.7-22.8%) and this increased with age. The majority (82%; 574/699) of MSI was classified as mild, 11% as moderate and 7% as severe. Over half (57%) of MSI diagnoses were acquired non-traumatic causes, with degenerative joint disease being the most common. There was a high unmet need for physiotherapy services (3% attended vs. 40% recommended). One-fifth (21%) of MSI cases also had at least one of vision (10%) or hearing (11%) impairment or depression (3%). MSI is common among persons living in Mahabubnagar District, particularly older adults. These estimates can inform public health initiatives for the planning of health and rehabilitation services. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Prevalence of drug use during sex amongst MSM in Europe: Results from a multi-site bio-behavioural survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosińska, Magdalena; Gios, Lorenzo; Nöstlinger, Christiana; Vanden Berghe, Wim; Marcus, Ulrich; Schink, Susanne; Sherriff, Nigel; Jones, Anna-Marie; Folch, Cinta; Dias, Sonia; Velicko, Inga; Mirandola, Massimo

    2018-02-02

    Substance use has been consistently reported to be more prevalent amongst Men who have Sex with Men (MSM) compared to the general population. Substance use, in particular polydrug use, has been found to be influenced by social and contextual factors and to increase the risk of unprotected intercourse among MSM. The objective of this analysis was to investigate the prevalence and predictors of drug use during a sexual encounter and to identify specific prevention needs. A multi-site bio-behavioural cross-sectional survey was implemented in 13 European cities, targeting MSM and using Time-Location Sampling and Respondent-Driven Sampling methods Multivariable multi-level logistic random-intercept model (random effect of study site) was estimated to identify factors associated with the use of alcohol, cannabis, party drugs, sexual performance enhancement drugs and chemsex drugs. Overall, 1261 (30.0%) participants reported drug use, and 436 of 3706 (11.8%) reported the use of two or more drugs during their last sexual encounter. By drug class, 966 (23.0%) reported using sexual performance enhancement drugs, 353 (8.4%) - party drugs, and 142 (3.4%) the use of chemsex drugs. Respondents who reported drug use were more frequently diagnosed with HIV (10.5% vs. 3.9%) before and with other STIs during the 12 months prior to the study (16.7% vs. 9.2%). The use of all the analysed substances was significantly associated with sexual encounter with more than one partner. Substance and polydrug use during sexual encounters occurred amongst sampled MSM across Europe although varying greatly between study sites. Different local social norms within MSM communities may be important contextual drivers of drug use, highlighting the need for innovative and multi-faceted prevention measures to reduce HIV/STI risk in the context of drug use. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders among sonographers in China: results from a national web-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Danying; Huang, Hanlin

    2017-11-25

    The aims of present study were to determine the prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs) among sonographers in China and to provide evidence for appropriate intervention measures to be taken. A self-reported questionnaire was used to screen WRMSDs experienced by sonographers during the past 12 months. This questionnaire survey was created and hosted on the WeChat official account platform for sonographers. In the present study, 567 sonographers from 521 medical institutions completed the questionnaire. The vast majority (99.3%) of respondents reported experiencing symptoms of WRMSDs for at least one body region during the past 12 months. Work-related musculoskeletal pain or discomfort was most frequently reported for the neck (95.1%), right shoulder (84.1%), lower back (82.4%), right wrist/hand (81.0%), upper back (78.1%), right forearm/elbow (72.0%), and left shoulder (66.1%). Scanning hours per day, number of patients per day, and years of experience were positively associated with the occurrence and frequency of experiencing WRMSDs of some common and specific anatomical regions. Taking a regular rest break during the scanning working day was associated with a reduction of WRMSDs of the right shoulder and right wrist/hand. Adopting a sitting posture while performing scanning was associated with a reduction of WRMSDs, particularly for the lower back and the neck. Performing regular physical activity during leisure time was associated with a reduction of WRMSDs of the neck. The prevalence of WRMSDs among sonographers in China was extremely high. It is necessary and essential to reduce the number of scanning hours and patients per day, adopt a sitting posture while performing scanning, schedule regular rest breaks during the scanning working day, and encourage performance of regular physical activity during leisure time to alleviate this WRMSD issue experienced by sonographers.

  1. Initial results of in vivo high-resolution morphological and biochemical cartilage imaging of patients after matrix-associated autologous chondrocyte transplantation (MACT) of the ankle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quirbach, Sebastian; Trattnig, Siegfried [Vienna General Hospital, MR Center - High-Field MR, Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Marlovits, Stefan; Zimmermann, Valentin [Medical University of Vienna, Center for Joint and Cartilage, Department of Trauma Surgery, Vienna (Austria); Domayer, Stephan; Dorotka, Ronald [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Vienna (Austria); Mamisch, Tallal C. [University of Berne, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Berne (Switzerland); Bohndorf, Klaus [Klinikum Augsburg, Department of Radiology, Augsburg (Germany); Welsch, Goetz H. [Vienna General Hospital, MR Center - High-Field MR, Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); University of Erlangen, Department of Trauma Surgery, Erlangen (Germany)

    2009-08-15

    The aim of this study was to use morphological as well as biochemical (T2 and T2* relaxation times and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI)) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the evaluation of healthy cartilage and cartilage repair tissue after matrix-associated autologous chondrocyte transplantation (MACT) of the ankle joint. Ten healthy volunteers (mean age, 32.4 years) and 12 patients who underwent MACT of the ankle joint (mean age, 32.8 years) were included. In order to evaluate possible maturation effects, patients were separated into short-term (6-13 months) and long-term (20-54 months) follow-up cohorts. MRI was performed on a 3.0-T magnetic resonance (MR) scanner using a new dedicated eight-channel foot-and-ankle coil. Using high-resolution morphological MRI, the magnetic resonance observation of cartilage repair tissue (MOCART) score was assessed. For biochemical MRI, T2 mapping, T2* mapping, and DWI were obtained. Region-of-interest analysis was performed within native cartilage of the volunteers and control cartilage as well as cartilage repair tissue in the patients subsequent to MACT. The overall MOCART score in patients after MACT was 73.8. T2 relaxation times ({proportional_to}50 ms), T2* relaxation times ({proportional_to}16 ms), and the diffusion constant for DWI ({proportional_to}1.3) were comparable for the healthy volunteers and the control cartilage in the patients after MACT. The cartilage repair tissue showed no significant difference in T2 and T2* relaxation times (p{>=}0.05) compared to the control cartilage; however, a significantly higher diffusivity ({proportional_to}1.5; p<0.05) was noted in the cartilage repair tissue. The obtained results suggest that besides morphological MRI and biochemical MR techniques, such as T2 and T2* mapping, DWI may also deliver additional information about the ultrastructure of cartilage and cartilage repair tissue in the ankle joint using high-field MRI, a dedicated multichannel coil, and sophisticated

  2. Capacitance matrix method in TRAC and MELPROG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinke, R.G.; Dearing, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    The capacitance matrix method has been used in the TRAC and MELPROG transient, thermal-hydraulic, safety-analysis computer programs to solve the multi-dimensional-vessel matrix equations. A full-matrix solver rather than a more efficient banded-matrix solver was used previously because of nonzero elements lying outside the matrix bandwidth. These outlying nonzero elements result from vessel external and internal pipe flow channels connecting non-adjacent cells in the multidimensional vessel component. The capacitance matrix method provides a more efficient solution algorithm by solving the banded portion of the vessel-matrix equation with a banded-matrix solver. The effect of the nonzero outlying elements on that solution is accounted for through matrix algebra and a lower order capacitance-matrix equation solution that modifies the banded-matrix solution to give the full-matrix solution. 5 refs., 2 figs

  3. Prevalence, clinical correlates and maternal psychopathology of deliberate self-harm in children and early adolescents: results from a large community study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André R. Simioni

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Little is known about the prevalence and correlates of deliberate self-harm (DSH in children from low- and middle-income countries. We investigated the prevalence of DSH and its clinical and maternal psychopathological associations in Brazilian children (n=2,508, ages 6-14y in a community-based study. Methods: Participants of the High Risk Cohort Study for the Development of Childhood Psychiatric Disorders (HRC and their mothers were assessed in structured interviews. Current (last month and lifetime DSH were estimated, including analysis stratified by age groups. Logistic regressions were performed to investigate the role of the children’s clinical diagnoses and maternal psychopathology on DSH prevalence estimates, adjusting for potential confounding factors. Results: The prevalence of current DSH was 0.8% (children 0.6%, adolescents 1% and lifetime DSH was 1.6% (1.8% and 1.5%, respectively. Current and lifetime DSH were more frequent in children with depression, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD, even in multiple models accounting for demographic variables and co-occurring psychiatric disorders. Maternal anxiety disorder was strongly associated with current and lifetime DSH in offspring; whereas current DSH, specifically in young children, was associated with maternal mood disorder. Conclusion: Diagnoses of depression, ADHD and ODD were consistently associated with DSH, as was having a mother with anxiety disorder.

  4. The Prevalence of Sexual Abuse in Institutions: Results From a Representative Population-Based Sample in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Andreas; Rassenhofer, Miriam; Allroggen, Marc; Brähler, Elmar; Plener, Paul L; Fegert, Jörg M

    2018-03-01

    The lifetime prevalence of sexual abuse in institutional settings in Germany was examined in a sample representative of the general adult population ( N = 2,437). Participants completed a survey on whether they had ever experienced such abuse, its nature (contact, noncontact, forced sexual, intercourse), the type of institution (e.g. school, club), and the relationship of perpetrator to victim (peer, caregiver, staff member). Overall, 3.1% of adult respondents (women: 4.8%, men: 0.8%) reported having experienced some type of sexual abuse in institutions. Adult women reported higher rates of all types than did men, with rates of 3.9% versus 0.8% for contact sexual abuse, 1.2% versus 0.3% for noncontact sexual abuse, and 1.7% versus 0.2% for forced sexual intercourse. We conclude that a remarkable proportion of the general population experiences sexual abuse in institutions, underscoring the need for development of protective strategies. Especially, schools seem to represent good starting points for primary prevention strategies.

  5. [Prevalence of malnutrition, interventions and quality indicators in German nursing homes - first results of a nationwide pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomeyczik, S; Reuther, S; Luft, L; van Nie, N; Meijers, J; Schols, J; Halfens, R

    2010-12-01

    The aims of this study were to test the transfer and feasibility of a Dutch annual survey on malnutrition into German nursing homes and to gather first data about the prevalence of malnutrition, treatment and quality indicators in German resident homes. A cross-sectional multicentre study, using a standardised multilevel instrument (observation, questionnaire) developed in the University of Maastricht was applied. Variables are indicators for malnutrition and its risks, quality indicators, care dependency and treatment initiatives. The sample consisted of 32 nursing homes with 2,444 participating residents. 26% of the residents show indicators of malnutrition, a risk of malnutrition can be found in another 28%. Only one quarter of the nursing homes use a standardised nutritional screening instrument. Significantly more people with dementia have indicators of malnutrition. Most facilities provide a protocol or a guideline for the prevention and treatment of malnutrition. Also most are training their staff regularly in questions of malnutrition, half the institutions employ dieticians or nutritionists. Special treatment was initiated in half of all residents having indicators of malnutrition or showing a risk. The Dutch instrument is applicable in German nursing homes. Its utilisation shows that malnutrition is still a problem in German nursing homes. The standardised assessment of nutritional status is the exception; the interventions carried out should be improved.

  6. Prevalence and risk factors of hypertension for the middle-aged population in China - results from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Fu, Chang; Yang, Fan; Mao, Zongfu

    2018-03-19

    The prevalence of hypertension in middle-aged people is increasing. However, few studies have examined the risk factors of hypertension among the middle-aged population. The aim of this study is to present the prevalence of hypertension and its risk factors for the middle-aged population in China. The data were from the third-wave national survey (2015) of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS). A total of 7,178 respondents aged 45-59 years were included in this study. Hypertension was defined as SBP ≥ 140 mmHg and/or DBP ≥ 90 mmHg or currently taking antihypertensive medicines. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify the risk factors of hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension was 29.12% (95%CI = 28.07-30.17). Hypertension was more prevalent among men than women (31.63% vs. 27.03%). Older age, higher BMI, chronic diseases, and poor health status were independently associated with hypertension in both genders (p < 0.05). Among women, college education (OR = 0.302, 95%CI = 0.152-0.598), marriage or cohabitation (OR = 0.756, 95%CI = 0.584-0.98), and drinking more than once a month (OR = 0.645, 95% = 0.498-0.836) led to a decreased likelihood of hypertension. Individuals with larger waist circumference were more likely to have hypertension (OR = 1.57, 95%CI = 1.294-1.906). Our results indicate that hypertension is highly prevalent in the middle-aged population in China. Men are more likely to have hypertension than women. Older age, higher BMI, chronic diseases and poor self-rated health are risk factors for hypertension in both genders. Large waist circumference, singleness, low educational level, and non-drinking are risk factors of hypertension among women but not among men.

  7. Prevalence of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in China, Taiwan, and South Korea: Results from a Cross-Sectional, Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapple, Christopher; Castro-Diaz, David; Chuang, Yao-Chi; Lee, Kyu-Sung; Liao, Limin; Liu, Shih-Ping; Wang, Jianye; Yoo, Tag Keun; Chu, Romeo; Sumarsono, Budiwan

    2017-08-01

    Few population-based data are available evaluating the prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in Asia. The objective of our study was to determine LUTS prevalence in China, Taiwan, and South Korea using International Continence Society (ICS) 2002 criteria. An Internet-based self-administered survey among individuals aged at least 40 years with the ability to use a computer and to read the local language. Survey questions included ICS symptom definitions and the international prostate symptom score (IPSS). Data analysis was based on descriptive statistics and post hoc significance testing. There were 8284 participants, of whom 51% were women and 34% were aged at least 60 years. LUTS prevalence was slightly higher in men than women (62.8% vs. 59.6%; p = 0.004), increasing significantly with age (p = 0.001). All three ICS symptom groups (voiding, storage, and post-micturition) were present in 35% of individuals with LUTS. Symptoms with the highest overall prevalence were nocturia, frequency, incomplete emptying, and terminal dribble. The most bothersome symptoms were terminal dribble, nocturia, and urgency. According to IPSS scores, 87% of participants had at least mild symptoms; 43% of those aged over 60 years had moderate/severe symptoms. The percentage of participants with any LUTS who had visited healthcare professionals because of urinary symptoms was 26%, rising to 45% amongst individuals with all three symptom groups (p = 0.001 vs. other ICS symptom groups). LUTS are highly prevalent in men and women aged at least 40 years who participated in this study in China, Taiwan, and South Korea and increases with increasing age. A minority of individuals with LUTS seek healthcare and our results suggest an increased patient awareness of LUTS is required. Astellas Pharma Singapore Pte. Ltd. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT02618421.

  8. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence, severity and unmet need for treatment of common mental disorders in Japan: results from the final dataset of World Mental Health Japan Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, H; Kawakami, N; Kessler, R C

    2016-06-01

    severe role impairment among chronic physical and mental disorders. These results suggest lower prevalence of mental disorders in Japan than that in Western countries, although the general pattern of disorders, risk factors and unmet need for treatment were similar to those in other countries. Greater lifetime prevalence for males and greater persistence for females seems a unique feature of Japan, suggesting a cultural difference in gender-related etiology and course of disorders. The treatment rate in Japan was lower than that in most other high-income countries in WMH surveys.

  9. The prevalence trend of metabolic syndrome and its components and risk factors in Korean adults: results from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binh Thang Tran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abnormalities in the clinical markers of metabolic syndrome (MS are associated with the development of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and some cancers. MS prevalence in Korea increased between the mid-1990s and mid-2000s; however, no data on the recent trends of MS prevalence are available. Thus, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of MS, the five components of MS, and the related risk factors in Korean adults by using recent data. Methods Data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted between 2008 and 2013 were used. The revised National Cholesterol Education Program criteria were used for defining MS. A multivariate logistic regression analyses was used to estimate the relationship between the related risk factors including behaviors, dietary factors, and the prevalence of MS. Results A total of 34,587 men and women were included in the analysis. Age-adjusted prevalence of MS in 2013 was 28.9% without a significant increasing or decreasing trend between 2008 and 2013. Among the five components of MS, abdominal obesity decreased in both men and women (annual percent change: −2.0 and −2.5%, respectively, the decrease being significant only in women, whereas blood pressure and blood glucose significantly increased in men (+1.9 and +2.7%, respectively. Age and obesity (odds ratio = 6.7, 95% confidence interval = 5.9–7.5 for body mass index ≥25 kg/m2 vs. body mass index <25 kg/m2 were associated with increased MS risk in both men and women. Smoking and alcohol drinking were significantly associated with increased MS risk in men, and association between MS and vitamin D deficiency was at the edge of statistical significance. Higher education and income level were significantly associated with decreased MS risk in women. During this period, smoking rate and physical activity, sodium intake, and serum vitamin D level significantly decreased. Education level

  10. Matrix analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bhatia, Rajendra

    1997-01-01

    A good part of matrix theory is functional analytic in spirit. This statement can be turned around. There are many problems in operator theory, where most of the complexities and subtleties are present in the finite-dimensional case. My purpose in writing this book is to present a systematic treatment of methods that are useful in the study of such problems. This book is intended for use as a text for upper division and gradu­ ate courses. Courses based on parts of the material have been given by me at the Indian Statistical Institute and at the University of Toronto (in collaboration with Chandler Davis). The book should also be useful as a reference for research workers in linear algebra, operator theory, mathe­ matical physics and numerical analysis. A possible subtitle of this book could be Matrix Inequalities. A reader who works through the book should expect to become proficient in the art of deriving such inequalities. Other authors have compared this art to that of cutting diamonds. One first has to...

  11. Human Acellular Dermal Matrix Paired With Silver-zinc Coupled Electroceutical Dressing Results in Rapid Healing of Complicated Diabetic Wounds of Mixed Etiology: A Novel Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Windy

    2016-07-01

    Patients with diabetes are well known for having difficult-to-close wounds. When additional factors are added, such as gouty tophi or tumors, the difficulty is compounded and conventional care often fails to heal the wound. In this case series, an innovative wound modality that combined a human acellular dermal matrix with a silver-zinc coupled electroceutical wound dressing was used in 3 particularly difficult and complex cases. In all 3 cases, this alternative treatment provided full healing within 6 weeks in wounds that conventional care had been unable to close in up to 2 years.

  12. Prevalence and potentially reversible factors associated with anorexia among older nursing home residents: results from the ULISSE project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Francesco; Lattanzio, Fabrizia; Dell'Aquila, Giuseppina; Eusebi, Paolo; Gasperini, Beatrice; Liperoti, Rosa; Belluigi, Andrea; Bernabei, Roberto; Cherubini, Antonio

    2013-02-01

    The principal aims of the present study were to explore the prevalence of anorexia and the factors correlated to anorexia in a large population of older people living in nursing home. Secondary, we evaluated the impact of anorexia on 1-year survival. Data are from baseline evaluation of 1904 participants enrolled in the Un Link Informatico sui Servizi Sanitari Esistenti per l'Anziano study, a project evaluating the quality of care for older persons living in an Italian nursing home. All participants underwent a standardized comprehensive evaluation using the Italian version of the inter Resident Assessment Instrument Minimum Data Set (version 2.0) for Nursing Home. We defined anorexia as the presence of lower food intake. The relationship between covariates and anorexia was estimated by deriving ORs and relative 95% CIs from multiple logistic regression models including anorexia as the dependent variable of interest. Hazard ratios and 95% CIs for mortality by anorexia were calculated. More than 12% (240 participants) of the study sample suffered from anorexia, as defined by the presence of decreased food intake or the presence of poor appetite. Participants with functional impairment, dementia, behavior problems, chewing problems, renal failure, constipation, and depression, those treated with proton pump inhibitors and opioids had a nearly 2-fold increased risk of anorexia compared with participants not affected by these syndromes. Furthermore, participants with anorexia had a higher risk of death for all causes compared with nonanorexic participants (hazard ratio 2.26, 95% CI: 2.14-2.38). The major finding is that potentially reversible causes, such as depression, pharmacologic therapies, and chewing problems, were strongly and independently associated with anorexia among frail older people living in nursing home. Furthermore, anorexia was associated with higher rate of mortality, independently of age and other clinical and functional variables. Copyright © 2013

  13. results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salabura Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available HADES experiment at GSI is the only high precision experiment probing nuclear matter in the beam energy range of a few AGeV. Pion, proton and ion beams are used to study rare dielectron and strangeness probes to diagnose properties of strongly interacting matter in this energy regime. Selected results from p + A and A + A collisions are presented and discussed.

  14. Matrix pentagons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belitsky, A. V.

    2017-10-01

    The Operator Product Expansion for null polygonal Wilson loop in planar maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory runs systematically in terms of multi-particle pentagon transitions which encode the physics of excitations propagating on the color flux tube ending on the sides of the four-dimensional contour. Their dynamics was unraveled in the past several years and culminated in a complete description of pentagons as an exact function of the 't Hooft coupling. In this paper we provide a solution for the last building block in this program, the SU(4) matrix structure arising from internal symmetry indices of scalars and fermions. This is achieved by a recursive solution of the Mirror and Watson equations obeyed by the so-called singlet pentagons and fixing the form of the twisted component in their tensor decomposition. The non-singlet, or charged, pentagons are deduced from these by a limiting procedure.

  15. Matrix pentagons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Belitsky

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Operator Product Expansion for null polygonal Wilson loop in planar maximally supersymmetric Yang–Mills theory runs systematically in terms of multi-particle pentagon transitions which encode the physics of excitations propagating on the color flux tube ending on the sides of the four-dimensional contour. Their dynamics was unraveled in the past several years and culminated in a complete description of pentagons as an exact function of the 't Hooft coupling. In this paper we provide a solution for the last building block in this program, the SU(4 matrix structure arising from internal symmetry indices of scalars and fermions. This is achieved by a recursive solution of the Mirror and Watson equations obeyed by the so-called singlet pentagons and fixing the form of the twisted component in their tensor decomposition. The non-singlet, or charged, pentagons are deduced from these by a limiting procedure.

  16. EISPACK, Subroutines for Eigenvalues, Eigenvectors, Matrix Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbow, Burton S.; Cline, A.K.; Meyering, J.

    1993-01-01

    : Driver subroutine for a nonsym. tridiag. matrix; SVD: Singular value decomposition of rectangular matrix; TINVIT: Find some vectors of sym. tridiag. matrix; TQLRAT: Find all values of sym. tridiag. matrix; TQL1: Find all values of sym. tridiag. matrix; TQL2: Find all values/vectors of sym. tridiag. matrix; TRBAK1: Back transform vectors of matrix formed by TRED1; TRBAK3: Back transform vectors of matrix formed by TRED3; TRED1: Reduce sym. matrix to sym. tridiag. matrix; TRED2: Reduce sym. matrix to sym. tridiag. matrix; TRED3: Reduce sym. packed matrix to sym. tridiag. matrix; TRIDIB: Find some values of sym. tridiag. matrix; TSTURM: Find some values/vectors of sym. tridiag. matrix. 2 - Method of solution: Almost all the algorithms used in EISPACK are based on similarity transformations. Similarity transformations based on orthogonal and unitary matrices are particularly attractive from a numerical point of view because they do not magnify any errors present in the input data or introduced during the computation. Most of the techniques employed are constructive realizations of variants of Schur's theorem, 'Any matrix can be triangularized by a unitary similarity transformation'. It is usually not possible to compute Schur's transformation with a finite number of rational arithmetic operations. Instead, the algorithms employ a potentially infinite sequence of similarity transformations in which the resultant matrix approaches an upper triangular matrix. The sequence is terminated when all of the sub-diagonal elements of the resulting matrix are less than the roundoff errors involved in the computation. The diagonal elements are then the desired approximations to the eigenvalues of the original matrix and the corresponding eigenvectors can be calculated. Special algorithms deal with symmetric matrices. QR, LR, QL, rational QR, bisection QZ, and inverse iteration methods are used

  17. Prevalence of overweight and obesity on the island of Ireland: results from the North South Survey of Children's Height, Weight and Body Mass Index, 2002.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Whelton, Helen

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is emerging as a major public health problem in developed and developing countries worldwide. The aim of this survey was to establish baseline data on the prevalence and correlates of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents in the Republic of Ireland (RoI) and Northern Ireland (NI). METHODS: The heights and weights of 19,617 school-going children and adolescents aged between 4 and 16 years in NI and RoI were measured using standardised and calibrated scales and measures. The participants were a representative cross-sectional sample of children randomly selected on the basis of age, gender and geographical location of the school attended. Overweight and obesity were classified according to standard IOTF criteria. RESULTS: Males were taller than females, children in RoI were taller than those in NI and the more affluent were taller than the less well off. The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity was higher among females than males in both jurisdictions. Overall, almost one in four boys (23% RoI and NI) and over one in four girls (28% RoI, 25% NI) were either overweight or obese. In RoI, the highest prevalence of overweight was among 13 year old girls (32%) and obesity among 7 year old girls (11%). In NI the highest prevalence of overweight and obesity were found among 11 and 8 year old girls respectively (33% and 13%). CONCLUSION: These figures confirm the emergence of the obesity epidemic among children in Ireland, a wealthy country with the European Union. The results serve to underpin the urgency of implementing broad intersectoral measures to reduce calorie intake and increase levels of physical activity, particularly among children.

  18. Prevalence of sarcopenia in Germany and the corresponding effect of osteoarthritis in females 70 years and older living in the community: results of the FORMoSA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemmler W

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Wolfgang Kemmler,1 Marc Teschler,1 Sabine Goisser,2 Michael Bebenek,1 Simon von Stengel,1 Leo Cornelius Bollheimer,2,3 Cornel C Sieber,2,3 Ellen Freiberger2 1Institute of Medical Physics, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany; 2Institute for Biomedicine of Aging, University Erlangen-Nürnberg, Nürnberg, Germany; 3Department of General Internal Medicine and Geriatrics, St John of God Hospital, Regensburg, GermanyBackground: Although sarcopenia represents a challenging burden for health care systems around the world, its prevalence in the elderly population varies widely. The primary aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of sarcopenia in community-dwelling (CD German women aged 70 years and older; the secondary aim was to assess the effect of osteoarthritis (OA on sarcopenia prevalence in this cohort.Methods: A total of 689 Caucasian females 18–35 years old and 1,325 CD females 70 years+ living in Northern Bavaria, Germany, were assessed during the initial phase of the FORMoSA research project. Anthropometry, total and regional muscle mass, were assessed by segmental multifrequency Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis. Further 10 m walking speed and handgrip strength were evaluated to apply the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People definition of sarcopenia. Covariates were determined by questionnaires and interviews.Results: Applying the algorithm of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People of two standard deviations below the mean value for appendicular skeletal muscle mass of a reference cohort of the young cohort (5.66 kg/m2, low gait speed (≤0.8 m/s, and low grip strength (<20 kg, the prevalence of sarcopenia in CD German females 70 years and older was 4.5% (70–79 years: 2.8% vs ≥80 years: 9.9%; P<0.001. Participants with OA at the hip and lower limbs (n=252 exhibited significantly higher rates of sarcopenia (OA: 9.1 vs non-OA: 3.5%. Of importance, anthropometric, demographic

  19. Prevalence of indeterminate human immunodeficiency virus western blot results in pregnant women attended at a public hospital in Presidente Prudente, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Cremonezi

    Full Text Available The AIDS epidemic is spreading rapidly among women worldwide, offering increasing opportunities for vertical transmission of HIV. In Brazil, the prevalence of HIV infection among pregnant women is less than 1%. Therefore, the positive predictive value of an HIV EIA test tends to be lower than the more frequent indeterminate Western blot result. Pregnant women receiving antenatal care, from 2000 to 2004, at a public secondary hospital in the city of Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, Brazil, were systematically screened for HIV by means of two distinct EIA tests, in order to determine the prevalence of indeterminate Western blot results among pregnant women showing discordance in both HIV EIA tests and indirect immunofluorescence assay. Confirmatory indirect immunofluorescence was performed on material for all women with positive results in both EIA tests. Whenever there were positive results in EIA and IIA, the applicant was retested by the initial screening assay. Only those not showing concordance in results in EIA and IAA had a Western blot performed. The viral load was measured in pregnant women with positive or indeterminate Western blot results. Out of 9,786 sera, 105 (1.0% were positive in the two HIV EIA screening tests, confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence. Among these women, Western blot was interpreted as indeterminate in 11 (0.1% cases and their viral load was <50 copies/mL. We found a prevalence of 0.1% HIV indeterminate Western blots in pregnant women from Presidente Prudente and the surrounding region; none of these pregnant women had positive HIV viral loads.

  20. Three-year results following regenerative periodontal surgery of advanced intrabony defects with enamel matrix derivative alone or combined with a synthetic bone graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Thomas; Al-Machot, Elyan; Meyle, Jörg; Jervøe-Storm, Pia-Merete; Jepsen, Søren

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to compare the clinical outcomes of a combination of enamel matrix derivatives (EMD) and a synthetic bone graft (biphasic calcium phosphate) with EMD alone in wide and deep one- and two-wall intrabony defects 36 months after treatment. Thirty patients with chronic periodontitis and one wide (≥ 2 mm) and deep (≥ 4 mm) intrabony defect had been recruited in three centres in Germany. During surgery, defects were randomly assigned to EMD/synthetic bone graft (SBG) (test) or EMD (control). Assessments at baseline, after 6, 12 and 36 months, included bone sounding, relative clinical attachment levels, probing pocket depths and recessions. After 36 months, defects in both groups were significantly improved (p regenerative modalities could be maintained over a period of 3 years. The combination of EMD with SBG did not show any advantage compared to the use of EMD alone.

  1. Prevalence and characteristics of sexual violence in the Netherlands, the risk of revictimization and pregnancy: results from a national population survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haas, Stans; van Berlo, Willy; Bakker, Floor; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine

    2012-01-01

    Prevalence figures on sexual violence among a representative sample of both men and women were not yet available for the Netherlands. The aim of this study, therefore, was to investigate the prevalence of sexual violence in the Netherlands and to add these figures to the international body of knowledge. Experiences of sexual violence during lifetime, before the age of 16 and in the year before the start of the study were measured. In addition, types of sexual violence were examined, as were the characteristics of the perpetrators. Lastly, revictimization and pregnancy as a result of rape experiences among the victims were investigated. Data were generated from a population survey on sexual health. The sample consisted of more than 6,000 men and women between the age of 15 and 70 years old. Prevalence rates as high as 21% for men and 56% for women were found. Fifty percent of the female victims and 30% of the male victims of child sexual abuse had experienced adult victimization. Of the female rape victims, 7% became pregnant as a consequence of rape. In the Netherlands, as elsewhere, the prevention of sexual violence should be prioritized.

  2. Prevalence, Recurrence, and Incidence of Current Depressive Symptoms among People Living with HIV in Ontario, Canada: Results from the Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study.

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    Stephanie K Y Choi

    Full Text Available Current studies of depression among people living with HIV focus on describing its point prevalence. Given the fluctuating nature of depression and its profound impacts on clinical and quality-of-life outcomes, this study aimed to examine the prevalence, recurrence and incidence of current depressive symptoms and its underlying catalysts longitudinally and systematically among these individuals.We conducted a prospective cohort study between October 1, 2007 and December 31, 2012 using longitudinal linked data sources. Current depressive symptoms was identified using the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale or the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, first at baseline and again during follow-up interviews. Multivariable regressions were used to characterize the three outcomes.Of the 3,816 HIV-positive participants, the point prevalence of depressive symptoms was estimated at 28%. Of the 957 participants who were identified with depressive symptoms at baseline and who had at least two years of follow-up, 43% had a recurrent episode. The cumulative incidence among 1,745 previously depressive symptoms free participants (at or prior to baseline was 14%. During the five-year follow-up, our multivariable models showed that participants with greater risk of recurrent cases were more likely to feel worried about their housing situation. Participants at risk of developing incident cases were also likely to be younger, gay or bisexual, and unable to afford housing-related expenses.Depressive symptoms are prevalent and likely to recur among people living with HIV. Our results support the direction of Ontario's HIV/AIDS Strategy to 2026, which addresses medical concerns associated with HIV (such as depression and the social drivers of health in order to enhance the overall well-being of people living with or at risk of HIV. Our findings reinforce the importance of providing effective mental health care and demonstrate the need for long

  3. Prevalence, correlates, disability, and comorbidity of DSM-IV narcissistic personality disorder: results from the wave 2 national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, Frederick S; Dawson, Deborah A; Goldstein, Risë B; Chou, S Patricia; Huang, Boji; Smith, Sharon M; Ruan, W June; Pulay, Attila J; Saha, Tulshi D; Pickering, Roger P; Grant, Bridget F

    2008-07-01

    To present nationally representative findings on prevalence, sociodemographic correlates, disability, and comorbidity of narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) among men and women. Face-to-face interviews with 34,653 adults participating in the Wave 2 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions conducted between 2004 and 2005 in the United States. Prevalence of lifetime NPD was 6.2%, with rates greater for men (7.7%) than for women (4.8%). NPD was significantly more prevalent among black men and women and Hispanic women, younger adults, and separated/divorced/widowed and never married adults. NPD was associated with mental disability among men but not women. High co-occurrence rates of substance use, mood, and anxiety disorders and other personality disorders were observed. With additional comorbidity controlled for, associations with bipolar I disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and schizotypal and borderline personality disorders remained significant, but weakened, among men and women. Similar associations were observed between NPD and specific phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, and bipolar II disorder among women and between NPD and alcohol abuse, alcohol dependence, drug dependence, and histrionic and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders among men. Dysthymic disorder was significantly and negatively associated with NPD. NPD is a prevalent personality disorder in the general U.S. population and is associated with considerable disability among men, whose rates exceed those of women. NPD may not be as stable as previously recognized or described in the DSM-IV. The results highlight the need for further research from numerous perspectives to identify the unique and common genetic and environmental factors underlying the disorder-specific associations with NPD observed in this study.

  4. From the third month of pregnancy to 1 year postpartum. Prevalence, incidence, recurrence, and new onset of depression. Results from the perinatal depression-research & screening unit study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banti, Susanna; Mauri, Mauro; Oppo, Annalisa; Borri, Chiara; Rambelli, Cristina; Ramacciotti, Daniele; Montagnani, Maria S; Camilleri, Valeria; Cortopassi, Sonia; Rucci, Paola; Cassano, Giovanni B

    2011-01-01

    Perinatal depression is a particular challenge to clinicians, and its prevalence estimates are difficult to compare across studies. Furthermore, to our knowledge, there are no studies that systematically assessed the incidence of perinatal depression. The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence, incidence, recurrence, and new onset of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, minor and major depression (mMD) in an unselected population of women recruited at the third month of pregnancy and followed up until the 12th month postpartum. One thousand sixty-six pregnant women were recruited. Minor and major depression was assessed in a naturalistic, longitudinal study. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Disorders were administered at different time points during pregnancy and in the postpartum period. The period prevalence of mMD was 12.4% in pregnancy and 9.6% in the postpartum period. The cumulative incidence of mMD in pregnancy and in the postpartum period was 2.2% and 6.8%, respectively. Thirty-two (7.3%) women had their first episode in the perinatal period: 1.6% had a new onset of depression during pregnancy, 5.7% in the postpartum period. Our postpartum prevalence figures, which are lower than those reported in the literature, may reflect treatment during the study, suggesting that casting a multiprofessional network around women in need of support may be potentially useful for reducing the effects of this disorder on the mother and the newborn child. Furthermore, our results indicate that women with a history of depression have a 2-fold risk of developing mMD in the perinatal period. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevalence of DSM-5 Mild Neurocognitive Disorder in Dementia-Free Older Adults: Results of the Population-Based LIFE-Adult-Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luck, Tobias; Then, Francisca S; Schroeter, Matthias L; Witte, Veronica; Engel, Christoph; Loeffler, Markus; Thiery, Joachim; Villringer, Arno; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

    2017-04-01

    The DSM-5 introduces mild neurocognitive disorder (miNCD) as a syndrome that recognizes the potential clinical importance of acquired cognitive deficits being too mild to qualify for diagnosis of dementia. We provide new empirical data on miNCD including total, age-, and sex-specific prevalence rates; number and types of neurocognitive domains being impaired; and diagnostic overlap with the well-established mild cognitive impairment (MCI) concept. Cross-sectional results of an observational cohort study (LIFE-Adult-Study). General population. A total of 1,080 dementia-free individuals, aged 60-79 years. We calculated weighted point prevalence rates with confidence intervals (95% CI) for miNCD and analyzed diagnostic overlap between miNCD and MCI by calculating overall percentage agreement and Cohen's kappa coefficient. Weighted total prevalence of miNCD was 20.3% (95% CI: 17.8-23.0). Prevalence was similar in both sexes, but significantly higher in older age. Two-thirds (66.2%) of the individuals with miNCD showed impairment restricted to only one out of six possible neurocognitive domains. Learning and memory was the most frequently (38.3%) impaired domain in all miNCD-cases, followed by social cognition (26.1%). Analysis of diagnostic overlap with MCI yielded an overall agreement of 98.6% and a kappa of 0.959. By considering all six predefined neurocognitive domains, our study observed a substantial proportion of dementia-free older adults having miNCD. Provision of information on the underlying etiology/ies may be of prime importance in future studies aiming at evaluating the clinical relevance of the miNCD syndrome. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Prevalence of Complementary and Alternative Medicine and Herbal Remedy Use in Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White Women: Results from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robin R; Santoro, Nanette; Allshouse, Amanda A; Neal-Perry, Genevieve; Derby, Carol

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use, including botanical/herbal remedies, among Hispanic and non-Hispanic white women from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN), New Jersey site. We also examined whether attitudes toward CAM and communication of its use to providers differed for Hispanic and non-Hispanic women. SWAN is a community-based, multiethnic cohort study of midlife women. At the 13th SWAN follow-up, women at the New Jersey site completed both a general CAM questionnaire and a culturally sensitive CAM questionnaire designed to capture herbal products commonly used in Hispanic/Latina communities. Prevalence of and attitudes toward CAM use were compared by race/ethnicity and demographic characteristics. Among 171 women (average age 61.8 years), the overall prevalence of herbal remedy use was high in both Hispanic and non-Hispanic white women (88.8% Hispanic and 81.3% non-Hispanic white), and prayer and herbal teas were the most common modalities used. Women reported the use of multiple herbal modalities (mean 6.6 for Hispanic and 4.0 for non-Hispanic white women; p = 0.001). Hispanic women were less likely to consider herbal treatment drugs (16% vs. 37.5%; p = 0.005) and were less likely to report sharing the use of herbal remedies with their doctors (14.4% Hispanic vs. 34% non-Hispanic white; p = 0.001). The number of modalities used was similar regardless of the number of prescription medications used. High prevalence of herbal CAM use was observed for both Hispanic and non-Hispanic white women. Results highlight the need for healthcare providers to query women regarding CAM use to identify potential interactions with traditional treatments and to determine whether CAM is used in lieu of traditional medications.

  7. Age differences in the prevalence and comorbidity of DSM-IV major depressive episodes: Results from the WHO World Mental Health Survey Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Ronald C.; Birnbaum, Howard; Shahly, Victoria; Bromet, Evelyn; Hwang, Irving; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Sampson, Nancy; Andrade, Laura Helena; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Demyttenaere, Koen; Haro, Josep Maria; Karam, Aimee N.; Kostyuchenko, Stanislav; Kovess, Viviane; Lara, Carmen; Levinson, Daphna; Matschinger, Herbert; Nakane, Yoshibumi; Browne, Mark Oakley; Ormel, Johan; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sagar, Rajesh; Stein, Dan J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Although depression appears to decrease in late life, this could be due to misattribution of depressive symptoms to physical disorders that increase in late life. Methods We investigated this issue by studying age differences in comorbidity of DSM-IV major depressive episodes (MDE) with chronic physical conditions in the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) surveys, a series of community epidemiological surveys carried out in 10 developed countries (n = 51,771) and 8 developing countries (n = 37,265). MDE and other mental disorders were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Organic exclusion rules were not used to avoid inappropriate exclusion of cases with physical comorbidity. Physical conditions were assessed with a standard chronic conditions checklist. Results Twelve-month DSM-IV/CIDI MDE was significantly less prevalent among respondents ages 65+ than younger respondents in developed but not developing countries. Prevalence of comorbid mental disorders generally either decreased or remained stable with age, while comorbidity of MDE with mental disorders generally increased with age. Prevalence of physical conditions, in comparison, generally increased with age, while comorbidity of MDE with physical conditions generally decreased with age. Depression treatment was lowest among the elderly in developed and developing countries. Conclusions The weakening associations between MDE and physical conditions with increasing age argue against the suggestion that the low estimated prevalence of MDE among the elderly is due to increased confounding with physical disorders. Future study is needed to investigate processes that might lead to a decreasing impact of physical illness on depression among the elderly. PMID:20037917

  8. Pre-existing malignancy results in increased prevalence of distinct populations of CD4+ T cells during sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jianfeng; Robertson, Jennifer M; Chen, Ching-Wen; Zhang, Wenxiao; Coopersmith, Craig M; Ford, Mandy L

    2018-01-01

    The presence of pre-existing malignancy in murine hosts results in increased immune dysregulation and risk of mortality following a septic insult. Based on the known systemic immunologic changes that occur in cancer hosts, we hypothesized that the presence of pre-existing malignancy would result in phenotypic and functional changes in CD4+ T cell responses following sepsis. In order to conduct a non-biased, unsupervised analysis of phenotypic differences between CD4+ T cell compartments, cohorts of mice were injected with LLC1 tumor cells and tumors were allowed to grow for 3 weeks. These cancer hosts and age-matched non-cancer controls were then subjected to CLP. Splenocytes were harvested at 24h post CLP and flow cytometry and SPADE (Spanning-tree Progression Analysis of Density-normalized Events) were used to analyze populations of CD4+ cells most different between the two groups. Results indicated that relative to non-cancer controls, cancer mice contained more resting memory CD4+ T cells, more activated CD4+ effectors, and fewer naïve CD4+ T cells during sepsis, suggesting that the CD4+ T cell compartment in cancer septic hosts is one of increased activation and differentiation. Moreover, cancer septic animals exhibited expansion of two distinct subsets of CD4+ T cells relative to previously healthy septic controls. Specifically, we identified increases in both a PD-1hi population and a distinct 2B4hi BTLAhi LAG-3hi population in cancer septic animals. By combining phenotypic analysis of exhaustion markers with functional analysis of cytokine production, we found that PD-1+ CD4+ cells in cancer hosts failed to make any cytokines following CLP, while the 2B4+ PD-1lo cells in cancer mice secreted increased TNF during sepsis. In sum, the immunophenotypic landscape of cancer septic animals is characterized by both increased CD4+ T cell activation and exhaustion, findings that may underlie the observed increased mortality in mice with pre-existing malignancy

  9. Pre-existing malignancy results in increased prevalence of distinct populations of CD4+ T cells during sepsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Xie

    Full Text Available The presence of pre-existing malignancy in murine hosts results in increased immune dysregulation and risk of mortality following a septic insult. Based on the known systemic immunologic changes that occur in cancer hosts, we hypothesized that the presence of pre-existing malignancy would result in phenotypic and functional changes in CD4+ T cell responses following sepsis. In order to conduct a non-biased, unsupervised analysis of phenotypic differences between CD4+ T cell compartments, cohorts of mice were injected with LLC1 tumor cells and tumors were allowed to grow for 3 weeks. These cancer hosts and age-matched non-cancer controls were then subjected to CLP. Splenocytes were harvested at 24h post CLP and flow cytometry and SPADE (Spanning-tree Progression Analysis of Density-normalized Events were used to analyze populations of CD4+ cells most different between the two groups. Results indicated that relative to non-cancer controls, cancer mice contained more resting memory CD4+ T cells, more activated CD4+ effectors, and fewer naïve CD4+ T cells during sepsis, suggesting that the CD4+ T cell compartment in cancer septic hosts is one of increased activation and differentiation. Moreover, cancer septic animals exhibited expansion of two distinct subsets of CD4+ T cells relative to previously healthy septic controls. Specifically, we identified increases in both a PD-1hi population and a distinct 2B4hi BTLAhi LAG-3hi population in cancer septic animals. By combining phenotypic analysis of exhaustion markers with functional analysis of cytokine production, we found that PD-1+ CD4+ cells in cancer hosts failed to make any cytokines following CLP, while the 2B4+ PD-1lo cells in cancer mice secreted increased TNF during sepsis. In sum, the immunophenotypic landscape of cancer septic animals is characterized by both increased CD4+ T cell activation and exhaustion, findings that may underlie the observed increased mortality in mice with pre

  10. Meta-analysis of the prevalence of asthma-like symptoms and asthma in Russia (according to the results of ISAAC

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    B. Ts. Batozhargalova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The representative data of the results of epidemiological surveys (the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood, ISAAC were selected during a meta-analysis of the 1994–2013 published investigations estimating the prevalence of asthmalike and asthma among 7–8- and 13–14‑year-old children in Russia. Phase I ISAAC was conducted in 1993 to 2000, which covered 96241 schoolchildren (57185 children aged 13–14 years and 39056 ones aged 7–8 years from 17 regional centers of Russia. The prevalence of asthma-like symptoms in Russia in 1993–2000 in both groups was comparable with the worldwide average and northeast European rates. According to the results of Phase II ISAAC, the prevalence of asthma in Russia averaged 5,3% in 13–14‑year-old adolescents and 4,7% in 7–8‑year-old first formers. Phase III ISAAC was performed in 2001 to 2008. Group 3A included studies done in the Novosibirsk center only. Over 6 years, the old age group showed a steady-state trend for an annual increment in asthma-like symptoms, such as severe attacks with speaking-related dyspnea by 0,15% per year, as well as nocturnal cough by 0,42% per year. The parents of the first formers more frequently reported that their children were diagnosed with asthma (an annual increase of 0,15%. Both age groups displayed average annual reductions of 0,5 and 0,37% in bronchospasm symptoms in response to exercise. Based on the results of Phase 3B study, it is pertinent to note that there is a slight change in the prevalence of asthma-like symptoms and asthma in Russia’s children in the past 20 years.

  11. Prevalence and Determinants of Appropriate Health Seeking Behaviour among Known Diabetics: Results from a Community-Based Survey

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    Sheleaswani Inche Zainal Abidin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Living with diabetes requires patients to have good self-monitoring of their disease and treatment. Appropriate health seeking behavior is important to minimize complications and improve quality of life. Methodology. A community-based, cross-sectional study of disease events and experiences from diagnosis to the time of study was conducted among 460 known diabetics in Tanjong Karang district. The aim of this study was to describe the current pattern of health seeking behavior and its determinants among rural communities. Appropriate diabetic health services utilization was defined as using modern treatment either through oral hypoglycemics or insulin injections, obtained from either a public or private health facility. Result. 85.9% of respondents reported having appropriate health seeking behaviour at the time of the house-to-house community survey. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that appropriate health seeking behaviour was significantly associated with age of respondent, presence of comorbidity, family history of diabetes, distance from health facilities, perceived family support, and history of early treatment seeking at diagnosis and duration of disease. Conclusion. The present population has better appropriate health seeking behavior and provision of knowledge with strong family support in diabetic care which are important in control and prevention of diabetic complication that need to be emphasized.

  12. Hypertension prevalence and living conditions related to air pollution: results of a national epidemiological study in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salameh, Pascale; Chahine, Mirna; Hallit, Souheil; Farah, Rita; Zeidan, Rouba Karen; Asmar, Roland; Hosseiny, Hassan

    2018-02-13

    Hypertension is a risk factor of several diseases, linked to high mortality and morbidity, particularly in developing countries. Some studies have linked indoor and outdoor pollution exposure items to hypertension, but results were inconsistent. Our objective was to assess the association of living conditions related to air pollution to hypertension in Lebanon, a Middle Eastern country. A national cross-sectional study was conducted all over Lebanon. Blood pressure and its related medications were assessed to be able to classify participants as hypertensive or not. Moreover, in addition to living conditions related to air pollution exposure, we assessed potential predictors of hypertension, including sociodemographic characteristics, self-reported health information and biological measurements. Furthermore, we assessed dose-effect relationship of air pollution items in relation with hypertension. Living conditions related to indoor and outdoor air pollution exposures were associated with hypertension, with or without taking biological values into account. Moreover, we found a dose-effect relationship of exposure with risk of disease (15% increase in risk of disease for every additional pollution exposure item), after adjustment for sociodemographics and biological characteristics (Ora = 1.15 [1.03-1.28]). Although additional studies would be necessary to confirm these findings, interventions should start to sensitize the population about the effect of air pollution on chronic diseases. The work on reducing pollution and improving air quality should be implemented to decrease the disease burden on the population and health system.

  13. Results after two years of non-operative treatment of occlusal surface in children with high caries prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maltz Marisa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the 2-year results of an individualized treatment program designed to control occlusal caries in erupting first permanent molars. The sample consisted of 145 five-to-six-year-old students divided into a control group (n=71 and a test group (n=74. All test children received a biannual basic preventive program and a recall system according to individual disease activity. The basic program consisted of 3 (March and 2 (August sessions of oral hygiene orientation and toothbrushing with fluoride gel. The analysis of the baseline and 1-2-year data showed a significant reduction in the number of active lesions in the test group. In the control group, there were initially 70 active lesions and after two years 68 surfaces remained with disease and 24 surfaces had been filled. The children in the test group had 80 surfaces with active lesions initially and after two years only 3 surfaces with disease remained. From the 15 cavitated lesions, only 5 surfaces needed to be filled. This program showed that care of erupting teeth on an individualized basis can control occlusal caries.

  14. How to Study a Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jairam, Dharmananda; Kiewra, Kenneth A.; Kauffman, Douglas F.; Zhao, Ruomeng

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated how best to study a matrix. Fifty-three participants studied a matrix topically (1 column at a time), categorically (1 row at a time), or in a unified way (all at once). Results revealed that categorical and unified study produced higher: (a) performance on relationship and fact tests, (b) study material satisfaction, and…

  15. Association of Baseline Depressive Symptoms with Prevalent and Incident Pre-Hypertension and Hypertension in Postmenopausal Hispanic Women: Results from the Women's Health Initiative.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth E Zambrana

    Full Text Available Depression and depressive symptoms are risk factors for hypertension (HTN and cardiovascular disease (CVD. Hispanic women have higher rates of depressive symptoms compared to other racial/ethnic groups yet few studies have investigated its association with incident prehypertension and hypertension among postmenopausal Hispanic women. This study aims to assess if an association exists between baseline depression and incident hypertension at 3 years follow-up among postmenopausal Hispanic women.Prospective cohort study, Women's Health Initiative (WHI, included 4,680 Hispanic women who participated in the observational and clinical trial studies at baseline and at third-year follow-up. Baseline current depressive symptoms and past depression history were measured as well as important correlates of depression-social support, optimism, life events and caregiving. Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate prevalent and incident prehypertension and hypertension in relation to depressive symptoms.Prevalence of current baseline depression ranged from 26% to 28% by hypertension category and education moderated these rates. In age-adjusted models, women with depression were more likely to be hypertensive (OR = 1.25; 95% CI 1.04-1.51, although results were attenuated when adjusting for covariates. Depression at baseline in normotensive Hispanic women was associated with incident hypertension at year 3 follow-up (OR = 1.74; 95% CI 1.10-2.74 after adjustment for insurance and behavioral factors. However, further adjustment for clinical covariates attenuated the association. Analyses of psychosocial variables correlated with depression but did not alter findings. Low rates of antidepressant medication usage were also reported.In the largest longitudinal study to date of older Hispanic women which included physiologic, behavioral and psychosocial moderators of depression, there was no association between baseline depressive symptoms and prevalent nor

  16. Prevalences of scabies and pediculosis corporis among homeless people in the Paris region: results from two randomized cross-sectional surveys (HYTPEAC study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, A; Chosidow, O; Détrez, M-A; Bitar, D; Huber, F; Foulet, F; Le Strat, Y; Vandentorren, S

    2016-01-01

    Dermatological infections constitute the most common health problem in the homeless population. To estimate the prevalences of scabies and pediculosis corporis and to identify associated factors in the homeless population. Two randomized cross-sectional surveys were performed, one on the homeless population sleeping in public places in Paris, and the other on the homeless population in various shelters in the Ile-de-France administrative region. Overall 341 and 667 people, respectively, were interviewed about sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle and hygiene practices, and were examined by a nurse. In individuals sleeping in public places the prevalence of scabies was estimated at 6·5% [95% confidence interval (CI) 0·5-12·5] and for pediculosis corporis at 5·4% (95% CI 1·7-9·1). For those sleeping in shelters these values were 0·4% (95% CI 0·1-1·8) and 0·15% (95% CI 0·0-9·7), respectively (P < 0·01 in both cases). In public places, after multivariate analysis, being a woman, citing squats among the three main types of accommodation and not possessing a sleeping bag were significantly associated with diagnosis of scabies. Likewise, begging, a history of pubic lice, and not taking showers in municipal baths were associated with pediculosis corporis in public places. Firstly, this study highlights the real existence of two distinct subpopulations having different sociodemographic characteristics, with specific lifestyles and practices, and with different prevalences of ectoparasitism. Secondly, the results of the multivariate analyses will help the implementation of specific actions targeting the group of people who sleep in public places. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  17. Prevalence of Chronic Illness and Health Seeking Behaviour in Malaysian Population: Results from the Third National Health Morbidity Survey (NHMS III) 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amal, N M; Paramesarvathy, R; Tee, G H; Gurpreet, K; Karuthan, C

    2011-03-01

    The third National Health Morbidity Survey was conducted in 2006 on a nationally representative sample of population in Malaysia in order to obtain community-based data and information on the prevalence of chronic illness. Of 57,500 eligible respondents 56710 (98.6%) participated in the study. Estimated overall prevalence of chronic illness in the Malaysian population within a recall period of one year was 15.5% (95% CI 15.1% - 15.9%). Chronic illness was reported significantly higher among the females, 16.8% (16.3 - 17.3). The most common chronic illness was hypertension (7.9%, 7.6 - 8.2), followed by diabetes mellitus (4.0%, 3.8 - 4.2) and highest reported by the Indians (19.7%, 18.4 - 21.0). Among the respondents who had sought treatment for chronic illness from government health facilities, Malays (65.8%) and those with monthly household income of less than RM400 (76.6%) were the highest. Chinese (44.5%) and those with household income of RM5000 and above (54.3%) were the highest groups who sought treatment from the private health facilities. Most of the respondents reported mild illness was the main reason for not seeking treatment for their chronic illness. It is hoped that the results of this survey will help the Ministry of Health Malaysia to enhance health programmes and planning resource allocation in order to improve health status of the population.

  18. Prevalence of ovarian adrenal rest tumours and polycystic ovaries in females with congenital adrenal hyperplasia: results of ultrasonography and MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stikkelbroeck, Nike M.M.L.; Schouten, Diana; Otten, Barto J.; Hermus, Ad R.M.M.; Suliman, Harold M.; Jager, Gerrit J.; Braat, Didi D.M.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the investigation was to assess the prevalence of ovarian adrenal rest tumours and polycystic ovaries in female patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). Thirteen female CAH patients (median age 19.8 years, range 14.8-23.5 years) underwent transvaginal (n=6) or transabdominal (n=7) ultrasonography by a gynaecologist and MR imaging (n=13) of the ovaries (pre and post contrast-enhanced T1- and T2-weighted images). Ovarian adrenal rest tumours were defined as small hypoechoic and multifocal nodules on ultrasound and isointense lesions on T1- and hypointense on T2-weighted MR images (derived from characteristics of testicular adrenal rest tumours). Polycystic ovaries were defined as the presence of ≥10 follicles arranged peripherally around or scattered throughout increased stroma. No ovarian adrenal rest tumours were found either on ultrasound, or by MR imaging. Polycystic ovaries were found in 2 of the 13 patients (15.4%), both with ultrasound and MR. No ovarian adrenal rest tumours were detected in these female CAH patients, which suggests that ovarian adrenal rest tumours in CAH females are rare. The prevalence of polycystic ovaries corresponded to that in the general population. From these results, we would suggest that routine ovarian imaging in CAH females is not indicated. However, when ovarian dysfunction is present, ovarian imaging is advised, first by ultrasonography, to detect ovarian adrenal rest tumours or polycystic ovaries. (orig.)

  19. Prevalence of and risk factors for methamphetamine use in northern Thai youth: results of an audio-computer-assisted self-interviewing survey with urine testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattah, Martin V; Supawitkul, Somsak; Dondero, Timothy J; Kilmarx, Peter H; Young, Nancy L; Mastro, Timothy D; Chaikummao, Supaporn; Manopaiboon, Chomnad; Griensven, Frits van

    2002-07-01

    Data from drug treatment facilities, drug seizures and drug arrests suggest rapidly increasing methamphetamine use by adolescents in Thailand. However, limited quantitative data are available about the prevalence of its use or correlates of use. The purpose of our study was therefore to estimate the prevalence of methamphetamine use and to identify possible risk factors. Cross-sectional survey using anonymous audio-computer-assisted self-interview and urine specimen analysis. Chiang Rai Province, Thailand. 1725 students, 15-21 years of age (893 male and 832 female) attending one of three vocational schools in Chiang Rai Province. Three hundred and fifty male and 150 female students reported a history of having ever used methamphetamine. In addition, 128 male and 49 female students had positive urine test results, indicating recent methamphetamine use; 27 of these students denied having ever used methamphetamine. According to history, urine test, or both, 41.3% of male students and 19.0% of female students used methamphetamine. In multivariate analysis, methamphetamine use was highly correlated with the use of other substances, sexual activity, peer pressure, positive attitudes toward methamphetamine, and absence of a family confidant. Methamphetamine use is common among adolescent students in northern Thailand. Demographic, behavioral and psychosocial correlates of methamphetamine use identified in this study may be helpful for the design and implementation of preventive interventions.

  20. Prevalence and Correlates of Pain in People Aged 60 Years and above in Singapore: Results from the WiSE Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratika Satghare

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although pain is experienced among people of all ages, there is a need to study its risk factors and impact among older adults. Aims. The study sought to determine the prevalence, sociodemographics, and clinical correlates of pain along with association of pain with disability among older adults in Singapore. Methods. The WiSE study was a comprehensive cross-sectional, single phase, epidemiological survey conducted among the elderly aged 60 years and above and used a nationally representative sample of three main ethnic groups in Singapore: Chinese, Malays, and Indians. The survey administered 10/66 protocol pain questionnaire, sociodemographic questionnaire, health status questionnaire, World Health Organization Disability Assessment Scale (WHODAS 2.0, and Geriatric Mental State (GMS examination. Results. A total of 2565 respondents completed the study giving a response rate of 65.5%. The prevalence of pain among the elderly aged 60 years and above is 19.5 %. Females, incomplete primary education Indians, and those diagnosed with any chronic health condition were associated with risk of pain and disability. Conclusion. Study findings showed that disability related to pain among the elderly is considerable making it a priority to reduce the morbidity and disability among the elderly with pain.

  1. Prevalence of undiagnosed abnormal glucose tolerance in adult patients cared for by general practitioners in Hungary. Results of a risk-stratified screening based on FINDRISC questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Gábor; Hidvégi, Tibor; Vándorfi, Győző; Balogh, Sándor; Jermendy, György

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus is rapidly increasing, worldwide and also in Hungary. Timely diagnosis and early treatment could be aided by targeted screening. Recognizing this, the Hungarian Diabetes Association initiated a risk-stratified screening with the involvement of primary care physicians. Material/Methods In the first phase of screening, the FINDRISC questionnaire was completed, followed by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) for those with a score of ≥12. Between September 1, 2010 and March 31, 2011, 70,432 non-diabetic adults, who visited their general practitioners for any reason, were involved in the screening. Of these, 68,476 questionnaires proved to be suitable for processing. Results From the questionnaires, 28,077 (41.0%) had a score of ≥12. A valid OGTT was performed in 22,846 cases; of this group 3,217 subjects (14.1%) had elevated fasting glucose levels, 5,663 (24.8%) had impaired glucose tolerance, and 1,750 (7.6%) had manifest, previously undiagnosed, diabetes mellitus. Overall, from the valid OGTT group, 46.5% subjects had some degree of glucose intolerance. Conclusions Based on the FINDRISC questionnaire, the risk-stratified screening for diabetes mellitus proved to be simple and cost-effective method for the early detection of carbohydrate metabolism disorders. Using this method, the prevalence rate of previously undiagnosed abnormal glucose tolerance was high in adult patients cared for by general practitioners in Hungary. PMID:23344680

  2. Prevalência de metástases oculares em pacientes com doença metastática reconhecida: resultados preliminares Prevalence of ocular metastasis in patients with known metastatic disease: preliminary results

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    Zélia Maria da Silva Corrêa

    2005-04-01

    prospective fashion, the prevalence of intraocular metastasis: most frequent primary tumors and ocular tissue most frequently compromised by metastasis. METHODS: In-patients with malignant neoplasm and metastatic disease from a tertiary Oncology Hospital (HSR were consecutively evaluated between January 2001 and July 2002. All patients underwent complete ophthalmologic examination, including indirect ophthalmoscopy under pharmacological mydriasis using a 28 diopter-lens and, in cases suspicious of neoplasia, ultrasonography and fluorescein angiography were performed. Those cases of diagnostic uncertainty were submited to fine needle aspiration biopsy. The diagnosis of metastatic ocular tumor was established based on the clinical features and the results of the mentioned ancillary studies. RESULTS: The 100 studied patients presented ages between 17 and 87 years, 71 being females and 29 males. There was a predominance of Caucasian individuals (n=88 in this group. Twenty-one patients presented ocular lesions suggestive of metastasis. The primary malignancy originating ocular metastasis most frequently was breast cancer (28.6%. Evaluating the tumor type separately, lung cancer presented a highest prevalence of metastasis to the eye (71.5%. The choroid was involved in 57% of the cases and the main ocular complaint of these patients was blurring or decrease in vision. There was no difference in the frequency of involvement between the right and the left eye. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of ocular metastasis in patients with malignancy and metastatic disease seemed significant in the studied group. The neoplasms more frequently causing ocular metastasis were: breast and lung carcinoma, and the choroid was involved more frequently.

  3. Preliminary results in single-step wound closure procedure of full-thickness facial burns in children by using the collagen-elastin matrix and review of pediatric facial burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demircan, Mehmet; Cicek, Tugrul; Yetis, Muhammed Ikbal

    2015-09-01

    Management of full-thickness facial burns remains one of the greatest challenges. Controversy exists among surgeons regarding the use of early excision for facial burns. Unfortunately, delayed excision of deeper burns often results in more scarring and subsequent reconstruction becomes more difficult. A collagen-elastin matrix is used to improve the quality of the reconstructed skin, to reduce scarring and to prevent wound contraction. It serves as a foundation for split thickness skin graft and enhances short and long-term results. We report the usage of a collagen-elastin matrix during single-step wound closure technique of severe full-thickness facial burns in 15 children with large burned body surface area, and also we review the literature about pediatric facial burns. There were 15 pediatric patients with severe facial burns, 8 girls and 7 boys ranging in age from 10 months to 12 years, mean age 7 years and 6 months old. The facial burn surface area (FBSA) among the patients includes seven patients with 100%, five with 75%, and three with 50%. The average total body surface area (TBSA) for the patients was 72%, ranging between 50 and 90%. 5 of the patients' admissions were late, more than four days after burns while the rest of the patients were admitted within the first four days (acute admission time). The burns were caused by flame in eight of the patients, bomb blast in four, and scalding in three. All patients were treated by the simultaneous application of the collagen-elastin matrix and an unmeshed split thickness skin graft at Turgut Özal Medical Center, Pediatric Burn Center, Malatya, Turkey. After the treatment only two patients needed a second operation for revision of the grafts. All grafts transplanted to the face survived. The average Vancouver scar scales (VSS) were 2.55±1.42, ranging between one and six, in the first 10 of 15 patients at the end of 6 months postoperatively. VSS measurements of the last 5 patients were not taken since the 6

  4. Prevalence of cutipositivity in a sample of homeless shelter population in Rome in the course of Latent Tuberculosis Infection surveillance plan. Preliminary results

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    Patrizia Laurenti

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: in Europe homelessness is a known risk factor both for active and latent tuberculosis (TB. In Rome 409 cases of TB were notified in 2004, but the real occurrence among homeless people is unknown. Tuberculosis surveillance has been organized with the aim to develop an integrated model for the risk evaluation and management of both Latent Tuberculosis infections (LTBI and TB in Rome homeless people.

    Methods: the eligible individuals have been recruited in the homeless’ refuges. The Tuberculin Mantoux test has been used to evaluate the infection prevalence; in case of a positive result, the individual’s expectorate has been collected and the chest X-ray has been performed. A collecting data form has been filled in for evaluating some risk factors. Multiple logistic regression models have been carried out to find statistically significant determinants of infection.

    Results: out of 120 subjects recruited, 108 came back for the evaluation of the skin test; the prevalence of LTBI was 43.5% (47/108 subjects; no active TB cases were found. According to the multivariate analysis, factors significantly associated to LTBI are gender (for males OR = 4.94; 95% CI: 1.46 – 16.67, 1st model; OR 5.84; 95% CI: 1.26 – 21.10, 2nd model, birth place (for Europe: OR 3.05; 95% CI: 1.02 – 9.13, 1st model; OR 3.12; 95% CI: 1.10 – 8.88, 2nd model; for East Mediterranean native Region OR = 4.34; 95%CI: 1.15-16.39; Body Mass Index class (for obesity OR = 3.34; 95% CI:1.31-8.51.

    Conclusions: these preliminary results have demonstrated a high prevalence of LTBI among homeless people. Male gender, birth place (Europe and East Mediterranean native Region and obesity were found to be significant risk factors. The surveillance system allowed positive patients for LTBI to be rapidly directed to a specialized centre for the clinical evaluation and the appropriate therapy

  5. Strategy BMT Al-Ittihad Using Matrix IE, Matrix SWOT 8K, Matrix SPACE and Matrix TWOS

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    Nofrizal Nofrizal

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to formulate and select BMT Al-Ittihad Rumbai strategy to face the changing of business environment both from internal environment such as organization resources, finance, member and external business such as competitor, economy, politics and others. This research method used Analysis of EFAS, IFAS, IE Matrix, SWOT-8K Matrix, SPACE Matrix and TWOS Matrix. our hope from this research it can assist BMT Al-Ittihad in formulating and selecting strategies for the sustainability of BMT Al-Ittihad in the future. The sample in this research is using purposive sampling technique that is the manager and leader of BMT Al-IttihadRumbaiPekanbaru. The result of this research shows that the position of BMT Al-Ittihad using IE Matrix, SWOT-8K Matrix and SPACE Matrix is in growth position, stabilization and aggressive. The choice of strategy after using TWOS Matrix is market penetration, market development, vertical integration, horizontal integration, and stabilization (careful.

  6. The Prevalence of Hemoglobinopathies in Young Adolescents in the Province of Muğla in Turkey: Results of a Screening Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topal, Yaşar; Topal, Hatice; Ceyhan, Mustafa Nuri; Azik, Fatih; Çapanoğlu, Murat; Kocabaş, Can Naci

    2015-01-01

    Thalassemia is an autosomal recessive inherited blood disorder. It is prevalent in Mediterranean countries such as Sardinia, Greece, Cyprus, Turkey, Lebanon and also Southeast Asia. Our aim was to investigate the carrier prevalence of thalassemia and other hemoglobinopathies in adolescents who live in Muğla Province, Turkey. We analyzed retrospectively the surveys conducted at primary schools between 1997 and 2013. Complete blood count (CBC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were used to screen for thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies. Patients were diagnosed as having thalassemia trait if the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) was ≤ 80.0 fL, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (Hb) was ≤ 27.0 pg and Hb A2 levels were ≥ 3.5%. A total of 164,814 students were analyzed. The median age of the students was 13.5 years (minimum 13.0, maximum 14.0). The total number of students with abnormal HPLC results was 5861 (3.8%). There was a significant decrease in the newborn of new thalassemia patients found with screening programs for hemoglobinopathies in Muğla Province from 1997 to 2013. The number of students with abnormal HPLC results for thalassemia, sickle cell disease and other Hb traits were 3.2, 0.15 and 0.4%, respectively. It is important to recognize that including Hb, MCV, red blood cell (RBC) count and HPLC tests for carrier screening are necessary to find hemoglobinopathies. Our study supported that the number of new patients significantly decreased using these screening programs from 1997 to 2013.

  7. Prevalence of Newborn Intensive Care Unit-Acquired, Healthcare-Associated Blood-Stream Infections in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Patients: Results From The First National Point-Prevalence Survey

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    Eren Cagan

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: This national multicenter study documented the high prevalence of NICU-acquired infections. Preventing these infections should be national priority. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(1.000: 119-128

  8. Prevalence and risk factors of poor sleep quality among Chinese elderly in an urban community: results from the Shanghai aging study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Luo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sleep disorders causes a significant negative effect on mental and physical health, particularly among the elderly. The disease burden and risk factors of poor sleep quality of the elderly need to be verified using a validated form of measurement in urban mainland China. METHODS: This study included 1086 community residents aged ≥ 60 years who completed the Chinese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (CPSQI. Poor sleeper was defined by a CPSQI global score of >5. Subjects also accepted the neurological and neuropsychological assessments, including the Mini-Mental State Examination, Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, and Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (ZSAS. A history of chronic diseases was confirmed by the medical records of each participant. RESULTS: The prevalence of poor sleep quality in this population was 41.5% (95% confidence interval (CI = 38.6-44.5%, with a higher rate observed in elderly females (45.8% [95% CI = 41.9-49.7%] than that in elderly males (35.8% [95% CI = 31.4-40.1%]. The prevalence rate increased with age, from 32.1% (95% CI = 27.8-36.4% in those aged 60-69 years to 52.5% (95% CI = 45.9-59.1% in those aged ≥ 80 years (p value for trend<0.001. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that age (OR = 1.03[95% CI = 1.01-1.05], p<0.001, less education duration (OR = 1.04 [95% CI = 1.01-1.08, p = 0.014, living alone (OR = 1.62 [95% CI = 1.02-2.58], p = 0.04, anxiety (ZSAS score: OR = 1.09 [95% CI = 1.05-1.12], p<0.001, number of chronic disease (OR = 1.18 [95% CI = 1.07-1.30], p = 0.14 and arthritis (OR = 1.45[95% CI = 1.05-2.01], p = 0.025 were risk factors of poor sleep quality. CONCLUSIONS: Poor sleep quality is highly prevalent among elderly Chinese residents in urban Shanghai. Growing attention and comprehensive countermeasures involving psycho-social and personal activities might alleviate the sleep problem in the elderly.

  9. Risk behaviors of 15–21 year olds in Mexico lead to a high prevalence of sexually transmitted infections: results of a survey in disadvantaged urban areas

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    Conde-Glez Carlos J

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the fact that adolescents are more likely to participate in high-risk behaviors, this sector of the population is particularly vulnerable to contracting sexually transmitted infections (STIs and resultant health problems. Methods A survey was carried out among adolescents from poor homes in 204 small-urban areas of Mexico. Information was collected in relation to risk behaviors and socio-economic environment. A sub-group of the participants also provided blood and urine samples which were analyzed to detect sexually transmitted infections. Results The presence of Chlamydia was detected in nearly 8% of participants who had stated that they were sexually active (18% and approximately 12% were positive for herpes type 2-specific antibodies. For both, a greater proportion of girls resulted positive compared to boys. The presence of these biological outcomes of sexual risk behavior was associated with other risk behaviors (smoking, but not with self-reported indicators of protected sex (reported use of condom during most recent sexual activity. Conclusion The results presented in this study show a startlingly high prevalence of HSV-2 among sexually active Mexican adolescents in poor urban areas, suggesting that this group has participated to a great extent in risky sexual practices. The relationships between socioeconomic environment and adolescent risk behavior need to be better understood if we are to design preventive interventions that modify the determinants of risk behaviors.

  10. Chemical composition analysis and product consistency tests to support enhanced Hanford waste glass models. Results for the third set of high alumina outer layer matrix glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-12-01

    In this report, the Savannah River National Laboratory provides chemical analyses and Product Consistency Test (PCT) results for 14 simulated high level waste glasses fabricated by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The results of these analyses will be used as part of efforts to revise or extend the validation regions of the current Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant glass property models to cover a broader span of waste compositions. The measured chemical composition data are reported and compared with the targeted values for each component for each glass. All of the measured sums of oxides for the study glasses fell within the interval of 96.9 to 100.8 wt %, indicating recovery of all components. Comparisons of the targeted and measured chemical compositions showed that the measured values for the glasses met the targeted concentrations within 10% for those components present at more than 5 wt %. The PCT results were normalized to both the targeted and measured compositions of the study glasses. Several of the glasses exhibited increases in normalized concentrations (NCi) after the canister centerline cooled (CCC) heat treatment. Five of the glasses, after the CCC heat treatment, had NCB values that exceeded that of the Environmental Assessment (EA) benchmark glass. These results can be combined with additional characterization, including X-ray diffraction, to determine the cause of the higher release rates.

  11. Paths correlation matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Weixian; Zhou, Xiaojun; Lu, Yingcheng; Xu, Jiang

    2015-09-15

    Both the Jones and Mueller matrices encounter difficulties when physically modeling mixed materials or rough surfaces due to the complexity of light-matter interactions. To address these issues, we derived a matrix called the paths correlation matrix (PCM), which is a probabilistic mixture of Jones matrices of every light propagation path. Because PCM is related to actual light propagation paths, it is well suited for physical modeling. Experiments were performed, and the reflection PCM of a mixture of polypropylene and graphite was measured. The PCM of the mixed sample was accurately decomposed into pure polypropylene's single reflection, pure graphite's single reflection, and depolarization caused by multiple reflections, which is consistent with the theoretical derivation. Reflection parameters of rough surface can be calculated from PCM decomposition, and the results fit well with the theoretical calculations provided by the Fresnel equations. These theoretical and experimental analyses verify that PCM is an efficient way to physically model light-matter interactions.

  12. The impact of hospital and ICU organizational factors on outcome in critically ill patients: results from the Extended Prevalence of Infection in Intensive Care study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sakr, Yasser; Moreira, Cora L.; Rhodes, Andrew; Ferguson, Niall D.; Kleinpell, Ruth; Pickkers, Peter; Kuiper, Michael A.; Lipman, Jeffrey; Vincent, Jean-Louis

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the impact of various facets of ICU organization on outcome in a large cohort of ICU patients from different geographic regions. International, multicenter, observational study. All 1,265 ICUs in 75 countries that contributed to the 1-day point prevalence Extended Prevalence of

  13. Construction of covariance matrix for experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Tingjin; Zhang Jianhua

    1992-01-01

    For evaluators and experimenters, the information is complete only in the case when the covariance matrix is given. The covariance matrix of the indirectly measured data has been constructed and discussed. As an example, the covariance matrix of 23 Na(n, 2n) cross section is constructed. A reasonable result is obtained

  14. Matrix Encryption Scheme

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    Abdelhakim Chillali

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In classical cryptography, the Hill cipher is a polygraphic substitution cipher based on linear algebra. In this work, we proposed a new problem applicable to the public key cryptography, based on the Matrices, called “Matrix discrete logarithm problem”, it uses certain elements formed by matrices whose coefficients are elements in a finite field. We have constructed an abelian group and, for the cryptographic part in this unreliable group, we then perform the computation corresponding to the algebraic equations, Returning the encrypted result to a receiver. Upon receipt of the result, the receiver can retrieve the sender’s clear message by performing the inverse calculation.

  15. Development of a 32-detector CdTe matrix for the SVOM ECLAIRs x/gamma camera: tests results of first flight models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacombe, K.; Dezalay, J.-P.; Houret, B.; Amoros, C.; Atteia, J.-L.; Aubaret, K.; Billot, M.; Bordon, S.; Cordier, B.; Delaigue, S.; Galliano, M.; Gevin, O.; Godet, O.; Gonzalez, F.; Guillemot, Ph.; Limousin, O.; Mercier, K.; Nasser, G.; Pons, R.; Rambaud, D.; Ramon, P.; Waegebaert, V.

    2016-07-01

    ECLAIRs, a 2-D coded-mask imaging camera on-board the Sino-French SVOM space mission, will detect and locate gamma-ray bursts in near real time in the 4 - 150 keV energy band in a large field of view. The design of ECLAIRs has been driven by the objective to reach an unprecedented low-energy threshold of 4 keV. The detection plane is an assembly of 6400 Schottky CdTe detectors of size 4x4x1 mm3, biased from -200V to -500V and operated at -20°C. The low-energy threshold is achieved thanks to an innovative hybrid module composed of a thick film ceramic holding 32 CdTe detectors ("Detectors Ceramics"), associated to an HTCC ceramic housing a low-noise 32-channel ASIC ("ASIC Ceramics"). We manage the coupling between Detectors Ceramics and ASIC Ceramics in order to achieve the best performance and ensure the uniformity of the detection plane. In this paper, we describe the complete hybrid XRDPIX, of which 50 flight models have been manufactured by the SAGEM company. Afterwards, we show test results obtained on Detectors Ceramics, on ASIC Ceramics and on the modules once assembled. Then, we compare and confront detectors leakage currents and ASIC ENC with the energy threshold values and FWHM measured on XRDPIX modules at the temperature of -20°C by using a calibrated radioactive source of 241Am. Finally, we study the homogeneity of the spectral properties of the 32-detector hybrid matrices and we conclude on general performance of more than 1000 detection channels which may reach the lowenergy threshold of 4 keV required for the future ECLAIRs space camera.

  16. Efficiency criterion for teleportation via channel matrix, measurement matrix and collapsed matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Wei Zha

    Full Text Available In this paper, three kinds of coefficient matrixes (channel matrix, measurement matrix, collapsed matrix associated with the pure state for teleportation are presented, the general relation among channel matrix, measurement matrix and collapsed matrix is obtained. In addition, a criterion for judging whether a state can be teleported successfully is given, depending on the relation between the number of parameter of an unknown state and the rank of the collapsed matrix. Keywords: Channel matrix, Measurement matrix, Collapsed matrix, Teleportation

  17. High prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing pathogens: results of a surveillance study in two hospitals in Ujjain, India

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    Pathak A

    2012-04-01

    to ciprofloxacin (81%, cotrimoxazole (76%, and levofloxacin (60%.Conclusion: Our results showed a high prevalence of ESBL among Gram-negative bacterial isolates and a high prevalence of MRSA among S. aureus isolates. Carbapenems provided the broadest coverage for Gram-negative bacteria, while glycopeptides were the most effective against MRSA; however, both classes of drugs need to be used judiciously. This study will help in planning future antibiotic stewardship programs.Keywords: antibiotic susceptibility, surveillance, extended-spectrum β-lactamases, India

  18. Prevalence and correlates of being bullied among in-school adolescents in Beijing: results from the 2003 Beijing Global School-Based Health Survey

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    Muula Adamson S

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bullying has public health importance. It has been reported that both the victims and perpetrators of bullying are more likely to have suicidal ideation and other suicidal behaviours. Moreover, bullying can be a precursor for school violence and can contribute to poor academic performance. The purpose of the study was to raise awareness on the subject in China. We, therefore conducted an analysis of secondary data to determine the prevalence and correlates of having been bullied among in-school adolescents. Methods The data was taken from the Beijing Global School-Based Health Survey conducted in 2003. A weighted analysis to reduce bias due to differing patterns of non-response was conducted using statistical software (SPSS version 14.0. We conducted a backward logistic regression analysis to determine independent predictors for being bullied. Results Out of a total of 2,348 in-school adolescents who participated in the survey, 20% (23% males, and 17% females reported having been bullied. Risk factors for having been bullied were loneliness (adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 1.44; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.42–1.45, being worried (AOR = 1.30; 95% CI 1.29–1.32, being sad or having feelings of hopelessness (AOR = 1.21; 95% CI 1.19–1.22, smoking cigarettes (AOR = 1.09; 95% CI 1.08–1.11, drinking alcohol (AOR = 1.31; 95% CI 1.29–1.32, and being truant (AOR = 1.24; 95% CI 1.22–1.27. Meanwhile protective factors were having close friends (AOR = 0.84; 95% CI 0.83–0.86, receiving parental supervision (AOR = 0.80; 95% CI 0.80–0.81, and ever been drunk (AOR = 0.86; 95% CI 0.84–0.87. Conclusion We believe the results of this study will raise awareness among school health practitioners and administrators, paediatric psychiatrists and psychologists on the prevalence and correlates of bullying among adolescents in Beijing, China.

  19. High Prevalence but Insufficient Treatment of Iron-Deficiency Anemia in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Results of a Population-Based Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Claudia; Liebold, Anne; Takses, Angela; Strauch, Ulrike G.; Obermeier, Florian

    2012-01-01

    Background. Iron-deficiency anemia is described to be a common problem in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which is frequently associated with a reduced quality of life. Therefore, the aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in a population-based cohort at time of first diagnosis and during the early course of the disease. Methods. As far as available, lab values of patients registered in the population-based “Oberpfalz cohort” were screened. In anemic patients, we further investigated all laboratory results to differentiate between iron deficiency and other reasons for anemia. All patients with any kind of anemia were interviewed separately according to symptoms of iron-deficiency anemia and administration of iron. Results. In total, we evaluated hemoglobin values of 279 patients (183 Crohn's disease, 90 ulcerative colitis, and 6 indeterminate colitis). Lab data which allowed further differentiation of the type of anemia were available in 70% of anemic patients, in 34.4% values of iron, ferritin and transferrin saturation had been measured. At time of first diagnosis, an iron-deficiency anemia was diagnosed in 26 of 68 patients with anemia (38.2%, 20 CD, 4 UC, and 2 IC patients), but only 9 patients (34.6%) received subsequent iron therapy. After one year, 27 patients were identified to have an iron-deficiency anemia (19 CD, 8 UC), 20 of them were treated with iron (71.4%). Of 9 patients with proven iron-deficiency anemia at time of first diagnosis and subsequent administration of iron, 5 (55.5%) had iron-deficiency anemia despite permanent treatment after one year. In total, 38 patients (54.3%) did not receive any iron substitution at all despite of proven iron-deficiency anemia, and only 13 patients of 74 patients were treated with intravenous iron (17.6%). Conclusion. We found a high prevalence of iron-deficiency anemia at different points during the early course of disease in this population-based cohort of

  20. Extended biorthogonal matrix polynomials

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    Ayman Shehata

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The pair of biorthogonal matrix polynomials for commutative matrices were first introduced by Varma and Tasdelen in [22]. The main aim of this paper is to extend the properties of the pair of biorthogonal matrix polynomials of Varma and Tasdelen and certain generating matrix functions, finite series, some matrix recurrence relations, several important properties of matrix differential recurrence relations, biorthogonality relations and matrix differential equation for the pair of biorthogonal matrix polynomials J(A,B n (x, k and K(A,B n (x, k are discussed. For the matrix polynomials J(A,B n (x, k, various families of bilinear and bilateral generating matrix functions are constructed in the sequel.

  1. A matrix lower bound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grcar, Joseph F.

    2002-02-04

    A matrix lower bound is defined that generalizes ideas apparently due to S. Banach and J. von Neumann. The matrix lower bound has a natural interpretation in functional analysis, and it satisfies many of the properties that von Neumann stated for it in a restricted case. Applications for the matrix lower bound are demonstrated in several areas. In linear algebra, the matrix lower bound of a full rank matrix equals the distance to the set of rank-deficient matrices. In numerical analysis, the ratio of the matrix norm to the matrix lower bound is a condition number for all consistent systems of linear equations. In optimization theory, the matrix lower bound suggests an identity for a class of min-max problems. In real analysis, a recursive construction that depends on the matrix lower bound shows that the level sets of continuously differential functions lie asymptotically near those of their tangents.

  2. Prevalence of symptoms of eczema in Latin America: results of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) Phase 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé, D; Mallol, J; Wandalsen, G F; Aguirre, V

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) was to evaluate the prevalence of symptoms of eczema among children living in different parts of Latin America. Data were from centers that participated in ISAAC Phase 3. This was a cross-sectional questionnaire survey of 93,851 schoolchildren (6 to 7 years old) from 35 centers in 14 Latin American countries and 165,917 adolescents (13 to 14 years old) from 56 centers in 17 Latin American countries. The mean prevalence of current flexural eczema in schoolchildren was 11.3%, ranging from 3.2% in Ciudad Victoria (Mexico) to 25.0% in Barranquilla (Colombia). For adolescents, the prevalence varied from 3.4% in Santo André (Brazil) to 30.2% in Barranquilla (mean prevalence, 10.6%). The mean prevalence of current symptoms of severe eczema among schoolchildren was 1.5%, ranging from 0.3% in Ciudad Victoria, Toluca, and Cuernavaca (Mexico) to 4.9% in La Habana (Cuba). For adolescents, the mean prevalence was 1.4%, ranging from 0.1% in Mexicali Valley (Mexico) to 4.2% in Santa Cruz (Bolivia). These prevalence values are among the highest observed during ISAAC Phase 3. In general, the prevalence of current symptoms of eczema was higher among the Spanish-speaking centers for both schoolchildren and adolescents. Environmental risk factors must be evaluated in order to identify potential causes for the differences observed, even in centers from the same country.

  3. Prevalence of Insulin Pump Therapy and Its Association with Measures of Glycemic Control: Results from the Canadian Study of Longevity in Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulet, Geneviève; Halpern, Elise M; Lovblom, Leif E; Weisman, Alanna; Bai, Johnny-Wei; Eldelekli, Devrim; Keenan, Hillary A; Brent, Michael H; Paul, Narinder; Bril, Vera; Cherney, David Z I; Perkins, Bruce A

    2016-05-01

    We aimed to determine cross-sectional insulin pump prevalence and factors associated with measures of glycemic control as a secondary analysis in a long-standing type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) national cohort. Canadian participants with ≥50 years of T1DM (n = 305) were administered a comprehensive mail-based questionnaire including acquisition of contemporaneous laboratory results. Factors associated with pump use, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and hypoglycemia were analyzed by regression. The 305 participants had a median age of 65 [interquartile range, 59, 71] years, median diabetes duration of 54 [51, 59] years, and mean HbA1c level of 7.5 ± 1.1%. Prevalence of pump use was 44% (133/305), with median duration of use 8 [4, 13] years. Compared with the non-pump subgroup, the pump subgroup had numerically lower but similar HbA1c levels (7.4 ± 0.9% vs. 7.6 ± 1.2%; P = 0.22) and reported greater numbers of minor hypoglycemia events (6.5 vs. 5.1 events/patient·month; P = 0.004) and fewer severe hypoglycemia events (0.5 vs. 1.3 events/patient·year; P = 0.02) in the past year. More frequent daily glucose tests and more frequent minor hypoglycemia events-but not pump therapy or its prescription parameters-were independently associated with lower HbA1c level in multivariable regression. However, use of insulin pump and habitual use of continuous glucose monitoring (≥1 week/month) were each independently associated with lower risk of severe hypoglycemia (risk ratio = 0.50 [P Insulin pump and continuous glucose monitoring technologies were associated with lower risk of severe hypoglycemia, while frequent daily glucose testing was associated with lower HbA1c level. These findings imply that basic self-management skill and technology play complementary roles in glycemic control among older adults with long-standing T1DM.

  4. Prevalence and correlates of being bullied among in-school adolescents in Beijing: results from the 2003 Beijing Global School-Based Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazemba, Alice; Siziya, Seter; Muula, Adamson S; Rudatsikira, Emmanuel

    2008-04-02

    Bullying has public health importance. It has been reported that both the victims and perpetrators of bullying are more likely to have suicidal ideation and other suicidal behaviours. Moreover, bullying can be a precursor for school violence and can contribute to poor academic performance. The purpose of the study was to raise awareness on the subject in China. We, therefore conducted an analysis of secondary data to determine the prevalence and correlates of having been bullied among in-school adolescents. The data was taken from the Beijing Global School-Based Health Survey conducted in 2003. A weighted analysis to reduce bias due to differing patterns of non-response was conducted using statistical software (SPSS version 14.0). We conducted a backward logistic regression analysis to determine independent predictors for being bullied. Out of a total of 2,348 in-school adolescents who participated in the survey, 20% (23% males, and 17% females) reported having been bullied. Risk factors for having been bullied were loneliness (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.44; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.42-1.45), being worried (AOR = 1.30; 95% CI 1.29-1.32), being sad or having feelings of hopelessness (AOR = 1.21; 95% CI 1.19-1.22), smoking cigarettes (AOR = 1.09; 95% CI 1.08-1.11), drinking alcohol (AOR = 1.31; 95% CI 1.29-1.32), and being truant (AOR = 1.24; 95% CI 1.22-1.27). Meanwhile protective factors were having close friends (AOR = 0.84; 95% CI 0.83-0.86), receiving parental supervision (AOR = 0.80; 95% CI 0.80-0.81), and ever been drunk (AOR = 0.86; 95% CI 0.84-0.87). We believe the results of this study will raise awareness among school health practitioners and administrators, paediatric psychiatrists and psychologists on the prevalence and correlates of bullying among adolescents in Beijing, China.

  5. Prevalence and risk factors of caregiver reported Severe Early Childhood Caries in Manitoba First Nations children: results from the RHS Phase 2 (2008–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Schroth

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The high prevalence and severity of caries among Canadian First Nations children is a growing concern. Dental surgery in hospital is often necessary to treat the signs of decay but does not address the underlying factors contributing to its development. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of caregiver-reported Baby Bottle Tooth Decay (BBTD, or Severe Early Childhood Caries (S-ECC, among preschool children recruited in Phase 2 of the First Nations Regional Longitudinal Health Survey (RHS. Study Design. Cross-sectional study including interviews with caregivers. Methods. This study was limited to data from Manitoba First Nations participating in the RHS Phase 2 (2008–10. Data were restricted to caregiver interviews for their child <72 months of age. The main variable of interest was caregiver-reported BBTD, an antecedent term for S-ECC. Data analysis included descriptive statistics and bivariate analyses; p≤0.05 was significant. Results. Overall, caregivers of 431 preschool children responded. According to caregiver reports, 102/410 (24.9% children had S-ECC. Further, 65.0% responded that their child had already undergone treatment for caries. Children with S-ECC were significantly older than those without. S-ECC was also associated with paternal education levels and employment status, and maternal smoking during pregnancy. Breastfed children were less likely to have S-ECC, while consuming drink crystal beverages in bottles, and daily intake of soft drinks, juice, sweets and fast food were associated with increased risk. Those who reported that healthcare services were not available and were not culturally appropriate were significantly more likely to have children with S-ECC. Conclusions. Caregiver reports suggest that nearly 1 in every 4 children has been affected by S-ECC. Identified risk factors for Manitoba First Nations children included age, education and employment, dietary practices

  6. [Prevalence of risk health behavior among adolescents: results from the 2009 National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Sardinha, Luciana Monteiro Vasconcelos; Mendes, Isabel; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Giatti, Luana; Castro, Inês Rugani Ribeiro de; Moura, Lenildo de; Dias, Antonio José Ribeiro; Crespo, Claudio

    2010-10-01

    Adolescence is typically a developmental phase characterized by change and experimentation and therefore varying exposure to health hazards. We aimed at estimating the prevalence of protective and risk health behaviors of adolescents interviewed in the 2009 National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE). PeNSE, a partnership between the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE) and the Ministry of Health, using a PDA-based self-administered questionnaire collected information on 60,973 students enrolled at 1,453 public and private schools in the 27 state capitals and the Federal District. Among the food items most often consumed ( > or = 5 days per week), were beans (62.6%) and fruit (31.5%), but also sweets (58.3%) and soft drinks (37%), 43.1% of the students were sufficiently physically active but 79.5% spent >2 hours per day in front of the TV. As for drug use, 6.3% reported being current tobacco smokers, 27% drank alcoholic beverages regularly and 8.7% had used illicit drugs at least once. These results should guide stakeholders and policy makers in the development and implementation of programs and recommendations aimed at curtailing unhealthy exposures of adolescents in Brazil.

  7. Prevalence of gluten-free diet adherence among individuals without celiac disease in the USA: results from the Continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGiacomo, Daniel V; Tennyson, Christina A; Green, Peter H; Demmer, Ryan T

    2013-08-01

    Clinical inference suggests the prevalence of non-celiac gluten sensitivity is substantially higher than that of celiac disease in the USA. Unfortunately, there are currently no data supporting these claims. The authors analyzed nationally representative data to estimate the prevalence of adherence to a gluten-free diet among participants without celiac disease and also to characterize the demographics and general health status of these participants. The Continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2009-2010 enrolled 7762 individuals representing the civilian, non-institutionalized, US population free of celiac disease. Participants responded to interviewer administered questionnaires regarding current adherence to a gluten-free diet. Prevalence estimates were computed using SAS survey procedures. There were 49 individuals who reported current adherence to a gluten-free diet reflecting a weighted prevalence of 0.548% (95% CI 0.206-0.889). The prevalence of a gluten-free diet was higher in females (0.58%) than males (0.37%), although this was not statistically significant (p = 0.34). Participants reporting a gluten-free diet were older (46.6 vs. 40.5 years, p = 0.005), had higher high-density lipoprotein, lower iron and lower body mass index. The estimated national prevalence of non-celiac gluten sensitivity is 0.548%, approximately half that of celiac disease. Future studies are merited in order to better understand the population burden of non-celiac gluten sensitivity.

  8. Radiation resistant ceramic matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.H.; Steiner, D.; Heinisch, H.L.; Newsome, G.A.; Kerch, H.M.

    1997-01-01

    Ceramic matrix composites are of interest for nuclear applications because of their high-temperature properties, corrosion resistance, fracture toughness relative to monolithic ceramics, and low neutron activation and after heat. Evaluations of the radiation resistance of commercially available SiC/SiC composites have revealed their promise for this application, but also the need for further development to achieve the desired performance. This paper summarizes the results of a workshop cosponsored by the Offices of Fusion Energy and Basic Energy Sciences of the US Department of Energy and Lockheed-Martin Corporation with forty attendees from national laboratories, universities and industry. A number of promising routes for optimizing the radiation stability of ceramic matrix composites were identified at this workshop. These routes included the newer, more stoichiometric fibers and alternate fiber/matrix interfaces and matrix processing routes. (orig.)

  9. Matrix string partition function

    CERN Document Server

    Kostov, Ivan K; Kostov, Ivan K.; Vanhove, Pierre

    1998-01-01

    We evaluate quasiclassically the Ramond partition function of Euclidean D=10 U(N) super Yang-Mills theory reduced to a two-dimensional torus. The result can be interpreted in terms of free strings wrapping the space-time torus, as expected from the point of view of Matrix string theory. We demonstrate that, when extrapolated to the ultraviolet limit (small area of the torus), the quasiclassical expressions reproduce exactly the recently obtained expression for the partition of the completely reduced SYM theory, including the overall numerical factor. This is an evidence that our quasiclassical calculation might be exact.

  10. Transition Matrix Cluster Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Yevick, David; Lee, Yong Hwan

    2018-01-01

    We demonstrate that a series of simple procedures for increasing the efficiency of transition matrix calculations can be realized by integrating the standard single-spin reversal transition matrix method with global cluster inversion techniques.

  11. The Matrix Cookbook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kaare Brandt; Pedersen, Michael Syskind

    Matrix identities, relations and approximations. A desktop reference for quick overview of mathematics of matrices.......Matrix identities, relations and approximations. A desktop reference for quick overview of mathematics of matrices....

  12. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease among adults in a rural community in South India: Results from the kidney disease screening (KIDS project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y J Anupama

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD appears to be increasing in India. A few studies have studied the prevalence of CKD in urban populations, but there is a paucity of such studies in the rural populations. This project was undertaken to study the prevalence of CKD among adults in a rural population near Shimoga, Karnataka and to study the risk factor profile. Door-to-door screening of 2091 people aged 18 and above was carried out. Demographic and anthropometric data were obtained, urine was analyzed for protein by dipstick and serum creatinine was measured in all participants. Glomerular filtration rate was estimated (eGFR using the 4-variable modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD equation and Cockcroft-Gault equation corrected to the body surface area (CG-BSA. The total number of subjects studied was 2091. Mean age was 39.88 ± 15.87 years. 45.57% were males. The prevalence of proteinuria was 2.8%. CKD was seen in 131 (6.3% subjects when GFR was estimated by MDRD equation. The prevalence of CKD was 16.54% by the CG-BSA method. There was a statistically significant relationship of CKD with gender, advancing age, abdominal obesity, smoking, presence of diabetes and hypertension. The prevalence of CKD is higher compared to the previous studies from rural India and is comparable to that in the studies from the urban Indian populations. The wide difference between the CKD prevalence between MDRD and CG-BSA equations suggests the need for a better measure of kidney function applicable to Indian population.

  13. The Prevalence of Renal Failure. Results from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults, 2008-2011 (DEGS1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girndt, Matthias; Trocchi, Pietro; Scheidt-Nave, Christa; Markau, Silke; Stang, Andreas

    2016-02-12

    The prevalence of non-end stage renal failure among adults in Germany is unknown. Accurate figures would enable us to estimate the overall need for kidney replacement therapies and the unexploited potential for disease prevention. Renal failure is also an important cardiovascular risk factor. Until now, American prevalence figures have often been applied to Germany despite dissimilarities between the two populations. We analyzed data on renal function from the nationwide German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults, 2008-2011 (DEGS1), which was carried out by the Robert Koch Institute. The glomerular filtration rate was estimated (eGFR) from the serum creatinine and cystatin C levels (CKD-EPI formula) and a semiquantitative measure of albuminuria. Relationships between renal failure and its possible determinants were quantified with adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Roughly 2.3% (95% CI: [1.9; 2.6 ]) of persons aged 18-79 had an eGFR below 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. The prevalence rose with age. We extrapolated these figures conservatively to persons aged 80 and above, who were not included in the DEGS1, and arrived at a figure of at least 2 million persons in Germany with renal failure. 11.5% of the population have albuminuria of at least 30 mg/L. Diabetes mellitus (PR = 2.25, 95% CI: [1.59; 3.16]) and arterial hypertension (PR = 3.46, 95% CI: [1.95; 6.12]) are important determinants. This study provides the first representative estimate of the prevalence of renal failure in Germany. The condition is highly dependent on age but less prevalent than previously assumed on the basis of American prevalence figures.

  14. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 syndromes (MEN 2): results from the ItaMEN network analysis on the prevalence of different genotypes and phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romei, Cristina; Mariotti, Stefano; Fugazzola, Laura; Taccaliti, Augusto; Pacini, Furio; Opocher, Giuseppe; Mian, Caterina; Castellano, Maurizio; degli Uberti, Ettore; Ceccherini, Isabella; Cremonini, Nadia; Seregni, Ettore; Orlandi, Fabio; Ferolla, Piero; Puxeddu, Efisio; Giorgino, Francesco; Colao, Annamaria; Loli, Paola; Bondi, Fabio; Cosci, Barbara; Bottici, Valeria; Cappai, Antonello; Pinna, Giovanni; Persani, Luca; Verga, Uberta; Uberta, Verga; Boscaro, Marco; Castagna, Maria Grazia; Cappelli, Carlo; Zatelli, Maria Chiara; Faggiano, Antongiulio; Francia, Giuseppe; Brandi, Maria Luisa; Falchetti, Alberto; Pinchera, Aldo; Elisei, Rossella

    2010-08-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN 2) is a genetic disease characterized by medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) associated (MEN 2A and 2B) or not familial MTC (FMTC) with other endocrine neoplasia due to germline RET gene mutations. The prevalence of these rare genetic diseases and their corresponding RET mutations are unknown due to the small size of the study population. We collected data on germline RET mutations of 250 families with hereditary MTC followed in 20 different Italian centres. The most frequent RET amino acid substitution was Val804Met (19.6%) followed by Cys634Arg (13.6%). A total of 40 different germline RET mutations were present. Six families (2.4%) were negative for germline RET mutations. The comparison of the prevalence of RET germline mutations in the present study with those published by other European studies showed a higher prevalence of Val804Met and Ser891Ala mutations and a lower prevalence of Leu790Phe and Tyr791Phe (P<0.0001). A statistically significant higher prevalence of mutations affecting non-cysteine codons was also found (P<0.0001). Furthermore, the phenotype data collection showed an unexpected higher prevalence of FMTC (57.6%) with respect to other MEN 2 syndromes (34% MEN 2A and 6.8% of MEN 2B). In conclusion, we observed a statistically significant different pattern of RET mutations in Italian MEN 2 families with respect to other European studies and a higher prevalence of FMTC phenotype. The different ethnic origins of the patients and the particular attention given to analysing apparently sporadic MTC for RET germline mutations may explain these findings.

  15. [Malnutrition and dementia in the elderly in German nursing homes. Results of a prevalence survey from the years 2008 and 2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuther, S; van Nie, N; Meijers, J; Halfens, R; Bartholomeyczik, S

    2013-04-01

    Dementia is one of most challenging problems for the care of older people in Germany. Although malnutrition in nursing homes is also associated with dementia, few systematic studies have described health care structures in German nursing homes for people with dementia and their individual nutritional status. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine dementia-specific differences concerning the nutrition situation for the elderly in German nursing homes. A cross-sectional multicenter study was performed using a standardized multilevel instrument (observation, questionnaire) developed at the University of Maastricht. Variables are indicators for malnutrition and its risks, quality indicators, care dependency and types of interventions. In the 2008 and 2009 surveys, 53% of 4,777 participants (77.9% women, 22.1% men, mean age 82 years) were identified (based on care documentation) as having dementia. More than one third of this population (n = 759, 85.1% women, 14.1% men, mean age 85 years) was probably malnourished; thus, the prevalence rate in the group of people with dementia was 10% higher compared to the group without dementia. People with dementia showed a higher risk in all relevant risk indicators (weight history, body mass index, and food intake) for malnutrition compared to those without dementia. Furthermore, people with dementia had higher care dependency rates and required more assistance for eating and drinking. The study results confirm the relationship between malnutrition and dementia. The use of standardized nutrition screening tools is not common practice in German nursing homes yet. However, the results suggest that with an increasing risk for malnutrition combined with dementia the proportion of nursing interventions also increases, which means that nurses must react adequately. Nevertheless, the interventions concerning malnutrition should be improved especially with respect to preventive measurements.

  16. Updated prevalence rates of overweight and obesity in 4- to 10-year-old children in Germany. Results from the telephone-based KiGGS Wave 1 after correction for bias in parental reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brettschneider, Anna-Kristin; Schienkiewitz, Anja; Schmidt, Steffen; Ellert, Ute; Kurth, Bärbel-Maria

    2017-04-01

    The nationwide 'German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents' (KiGGS), conducted in 2003-2006, showed an increase in the prevalence rates of overweight and obesity compared to the early 1990s, indicating the need for regular monitoring. Recently, a follow-up-KiGGS Wave 1 (2009-2012)-was carried out as a telephone-based survey, providing parent-reported height and weight from 5155 children aged 4-10 years. Since parental reports lead to a bias in prevalence rates of weight status, a correction is needed. From a subsample of KiGGS Wave 1 participants, measurements for height and weight were collected in a physical examination. In order to correct prevalence rates derived from parent reports, weight status categories based on parent-reported and measured height and weight were used to estimate a correction formula according to an established procedure. The corrected prevalence rates derived from KiGGS Wave 1 for overweight, including obesity, in children aged 4-10 years in Germany showed that stagnation is reached compared to the KiGGS baseline study (2003-2006). The rates for overweight, including obesity, in Germany have levelled off. However, they still remain at a high level, indicating a need for further public health action. What is Known: • In the last decades, prevalence of overweight and obesity has risen. Now a days, the prevalence seems to be stagnating. • In Germany, prevalence estimates of overweight and obesity are only available from regional or non-representative studies. What is New: • This article gives an update for prevalence rates of overweight and obesity amongst children aged 4-10 years in Germany based on a nationwide and representative sample. • Results show that stagnation in prevalence rates for overweight in children in Germany is reached.

  17. Stochastic Matrix Factorization

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers a restriction to non-negative matrix factorization in which at least one matrix factor is stochastic. That is, the elements of the matrix factors are non-negative and the columns of one matrix factor sum to 1. This restriction includes topic models, a popular method for analyzing unstructured data. It also includes a method for storing and finding pictures. The paper presents necessary and sufficient conditions on the observed data such that the factorization is unique. I...

  18. Pressure-reducing interventions among persons with pressure ulcers: results from the first three national pressure ulcer prevalence surveys in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bååth, Carina; Idvall, Ewa; Gunningberg, Lena; Hommel, Ami

    2014-02-01

    The overall aim of this study was to describe preventive interventions among persons with pressure ulcer (PU) in three nationwide PU prevalence surveys in Sweden. A cross-sectional research design was used; more than 70 000 persons from different hospitals and nursing homes participated in the three prevalence surveys conducted in March 2011, October 2011 and March 2012. The methodology used was that recommended by the European Pressure Ulcers Advisory Panel. The overall prevalence of PU categories I-IV in hospitals was 16.6%, 14.4% and 16.1%, respectively. Corresponding figures for nursing homes were 14.5%, 14.2% and 11.8%, respectively. Heel protection/floating heels and sliding sheets were more frequently planned for persons with PU category I. Despite the three prevalence studies that have showed high prevalence of PU the use of preventing interventions is still not on an acceptable level. Heel protection/floating heels and sliding sheets were more frequently planned for persons with PUs, and individual-planned repositioning also increased. However, when persons already have a PU they should all have pressure-reducing preventive interventions to prevent the development of more PUs. Preventing PUs presents a challenge even when facilities have prevention programmes. A PU prevention programme requires an enthusiastic leader who will maintain the team's focus and direction for all staff involved in patient care. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Matrix with Prescribed Eigenvectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Faiz

    2011-01-01

    It is a routine matter for undergraduates to find eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a given matrix. But the converse problem of finding a matrix with prescribed eigenvalues and eigenvectors is rarely discussed in elementary texts on linear algebra. This problem is related to the "spectral" decomposition of a matrix and has important technical…

  20. Prevalence of elevated C-reactive protein among newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients in Denmark: Results from the population-based DD2 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Reimar W.; Mor, Anil; Rungby, Jørgen

    Objectives: Levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) are increased in patients with prevalent type 2 diabetes (T2D) and may predict coronary heart disease. There is limited knowledge of CRP levels among newly diagnosed T2D patients in the population-based setting. We determined.......01), higher fasting blood glucose (7.26 vs. 6.82 mmol/L, ptreatment (7.7% vs. 5.0%, prevalence ratio 1.54 (95% CI: 0.96-2.13). Blood pressure, lipids, and current smoking were similar between groups. Patients with high...... the prevalence of elevated CRP in T2D patients included in the Danish DD2 study, and factors associated with such elevation. Methods: Measurements of CRP were performed in the first 1,036 T2D patients included in the DD2 project, a large nationwide prospective research project enrolling new T2D patients from...

  1. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in US Hispanic/Latino adults: results from the NHANES 2007-2010 and HCHS/SOL studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuniholm, Mark H; Jung, Molly; Everhart, James E; Cotler, Scott; Heiss, Gerardo; McQuillan, Geraldine; Kim, Ryung S; Strickler, Howard D; Thyagarajan, Bharat; Youngblood, Marston; Kaplan, Robert C; Ho, Gloria Y F

    2014-05-15

    Prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody has been reported in Mexican Americans, but its prevalence in other US Hispanic/Latino groups is unknown. We studied 2 populations of US Hispanic/Latino adults; 3210 from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2010 and 11 964 from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL). Age-standardized prevalence of HCV antibody was similar in NHANES 2007-2010 (1.5%) and HCHS/SOL (2.0%) but differed significantly by Hispanic/Latino background in HCHS/SOL (eg, 11.6% in Puerto Rican men vs 0.4% in South American men). These findings suggest that the HCV epidemic among US Hispanics/Latinos is heterogeneous.

  2. Prevalence of Hepatitis C Virus Infection in US Hispanic/Latino Adults: Results From the NHANES 2007–2010 and HCHS/SOL Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuniholm, Mark H.; Jung, Molly; Everhart, James E.; Cotler, Scott; Heiss, Gerardo; McQuillan, Geraldine; Kim, Ryung S.; Strickler, Howard D.; Thyagarajan, Bharat; Youngblood, Marston; Kaplan, Robert C.; Ho, Gloria Y. F.

    2014-01-01

    Prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody has been reported in Mexican Americans, but its prevalence in other US Hispanic/Latino groups is unknown. We studied 2 populations of US Hispanic/Latino adults; 3210 from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007–2010 and 11 964 from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL). Age-standardized prevalence of HCV antibody was similar in NHANES 2007–2010 (1.5%) and HCHS/SOL (2.0%) but differed significantly by Hispanic/Latino background in HCHS/SOL (eg, 11.6% in Puerto Rican men vs 0.4% in South American men). These findings suggest that the HCV epidemic among US Hispanics/Latinos is heterogeneous. PMID:24423693

  3. Demographic study of port wine stain patients attending a laser clinic: family history, prevalence of naevus anaemicus and results of prior treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, C M; Lanigan, S W; Hughes, J; Anstey, A V

    1997-07-01

    All patients with port wine stains (PWS) attending a tunable dye laser clinic were examined by one author (SWL), forming a large group which has allowed study of the demographic data of such patients. Two hundred and eighty-three patients, 217 females (median age 24 years, range 0.5-73) and 66 males (median age 20 years, range 0.75-72), were examined. The PWS were on the face in 226, neck in 69, trunk in 36, upper limb in 35 and lower limb in 29. The commonest lesional colour was purple (63 patients), while 39 naevi were pink/red, 35 pink/ purple and 35 pink. The naevus was flat in 255 patients, cobblestoned in 28, associated with hypertrophy in 31 and with scarring in 22. Seventy-two patients (25.4%) had a positive family history of birthmarks, 20 strawberry haemangiomas and 22 PWS, the family history of PWS being higher than expected for the prevalence of this naevus in the population. One hundred and forty-six patients were also examined for naevus anaemicus which was noted in 12 (8.2%), confirming an association between these two naevi. Ninety-four patients had received previous treatment, most commonly with the argon laser (56 patients), of whom only five reported a good result, and 17 of 22 patients with treatment-related scarring had been treated with this laser. Cosmetic camouflage was used in 109 (38.5%) of patients, who usually had PWS on the face (94%), of whom only 46 (16%) had received advice of its use.

  4. Prevalence of mental disorders among depressed coronary patients with and without Type D personality. Results of the multi-center SPIRR-CAD trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambertus, Frank; Herrmann-Lingen, Christoph; Fritzsche, Kurt; Hamacher, Stefanie; Hellmich, Martin; Jünger, Jana; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz; Michal, Matthias; Ronel, Joram; Schultz, Jobst-Hendrik; Vitinius, Frank; Weber, Cora; Albus, Christian

    Type D personality, as with formal mental disorders, is linked to increased mortality in coronary heart disease (CHD). Our aim was to determine the prevalence of mental disorders among depressed CHD patients with and without Type D personality. Depressive symptoms (HADS, HAM-D), Type D personality (DS-14) and mental disorders based on DSM-IV (SCID I and II) were assessed. Results were calculated by Kruskal-Wallis tests, Fisher's exact tests and logistic regression analyses. 570 CHD patients were included (age 59.2±9.5years; male 78.9%, HADS-D depression 10.4±2.5; HAM-D 11.3±6.6; Type D 60.1%). 84.8% of patients with Type D personality and 79.3% of non-Type D patients suffered from at least one mental disorder (p=0.092), while 41.8% of Type D positives and 27.8% of Type D negatives had at least two mental disorders (p=0.001). Patients with Type D personality significantly more often had social phobia [odds ratio (95% confidence interval): 3.79 (1.1 to 13.12); p=0.035], dysthymia [1.78 (1.12 to 2.84); p=0.015], compulsive [2.25 (1.04 to 4.86); p=0.038] or avoidant [8.95 (2.08 to 38.49); p=0.003] personality disorder. Type D personality among depressed CHD patients is associated with more complex and enduring mental disorders. This implies higher treatment demands. ISRCTN 76240576; NCT00705965. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms, overactive bladder and urinary incontinence in western Turkey: results of a population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumrutbas, Ali E; Bozkurt, Ali I; Tas, Erdogan; Acar, Cenk I; Alkis, Okan; Coban, Kazim; Cetinel, Bulent; Aybek, Zafer

    2014-10-01

    To estimate the prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms, urinary incontinence and overactive bladder in western Turkey. This cross-sectional, population-based survey was carried out between May and October 2012. A random sample of 2128 women and men aged ≥18 years was selected from the health registries. A questionnaire including sociodemographic data, comorbid conditions, lower urinary tract symptoms, overactive bladder and urinary incontinence symptoms, body mass index, vital signs, and dipstick urinalysis was developed. The questions were answered by the participants, and remaining data were provided by the site staff. International Continence Society definitions were used. A total of 1571 (74%) individuals agreed to participate, and analysis were carried out on 1555 people (636 men [40.9%] and 919 women [59.1%]) after 16 individuals with a nitrite-positive dipstick test were excluded. Lower urinary tract symptoms were reported by 71.0% of the study population. The prevalence of storage, voiding and post-micturition symptoms were 56.1% (44.2% men, 64.1% women), 39.3% (40.9% men, 37.8% women) and 30.7% (38.6% men, 28.7% women), respectively. The most prevalent storage symptom was urgency, which was reported by 29.3% of the study population (20.1% men, 35.6% women). The prevalence of urge, stress and mixed urinary incontinence were: 6.5% (3.9% men, 8.2% women), 14.1% (3.9% men, 21.2% women) and 5.6% (0.8% men, 9.0% women), respectively. The present study is the first and largest population-based survey evaluating the prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms, urinary incontinence and overactive bladder in Turkey. Our findings show these symptoms are highly prevalent in western Turkey. © 2014 The Japanese Urological Association.

  6. Prevalence of physician-diagnosed systemic lupus erythematosus in the United States: results from the third national health and nutrition examination survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Michael M

    2004-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of physician-diagnosed systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in a national population-based sample in the United States. Data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) were used to estimate the prevalence of self-reported physician-diagnosed SLE. Adult participants (age > or = 17; sample n = 20,050) were asked if they had been diagnosed with SLE by a physician. All medications currently being taken by survey participants were recorded. Two definitions were used to classify participants with SLE: self-reported physician diagnosis and self-reported physician diagnosis and a current prescription for antimalarials, corticosteroids, or other immunosuppressive medications. The prevalence of SLE in adults age > or = 17 based on self-reported physician diagnosis was 241 per 100,000 (95% confidence interval [CI] 130-352). The prevalence of SLE in adults age > or = 17 based on self-reported physician diagnosis and current prescription for antimalarials, corticosteroids, or immunosuppressive medications was 53.6 per 100,000 (95% CI 12.2-95.0). Among adult women, the prevalence of treated SLE was 100 per 100,000 (95% CI 19.8-179.3). Projecting a prevalence of 100 per 100,000 to the population of the United States, approximately 108,300 adult women had a self-reported physician diagnosis of SLE and were receiving specific treatment in 2000. This estimate is a reasonable lower boundary, as it does not include undiagnosed persons or those not being treated with antimalarials, corticosteroids, or immunosuppressive medications.

  7. Prevalence, Patterns, and Predictors of T'ai Chi and Qigong Use in the United States: Results of a Nationally Representative Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauche, Romy; Wayne, Peter M; Dobos, Gustav; Cramer, Holger

    2016-04-01

    This study examined the prevalence, patterns, and predictors of t'ai chi and qigong use in the U.S. general population. Cross-sectional survey. Data from the 2012 National Health Interview Survey (n = 34,525). Weighted frequencies were used to analyze lifetime and 12-month prevalence and patterns of use. Independent predictors of practice were analyzed by using logistic regression models. Analyzes were conducted in 2015. The lifetime and 12-month prevalence of t'ai chi/qigong practice were 3.1% and 1.2%, respectively. The 12-month prevalence was associated with age older than 30 years; being African American, Asian, or other ethnic origin; living in the West; being college educated and single; and being a light to heavy alcohol consumer. Almost 39% of users attended formal classes. T'ai chi/qigong was practiced for wellness/disease prevention and to improve energy, immune function, athletic performance, or memory/concentration. Stress, arthritis, and joint problems were the most frequent specific health problems for practice. Despite an only marginal increase of t'ai chi/qigong practice in the United States over the past 10 years, the proportion of minorities among practitioners has increased significantly. Gaps between clinical application and research are discussed.

  8. Prevalence of comorbid depression is high in out-patients with Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Results from three out-patient clinics in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pouwer, F.; Geelhoed-Duijvestijn, P.H.L.M.; Tack, C.J.; Bazelmans, E.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Heine, R.J.; Snoek, F.J.

    2010-01-01

    Aims Depression is common in diabetes, but the scope of the problem and associated correlates are not well established in specialist diabetes care. We aimed to determine the prevalence of depression among adult outpatients with Type 1 (T1DM) or Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) using both self-report measures

  9. Prevalence of comorbid depression is high in out-patients with Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Results from three out-patient clinics in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pouwer, F.; Geelhoed-Duijvestijn, P.H.; Tack, C.J.J.; Bazelmans, E.; Beekman, A.J.; Heine, R.J.; Snoek, F.J.

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: Depression is common in diabetes, but the scope of the problem and associated correlates are not well established in specialist diabetes care. We aimed to determine the prevalence of depression among adult outpatients with Type 1 (T1DM) or Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) using both self-report measures

  10. Decline in prevalence of HIV-1 infection and syphilis among young women attending antenatal care clinics in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: results from sentinel surveillance, 1995-2001

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsegaye, Aster; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.; Mekonnen, Yared; Beyene, Asfaw; Aklilu, Mathias; Messele, Tsehaynesh; Abebe, Almaz; Coutinho, Roel; Sanders, Eduard; Fontanet, Arnaud L.

    2003-01-01

    From 1995 to 2001, five rounds of sentinel surveillance were carried out for young women attending antenatal care clinics at four health centers in Addis Ababa, the capital city of Ethiopia, to monitor trends in the prevalence of HIV infection and syphilis. Serum samples were tested for antibodies

  11. Decline in prevalence of HIV-1 infection and syphilis among young women attending antenatal care clinics in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Results from sentinel surveillance, 1995-2001

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsegaye, Aster; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.; Mekonnen, Yared; Beyene, Asfaw; Aklilu, Mathias; Messele, Tsehaynesh; Abebe, Almaz; Coutinho, Roel; Sanders, Eduard; Fontanet, Arnaud L.

    2002-01-01

    From 1995 to 2001, five rounds of sentinel surveillance were carried out for young women attending antenatal care clinics at four health centers in Addis Ababa, the capital city of Ethiopia, to monitor trends in the prevalence of HIV infection and syphilis. Serum samples were tested for antibodies

  12. Lifetime Prevalence of Mental Disorders in U.S. Adolescents: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication-Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merikangas, Kathleen Ries; He, Jian-ping; Burstein, Marcy; Swanson, Sonja A.; Avenevoli, Shelli; Cui, Lihong; Benjet, Corina; Georgiades, Katholiki; Swendsen, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To present estimates of the lifetime prevalence of "DSM-IV" mental disorders with and without severe impairment, their comorbidity across broad classes of disorder, and their sociodemographic correlates. Method: The National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement NCS-A is a nationally representative face-to-face survey of…

  13. Prevalence of mental disorders in Europe: results from the European Study of the Epidemiology of Mental Disorders (ESEMeD) project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alonso, J.; Angermeyer, M.C.; Bernert, S.; Bruffaerts, R.; Brugha, T.S.; Bryson, H.; Girolamo, G. de; Graaf, R. de; Demyttenaere, K.; Gasquet, I.; Haro, J.M.; Katz, S.J.; Kessler, R.C.; Kovess, V.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To describe the 12-month and lifetime prevalence rates of mood, anxiety and alcohol disorders in six European countries. Method: A representative random sample of non-institutionalized inhabitants from Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and Spain aged 18 or older (n = 21425)

  14. Socioeconomic inequality in the prevalence of noncommunicable diseases in low- and middle-income countries: Results from the World Health Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosseinpoor, Ahmad Reza; Bergen, Nicole; Mendis, Shanthi; Harper, Sam; Verdes, Emese; Kunst, Anton; Chatterji, Somnath

    2012-01-01

    Background: Noncommunicable diseases are an increasing health concern worldwide, but particularly in low-and middle-income countries. This study quantified and compared education-and wealth-based inequalities in the prevalence of five noncommunicable diseases (angina, arthritis, asthma, depression

  15. Socioeconomic inequality in the prevalence of noncommunicable diseases in low- and middle-income countries: results from the World Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinpoor, Ahmad Reza; Bergen, Nicole; Mendis, Shanthi; Harper, Sam; Verdes, Emese; Kunst, Anton; Chatterji, Somnath

    2012-06-22

    Noncommunicable diseases are an increasing health concern worldwide, but particularly in low- and middle-income countries. This study quantified and compared education- and wealth-based inequalities in the prevalence of five noncommunicable diseases (angina, arthritis, asthma, depression and diabetes) and comorbidity in low- and middle-income country groups. Using 2002-04 World Health Survey data from 41 low- and middle-income countries, the prevalence estimates of angina, arthritis, asthma, depression, diabetes and comorbidity in adults aged 18 years or above are presented for wealth quintiles and five education levels, by sex and country income group. Symptom-based classification was used to determine angina, arthritis, asthma and depression rates, and diabetes diagnoses were self-reported. Socioeconomic inequalities according to wealth and education were measured absolutely, using the slope index of inequality, and relatively, using the relative index of inequality. Wealth and education inequalities were more pronounced in the low-income country group than the middle-income country group. Both wealth and education were inversely associated with angina, arthritis, asthma, depression and comorbidity prevalence, with strongest inequalities reported for angina, asthma and comorbidity. Diabetes prevalence was positively associated with wealth and, to a lesser extent, education. Adjustments for confounding variables tended to decrease the magnitude of the inequality. Noncommunicable diseases are not necessarily diseases of the wealthy, and showed unequal distribution across socioeconomic groups in low- and middle-income country groups. Disaggregated research is warranted to assess the impact of individual noncommunicable diseases according to socioeconomic indicators.

  16. Mediterranean dietary pattern and prevalence and incidence of depressive symptoms in mid-aged women: results from a large community-based prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rienks, J.; Dobson, A.; Mishra, G.D.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between dietary patterns and prevalence and incidence 3 years later of depressive symptoms using data from the mid-aged cohort in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Participants (aged 50–55 years) completed a

  17. Prevalence, Course, and Associated Factors of Pain in the Temporomandibular Joint in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis: Results of a Longitudinal Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sem, Jessica P. S. Chin Jen; van der Leeden, Marike; Visscher, Corine M.; Britsemmer, Karin; Turk, Samina A.; Dekker, Joost; van Schaardenburg, Dirkjan; Lobbezoo, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Aims: To assess the prevalence, 3-year course, and associated factors of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain in patients with newly diagnosed rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods: A total of 264 patients with newly diagnosed RA were included. Patients were assessed after 3 months, 6 months, 9 months, 1

  18. Prevalence of Dental Caries and Periodontal Disease in Mexican American Children Aged 5 to 17 Years: Results from Southwestern HHANES, 1982-83.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Amid L.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Dental caries and periodontal disease in Mexican American children of the southwestern United States occur mainly in molars, lending strong support for the use of fissure sealants as a preventive procedure. This study also reports on the prevalence of fillings decay and gingivitis in this population. (VM)

  19. Prevalence of sexual desire and satisfaction among patients with screen-detected diabetes and impact of intensive multifactorial treatment: results from the ADDITION-Denmark study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Mette B; Giraldi, Annamaria; Kristensen, Ellids; Lauritzen, Torsten; Sandbæk, Annelli; Charles, Morten

    2015-03-01

    Sexual problems are common in people with diabetes. It is unknown whether early detection of diabetes and subsequent intensive multifactorial treatment (IT) are associated with sexual health. We report the prevalence of low sexual desire and low sexual satisfaction among people with screen-detected diabetes and compare the impact of intensive multifactorial treatment with the impact of routine care (RC) on these measures. A cross-sectional analysis of the ADDITION-Denmark trial cohort six years post-diagnosis. 190 general practices around Denmark. A total of 968 patients with screen-detected type 2 diabetes. Low sexual desire and low sexual satisfaction. Mean (standard deviation, SD) age was 64.9 (6.9) years. The prevalence of low sexual desire was 53% (RC) and 54% (IT) among women, and 24% (RC) and 25% (IT) among men. The prevalence of low sexual satisfaction was 23% (RC) and 18% (IT) among women, and 27% (RC) and 37% (IT) among men. Among men, the prevalence of low sexual satisfaction was significantly higher in the IT group than in the RC group, p = 0.01. Low sexual desire and low satisfaction are frequent among men and women with screen-detected diabetes, and IT may negatively impact men's sexual satisfaction.

  20. The prevalence and effects of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on the performance of workers : results from the WHO World Mental Health Survey Initiative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, R.; Kessler, R. C.; Fayyad, J.; ten Have, M.; Alonso, J.; Angermeyer, M.; Borges, G.; Demyttenaere, K.; Gasquet, I.; de Girolamo, G.; Haro, J. M.; Jin, R.; Karam, E. G.; Ormel, J.; Posada-Villa, J.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate the prevalence and workplace consequences of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods: An ADHD screen was administered to 18-44-year-old respondents in 10 national surveys in the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative (n = 7075 in paid or

  1. The prevalence and effects of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on the performance of workers: results from the WHO World Mental Health Survey Initiative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, R.; Kessler, R.C.; Fayyad, J.; Ten Have, M.; Alonso, J.; Angermeyer, M.; Borges, G.; Demyttenaere, K.; Gasquet, I.; De Girolamo, G.; Haro, J.M.; Jin, R.; Karam, E.G.; Ormel, J.; Posada-Villa, J.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate the prevalence and workplace consequences of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods: An ADHD screen was administered to 18-44-year-old respondents in 10 national surveys in the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative (n = 7075 in paid or

  2. The impact of hospital and ICU organizational factors on outcome in critically ill patients: results from the extended prevalence of infection in intensive care study*

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sakr, Y.; Moreira, C.L.; Rhodes, A.; Ferguson, N.D.; Kleinpell, R.; Pickkers, P.; Kuiper, M.A.; Lipman, J.; Vincent, J.L.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of various facets of ICU organization on outcome in a large cohort of ICU patients from different geographic regions. DESIGN: International, multicenter, observational study. SETTING: All 1,265 ICUs in 75 countries that contributed to the 1-day point prevalence

  3. [Prevalence of Mood and Anxiety Disorders on People with Chronic Conditions. Results from the National Mental Health Survey in Colombia 2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Nathalie Tamayo; Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Ramírez, Sandra; Rodríguez, María Nelcy

    2016-12-01

    The study of mental disorders in people with chronic conditions recognises the importance of actively seeking and treating both, since chronic conditions have a higher prevalence than mental disorders and their comorbidity generates greater burden than if each one was considered separately. To measure the prevalence of mood disorders and anxiety in a Colombian population of 12 years and older and with and without different chronic conditions. The information is taken from the National Mental Health Survey 2015 in Colombia, which was an observational cross-sectional study with national representativeness for the age groups measured 12-17, 18-44, and 45 and older. Disorders measured where mood disorders and anxiety social phobia, generalised anxiety disorder, and panic disorder in the past 12 months, and several chronic conditions. Univariate and bivariate analyses were performed for these conditions. The highest prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders were found in people with gastrointestinal diseases, followed by those with chronic pain, heart, and lung diseases, which corresponded to 27.1%, 13.3%, 12.2%, and 11.5%, respectively, in those between 18 and 44 years old, and 15.9%, 12.2%, 8.0%, and 7.4% of those 45 and older, respectively. This was greater than the prevalence of these mental disorders in people with no chronic condition, where the prevalence is 3.5% in the younger, and 1.1% in the older group. However, the risk of these mental disorders is higher in older people. Thus, in those with gastrointestinal diseases when compared to people of the same age without any chronic condition the prevalence is 14.9 times higher, but for the same disease in the younger group it is 7.8. These findings link chronic conditions with a higher prevalence of mental disorders, which in the present study also highlights the greater comorbidity of mood and anxiety disorders in the elderly. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier Espa

  4. Prevalence and predictors of disability 24-months after injury for hospitalised and non-hospitalised participants: results from a longitudinal cohort study in New Zealand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Derrett

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Most studies investigating disability outcomes following injury have examined hospitalised patients. It is not known whether variables associated with disability outcomes are similar for injured people who are not hospitalised. AIMS: This paper compares the prevalence of disability 24 months after injury for participants in the Prospective Outcomes of Injury Study who were hospitalised and those non-hospitalised, and also seeks to identify pre-injury and injury-related predictors of disability among hospitalised and non-hospitalised participants. METHODS: Participants, aged 18-64 years, were recruited from an injury claims register managed by New Zealand's no-fault injury compensation insurer after referral by health care professionals. A wide range of pre-injury socio-demographic, health and psychosocial characteristics were collected, as well as injury-related characteristics; outcome is assessed using the WHODAS. Multivariable models estimating relative risks of disability for hospitalised and non-hospitalised participants were developed using Poisson regression methods. RESULTS: Of 2856 participants, analyses were restricted to 2184 (76% participants for whom both pre-injury and 24 month WHODAS data were available. Of these, 25% were hospitalised. In both hospitalised and non-hospitalised groups, 13% experience disability (WHODAS≥10 24 months after injury; higher than pre-injury (5%. Of 28 predictor variables, seven independently placed injured participants in the hospitalised group at increased risk of disability 24 months after injury; eight in the non-hospitalised. Only four predictors (pre-injury disability, two or more pre-injury chronic conditions, pre-injury BMI≥30 and trouble accessing healthcare services were common to both the hospitalised and non-hospitalised groups. There is some evidence to suggest that among the hospitalised group, Māori have higher risk of disability relative to non-Māori. CONCLUSIONS: At

  5. The incidence and prevalence of hepatitis C in prisons and other closed settings: Results of a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larney, Sarah; Kopinski, Hannah; Beckwith, Curt G.; Zaller, Nickolas D.; Jarlais, Don Des; Hagan, Holly; Rich, Josiah D.; van den Bergh, Brenda J.; Degenhardt, Louisa

    2013-01-01

    People detained in prisons and other closed settings are at elevated risk of infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV). We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis with the aim of determining the rate of incident HCV infection and the prevalence of anti-HCV among detainees of closed settings. We systematically searched databases of peer-reviewed literature and widely distributed a call for unpublished data. We calculated summary estimates of incidence and prevalence among general population detainees and detainees with a history of injecting drug use (IDU), and explored heterogeneity through stratification and meta-regression. The summary prevalence estimates were used to estimate the number of anti-HCV positive prisoners globally. HCV incidence among general detainees was 1·4 per 100 person-years (py; 95% CI: 0·1, 2·7; k=4), and 16·4 per 100py (95% CI: 0·8, 32·1; k=3) among detainees with a history of IDU. The summary prevalence estimate of anti-HCV in general detainees was 26% (95% CI: 23%, 29%; k=93), and in detainees with a history of IDU, 64% (95% CI: 58%, 70%; k=51). The regions of highest prevalence were Central Asia (38%; 95% CI 32%, 43%; k=1) and Australasia (35%; 95% CI: 28%, 43%; k=9). We estimate that 2·2 million (range: 1·4 million – 2·9 million) detainees globally are anti-HCV positive, with the largest populations in North America (668,500; range: 553,500–784,000) and East and Southeast Asia (638,000; range: 332,000–970,000). Conclusion HCV is a significant concern in detained populations, with one in four detainees anti-HCV positive. Epidemiological data on the extent of HCV infection in detained populations is lacking in many countries. Greater attention towards prevention, diagnosis and treatment of HCV infection among detained populations is urgently required. PMID:23504650

  6. Eyelash Epilation in the Absence of Trichiasis: Results of a Population-Based Prevalence Survey in the Western Division of Fiji.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Macleod

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The WHO definition of trachomatous trichiasis (TT is "at least one eyelash touching the globe, or evidence of recent epilation of in-turned eyelashes", reflecting the fact that epilation is used as a self-management tool for TT. In Fiji's Western Division, a high TT prevalence (8.7% in those aged ≥15 years was reported in a 2012 survey, yet a 2013 survey found no TT and Fijian ophthalmologists rarely see TT cases. Local anecdote suggests that eyelash epilation is a common behaviour, even in the absence of trichiasis. Epilators may have been identified as TT cases in previous surveys.We used a preliminary focus group to design an interview questionnaire, and subsequently conducted a population-based prevalence survey to estimate the prevalence of epilation in the absence of trichiasis, and factors associated with this behaviour, in the Western Division of Fiji.We sampled 695 individuals aged ≥15 years from a total of 457 households in 23 villages. 125 participants (18% reported epilating their eyelashes at least once within the past year. Photographs were obtained of the eyes of 121/125 (97% individuals who epilated, and subsequent analysis by an experienced trachoma grader found no cases of trachomatous conjunctival scarring or trichiasis. The age- and sex- adjusted prevalence of epilation in those aged ≥15 years was 8.6% (95% CI 5.7-11.3%. iTaukei ethnicity, female gender, and a higher frequency of drinking kava root were independently associated with epilation.Epilation occurs in this population in the absence of trichiasis, with sufficient frequency to have markedly inflated previous estimates of local TT prevalence. Individuals with epilated eyelashes should be confirmed as having epilated in-turned eyelashes in an eye with scarring of the conjunctiva before being counted as cases of TT.

  7. Prevalence of sarcopenia in Germany and the corresponding effect of osteoarthritis in females 70 years and older living in the community: results of the FORMoSA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; Teschler, Marc; Goisser, Sabine; Bebenek, Michael; von Stengel, Simon; Bollheimer, Leo Cornelius; Sieber, Cornel C; Freiberger, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Although sarcopenia represents a challenging burden for health care systems around the world, its prevalence in the elderly population varies widely. The primary aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of sarcopenia in community-dwelling (CD) German women aged 70 years and older; the secondary aim was to assess the effect of osteoarthritis (OA) on sarcopenia prevalence in this cohort. A total of 689 Caucasian females 18-35 years old and 1,325 CD females 70 years+ living in Northern Bavaria, Germany, were assessed during the initial phase of the FORMoSA research project. Anthropometry, total and regional muscle mass, were assessed by segmental multifrequency Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis. Further 10 m walking speed and handgrip strength were evaluated to apply the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People definition of sarcopenia. Covariates were determined by questionnaires and interviews. Applying the algorithm of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People of two standard deviations below the mean value for appendicular skeletal muscle mass of a reference cohort of the young cohort (5.66 kg/m(2)), low gait speed (≤0.8 m/s), and low grip strength (<20 kg), the prevalence of sarcopenia in CD German females 70 years and older was 4.5% (70-79 years: 2.8% vs ≥80 years: 9.9%; P<0.001). Participants with OA at the hip and lower limbs (n=252) exhibited significantly higher rates of sarcopenia (OA: 9.1 vs non-OA: 3.5%). Of importance, anthropometric, demographic, health, and lifestyle parameters (except exercise participation) of our cohorts corresponded with Bavarian or German data for CD women 70 years+. The prevalence of sarcopenia in CD German females 70 years+ is relatively low. However, participants with OA at the hip or lower limbs were at increased risk for sarcopenia.

  8. [Prevalence of Disturbed Eating Behavior in Children and Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes: Assessment and Comparison to Healthy Peers--Results of a Multicenter Questionnaire-based Study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hevelke, Linnea Kristiina; Albrecht, Carmen; Busse-Widmann, Petra; Kranz, Julia; Lange, Karin; Markowitz, Jessica T; Marshall, Louise F; Meurs, Stefanie; de Soye, Ilka H; Saßmann, Heike

    2016-03-01

    Published data on prevalence of disturbed eating behavior in youth with type 1 diabetes are heterogeneous. This study assesses the prevalence rate of disturbed eating behavior in a representative German sample of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. The prevalence rate is compared to the one published for a national sample of healthy peers. Furthermore prospects as well as limits of a generic screening tool used to identify disturbed eating behavior are compared to those of a diabetes specific screening tool. A total of 246 children and adolescents (age: 11-19 years) with type 1 diabetes, from 6 pediatric diabetes centers in Germany, completed the generic SCOFF questionnaire and the diabetes specific Diabetes Eating Problem Survey-Revised (DEPS-R) to assess their eating behavior. Prevalence data were compared to representative data from a nationwide survey in Germany (KiGGS-study). A total of 16.3% of the children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes scored above the SCOFF cut-off (≥ 2) (24.2% of the girls and 8.9% of the boys). The percentages in the healthy controls were 28.9% for girls and 15.2% for boys. Compared to this the prevalence of disturbed eating behavior was lower in the diabetes group (p=0.017 and peating behavior than their healthy peers. Particularly boys with type 1 diabetes practicing insulin-purging, are not reliably detected by a generic screening tool. As part of long-term care a diabetes specific screening tool should be used to identify adolescents with type 1 diabetes and disturbed eating behavior more reliably. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Eyelash Epilation in the Absence of Trichiasis: Results of a Population-Based Prevalence Survey in the Western Division of Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macleod, Colin; Yalen, Chelsea; Butcher, Robert; Mudaliar, Umesh; Natutusau, Kinisimere; Rainima-Qaniuci, Mere; Haffenden, Chris; Watson, Conall; Cocks, Naomi; Cikamatana, Luisa; Roberts, Chrissy H; Marks, Michael; Rafai, Eric; Mabey, David C W; Kama, Mike; Solomon, Anthony W

    2017-01-01

    The WHO definition of trachomatous trichiasis (TT) is "at least one eyelash touching the globe, or evidence of recent epilation of in-turned eyelashes", reflecting the fact that epilation is used as a self-management tool for TT. In Fiji's Western Division, a high TT prevalence (8.7% in those aged ≥15 years) was reported in a 2012 survey, yet a 2013 survey found no TT and Fijian ophthalmologists rarely see TT cases. Local anecdote suggests that eyelash epilation is a common behaviour, even in the absence of trichiasis. Epilators may have been identified as TT cases in previous surveys. We used a preliminary focus group to design an interview questionnaire, and subsequently conducted a population-based prevalence survey to estimate the prevalence of epilation in the absence of trichiasis, and factors associated with this behaviour, in the Western Division of Fiji. We sampled 695 individuals aged ≥15 years from a total of 457 households in 23 villages. 125 participants (18%) reported epilating their eyelashes at least once within the past year. Photographs were obtained of the eyes of 121/125 (97%) individuals who epilated, and subsequent analysis by an experienced trachoma grader found no cases of trachomatous conjunctival scarring or trichiasis. The age- and sex- adjusted prevalence of epilation in those aged ≥15 years was 8.6% (95% CI 5.7-11.3%). iTaukei ethnicity, female gender, and a higher frequency of drinking kava root were independently associated with epilation. Epilation occurs in this population in the absence of trichiasis, with sufficient frequency to have markedly inflated previous estimates of local TT prevalence. Individuals with epilated eyelashes should be confirmed as having epilated in-turned eyelashes in an eye with scarring of the conjunctiva before being counted as cases of TT.

  10. Prevalence, impact and care of foot problems in people with rheumatoid arthritis: results from a United Kingdom based cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oonagh Wilson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foot symptoms in rheumatoid arthritis (RA derive from a combination of inflammation, altered foot mechanics, deformity and secondary skin lesions. Guidelines recommend regular review of patients’ feet, but the extent to which the general population of RA patients report foot symptoms and access foot care has not been established. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence, impact and care of foot problems in all patients with RA in one geographical area and identify factors associated with accessing foot care. Methods Cross-sectional survey of a random sample of patients with RA, who resided within a single community-based National Health Service (NHS podiatry service. The questionnaire collected demographic data (age, gender, local deprivation score, clinical data (disease duration, arthritis medications, disability (Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ, current foot problems, foot care accessed (podiatry, orthotics and/or orthopaedics and care received, measures of impact (Foot Impact Scale and ability to work. Results Of 1003 total eligible patients in the target population, 739 were posted survey packs. Of these 413 (56% replied. Responders and non-responders had similar age (63.5 yr. vs.61.5 yr, gender (74.1%F vs. 75.2%F, and highest deprivation category (13.3% vs.15.9%. Of the responders 92.1% reported current foot problems: articular 73.8%, cutaneous lesions 65.4%, structural 57.6%, extra-articular 42.6%. Responders’ median (IQR disease duration 10 (5–20 years, HAQ 1.5 (0.75–2.0, FISIF 10 (6–14 and FISAP 16 (7–23 and 37.8% reported impacts on work. While 69.5% had accessed foot care there were differences in the route of access (by gender and whether independent or NHS provision and were older (64.9 yr. vs 60.4 yr. p = 0.001, had longer disease duration (12 yr. vs 7 yr. p < 0.001 and had a greater proportion of females (72.2% vs 61.7% p = 0.04 than those who had not accessed

  11. Current state of and needs for hepatitis B screening: results of a large screening study in a low-prevalent, metropolitan region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Bottero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In low hepatitis B virus (HBV-prevalent countries, most HBV-infected persons are unaware of their status. We aimed to evaluate whether (i previous HBV-testing, (ii physicians decision to screen, and (iii CDC's recommendations identified infected individuals and which risk-factor groups needing testing. METHODS: During a mass, multi-center HBV-screening study from September 2010-August 2011, 3929 participants were screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-Hepatitis B core antibodies (anti-HBcAb. Questions on HBV risk-factors and testing practices were asked to participants, while participants' eligibility for HBV-testing was asked to study medical professionals. RESULTS: 85 (2.2% participants were HBsAg-positive, while 659 (16.8% had either resolved HBV infection or isolated anti-HBcAb. When comparing practices, HBV-testing was more likely to occur in HBV-infected participants if Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC recommendations were used (Sensitivity = 100%, 95%CI: 95.8-100 than physicians' discretion (Sensitivity = 87.1%, 95%CI: 78.0-93.4 or previous HBV-test (Sensitivity = 36.5%, 95%CI: 26.3-47.6 (p<0.0001. Nevertheless, many non-infected individuals would still have been screened using CDC-recommendations (Specificity = 31.1%, 95%CI: 29.6-32.6. Using multivariable logistic regression, HBsAg-positive status was significantly associated with the following: males, originating from high HBV-endemic region, contact with HBV-infected individual, without national healthcare, and intravenous-drug user (IDU. Of these risk-factors, physician's discretion for testing HBV was not significantly associated with participants' geographical origin or IDU. CONCLUSIONS: Missed opportunities of HBV-screening are largely due to underestimating country of origin as a risk-factor. Applying CDC-recommendations could improve HBV-screening, but with the disadvantage of many tests. Further development

  12. Adding Additional Acute Medications to a Triptan Regimen for Migraine and Observed Changes in Headache-Related Disability: Results From the American Migraine Prevalence and Prevention (AMPP) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buse, Dawn C; Serrano, Daniel; Reed, Michael L; Kori, Shashi H; Cunanan, Cedric M; Adams, Aubrey Manack; Lipton, Richard B

    2015-06-01

    Though triptans are the most widely used acute treatments for migraine, response to treatment is sometimes suboptimal. Triptan therapy is often augmented by the addition of other acute treatments. The benefits of this practice have not been examined in large-scale, real-world observational studies. To assess changes in headache-related disability associated with adding additional acute treatments to a triptan regimen by category of added treatment including: a second triptan, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), opioids or barbiturates. Subjects were participants in the American Migraine Prevalence and Prevention study, a longitudinal, US population-based study of individuals with "severe" headache. Respondents who met International Classification of Headache Disorders 3 beta criteria for migraine were on triptan therapy per respondent self-report, used the same triptan, and provided headache-related disability data for at least 2 consecutive years. Subjects were divided based on headache days per month into 3 groups: low-frequency episodic migraine (LFEM, 0-4), moderate-frequency episodic migraine (MFEM, 5-9), and high-frequency episodic migraine/chronic migraine (HFEM/CM, ≥ 10 headache days per month). HFEM and CM were combined into a single group for analyses because of sample size limitations. Patterns of acute treatment for migraine were monitored from one year to the next over the following couplets of years (2005-2006, 2006-2007, 2007-2008, and 2008-2009). The first eligible couplet was analyzed for each respondent. Medication regimens studied included: (1) maintaining current triptan use (consistent group); (2) adding a different triptan; (3) adding an NSAID; or (4) adding a combination analgesic containing opioids or barbiturates. We assessed change in Migraine Disability Assessment (MIDAS) score from the first to the second year of a couplet, contrasting scores of participants with consistent use with those who added an acute treatment to

  13. Trends in Obesity Prevalence in Adults With a History of Cancer: Results From the US National Health Interview Survey, 1997 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenlee, Heather; Shi, Zaixing; Sardo Molmenti, Christine L; Rundle, Andrew; Tsai, Wei Yann

    2016-09-10

    Obesity after a diagnosis of specific cancers has been associated with worse prognosis. We examined the trend in obesity prevalence among cancer survivors in the United States in the past two decades and compared trends with those of adults without a history of cancer. This was a population-based nationally representative sample of 538,969 noninstitutionalized US adults 18 to 85 years old with and without a history of cancer who participated in annual cross-sectional National Health Interview Surveys from 1997 to 2014. Obesity was defined as body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m(2) for non-Asians and body mass index ≥ 27.5 kg/m(2) for Asians. Among 32,447 cancer survivors identified, the most common cancer diagnoses were breast (n = 6,948), prostate (n = 3,984), and colorectal (n = 2,546). From 1997 to 2014, the prevalence of obesity increased from 22.4% to 31.7% in cancer survivors and from 20.9% to 29.5% in adults without a history of cancer (P for trend obesity prevalence was higher in women and men with a history of cancer compared with those without a history of cancer (all P for interaction obesity prevalence was 3.1% in female and 3.7% in male colorectal cancer survivors, 3.0% in breast cancer survivors, and 2.1% in prostate cancer survivors (all P obesity burden were colorectal cancer survivors, breast cancer survivors, and non-Hispanic blacks. From 1997 to 2014, obesity increased more rapidly among adult cancer survivors compared with the general population. Colorectal and breast cancer survivors and non-Hispanic blacks were identified as being at the highest risk for obesity. © 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  14. Health state utility values of high prevalence mental disorders in Australia: results from the National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalopoulos, Cathrine; Engel, Lidia; Le, Long Khanh-Dao; Magnus, Anne; Harris, Meredith; Chatterton, Mary Lou

    2018-04-09

    High prevalence mental disorders including depression, anxiety and substance use disorders are associated with high economic and disease burden. However, there is little information regarding the health state utility values of such disorders according to their clinical severity using comparable instruments across all disorders. This study reports utility values for high prevalence mental disorders using data from the 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing (NSMHWB). Utility values were derived from the AQoL-4D and analysed by disorder classification (affective only (AD), anxiety-related only (ANX), substance use only (SUB) plus four comorbidity groups), severity level (mild, moderate, severe), symptom recency (reported in the past 30 days), and comorbidity (combination of disorders). The adjusted Wald test was applied to detect statistically significant differences of weighted means and the magnitude of difference between groups was presented as a modified Cohen's d. In total, 1526 individuals met criteria for a 12-month mental disorder. The mean utility value was 0.67 (SD = 0.27), with lower utility values associated with higher severity levels and some comorbidities. Utility values for AD, ANX and SUB were 0.64 (SD = 0.25), 0.71 (SD = 0.25) and 0.81 (SD = 0.19), respectively. No differences in utility values were observed between disorders within disorder groups. Utility values were significantly lower among people with recent symptoms (within past 30 days) than those without; when examined by diagnostic group, this pattern held for people with SUB, but not for people with ANX or AD. Health state utility values of people with high prevalence mental disorders differ significantly by severity level, number of mental health comorbidities and the recency of symptoms, which provide new insights on the burden associated with high prevalence mental disorders in Australia. The derived utility values can be used to populate future

  15. Sexual Behavior, HIV Prevalence and Awareness Among Wives of Migrant Workers: Results from Cross-sectional Survey in Rural North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Alok; Bhatnagar, Tarun; Babu, Giridhara R; Detels, Roger

    2017-01-01

    Migration has been linked to the spread of HIV epidemic from the urban areas of western India to the rural areas of north India. This is the first population-based study among the wives of migrant workers of Muzaffarpur district in Bihar with objectives to describe their sexual behavior within marriage, estimate the prevalence of HIV, and to know their awareness regarding HIV/AIDS. A two-stage cluster survey was conducted by randomly selecting 25 eligible wives from each of the 34 selected villages. A total of 850 wives were interviewed and the blood samples were collected for HIV testing. To determine the factors associated with HIV/AIDS-awareness, we calculated adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using multiple logistic regression analysis. 34 (3%) of 850 wives reported condom use with their husband. HIV prevalence was 0.59% (95% CI: 0.19-1.37%) among the wives of migrant workers. Out of 850 wives, 132 (15.5%) had heard about HIV. Condoms use (OR = 3.21, 95% CI: 1.22-7.90) and premarital sex (OR=7.44, 95% CI: 1.6-33.67) were found significantly positively associated with HIV knowledge of wives. HIV awareness of the wives was significantly associated with age-group 15-24 years, literacy status, and possession of television and husbands' literacy status. The knowledge about HIV among wives had significant positive impact on condoms use and premarital sex. HIV prevalence among the wives of migrant workers was higher than the prevalence among women in the general population. Education was found to be positively associated with awareness about HIV. Effective interventions are needed for increasing awareness of HIV among wives of migrant workers in Bihar.

  16. Alarmingly high prevalence of hypertension and pre-hypertension in North India-results from a large cross-sectional STEPS survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaya Prasad Tripathy

    Full Text Available The study was primarily aimed at estimating the prevalence of hypertension and pre-hypertension and the risk factors of hypertension in the North Indian state of Punjab. It also aimed at assessing the magnitude of undiagnosed cases of hypertension in the community and ascertaining the blood pressure control status of those on treatment.A non-communicable disease risk factor survey (based on WHO-STEPS approach was done in the state of Punjab, India in a multistage stratified sample of 5127 individuals. The study subjects were administered the WHO STEPS-questionnaire and also underwent anthropometric and blood pressure measurements.Overall prevalence of HTN among the study participants was found out to be 40.1% (95% CI: 38.8-41.5% whereas prevalence of pre-hypertension, isolated diastolic and isolated systolic hypertension were 40.8% (39.5-42.2%, 9.2% (8.4-10.0% and 6.5% (5.9-7.2% respectively. Age group (45-69 years, male gender, social group, marital status, alcohol use, obesity and salt intake (> = 5 gms/day were the risk factors significantly associated with HTN. Among all persons with HTN, only 30.1% were known case of HTN or on treatment, among whom nearly 61% had controlled blood pressure. Patients with uncontrolled BP were more frequently male, obese patients, with sedentary lifestyle and patients with diabetes.The study reported alarmingly high prevalence of hypertension, especially of undiagnosed or untreated cases amongst the adult population, a significant proportion of whom have uncontrolled blood pressure levels. This indicates the need for systematic screening and awareness program to identify the undiagnosed cases in the community and offer early treatment and regular follow up.

  17. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Self-Reported Smell and Taste Alterations: Results from the 2011–2012 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawal, Shristi; Hoffman, Howard J.; Bainbridge, Kathleen E.; Huedo-Medina, Tania B.

    2016-01-01

    Chemosensory problems challenge health through diminished ability to detect warning odors, consume a healthy diet, and maintain quality of life. We examined the prevalence and associated risk factors of self-reported chemosensory alterations in 3603 community-dwelling adults (aged 40+ years), from the nationally representative, US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011–2012. In this new NHANES component, technicians surveyed adults in the home about perceived smell and taste problems, distortions, and diminished abilities since age 25 (termed “alterations”), and chemosensory-related health risks and behaviors. The prevalence of self-reported smell alteration was 23%, including phantosmia at 6%; taste was 19%, including dysgeusia at 5%. Prevalence rates increased progressively with age, highest in those aged 80+ years (smell, 32%; taste, 27%). In multivariable logistic regression, controlling for sociodemographics, health behaviors, and chemosensory-related conditions, the strongest independent risk factor for smell alteration was sinonasal symptoms (odds ratio [OR] = 2.06; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.63–2.61), followed by heavy drinking, loss of consciousness from head injury, family income ≤110% poverty threshold, and xerostomia. For taste, the strongest risk factor was xerostomia (OR = 2.65; 95% CI: 1.97–3.56), followed by nose/facial injury, lower educational attainment, and fair/poor health. Self-reported chemosensory alterations are prevalent in US adults, supporting increased attention to decreasing their modifiable risks, managing safety/health consequences, and expanding chemosensory screening/testing and treatments. PMID:26487703

  18. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Self-Reported Smell and Taste Alterations: Results from the 2011-2012 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawal, Shristi; Hoffman, Howard J; Bainbridge, Kathleen E; Huedo-Medina, Tania B; Duffy, Valerie B

    2016-01-01

    Chemosensory problems challenge health through diminished ability to detect warning odors, consume a healthy diet, and maintain quality of life. We examined the prevalence and associated risk factors of self-reported chemosensory alterations in 3603 community-dwelling adults (aged 40+ years), from the nationally representative, US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011-2012. In this new NHANES component, technicians surveyed adults in the home about perceived smell and taste problems, distortions, and diminished abilities since age 25 (termed "alterations"), and chemosensory-related health risks and behaviors. The prevalence of self-reported smell alteration was 23%, including phantosmia at 6%; taste was 19%, including dysgeusia at 5%. Prevalence rates increased progressively with age, highest in those aged 80+ years (smell, 32%; taste, 27%). In multivariable logistic regression, controlling for sociodemographics, health behaviors, and chemosensory-related conditions, the strongest independent risk factor for smell alteration was sinonasal symptoms (odds ratio [OR] = 2.06; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.63-2.61), followed by heavy drinking, loss of consciousness from head injury, family income ≤110% poverty threshold, and xerostomia. For taste, the strongest risk factor was xerostomia (OR = 2.65; 95% CI: 1.97-3.56), followed by nose/facial injury, lower educational attainment, and fair/poor health. Self-reported chemosensory alterations are prevalent in US adults, supporting increased attention to decreasing their modifiable risks, managing safety/health consequences, and expanding chemosensory screening/testing and treatments. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Parallelism in matrix computations

    CERN Document Server

    Gallopoulos, Efstratios; Sameh, Ahmed H

    2016-01-01

    This book is primarily intended as a research monograph that could also be used in graduate courses for the design of parallel algorithms in matrix computations. It assumes general but not extensive knowledge of numerical linear algebra, parallel architectures, and parallel programming paradigms. The book consists of four parts: (I) Basics; (II) Dense and Special Matrix Computations; (III) Sparse Matrix Computations; and (IV) Matrix functions and characteristics. Part I deals with parallel programming paradigms and fundamental kernels, including reordering schemes for sparse matrices. Part II is devoted to dense matrix computations such as parallel algorithms for solving linear systems, linear least squares, the symmetric algebraic eigenvalue problem, and the singular-value decomposition. It also deals with the development of parallel algorithms for special linear systems such as banded ,Vandermonde ,Toeplitz ,and block Toeplitz systems. Part III addresses sparse matrix computations: (a) the development of pa...

  20. Blood pressure prevalences and levels for a multicultural population in Auckland, New Zealand: results from the Diabetes, Heart and Health Survey 2002/2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentles, Dudley; Metcalf, Patricia; Dyall, Lorna; Scragg, Robert; Black, Peter; Schaaf, David; Sundborn, Gerhard; Jackson, Rod

    2006-11-17

    To estimate ethnic-specific raised blood pressure (RBP) prevalences, blood pressure levels, and associations of systolic blood pressure (SBP) in the Auckland region. A cross-sectional survey of adults aged between 35-74 years in the Auckland region. There were 1006 Maori, 996 Pacific people (mostly of Samoan, Tongan, Niuean, or Cook Islands origin), and 2021 Others (mainly Europeans). Approximately 1 in 3 Maori and Pacific people had RBP (defined arbitrarily as greater than and equal to 140/90 mmHg or on blood pressure-lowering treatment), compared to 1 in 5 Others. The prevalences of RBP (adjusted for age and gender) were: Maori 37%, Pacific people 38%, and Others 22%. Maori and Pacific people had higher average systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels than Others (adjusted for age and gender). This difference became non-significant when adjusted for body mass index (BMI). SBP was (on average) higher for: male gender, increased age, increased BMI, no tertiary education, high pulse rate, high cholesterol, high triglycerides, those on current blood pressure-lowering medication. SBP was (on average) lower for current cigarette smokers. Average blood pressure levels and the prevalences of RBP were higher in Pacific people and Maori compared to Others. BMI was identified as the major modifiable factor.

  1. Prevalence and risk factors of poor sleep quality among Chinese elderly in an urban community: results from the Shanghai aging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jianfeng; Zhu, Guoxing; Zhao, Qianhua; Guo, Qihao; Meng, Haijiao; Hong, Zhen; Ding, Ding

    2013-01-01

    Sleep disorders causes a significant negative effect on mental and physical health, particularly among the elderly. The disease burden and risk factors of poor sleep quality of the elderly need to be verified using a validated form of measurement in urban mainland China. This study included 1086 community residents aged ≥ 60 years who completed the Chinese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (CPSQI). Poor sleeper was defined by a CPSQI global score of >5. Subjects also accepted the neurological and neuropsychological assessments, including the Mini-Mental State Examination, Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, and Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (ZSAS). A history of chronic diseases was confirmed by the medical records of each participant. The prevalence of poor sleep quality in this population was 41.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 38.6-44.5%), with a higher rate observed in elderly females (45.8% [95% CI = 41.9-49.7%]) than that in elderly males (35.8% [95% CI = 31.4-40.1%]). The prevalence rate increased with age, from 32.1% (95% CI = 27.8-36.4%) in those aged 60-69 years to 52.5% (95% CI = 45.9-59.1%) in those aged ≥ 80 years (p value for trendsleep quality. Poor sleep quality is highly prevalent among elderly Chinese residents in urban Shanghai. Growing attention and comprehensive countermeasures involving psycho-social and personal activities might alleviate the sleep problem in the elderly.

  2. The importance of people compliance (social desirability bias) in the assessment of epilepsy prevalence in rural areas of developing countries. Results of the Atahualpa Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Brutto, Oscar H; Mera, Robertino M

    2016-12-01

    Epilepsy is a major health issue in rural areas of developing countries. However, heterogeneity of epilepsy prevalence in different studies precludes assessment of the magnitude of the problem. Using similar protocols, two population-based surveys were conducted 12 years apart (2003 and 2015) in a rural Ecuadorian village (Atahualpa). The only difference was a higher people compliance with interviewers during the second survey. Epilepsy prevalence in the 2003 survey was 13.5 per 1,000 (18/1,332) in villagers aged ≥20 years. This rate increased to 26.8 per 1,000 (41/1,530) in the 2015 survey. Thirty-three persons with epilepsy detected during the second survey lived in the village in 2003; six of them had seizures starting after 2003. Of the remaining 27 cases, 13 (48%) denied their problem during the first survey. Further interview revealed that denial was related to lack of confidence with unacquainted field personnel. Social Desirability Scale-17 scores were lower in those who admitted having epilepsy than in those who denied their condition (p = 0.048). Lack of confidence with interviewers and a social desirability bias account for a sizable proportion of epilepsy denial in the study population, and may explain heterogeneity of epilepsy prevalence reported in studies conducted in poor rural settings. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International League Against Epilepsy.

  3. Prevalence and correlates of hunger among primary and secondary school children in Malawi: results from the 2009 Global School-based Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwambene, J B; Muula, A S; Leo, J C

    2013-06-01

    Education is important in improving economies and creating literate, self-reliant and healthy societies. However, hunger is a barrier to basic education in Malawi. Hunger is also associated with a number of health risk behaviours, such as bullying, suicide ideation and unhygienic behaviours that may jeopardize the future of children. There are, however, limited data on the prevalence and associated factors of hunger among school children in Malawi. The study used data from the Malawi Global School-Based Health Survey conducted in 2009 to estimate the prevalence of self-reported hunger within the last 30 days among primary and secondary school age group. It also assessed the association between self-reported hunger and some selected list of independent variables using frequency distribution, chi-squared test and logistic regression. A total of 2359 students were available for analysis. The overall self-reported prevalence of hunger within the last 30 days was 12.5% (18.9% (172) in the rural and 8.3% (115) in urban areas; and 11.9%(123) for male and 12.5(148) for female children). In the final analysis, geographical location, eating fruits, having been bullied, suicide ideation, and washing hands with soap were significantly associated with hunger. Hunger in both primary and secondary school children in Malawi is a major social problem. The design of school feeding programmes aimed to reduce hunger should incorporate the factors identified as associated with hunger.

  4. Regular gaming behavior and internet gaming disorder in European adolescents: results from a cross-national representative survey of prevalence, predictors, and psychopathological correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, K W; Janikian, M; Dreier, M; Wölfling, K; Beutel, M E; Tzavara, C; Richardson, C; Tsitsika, A

    2015-05-01

    Excessive use of online computer games which leads to functional impairment and distress has recently been included as Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) in Section III of the DSM-5. Although nosological classification of this phenomenon is still a matter of debate, it is argued that IGD might be described best as a non-substance-related addiction. Epidemiological surveys reveal that it affects up to 3% of adolescents and seems to be related to heightened psychosocial symptoms. However, there has been no study of prevalence of IGD on a multi-national level relying on a representative sample including standardized psychometric measures. The research project EU NET ADB was conducted to assess prevalence and psychopathological correlates of IGD in seven European countries based on a representative sample of 12,938 adolescents between 14 and 17 years. 1.6% of the adolescents meet full criteria for IGD, with further 5.1% being at risk for IGD by fulfilling up to four criteria. The prevalence rates are slightly varying across the participating countries. IGD is closely associated with psychopathological symptoms, especially concerning aggressive and rule-breaking behavior and social problems. This survey demonstrated that IGD is a frequently occurring phenomenon among European adolescents and is related to psychosocial problems. The need for youth-specific prevention and treatment programs becomes evident.

  5. Development and validation of a job exposure matrix for physical risk factors in low back pain.

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    Svetlana Solovieva

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim was to construct and validate a gender-specific job exposure matrix (JEM for physical exposures to be used in epidemiological studies of low back pain (LBP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We utilized two large Finnish population surveys, one to construct the JEM and another to test matrix validity. The exposure axis of the matrix included exposures relevant to LBP (heavy physical work, heavy lifting, awkward trunk posture and whole body vibration and exposures that increase the biomechanical load on the low back (arm elevation or those that in combination with other known risk factors could be related to LBP (kneeling or squatting. Job titles with similar work tasks and exposures were grouped. Exposure information was based on face-to-face interviews. Validity of the matrix was explored by comparing the JEM (group-based binary measures with individual-based measures. The predictive validity of the matrix against LBP was evaluated by comparing the associations of the group-based (JEM exposures with those of individual-based exposures. RESULTS: The matrix includes 348 job titles, representing 81% of all Finnish job titles in the early 2000s. The specificity of the constructed matrix was good, especially in women. The validity measured with kappa-statistic ranged from good to poor, being fair for most exposures. In men, all group-based (JEM exposures were statistically significantly associated with one-month prevalence of LBP. In women, four out of six group-based exposures showed an association with LBP. CONCLUSIONS: The gender-specific JEM for physical exposures showed relatively high specificity without compromising sensitivity. The matrix can therefore be considered as a valid instrument for exposure assessment in large-scale epidemiological studies, when more precise but more labour-intensive methods are not feasible. Although the matrix was based on Finnish data we foresee that it could be applicable, with some modifications, in

  6. The prevalence and incidence of frailty in Pre-diabetic and diabetic community-dwelling older population: results from Beijing longitudinal study of aging II (BLSA-II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhetri, Jagadish Kumar; Zheng, Zheng; Xu, Xitong; Ma, Cuihong; Chan, Piu

    2017-02-08

    Various factors including cardio-metabolic disorders are found to be correlated with frailty. With the increase in age, older adults are likely to have elevated blood glucose level. In this study we intend to investigate the prevalence and incidence of frailty in the pre-diabetic and diabetic community dwelling elderly population and the associated risk factors. At baseline total of 10,039 subjects with a mean age of 70.51 (±7.82) were included. A total of 6,293 older adults were followed up at 12 months. A Frailty index (FI) with 32 items was developed using Rockwood's cumulative deficits method. Frailty index ≥0.25 was used as cut-off criteria for the diagnosis of frailty. Diagnosis of pre-diabetes and diabetes was set according to the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for fasting plasma glucose (FPG) level. Chi-square tests were performed to compare percentages by 3 major groups (non-diabetes, pre-diabetes, diabetes), ANOVA and student's t-tests was used to compare means of group for continuous variables. Multiple logistic regression models were performed to estimate the risk factors for frailty in non-diabetic, pre-diabetic and diabetic elderly populations using baseline and longitudinal data. Diabetic population had a much higher prevalence (19.32%) and incidence (12.32%) of frailty, compared to that of non-diabetic older adults (prevalence of 11.92% and incidence of 7.04%). And pre-diabetics had somewhat similar prevalence of 11.43% and slightly higher incidence of 8.73% for frailty than non-diabetic older adults. Diabetics were at 1.36 (95% CI = 1.18,1.56) and 1.56 (95%CI = 1.32,1.85) fold increase in risk of frailty compared to non-diabetic population for prevalence and incidence, respectively. Being female, urban living, high waist circumference, less house work and need regular anti-diabetic medications were independent risk factors only in pre-diabetic and diabetic older adults. This study confirms that diabetes is an independent

  7. Results of the population study of the prevalence and risk factors of the food intolerance in children of different school age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Р. Pakholchuk

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is well known that allergy is genetically predispose. But gene change takes much time, ages. Some researches have doubts that it occurred during last two decades, but allergic pathology spread increased in several times more and continue to grow. That’s why the cause should be searched in the epigenetic influences (environmental, food, ets.. More than the half of the modern hypothesis concerning allergy spread are associated with food (7 from 13. EAACI data showed that quantity of children with self reported food hypersensitivity and positive provocation test results decrease with age. But specific IgE levels to food showed other pattern: it increases in young school children in two times and decreases in elders. We supposed different pathogenetic mechanisms of food intolerance (FI in school children of different ages. The aim of this study was to assess prevalence, risk factors and features of the FI in children of different school age. Materials and methods. 250 children 6-17 years old were included into the study. All of them were citizens from the industrial region of the Zaporizhia city. 217 respondents returned questionnaire. 137 of them undergone physical examination. Questionnaire was created on the base of the ISAAC survey and included questions on the life style, food, early age. For the assessment of the skin symptoms severity SCORAD scale was used. Transepidermal water lost was estimated with humidity meter (Queentone,France. Skin pH metria was performed with pH-meter (Ezodo,Taiwan. Statistical analysis was made with Microsoft Exel, Statistica 6.0 programs. Results and discussion. 217 respondents returned questionnaire (86,8%. 129 (59,4% of them were males, 88 (40,6% - females. 85 of children (38,6% – were pupils from the elementary school (age 6-10 y.o., 82 children (37,7% – from the 5-8 classes (age 10-14 y.o., 50 (23,7% - 10-11 classes (age 15-17 y.o.. More than ½ of the respondents (54,3% had skin food

  8. Correntropy Based Matrix Completion

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    Yuning Yang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the matrix completion problems when the entries are contaminated by non-Gaussian noise or outliers. The proposed approach employs a nonconvex loss function induced by the maximum correntropy criterion. With the help of this loss function, we develop a rank constrained, as well as a nuclear norm regularized model, which is resistant to non-Gaussian noise and outliers. However, its non-convexity also leads to certain difficulties. To tackle this problem, we use the simple iterative soft and hard thresholding strategies. We show that when extending to the general affine rank minimization problems, under proper conditions, certain recoverability results can be obtained for the proposed algorithms. Numerical experiments indicate the improved performance of our proposed approach.

  9. Matrix orderings and their associated skew fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahdavi-Hezavehi, M.

    1990-08-01

    Matrix orderings on rings are investigated. It is shown that in the commutative case they are essentially positive cones. This is proved by reducing it to the field case; similarly one can show that on a skew field, matrix positive cones can be reduced to positive cones by using the Dieudonne determinant. Our main result shows that there is a natural bijection between the matrix positive cones on a ring R and the ordered epic R-fields. (author). 7 refs

  10. Matrix models of induced QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makeenko, Yu.

    1994-01-01

    I review recent works on the problem of inducing large-N QCD by matrix fields. In the first part of the talk I describe the matrix models which induce large-N QCD and present the results of studies of their phase structure by the standard lattice technology (in particular, by the mean field method). The second part is devoted to the exact solution of these models in the strong coupling region by means of the loop equations. I describe the solution of the Kazakov-Migdal model with the quadratic and logarithmic potentials as well as that of analogous fermionic models with the quadratic potential. (orig.)

  11. QCD Matrix Elements + Parton Showers

    CERN Document Server

    Catani, S; Kühn, R; Webber, Bryan R

    2001-01-01

    We propose a method for combining QCD matrix elements and parton showers in Monte Carlo simulations of hadronic final states in $e^+e^-$ annihilation. The matrix element and parton shower domains are separated at some value $y_{ini}$ of the jet resolution, defined according to the $k_T$-clustering algorithm. The matrix elements are modified by Sudakov form factors and the parton showers are subjected to a veto procedure to cancel dependence on $y_{ini}$ to next-to-leading logarithmic accuracy. The method provides a leading-order description of hard multi-jet configurations together with jet fragmentation, while avoiding the most serious problems of double counting. We present first results of an approximate implementation using the event generator APACIC++.

  12. Prevalence of Neuropathic Pain and Patient-Reported Outcomes in Korean Adults with Chronic Low Back Pain Resulting from Neuropathic Low Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Hwan; Hong, Jae Taek; Lee, Chong-Suh; Kim, Keun-Su; Suk, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Jin-Hyok; Park, Ye-Soo; Chang, Bong-Soon; Jun, Deuk Soo; Kim, Young-Hoon; Lee, Jung-Hee; Min, Woo-Kie; Lee, Jung-Sub; Park, Si-Young; Oh, In-Soo; Hong, Jae-Young; Shin, Hyun-Chul; Kim, Woo-Kyung; Kim, Joo-Han; Lee, Jung-Kil; Kim, In-Soo; Ha, Yoon; Im, Soo-Bin; Kim, Sang Woo; Han, In-Ho; Shin, Jun-Jae; Rim, Byeong Cheol; Seo, Bo-Jeong; Kim, Young-Joo; Lee, Juneyoung

    2017-12-01

    A noninterventional, multicenter, cross-sectional study. We investigated the prevalence of neuropathic pain (NP) and patient-reported outcomes (PROs) of the quality of life (QoL) and functional disability in Korean adults with chronic low back pain (CLBP). Among patients with CLBP, 20%-55% had NP. Patients older than 20 years with CLBP lasting for longer than three months, with a visual analog scale (VAS) pain score higher than four, and with pain medications being used for at least four weeks before enrollment were recruited from 27 general hospitals between December 2014 and May 2015. Medical chart reviews were performed to collect demographic/clinical features and diagnosis of NP (douleur neuropathique 4, DN4). The QoL (EuroQoL 5-dimension, EQ-5D; EQ-VAS) and functional disability (Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale, QBPDS) were determined through patient surveys. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to compare PROs between the NP (DN4≥4) and non-NP (DN4NP. The prevalence of NP was higher in male patients (46.8%; p p p NP group vs. non-NP group: 0.4±0.3 vs. 0.5±0.3; p NP group vs. non-NP group: 45.8±21.2 vs. 36.3±20.2; p NP showed lower EQ-5D (β=-0.1; p p NP. NP was highly prevalent in Korean patients with CLBP. Patients with CLBP having NP had a lower QoL and more severe dysfunction than those without NP. To enhance the QoL and functional status of patients with CLBP, this study highlights the importance of appropriately diagnosing and treating NP.

  13. Baseline Trachoma Surveys in Kaskazini A and Micheweni Districts of Zanzibar: Results of Two Population-Based Prevalence Surveys Conducted with the Global Trachoma Mapping Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Fatma J; Kabona, George; Abdalla, Khalfan M; Mohamed, Saleh J; Ali, Said M; Ame, Shaali M; Ngwalle, Abel; Mbise, Christina; Rotondo, Lisa; Willis, Rebecca; Flueckiger, Rebecca M; Massae, Patrick A; Bakhtiari, Ana; Solomon, Anthony W; Ngondi, Jeremiah M

    2016-12-01

    Based on health care records and trachoma rapid assessments, trachoma was suspected to be endemic in Kaskazini A and Micheweni districts of Zanzibar. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF), and trachomatous trichiasis (TT) in each of those districts. The survey was undertaken in Kaskazini A and Micheweni districts on Unguja and Pemba Islands, respectively. A multi-stage cluster random sampling design was applied, whereby 25 census enumeration areas (clusters) and 30 households per cluster were included. Consenting eligible participants (children aged 1-9 years and people aged 15 years and older) were examined for trachoma using the World Health Organization simplified grading system. A total of 1673 households were surveyed and 6407 participants (98.0% of those enumerated) were examined for trachoma. Examinees included a total of 2825 children aged 1-9 years and 3582 people aged 15 years and older. TF prevalence in 1-9-year-olds was 2.7% (95% confidence interval, CI, 2.7-4.1%) in Kazkazini A and 11.4% (95% CI 6.6-16.5%) in Micheweni. Among people aged 15 years and older, TT prevalence was 0.01% (95% CI 0.00-0.04%) in Kazkazini A and 0.21% (95% CI 0.08-0.39%) in Micheweni. Trachoma is a public health problem in Micheweni district, where implementation of all four components of the SAFE strategy (surgery, antibiotics, facial cleanliness, and environmental improvement), including mass drug administration with azithromycin, is required. These findings will facilitate planning for trachoma elimination.

  14. Prevalence of carbapenem-resistant organisms and other Gram-negative MDRO in German ICUs: first results from the national nosocomial infection surveillance system (KISS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maechler, F; Peña Diaz, L A; Schröder, C; Geffers, C; Behnke, M; Gastmeier, P

    2015-04-01

    Standardized prevalence and incidence data on carbapenem-resistant organisms (CRO) and, as a relevant subgroup, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are scarce. CRO-surveillance within the German nosocomial infection surveillance system (KISS) aims to provide epidemiological surveillance data on CRO colonizations and infections. CRO-surveillance is part of a KISS-module for the surveillance of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO). MDRO-KISS methods require surveillance of all patients admitted to the ward and standardized documentation of imported and ICU-acquired cases. Data on all MDRO-carriers including colonization and infection with MDRO are collected. All presented data were routine data collected from January 1st 2013 until December 1st 2013 in accordance with the German Protection against Infection Act (IfSG). 341 ICUs submitted data on MDRO during the first year. In total, 5,171 cases of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (MRGN) were identified. 848 were CRO (16%). 325 CRO-cases were acquired within the ICU (38%), and 373 CRO-patients had an infection (44%). CRO-prevalence was 0.29 per 100 patients. Acquisition rate of MRGN was 1.32 per 1,000 patient days. This rate is more than doubled the acquisition rates of other MDRO under surveillance within MDRO-KISS (0.57 MRSA, 0.49 VRE). CRO-acquisition rate was 0.3 per 1,000 patient days. Incidence density of MRGN infections bacteria was 0.58 per 1,000 patient days (CRO 0.15/1,000 patient days). To date, CRO are common in German ICUs and the relatively large proportions of ICU-acquired CRO and infections emphasize their potential to cause outbreaks. High MRGN infection rates and high ESBL prevalence data from clinical studies suggest a lack of MRGN identification in asymptomatic carriers.

  15. Prevalence of amblyopia and strabismus in Eastern China: results from screening of preschool children aged 36-72 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuejuan; Fu, Zhujun; Yu, Jiajia; Ding, Hui; Bai, Jing; Chen, Ji; Gong, Yu; Zhu, Hui; Yu, Rongbing; Liu, Hu

    2016-04-01

    To determine the prevalence of amblyopia and strabismus in preschool children in Eastern China. The Nanjing Pediatric Vision Project was a cross-sectional, population-based cohort study conducted in preschool children aged 36-72 months from 2011 to 2012 in Yuhua District, Nanjing, China, using an age-stratified random sampling procedure. A questionnaire totalling 117 items was sent to be completed by the corresponding parents or legal guardians of each eligible child. Comprehensive eye examinations, including visual acuity, anterior segment examination, autorefraction, cover test and ocular motility, were conducted. Postcycloplegic refraction and fundus examinations were performed if necessary. Amblyopia was present in 68 children (1.20%, 95% CI 0.92% to 1.48%), with no statistical differences in gender (p=0.903) and age (p=0.835). Among these, 27 had bilateral amblyopia and 41 had unilateral amblyopia, including 26 anisometropic without strabismus, 26 binocular refractive, 7 strabismic, 6 combined strabismic/anisometropic and 3 deprivation amblyopia. Strabismus was found in 320 children (5.65%, 95% CI 5.05% to 6.25%), including 43 with concomitant esotropia, 259 with concomitant exotropia (1 esotropia at near but exotropia at distance), 8 with microtropia (3 esotropia and 5 exotropia), 10 with pure vertical strabismus (3 dissociated vertical deviation and 7 oblique muscle dysfunction) and 1 with Type I Duane syndrome. The prevalence of strabismus had no statistical differences in gender (p=0.952), but had significant statistical differences between different age groups (p=0.021). The prevalence of amblyopia and strabismus in preschool children in Eastern China were 1.20% and 5.65%, respectively. The refractive and strabismus are the main factors associated with amblyopia. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. Prevalence and correlates for school truancy among pupils in grades 7-10: results from the 2004 Zambia Global School-based Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muula, Adamson S; Rudatsikira, Emmanuel; Babaniyi, Olusegun; Songolo, Peter; Siziya, Seter

    2012-01-20

    There are limited data on the prevalence and associated factors of truancy in southern Africa. Yet truancy should attract the attention of public health professionals, educators and policy makers as it may be associated with adolescent problem behaviours. The objectives of the study were to estimate the prevalence and determine correlates of school truancy among pupils in Zambia. We used data collected in 2004 in the Zambia Global School-based Health Survey. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify factors associated with truancy. A total of 2257 pupils participated in the survey of whom 53.9% were male. Overall 58.8% of the participants (58.1% of males and 58.4% of females) reported being truant in the past 30 days. Factors associated with truancy were having been bullied (AOR = 1.34, 95% CI [1.32, 1.36]), current alcohol use (AOR = 2.19, 95% CI [2.16, 2.23]), perception that other students were kind and helpful (AOR = 1.12, 95% CI [1.10, 1.14]), being male and being from the lowest school grade. Pupils whose parents or guardians checked their homework (AOR = 0.91 95% CI, [0.89, 0.92]) and those who reported parental supervision (AOR = 0.94, 95% CI [0.92-0.95]) were less likely to report being truant. We found a high prevalence of truancy among pupils in grades 7-10 in Zambia. Interventions aimed to reduce truancy should be designed and implemented with due consideration of the associated factors.

  17. Prevalence and clinical association of gene mutations through multiplex mutation testing in patients with NSCLC: results from the ETOP Lungscape Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, K M; Dafni, U; Schulze, K; Thunnissen, E; Bubendorf, L; Hager, H; Finn, S; Biernat, W; Vliegen, L; Losa, J H; Marchetti, A; Cheney, R; Warth, A; Speel, E-J; Blackhall, F; Monkhorst, K; Jantus Lewintre, E; Tischler, V; Clark, C; Bertran-Alamillo, J; Meldgaard, P; Gately, K; Wrona, A; Vandenberghe, P; Felip, E; De Luca, G; Savic, S; Muley, T; Smit, E F; Dingemans, A-M C; Priest, L; Baas, P; Camps, C; Weder, W; Polydoropoulou, V; Geiger, T R; Kammler, R; Sumiyoshi, T; Molina, M A; Shames, D S; Stahel, R A; Peters, S

    2018-01-01

    Reported prevalence of driver gene mutations in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is highly variable and clinical correlations are emerging. Using NSCLC biomaterial and clinical data from the European Thoracic Oncology Platform Lungscape iBiobank, we explore the epidemiology of mutations and association to clinicopathologic features and patient outcome (relapse-free survival, time-to-relapse, overall survival). Clinically annotated, resected stage I-III NSCLC FFPE tissue was assessed for gene mutation using a microfluidics-based multiplex PCR platform. Mutant-allele detection sensitivity is >1% for most of the ∼150 (13 genes) mutations covered in the multiplex test. Multiplex testing has been carried out in 2063 (76.2%) of the 2709 Lungscape cases (median follow-up 4.8 years). FFPE samples mostly date from 2005 to 2008, yet recently extracted DNA quality and quantity was generally good. Average DNA yield/case was 2.63 µg; 38 cases (1.4%) failed QC and were excluded from study; 95.1% of included cases allowed the complete panel of mutations to be tested. Most common were KRAS, MET, EGFR and PIK3CA mutations with overall prevalence of 23.0%, 6.8%, 5.4% and 4.9%, respectively. KRAS and EGFR mutations were significantly more frequent in adenocarcinomas: PIK3CA in squamous cell carcinomas. MET mutation prevalence did not differ between histology groups. EGFR mutations were found predominantly in never smokers; KRAS in current/former smokers. For all the above mutations, there was no difference in outcome between mutated and non-mutated cases. Archival FFPE NSCLC material is adequate for multiplex mutation analysis. In this large, predominantly European, clinically annotated stage I-III NSCLC cohort, none of the mutations characterized showed prognostic significance.

  18. Prevalence and correlates for school truancy among pupils in grades 7-10: results from the 2004 Zambia Global School-based Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muula Adamson S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are limited data on the prevalence and associated factors of truancy in southern Africa. Yet truancy should attract the attention of public health professionals, educators and policy makers as it may be associated with adolescent problem behaviours. The objectives of the study were to estimate the prevalence and determine correlates of school truancy among pupils in Zambia. Findings We used data collected in 2004 in the Zambia Global School-based Health Survey. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify factors associated with truancy. A total of 2257 pupils participated in the survey of whom 53.9% were male. Overall 58.8% of the participants (58.1% of males and 58.4% of females reported being truant in the past 30 days. Factors associated with truancy were having been bullied (AOR = 1.34, 95% CI [1.32, 1.36], current alcohol use (AOR = 2.19, 95% CI [2.16, 2.23], perception that other students were kind and helpful (AOR = 1.12, 95% CI [1.10, 1.14], being male and being from the lowest school grade. Pupils whose parents or guardians checked their homework (AOR = 0.91 95% CI, [0.89, 0.92] and those who reported parental supervision (AOR = 0.94, 95% CI [0.92-0.95] were less likely to report being truant. Conclusions We found a high prevalence of truancy among pupils in grades 7-10 in Zambia. Interventions aimed to reduce truancy should be designed and implemented with due consideration of the associated factors.

  19. Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment and Influence of Socioeconomic Variables on Control of High Blood Pressure: Results of the ELSA-Brasil Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chor, Dóra; Pinho Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz; Sá Carvalho, Marilia; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Andrade Lotufo, Paulo; Araújo Nobre, Aline; de Aquino, Estela Mota Lima Leão; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Griep, Rosane Härter; Molina, Maria Del Carmen Bisi; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Passos, Valéria Maria de Azeredo; Benseñor, Isabela Judith Martins; Matos, Sheila Maria Alvim; Mill, José Geraldo

    2015-01-01

    High blood pressure (HBP) is the leading risk factor for years of life lost in Brazil. Factors associated with HBP awareness, treatment and control need to be understood better. Our aim is to estimate prevalence, awareness, and types of anti-hypertensive treatment and to investigate the association of HBP control with social position. Data of 15,103 (54% female) civil servants in six Brazilian state capitals collected at the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) baseline (2008-2010) were used to estimate prevalence and cross-sectional association of HBP control with education, per capita family income and self-reported race, using multiple logistic regression. Blood pressure was measured by the oscillometric method. 35.8% were classified as presenting HBP; 76.8% of these used anti-hypertensive medication. Women were more aware than men (84.8% v. 75.8%) and more often using medication (83.1% v. 70.7%). Adjusted HBP prevalence was, in ascending order, Whites (30.3%), Browns (38.2%) and Blacks (49.3%). The therapeutic schemes most used were angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, in isolation (12.4%) or combined with diuretics (13.3%). Among those in drug treatment, controlled blood pressure was more likely in the (postgraduate) higher education group than among participants with less than secondary school education (PR = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.14–1.28), and among Asian (PR = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.12–1.32) and ‘Whites (PR = 1.19; 95% CI: 1.12–1.26) compared to Blacks. Socioeconomic and racial inequality—as measured by different indicators—are strongly associated with HBP control, beyond the expected influence of health services access. PMID:26102079

  20. Prevalence and correlates of being bullied among in-school adolescents in Malawi: results from the 2009 Global School-Based Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubwalo, H W; Muula, A S; Siziya, S; Pasupulati, S; Rudatsikira, E

    2013-03-01

    Physical and emotional violence against adolescents is a neglected, but growing problem globally. Violence against adolescents negatively affects the victim in terms of physical health, school attendance and performance and social adjustment. The literature on the prevalence and associated factors of bullying against adolescents is sparse in southern Africa outside South Africa. Such data are even sparser for Malawi. The current study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of self-reported bullying and its personal and social correlates. A secondary analysis of the Malawi School-Based Student Health Survey (2009) was done. Descriptive analyses were done to describe the sample and estimate the prevalence of reporting history of bullying in the past 30 days preceding the survey. Logistic regression analysis was done to assess the association between several factors and being a victim of bullying. Crude and adjusted odds ratios are reported. A total of 2,264 in-school adolescents participated in the Malawi School-Based Student Health Survey of 2009. Just under half (44.5%) reported having been bullied in the previous month to the survey (44.1% among boys versus 44.9% among girls). Compared to adolescents of age 16 years or older, those who were 12 years old or younger and those who were 14 years of age were more likely to be bullied (AOR=1.54; 95% CI [1.41, 1.76]) and OR=1.26; 95% CI [1.21, 1.31]) respectively. The other risk factors that were identified in the analysis were loneliness (AOR = 2.23; 95% CI [2.20, 2.27]), and being worried (AOR = 2.80; 95% CI [2.76, 2.85[). Adolescents who had no close friends were 14% (AOR = 1.14; 95% CI [1.11-1.17]) more likely to be reporting bullied compared to adolescents who reported having close friends. Adolescents who smoked cigarettes were more than three times more likely to reporting be bullied compared to non-smokers (AOR=3.97; 955 CI [3.83, 4.10]), while those who drank alcohol were more than twice as likely to be

  1. Prevalence and Correlates of Fire-Setting in the United States: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Vaughn, Michael G.; Fu, Qiang; DeLisi, Matt; Wright, John Paul; Beaver, Kevin M.; Perron, Brian E.; Howard, Matthew O.

    2009-01-01

    Fire-setting is a serious and costly form of antisocial behavior. Our objective in this study was to examine the prevalence and correlates of intentional fire-setting behavior in the U. S. Data were derived from a nationally representative sample of U.S. residents 18 years and older. Structured psychiatric interviews (N = 43,093) were completed by trained lay interviewers between 2001-2002. Fire-setting and DSM-IV mood, anxiety, substance use and personality disorders were assessed with the A...

  2. Noncommutative spaces from matrix models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lei

    Noncommutative (NC) spaces commonly arise as solutions to matrix model equations of motion. They are natural generalizations of the ordinary commutative spacetime. Such spaces may provide insights into physics close to the Planck scale, where quantum gravity becomes relevant. Although there has been much research in the literature, aspects of these NC spaces need further investigation. In this dissertation, we focus on properties of NC spaces in several different contexts. In particular, we study exact NC spaces which result from solutions to matrix model equations of motion. These spaces are associated with finite-dimensional Lie-algebras. More specifically, they are two-dimensional fuzzy spaces that arise from a three-dimensional Yang-Mills type matrix model, four-dimensional tensor-product fuzzy spaces from a tensorial matrix model, and Snyder algebra from a five-dimensional tensorial matrix model. In the first part of this dissertation, we study two-dimensional NC solutions to matrix equations of motion of extended IKKT-type matrix models in three-space-time dimensions. Perturbations around the NC solutions lead to NC field theories living on a two-dimensional space-time. The commutative limit of the solutions are smooth manifolds which can be associated with closed, open and static two-dimensional cosmologies. One particular solution is a Lorentzian fuzzy sphere, which leads to essentially a fuzzy sphere in the Minkowski space-time. In the commutative limit, this solution leads to an induced metric that does not have a fixed signature, and have a non-constant negative scalar curvature, along with singularities at two fixed latitudes. The singularities are absent in the matrix solution which provides a toy model for resolving the singularities of General relativity. We also discussed the two-dimensional fuzzy de Sitter space-time, which has irreducible representations of su(1,1) Lie-algebra in terms of principal, complementary and discrete series. Field

  3. Expansion of the peri-implant attached gingiva with a three-dimensional collagen matrix in head and neck cancer patients-results from a prospective clinical and histological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Jonas; Blume, Maximilian; Barbeck, Mike; Teiler, Anna; Kirkpatrick, C James; Sader, Robert A; Ghanaati, Shahram

    2017-05-01

    Attached peri-implant gingiva has proven to have an influence on the long-term stability of dental implants. In patients with head and neck cancer, a functional peri-implant gingiva is even more of critical importance. The aim of the presented prospective study was to investigate a three-dimensional xenogeneic collagen matrix for augmentation around dental implants in patients with former head and neck cancer. Eight patients presenting with insufficient peri-implant gingiva underwent vestibuloplasty on 51 implants using a xenogeneic collagen matrix. The clinical performance and the shrinking tendency of the matrix were analyzed in a cohort study. Furthermore, eight biopsies from the augmented regions were examined histologically to determine the biomaterial-related tissue reaction. Initially after vestibuloplasty, a mean width of attached gingiva of 4.4 ± 0.94 mm could be achieved. At clinical follow up investigation 6 months after vestibuloplasty, a mean width of 3.9 ± 0.65 mm attached peri-implant gingiva with a mean shrinking tendency of 14 % could be detected. Histological analysis of the biopsies revealed a well integrated collagen22 matrix covered with epithelium. Within the compact layer, mononuclear cells were observed only, while the spongious layer was infiltrated with a cell-rich connective tissue. Within its limits, the presented study revealed that the investigated collagen matrix is suitable to enlarge the peri-implant attached gingiva in head and neck cancer patients without adverse reactions or a multinucleated giant cell-triggered tissue reaction. The application of the investigated three-dimensional collagen matrix in vestibuloplasty achieved a sufficient amount of peri-implant attached gingiva in head and neck cancer patients. The favorable tissue reaction and the low shrinking tendency make the collagen matrix a promising alternative to autologous tissue grafts.

  4. Patience of matrix games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Ibsen-Jensen, Rasmus; Podolskii, Vladimir V.

    2013-01-01

    For matrix games we study how small nonzero probability must be used in optimal strategies. We show that for image win–lose–draw games (i.e. image matrix games) nonzero probabilities smaller than image are never needed. We also construct an explicit image win–lose game such that the unique optimal...

  5. Probability matrix decomposition models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maris, E.; DeBoeck, P.; Mechelen, I. van

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a class of models for two-way matrices with binary entries of 0 and 1. First, we consider Boolean matrix decomposition, conceptualize it as a latent response model (LRM) and, by making use of this conceptualization, generalize it to a larger class of matrix decomposition

  6. Triangularization of a Matrix

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ). From this one can see that this equality is als9 true for diagonalizable matrices; just note that eSAs-. 1 = SeAS-I. Finally, the equality car- ries over to all matrices since both sides are continuous functions of a matrix and every matrix is a limit ...

  7. Fuzzy vulnerability matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, Jorge H.; Rivera, S.S.

    2000-01-01

    The so-called vulnerability matrix is used in the evaluation part of the probabilistic safety assessment for a nuclear power plant, during the containment event trees calculations. This matrix is established from what is knows as Numerical Categories for Engineering Judgement. This matrix is usually established with numerical values obtained with traditional arithmetic using the set theory. The representation of this matrix with fuzzy numbers is much more adequate, due to the fact that the Numerical Categories for Engineering Judgement are better represented with linguistic variables, such as 'highly probable', 'probable', 'impossible', etc. In the present paper a methodology to obtain a Fuzzy Vulnerability Matrix is presented, starting from the recommendations on the Numerical Categories for Engineering Judgement. (author)

  8. Sex differences in prevalence and comorbidity of alcohol and drug use disorders: results from wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Risë B; Dawson, Deborah A; Chou, S Patricia; Grant, Bridget F

    2012-11-01

    The present study examined sex differences in lifetime Axis I and II psychiatric comorbidity of DSM-IV alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and drug use disorders (DUDs) among general population U.S. adults. Using data from Waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, Wave 2 lifetime prevalences of each disorder comorbid with alcohol abuse, alcohol dependence, drug abuse, and drug dependence were compared between men and women. Sex-specific associations of alcohol, any drug, and cannabis- and cocaine-specific abuse and dependence with each comorbid disorder were examined using logistic regression, first with adjustment for sociodemographic variables and then with additional adjustment for all other psychiatric disorders. Prevalences of most comorbid disorders differed significantly by sex among respondents with each AUD and DUD. However, after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics and additional co-occurring psychiatric diagnoses, there were few sex differences in unique comorbid associations of specific AUDs and DUDs with specific psychiatric disorders. Rates of psychiatric disorders comorbid with AUDs and DUDs indicate large burdens of morbidity in both sexes, highlighting the need for careful assessment and appropriate treatment of both substance use and mental health disorders. The unique comorbid associations with AUDs and DUDs identified in this study further indicate the need for prospective etiological research to characterize these associations, their underlying mechanisms, and the possible sex specificity of those mechanisms.

  9. Lifetime and 1-year prevalence of homelessness in the US population: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jack

    2018-03-01

    Homelessness remains a major public health problem in the USA but there have been few recent epidemiological studies in the general population. Using data from structured interviews with a nationally representative sample of 36 299 US adults from the 2012-13 Wave 3 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC-III), this study examined the lifetime and 1-year prevalence of homelessness, and its correlates. Lifetime and 1-year prevalence of homelessness in the US population was found to be 4.2 and 1.5%, respectively. Low income, debt, borderline personality disorder (PD), past-year tobacco use disorder, any history of suicidal attempts and being a victim of crime in the past year were all independently strongly associated with past-year homelessness (all OR > 1.5). Low income, debt, history of incarceration, antisocial PD and any history of suicidal attempts were all independently strongly associated with lifetime homelessness (all OR > 1.5). These findings provide an update to the original NESARC, suggesting a possible increase in lifetime homelessness (2.7-4.2%) in the past decade. Along with known economic and behavioral health conditions, special attention should be paid to PDs in efforts to prevent and end homelessness.

  10. [Annual prevalence of mental disorders and use of mental health services in Peru: results of the World Mental Health Survey, 2005].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Marina; Fiestas, Fabián

    2014-01-01

    To estimate the annual prevalence of eighteen mental disorders, their sociodemographic correlates and the frequency of use of mental health services by individuals aged 18 to 65 in five cities of Peru. The World Mental Health Survey in Peru used the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, which provides diagnoses according to DSM-IV and ICD-10 criteria. It was performed with a multistage probabilistic sample in Lima, Arequipa, Huancayo, Iquitos and Chiclayo between July 2004 and December 2005. The prevalence of mental disorders in the last twelve months was 13.5%, the most frequent being anxiety (7.9%), mood (3.5%), impulse control (3.5%) and substance misuse (1.7%). The widowed, separated and divorced showed a greater risk of disorders in the last year than those who were married or partners living together. Only 32.8% of those who had severe mental health disorders in the last twelve months received any kind of treatment. Among those with moderate or mild disorders, 18.1% and 15.4% received treatment, respectively. More than 13 out of 100 Peruvians reported having a mental health disorder in the last year. The magnitude of mental health disorders and the gap in those receiving care highlights the urgent need to direct care and resources towards the detection and timely treatment of mental diseases in Peru.

  11. [Prevalence of opportunistic digestive parasitic infections in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. Results of a preliminary study in 50 AIDS patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wumba, R; Enache-Angoulvant, A; Develoux, M; Mulumba, A; Mulumba, P M; Hennequin, C; Odio, T W; Biligui, S; Sala, J; Thellier, M

    2007-04-01

    In the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), as in many African countries, AIDS and its procession of opportunistic infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. In Kinshasa, the estimated prevalence rate of HIV-infected persons is between 4 and 5%, corresponding to more than 200,000 people. Due to the lack of trained laboratory personnel and appropriate diagnostic equipment, no local investigation has been carried out to determine the prevalence of the opportunistic digestive parasitic infection in HIV-infected persons. As a step to obtaining this information that is needed for implementation of an adequate care policy, a preliminary investigation was carried out in Paris, France on 50 stool samples from 50 AIDS-patients hospitalized in 3 reference hospitals in Kinshasa. Eleven patients (22%) had digestive symptoms with a diarrhea syndrome. Further study using specialized techniques demonstrated 2 cases of digestive infection related to opportunistic parasites (4%). The first involved a Cryptosporidium sp. The second represented the first case of Enterocytozoon bieneusi infection reported in the literature from the DRC.

  12. Fatalism and hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment and control in US Hispanics/Latinos: results from HCHS/SOL Sociocultural Ancillary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Angela P; McCurley, Jessica L; Roesch, Scott C; Gonzalez, Patricia; Castañeda, Sheila F; Penedo, Frank J; Gallo, Linda C

    2017-04-01

    Compared with non-Hispanic whites, US Hispanics/Latinos display similar hypertension prevalence, but lower awareness, treatment, and control. Sociocultural factors may affect these patterns. Fatalism, the belief that health is predetermined by fate, relates to poorer adoption of risk reducing health behaviors. We examined the association of fatalism with hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control among 5313 Hispanics/Latinos, ages 18-74, who were enrolled from four US communities in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Sociocultural Ancillary Study. After accounting for socioeconomic status and acculturation in logistic regression analyses, higher fatalism was associated with increased odds of hypertension (OR 1.14, 95 % CI 1.02, 1.28). This association was non-significant when diabetes and other health-related covariates were statistically adjusted. Fatalism was not associated with hypertension awareness, treatment, or control. Findings suggest that the association of fatalism with hypertension may be due largely to its association with SES, acculturation, or related health conditions.

  13. Prevalence and Outcomes in Patients Undergoing Reintubation After Anterior Cervical Spine Surgery: Results From the AOSpine North America Multicenter Study on 8887 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagoshi, Narihito; Fehlings, Michael G; Nakashima, Hiroaki; Tetreault, Lindsay; Gum, Jeffrey L; Smith, Zachary A; Hsu, Wellington K; Tannoury, Chadi A; Tannoury, Tony; Traynelis, Vincent C; Arnold, Paul M; Mroz, Thomas E; Gokaslan, Ziya L; Bydon, Mohamad; De Giacomo, Anthony F; Jobse, Bruce C; Massicotte, Eric M; Riew, K Daniel

    2017-04-01

    A multicenter, retrospective cohort study. To evaluate clinical outcomes in patients with reintubation after anterior cervical spine surgery. A total of 8887 patients undergoing anterior cervical spine surgery were enrolled in the AOSpine North America Rare Complications of Cervical Spine Surgery study. Patients with or without complications after surgery were included. Demographic and surgical information were collected for patients with reintubation. Patients were evaluated using a variety of assessment tools, including the modified Japanese Orthopedic Association scale, Nurick score, Neck Disability Index, and Short Form-36 Health Survey. Nine cases of postoperative reintubation were identified. The total prevalence of this complication was 0.10% and ranged from 0% to 0.59% across participating institutions. The time to development of airway symptoms after surgery was within 24 hours in 6 patients and between 5 and 7 days in 3 patients. Although 8 patients recovered, 1 patient died. At final follow-up, patients with reintubation did not exhibit significant and meaningful improvements in pain, functional status, or quality of life. Although the prevalence of reintubation was very low, this complication was associated with adverse clinical outcomes. Clinicians should identify their high-risk patients and carefully observe them for up to 2 weeks after surgery.

  14. Physical workload, work intensification, and prevalence of pain in low wage workers: results from a participatory research project with hotel room cleaners in Las Vegas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Niklas; Scherzer, Teresa; Rugulies, Reiner

    2005-11-01

    Occupational injury rates among hotel workers exceed the national service sector average. This study assesses the prevalence of back and neck pain, and its associations with physical workload, ergonomic problems, and increasing work demands. Nine hundred forty-one unionized hotel room cleaners completed a survey about health and working conditions. Associations between job demands and pain were determined by logistic regression models adjusting for individual characteristics, cumulative work demands, care-taking responsibilities at home, and psychosocial job factors. The 1-month prevalence of severe bodily pain was 47% in general, 43% for neck, 59% for upper back, and 63% for low back pain. Workers in the highest exposure quartiles for physical workload and ergonomic problems were between 3.24 and 5.42 times more likely to report severe pain than workers in the lowest quartile. Adjusted odds ratios for work intensification ranged from 1.74 (upper back) to 2.33 (neck). Most room cleaners experience severe back or neck pain. Severe pain showed strong associations with physical workload, work intensification, and ergonomic problems.

  15. Finding Nonoverlapping Substructures of a Sparse Matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinar, Ali; Vassilevska, Virginia

    2005-08-11

    Many applications of scientific computing rely on computations on sparse matrices. The design of efficient implementations of sparse matrix kernels is crucial for the overall efficiency of these applications. Due to the high compute-to-memory ratio and irregular memory access patterns, the performance of sparse matrix kernels is often far away from the peak performance on a modern processor. Alternative data structures have been proposed, which split the original matrix A into A{sub d} and A{sub s}, so that A{sub d} contains all dense blocks of a specified size in the matrix, and A{sub s} contains the remaining entries. This enables the use of dense matrix kernels on the entries of A{sub d} producing better memory performance. In this work, we study the problem of finding a maximum number of nonoverlapping dense blocks in a sparse matrix, which is previously not studied in the sparse matrix community. We show that the maximum nonoverlapping dense blocks problem is NP-complete by using a reduction from the maximum independent set problem on cubic planar graphs. We also propose a 2/3-approximation algorithm that runs in linear time in the number of nonzeros in the matrix. This extended abstract focuses on our results for 2x2 dense blocks. However we show that our results can be generalized to arbitrary sized dense blocks, and many other oriented substructures, which can be exploited to improve the memory performance of sparse matrix operations.

  16. Information matrix estimation procedures for cognitive diagnostic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanlou; Xin, Tao; Andersson, Björn; Tian, Wei

    2018-03-06

    Two new methods to estimate the asymptotic covariance matrix for marginal maximum likelihood estimation of cognitive diagnosis models (CDMs), the inverse of the observed information matrix and the sandwich-type estimator, are introduced. Unlike several previous covariance matrix estimators, the new methods take into account both the item and structural parameters. The relationships between the observed information matrix, the empirical cross-product information matrix, the sandwich-type covariance matrix and the two approaches proposed by de la Torre (2009, J. Educ. Behav. Stat., 34, 115) are discussed. Simulation results show that, for a correctly specified CDM and Q-matrix or with a slightly misspecified probability model, the observed information matrix and the sandwich-type covariance matrix exhibit good performance with respect to providing consistent standard errors of item parameter estimates. However, with substantial model misspecification only the sandwich-type covariance matrix exhibits robust performance. © 2018 The British Psychological Society.

  17. Supersymmetry in random matrix theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kieburg, Mario

    2010-05-04

    I study the applications of supersymmetry in random matrix theory. I generalize the supersymmetry method and develop three new approaches to calculate eigenvalue correlation functions. These correlation functions are averages over ratios of characteristic polynomials. In the first part of this thesis, I derive a relation between integrals over anti-commuting variables (Grassmann variables) and differential operators with respect to commuting variables. With this relation I rederive Cauchy- like integral theorems. As a new application I trace the supermatrix Bessel function back to a product of two ordinary matrix Bessel functions. In the second part, I apply the generalized Hubbard-Stratonovich transformation to arbitrary rotation invariant ensembles of real symmetric and Hermitian self-dual matrices. This extends the approach for unitarily rotation invariant matrix ensembles. For the k-point correlation functions I derive supersymmetric integral expressions in a unifying way. I prove the equivalence between the generalized Hubbard-Stratonovich transformation and the superbosonization formula. Moreover, I develop an alternative mapping from ordinary space to superspace. After comparing the results of this approach with the other two supersymmetry methods, I obtain explicit functional expressions for the probability densities in superspace. If the probability density of the matrix ensemble factorizes, then the generating functions exhibit determinantal and Pfaffian structures. For some matrix ensembles this was already shown with help of other approaches. I show that these structures appear by a purely algebraic manipulation. In this new approach I use structures naturally appearing in superspace. I derive determinantal and Pfaffian structures for three types of integrals without actually mapping onto superspace. These three types of integrals are quite general and, thus, they are applicable to a broad class of matrix ensembles. (orig.)

  18. Supersymmetry in random matrix theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kieburg, Mario

    2010-01-01

    I study the applications of supersymmetry in random matrix theory. I generalize the supersymmetry method and develop three new approaches to calculate eigenvalue correlation functions. These correlation functions are averages over ratios of characteristic polynomials. In the first part of this thesis, I derive a relation between integrals over anti-commuting variables (Grassmann variables) and differential operators with respect to commuting variables. With this relation I rederive Cauchy- like integral theorems. As a new application I trace the supermatrix Bessel function back to a product of two ordinary matrix Bessel functions. In the second part, I apply the generalized Hubbard-Stratonovich transformation to arbitrary rotation invariant ensembles of real symmetric and Hermitian self-dual matrices. This extends the approach for unitarily rotation invariant matrix ensembles. For the k-point correlation functions I derive supersymmetric integral expressions in a unifying way. I prove the equivalence between the generalized Hubbard-Stratonovich transformation and the superbosonization formula. Moreover, I develop an alternative mapping from ordinary space to superspace. After comparing the results of this approach with the other two supersymmetry methods, I obtain explicit functional expressions for the probability densities in superspace. If the probability density of the matrix ensemble factorizes, then the generating functions exhibit determinantal and Pfaffian structures. For some matrix ensembles this was already shown with help of other approaches. I show that these structures appear by a purely algebraic manipulation. In this new approach I use structures naturally appearing in superspace. I derive determinantal and Pfaffian structures for three types of integrals without actually mapping onto superspace. These three types of integrals are quite general and, thus, they are applicable to a broad class of matrix ensembles. (orig.)

  19. Preliminary results from the application of risk matrix method for safety assessment in industrial radiography; Resultados preliminares de la aplicacion del metodo de matrices de riesgo para evaluaciones de seguridad en radiografia industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez G, A.; Cruz, D. [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Barragan 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Truppa, W. [Autoridad Reguladora Nuclear, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Aravena, M. [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago (Chile); Tamayo, B., E-mail: alopezg@cnsns.gob.mx [Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, Madrid (Spain)

    2015-09-15

    Although the uses of ionizing radiation in industry are subject to procedures that provide a high level of safety, experience has shown that equipment failure, human errors, or the combination of both that can trigger accidental exposures may occur. Traditionally, the radiation safety checks whether these industrial practices (industrial radiography, industrial irradiators, among others) are sufficiently safe to prevent similar accidental exposures already occurred, so that becomes dependent on the published information and not always answers questions like: What other events can occur, or what other risks are present? Taking into account the results achieved by the Foro Iberoamericano de Organismos Reguladores Radiologicos y Nucleares, its leading position in the use of techniques of risk analysis in radioactive facilities and the need to develop a proactive approach to the prevention of accidents arising from the use of ionizing radiations in the industry, it intends to apply the risk analysis technique known as Risk Matrix to a hypothetical reference entity for the region in which industrial radiography is performed. In this paper the results of the first stage of this study are shown, that is the identification of initiating events (IE) and barriers that help mitigate the consequences of such IE, so that can appreciate the applicability of this method to industrial radiography services, to reduce the risk to acceptable levels. The fundamental advantage associated with the application of this methodology is that can be applied by the professionals working in the service and identifies specific weaknesses that from the point of view of safety there, so they can be prioritized resources depending on risk reduction. (Author)

  20. HIV prevalence and related risk behaviours in female seasonal farm workers in Souss Massa Draa, Morocco: results from a cross-sectional survey using cluster-based sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozicevic, Ivana; Guezzar, Fatiha; Stulhofer, Aleksandar; Bennani, Aziza; Handanagic, Senad; Barbaric, Jelena; El Rhilani, Houssine; Alami, Kamal; Khattabi, Hamida; Riedner, Gabriele; Maaroufi, Abderrahmane

    2017-06-08

    To determine prevalence of HIV and HIV-related behaviours in female seasonal farm workers (FSFWs) in two provinces of Souss Massa Draa (SMD) region in Morocco. SMD has a higher burden of HIV compared with other parts of Morocco and is characterised by a substantial aggregation of FSFW. We carried out a cross-sectional HIV biobehavioural survey using cluster-based sampling of farms in the provinces Chtouka Aït Baha and Taroudant Ouled Teïma in 2014. HIV testing was done using the Determine HIV-1/2 rapid test and reactive specimens were tested using ELISA and western blot. Collected data were post hoc weighted for region-based stratification and adjusted for clustering effects using complex survey functions of SPSS (V.21). Among those eligible to participate, the response rate was 92.8%. HIV prevalence was 0.9% (95% CI 0.4% to 2.4%) among 520 recruited participants. A high proportion of respondents (67.7%) had no education. Ever having sex was reported by 79.8% and among these, 12.7% ever exchanged sex for money or goods. Sixty-one per cent reported condom use at most recent commercial vaginal sex in the past 12 months. STI symptom recognition was found to be low because 62.4% and 46.8% of FSFW could not report any STI symptoms in men and women, respectively. Twenty-seven per cent of respondents had an HIV test in the past 12 months. In multivariable analysis, those with primary or higher education (adjusted OR (aOR)=2.38, 95% CI 1.33 to 4.27) and those who participated in an HIV educational session at their workplace (aOR=11.00, 95% CI 3.99 to 30.31) had higher odds of ever been tested for HIV. Although we found a relatively low HIV prevalence among FSFW in SMD, HIV interventions should be intensified, in particular, in a subgroup of women who are involved in sex work. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  1. The prevalence, incidence, and gender and age-specific incidence of problem gambling: results of the Swedish longitudinal gambling study (Swelogs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Max; Romild, Ulla; Volberg, Rachel

    2018-04-01

    To estimate the prevalence, incidence and gender and age-specific incidence of problem gambling in the Swedish adult population. Longitudinal cohort study with linkage to register data. Sweden. Stratified random sample aged 16-84 years at baseline (n = 8165) re-assessed a year later (n = 6021). Problem gambling (life-time and past 12 months) was measured by the South Oaks Gambling Screen-Revised (SOGS-R). Past 12-month (current) problem gambling was also measured by the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI). The SOGS-R combined current pathological and problem gambling prevalence rate (PR) was 2.1 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.8-2.4] at baseline and 1.7 (1.4-2.0) at follow-up, approximately half the corresponding life-time estimates.[Correction added on 22 Dec 2017, after first online publication: In the preceding sentence, the SOGS-R combined current pathological and problem gambling prevalence rate (PR) was incorrectly reported as being double the corresponding life-time rate. It has been corrected in this version.] PGSI combined current problem and moderate-risk gambling PRs were 2.2 (1.9-2.5) at baseline and 1.9 (1.6-2.2) at follow-up. Combined incidence rates (IRs) were 1.0 (0.8-1.3) (SOGS-R) and 1.4 (1.1-1.7) (PGSI), with more than three-quarters being new cases. While first-time IRs did not vary by gender, males had a higher relapse IR and proportionately more females were new cases. The young adult IR was more than double the older adult IR; similar proportions were new cases. The actual incidence of problem gambling relapse in Sweden is likely to be higher than estimated. The profile of problem gambling in Sweden is likely to change over time, with increased proportions of women and older adults. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  2. [Prevalence of common allergies in children and adolescents in Germany: results of the KiGGS study: first follow-up (KiGGS Wave 1)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, R; Thamm, M; Ellert, U; Kalcklösch, M; Schlaud, M

    2014-07-01

    The first follow-up of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS Wave 1) was conducted from 2009 to 2012 as a combined cross-sectional and longitudinal study and provides, among other things, data on allergic diseases. Data collection was carried out by telephone interviews. In total, 6,093 girls and 6,275 boys were included, among them 4,455 newly recruited 0- to 6-year-olds (response 38.8%) and 7,913 KiGGS follow-up participants aged 7-17 years (response 72.9%). Based on parent reports, 15.6% (95% confidence interval 14.7-16.5) of children and adolescents aged 0-17 years were currently affected by at least one atopic disease. The 12-month prevalence rates of hay fever, atopic dermatitis, and asthma were 9.1% (8.4-9.8), 6.0% (5.4-6.6), and 4.1% (3.6-4.6), respectively. In all, 2.2% (1.9-2.6) of the children and adolescents were currently suffering from contact dermatitis. Compared with the baseline KiGGS survey from 2003 to 2006, a higher percentage of participants reported the occurrence of asthma within the past 12 months in the recent KiGGS Wave 1 (4.1 vs. 3.2%; p = 0.0034). The total increase is mainly due to higher prevalence rates among 0- to 6-year-olds, especially in girls. Higher 12-month prevalence rates can be also observed for hay fever among 0- to 6-year-olds, especially in girls, although the total increase is not statistically significant (9.1 vs. 8.3%; p = 0.08). There was a declining trend for atopic dermatitis: 6.8% (2003-2006) vs. 5.4% (2009-2012); p = 0.0015.

  3. [Unintentional injuries in childhood and adolescence: current prevalence, determinants, and trends: results of the KiGGS study: first follow-up (KiGGS Wave 1)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saß, Anke-Christine; Poethko-Müller, C; Rommel, A

    2014-07-01

    In Germany and worldwide, unintentional injuries (UI) are a major health threat for children and adolescents. The first follow-up of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS Wave 1, 2009-2012) continued the national UI monitoring that started with the KiGGS baseline study (2003-2006). The present analysis provides updated information and for the first time gives indications on time trends. KiGGS Wave 1 is a combined nationwide cross-sectional and longitudinal survey by the Robert Koch Institute (RKI) providing information about 12,368 participating children and adolescents (0-17 years old; response rates: 38.8% first time invited, 72.9% reinvited). Parents were asked about their children's UI and poisonings via telephone interviews. Information on UI is available for 11,665 children and adolescents (1-17 years old). The 12-month prevalence rate and 95% confidence interval were calculated, and KiGGS Wave 1 was compared with the KiGGS baseline study. The Rao-Scott chi-square test corrected over the F distribution was used to test for the statistical significance of subgroup differences and trend effects. Within the previous 12 months, 15.5% of all children and adolescents aged 1-17 years were medically treated for UI. UI were significantly more prevalent among boys (17.0%) than among girls (14.0%), and 3.4% of the subjects had more than one accident leading to UI. One in eight children and adolescents who suffered UI stayed in hospital (12.3%) for inpatient treatment for at least one night. The home, childcare and educational institutions, and sports facilities/playgrounds were the predominant accident locations. Compared to the baseline study, neither the overall prevalence of UI nor the gender- and age-specific patterns changed significantly. Since a large proportion of UI is avoidable, knowledge of high-risk subgroups and accident locations is of particular use for prevention. KiGGS Wave 1 makes an important

  4. Indecomposability of polynomials via Jacobian matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheze, G.; Najib, S.

    2007-12-01

    Uni-multivariate decomposition of polynomials is a special case of absolute factorization. Recently, thanks to the Ruppert's matrix some effective results about absolute factorization have been improved. Here we show that with a jacobian matrix we can get sharper bounds for the special case of uni-multivariate decomposition. (author)

  5. Prevalence and Correlates of HIV Infection Among Sex Workers in Papua New Guinea: First Results from the Papua New Guinea and Australia Sexual Health Improvement Project (PASHIP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wand, Handan; Siba, Peter

    2015-12-01

    The primary objective of this study was to estimate the individual and combined impacts of socio-demographic and sexual behaviours on HIV diagnosis among 523 female sex workers who participated in the Papua New Guinea and Australia Sexual Health Improvement Project. Logistic regression models were used to identify the factors associated with HIV positivity. We estimated their population level impacts in order to quantify the proportion of HIV seropositivity is attributed to these factors. Less than 40 % of women consented to get tested for HIV. HIV prevalence was 7 % (95 % CI 4-11 %); lack of education and knowledge/awareness of HIV accounted for ~70 % of the HIV diagnoses. A major obstacle is lack of interest for testing. Our study underscored the major challenges in this culturally, linguistically heterogeneous country. The epidemic in Papua New Guinea requires targeted prevention interventions among those at highest risk of acquiring or transmitting infection.

  6. The nuclear reaction matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krenciglowa, E.M.; Kung, C.L.; Kuo, T.T.S.; Osnes, E.; and Department of Physics, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11794)

    1976-01-01

    Different definitions of the reaction matrix G appropriate to the calculation of nuclear structure are reviewed and discussed. Qualitative physical arguments are presented in support of a two-step calculation of the G-matrix for finite nuclei. In the first step the high-energy excitations are included using orthogonalized plane-wave intermediate states, and in the second step the low-energy excitations are added in, using harmonic oscillator intermediate states. Accurate calculations of G-matrix elements for nuclear structure calculations in the Aapprox. =18 region are performed following this procedure and treating the Pauli exclusion operator Q 2 /sub p/ by the method of Tsai and Kuo. The treatment of Q 2 /sub p/, the effect of the intermediate-state spectrum and the energy dependence of the reaction matrix are investigated in detail. The present matrix elements are compared with various matrix elements given in the literature. In particular, close agreement is obtained with the matrix elements calculated by Kuo and Brown using approximate methods

  7. Nuclear reaction matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krenciglowa, E.M.; Kung, C.L.; Kuo, T.T.S.; Osnes, E.

    1975-01-01

    Different definitions of the reaction matrix G appropriate to the calculation of nuclear structure are reviewed and discussed. Qualitative physical arguments are presented in support of a two-step calculation of the G-matrix for finite nuclei. In the first step the high-energy excitations are included using orthogonalized plane-wave intermediate states, and in the second step the low-energy excitations are added in, using harmonic oscillator intermediate states. Accurate calculations of G-matrix elements for nuclear structure calculations in the A approximately 18 region are performed following this procedure and treating the Pauli exclusion operator Q/sub 2p/ by the method of Tsai and Kuo. The treatment of Q/sub 2p/, the effect of the intermediate-state spectrum and the energy dependence of the reaction matrix are investigated in detail. The present matrix elements are compared with various matrix elements given in the literature. In particular, close argument is obtained with the matrix elements calculated by Kuo and Brown using approximate methods

  8. Prevalence and associative factors of orthostatic hypotension in older adults: Results from the Well-being of the Singapore Elderly (WiSE) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Hui Lin; Abdin, Edimansyah; Seow, Esmond; Pang, Shirlene; Sagayadevan, Vathsala; Chang, Sherilyn; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Chong, Siow Ann; Subramaniam, Mythily

    2017-09-01

    Orthostatic hypotension (OH) is commonly reported among older adults and is associated with an increased risk of mortality. This study aimed to describe the prevalence and investigate the possible associations between OH with sociodemographic variables, chronic medical conditions, health service utilisation, dementia and cognitive status among older adults residing in Singapore. Data was collected from 2266 participants aged 60 years and older who participated in the Well-being of the Singapore Elderly (WiSE) study in 2013. Face-to-face interviews were conducted and data collected includes sociodemographic information, blood pressure measurements, medical history, health services utilisation, and cognitive status. The prevalence of OH among older adults in Singapore was 7.8%. OH was highest in participants aged 85 years and above (OR: 2.33; 1.26-4.30; p=0.007) compared to those aged 75-84 years (OR: 1.76; 1.08-2.85; p=0.023). Participants with hypertension were more likely to have OH (OR: 3.03; 1.56-5.88, p=0.001) than those without hypertension. Those with dementia were also more likely to have OH than those with normal cognitive status (p=0.007). Older age, hypertension, and dementia were independently associated with OH in the older adult population in Singapore. Interventions such as home safety assessment and preventive measures should be implemented to improve older adult's functional capacity and quality of life to prevent injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Disparities in Hypertension Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment and Control between Bouyei and Han: Results from a Bi-Ethnic Health Survey in Developing Regions from South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Fen; Wang, Dingming; Pan, Li; Yu, Yangwen; Wang, Ke; Li, Ling; Wang, Li; Liu, Tao; Zeng, Xianjia; Sun, Liangxian; Zhu, Guangjin; Feng, Kui; Zhang, Biao; Xu, Ke; Pang, Xinglong; Chen, Ting; Pan, Hui; Ma, Jin; Zhong, Yong; Ping, Bo; Shan, Guangliang

    2016-02-19

    Hypertension is highly prevalent in low-income population. This study aims to investigate ethnic disparities in hypertension and identify modifiable factors related to its occurrence and control in developing regions in South China. Blood pressure was measured in the Bouyei and Han populations during a community-based health survey in Guizhou, 2012. A multistage stratified sampling method was adopted to recruit Bouyei and Han aged from 20 to 80 years. Taking mixed effects into consideration, multilevel logistic models with random intercept were used for data analysis. The prevalence rates of hypertension were 35.3% for the Bouyei and 33.7% for the Han. Among the hypertensive participants, 30.1% of the Bouyei and 40.2% of the Han were aware of their hypertensive conditions, 19.7% of the Bouyei and 31.1% of the Han were receiving treatment, and only 3.6% of the Bouyei and 9.9% of the Han had their blood pressure under control. Age-sex standardized rates of awareness, treatment, and control were consistently lower in the Bouyei than the Han. Such ethnic disparities were more evident in the elderly population. Avoidance of excessive alcohol consumption and better education were favorable lifestyle for reduction in risk of hypertension. Moderate physical activity improved control of hypertension in Bouyei patients under treatment. Conclusively, hypertension awareness, treatment, and control were substantially lower in Bouyei than Han, particularly in the elderly population. Such ethnic disparities indicate that elderly Bouyei population should be targeted for tailored interventions in the future.

  10. The Prevalence of Dental Implants and Related Factors in Patients with Sjögren Syndrome: Results from a Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Katinka; Callhoff, Johanna; Westhoff, Gisela; Dietrich, Thomas; Dörner, Thomas; Zink, Angela

    2016-07-01

    To investigate prevalence and patient-reported outcomes of dental implants in patients with Sjögren syndrome (SS). A total of 205 female patients from an observational cohort study answered oral health questionnaires about periodontal signs and symptoms, dentures, dental implants, comorbidities, and therapies that may interfere with bone remodeling. Data were compared with the reports of 87 female healthy controls. The patients were older than the controls (58 ± 12 and 54 ± 14 yrs, respectively) and differed substantially in the prevalence of self-reported gingivitis (60% and 35%), self-reported periodontitis (19% and 8%), and in the numbers of remaining teeth (21 ± 7 and 24 ± 5). Patients more frequently had removable prostheses (36% compared with 23%) and dental implants (16% compared with 7%). The 32 patients with SS with dental implants had a mean number of 3.1 ± 2.0 implants. Notably, for patients with implants, their oldest existing implant survived for a mean period of 4.9 ± 5.4 years. A total of 5 of 104 (4.8%) implants in the patients and none of the 14 implants in the controls had to be removed. A total of 75% of the patients were highly satisfied with the implants and 97% would recommend them to other patients with SS. A substantial portion of patients with SS have dental complications and require subsequent implants. The majority were satisfied with the implants and would recommend them to other patients. The high implant survival rate may encourage patients, rheumatologists, and dentists to consider dental implants for the treatment of patients with SS.

  11. Increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease and risk biomarkers in patients with unknown type 2 diabetes visiting cardiology specialists: results from the DIASPORA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöndorf, Thomas; Lübben, Georg; Karagiannis, Efstrathios; Erdmann, Erland; Forst, Thomas; Pfützner, Andreas

    2010-04-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus and IGT have a high risk for cardiovascular events. It is tempting to speculate that these patients are often first seen by cardiologists. This cross-sectional study investigates the diabetes prevalence in cardiology care units and the correlated metabolic conditions as assessed by several circulating biomarkers. Patients aged 55 or older with suspected or overt coronary heart disease were eligible for trial participation. Fasting blood samples were drawn from patients to determine HOMA score, glycaemic and lipid profile, and several risk biomarkers. An OGTT was performed in patients without known diabetes. We enrolled 530 patients (181 male, 349 female, mean age, 68+/-7 years) in this study from 22 German cardiology centres; 156 patients (29.4%) had known diabetes and OGTT revealed that 184 patients (34.7%) had no diabetes, 106 patients (20.0%) had IGT or IFG and 84 patients (15.9%) were newly diagnosed with diabetes. Increased cardiovascular risk as reflected by increased hsCRP, ICAM and MMP-9 values was observed in diabetes patients. A higher cardiovascular biomarkers risk profile was seen in the IGT/IFG cohort. This study confirms the observation that one third of patients of a cardiologic care unit suffer from impaired glucose regulation. Furthermore, the cardiology patients with previously unknown glucose homeostasis abnormalities had a higher prevalence of macrovacular disease and an impaired biomarker risk profile. This study underlines the importance of joint treatment efforts by cardiologists in concert with diabetologists for treatment of this patient group at high risk for cardiovascular events.

  12. Prevalence and experiences of intimate partner violence against women with disabilities in Bangladesh: results of an explanatory sequential mixed-method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Tanvir; Muhaddes, Tisa; Camellia, Suborna; Selim, Nasima; Rashid, Sabina Faiz

    2014-11-01

    This study was aimed to estimate the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) in a sample of 226 women with disabilities living in four different districts of Bangladesh. It also explored the physical and psychological suffering of women experiencing violence and their various coping strategies. A cross-sectional survey was carried out with 226 women with disabilities to measure the prevalence of IPV, and 16 in-depth interviews were conducted to document in detail the experiences of violence encountered by the abused women. Among the 226 women interviewed in the survey, about 84% reported ever having experienced at least one act of emotional abuse, physical, or sexual violence from their partner during their lifetime. Women who were older (aged above 32 years), separated, and members of economic/savings group were more likely to report ever having experienced any IPV than women with disabilities who were younger (aged 32 years and less), married, and not members of economic/savings group. Most of the women experiencing violence reported sufferings from physical and psychological problems. Of all the women who experienced violence, less than half (45%) reported seeking support to minimize or avoid violence experiences. However, seeking support from informal network such as family and relatives was commonly reported by many (81.4%) of them. Study findings suggest that women with disabilities who possess poor socio-economic status coupled with economic dependency on husbands' income and wide-spread social stigma against disability make them vulnerable to IPV. Future interventions to address IPV against women with disabilities should include building community knowledge of disability and IPV, countering the pervasive social stigma against disabilities, and improving the socio-economic conditions of women with disabilities through education and employment. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Epidemiology of illicit drug use disorders in Iran: prevalence, correlates, comorbidity and service utilization results from the Iranian Mental Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin-Esmaeili, Masoumeh; Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin; Sharifi, Vandad; Hajebi, Ahmad; Radgoodarzi, Reza; Mojtabai, Ramin; Hefazi, Mitra; Motevalian, Abbas

    2016-10-01

    Drug abuse is a significant social and public health problem in Iran. The present study aimed to provide prevalence estimates and information on correlates of illicit drug use disorder and opioid dependence, as well as service use for these disorders in Iran. This report is based on the Iranian household Mental Health Survey (IranMHS) conducted in 2011. A three-stage probability sampling was employed. Face-to-face interviews by trained psychologists were carried out with a nationally representative sample of 7841 individuals (3366 men and 4475 women) aged 15-64 years. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview and questionnaires for socio-demographic correlates and service use. The prevalence of 12-month use disorders for any illicit drug according to DSM-IV and DSM-5 criteria were 2.09% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.70-2.47%] and 2.44% (95% CI = 2.03-2.85%), respectively. Opioid use disorders, and opium in particular, were the most common use disorder. The odds of drug use disorders were greater in men than in women, in previously married participants than in currently or never married participants, and in participants with lower socio-economic status than in those with higher socio-economic status (all P-values drug use disorders and 40% with opioid dependence had a 12-month unmet need for treatment. Self-help groups were the most common type of service used, followed by obtaining medication from pharmacies directly and outpatient treatment services. Opioid use disorders are the most common type of drug use disorders in Iran, setting Iran apart from many other countries. Patterns of service use suggest a large unmet need for drug use disorder treatment in Iran. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  14. Polychoric/Tetrachoric Matrix or Pearson Matrix? A methodological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominguez Lara, Sergio Alexis

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of product-moment correlation of Pearson is common in most studies in factor analysis in psychology, but it is known that this statistic is only applicable when the variables related are in interval scale and normally distributed, and when are used in ordinal data may to produce a distorted correlation matrix . Thus is a suitable option using polychoric/tetrachoric matrices in item-level factor analysis when the items are in level measurement nominal or ordinal. The aim of this study was to show the differences in the KMO, Bartlett`s Test and Determinant of the Matrix, percentage of variance explained and factor loadings in depression trait scale of Depression Inventory Trait - State and the Neuroticism dimension of the short form of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire -Revised, regarding the use of matrices polychoric/tetrachoric matrices and Pearson. These instruments was analyzed with different extraction methods (Maximum Likelihood, Minimum Rank Factor Analysis, Unweighted Least Squares and Principal Components, keeping constant the rotation method Promin were analyzed. Were observed differences regarding sample adequacy measures, as well as with respect to the explained variance and the factor loadings, for solutions having as polychoric/tetrachoric matrix. So it can be concluded that the polychoric / tetrachoric matrix give better results than Pearson matrices when it comes to item-level factor analysis using different methods.

  15. N-matrix completion problem

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo, C. Mendes; Torregrosa, Juan R.; Urbano, Ana M.

    2003-01-01

    An n x n matrix is called an N-matrix if all principal minors are negative. In this paper, we are interested in N-matrix completion problems, that is, when a partial N-matrix hás an N-matrix completion. In general, a combinatorially or non-combinatorially symmetric partial N-matrix does not have an N-matrix completion. Here we prove that a combinatorially symmetric partial N-matrix has an N-matrix completion if the graph of its specified entries is a 1-chordal graph. We also prove that there ...

  16. Elementary matrix theory

    CERN Document Server

    Eves, Howard

    1980-01-01

    The usefulness of matrix theory as a tool in disciplines ranging from quantum mechanics to psychometrics is widely recognized, and courses in matrix theory are increasingly a standard part of the undergraduate curriculum.This outstanding text offers an unusual introduction to matrix theory at the undergraduate level. Unlike most texts dealing with the topic, which tend to remain on an abstract level, Dr. Eves' book employs a concrete elementary approach, avoiding abstraction until the final chapter. This practical method renders the text especially accessible to students of physics, engineeri

  17. Quantifying matrix product state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Amandeep Singh; Kumar, Ajay

    2018-03-01

    Motivated by the concept of quantum finite-state machines, we have investigated their relation with matrix product state of quantum spin systems. Matrix product states play a crucial role in the context of quantum information processing and are considered as a valuable asset for quantum information and communication purpose. It is an effective way to represent states of entangled systems. In this paper, we have designed quantum finite-state machines of one-dimensional matrix product state representations for quantum spin systems.

  18. The biofilm matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemming, Hans-Curt; Wingender, Jost

    2010-09-01

    The microorganisms in biofilms live in a self-produced matrix of hydrated extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) that form their immediate environment. EPS are mainly polysaccharides, proteins, nucleic acids and lipids; they provide the mechanical stability of biofilms, mediate their adhesion to surfaces and form a cohesive, three-dimensional polymer network that interconnects and transiently immobilizes biofilm cells. In addition, the biofilm matrix acts as an external digestive system by keeping extracellular enzymes close to the cells, enabling them to metabolize dissolved, colloidal and solid biopolymers. Here we describe the functions, properties and constituents of the EPS matrix that make biofilms the most successful forms of life on earth.

  19. Preliminary results with a torsion microbalance indicate that carbon dioxide and exposed carbonic anhydrase in the organic matrix are the basis of calcification on the skeleton surface of living corals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian M Sandeman

    2012-03-01

    , p<0.05 indicating a dependence on carbonate. At a pH of 6.5 the skeleton lost weight at a rate of 1.8 mg.h-1.cm-2. The relationship between net calcification and pH (n=2 indicates that wt gain turns to loss at pH 7.4. These experiments confirm that calcification is a two-step process, involving secretion of a layer of organic matrix incorporating carbonic anhydrase to produce an active calcifying surface which uses carbon dioxide rather than carbonate. It is also unlikely that the calcifying surface is in direct contact with seawater. Inorganic deposition or dissolution of the skeleton in exposed dead areas of coral is a different phenomenon and is carbonate related. The wide range in results from this and other studies of calcification rate and carbon dioxide may be explainable in terms of the ratio of “live” to “dead” areas of coral.

  20. Tendon functional extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screen, Hazel R C; Berk, David E; Kadler, Karl E; Ramirez, Francesco; Young, Marian F

    2015-06-01

    This article is one of a series, summarizing views expressed at the Orthopaedic Research Society New Frontiers in Tendon Research Conference. This particular article reviews the three workshops held under the "Functional Extracellular Matrix" stream. The workshops focused on the roles of the tendon extracellular matrix, such as performing the mechanical functions of tendon, creating the local cell environment, and providing cellular cues. Tendon is a complex network of matrix and cells, and its biological functions are influenced by widely varying extrinsic and intrinsic factors such as age, nutrition, exercise levels, and biomechanics. Consequently, tendon adapts dynamically during development, aging, and injury. The workshop discussions identified research directions associated with understanding cell-matrix interactions to be of prime importance for developing novel strategies to target tendon healing or repair. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Enzootic bovine leukosis: prevalence of seric antibodies on dairy cows breed at Bahia and comparison between results of ELISA tests and ágar gel immunodiffusion tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Ferreira de Matos

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se a prevalência de infecção pelo vírus da Leucose Enzoótica dos Bovinos (LEB em animais criados na bacia leiteira de cinco micro-regiões do Estado da Bahia, comparando a eficiência de três provas sorológicas para detecção de anticorpos anti-Vírus da LEB: Teste ELISA, prova de Imunodifusão IDGA / gp 51 importado e a IDGA / gp 51 produzido pelo Instituto de Tecnologia do Paraná - TECPAR. Foram utilizados bovinos de 13 propriedades, totalizando 796 animais. A infecção pelo VLB foi detectada em todos os rebanhos, com taxa de prevalência de 41,0%, com variação de 6,3% (4/64 a 65,8% (25/38. Os bovinos foram estratificados em seis grupos etários: a de dois a seis meses; b de 7 a 12 meses; c de 13 a 24 meses; d entre 25 e 48 meses; e de 49 a 72 meses; f com mais de 72 meses de idade, observando-se que os índices de infecção aumentaram significativamente com o desenvolvimento etário e os resultados foram, respectivamente: 8,8%; 16,9%; 17,7%; 50,8%; 54,4% e 56,5%. Em 434 amostras avaliou-se comparativamente a eficiência das três provas sorológicas, considerando-se o Teste ELISA como padrão. Na comparação entre a prova ELISA e o Teste de IDGA / gp 51 importado a sensibilidade foi de 85% e especificidade de 80%, com valor preditivo positivo (VPP de 63% e o valor preditivo negativo (VPN de 93%, sendo a concordância igual a 81%. O estudo comparativo do teste ELISA e IDGA / gp 51 - TECPAR apresentou sensibilidade igual a 82% e a especificidade 93%, com VPP de associação igual a 79% e o VPN de 93% , sendo a concordância igual a 85%. Os resultados dos estudos comparativos sugerem IDGA com antígeno de procedência nacional suficientemente eficiente para a sua utilização.

  2. Obesity prevalence and unfavorable health risk behaviors among German kindergarten teachers: cross-sectional results of the kindergarten teacher health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Sascha W; Tug, Suzan; Simon, Perikles

    2013-10-04

    The aim of the study was to investigate obesity status and associated health risk behaviors in a sample of German kindergarten teachers. At present, such data are not available, despite the fact that kindergarten teachers educate children at a formative time in their lives. Kindergarten teachers aged 18-62 years (n = 313) were invited to participate in the Kindergarten Teacher Health Study (KTHS) by completing a self-reported questionnaire. We analyzed their obesity status, health risk behaviors (i.e., habitual physical activity, screen time activities, eating behavior patterns, smoking), and their general ability to identify overweight children and the associated health risks of overweight and obesity based on special age- and sex-specific silhouettes. After adjusting for covariates, bivariate correlations were conducted for associations between body mass index (BMI) and health risk behaviors, while analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were used to analyze differences of health risk behaviors between BMI groups. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to predict determinants of kindergarten teachers who did not correctly identify the overweight silhouettes and their associated physical and mental health risks. Additionally, data regarding kindergarten teachers' weight status and smoking behavior were compared with nationally representative data from the 2009 Microcensus (n = 371310) using the Mann-Whitney U-test. The prevalence rates of overweight and obesity were 41.2% and 17.9%, respectively. The prevalence of obesity was significantly higher in kindergarten teachers (p kindergarten teachers were more likely to misclassify the overweight silhouettes, while younger, normal-weight, and overweight kindergarten teachers were more likely to underestimate the associated health risks. Obese kindergarten teachers reported spending more time in front of computer and television screens than their normal-weight counterparts, especially on weekends. In addition, obese

  3. Hacking the Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwinski, Michael; Spence, Jason R

    2017-01-05

    Recently in Nature, Gjorevski et al. (2016) describe a fully defined synthetic hydrogel that mimics the extracellular matrix to support in vitro growth of intestinal stem cells and organoids. The hydrogel allows exquisite control over the chemical and physical in vitro niche and enables identification of regulatory properties of the matrix. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Matrix Organization Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gattiker, Urs E.; Ulhøi, John Parm

    1999-01-01

    This paper gives a short overview of matrix structure and technology management. It outlines some of the characteristics and also points out that many organizations may actualy be hybrids (i.e. mix several ways of organizing to allocate resorces effectively).......This paper gives a short overview of matrix structure and technology management. It outlines some of the characteristics and also points out that many organizations may actualy be hybrids (i.e. mix several ways of organizing to allocate resorces effectively)....

  5. Cost and predictors of lost productive time in chronic migraine and episodic migraine: results from the American Migraine Prevalence and Prevention (AMPP) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Daniel; Manack, Aubrey N; Reed, Michael L; Buse, Dawn C; Varon, Sepideh F; Lipton, Richard B

    2013-01-01

    To quantify the cost differences and predictors of lost productive time (LPT) in persons with chronic migraine (CM) and episodic migraine (EM). The American Migraine Prevalence and Prevention (AMPP) study is a US national longitudinal survey of severe headache. Cost estimates were obtained via U.S. Census income data. To elucidate the unique predictors of LPT, the optimal distribution for modeling was determined. Zero inflation models for LPT were predicted from sociodemographics, headache features, characteristics and disability, medication use, and depression. The interaction between headache status and age was the primary effect of interest. The eligible sample included 6329 persons with EM and 374 persons with CM. Men with CM aged 45 to 54 years cost employers nearly $200 per week more than do their EM counterparts. Likewise, for women, costs were higher for CM, with the cost differential between EM and CM being $90 per week. After comprehensive adjustment, increases in LPT with age were significantly higher in CM than in EM (rate ratio 1.03; 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.05). When age was recoded to a decade, metric rates of LPT increased 25% more per decade for CM than for EM (rate ratio 1.25; 95% confidence interval 1.004-1.5). LPT is more costly and increases more rapidly for those with CM than for those with EM as age increases. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Prevalence of urogenital chlamydia infection among asymptomatic male and female young adults; results of a sponsored study: »i don’t have it, do you?«

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borut Kobal

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urogenital infection caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (CT is among more common curable sexually transmitted diseases (STD in Slovenia; however, the data on the prevalence of asymptomatic infections are insufficient. The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic chlamydia infection among male and female young adults in various Slovenian urban environments and to determine the risk factors for the infection.Methods: The study took place between October 15 and November 15 2004 in selected medical centres in Ljubljana, Maribor and Izola. Subjects were volunteers and were sexually active healthy males and females who appeared to be healthy and were aged between 18 and 35. All subjects gave consent to participation in the study. All participants filled in an anonymous questionnaire which included questions on education, sexual behaviour patterns, use of contraceptives and contraceptive methods and history of STDs. The presence of CT in urine samples was determined by the nucleic acid amplification test PCR. All positive subjects were appropriately treated. Significant risk factors were determined by logistic regression.Results: 2027 volunteers participated in the study. They gave a urine sample and filled in the questionnaire. The prevalence of chlamydia infection was 5.8 %. Age analysis showed a 6.5 % prevalence among subjects under 25 years of age and, among subjects above 25, 4.8 %. Both groups revealed similarities in sexual behaviour patterns and use of barrier contraceptives which was 10.9 % in younger and 9.1 % in older participants. Independent factors related to the asymptomatic chlamydia infection were shown to be the number of sexual partners in the past (p = 0.008, more than one sexual partner in the last three months (p = 0.000 and improper use of condoms (p = 0.032.Conclusions: Relatively high prevalence of chlamydia infection among asymptomatic participants demonstrates that the problem is

  7. Prevalencia de accidentes de tránsito no fatales en México: resultados de la ENSANUT 2006 Prevalence of non-fatal road traffic injuries in Mexico: results from ENSANUT 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Ávila-Burgos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la prevalencia y distribución de los accidentes de tránsito no fatales (ATNF en México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se utilizaron datos de la ENSANUT 2006. En los hogares visitados se seleccionó a un adulto, un adolescente y un niño, hasta conformar una muestra de 94197 sujetos que representa a la N de 102 886 482 individuos. La variable dependiente fue la prevalencia de ATNF en los 12 meses anteriores a la encuesta. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de accidentes (de tránsito o no fue de 6.0% y de esa cifra 16.7% correspondió a ATNF. Los hombres del grupo de 20 a 44 años, los habitantes de áreas urbanas y los de mejor nivel socioeconómico (NSE presentaron mayor prevalencia (pOBJECTIVE: To determine non-fatal road traffic injuries (NFRTI prevalence and its distribution in Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data from ENSANUT Survey 2006 were used. Using simple random sampling, one adult, one adolescent and one child were selected in each household, constituting a final sample of 94 197 representing an N of 102 886 482 people. The dependent variable was the prevalence of road traffic injuries (RTI during the 12 months prior to the survey. RESULTS: The general accident prevalence was 6.0%; 16.7% corresponded to NFRTI. Men in the 20 to 44 age group living in urban areas and with high socioeconomic status had a higher RTI prevalence (p<0.05. Jalisco, Aguascalientes and Sonora were states with the highest prevalence of RTI, while Guerrero, Michoacan and Oaxaca were those with the lowest. CONCLUSIONS: NFRTI are frequent in Mexico and they are concentrated among men in productive ages in urban areas; they are associated with socioeconomic status at the individual level and with the state's development at the population level.

  8. Prevalence and correlates of suicidal behavior among soldiers: results from the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nock, Matthew K; Stein, Murray B; Heeringa, Steven G; Ursano, Robert J; Colpe, Lisa J; Fullerton, Carol S; Hwang, Irving; Naifeh, James A; Sampson, Nancy A; Schoenbaum, Michael; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Kessler, Ronald C

    2014-05-01

    The suicide rate among US Army soldiers has increased substantially in recent years. To estimate the lifetime prevalence and sociodemographic, Army career, and psychiatric predictors of suicidal behaviors among nondeployed US Army soldiers. A representative cross-sectional survey of 5428 nondeployed soldiers participating in a group self-administered survey. Lifetime suicidal ideation, suicide plans, and suicide attempts. The lifetime prevalence estimates of suicidal ideation, suicide plans, and suicide attempts are 13.9%, 5.3%, and 2.4%. Most reported cases (47.0%-58.2%) had pre-enlistment onsets. Pre-enlistment onset rates were lower than in a prior national civilian survey (with imputed/simulated age at enlistment), whereas post-enlistment onsets of ideation and plans were higher, and post-enlistment first attempts were equivalent to civilian rates. Most reported onsets of plans and attempts among ideators (58.3%-63.3%) occur within the year of onset of ideation. Post-enlistment attempts are positively related to being a woman (with an odds ratio [OR] of 3.3 [95% CI, 1.5-7.5]), lower rank (OR = 5.8 [95% CI, 1.8-18.1]), and previously deployed (OR = 2.4-3.7) and are negatively related to being unmarried (OR = 0.1-0.8) and assigned to Special Operations Command (OR = 0.0 [95% CI, 0.0-0.0]). Five mental disorders predict post-enlistment first suicide attempts in multivariate analysis: pre-enlistment panic disorder (OR = 0.1 [95% CI, 0.0-0.8]), pre-enlistment posttraumatic stress disorder (OR = 0.1 [95% CI, 0.0-0.7]), post-enlistment depression (OR = 3.8 [95% CI, 1.2-11.6]), and both pre- and post-enlistment intermittent explosive disorder (OR = 3.7-3.8). Four of these 5 ORs (posttraumatic stress disorder is the exception) predict ideation, whereas only post-enlistment intermittent explosive disorder predicts attempts among ideators. The population-attributable risk proportions of lifetime mental disorders predicting post

  9. The association between use of electronic media and prevalence of headache in adolescents: results from a population-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milde-Busch, Astrid; von Kries, Rüdiger; Thomas, Silke; Heinrich, Sabine; Straube, Andreas; Radon, Katja

    2010-02-09

    Use of electronic media, i.e. mobile phones, computers, television, game consoles or listening to music, is very common, especially amongst adolescents. There is currently a debate about whether frequent use of these media might have adverse effects on health, especially on headaches, which are among the most-reported health complaints in adolescents. The aim of the present study was to assess associations between frequent use of electronic media and the prevalence of different types of headache in adolescents. Data were derived from a population-based sample (n = 1,025, ages 13-17 years). Type of headache (i.e. migraine, tension-type headache, unclassifiable headache) was ascertained by standardized questionnaires for subjects reporting headache episodes at least once per month during the last six months. Duration of electronic media use was assessed during personal interviews. Associations were estimated with logistic regression models adjusted for age group, sex, family condition and socio-economic status. Most of the adolescents used computers (85%), watched television (90%) or listened to music (90%) daily, otherwise only 23% of the participants used their mobile phones and only 25% played with game consoles on a daily basis. A statistically significant association between listening to music and any headache (odds ratio 1.8; 95% confidence interval 1.1-3.1 for 30 minutes per day, 2.1; 1.2-3.7 for 1 to 2 hours per day; 2.0; 1.2-3.5 for 3 hours and longer listening to music per day) was observed. When stratifying for type of headache, no statistically significant association was seen. Apart from an association between listening to music on a daily basis and overall headache, no consistent associations between the use of electronic media and different types of headache were observed.

  10. The prevalence and correlates of lifetime psychiatric disorders and trauma exposures in urban and rural settings: results from the national comorbidity survey replication (NCS-R.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S McCall-Hosenfeld

    Full Text Available Distinctions between rural and urban environments produce different frequencies of traumatic exposures and psychiatric disorders. We examine the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and frequency of trauma exposures by position on the rural-urban continuum.The National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R was used to evaluate psychiatric disorders among a nationally-representative sample of the U.S. population. Rurality was designated using the Department of Agriculture's 2003 rural-urban continuum codes (RUCC, which differentiate counties into levels of rurality by population density and adjacency to metropolitan areas. Lifetime psychiatric disorders included post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, anxiety disorders, major depressive disorder, mood disorders, impulse-control disorders, and substance abuse. Trauma exposures were classified as war-related, accident-related, disaster-related, interpersonal or other. Weighted logistic regression models examined the odds of psychiatric disorders and trauma exposures by position on the rural-urban continuum, adjusted for relevant covariates.75% of participants were metropolitan, 12.2% were suburban, and 12.8% were from rural counties. The most common disorder reported was any anxiety disorder (38.5%. Drug abuse was more common among metropolitan (8.7%, p = 0.018, compared to nonmetropolitan (5.1% suburban, 6.1% rural participants. A one-category increase in rurality was associated with decreased odds for war-related trauma (aOR = 0.86, 95%CI 0.78-0.95. Rurality was not associated with risk for any other lifetime psychiatric disorders or trauma exposure.Contrary to the expectation of some rural primary care providers, the frequencies of most psychiatric disorders and trauma exposures are similar across the rural-urban continuum, reinforcing calls to improve mental healthcare access in resource-poor rural communities.

  11. HIV prevalence and factors associated with HIV infection among transgender women in Cambodia: results from a national Integrated Biological and Behavioral Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhim, Srean; Ngin, Chanrith; Chhoun, Pheak; Tuot, Sovannary; Ly, Cheaty; Mun, Phalkun; Pal, Khondyla; Macom, John; Dousset, Jean-Philippe; Mburu, Gitau; Yi, Siyan

    2017-08-11

    To examine factors associated with HIV infection among transgender women in Cambodia. Cross-sectional study. HIV high-burden sites including the capital city and 12 provinces. This study included 1375 sexually active transgender women with a mean age of 25.9 years (SD 7.1), recruited by using respondent-driven sampling for structured questionnaire interviews and rapid finger-prick HIV testing. HIV infection detected by using Determine antibody test. HIV prevalence among this population was 5.9%. After adjustment for other covariates, participants living in urban areas were twice as likely to be HIV infected as those living in rural areas. Participants with primary education were 1.7 times as likely to be infected compared with those with high school education. HIV infection increased with age; compared with those aged 18-24 years, the odds of being HIV infected were twice as high among transgender women aged 25-34 years and 2.8 times higher among those aged ≥35 years. Self-injection of gender affirming hormones was associated with a fourfold increase in the odds of HIV infection. A history of genital sores over the previous 12 months increased the odds of HIV infection by threefold. Transgender women with stronger feminine identity, dressing as a woman all the time, were twice as likely to be HIV infected compared with those who did not dress as a woman all the time. Having never used online services developed for transgender women in the past six months was also associated with higher odds of being HIV infected. Transgender women in Cambodia are at high risk of HIV. To achieve the goal of eliminating HIV in Cambodia, effective combination prevention strategies addressing the above risk factors among transgender women should be strengthened. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. The prevalence of medical error related to end-of-life communication in Canadian hospitals: results of a multicentre observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyland, Daren K; Ilan, Roy; Jiang, Xuran; You, John J; Dodek, Peter

    2016-09-01

    In the hospital setting, inadequate engagement between healthcare professionals and seriously ill patients and their families regarding end-of-life decisions is common. This problem may lead to medical orders for life-sustaining treatments that are inconsistent with patient preferences. The prevalence of this patient safety problem has not been previously described. Using data from a multi-institutional audit, we quantified the mismatch between patients' and family members' expressed preferences for care and orders for life-sustaining treatments. We recruited seriously ill, elderly medical patients and/or their family members to participate in this audit. We considered it a medical error if a patient preferred not to be resuscitated and there were orders to undergo resuscitation (overtreatment), or if a patient preferred resuscitation (cardiopulmonary resuscitation, CPR) and there were orders not to be resuscitated (undertreatment). From 16 hospitals in Canada, 808 patients and 631 family members were included in this study. When comparing expressed preferences and documented orders for use of CPR, 37% of patients experienced a medical error. Very few patients (8, 2%) expressed a preference for CPR and had CPR withheld in their documented medical orders (Undertreatment). Of patients who preferred not to have CPR, 174 (35%) had orders to receive it (Overtreatment). There was considerable variability in overtreatment rates across sites (range: 14-82%). Patients who were frail were less likely to be overtreated; patients who did not have a participating family member were more likely to be overtreated. Medical errors related to the use of life-sustaining treatments are very common in internal medicine wards. Many patients are at risk of receiving inappropriate end-of-life care. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  13. Prevalence and distribution of iron overload in patients with transfusion-dependent anemias differs across geographic regions: results from the CORDELIA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydinok, Yesim; Porter, John B; Piga, Antonio; Elalfy, Mohsen; El-Beshlawy, Amal; Kilinç, Yurdanur; Viprakasit, Vip; Yesilipek, Akif; Habr, Dany; Quebe-Fehling, Erhard; Pennell, Dudley J

    2015-09-01

    The randomized comparison of deferasirox to deferoxamine for myocardial iron removal in patients with transfusion-dependent anemias (CORDELIA) gave the opportunity to assess relative prevalence and body distribution of iron overload in screened patients. Patients aged ≥ 10 yr with transfusion-dependent anemias from 11 countries were screened. Data were summarized descriptively, overall and across regions. Among 925 patients (99.1% with β-thalassemia major; 98.5% receiving prior chelation; mean age 19.2 yr), 36.7% had myocardial iron overload (myocardial T2* ≤ 20 ms), 12.1% had low left ventricular ejection fraction. Liver iron concentration (LIC) (mean 25.8 mg Fe/g dw) and serum ferritin (median 3702 ng/mL) were high. Fewer patients in the Middle East (ME; 28.5%) had myocardial T2* ≤ 20 ms vs. patients in the West (45.9%) and Far East (FE, 40.9%). Patients in the West had highest myocardial iron burden, but lowest LIC (26.9% with LIC < 7 mg Fe/g dw) and serum ferritin. Among patients with normal myocardial iron, a higher proportion of patients from the ME and FE had LIC ≥ 15 than < 7 mg Fe/g dw (ME, 56.7% vs. 17.2%; FE, 78.6% vs. 7.8%, respectively), a trend which was less evident in the West (44.6% vs. 33.9%, respectively). Transfusion and chelation practices differed between regions. Evidence of substantial myocardial and liver iron burden across regions revealed a need for optimization of effective, convenient iron chelation regimens. Significant regional variation exists in myocardial and liver iron loading that are not well explained; improved understanding of factors contributing to differences in body iron distribution may be of clinical benefit. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Interfaces between a fibre and its matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lilholt, Hans; Sørensen, Bent F.

    2017-01-01

    parameters (applied load, debond length and relative fibre/matrix displacement) are rather similar for these test modes. A simplified analysis allows the direct determination of the three interface parameters from two plots for the experimental data. The complete analysis is demonstrated for steel fibres...... in polyester matrix. The analysis of existing experimental literature data is demonstrated for steel fibres in epoxy matrix and for tungsten wires in copper matrix. These latter incomplete analyses show that some results can be obtained even if all three experimental parameters are not recorded.......The interface between a fibre and its matrix represents an important element in the characterization and exploitation of composite materials. Both theoretical models and analyses of experimental data have been presented in the literature since modern composite were developed and many experiments...

  15. Omentin-1 prevents cartilage matrix destruction by regulating matrix metalloproteinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhigang; Liu, Baoyi; Zhao, Dewei; Wang, BenJie; Liu, Yupeng; Zhang, Yao; Li, Borui; Tian, Fengde

    2017-08-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play a crucial role in the degradation of the extracellular matrix and pathological progression of osteoarthritis (OA). Omentin-1 is a newly identified anti-inflammatory adipokine. Little information regarding the protective effects of omentin-1 in OA has been reported before. In the current study, our results indicated that omentin-1 suppressed expression of MMP-1, MMP-3, and MMP-13 induced by the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) at both the mRNA and protein levels in human chondrocytes. Importantly, administration of omentin-1 abolished IL-1β-induced degradation of type II collagen (Col II) and aggrecan, the two major extracellular matrix components in articular cartilage, in a dose-dependent manner. Mechanistically, omentin-1 ameliorated the expression of interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) by blocking the JAK-2/STAT3 pathway. Our results indicate that omentin-1 may have a potential chondroprotective therapeutic capacity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Prevalence, continuation, and identification of postpartum depressive symptomatology among refugee, asylum-seeking, non-refugee immigrant, and Canadian-born women: results from a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Cindy-Lee; Merry, Lisa; Stewart, Donna; Gagnon, Anita J

    2016-12-01

    This study assessed the prevalence, continuation, and identification of maternal depressive symptomatology over the first 16 weeks postpartum among refugee, asylum-seeking, non-refugee immigrant, and Canadian-born women. A sample of 1125 women (143 refugees, 369 asylum-seekers, 303 non-refugee immigrant, and 310 Canadian-born) completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at 1 and 16 weeks postpartum. The sensitivity, specificity, and predictive power of the 1-week EPDS to identify women with elevated EPDS scores at 16 weeks were determined. The total number of women with EPDS scores >9 for each group at 1 and 16 weeks, respectively, was 26.6 and 18.2 % for refugees; 25.2 and 24.1 % for asylum-seekers; 22.4 and 14.2 % for non-refugee immigrants, and 14.8 and 7.4 % for Canadian-born. Using the cut-off score of 9/10, the 1-week EPDS accurately classified 77.6 % refugee, 73.4 % asylum-seeking, 76.6 % non-refugee immigrant, and 85.5 % Canadian-born women at 16 weeks with or without postpartum depressive symptomatology. The 1-week EPDS was significantly correlated to the 16-week EPDS (r = 0.46, p depressive symptomatology at 16 weeks if they had EPDS scores >9 at 1 week postpartum: refugees (OR = 6.9, 95 % CI = 2.8-17.3), asylum-seekers (OR = 4.0, 95 % CI = 2.4-6.7), non-refugee immigrants (OR = 3.8, 95 % CI = 2.0-7.6), and Canadian-born women (OR = 8.0, 95 % CI = 3.3-19.8). Our findings suggest that refugee, asylum-seeking, non-refugee immigrant, and Canadian-born women at risk of postpartum depression may be identified early in the postpartum period such that secondary preventive interventions may be implemented.

  17. Prevalence and Association of Undernutrition with Quality of Life among Swedish People Aged 60 Years and Above: Results of the SNAC-B Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseer, M; Fagerström, C

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to assess the prevalence of undernutrition among elderly and to investigate the association of risk of undernutrition with health-related quality of life and life satisfaction controlling for age, gender, marital status, economic status, housing arrangement, education level, functional ability, and diseases. A cross-sectional study design was used for this study. The baseline data (2001-2003) of "The Swedish National Study of Aging and Care-Blekinge (SNAC-B)" was used. This population-based study focused on both home-living and special-housing residents. The participants (n=1402) were randomly selected and included both males and females 60-96 years of age residing in a municipality of south-east Sweden. The risk of undernutrition was estimated by the occurrence of at least one anthropometric measure (body mass index, mid-arm circumference, and calf circumference) below cut-off, in addition to the presence of at least one subjective measure (declined food intake, weight loss, and eating difficulty). The dependent variables, health-related quality of life and life satisfaction, were measured by the validated short form health survey (SF-12) and Liang's life satisfactions index A (LSIA), respectively. According to the criterion, 8.5% of the participants were at risk of undernutrition, and subjects at nutritional risk were significantly older, female, unmarried/widowed/divorced, residing in special housing, and functionally impaired. The risk of undernutrition was significantly associated with poor health-related quality of life, both in the physical (OR 2.31, 95% CI 1.18-4.52) and mental (OR 2.34, 95% CI 1.22-4.47) dimensions. However, no significant association was observed between nutritional status and life satisfaction (OR 1.30, 95% CI 0.70-2.40). The risk of undernutrition significantly increases the risk of poor physical and mental health-related quality of life but has negligible impact on life satisfaction. This study also highlights the

  18. Prevalence of smoking in 15-64 years old population of north of Iran: meta-analysis of the results of non-communicable diseases risk factors surveillance system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Jamshidi Ardeshiri

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Smoking is known as a major cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and hence immediate and effective interventions are required for its elimination. This study aimed to collect valid data with regard to cigarette smoking in adult population of north of Iran for policy making by a meta-analysis of the documents of national non-communicable disease risk factors surveillance system. We investigated relevant evidences by searching in published and non-electronic databases. Data were extracted based on variables such as year of the study, sex, age group and prevalence of smoking habit. Based on results of heterogeneity, we applied fixed or random effects model to estimate the overall prevalence of cigarette smoking. All analyses were performed using STATA 11 software. A total of 20747 subjects (10381 males and 10366 females in five age groups 15-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-54 and 55-64 years were interviewed. Meta-analysis in men and women showed prevalence of 19.2% (15.8-22.6% and 0.3% (0.2-0.5% respectively. Results of the present meta-analysis showed as much as one fifth of male population of north of Iran are smoker. Subgroup analysis also revealed that the rate of smoking was higher among the middle-aged men.

  19. Matrix Information Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Bhatia, Rajendra

    2013-01-01

    This book is an outcome of the Indo-French Workshop on Matrix Information Geometries (MIG): Applications in Sensor and Cognitive Systems Engineering, which was held in Ecole Polytechnique and Thales Research and Technology Center, Palaiseau, France, in February 23-25, 2011. The workshop was generously funded by the Indo-French Centre for the Promotion of Advanced Research (IFCPAR).  During the event, 22 renowned invited french or indian speakers gave lectures on their areas of expertise within the field of matrix analysis or processing. From these talks, a total of 17 original contribution or state-of-the-art chapters have been assembled in this volume. All articles were thoroughly peer-reviewed and improved, according to the suggestions of the international referees. The 17 contributions presented  are organized in three parts: (1) State-of-the-art surveys & original matrix theory work, (2) Advanced matrix theory for radar processing, and (3) Matrix-based signal processing applications.  

  20. Fast methods for resumming matrix polynomials and Chebyshev matrix polynomials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Wanzen; Baer, Roi; Saravanan, Chandra; Shao Yihan; Bell, Alexis T.; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Fast and effective algorithms are discussed for resumming matrix polynomials and Chebyshev matrix polynomials. These algorithms lead to a significant speed-up in computer time by reducing the number of matrix multiplications required to roughly twice the square root of the degree of the polynomial. A few numerical tests are presented, showing that evaluation of matrix functions via polynomial expansions can be preferable when the matrix is sparse and these fast resummation algorithms are employed

  1. 2016 MATRIX annals

    CERN Document Server

    Praeger, Cheryl; Tao, Terence

    2018-01-01

    MATRIX is Australia’s international, residential mathematical research institute. It facilitates new collaborations and mathematical advances through intensive residential research programs, each lasting 1-4 weeks. This book is a scientific record of the five programs held at MATRIX in its first year, 2016: Higher Structures in Geometry and Physics (Chapters 1-5 and 18-21); Winter of Disconnectedness (Chapter 6 and 22-26); Approximation and Optimisation (Chapters 7-8); Refining C*-Algebraic Invariants for Dynamics using KK-theory (Chapters 9-13); Interactions between Topological Recursion, Modularity, Quantum Invariants and Low-dimensional Topology (Chapters 14-17 and 27). The MATRIX Scientific Committee selected these programs based on their scientific excellence and the participation rate of high-profile international participants. Each program included ample unstructured time to encourage collaborative research; some of the longer programs also included an embedded conference or lecture series. The artic...

  2. Matrix interdiction problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Feng [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kasiviswanathan, Shiva [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    In the matrix interdiction problem, a real-valued matrix and an integer k is given. The objective is to remove k columns such that the sum over all rows of the maximum entry in each row is minimized. This combinatorial problem is closely related to bipartite network interdiction problem which can be applied to prioritize the border checkpoints in order to minimize the probability that an adversary can successfully cross the border. After introducing the matrix interdiction problem, we will prove the problem is NP-hard, and even NP-hard to approximate with an additive n{gamma} factor for a fixed constant {gamma}. We also present an algorithm for this problem that achieves a factor of (n-k) mUltiplicative approximation ratio.

  3. Dynamic Matrix Rank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg; Frandsen, Peter Frands

    2009-01-01

    We consider maintaining information about the rank of a matrix under changes of the entries. For n×n matrices, we show an upper bound of O(n1.575) arithmetic operations and a lower bound of Ω(n) arithmetic operations per element change. The upper bound is valid when changing up to O(n0.575) entries...... in a single column of the matrix. We also give an algorithm that maintains the rank using O(n2) arithmetic operations per rank one update. These bounds appear to be the first nontrivial bounds for the problem. The upper bounds are valid for arbitrary fields, whereas the lower bound is valid for algebraically...... closed fields. The upper bound for element updates uses fast rectangular matrix multiplication, and the lower bound involves further development of an earlier technique for proving lower bounds for dynamic computation of rational functions....

  4. Allodynia Is Associated With Initial and Sustained Response to Acute Migraine Treatment: Results from the American Migraine Prevalence and Prevention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, Richard B; Munjal, Sagar; Buse, Dawn C; Bennett, Alix; Fanning, Kristina M; Burstein, Rami; Reed, Michael L

    2017-07-01

    In a population sample of persons with migraine treating with a single category of acute migraine medication, to identify rates and factors associated with acute treatment outcomes, including 2-hour pain freedom (2hPF), 24-hour pain response (24hPR), and 24-hour sustained pain response (24hSPR). Key predictors include acute treatment type (triptans and other medication categories), the influence of allodynia on response to medication, and the interaction between medication category and presence of allodynia in response to treatment among people with migraine. Cutaneous allodynia was previously associated with inadequate 2hPF, 24hPR, and 24hSPR (sustained response at 24 hours among those with adequate 2hPF) among people with migraine in the American Migraine Prevalence and Prevention (AMPP) Study. The AMPP Study obtained data from a representative US sample of persons with migraine by mailed questionnaire. The 2006 survey included 8233 people with migraine aged 18 or over who completed the Migraine Treatment Optimization Questionnaire (mTOQ). mTOQ was used to assess acute treatment outcomes including 2hPF, 24hPR, and 24hSPR. Eligible individuals used only a single category of acute prescription migraine treatments (n  =  5236, 63.6%). This sample was stratified into 5 categories of type of acute prescription headache medication used (triptans, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, barbiturate-combinations, opioids, and opioid combinations and ergot alkaloids). Separate binary logistic regression models evaluated: (1) triptans vs other medication types; (2) presence of allodynia vs no allodynia; and (3) the interaction of medication category with allodynia. Sociodemographic variables, health insurance status, over-the-counter and preventive medication use were included as covariates. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were generated for each acute treatment outcome. Among eligible participants, the mean age was 46 years, and 82.5% were women

  5. The gravitational S-matrix

    CERN Document Server

    Giddings, Steven B

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the hypothesized existence of an S-matrix for gravity, and some of its expected general properties. We first discuss basic questions regarding existence of such a matrix, including those of infrared divergences and description of asymptotic states. Distinct scattering behavior occurs in the Born, eikonal, and strong gravity regimes, and we describe aspects of both the partial wave and momentum space amplitudes, and their analytic properties, from these regimes. Classically the strong gravity region would be dominated by formation of black holes, and we assume its unitary quantum dynamics is described by corresponding resonances. Masslessness limits some powerful methods and results that apply to massive theories, though a continuation path implying crossing symmetry plausibly still exists. Physical properties of gravity suggest nonpolynomial amplitudes, although crossing and causality constrain (with modest assumptions) this nonpolynomial behavior, particularly requiring a polynomial bound in c...

  6. Quantized Matrix Algebras and Quantum Seeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Hans Plesner; Pagani, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    We determine explicitly quantum seeds for classes of quantized matrix algebras. Furthermore, we obtain results on centres and block diagonal forms of these algebras. In the case where is an arbitrary root of unity, this further determines the degrees.......We determine explicitly quantum seeds for classes of quantized matrix algebras. Furthermore, we obtain results on centres and block diagonal forms of these algebras. In the case where is an arbitrary root of unity, this further determines the degrees....

  7. Elementary matrix algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Hohn, Franz E

    2012-01-01

    This complete and coherent exposition, complemented by numerous illustrative examples, offers readers a text that can teach by itself. Fully rigorous in its treatment, it offers a mathematically sound sequencing of topics. The work starts with the most basic laws of matrix algebra and progresses to the sweep-out process for obtaining the complete solution of any given system of linear equations - homogeneous or nonhomogeneous - and the role of matrix algebra in the presentation of useful geometric ideas, techniques, and terminology.Other subjects include the complete treatment of the structur

  8. Complex matrix model duality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, T.W.

    2010-11-15

    The same complex matrix model calculates both tachyon scattering for the c=1 non-critical string at the self-dual radius and certain correlation functions of half-BPS operators in N=4 super- Yang-Mills. It is dual to another complex matrix model where the couplings of the first model are encoded in the Kontsevich-like variables of the second. The duality between the theories is mirrored by the duality of their Feynman diagrams. Analogously to the Hermitian Kontsevich- Penner model, the correlation functions of the second model can be written as sums over discrete points in subspaces of the moduli space of punctured Riemann surfaces. (orig.)

  9. EVALUATION OF CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS PREVALENCE AND EFFICACY OF THEIR CORRECTION IN PHYSICIANS. ESTIMATION OF PHYSICIANS’ EXPERTISE IN UP-TO-DATE CLINICAL GUIDELINES. RESULTS OF THE “PHYSICIAN’S HEALTH AND EDUCATION” STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Y. Drozdova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate cardiovascular risk factors prevalence among physicians of therapeutic profile (cardiology , internal medicine, neurology , endocrinology etc, to estimate awareness of physicians about their own cardiovascular risk, and to simultaneously assess their expertise in up-to-date clinical guidelines. Material and methods. A total of 638 physicians working in out-patient and in-patient clinics of Moscow, Moscow region, St-Petersburg, Nizhniy Novgorod, Vladivostok, Irkutsk, Krasnoyarsk, Krasnodar and Perm were included into the study. The mean age of participants was 46 years. The mean professional experience – 20.4 years. We made an assessment of main cardiovascular risk factors, and conducted interactive inquiry , which included questions about preventive and treatment measures for cardiovascular diseases. Results. Arterial hypertension (HT was revealed for the first time in 178 physicians, 150 physicians indicated HT in anamnesis. Only 64 physicians had target levels of blood pressure. Hypercholesterolemia rate was 45%. The prevalence of obesity and overweight were 22% and 39%, respectively. Inquiry showed that 53% of physicians primarily use clinical guidelines to choose treatment options. 76% and 88% of physicians considered it possible to achieve target levels of blood pressure and of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, respectively. Conclusion. Prevalence of main risk factors among physicians was similar to that in the total population; correction of those risk factors was not satisfactory. Knowledge of cardiovascular risk problems and necessity of their correction was adequate in the whole; however physicians often failed to apply their knowledge to practice.

  10. EVALUATION OF CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS PREVALENCE AND EFFICACY OF THEIR CORRECTION IN PHYSICIANS. ESTIMATION OF PHYSICIANS’ EXPERTISE IN UP-TO-DATE CLINICAL GUIDELINES. RESULTS OF THE “PHYSICIAN’S HEALTH AND EDUCATION” STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Y. Drozdova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate cardiovascular risk factors prevalence among physicians of therapeutic profile (cardiology , internal medicine, neurology , endocrinology etc, to estimate awareness of physicians about their own cardiovascular risk, and to simultaneously assess their expertise in up-to-date clinical guidelines. Material and methods. A total of 638 physicians working in out-patient and in-patient clinics of Moscow, Moscow region, St-Petersburg, Nizhniy Novgorod, Vladivostok, Irkutsk, Krasnoyarsk, Krasnodar and Perm were included into the study. The mean age of participants was 46 years. The mean professional experience – 20.4 years. We made an assessment of main cardiovascular risk factors, and conducted interactive inquiry , which included questions about preventive and treatment measures for cardiovascular diseases. Results. Arterial hypertension (HT was revealed for the first time in 178 physicians, 150 physicians indicated HT in anamnesis. Only 64 physicians had target levels of blood pressure. Hypercholesterolemia rate was 45%. The prevalence of obesity and overweight were 22% and 39%, respectively. Inquiry showed that 53% of physicians primarily use clinical guidelines to choose treatment options. 76% and 88% of physicians considered it possible to achieve target levels of blood pressure and of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, respectively. Conclusion. Prevalence of main risk factors among physicians was similar to that in the total population; correction of those risk factors was not satisfactory. Knowledge of cardiovascular risk problems and necessity of their correction was adequate in the whole; however physicians often failed to apply their knowledge to practice.

  11. Microlevel thermal effects in metal matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herakovich, Carl T.

    1990-01-01

    A method for studying the influence of thermal effects on the inelastic response of metal matrix composites is reviewed. A micromechanics approach based upon the method of cells is shown to be quite versatile for studying a variety of materials response phenomena. Yielding and inelastic response of the composite are predicted as functions of thermal stresses, yielding of the matrix, and imperfect fiber/matrix bonding. Results are presented in the form of yield surfaces and nonlinear stress-strain curves for unidirectional and laminated boron/aluminum and silicon-carbide/titanium.

  12. R-matrix methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robb, W.D.

    1978-01-01

    The procedures used in the application of R-matrix theory to atomic and molecular collision processes are presented. The computationally advantageous features of these methods are high-lighted, and some applications to electron scattering and photoionization are briefly discussed

  13. A Matrix Isolation Infrared

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The elusive ≡C-H· · ·O complex in the hydrogen bonded systems of Phenylacetylene: A Matrix Isolation Infrared and Ab Initio Study ... A comparison of the spectral shifts observed in the features of PhAc-MeOH and PhAc-DEE would therefore independently confirm the existence or not of n-σ* complex in both these systems.

  14. Challenging the CSCW matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørnø, Rasmus Leth Vergmann; Gynther, Karsten; Christensen, Ove

    2014-01-01

    useful information, we question whether the axis of time and space comprising the matrix pertains to relevant defining properties of the tools, technology or learning environments to which they are applied. Subsequently we offer an example of an Adobe Connect e-learning session as an illustration...

  15. R-matrix analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodder, D.C.

    1975-01-01

    Scattering and reaction processes involving very few nucleons are studied via the R matrix formalism of Wigner and Eisenbud. As examples, the d + 3 He, p + 4 He, 3 He + 4 He, and p + 6 Li are considered. (3 figures) (SDF)

  16. Combinatorial matrix theory

    CERN Document Server

    Mitjana, Margarida

    2018-01-01

    This book contains the notes of the lectures delivered at an Advanced Course on Combinatorial Matrix Theory held at Centre de Recerca Matemàtica (CRM) in Barcelona. These notes correspond to five series of lectures. The first series is dedicated to the study of several matrix classes defined combinatorially, and was delivered by Richard A. Brualdi. The second one, given by Pauline van den Driessche, is concerned with the study of spectral properties of matrices with a given sign pattern. Dragan Stevanović delivered the third one, devoted to describing the spectral radius of a graph as a tool to provide bounds of parameters related with properties of a graph. The fourth lecture was delivered by Stephen Kirkland and is dedicated to the applications of the Group Inverse of the Laplacian matrix. The last one, given by Ángeles Carmona, focuses on boundary value problems on finite networks with special in-depth on the M-matrix inverse problem.

  17. Micromechanical Modeling of Woven Metal Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy

    1997-01-01

    This report presents the results of an extensive micromechanical modeling effort for woven metal matrix composites. The model is employed to predict the mechanical response of 8-harness (8H) satin weave carbon/copper (C/Cu) composites. Experimental mechanical results for this novel high thermal conductivity material were recently reported by Bednarcyk et al. along with preliminary model results. The micromechanics model developed herein is based on an embedded approach. A micromechanics model for the local (micro-scale) behavior of the woven composite, the original method of cells (Aboudi), is embedded in a global (macro-scale) micromechanics model (the three-dimensional generalized method of cells (GMC-3D) (Aboudi). This approach allows representation of true repeating unit cells for woven metal matrix composites via GMC-3D, and representation of local effects, such as matrix plasticity, yarn porosity, and imperfect fiber-matrix bonding. In addition, the equations of GMC-3D were reformulated to significantly reduce the number of unknown quantities that characterize the deformation fields at the microlevel in order to make possible the analysis of actual microstructures of woven composites. The resulting micromechanical model (WCGMC) provides an intermediate level of geometric representation, versatility, and computational efficiency with respect to previous analytical and numerical models for woven composites, but surpasses all previous modeling work by allowing the mechanical response of a woven metal matrix composite, with an elastoplastic matrix, to be examined for the first time. WCGMC is employed to examine the effects of composite microstructure, porosity, residual stresses, and imperfect fiber-matrix bonding on the predicted mechanical response of 8H satin C/Cu. The previously reported experimental results are summarized, and the model predictions are compared to monotonic and cyclic tensile and shear test data. By considering appropriate levels of porosity

  18. Minimal invasive biopsy results of 'uncertain malignant potential' in digital mammography screening. High prevalence but also high predictive value for malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weigel, S.; Heindel, W.; Universitaetsklinikum Muenster; Decker, T.; Universitaetsklinikum Muenster; Korsching, E.; Biesheuvel, C.; Woestmann, A.; Boecker, W.; Hungermann, D.; Roterberg, K.; Tio, J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the rate, the histological spectrum and the positive predictive value (PPV) for malignancy of minimally invasive biopsies with 'uncertain malignant potential (B3)' in digital mammography screening. Methods and Materials: Consecutive data of 37 178 participants of one digital unit of the German screening program were included. Results: The B 3 rate was 15.1 % (148/979). The frequencies of lesion subtypes were as follows: atypical epithelial proliferation of ductal type (AEPDT) 35.1 % (52/148), radial scar (RS) 28.4 % (42/148), papillary lesions (PAP) 20.3 % (30/148), lobular carcinoma in situ 8.8 % (13/148), flat epithelial atypia 5.4 % (8/148), and mucocele-like lesions 2.0 % (3/148). The PPV for malignancy in surgical excisions was overall 0.28 (25/91); in detail 0.40 (19/47) for AEPDT, 0.20 (5/25) for RS, 0.08 (1/12) for PAP. Conclusion: Despite a higher B 3 rate of minimally invasive biopsies with 'uncertain malignant potential' in digital screening, the benign surgical biopsy rate is not disproportionally increased compared with analog screening programs. Together with defined management protocols, this results in an increased cancer detection rate per screening participant with surgical excision. (orig.)

  19. Minimal invasive biopsy results of 'uncertain malignant potential' in digital mammography screening. High prevalence but also high predictive value for malignancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weigel, S.; Heindel, W. [Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie; Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany). Referenzzentrum Mammographie; Decker, T. [Dietrich Bonhoeffer Klinikum, Neubrandenburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Pathologie; Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany). Referenzzentrum Mammographie; Korsching, E. [Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany). Inst. fuer Bioinformatik; Biesheuvel, C.; Woestmann, A.; Boecker, W. [Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany). Referenzzentrum Mammographie; Hungermann, D. [Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany). Gerhard-Domagk-Inst. fuer Pathologie; Roterberg, K.; Tio, J. [Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Frauenheilkunde und Geburtshilfe, Bereich Senologie

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the rate, the histological spectrum and the positive predictive value (PPV) for malignancy of minimally invasive biopsies with 'uncertain malignant potential (B3)' in digital mammography screening. Methods and Materials: Consecutive data of 37 178 participants of one digital unit of the German screening program were included. Results: The B 3 rate was 15.1 % (148/979). The frequencies of lesion subtypes were as follows: atypical epithelial proliferation of ductal type (AEPDT) 35.1 % (52/148), radial scar (RS) 28.4 % (42/148), papillary lesions (PAP) 20.3 % (30/148), lobular carcinoma in situ 8.8 % (13/148), flat epithelial atypia 5.4 % (8/148), and mucocele-like lesions 2.0 % (3/148). The PPV for malignancy in surgical excisions was overall 0.28 (25/91); in detail 0.40 (19/47) for AEPDT, 0.20 (5/25) for RS, 0.08 (1/12) for PAP. Conclusion: Despite a higher B 3 rate of minimally invasive biopsies with 'uncertain malignant potential' in digital screening, the benign surgical biopsy rate is not disproportionally increased compared with analog screening programs. Together with defined management protocols, this results in an increased cancer detection rate per screening participant with surgical excision. (orig.)

  20. Prevalence and severity of gingivitis in school students aged 6?11?years in Tafelah Governorate, South Jordan: results of the survey executed by National Woman?s Health Care Center

    OpenAIRE

    Rodan, Rania; Khlaifat, Feryal; Smadi, Leena; Azab, Reem; Abdalmohdi, Asma

    2015-01-01

    Background A cross-sectional census was conducted on 994 public school students aged 6-11?years living in 3 different parts of Tafeleh Governorate?South of Jordan, to determine the prevalence, and severity of gingivitis and to evaluate the oral hygiene habits among them as a part a survey executed by National Woman?s Health Care Center. All students were examined for gingival index (GI) and plaque index (PI), information about oral hygiene habits was recorded. Results Only 29.8?% had healthy ...

  1. Low-Rank Matrix Factorization With Adaptive Graph Regularizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Gui-Fu; Wang, Yong; Zou, Jian

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we present a novel low-rank matrix factorization algorithm with adaptive graph regularizer (LMFAGR). We extend the recently proposed low-rank matrix with manifold regularization (MMF) method with an adaptive regularizer. Different from MMF, which constructs an affinity graph in advance, LMFAGR can simultaneously seek graph weight matrix and low-dimensional representations of data. That is, graph construction and low-rank matrix factorization are incorporated into a unified framework, which results in an automatically updated graph rather than a predefined one. The experimental results on some data sets demonstrate that the proposed algorithm outperforms the state-of-the-art low-rank matrix factorization methods.

  2. Prevalence and prognostic significance of ECG abnormalities in HIV-infected patients: results from the Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soliman, Elsayed Z; Prineas, Ronald J; Roediger, Mollie P

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It remains debated whether to include resting electrocardiogram (ECG) in the routine care of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. METHODS: This analysis included 4518 HIV-infected patients (28% women and 29% blacks) from the Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral...... Therapy study, a clinical trial aimed to compare 2 HIV treatment strategies. ECG abnormalities were classified using the Minnesota Code. Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to examine the association between baseline ECG abnormalities and incident cardiovascular disease (CVD). RESULTS: More than...... half of the participants (n = 2325, or 51.5%) had either minor or major ECG abnormalities. Minor ECG abnormalities (48.6%) were more common than major ECG abnormalities (7.7%). During a median follow-up of 28.7 months, 155 participants (3.4%) developed incident CVD. After adjusting for the study...

  3. About the solvability of matrix polynomial equations

    OpenAIRE

    Netzer, Tim; Thom, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    We study self-adjoint matrix polynomial equations in a single variable and prove existence of self-adjoint solutions under some assumptions on the leading form. Our main result is that any self-adjoint matrix polynomial equation of odd degree with non-degenerate leading form can be solved in self-adjoint matrices. We also study equations of even degree and equations in many variables.

  4. Matrix parameters and storage conditions of manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinfurtner, Karlheinz [Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology (IME), Schmallenberg (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    The literature study presents an overview of storage conditions for manure and information about important matrix parameters of manure such as dry matter content, pH value, total organic carbon, total nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen. The presented results show that for matrix parameters a dissimilarity of cattle and pig manure can be observed but no difference within the species for different production types occurred with exception of calves. A scenario for western and central European countries is derived. (orig.)

  5. Sparse matrix decompositions for clustering

    OpenAIRE

    Blumensath, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Clustering can be understood as a matrix decomposition problem, where a feature vector matrix is represented as a product of two matrices, a matrix of cluster centres and a matrix with sparse columns, where each column assigns individual features to one of the cluster centres. This matrix factorisation is the basis of classical clustering methods, such as those based on non-negative matrix factorisation but can also be derived for other methods, such as k-means clustering. In this paper we de...

  6. Partially separable t matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasakawa, T.; Okuno, H.; Ishikawa, S.; Sawada, T.

    1982-01-01

    The off-shell t matrix is expressed as a sum of one nonseparable and one separable terms so that it is useful for applications to more-than-two body problems. All poles are involved in this one separable term. Both the nonseparable and the separable terms of the kernel G 0 t are regular at the origin. The nonseparable term of this kernel vanishes at large distances, while the separable term behaves asymptotically as the spherical Hankel function. These properties make our expression free from defects inherent in the Jost or the K-matrix expressions, and many applications are anticipated. As the application, a compact expression of the many-level formula is presented. Also the application is suggested to the breakup threebody problem based on the Faddeev equation. It is demonstrated that the breakup amplitude is expressed in a simple and physically interesting form and we can calculate it in coordinate space

  7. Chronic rhinitis and its association with headache frequency and disability in persons with migraine: results of the American Migraine Prevalence and Prevention (AMPP) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Vincent T; Fanning, Kristina M; Serrano, Daniel; Buse, Dawn C; Reed, Michael L; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Lipton, Richard B

    2014-04-01

    frequency and disability of migraine are higher in persons with rhinitis, particularly those with mixed rhinitis. These results, however, should be considered preliminary until confirmed in future studies because of the modest questionnaire response rate in this study.

  8. The combat burst fracture study--results of a cohort analysis of the most prevalent combat specific mechanism of major thoracolumbar spinal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Brett A; Serrano, Jose A; Belmont, Philip J; Jackson, Keith L; Cameron, Brian; Neal, Chris J; Wells, Rosemary; Yeoman, Chevas; Schoenfeld, Andrew J

    2014-10-01

    In 2009-2010, military physicians hypothesized that a new pattern of spinal injury had emerged, resulting from improvised explosive device assault on up-armored vehicles, associated with a high rate of point of first contact fracture and neurological injury-the combat burst fracture. We sought to determine the incidence of all thoracolumbar (TL) burst fractures and combat burst fractures in 2009-2010 as compared to two antecedent years. A screening process identified all individuals who sustained TL burst fractures in the time-period studied. Demographics, injury-specific characteristics, mechanism of injury, surgical interventions and early complications were recorded. Incidence rates were calculated for the three time periods using total deployed troop-strength and number of LRMC combat admissions as denominators. The incidences of TL burst fractures within each year group and by mechanism were compared, and clinical characteristics and process of care were described. Between 2007-2010, 65 individuals sustained a TL burst fracture. The incidence of these injuries in 2009-2010 was 2.1 per 10,000 soldier-years and accounted for 3.0 % of LRMC combat-casualty admissions, a significant increase from 0.6 % and 1.1 % in 2007-2008 and 2008-2009, respectively (p ≤ 0.001). In 2009-2010, US soldiers were 3.4-4.6 times more likely to sustain a TL burst fracture compared to 2008-2009 and 2007-2008 (p vehicle (65 %)-the combat burst fracture mechanism. Neurological deficits were present in 43 % of TL burst fractures and 1/3 were complete injuries. Spinal fixation was performed in 68 % overall and 74 % of combat burst fractures. There was a 3.4- to 4.6-fold increase in TL burst fractures in 2009-2010 compared to antecedent years. The primary driver of this phenomenon was the marked increased in combat burst fractures. Mitigating/preventing the mechanism behind this major spinal injury is a key research initiative for the US military. Level of Evidence III (Case-control).

  9. A matrix contraction process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Michael; Grant, John

    2018-03-01

    We consider a stochastic process in which independent identically distributed random matrices are multiplied and where the Lyapunov exponent of the product is positive. We continue multiplying the random matrices as long as the norm, ɛ, of the product is less than unity. If the norm is greater than unity we reset the matrix to a multiple of the identity and then continue the multiplication. We address the problem of determining the probability density function of the norm, \

  10. Holomorphic matrix integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felder, Giovanni; Riser, Roman

    2004-01-01

    We study a class of holomorphic matrix models. The integrals are taken over middle-dimensional cycles in the space of complex square matrices. As the size of the matrices tends to infinity, the distribution of eigenvalues is given by a measure with support on a collection of arcs in the complex planes. We show that the arcs are level sets of the imaginary part of a hyperelliptic integral connecting branch points

  11. Matrix groups for undergraduates

    CERN Document Server

    Tapp, Kristopher

    2016-01-01

    Matrix groups touch an enormous spectrum of the mathematical arena. This textbook brings them into the undergraduate curriculum. It makes an excellent one-semester course for students familiar with linear and abstract algebra and prepares them for a graduate course on Lie groups. Matrix Groups for Undergraduates is concrete and example-driven, with geometric motivation and rigorous proofs. The story begins and ends with the rotations of a globe. In between, the author combines rigor and intuition to describe the basic objects of Lie theory: Lie algebras, matrix exponentiation, Lie brackets, maximal tori, homogeneous spaces, and roots. This second edition includes two new chapters that allow for an easier transition to the general theory of Lie groups. From reviews of the First Edition: This book could be used as an excellent textbook for a one semester course at university and it will prepare students for a graduate course on Lie groups, Lie algebras, etc. … The book combines an intuitive style of writing w...

  12. Extracellular matrix structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theocharis, Achilleas D; Skandalis, Spyros S; Gialeli, Chrysostomi; Karamanos, Nikos K

    2016-02-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) is a non-cellular three-dimensional macromolecular network composed of collagens, proteoglycans/glycosaminoglycans, elastin, fibronectin, laminins, and several other glycoproteins. Matrix components bind each other as well as cell adhesion receptors forming a complex network into which cells reside in all tissues and organs. Cell surface receptors transduce signals into cells from ECM, which regulate diverse cellular functions, such as survival, growth, migration, and differentiation, and are vital for maintaining normal homeostasis. ECM is a highly dynamic structural network that continuously undergoes remodeling mediated by several matrix-degrading enzymes during normal and pathological conditions. Deregulation of ECM composition and structure is associated with the development and progression of several pathologic conditions. This article emphasizes in the complex ECM structure as to provide a better understanding of its dynamic structural and functional multipotency. Where relevant, the implication of the various families of ECM macromolecules in health and disease is also presented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Study of theophylline stability on polymer matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Kiriaki M.S.; Parra, Duclerc F.; Oliveira, Maria Jose A.; Bustillos, Oscar V.; Lugao, Ademar B.

    2007-01-01

    Theophylline is a bronchodilator, commonly known and used as a drug model in the development of pharmaceutical formulations. The stability of the drug and the matrix, scope of this study, was evaluated in the solid formulation. Polymeric matrix based on PHB containing the drug (theophylline) was prepared and submitted to radiation sterilization at different doses of: 5, 10, 20 and 25 kGy using a Cobalt- 60 source. The modified drug release of theophylline sterilized tablets has been studied. Modern techniques of HPLC (High Pressure Liquid Chromatography), DSC (Differential scanning calorimetry) and TGA (Thermogravimetry analysis) were employed. The results have shown the influence of sterilization by radiation process in both the theophylline and the polymeric drug delivery matrix samples. The increasing of polymeric matrix crosslinking under radiation conditions retards the drug release while the theophylline structure is stable under the radiation (author)

  14. Image Encryption Using the Chaotic Josephus Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelan Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new image encryption solution using the chaotic Josephus matrix. It extends the conventional Josephus traversing to a matrix form and proposes a treatment to improve the randomness of this matrix by mixing chaotic maps. It also derives the corresponding encryption primitives controlled by the chaotic Josephus matrix. In this way, it builds up an image encryption system with very high sensitivities in both encryption key and input image. Our simulation results demonstrate that an encrypted image of using this method is very random-like, that is, a uniform-like pixel histogram and very low correlations in adjacent pixels. The design idea of this method is also applicable to data encryption of other types, like audio and video.

  15. The revenge of the S-matrix

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    In this talk I will describe recent work aiming to reinvigorate the 50 year old S-matrix program, which aims to constrain scattering of massive particles non-perturbatively. I will begin by considering quantum fields in anti-de Sitter space and show that one can extract information about the S-matrix by considering correlators in conformally invariant theories. The latter can be studied with "bootstrap" techniques, which allow us to constrain the S-matrix. In particular, in 1+1D one obtains bounds which are saturated by known integrable models. I will also show that it is also possible to directly constrain the S-matrix, without using the CFT crutch, by using crossing symmetry and unitarity. This alternative method is simpler and gives results in agreement with the previous approach. Both techniques are generalizable to higher dimensions.

  16. Distributively generated matrix near rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, S.J.

    1993-04-01

    It is known that if R is a near ring with identity then (I,+) is abelian if (I + ,+) is abelian and (I,+) is abelian if (I*,+) is abelian [S.J. Abbasi, J.D.P. Meldrum, 1991]. This paper extends these results. We show that if R is a distributively generated near ring with identity then (I,+) is included in Z(R), the center of R, if (I + ,+) is included in Z(M n (R)), the center of matrix near ring M n (R). Furthermore (I,+) is included in Z(R) if (I*,+) is included in Z(M n (R)). (author). 5 refs

  17. Prevalência de sinais e sintomas, fatores sociodemográficos associados e atitude frente aos sintomas em um centro urbano no Sul do Brasil Prevalence of signs and symptoms, associated sociodemographic factors and resulting actions in an urban center in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Mendoza-Sassi

    2006-07-01

    symptoms in the adult population, the sociodemographic factors associated with them, and the actions taken as a result of these symptoms, according to sex. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional study was carried out in the city of Rio Grande (state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, in 2000. We interviewed 1 259 people Ž 15 years of age. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire containing 18 symptoms in addition to sociodemographic questions. The prevalence of symptoms and prevalence ratios for sex, age, and socioeconomic status were estimated after alternately adjusting for these variables. The actions resulting from the presence of symptoms were also analyzed for each sex. RESULTS: Mean age was 40.33 years (53.9% were women. The most prevalent symptom was headache (55.4%. Joint pain, insomnia, constipation, high blood pressure, and shortness of breath increased with age. The following were more prevalent among the lower social classes: headache, nervousness, joint and back pain, insomnia and depression, high blood pressure, chest pain, and shortness of breath. A total of 4 424 health problems were reported (an average of 3.25 per person; 60.2% did not generate any action, 31.6% resulted in self-medication, and 8.2% resulted in a visit to a medical facility. Headache, nervousness, joint and back pain, insomnia, depression, constipation, high blood pressure, chest pain, and shortness of breath were significantly higher in women, whereas cough was significantly more prevalent in men. Women and men took similar actions in the presence of signs and symptoms. CONCLUSION: It is necessary to establish health policies that lay an emphasis on mental health and education for self care and on those symptoms that signal the need to go to a health facility. It is also necessary to study the role of social class in determining health behavior and the choice to seek care.

  18. Standard Errors for Matrix Correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, Haruhiko

    1999-01-01

    Derives the asymptotic standard errors and intercorrelations for several matrix correlations assuming multivariate normality for manifest variables and derives the asymptotic standard errors of the matrix correlations for two factor-loading matrices. (SLD)

  19. The cellulose resource matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keijsers, Edwin R P; Yılmaz, Gülden; van Dam, Jan E G

    2013-03-01

    The emerging biobased economy is causing shifts from mineral fossil oil based resources towards renewable resources. Because of market mechanisms, current and new industries utilising renewable commodities, will attempt to secure their supply of resources. Cellulose is among these commodities, where large scale competition can be expected and already is observed for the traditional industries such as the paper industry. Cellulose and lignocellulosic raw materials (like wood and non-wood fibre crops) are being utilised in many industrial sectors. Due to the initiated transition towards biobased economy, these raw materials are intensively investigated also for new applications such as 2nd generation biofuels and 'green' chemicals and materials production (Clark, 2007; Lange, 2007; Petrus & Noordermeer, 2006; Ragauskas et al., 2006; Regalbuto, 2009). As lignocellulosic raw materials are available in variable quantities and qualities, unnecessary competition can be avoided via the choice of suitable raw materials for a target application. For example, utilisation of cellulose as carbohydrate source for ethanol production (Kabir Kazi et al., 2010) avoids the discussed competition with easier digestible carbohydrates (sugars, starch) deprived from the food supply chain. Also for cellulose use as a biopolymer several different competing markets can be distinguished. It is clear that these applications and markets will be influenced by large volume shifts. The world will have to reckon with the increase of competition and feedstock shortage (land use/biodiversity) (van Dam, de Klerk-Engels, Struik, & Rabbinge, 2005). It is of interest - in the context of sustainable development of the bioeconomy - to categorize the already available and emerging lignocellulosic resources in a matrix structure. When composing such "cellulose resource matrix" attention should be given to the quality aspects as well as to the available quantities and practical possibilities of processing the

  20. Genetic Relationships Between Chondrules, Rims and Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huss, G. R.; Alexander, C. M. OD.; Palme, H.; Bland, P. A.; Wasson, J. T.

    2004-01-01

    The most primitive chondrites are composed of chondrules and chondrule fragments, various types of inclusions, discrete mineral grains, metal, sulfides, and fine-grained materials that occur as interchondrule matrix and as chondrule/inclusion rims. Understanding how these components are related is essential for understanding how chondrites and their constituents formed and were processed in the solar nebula. For example, were the first generations of chondrules formed by melting of matrix or matrix precursors? Did chondrule formation result in appreciable transfer of chondrule material into the matrix? Here, we consider three types of data: 1) compositional data for bulk chondrites and matrix, 2) mineralogical and textural information, and 3) the abundances and characteristics of presolar materials that reside in the matrix and rims. We use these data to evaluate the roles of evaporation and condensation, chondrule formation, mixing of different nebular components, and secondary processing both in the nebula and on the parent bodies. Our goal is to identify the things that are reasonably well established and to point out the areas that need additional work.

  1. Matrix vector analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Eisenman, Richard L

    2005-01-01

    This outstanding text and reference applies matrix ideas to vector methods, using physical ideas to illustrate and motivate mathematical concepts but employing a mathematical continuity of development rather than a physical approach. The author, who taught at the U.S. Air Force Academy, dispenses with the artificial barrier between vectors and matrices--and more generally, between pure and applied mathematics.Motivated examples introduce each idea, with interpretations of physical, algebraic, and geometric contexts, in addition to generalizations to theorems that reflect the essential structur

  2. Matrix algebra for linear models

    CERN Document Server

    Gruber, Marvin H J

    2013-01-01

    Matrix methods have evolved from a tool for expressing statistical problems to an indispensable part of the development, understanding, and use of various types of complex statistical analyses. This evolution has made matrix methods a vital part of statistical education. Traditionally, matrix methods are taught in courses on everything from regression analysis to stochastic processes, thus creating a fractured view of the topic. Matrix Algebra for Linear Models offers readers a unique, unified view of matrix analysis theory (where and when necessary), methods, and their applications. Written f

  3. Convergence of Transition Probability Matrix in CLVMarkov Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permana, D.; Pasaribu, U. S.; Indratno, S. W.; Suprayogi, S.

    2018-04-01

    A transition probability matrix is an arrangement of transition probability from one states to another in a Markov chain model (MCM). One of interesting study on the MCM is its behavior for a long time in the future. The behavior is derived from one property of transition probabilty matrix for n steps. This term is called the convergence of the n-step transition matrix for n move to infinity. Mathematically, the convergence of the transition probability matrix is finding the limit of the transition matrix which is powered by n where n moves to infinity. The convergence form of the transition probability matrix is very interesting as it will bring the matrix to its stationary form. This form is useful for predicting the probability of transitions between states in the future. The method usually used to find the convergence of transition probability matrix is through the process of limiting the distribution. In this paper, the convergence of the transition probability matrix is searched using a simple concept of linear algebra that is by diagonalizing the matrix.This method has a higher level of complexity because it has to perform the process of diagonalization in its matrix. But this way has the advantage of obtaining a common form of power n of the transition probability matrix. This form is useful to see transition matrix before stationary. For example cases are taken from CLV model using MCM called Model of CLV-Markov. There are several models taken by its transition probability matrix to find its convergence form. The result is that the convergence of the matrix of transition probability through diagonalization has similarity with convergence with commonly used distribution of probability limiting method.

  4. Differences in Mexican Americans' Prevalence of Chronic Pain and Co-Occurring Analgesic Medication and Substance Use Relative to Non-Hispanic White and Black Americans: Results from NHANES 1999-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingshead, Nicole A; Vrany, Elizabeth A; Stewart, Jesse C; Hirsh, Adam T

    2016-06-01

    Little is known about the burgeoning Mexican American (MA) population's pain experience. Using 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data, prevalence of chronic pain, analgesic medication use, and substance use were examined among MA, non-Hispanic White (NHW), and non-Hispanic Black (NHB) respondents. Logistic and linear regression models examined racial/ethnic differences in: 1) chronic pain prevalence among all respondents, 2) location and number of pain sites among respondents with chronic pain, and 3) analgesic medication and substance use among respondents with chronic pain. Compared to NHWs and NHBs, MAs were less likely to report any chronic pain. Among respondents with chronic pain, MAs had higher odds of reporting headache, abdominal pain, and a greater number of pain sites than NHWs. Compared to NHWs, MAs with chronic pain had lower odds of reporting past-month analgesic medication and COX-2 inhibitor use. MAs with chronic pain had lower odds of being a current cigarette smoker and heavy alcohol drinker but had similar street drug/cocaine use relative to NHWs. Results suggest that: 1) MAs are less likely to develop chronic pain than NHWs, 2) MAs with chronic pain report greater headache and abdominal pain than NHWs, and 3) MAs with chronic pain are less likely to use analgesic medications and other substances compared to NHWs. These results suggest that providers should consider taking extra time to discuss analgesic medications with MAs. Future investigations should examine reasons underlying these racial/ethnic differences in chronic pain, as well as differences in the use of other substances, such as marijuana. © 2015 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Colored graphs and matrix integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artamkin, I.V.

    2007-12-01

    In this article we discuss two different asymptotic expansions of matrix integrals. The original approach using the so-called Feynman diagram techniques leads to sums over isomorphism classes of ribbon graphs. Asymptotic expansions of more general Gaussian integrals are sums over isomorphism classes of colored graphs without ribbon structure. Here we derive the former expansion from the latter one. This provides an independent proof for the expansion used by Kontsevich. It might be very interesting to compare the algebra arising in these two approaches. The asymptotic expansion using ribbon graphs leads to the tau function of the KDV hierarchy while the sums over colored graphs satisfy simple partial differential equations which generalize the Burgers equation. We describe the general approach using colored graphs in the second section. In the third section we specialize the results of the second section for the matrix integral. In this section we also derive the expansion over ribbon graphs. The proof is based on simple topological considerations which are contained in section 5. In the last section we give an explicit calculation of the first term of the expansion using colored graphs

  6. Interpolation of rational matrix functions

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Joseph A; Rodman, Leiba

    1990-01-01

    This book aims to present the theory of interpolation for rational matrix functions as a recently matured independent mathematical subject with its own problems, methods and applications. The authors decided to start working on this book during the regional CBMS conference in Lincoln, Nebraska organized by F. Gilfeather and D. Larson. The principal lecturer, J. William Helton, presented ten lectures on operator and systems theory and the interplay between them. The conference was very stimulating and helped us to decide that the time was ripe for a book on interpolation for matrix valued functions (both rational and non-rational). When the work started and the first partial draft of the book was ready it became clear that the topic is vast and that the rational case by itself with its applications is already enough material for an interesting book. In the process of writing the book, methods for the rational case were developed and refined. As a result we are now able to present the rational case as an indepe...

  7. Weak interaction matrix elements with staggered fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharpe, S.R.

    1986-08-01

    An overview of the results of the Los Alamos Advanced Computing Group is given. The theory behind the measurement of Weak Interaction Matrix Elements using staggered fermions is presented, and contrasted with that for Wilson fermions. This is followed by a preliminary discussion of numerical results on a 12 3 x 30 lattice. 10 refs., 4 figs

  8. Ceramic matrix and resin matrix composites - A comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Frances I.

    1987-01-01

    The underlying theory of continuous fiber reinforcement of ceramic matrix and resin matrix composites, their fabrication, microstructure, physical and mechanical properties are contrasted. The growing use of organometallic polymers as precursors to ceramic matrices is discussed as a means of providing low temperature processing capability without the fiber degradation encountered with more conventional ceramic processing techniques. Examples of ceramic matrix composites derived from particulate-filled, high char yield polymers and silsesquioxane precursors are provided.

  9. Ceramic matrix and resin matrix composites: A comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Frances I.

    1987-01-01

    The underlying theory of continuous fiber reinforcement of ceramic matrix and resin matrix composites, their fabrication, microstructure, physical and mechanical properties are contrasted. The growing use of organometallic polymers as precursors to ceramic matrices is discussed as a means of providing low temperature processing capability without the fiber degradation encountered with more conventional ceramic processing techniques. Examples of ceramic matrix composites derived from particulate-filled, high char yield polymers and silsesquioxane precursors are provided.

  10. Prevalence of rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases and their impact on health-related quality of life, physical function and mental health in Portugal: results from EpiReumaPt– a national health survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Jaime C; Rodrigues, Ana M; Gouveia, Nélia; Eusébio, Mónica; Ramiro, Sofia; Machado, Pedro M; da Costa, Leonor Pereira; Mourão, Ana Filipa; Silva, Inês; Laires, Pedro; Sepriano, Alexandre; Araújo, Filipe; Gonçalves, Sónia; Coelho, Pedro S; Tavares, Viviana; Cerol, Jorge; Mendes, Jorge M; Carmona, Loreto

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the national prevalence of rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases (RMDs) in the adult Portuguese population and to determine their impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL), physical function, anxiety and depression. Methods EpiReumaPt is a national health survey with a three-stage approach. First, 10 661 adult participants were randomly selected. Trained interviewers undertook structured face-to-face questionnaires that included screening for RMDs and assessments of health-related quality of life, physical function, anxiety and depression. Second, positive screenings for ≥1 RMD plus 20% negative screenings were invited to be evaluated by a rheumatologist. Finally, three rheumatologists revised all the information and confirmed the diagnoses according to validated criteria. Estimates were computed as weighted proportions, taking the sampling design into account. Results The disease-specific prevalence rates (and 95% CIs) of RMDs in the adult Portuguese population were: low back pain, 26.4% (23.3% to 29.5%); periarticular disease, 15.8% (13.5% to 18.0%); knee osteoarthritis (OA), 12.4% (11.0% to 13.8%); osteoporosis, 10.2% (9.0% to 11.3%); hand OA, 8.7% (7.5% to 9.9%); hip OA, 2.9% (2.3% to 3.6%); fibromyalgia, 1.7% (1.1% to 2.1%); spondyloarthritis, 1.6% (1.2% to 2.1%); gout, 1.3% (1.0% to 1.6%); rheumatoid arthritis, 0.7% (0.5% to 0.9%); systemic lupus erythaematosus, 0.1% (0.1% to 0.2%) and polymyalgia rheumatica, 0.1% (0.0% to 0.2%). After multivariable adjustment, participants with RMDs had significantly lower EQ5D scores (β=−0.09; p<0.001) and higher HAQ scores (β=0.13; p<0.001) than participants without RMDs. RMDs were also significantly associated with the presence of anxiety symptoms (OR=3.5; p=0.006). Conclusions RMDs are highly prevalent in Portugal and are associated not only with significant physical function and mental health impairment but also with poor HRQoL, leading to more health resource consumption. The Epi

  11. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing is prevalent and increasing in Stockholm County, Sweden, Despite no recommendations for PSA screening: results from a population-based study, 2003-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordström, Tobias; Aly, Markus; Clements, Mark S; Weibull, Caroline E; Adolfsson, Jan; Grönberg, Henrik

    2013-03-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing has increased in several countries. There is incomplete knowledge of PSA testing patterns. Determine the prevalence of PSA testing and explore patterns of PSA retesting in Stockholm County, Sweden. A population-based study was performed. Through registry linkages, we collected population information, data on PSA tests, pathology reports, and clinical information. The study population comprised males living in Stockholm County in 2011 (n=1034129), of which 229 872 had a PSA test during the period 2003-2011. We determined limited-duration-point prevalence of PSA testing and performed survival analysis on PSA retesting for men aged 40-89 yr. The number of PSA tests increased from 54239 in 2003 to 124613 in 2011. During the 9-yr study period, 46%, 68%, and 77% of men without a prior prostate cancer (PCa) diagnosis and aged 50-59 yr, 60-69 yr, and 70-79 yr, respectively, had a PSA test. During 2010 and 2011, 25%, 40%, and 46% of men aged 50-59 yr, 60-69 yr, and 70-79 yr, respectively, had a PSA test. The prevalence of PSA testing increased from 2003 to 2011. The probability of retesting was PSA and age dependent, with a 26-mo cumulative incidence of 0.337 (95% confidence interval, 0.333-0.341) if the first PSA value was PSA data prior to 2003 were not available and (2) that the study cohort was restricted to men who were alive in 2011. Although screening for PCa is not recommended in Sweden, PSA testing in Stockholm County was high across ages ranging from 40 to 89 yr and increased during the period 2003-2011. The probability of PSA retesting was high, regardless of the original PSA level. These results contrast with current clinical recommendations and raise calls for a change, either through structured PCa testing or more detailed guidelines on PSA testing. Copyright © 2012 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Low infliximab serum trough levels and anti-infliximab antibodies are prevalent in rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with infliximab in daily clinical practice: results of an observational cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background To get insight in the prevalence of high, or low/no serum infliximab trough levels in patients with low disease activity and if serum trough levels are stable and reliable longitudinally we conducted a prospective cohort study Methods In a longitudinal, observational cohort of RA patients treated with infliximab for at least 6 months, treatment interval, DAS28, infliximab trough levels and anti-infliximab antibodies were assessed. Prevalence of low (5 mg/l) infliximab serum trough levels and anti-infliximab antibodies was recorded. Relationship of a change in anti-infliximab antibodies and treatment interval was described. Reliability of consecutive infliximab serum trough levels and anti-infliximab antibodies in patients with stable DAS28 and treatment was analysed with Spearman correlation and kappa-analysis. Results 147 patients with a mean disease duration of 11 years (sd7) and DAS28 of 3.5 (sd1.3) at baseline were followed during 1.5 years. Inter-individual variability in infliximab levels in patients with low DAS28 was high (median 1.4 mg/L, IQR 3.35), with 31% (95%CI: 20-42%) having low (5 mg/L). Interestingly also in RA patients with DAS28 ≤ 3.2, anti-infliximab antibodies were found in one-third of the patients, with half of them having antibodies every visit during a median of more than one year. Agreement for consecutive measurements of serum trough levels and anti-infliximab antibodies was high in stable patients: r = 0.97 (p = 0.00001) and kappa = 1.0 (SE 0.14) Anti-infliximab antibody appearance was influenced by interval increases (relative risk (RR) 5.2, 2.6-10.7), but patients still showed low infliximab levels. Conclusions Low (and high) infliximab serum trough levels are prevalent, interestingly also in patients with low disease activity. Consecutive measurements of serum trough levels and anti-infliximab antibodies are reliable in stable patients. These test could be used to lower or stop infliximab in

  13. Modification of natural matrix lac-bagasse for matrix composite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhayati, Nanik Dwi; Widjaya, Karna; Triyono

    2016-02-01

    Material technology continues to be developed in order to a material that is more efficient with composite technology is a combination of two or more materials to obtain the desired material properties. The objective of this research was to modification and characterize the natural matrix lac-bagasse as composite films. The first step, natural matrix lac was changed from solid to liquid using an ethanol as a solvent so the matrix homogenly. Natural matrix lac was modified by adding citric acid with concentration variation. Secondly, the bagasse delignification using acid hydrolysis method. The composite films natural matrix lac-bagasse were prepared with optimum modified the addition citric acid 5% (v/v) and delignification bagasse optimum at 1,5% (v/v) in hot press at 80°C 6 Kg/cm-1. Thirdly, composite films without and with modification were characterized functional group analysis using FTIR spectrophotometer and mechanical properties using Universal Testing Machine. The result of research showed natural matrix lac can be modified by reaction with citric acid. FTIR spectra showed without and with modification had functional groups wide absorption 3448 cm-1 group -OH, C=O ester strong on 1712 cm-1 and the methylene group -CH2 on absorption 1465 cm-1. The mechanical properties showed tensile strength 0,55 MPa and elongation at break of 0,95 %. So that composite films natural matrix lac can be made with reinforcement bagasse for material application.

  14. Google matrix analysis of DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandiah, Vivek; Shepelyansky, Dima L

    2013-01-01

    For DNA sequences of various species we construct the Google matrix [Formula: see text] of Markov transitions between nearby words composed of several letters. The statistical distribution of matrix elements of this matrix is shown to be described by a power law with the exponent being close to those of outgoing links in such scale-free networks as the World Wide Web (WWW). At the same time the sum of ingoing matrix elements is characterized by the exponent being significantly larger than those typical for WWW networks. This results in a slow algebraic decay of the PageRank probability determined by the distribution of ingoing elements. The spectrum of [Formula: see text] is characterized by a large gap leading to a rapid relaxation process on the DNA sequence networks. We introduce the PageRank proximity correlator between different species which determines their statistical similarity from the view point of Markov chains. The properties of other eigenstates of the Google matrix are also discussed. Our results establish scale-free features of DNA sequence networks showing their similarities and distinctions with the WWW and linguistic networks.

  15. Google matrix analysis of DNA sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Kandiah

    Full Text Available For DNA sequences of various species we construct the Google matrix [Formula: see text] of Markov transitions between nearby words composed of several letters. The statistical distribution of matrix elements of this matrix is shown to be described by a power law with the exponent being close to those of outgoing links in such scale-free networks as the World Wide Web (WWW. At the same time the sum of ingoing matrix elements is characterized by the exponent being significantly larger than those typical for WWW networks. This results in a slow algebraic decay of the PageRank probability determined by the distribution of ingoing elements. The spectrum of [Formula: see text] is characterized by a large gap leading to a rapid relaxation process on the DNA sequence networks. We introduce the PageRank proximity correlator between different species which determines their statistical similarity from the view point of Markov chains. The properties of other eigenstates of the Google matrix are also discussed. Our results establish scale-free features of DNA sequence networks showing their similarities and distinctions with the WWW and linguistic networks.

  16. Max–min distance nonnegative matrix factorization

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2014-10-26

    Nonnegative Matrix Factorization (NMF) has been a popular representation method for pattern classification problems. It tries to decompose a nonnegative matrix of data samples as the product of a nonnegative basis matrix and a nonnegative coefficient matrix. The columns of the coefficient matrix can be used as new representations of these data samples. However, traditional NMF methods ignore class labels of the data samples. In this paper, we propose a novel supervised NMF algorithm to improve the discriminative ability of the new representation by using the class labels. Using the class labels, we separate all the data sample pairs into within-class pairs and between-class pairs. To improve the discriminative ability of the new NMF representations, we propose to minimize the maximum distance of the within-class pairs in the new NMF space, and meanwhile to maximize the minimum distance of the between-class pairs. With this criterion, we construct an objective function and optimize it with regard to basis and coefficient matrices, and slack variables alternatively, resulting in an iterative algorithm. The proposed algorithm is evaluated on three pattern classification problems and experiment results show that it outperforms the state-of-the-art supervised NMF methods.

  17. A matrix big bang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craps, Ben; Sethi, Savdeep; Verlinde, Erik

    2005-10-01

    The light-like linear dilaton background represents a particularly simple time-dependent 1/2 BPS solution of critical type-IIA superstring theory in ten dimensions. Its lift to M-theory, as well as its Einstein frame metric, are singular in the sense that the geometry is geodesically incomplete and the Riemann tensor diverges along a light-like subspace of codimension one. We study this background as a model for a big bang type singularity in string theory/M-theory. We construct the dual Matrix theory description in terms of a (1+1)-d supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory on a time-dependent world-sheet given by the Milne orbifold of (1+1)-d Minkowski space. Our model provides a framework in which the physics of the singularity appears to be under control.

  18. Light cone matrix product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hastings, Matthew B [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    We show how to combine the light-cone and matrix product algorithms to simulate quantum systems far from equilibrium for long times. For the case of the XXZ spin chain at {Delta} = 0.5, we simulate to a time of {approx} 22.5. While part of the long simulation time is due to the use of the light-cone method, we also describe a modification of the infinite time-evolving bond decimation algorithm with improved numerical stability, and we describe how to incorporate symmetry into this algorithm. While statistical sampling error means that we are not yet able to make a definite statement, the behavior of the simulation at long times indicates the appearance of either 'revivals' in the order parameter as predicted by Hastings and Levitov (e-print arXiv:0806.4283) or of a distinct shoulder in the decay of the order parameter.

  19. A matrix big bang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craps, Ben; Sethi, Savdeep; Verlinde, Erik

    2005-01-01

    The light-like linear dilaton background represents a particularly simple time-dependent 1/2 BPS solution of critical type-IIA superstring theory in ten dimensions. Its lift to M-theory, as well as its Einstein frame metric, are singular in the sense that the geometry is geodesically incomplete and the Riemann tensor diverges along a light-like subspace of codimension one. We study this background as a model for a big bang type singularity in string theory/M-theory. We construct the dual Matrix theory description in terms of a (1+1)-d supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory on a time-dependent world-sheet given by the Milne orbifold of (1+1)-d Minkowski space. Our model provides a framework in which the physics of the singularity appears to be under control

  20. A matrix big bang

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craps, Ben [Instituut voor Theoretische Fysica, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Valckenierstraat 65, 1018 XE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Sethi, Savdeep [Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Verlinde, Erik [Instituut voor Theoretische Fysica, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Valckenierstraat 65, 1018 XE Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2005-10-15

    The light-like linear dilaton background represents a particularly simple time-dependent 1/2 BPS solution of critical type-IIA superstring theory in ten dimensions. Its lift to M-theory, as well as its Einstein frame metric, are singular in the sense that the geometry is geodesically incomplete and the Riemann tensor diverges along a light-like subspace of codimension one. We study this background as a model for a big bang type singularity in string theory/M-theory. We construct the dual Matrix theory description in terms of a (1+1)-d supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory on a time-dependent world-sheet given by the Milne orbifold of (1+1)-d Minkowski space. Our model provides a framework in which the physics of the singularity appears to be under control.

  1. Interface matrix method in AFEN framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pogosbekyan, Leonid; Cho, Jin Young; Kim, Young Jin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    In this study, we extend the application of the interface-matrix(IM) method for reflector modeling to Analytic Flux Expansion Nodal (AFEN) method. This include the modifications of the surface-averaged net current continuity and the net leakage balance conditions for IM method in accordance with AFEN formula. AFEN-interface matrix (AFEN-IM) method has been tested against ZION-1 benchmark problem. The numerical result of AFEN-IM method shows 1.24% of maximum error and 0.42% of root-mean square error in assembly power distribution, and 0.006% {Delta} k of neutron multiplication factor. This result proves that the interface-matrix method for reflector modeling can be useful in AFEN method. 3 refs., 4 figs. (Author)

  2. Matrix metalloproteinases and TGFbeta1 modulate oral tumor cell matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Dongmin; Yang, Yongjian; Li, Xiaowu; Atakilit, Amha; Regezi, Joseph; Eisele, David; Ellis, Duncan; Ramos, Daniel M

    2004-04-09

    The integrin beta6 has been shown to promote invasion and experimental metastasis by oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). In this study, we demonstrate that the expression of beta6 by oral SCC9 cells increased activation of the UPA --> MMP3 --> MMP9 pathway. We also demonstrate that the deposition of fibronectin and tenascin-C matrices by SCC9beta6 cells and peritumor fibroblast cocultures is counter-regulated by the UPA --> MMP3 --> MMP9 pathway. Suppression of individual components of this pathway increased the deposition of fibronectin, but decreased tenascin-C matrix assembly by the cocultures. When the SCC9beta6/PTF cocultures were incubated with TGFbeta1, the deposition of fibronectin and tenascin-C as well as the activation of MMP3 and MMP9 was increased. These results indicate that MMP3, MMP9, and TGFbeta1 are important for the modulation, composition, and maintenance of the ECM in oral SCC.

  3. Diferencias en las prevalencias de desnutrición al usarse referencias nacionales e internacionales Differences in the prevalence of malnutrition resulting from using a national growth reference or an international growth reference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelia Edith Oyhenart

    2005-09-01

    prevalencia de retraso del crecimiento.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if using an international growth reference versus a national growth reference leads to differences in the prevalences of low weight-for-height (wasting and low height-for-age (stunting in a sample of children 8 to 14 years old. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out with a sample of 1 470 school-children (both boys and girls in the city of La Plata, in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Based on the data on weight and height, Z-scores were calculated with regard to the reference values from the United States of America's first and second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES I and NHANES II, and the reference values for Argentina from the Argentine Pediatric Society. The prevalences of wasting and stunting were calculated, using as the cutoff point two standard deviations below the median of the reference. The prevalences were compared using the chi-squared test with Yates' correction, and odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs were calculated. RESULTS: The international reference was positively associated with a higher prevalence of stunting in the entire sample (OR = 5.12; 95% CI: 3.27 to 8.05, in the boys (OR = 4.36; 95% CI: 2.43 to 7.93, and in the girls (OR = 6.32; 95% CI: 3.10 to 13.27. The prevalence of wasting was similar with both references. The distribution of height-for-age was skewed to the left with respect to the international reference and to the right with respect to the Argentine reference, while the distribution of weight-for-height overlapped both references. CONCLUSIONS: The differences in the prevalences of stunting calculated according to the two references that were used indicate a different nutritional status for the population studied. The increase in the height of the children with respect to the Argentine reference points to the presence of a positive secular trend, and the increase can explain part of the differences in the prevalence

  4. Single-particle density matrix of liquid 4He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vakarchuk, I.A.

    2008-01-01

    The density single-particle matrix in the coordinate notation was calculated based on the expression for the interacting Bose-particle N system density matrix. Under the low temperatures the mentioned matrix in the first approximation enables to reproduce the Bogoliubov theory results. In the classical terms the mentioned theory enables to reproduce the results of the theory of the classical fluids in the approximation of the chaotic phases. On the basis of the density single-particle matrix one managed to obtain the function of the pulse distribution of the particles, the Bose-liquid average kinetic energy, and to study the Bose-Einstein condensation phenomenon [ru

  5. An Application of Matrix Multiplication

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    vector whose entries are all non-negative and have sum. 1, and a transition matrix to be a square matrix, each of whose rows is a probability vector. We then define a finite Markov chain (or simply a chain) to consist of an n × n transition matrix P and a 1 × n row vector x: The positions Ei are the states of the chain and our aim.

  6. Homolumo Gap and Matrix Model

    CERN Document Server

    Andric, I; Jurman, D; Nielsen, H B

    2007-01-01

    We discuss a dynamical matrix model by which probability distribution is associated with Gaussian ensembles from random matrix theory. We interpret the matrix M as a Hamiltonian representing interaction of a bosonic system with a single fermion. We show that a system of second-quantized fermions influences the ground state of the whole system by producing a gap between the highest occupied eigenvalue and the lowest unoccupied eigenvalue.

  7. Multivariate Matrix-Exponential Distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Mogens; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2010-01-01

    be written as linear combinations of the elements in the exponential of a matrix. For this reason we shall refer to multivariate distributions with rational Laplace transform as multivariate matrix-exponential distributions (MVME). The marginal distributions of an MVME are univariate matrix......-exponential distributions. We prove a characterization that states that a distribution is an MVME distribution if and only if all non-negative, non-null linear combinations of the coordinates have a univariate matrix-exponential distribution. This theorem is analog to a well-known characterization theorem...

  8. Matrix strings in weakly curved background fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiappa, Ricardo

    2001-01-01

    We investigate further the recent proposal for the form of the Matrix theory action in weak background fields. We perform DVV reduction to the multiple D0-brane action in order to find the Matrix string theory action for multiple fundamental strings in curved but weak NSNS and RR backgrounds. This matrix sigma model gives a definite prescription on how to deal with RR fields with an explicit spacetime dependence in Type II string theory. We do this both via the 9-11 flip and the chain of T and S dualities, and further check on their equivalence explicitly. In order to do so, we also discuss the implementation of S-duality in the operators of the 2-dimensional worldvolume supersymmetric gauge theory describing the Type IIB D-string. We compare the result to the known Green-Schwarz sigma model action (for one string), and use this comparison in order to discuss about possible, non-linear background curvature corrections to the Matrix string action (involving many strings), and therefore to the Matrix theory action. We illustrate the nonabelian character of our action with an example involving multiple fundamental strings in a nontrivial RR flux, where the strings are polarized into a noncommutative configuration. This corresponds to a dielectric type of effect on fundamental strings