WorldWideScience

Sample records for prevalence reporting deaths

  1. Reporting Fatal Neglect in Child Death Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Debbie

    2018-01-01

    Child death reviews are conducted with the aim of preventing child deaths however, definitions, inclusion criteria for the review of child deaths and reporting practices vary across Child Death Review Teams (CDRTs). This article aims to identify a common context and understanding of fatal neglect reporting by reviewing definitional issues of fatal neglect and comparing reporting practice across a number of CDRTs. Providing a consistent context for identifying and reporting neglect-related deaths may improve the understanding of the impact of fatal neglect and the risk factors associated with it and therefore, improve the potential of CDRT review to inform prevention programs, policies, and procedures.

  2. National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) provides states and communities with a clearer understanding of violent deaths to guide local decisions about...

  3. Asthma deaths during sports: report of a 7-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Jack M; Rogers, James; Rossini, Gregory; Mirchandani, Haresh; D'Alonzo, Gilbert E

    2004-02-01

    Asthma mortality and the mortality of athletes during sports have been described separately in detail in the medical literature. However, asthma has not been reported as a cause of death in competitive athletes. The object of this study was to raise the awareness of physicians, coaches, trainers, and parents that children and adults can have fatal asthma exacerbations during and immediately after participating in sports. The Temple Sports Asthma Research Center identified athletes from 1993 until 2000 who died during or after sporting activity by using the nationwide Burrell's Information Service. Once a possible asthma-related sports death was identified, the autopsy report was requested from the coroner or medical examiner, and an attempt was made to contact the family. Contact with the family was limited to information about the death, medical history, sports involvement, and any medication usage by the person who had died. Secondary sources, including news reports, were used to confirm whether the subject died of asthma during or immediately after a sporting activity. Two hundred sixty-three possible cases were identified. Sixty-one deaths met the criteria for study inclusion. White deaths outnumbered black deaths by 2 to 1. Deaths among male subjects predominated. Most subjects were younger than the age of 20 years, with the most prevalent age group being between 10 to 14 years old. Fifty-one percent (18 of 35) of the competitive athletes had their fatal event while participating in organized sport, 14 in a practice situation and 4 deaths during a game or meet setting. Basketball and track were the 2 most frequent activities performed at the time of the fatal event. The subjects who had fatal asthma exacerbations were usually white male subjects between the ages of 10 and 20 years. Mild intermittent or persistent asthma by history was commonly identified. Sudden fatal asthma exacerbations occur in both competitive and recreational athletes and can be

  4. Prevalence of Parental Thrombophilic Defects After Fetal Death and Relation to Cause

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korteweg, F.J.; Erwich, J.J.H.M.; Folkeringa, N.; Timmer, A.; Veeger, N.J.G.M.; Ravise, J.M.; Holm, J.P.; van der Meer, J.

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate whether parental thrombophilic defects after fetal death, either acquired or inherited, were more prevalent than in the normal population and to estimate associations between these thrombophilic defects and different fetal death causes. METHODS: In a multicenter, prospective

  5. A Comparison of Suicides and Undetermined Deaths by Poisoning among Women: An Analysis of the National Violent Death Reporting System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huguet, Nathalie; McFarland, Bentson H; Kaplan, Mark S

    2015-01-01

    The study compared the prevalence of common suicide risk factors between poisoning deaths classified as injuries of undetermined intent or suicides among women. Data were derived from the 2003-10 National Violent Death Reporting System. Multiple logistic regression assessed the factors associated with 799 undetermined deaths (relative to 3,233 suicides). Female decedents with lower education, a substance use problem, and a health problem were more likely to be classified as undetermined death. Older women, those with an intimate partner problem, financial problem, depressed mood, mental health problem, attempted suicide, and disclosed intent to die were less likely to be classified as undetermined death. The present study raises the possibility that many (perhaps most) undetermined female poisoning deaths are suicides.

  6. 22 CFR 72.5 - Final report of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PROTECTION AND WELFARE OF AMERICANS, THEIR PROPERTY AND ESTATES DEATHS AND ESTATES Reporting Deaths of United States Nationals § 72.5 Final report of death. (a) Preparation. Except in the case of the death of an active duty member of the United States Armed Forces, when...

  7. Prevalence of risk factors for sudden cardiac death in competitive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    %) of which 18 were female and 11 male. Irregular heart rhythms were the most prevalent cardiac risk in both males and females with a family history of cardiovascular disease the second most prevalent amongst both males and females.

  8. Symptom prevalence, intensity, and distress in patients with inoperable lung cancer in relation to time of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishelman, Carol; Petersson, Lena-Marie; Degner, Lesley F; Sprangers, Mirjam A G

    2007-12-01

    To examine symptom prevalence, intensity, and association with distress in patients with inoperable lung cancer (LC), using time to death as point of reference. A consecutive sample of 400 patients completed the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire C30 plus a 13-item LC-specific scale and the Thurstone Scale of Symptom Distress-Lung Cancer at six time points during the first year after diagnosis. Patients were divided into subgroups, using data from the time point closest to death ( 2 to 3; > 3 to 6; > 6 to 12; and > 12 months before death) for analysis. More than 50% of patients in all subgroups reported problems related to physical, role, and emotional functioning; fatigue; dyspnea; and cough. In general, functional levels were lower and symptoms higher in subgroups closer to death. Notably, clinically relevant differences were also found in role and social functioning and appetite loss between the two groups furthest from death. A consistent pattern was found among the six subgroups, with breathing, pain, and fatigue rated as the symptoms most associated with distress. High prevalence of symptoms was found in all subgroups, with higher intensity in subgroups closer to death, indicating a need for prophylactic and proactive symptom management. Less concordance was found among symptom prevalence, intensity, and association with distress in subgroups further from death. Future studies should investigate longitudinal associations between symptoms with low intensity and high distress, and examine their clinical implications.

  9. Brain death in neonates: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Mitsiakos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Brain death (BD is the permanent and complete loss of cerebral and brainstem function. It is relatively uncommon in newborns with its percentage among deaths being 1-6.3%. BD leads to debate for medical, ethical and philosophical issues. It is a challenging condition in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs since difficulties for BD diagnosis in neonates and ever more so in preterm neonates do arise. Revised guidelines for BD diagnosis definition include history with known etiology, clinical examination, apnea testing and neurological evaluation often assisted by ancillary tests. We present the case of a near term female baby that was born with brain death due to hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. We conclude that BD in newborns is a challenge to NICUs and there is a need for establishing and implementing new guidelines and checklists on national basis. Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in Neonatology Guest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou

  10. Rates and Correlates of Undetermined Deaths among African Americans: Results from the National Violent Death Reporting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huguet, Nathalie; Kaplan, Mark S.; McFarland, Bentson H.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the factors associated with undetermined death classifications among African Americans. In this study, the rates of undetermined deaths were assessed, the prevalence of missing information was estimated, and whether the circumstances preceding death differ by race were examined. Data were derived from the 2005-2008 National…

  11. Case Reporting of Maternal Deaths in Nigeria: A Survey of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Accurate data on maternal deaths is of public health concern. In Nigeria, a country with one of the highest rates of maternal mortality in the world, little is known of how such information is managed. Objective: To determine case reporting of maternal deaths among Nigerian obstetricians and make policy ...

  12. Death caused by heat stroke: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Slobodan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Heat stroke is the most dangerous among numerous disorders caused by elevated environmental temperature. It is characterized by an increased body temperature of over 40°C, the dysfunction of the central nervous system and the development of multiple organ failure. The aim of this paper was to highlight problems in the clinical and post-mortal diagnosis of fatal heat stroke. Case Outline. A 20-year-old male was found unconscious on the street; on admission at the Emergency Center, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, he was in a coma. The body temperature of 40°C was maintained despite the applied therapy, meningeal signs were negative, tachycardia with gallop rhythm, hypotension, bleeding from the nose and mouth, and presence of skin bruises. Laboratory findings: highly elevated LDH and creatine kinase, elevated serum creatinine, AST, and signs of DIC. Lethal outcome occurred 6 hours after admission, and the case remained clinically unsolved. Autopsy showed signs of hemorrhagic diathesis, brain and pulmonary edema, and microscopic examination revealed general congestion, internal bleeding in various organs, cerebral edema, massive blood aspiration and pulmonary edema. Toxicological and bacteriological examinations were negative. Based on these findings and subsequently obtained data on the conditions at the workplace where the young man had a part-time job, it was concluded that the violent death was caused by heat stroke. Conclusion. Since heat stroke is associated with a high mortality rate and high incidence of serious and permanent organ damage in survivors, it is important to make the diagnosis of heat stroke as quickly as possible and apply appropriate treatment. Misdiagnosis of heat stroke, and consequently inadequate treatment, with a potential fatal outcome for the patient, can be the reason for blaming doctors for the legal offense of medical malpractice in failing to administer first aid.

  13. Behaviorism: Are reports of its death exaggerated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, W. Joseph; Hawkins, Robert P.; Davis, Pamela

    1986-01-01

    Despite reports that behaviorism is dead or dying, examination of the data indicates otherwise. The opinions of psychology historians, the number of professional associations devoted to behaviorism, and the increasing number of behavioral publications all support the conclusion that behaviorism is vital and growing. PMID:22478651

  14. Sudden death after medullary infarction—A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuh-Jen Wang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sudden death in a stable medullary infarction case frequently induces legal problems. Currently, the etiology of the most reported cases are not known because autopsy is rare. Here, we report one female patient with medullary infarction who experienced a sudden cardiopulmonary arrest during a brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI study. The blood flow changes on the MRI indicated that her death resulted from the sudden collapse of systemic circulation. Dysautonomia, or sudden respiratory arrest resulting from brainstem dysfunction, was suspected. In this report, we present her cranial MRI findings and discuss the possible pathophysiology after reviewing the relevant literature. We also recommend certain tests for patients with medullary infarction to prevent the risk of sudden unexpected deaths.

  15. Prevalence and characteristics of opioid-related deaths involving alcohol in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Tara; Juurlink, David N; Mamdani, Muhammad M; Paterson, J Michael; van den Brink, Wim

    2017-10-01

    While it is well known that patients receiving opioids should refrain from alcohol consumption, little is known about the involvement of alcohol in opioid-related deaths. We conducted a population-based analysis of opioid-related deaths in Ontario with and without alcohol involvement between 1993 and 2013, and reported rates overall and stratified by manner of death. We compared the characteristics of individuals who died of an opioid overdose based on the presence or absence of alcohol involvement. The rate of opioid-related deaths increased 288% from 11.9 per million (95% confidence interval (CI) 9.8-13.9 per million) in 1993-46.2 per million (95% CI 42.6-49.8 per million) in 2013. The rate of opioid-related deaths without alcohol involvement increased 388% from 7.4 per million to 36.1 per million, while deaths involving alcohol increased by 125% from 4.5 per million to 10.1 per million. Therefore, although the annual number of opioid-related deaths involving alcohol rose, the proportion of opioid-related deaths involving alcohol declined from 37.8% in 1993-21.9% by 2013. Generally, opioid-related deaths involving alcohol were less likely to involve other central nervous system depressants, and more likely to occur among men and those with a history of alcohol use disorder. Although the relative contribution of alcohol in opioid-related deaths has declined, 1 in 5 fatal opioid overdoses still involved alcohol in 2013. Our findings highlight the ongoing need for targeted messaging around risks of opioids alone, and in combination with alcohol and other CNS depressants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Post-mortem analysis for two prevalent beta-oxidation mutations in sudden infant death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zi; Lantz, Patrick E; Ibdah, Jamal A

    2007-12-01

    Fatty acid oxidation disorders may cause sudden and unexpected infant death and are associated with the histological hallmark of hepatic steatosis. The goal of the present study was to assess the value of post-mortem molecular analysis for medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (MCAD) and mitochondrial trifunctional protein (MTP) defects in unexplained sudden infant death (SID) associated with fatty infiltration of the liver. MCAD catalyzes the first step of medium-chain fatty acid oxidation while MTP catalyzes the last three steps of long-chain fatty acid oxidation. In a retrospective study, 220 consecutive cases of sudden and unexplained infant death certified by medical examiners at Wake Forest University Medical Center were assessed for hepatic steatosis. Subjects with evidence of hepatic steatosis were screened for mutations in MCAD and MTPalpha-subunit using DNA isolated from paraffin-embedded liver tissue, single-strand conformation variance, and nucleotide sequence analyses. Sixteen cases (7.3%) were associated with diffuse micro-vesicular or mixed micro- and macro-vesicular hepatic steatosis. Two of these 16 cases (12.5%) had disease-causing mutations. One was homozygous for the prevalent MCAD A985G mutation. The second was a compound heterozygous for the prevalent MTP G1528C mutation and a novel 1 bp deletion in exon 18 of the MTPalpha-subunit gene. A significant proportion (7.3%) of SID is associated with hepatic steatosis. The present data support post-mortem molecular analysis for the MCAD A985G and MTP G1528C prevalent mutations in cases of sudden and unexplained infant death associated with hepatic steatosis.

  17. Delayed Death from Complete Aortic Transection: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakda Sathirareuangchai, M.D.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Blunt chest trauma is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in road traffic accident. One of the life- threatening injuries is traumatic aortic injury. The authors reported a case of delayed death from blunt chest trauma in a young Thai male, who had a traffic accident 2 weeks prior to his death. The autopsy revealed complete transection of thoracic aorta at the isthmus and false aneurysm formation. The clinical findings and mechanism of traumatic aortic injury are reviewed. Traumatic aortic injury is a fatal blunt chest trauma in which the victims rarely survive to the hospital. Prompt diagnosis and early surgical treatment can decrease morbidity and mortality.

  18. Prevalence of deaths by suicide in the city of Constitution (Chile between the years 2001-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Antonio Navia González

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently, Chile has a suicide rate of 18.5 and 3.2 deaths for men and women, respectively, per 100,000 inhabitants. In this cumulative prevalence study we reviewed all autopsies performed at the Forensic Service of Constitución city in which the cause of death was suicide, in order to describe their evolution between 2001 and 2011. We recorded information about methods of suicide, age, gender, temporality, urban or rural, marital status, and toxicology. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The method by hanging was the most prevalent, accounting for 83.3% of suicides, occurring most often in the years 2007, 2008 and 2011, and showing increased seasonality in March, October, November and December, preferably in the 13 to 22 year-old age group and in unmarried men. Only 44.55% was associated with alcohol consumption. Hanging is still the most common method of suicide, and coincides with the global trend of child and adolescent suicide. The periods of greatest frequency coincide with brighter days, spring or holidays, in which mood disorders tend to increase. Interestingly, no significant relationship with alcohol intake was found, whereas the literature reports a strong relationship with suicide. It is noteworthy that after the earthquake-tsunami of February 2010, there was no significant increase in suicide rates. Overall, the data show a trend consistent with the rest of the country (Chile; however, Constitución deviates somewhat, possibly due to population-specific characteristics.

  19. Disseminated cryptococcosis and sudden death. Report of an autopsy case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappi, E; Zappi, M; Zugibe, F T

    1995-03-01

    We report a case of sudden death due to terminal cryptococcal pneumonia in a patient not suspected to have AIDS. The correct diagnosis was found only by microscopic examination and serologic workup, illustrating the hazards faced by forensic pathologists and their assistants working without adequate information about the bodies under study. This case illustrates the need for the highest levels of caution and compliance with universal precautionary measures during autopsy procedures in the present days of the AIDS epidemic.

  20. Sudden cardiac death with triple pathologies: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Razuin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sudden cardiac death in young adults may be associated with rare cardiomyopathies such as left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC and arrhythmogenic right ventricular (ARVC cardiomyopathies. LVNC is characterised by hypertrabeculations and deep recesses of the left ventricle. ARVC presents with thin myocardium as a result of extensive fibro-fatty infiltrations. In both conditions, death may be due to arrhythmia, thromboembolic events or heart failure. We report a case of a 21-year old athletic young man who collapsed at the futsal court right after the game. He was resuscitated but expired at the hospital after a brief admission. A week earlier, he had a similar episode of syncope and revived through cardio-pulmonary resuscitation at the site. Post mortem examination showed extensive acute myocardial infarction (AMI involving the papillary muscles and the left ventricular wall. Features of LVNC were also observed. On top of that, the right ventricle showed patchy thin myocardium as the wall was largely comprised of fat. Histology examination confirmed the presence of AMI and massive fibro-fatty infiltrations of the right ventricle. This unfortunate young man had co-existing cardiomyopathies which is rare indeed. As he succumbed to AMI, this mechanism of death is also uncommonly associated with neither LVNC nor ARVC. In conclusion, young and physically active individuals may not be spared of sudden cardiac death. Mild and non-specific symptoms should not be taken lightly as it may be the subtle signs of cardiomyopathies.

  1. Homicide and Suicide During the Perinatal Period: Findings from the National Violent Death Reporting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palladino, Christie Lancaster; Singh, Vijay; Campbell, Jacquelyn; Flynn, Heather; Gold, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    Objective Homicide and suicide are two important and potentially preventable causes of maternal injury. We analyzed data from the National Violent Death Reporting System to estimate the rates of pregnancy-associated homicide and suicide in a multi-state sample, to compare these rates with other causes of maternal mortality, and to describe victims’ demographic characteristics. Methods We analyzed data from female victims of reproductive age from 2003–2007. We identified pregnancy-associated violent deaths as deaths due to homicide or suicide during pregnancy or within the first year postpartum. We calculated the rates of pregnancy-associated homicide and suicide as the number of deaths per 100,000 live births in the sample population. We used descriptive statistics to report victims’ demographic characteristics and prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV). Results There were 94 counts of pregnancy-associated suicide and 139 counts of pregnancy-associated homicide, yielding pregnancy-associated suicide and homicide rates of 2.0 and 2.9 deaths/100,000 live births, respectively. Victims of pregnancy-associated suicide were significantly more likely to be older and of Caucasian or American Indian descent as compared to all live births in NVDRS states. Pregnancy-associated homicide victims were significantly more likely to be at the extremes of the age range and African American. 54.3% of pregnancy-associated suicides involved intimate partner conflict that appeared to contribute to the suicide. 45.3% of pregnancy-associated homicides were IPV-associated. Conclusions Our results indicate that pregnancy-associated homicide and suicide are important contributors to maternal mortality and confirm the need to evaluate the relationships between socio demographic disparities and IPV with pregnancy-associated violent death. PMID:22015873

  2. The prevalence of mutations in KCNQ1, KCNH2, and SCN5A in an unselected national cohort of young sudden unexplained death cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, Bo Gregers; Larsen, Maiken Kudahl; Berge, Knut Erik

    2012-01-01

    on novel mutations. RESULTS: In total, 5 of 44 cases (11%) carried a mutation in 1 of the 3 genes corresponding to 11% of all investigated cases (R190W KCNQ1, F29L KCNH2 (2 cases), P297S KCNH2 and P1177L SCN5A). P1177L SCN5A has not been reported before. In vitro electrophysiological studies of P1177L SCN5......INTRODUCTION: Sudden unexplained death account for one-third of all sudden natural deaths in the young (1-35 years). Hitherto, the prevalence of genopositive cases has primarily been based on deceased persons referred for postmortem genetic testing. These deaths potentially may represent the worst...... of cases, thus possibly overestimating the prevalence of potentially disease causing mutations in the 3 major long-QT syndrome (LQTS) genes in the general population. We therefore wanted to investigate the prevalence of mutations in an unselected population of sudden unexplained deaths in a nationwide...

  3. Mexico SimSmoke: how changes in tobacco control policies would impact smoking prevalence and smoking attributable deaths in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Nancy L; Thrasher, James F; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam; Cummings, K Michael; Meza, Rafael; Zhang, Yian; Levy, David T

    2017-07-01

    We examined the effect of tobacco control policies in Mexico on smoking prevalence and smoking-related deaths using the Mexico SimSmoke model. The model is based on the previously developed SimSmoke simulation model of tobacco control policy, and uses population size, smoking rates and tobacco control policy data for Mexico. It assesses, individually, and in combination, the effect of six tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and smoking-related deaths. Policies included: cigarette excise taxes, smoke-free laws, anti-smoking public education campaigns, marketing restrictions, access to tobacco cessation treatments and enforcement against tobacco sales youth. The model estimates that, if Mexico were to adopt strong tobacco control policies compared to current policy levels, smoking prevalence could be reduced by 30% in the next decade and by 50% by 2053; an additional 470,000 smoking-related premature deaths could be averted over the next 40 years. The greatest impact on smoking and smoking-related deaths would be achieved by raising excise taxes on cigarettes from 55% to at least 70% of the retail price, followed by strong youth access enforcement and access to cessation treatments. Implementing tobacco control policies in Mexico could reduce smoking prevalence by 50%, and prevent 470,000 smoking-related deaths by 2053.

  4. Symptom prevalence, intensity, and distress in patients with inoperable lung cancer in relation to time of death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tishelman, Carol; Petersson, Lena-Marie; Degner, Lesley F.; Sprangers, Mirjam A. G.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose To examine symptom prevalence, intensity, and association with distress in patients with inoperable lung cancer (LC), using time to death as point of reference. Patients and Methods A consecutive sample of 400 patients completed the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer

  5. Under reporting of dementia deaths on death certificates: a systematic review of population-based cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Juan Pablo; Benito-León, Julián; Louis, Elan D; Bermejo-Pareja, Félix

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to assess the extent to which dementia is omitted as a cause of death from the death certificates of patients with dementia. A systematic literature search was performed to identify population-based cohort studies in which all participants were examined or screened for symptoms of dementia with a validated instrument followed by confirmation of any suspected cases with a clinical examination (two-phase investigation). Data were extracted in a standardized manner and assessed through the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) initiative. Seven studies met the selection criteria. These were from the Americas (5 articles: 2 from Canada, 2 from the US, and 1 from Brazil) and Europe (2 articles: 1 from the UK and 1 from Spain). Each met at least 83% of the STROBE criteria. The reporting of dementia on death certificates was poor in these 7 studies, ranging from 7.2%-41.8%. Respiratory or circulatory-related problems were the most frequently reported causes of death among people who were demented but who were not reported as demented on death certificates. The use of death certificates for studying dementia grossly underestimates the occurrence of dementia in the population. The poor reporting of dementia on these certificates suggests a lack of awareness of the importance of dementia as a cause of death among medical personnel. There is an urgent need to provide better education on the importance of codification of dementia on death certificates in order to minimize errors in epidemiological studies on dementia.

  6. Female autoerotic deaths--still often overlooked: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvageau, Anny; Racette, Stéphanie

    2006-10-01

    Female autoerotic deaths are less common than male ones and usually present in a less obvious way. Thus, such deaths can be easily overlooked, even by senior investigators, if the latter are not fully aware of the particularities of female autoerotic cases. We present the case of a 34-year-old woman, found dead in her apartment, with several foreign body insertions and a dog leash around the neck. Despite the great experience of the investigative team, autoerotic death was not considered at first. This case illustrates the importance of forensic teams having knowledge of the particularities of female autoerotic deaths.

  7. Confounding factors in diagnosing brain death: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Login Ivan S

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brain death is strictly defined medically and legally. This diagnosis depends on three cardinal neurological features: coma, absent brainstem reflexes, and apnea. The diagnosis can only be made, however, in the absence of intoxication, hypothermia, or certain medical illnesses. Case presentation A patient with severe hypoxic-ischemic brain injury met the three cardinal neurological features of brain death but concurrent profound hypothyroidism precluded the diagnosis. Our clinical and ethical decisions were further challenged by another facet of this complex case. Although her brain damage indicated a hopeless prognosis, we could not discontinue care based on futility because the only known surrogate was mentally retarded and unable to participate in medical planning. Conclusion The presence of certain medical conditions prohibits a diagnosis of brain death, which is a medicolegal diagnosis of death, not a prediction or forecast of future outcome. While prognostication is important in deciding to withdraw care, it is not a component in diagnosing brain death.

  8. Proxy reporting in after-death interviews: the use of proxy respondents in retrospective assessment of chronic diseases and symptom burden in the terminal phase of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klinkenberg, M.; Smit, J. H.; Deeg, D. J. H.; Willems, D. L.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B. D.; van der Wal, G.

    2003-01-01

    This study evaluates the quality of data obtained from after-death interviews with significant others of deceased older persons regarding the prevalence of chronic diseases and symptoms in the terminal phase of life. These data are compared with reports from physicians and earlier self-reports from

  9. Discordance in investigator-reported and adjudicated sudden death in TIOSPIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Wise

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Accurate and consistent determination of cause of death is challenging in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients. TIOSPIR (N=17 135 compared the safety and efficacy of tiotropium Respimat 5/2.5 µg with HandiHaler 18 µg in COPD patients. All-cause mortality was a primary end-point. A mortality adjudication committee (MAC assessed all deaths. We aimed to investigate causes of discordance in investigator-reported and MAC-adjudicated causes of death and their impact on results, especially cardiac and sudden death. The MAC provided independent, blinded assessment of investigator-reported deaths (n=1302 and assigned underlying cause of death. Discordance between causes of death was assessed descriptively (shift tables. There was agreement between investigator-reported and MAC-adjudicated deaths in 69.4% of cases at the system organ class level. Differences were mainly observed for cardiac deaths (16.4% investigator, 5.1% MAC and deaths assigned to general disorders including sudden death (17.4% investigator, 24.6% MAC. Reasons for discrepancies included investigator attribution to the immediate (e.g. myocardial infarction (MI over the underlying cause of death (e.g. COPD and insufficient information for a definitive cause. Cause-specific mortality varies in COPD, depending on the method of assignment. Sudden death, witnessed and unwitnessed, is common in COPD and often attributed to MI without supporting evidence.

  10. Prevalence of self reported musculoskeletal diseases is high

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.S.J. Picavet (Susan); J.M.W. Hazes (Mieke)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVES: To present the prevalence of self reported musculoskeletal diseases, the coexistence of these diseases, the test-retest reliability with six months in between, and the association with musculoskeletal pain symptoms. METHODS: Twelve layman descriptions of

  11. Firearm suicide among veterans in the general population: findings from the national violent death reporting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Mark S; McFarland, Bentson H; Huguet, Nathalie

    2009-09-01

    Military veterans are particularly vulnerable to suicide compared with their civilian peers. Scant attention has been devoted to the problem of firearm suicide among veterans, particularly women. The purpose of this study was to examine the rate, prevalence, and relative odds of firearm use among veteran suicide decedents in the general population. The analyses are based on data derived from 28,534 suicide decedents from the 2003 to 2006 National Violent Death Reporting System. Across the age groups, male and female veterans had higher firearm suicide rates than nonveterans. Among males and females, younger veterans (18-34 years) had the highest firearm and total suicide rates. The male and female veteran suicide decedents were, respectively, 1.3 and 1.6 times more likely to use firearms relative to nonveterans after adjusting for age, marital status, race, and region of residence. Although violent death and the use of firearms are generally associated with men, the results reported here suggest that firearms among female veterans deserve particular attention among health professionals within and outside the veterans affairs system. In addition, the focus should not be exclusively on the Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom military cohort but also on men and women who served in earlier combat theaters, including the Gulf war, Vietnam Era, Korean Conflict, and World War II.

  12. Reported Causes of Death of Captive Killer Whales (Orcinus orca)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ridgway, Sam H

    1979-01-01

    Inquiries were made of the six major oceanaria in North America that maintain killer whales to determine sex, date of capture or acquisition, length and weight at acquisition, date of death, length...

  13. Prevalence and characteristics of opioid-related deaths involving alcohol in Ontario, Canada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomes, Tara; Juurlink, David N.; Mamdani, Muhammad M.; Paterson, J. Michael; van den Brink, Wim

    2017-01-01

    Background: While it is well known that patients receiving opioids should refrain from alcohol consumption, little is known about the involvement of alcohol in opioid-related deaths. Methods: We conducted a population-based analysis of opioid-related deaths in Ontario with and without alcohol

  14. The meaning of self-reported death anxiety in advanced cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Eryn; Deckert, Amy; Gani, Nina; Nissim, Rinat; Rydall, Anne; Hales, Sarah; Rodin, Gary; Lo, Chris

    2016-09-01

    Death anxiety is important but understudied in palliative care. New self-report measurements have been developed, but their interpretation and clinical utility may not be evident. To inform our understanding of death anxiety in patients with advanced cancer by exploring the relationship between this self-reported symptom and its clinical presentation. Participants were part of a psychotherapy trial in advanced cancer. First therapy session transcripts were analyzed using interpretive description in patients reporting low, moderate, and high death anxiety on the Death and Dying Distress Scale (DADDS). A total of 16 participants (10 women and 6 men) with advanced or metastatic cancer were sampled from the Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Canada. Six participants reported low death anxiety scores (Death and Dying Distress Scale: 0-19), five moderate (Death and Dying Distress Scale: 20-50), and five high (Death and Dying Distress Scale: 51-75). The low death anxiety group exhibited psychological readiness for death, or contrastingly, non-reflectiveness about death. The moderate group recognized the imminence of mortality, which impacted treatment decisions and future plans. Prior experience with death was discussed as raising the salience of mortality. The high group felt dominated by powerful emotions and could not make sense of their situation. Their distress was exacerbated by substantial relational concerns. Self-reported death anxiety is affected by the awareness and ability to reflect on mortality. Death and Dying Distress Scale scores may facilitate exploration of this symptom as part of a clinical assessment and may serve to guide treatment approaches. Greater attention to death anxiety is consistent with and recommended by contemporary approaches to palliative care. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Comparison of Prevalence- and Smoking Impact Ratio-Based Methods of Estimating Smoking-Attributable Fractions of Deaths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung Ae Kong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking is a major modifiable risk factor for premature mortality. Estimating the smoking-attributable burden is important for public health policy. Typically, prevalence- or smoking impact ratio (SIR-based methods are used to derive estimates, but there is controversy over which method is more appropriate for country-specific estimates. We compared smoking-attributable fractions (SAFs of deaths estimated by these two methods. Methods: To estimate SAFs in 2012, we used several different prevalence-based approaches using no lag and 10- and 20-year lags. For the SIR-based method, we obtained lung cancer mortality rates from the Korean Cancer Prevention Study (KCPS and from the United States-based Cancer Prevention Study-II (CPS-II. The relative risks for the diseases associated with smoking were also obtained from these cohort studies. Results: For males, SAFs obtained using KCPS-derived SIRs were similar to those obtained using prevalence-based methods. For females, SAFs obtained using KCPS-derived SIRs were markedly greater than all prevalence-based SAFs. Differences in prevalence-based SAFs by time-lag period were minimal among males, but SAFs obtained using longer-lagged prevalence periods were significantly larger among females. SAFs obtained using CPS-II-based SIRs were lower than KCPS-based SAFs by >15 percentage points for most diseases, with the exceptions of lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Conclusions: SAFs obtained using prevalence- and SIR-based methods were similar for males. However, neither prevalence-based nor SIR-based methods resulted in precise SAFs among females. The characteristics of the study population should be carefully considered when choosing a method to estimate SAF.

  16. Case Report: Early Neonatal Death Due To Liver Rupture Caused ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An early neonatal death due to liver to liver rupture caused by maternal abdominal manipulation and massage is presented. An apparently health baby girl was born to 26 years old primigravida who came in the second state of labour and deliver of her baby within eight minutes of arrival to the labour ward. Her labour lasted ...

  17. Citation bias in reported smoking prevalence in people with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Simon; Ragg, Mark; McGeechan, Kevin

    2009-03-01

    A meta-analysis of 42 studies on tobacco smoking among schizophrenia subjects found an average smoking prevalence of 62% (range=14-88%). Statements are common, however, in the research literature and the media that between 80% and 90% of people with schizophrenia smoke. The purpose of the present paper was therefore to determine if citation bias exists in the over-citation and reportage of studies finding high rates of smoking prevalence in schizophrenia subjects. Two hypotheses were tested: (i) that studies on the prevalence of smoking in people with schizophrenia reporting high smoking rates would be cited more often than studies reporting lower rates; and (ii) that statements about smoking rates among schizophrenic people on the Internet would report very high rates more often than more realistic, less dramatic rates. A 10% increase in reported prevalence of smoking was associated with a 61% (95% confidence interval (CI)=30-98%) increase in citation rate. Journal impact factor (IF) was significantly associated with citation rate (p=0.001) but the country in which a study was carried out did not have an effect (p=0.90). After adjusting for IF, a 10% increase in prevalence of smoking was associated with a 28% increase (95%CI=1-62%) in citation rate. This bias is mirrored on the Internet, where statements abound about uncommonly highly rates of smoking by people with schizophrenia. Studies reporting very high prevalence of smoking among people with schizophrenia are cited more often than those studies reporting a low prevalence, a result consistent with citation bias. This citation bias probably contributes to the misinformation available on the Internet, and may have adverse policy and clinical implications.

  18. 20 CFR 10.414 - What reports of dependents are needed in death cases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What reports of dependents are needed in death cases? 10.414 Section 10.414 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS...' COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED Compensation and Related Benefits Compensation for Death § 10.414 What reports of...

  19. Effects of tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and tobacco-attributable deaths in Mexico: the SimSmoke model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Myriam Reynales-Shigematsu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine how policies adopted in Mexico in response to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control affected smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths. METHODS: The SimSmoke simulation model of tobacco control policy is applied to Mexico. This discrete time, first-order Markov model uses data on population size, smoking rates and tobacco control policy for Mexico. It assesses, individually and jointly, the effects of seven types of policies: cigarette taxes, smoke-free air laws, mass media campaigns, advertising bans, warning labels, cessation treatment, and youth tobacco access policies. RESULTS: The Mexico SimSmoke model estimates that smoking rates have been reduced by about 30% as a result of policies implemented since 2002, and that the number of smoking-attributable deaths will have been reduced by about 826 000 by 2053. Increases in cigarette prices are responsible for over 60% of the reductions, but health warnings, smoke-free air laws, marketing restrictions and cessation treatments also play important roles. CONCLUSIONS: Mexico has shown steady progress towards reducing smoking prevalence in a short period of time, as have other Latin American countries, such as Brazil, Panama and Uruguay. Tobacco control policies play an important role in continued efforts to reduce tobacco use and associated deaths in Mexico.

  20. Reporting a sudden death due to accidental gasoline inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, María Antonia; Ballesteros, Salomé; Alcaraz, Rafael

    2012-02-10

    The investigation of uncertain fatalities requires accurate determination of the cause of death, with assessment of all factors that may have contributed to it. Gasoline is a complex and highly variable mixture of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons that can lead to cardiac arrhythmias due to sensitization of the myocardium to catecholamines or acts as a simple asphyxiant if the vapors displace sufficient oxygen from the breathing atmosphere. This work describes a sudden occupational fatality involving gasoline. The importance of this petroleum distillate detection and its quantitative toxicological significance is discussed using a validated analytical method. A 51 year-old Caucasian healthy man without significant medical history was supervising the repairs of the telephone lines in a manhole near to a gas station. He died suddenly after inhaling gasoline vapors from an accidental leak. Extensive blistering and peeling of skin were observed on the skin of the face, neck, anterior chest, upper and lower extremities, and back. The internal examination showed a strong odor of gasoline, specially detected in the respiratory tract. The toxicological screening and quantitation of gasoline was performed by means of gas chromatography with flame ionization detector and confirmation was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Disposition of gasoline in different tissues was as follows: heart blood, 35.7 mg/L; urine, not detected; vitreous humor, 1.9 mg/L; liver, 194.7 mg/kg; lung, 147.6 mg/kg; and gastric content, 116,6 mg/L (2.7 mg total). Based upon the toxicological data along with the autopsy findings, the cause of death was determined to be gasoline poisoning and the manner of death was accidental. We would like to alert on the importance of testing for gasoline, and in general for volatile hydrocarbons, in work-related sudden deaths involving inhalation of hydrocarbon vapors and/or exhaust fumes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights

  1. Some questions about brain death: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, Ari R; Anton, Natalie R

    2007-10-01

    A 13-year-old girl had an anaphylactic cardiac arrest with 45 minutes of resuscitation. After rewarming on day 3, a first examination was compatible with brain death, including an apnea test. Shortly thereafter, a stimulus to the trapezius muscle above the clavicles resulted in bilateral lower-limb withdrawal. A subsequent examination by another intensivist found, during vestibulo-ocular testing, bilateral lower-limb withdrawal. A radionuclide cerebral blood-flow test indicated no intracranial flow, and a computed tomography scan indicated diffuse severe cerebral edema. After these tests, stimulus to the trapezius muscle resulted in bilateral lower-limb extensor posturing. The next day, on repeated examination, the patient no longer had any response to stimulus, and was declared brain dead. This case raised two questions. Why should an intermittent lower-limb withdrawal response to supraclavicular stimulus be a more critical brain function, precluding a diagnosis of brain death (indicating that the patient has not lost integrative unity of the organism), than all other clinical and radiological findings? Was the withdrawal response of spinal origin or brainstem origin? How one chooses to interpret the withdrawal of lower limbs elicited by supraclavicular stimulus directly determines whether the patient in this case was dead.

  2. Prevalence, awareness and reporting of symptoms of obstructive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Obstructive sleep apnoea is the most common form of sleep- disordered breathing in adults and children. It is associated with many adverse health consequences. The objectives this study were to determine the prevalence, awareness and reporting of symptoms of obstructive sleep apnoea among hospitalized ...

  3. Prevalence and gender difference in self-reported depressive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Encounter with depressive symptoms is one of the reasons why university students visit university counselling centres. This study sought to examine the present prevalence of depression among university students as well as gender dissimilarity in self-reported depression. 550 (male-46; female-306) randomly selected ...

  4. Prevalence of self-reported hypertension and diabetes and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of self-reported hypertension and diabetes and associated risk factors among university employees in Jos, Nigeria. ... Concerted efforts to implement NCD prevention measures will serve to reduce the high burden of NCDs. Keywords: Non-communicable disease, Diabetes mellitus, Hypertension, Lifestyle, risk ...

  5. Prevalence and perception of self reported dentine hypersensivity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To determine by questionnaire the prevalence and perception of DH in general dentate populations in south western Nigeria. Study Design: A descriptive study of self reported dentine hypersensitivity among dentate populations selected by multistage sampling technique in south western Nigeria. Subjects and ...

  6. Prevalence of estimated GFR reporting among US clinical laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accetta, Nancy A; Gladstone, Elisa H; DiSogra, Charles; Wright, Elizabeth C; Briggs, Michael; Narva, Andrew S

    2008-10-01

    Routine laboratory reporting of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) may help clinicians detect kidney disease. The current national prevalence of eGFR reporting in clinical laboratories is unknown; thus, the extent of the situation of laboratories not routinely reporting eGFR with serum creatinine results is not quantified. Observational analysis. National Kidney Disease Education Program survey of clinical laboratories conducted in 2006 to 2007 by mail, web, and telephone follow-up. A national random sample, 6,350 clinical laboratories, drawn from the Federal Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments database and stratified by 6 major laboratory types/groupings. Laboratory reports serum creatinine results. Reporting eGFR values with serum creatinine results. Percentage of laboratories reporting eGFR along with reporting serum creatinine values, reporting protocol, eGFR formula used, and style of reporting cutoff values. Of laboratories reporting serum creatinine values, 38.4% report eGFR (physician offices, 25.8%; hospitals, 43.6%; independents, 38.9%; community clinics, 47.2%; health fair/insurance/public health, 45.5%; and others, 43.2%). Physician office laboratories have a reporting prevalence lower than other laboratory types (P laboratories reporting eGFR, 66.7% do so routinely with all adult serum creatinine determinations; 71.6% use the 4-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study equation; and 45.3% use the ">60 mL/min/1.73 m(2)" reporting convention. Independent laboratories are least likely to routinely report eGFR (50.6%; P laboratories across all strata are more likely to report eGFR (P laboratories, federal database did not have names of laboratory directors/managers (intended respondents), assumed accuracy of federal database for sample purposes. Routine eGFR reporting with serum creatinine values is not yet universal, and laboratories vary in their reporting practices.

  7. 16 CFR 1115.6 - Reporting of unreasonable risk of serious injury or death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... term includes not only the concept of “grievous bodily injury,” defined at § 1115.12(d), but also any... injury or death. 1115.6 Section 1115.6 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER... Reporting of unreasonable risk of serious injury or death. (a) General provision. Every manufacturer...

  8. Death of a Neonate With a Negative Autopsy and Ketoacidosis: A Case Report of Propionic Acidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krizova, Adriana; Herath, Jayantha C

    2015-09-01

    Facing a sudden neonatal death in the forensic setting brings to mind enormous differential diagnostic possibilities. This case report demonstrates that at times, when no anatomical cause of death is apparent after a postmortem examination, ancillary testing can lead to diagnosis. In this case, ancillary testing showed ketosis and further workup showed presence of propionic acidemia in a 3-day-old neonate.

  9. Child Maltreatment Fatalities in Children under 5: Findings from the National Violence Death Reporting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klevens, Joanne; Leeb, Rebecca T.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To describe the distribution of child maltreatment fatalities of children under 5 by age, sex, race/ethnicity, type of maltreatment, and relationship to alleged perpetrator using data from the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS). Study design: Two independent coders reviewed information from death certificates, medical…

  10. Tuberculosis Case Fatality and Other Causes of Death among Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Patients in a High HIV Prevalence Setting, 2000-2008, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    van der Walt, Martie; Lancaster, Joey; Shean, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction South Africa has the highest reported rates of multi-drug resistant TB in Africa, typified by poor treatment outcomes, attributable mainly to high default and death rates. Concomitant HIV has become the strongest predictor of death among MDR-TB patients, while anti-retroviral therapy (ART) has dramatically reduced mortality. TB Case fatality rate (CFR) is an indicator that specifically reports on deaths due to TB. Aim The aim of this paper was to investigate causes of death among...

  11. [Diabetes mellitus in Spain: death rates, prevalence, impact, costs and inequalities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Ramos, Miguel; Escolar-Pujolar, Antonio; Mayoral-Sánchez, Eduardo; Corral-San Laureano, Florentino; Fernández-Fernández, Isabel

    2006-03-01

    Describing the situation of diabetes mellitus (DM) in Spain from a public health perspective. manual review of books and other documents on diabetes mellitus in Spain was conducted. In addition, a specific research of articles published using MeSH terms diabetes mortality, prevalence, incidence, cost, inequalities and Spain was conducted in Medline through Internet (PubMed). Minimun Basic Data Set was utilized as source for complication description by Communities Autonomus. DM is one of the leading cause of mortality and the third one in women. With regard to Autonomous Communities, Canary Islands, Ceuta y Melilla and Andalusia show the greatest mortality with a downward trend. Diabetics present greater mortality than non diabetic patients, being complications the main cause of the over-mortality, especially ischemic heart disease. Estimations of prevalence for DM2 range from 4.8% to 18.7% and for DM1, from .08% to .2%. In pregnancy, it has been noted a prevalence ranging from 4.5% to 16.1%. With respect to incidence per year, it is estimated a range from 146 to 820 per 100,000 inhabitants for DM2 and a range from 10 to 17 new cases annually per 100,000 inhabitants for DM1. Costs for DM1 show very different results, averaging between 1,262 and 3,311 euro per people and year. There are differences for DM2 costs as well, averaging between 381 and 2,560 euro per patient and year. Total costs estimated range from 758 to 4,348 euro per person and year. Relationship between a low socioeconomic level (LSL) and DM2 risk has been proved. Moreover, it has been noted that the less LSL the worse is the disease control, coupled with a greater frequency and more frequent factors of DM2 risk. The knowledge about the situation of the DM as a Public Health problem in Spain is limited. Mortality data available does not gather its real magnitude, and prevalence, incidence, costs and inequalities research are very poor and hardly comparable. In spite of this degree of incertitude, we

  12. Intrauterine fetal death due to Farber disease: case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lijnschoten, G.; Groener, J. E.; maas, S. M.; Ben-Yoseph, Y.; Dingemans, K. P.; Offerhaus, G. J.

    2000-01-01

    We report a case of Farber disease in a fetus who died in utero at a gestational age of 29 weeks. Macroscopic examination showed moderate postmortem changes in a microcephalic female fetus (46,XX) with mild internal hydrops, two vessels in the umbilical cord, and a moderately enlarged, relatively

  13. Preliminary report: medical examiner reports of deaths associated with Hurricane Andrew--Florida, August 1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-04

    On August 24, 1992, at 1:40 a.m. eastern daylight time (EDT), rain bands associated with Hurricane Andrew reached the eastern coast of Florida. At 4:45 a.m. EDT, Hurricane Andrew made landfall 35 miles southeast of Miami at Homestead, with sustained winds of 145 miles per hour (mph) and gusts of 164 mph. These winds extended 45 miles outward of the storm center. The storm moved across the state at 18 mph toward the Gulf of Mexico (Figure 1). The tidal surge on the eastern coast was estimated at 7-19 feet. During the storm, approximately 2.5 million Florida residents were left without electrical power, and approximately 56,000 family dwelling units were destroyed or severely damaged. This report presents preliminary data from Florida medical examiner (ME) offices about deaths attributed to Hurricane Andrew.

  14. Consistency between education reported in health survey and recorded in death certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khang, Young-Ho; Kim, Hye Ryun; Lynch, John W

    2007-10-18

    Education level is one indicator of socioeconomic position which, in several countries including South Korea, is provided though death certificate data. Its validity determines the usefulness of death certificate data for exploring the association between socioeconomic position and mortality. This study was to compare education recorded on the death certificate with that reported before death in a nationally representative cohort of participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The 1998/2001 NHANES data contained unique 13-digit personal identification numbers that were individually linked to death certificate data from the Korean National Statistical Office. Duration of mortality follow-up was 7.1 years. The data from 513 deaths were used to determine sensitivity and specificity of education in death certificate and estimate agreement rates of education level between NHANES data and death certificate data. Odds ratios for agreement in education were also estimated. Covariates considered in the analyses were gender, age, duration between NHANES and death, and cause of death. The proportion of deaths without recorded education in death certificate was very low (0.2%). A total of 29.4% discordant pairs were found. Sensitivity and specificity for college or higher education were 0.84 (95% confidence interval 0.71-0.97) and 0.99 (0.98-1.00). However, sensitivity was poor for middle school education. The overall agreement rate was 70.7% (66.8%-74.6%) when education was categorized into five groups and increased up to 88.9% (86.2%-91.6%) when three education categories were used. The magnitude of validity and reliability for education did not generally vary with age, duration between health survey and death, and cause of death. However, a significantly smaller likelihood of agreement was found for middle and elementary school education after adjusting for covariates. Low percentage of missing information on education in South Korean death

  15. Sudden unexplained death in childhood. An audit of the quality of Autopsy reporting

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Treacy, A

    2013-03-01

    Cases of sudden unexplained death in childhood (SUDC) in Ireland in children aged >1year and <5 years were examined in order to assess the quality of autopsy reporting. All SUDC cases are notified to and documented by the National Sudden Infant Death Register (NSIDR) in Ireland along with all cases of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) referring to sudden infant deaths less than one year of age. The database of the NSIDR in Ireland was interrogated and cases of SIDS and SUDC were compared over a fifteen-year period (1995-2009). SIDS cases whose autopsies were conducted in the same hospital in the same year as the index SUDC case were used for comparison. The autopsy report for each case was examined and modified Rushton(MR) scores 1\\r\

  16. How reliable is reported sleeping position in cases of unexpected infant death?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byard, Roger W; Jensen, Lisbeth L

    2008-09-01

    Examination of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) deaths in South Australia over a 7-year period from 2000 to 2006 was undertaken. There were 32 out of 35 cases where details of position when found were known. The data confirmed a marked decline in deaths in the prone position over the past decade, but showed no significant decline in cases reportedly found dead in the supine position. Posterior lividity was present in most cases (n = 30), 10 of whom also had anterior lividity. Posterior lividity was attributable either to the position of the body after death or to the effect of supine postmortem storage. In six cases, however, fixed anterior lividity indicated that death had occurred in the prone position despite statements that the infants had been found on the side (n = 1) and in the supine position (n = 5). This contradiction indicates that caregivers' descriptions of terminal sleeping positions may not be supported by autopsy findings. The numbers of SIDS deaths reported in the supine position in South Australia may not, therefore, represent a genuine tally, but instead may be a function of inaccurate reporting. This may act as a confounding factor in studies attempting to link sleeping position with other risk factors.

  17. Acute alcohol intoxication and suicide: a gender-stratified analysis of the National Violent Death Reporting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Mark S; McFarland, Bentson H; Huguet, Nathalie; Conner, Kenneth; Caetano, Raul; Giesbrecht, Norman; Nolte, Kurt B

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Although it is well known that people with alcohol dependence are at a markedly elevated risk for suicide, much less is known about the role of acute alcohol use in suicidal behaviours. The primary aims of this epidemiological study were to assess the prevalence and factors associated with acute alcohol intoxication among 57 813 suicide decedents in 16 states. Methods Data from the restricted National Violent Death Reporting System 2003–2009 for male and female suicide decedents aged 18 years and older were analysed by multiple logistic regression to compare decedents with and without acute alcohol intoxication (defined as blood alcohol concentration (BAC) ≥0.08 g/dl). Results Among men, those who were younger, American Indian/Alaska Native, Hispanic, veterans, of lower educational attainment, deceased from a self-inflicted firearm injury or hanging/suffocation and residing in rural areas were more likely to have been intoxicated at the time of death. Among women, the factors associated with a BAC ≥0.08 g/dl were younger age, being American Indian/Alaska Native, and using a firearm, hanging/suffocation or falling as method of death. Conclusions In both men and women, alcohol intoxication was associated with violent methods of suicide and declined markedly with age, suggesting that addressing risks associated with acute alcohol use may be of the greatest aid in the prevention of violent suicides among young and middle age adults. PMID:22627777

  18. 'Natural' and 'Unnatural' medical deaths and coronial law: A UK and international review of the medical literature on natural and unnatural death and how it applies to medical death certification and reporting deaths to coroners: Natural/Unnatural death: A Scientific Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Andrew

    2017-07-01

    In the United Kingdom, when people die, either a doctor writes an acceptable natural cause of death medical certificate, or a coroner (fiscal in Scotland) investigates the case, usually with an autopsy. An inquest may or may not follow. The concept of 'natural or unnatural cause' death is not internationally standardized. This article reviews scientific evidence as to what is a natural death or unnatural death and how that relates to the international classification of deaths. Whilst there is some consensus on the definition, its application in considering whether to report to the coroner is more difficult. Depictions of deaths in terminal care, medical emergencies and post-operative care highlight these difficulties. It secondly reviews to what extent natural and unnatural are criteria for notification of deaths in England and Wales and internationally. It concludes with consideration of how medical concepts of unnatural death relate in England and Wales to coroners' legal concepts of what is unnatural. Deaths that appear natural to clinicians and pathologists may be legally unnatural and vice versa. It is argued that the natural/unnatural dichotomy is not a good criterion for reporting deaths under medical care to coroners, but the notification of a medical cause of death, using the International Classification of Disease Codes and the medical professional view as to whether it is scientifically natural, is of great value to the coroner in deciding whether it is legally unnatural.

  19. High prevalence of self-reported photophobia in adult ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise eBijlenga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Many adult outpatients with ADHD report an oversensitivity to light. We explored the link between ADHD and photophobia in an online survey (N=494. Self-reported photophobia was prevalent in 69% of respondents with, and in 28% of respondents without, ADHD (symptoms. The ADHD (symptoms group wore sunglasses longer during daytime in all seasons. Photophobia may be related to the functioning of the eyes, which mediate dopamine and melatonin production systems in the eye. In the brain, dopamine and melatonin are involved in both ADHD and circadian rhythm disturbances. Possibly, the regulation of the dopamine and melatonin systems in the eyes and in the brain are related. Despite the study’s limitations, the results are encouraging for further study on the pathophysiology of ADHD, eye functioning, and circadian rhythm disturbances.

  20. A review of design and reporting issues in self-reported prevalence studies of leg ulceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, Jill; Nelson, Elizabeth Andrea; Hale, Claire; Hill, Jacqueline; Helliwell, Philip

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this review was to examine design and reporting issues that affect prevalence estimates of leg ulceration obtained using self-report and outline strategies to strengthen the validity and reliability of research in this area. We identified leg ulcer prevalence studies and evaluated them against the STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology) statement. The authors draw upon the wider literature and their own empirical work in discussing strategies to overcome design and reporting issues. Common deficiencies in the design and reporting of studies include wide variations in diagnostic criteria and age parameters for participant selection, a lack of description of efforts to address bias/study size rationale, and low participation rates in clinical examination stages. These factors and differences in statistical methods of analysis affect the validity and reliability of findings and hinder interpretation, making comparisons across populations difficult. Opportunities for subgroup analyses are frequently missed. Self-report is a valuable means of capturing leg ulcer prevalence, but the future design and reporting of studies need to be strengthened, including addressing weaknesses in validation strategies. Capture-recapture analysis or a multiple-methods approach has the potential to yield the most valid and reliable prevalence estimates. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Analysis of self-reported versus biomarker based smoking prevalence: methodology to compute corrected smoking prevalence rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ram B

    2017-07-01

    Prevalence of smoking is needed to estimate the need for future public health resources. To compute and compare smoking prevalence rates by using self-reported smoking statuses, two serum cotinine (SCOT) based biomarker methods, and one urinary 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) based biomarker method. These estimates were then used to develop correction factors to be applicable to self-reported prevalences to arrive at corrected smoking prevalence rates. Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for 2007-2012 for those aged ≥20 years (N = 16826) were used. Self-reported prevalence rate for the total population computed as the weighted number of self-reported smokers divided by weighted number of all participants was 21.6% and 24% when computed by weighted number of self-reported smokers divided by the weighted number of self-reported smokers and nonsmokers. The corrected prevalence rate was found to be 25.8%. A 1% underestimate in smoking prevalence is equivalent to not being able to identify 2.2 million smokers in US in a given year. This underestimation, if not corrected, could lead to serious gap in the public health services available and needed to provide adequate preventive and corrective treatment to smokers.

  2. Child maltreatment fatalities in children under 5: Findings from the National Violence Death Reporting System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klevens, Joanne; Leeb, Rebecca T

    2010-04-01

    To describe the distribution of child maltreatment fatalities of children under 5 by age, sex, race/ethnicity, type of maltreatment, and relationship to alleged perpetrator using data from the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS). Two independent coders reviewed information from death certificates, medical examiner and police reports corresponding to all deaths in children less than 5 years of age reported to NVDRS in 16 states. Of the 1,374 deaths for children under 5 reported to NVDRS, 600 were considered attributable to child maltreatment. Over a half of the 600 victims of child maltreatment in this age group were under 1 year old, 59% were male, 42% non-Hispanic Whites, and 38% were non-Hispanic Blacks. Two thirds of child maltreatment fatalities in children under 5 were classified as being due to abusive head trauma (AHT), 27.5% as other types of physical abuse, and 10% as neglect. Based on these data, fathers or their substitutes were significantly more likely than mothers to be identified as alleged perpetrators for AHT and other types of physical abuse, while mothers were more likely to be assigned responsibility for neglect. Among children under 5 years, children under 1 are the main age group contributing to child maltreatment fatalities in the NVDRS. AHT is the main cause of death in these data. These findings are limited by underascertainment of cases and fair inter-rater reliability of coding. The findings suggest the need to develop and evaluate interventions targeting AHT to reduce the overall number of child maltreatment deaths in young children. These interventions should make special efforts to include fathers and their substitutes. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Identifying temporal variation in reported births, deaths and movements of cattle in Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christley Rob M

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The accuracy of predicting disease occurrence using epidemic models relies on an understanding of the system or population under investigation. At the time of the Foot and Mouth disease (FMD outbreak of 2001, there were limited reports in the literature as to the cattle population structure in Britain. In this paper we examine the temporal patterns of cattle births, deaths, imports and movements occurring within Britain, reported to the Department for the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA through the British Cattle Movement service (BCMS during the period 1st January 2002 to 28th February 2005. Results In Britain, the number of reported cattle births exhibit strong seasonality characterised by a large spring peak followed by a smaller autumn peak. Other event types also exhibit strong seasonal trends; both the reported number of cattle slaughtered and "on-farm" cattle deaths increase during the final part of the year. After allowing for seasonal components by smoothing the data, we illustrate that there is very little remaining non-seasonal trend in the number of cattle births, "on-farm" deaths, slaughterhouse deaths, on- and off-movements. However after allowing for seasonal fluctuations the number of cattle imports has been decreasing since 2002. Reporting of movements, births and deaths was more frequent on certain days of the week. For instance, greater numbers of cattle were slaughtered on Tuesdays, Wednesdays and Thursdays. Evidence for digit preference was found in the reporting of births and "on-farm" deaths with particular bias towards over reporting on the 1st, 10th and 20th of each month. Conclusion This study provides insight into the population and movement dynamics of the British cattle population. Although the population is in constant flux, seasonal and long term trends can be identified in the number of reported births, deaths and movements of cattle. Incorporating this temporal variation in epidemic

  4. Can Statewide Emergency Department, Hospital Discharge, and Violent Death Reporting System Data Be Used to Monitor Burden of Firearm-Related Injury and Death in Rhode Island?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yongwen; Ranney, Megan L; Sullivan, Brian; Hilliard, Dennis; Viner-Brown, Samara; Alexander-Scott, Nicole

    2018-03-07

    National data on the epidemiology of firearm injuries and circumstances of firearm deaths are difficult to obtain and often are nonreliable. Since firearm injury and death rates and causes can vary substantially between states, it is critical to consider state-specific data sources. In this study, we illustrate how states can systematically examine demographic characteristics, firearm information, type of wound, toxicology tests, precipitating circumstances, and costs to provide a comprehensive picture of firearm injuries and deaths using data sets from a single state with relatively low rates of firearm injury and death. Cross-sectional study. Firearm-related injury data for the period 2005-2014 were obtained from the Rhode Island emergency department and hospital discharge data sets; death data for the same period were obtained from the Rhode Island Violent Death Reporting System. Descriptive statistics were used. Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project cost-to-charge ratios were used to convert total hospital charges to costs. Most firearm-related emergency department visits (55.8%) and hospital discharges (79.2%) in Rhode Island were from assaults; however, most firearm-related deaths were suicides (60.1%). The annual cost of firearm-related hospitalizations was more than $830 000. Most decedents who died because of firearms tested positive for illicit substances. Nearly a quarter (23.5%) of firearm-related homicides were due to a conflict between the decedent and suspect. More than half (59%) of firearm suicide decedents were reported to have had current mental or physical problems prior to death. Understanding the state-specific magnitude and patterns (who, where, factors, etc) of firearm injury and death may help inform local injury prevention efforts. States with similar data sets may want to adopt our analyses. Surveillance of firearm-related injury and death is essential. Dissemination of surveillance findings to key stakeholders is critical in improving

  5. Preliminary report on maternal deaths in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania in 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, T G

    1984-09-01

    An analysis of causes of maternal deaths in the Southern Highlands Zone of Tanzania, concentrating on avoidable factors contributing to these deaths, was conducted in 1983. Deaths were ascertained by forms sent to doctors in hospitals and assistants in health centers, by visiting hospital and centers regularly, and from reports to Regional Medical Officers. The majority of deaths occurred in hospitals, producing a maternal mortality rate of 2.5/1000 in hospitals, compared to 0.8/1000 for the Zone overall. Total numbers and notable cases were discussed in each of the following etiologies: ectopic pregnancy (1), sepsis after abortion (20), placenta previa (3), eclampsia (4), postpartum hemorrhage (21), anemia (3), obstructed labor (6), puerperal infection (10), sepsis after surgery (7), puerperal pulmonary embolism (2), aspiration after anesthesia (1), herbal medicines (2). The greatest number of deaths were in gravida 3 women. The main avoidable factors were lack of blood for transfusion, no partogram being kept in labor, and risk factors noted but not acted upon. Blood was not available for several reasons: blood not kept in maternity ward, equipment not available to transfuse and relatives refused to give blood. Some other avoidable risk factors were: lack of or slow transport to facility, interference abortion, no antenatal care, lack of gas gangrene serum, packing vagina with cloths to stop bleeding, staff errors. It was felt that isolation of rural doctors contributed to errors, which may possibly be avoided by holding periodic seminars and reviews.

  6. Russia SimSmoke: the long-term effects of tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslennikova, Galina Ya; Oganov, Rafael G; Boytsov, Sergey A; Ross, Hana; Huang, An-Tsun; Near, Aimee; Kotov, Alexey; Berezhnova, Irina; Levy, David T

    2014-11-01

    Russia has high smoking rates and weak tobacco control policies. A simulation model is used to examine the effect of tobacco control policies on past and future smoking prevalence and premature mortality in Russia. The Russia model was developed using the SimSmoke tobacco control model previously developed for the USA and other nations. The model inputs population size, birth, death and smoking rates specific to Russia. It assesses, individually and in combination, the effect of seven types of policies consistent with the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC): taxes, smoke-free air, mass media campaign, advertising bans, warning labels, cessation treatment and youth access policies. Outcomes are smoking prevalence and the number of smoking-attributable deaths by age and gender from 2009 to 2055. Increasing cigarette taxes to 70% of retail price, stronger smoke-free air laws, a high-intensity media campaign and comprehensive treatment policies are each potent policies to reduce smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable premature deaths in Russia. With the stronger set of policies, the model estimates that, relative to the status quo trend, smoking prevalence can be reduced by as much as 30% by 2020, with a 50% reduction projected by 2055. This translates into 2 684 994 male and 1 011 985 female premature deaths averted from 2015-2055. SimSmoke results highlight the relative contribution of policies to reducing the tobacco health burden in Russia. Significant inroads to reducing smoking prevalence and premature mortality can be achieved through strengthening tobacco control policies in line with FCTC recommendations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Saving Mothers' Lives: Reviewing maternal deaths to make motherhood safer: 2006-2008. The Eighth Report of the Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths in the United Kingdom.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cantwell, Roch

    2011-03-01

    In the triennium 2006-2008, 261 women in the UK died directly or indirectly related to pregnancy. The overall maternal mortality rate was 11.39 per 100,000 maternities. Direct deaths decreased from 6.24 per 100,000 maternities in 2003-2005 to 4.67 per 100,000 maternities in 2006–2008 (p = 0.02). This decline is predominantly due to the reduction in deaths from thromboembolism and, to a lesser extent, haemorrhage. For the first time there has been a reduction in the inequalities gap, with a significant decrease in maternal mortality rates among those living in the most deprived areas and those in the lowest socio-economic group. Despite a decline in the overall UK maternal mortality rate, there has been an increase in deaths related to genital tract sepsis, particularly from community acquired Group A streptococcal disease. The mortality rate related to sepsis increased from 0.85 deaths per 100,000 maternities in 2003-2005 to 1.13 deaths in 2006-2008, and sepsis is now the most common cause of Direct maternal death. Cardiac disease is the most common cause of Indirect death; the Indirect maternal mortality rate has not changed significantly since 2003-2005. This Confidential Enquiry identified substandard care in 70% of Direct deaths and 55% of Indirect deaths. Many of the identified avoidable factors remain the same as those identified in previous Enquiries. Recommendations for improving care have been developed and are highlighted in this report. Implementing the Top ten recommendations should be prioritised in order to ensure the overall UK maternal mortality rate continues to decline.

  8. News media reports of patient deaths following 'medical tourism' for cosmetic surgery and bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Leigh

    2012-04-01

    Contemporary scholarship examining clinical outcomes in medical travel for cosmetic surgery identifies cases in which patients traveled abroad for medical procedures and subsequently returned home with infections and other surgical complications. Though there are peer-reviewed articles identifying patient deaths in cases where patients traveled abroad for commercial kidney transplantation or stem cell injections, no scholarly publications document deaths of patients who traveled abroad for cosmetic surgery or bariatric surgery. Drawing upon news media reports extending from 1993 to 2011, this article identifies and describes twenty-six reported cases of deaths of individuals who traveled abroad for cosmetic surgery or bariatric surgery. Over half of the reported deaths occurred in two countries. Analysis of these news reports cannot be used to make causal claims about why the patients died. In addition, cases identified in news media accounts do not provide a basis for establishing the relative risk of traveling abroad for care instead of seeking elective cosmetic surgery at domestic health care facilities. Acknowledging these limitations, the case reports suggest the possibility that contemporary peer-reviewed scholarship is underreporting patient mortality in medical travel. The paper makes a strong case for promoting normative analyses and empirical studies of medical travel. In particular, the paper argues that empirically informed ethical analysis of 'medical tourism' will benefit from rigorous studies tracking global flows of medical travelers and the clinical outcomes they experience. The paper contains practical recommendations intended to promote debate concerning how to promote patient safety and quality of care in medical travel. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Mortality and cause-of-death reporting and analysis systems in seven pacific island countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter Karen L

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mortality statistics are essential for population health assessment. Despite limitations in data availability, Pacific Island Countries are considered to be in epidemiological transition, with non-communicable diseases increasingly contributing to premature adult mortality. To address rapidly changing health profiles, countries would require mortality statistics from routine death registration given their relatively small population sizes. Methods This paper uses a standard analytical framework to examine death registration systems in Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, Palau, Solomon Islands, Tonga and Vanuatu. Results In all countries, legislation on death registration exists but does not necessarily reflect current practices. Health departments carry the bulk of responsibility for civil registration functions. Medical cause-of-death certificates are completed for at least hospital deaths in all countries. Overall, significantly more information is available than perceived or used. Use is primarily limited by poor understanding, lack of coordination, limited analytical skills, and insufficient technical resources. Conclusion Across the region, both registration and statistics systems need strengthening to improve the availability, completeness, and quality of data. Close interaction between health staff and local communities provides a good foundation for further improvements in death reporting. System strengthening activities must include a focus on clear assignment of responsibility, provision of appropriate authority to perform assigned tasks, and fostering ownership of processes and data to ensure sustained improvements. These human elements need to be embedded in a culture of data sharing and use. Lessons from this multi-country exercise would be applicable in other regions afflicted with similar issues of availability and quality of vital statistics.

  10. Neurotoxin envenomation mimicking brain death in a child: A case report and review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Dayal, Madhu; Prakash, Smita; Verma, Pradeep K; Pawar, Mridula

    2014-01-01

    The spectrum of presentation of a victim of neurotoxic snake bite can range from mild ptosis to complete paralysis and ophthalmoplegia. We report a case of snake bite in a 10-year-old child who was comatosed with bilateral fixed dilated pupils and absent doll′s eye movement that was interpreted as brain death. Physicians need to be aware of the likelihood of snakebite presenting as locked in syndrome.

  11. Neurotoxin envenomation mimicking brain death in a child: A case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayal, Madhu; Prakash, Smita; Verma, Pradeep K; Pawar, Mridula

    2014-07-01

    The spectrum of presentation of a victim of neurotoxic snake bite can range from mild ptosis to complete paralysis and ophthalmoplegia. We report a case of snake bite in a 10-year-old child who was comatosed with bilateral fixed dilated pupils and absent doll's eye movement that was interpreted as brain death. Physicians need to be aware of the likelihood of snakebite presenting as locked in syndrome.

  12. Neurotoxin envenomation mimicking brain death in a child: A case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu Dayal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of presentation of a victim of neurotoxic snake bite can range from mild ptosis to complete paralysis and ophthalmoplegia. We report a case of snake bite in a 10-year-old child who was comatosed with bilateral fixed dilated pupils and absent doll′s eye movement that was interpreted as brain death. Physicians need to be aware of the likelihood of snakebite presenting as locked in syndrome.

  13. Death by dengue fever in a Brazilian child: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacramento, Rafael Henrique Machado; de Melo Braga, Deborah Nunes; Sacramento, Franciane Fardin; de Carvalho Araújo, Fernanda Montenegro; Lima, Antônio Afonso Bezerra; de Lima Pompeu, Margarida Maria; Lima, Danielle Malta; de Góes Cavalcanti, Luciano Pamplona

    2014-11-27

    Dengue is an important worldwide public health problem, and continues to spread in Brazil. This article presents the first Brazilian case report of the death of an indigenous child by dengue fever. In August 2013, a child aged 2 years and from the Tremembé ethnic group, who was previously healthy with no complaints, suddenly presented intense crying, precordial pain, and general malaise. A few minutes after these non-specific symptoms, the patient started tonic-clonic convulsions and had cyanosis, a substantial increase in body temperature to the touch, cold sudoresis, sphincter relaxation, and unconsciousness. This situation remained for 15 minutes, progressing to respiratory insufficiency, with consequent absence of peripheral pulses. Death was confirmed approximately 40 minutes after the first symptoms. An autopsy was performed using the usual techniques. Immunohistochemistry was positive for dengue, and microscopic examination indicated micro perivascular edema and cerebral hemorrhage. Considering that the death occurred during the major endemic seasonal period for dengue fever, primary clinical evidence suggestive of viral infection presenting with sudden and quick death, and positive immunohistochemistry results, the case was closed as severe dengue fever. Clinicians must consider dengue as a diagnostic hypothesis among the indigenous population in Brazil.

  14. Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed E. Mansour

    2013-07-01

    Conclusion: The prevalence of spontaneous bacterial pleuritis in the studied group of patients with hepatic hydrothorax was 14.3%. Patients with advanced liver disease, low pleural fluid protein, or SBP are at risk for spontaneous bacterial pleuritis.

  15. Inaccuracy of Death Certificate Diagnosis of Tuberculosis and Potential Underdiagnosis of TB in a Region of High HIV Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa T. Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the South African antiretroviral therapy rollout, which should reduce the incidence of HIV-associated tuberculosis (TB, the number of TB-attributable deaths in KwaZuluNatal (KZN remains high. TB is often diagnosed clinically, without microbiologic confirmation, leading to inaccurate estimates of TB-attributed deaths. This may contribute to avoidable deaths, and impact population-based TB mortality estimates. Objectives. (1 To measure the number of cases with microbiologically confirmed TB in a retrospective cohort of deceased inpatients with TB-attributed hospital deaths. (2 To estimate the rates of multi-drug resistant (MDR and extensively drug resistant (XDR TB in this cohort. Results. Of 2752 deaths at EDH between September 2006 and March 2007, 403 (15% were attributed to TB on the death certificate. 176 of the TB-attributed deaths (44% had a specimen sent for smear or culture; only 64 (36% had a TB diagnosis confirmed by either test. Of the 39 culture-confirmed cases, 27/39 (69% had fully susceptible TB and 27/39 (69% had smear-negative culture-positive TB (SNTB. Two patients had drug monoresistance, three patients had MDR-TB, and one had XDR-TB. Conclusions. Most TB-attributed deaths in this cohort were not microbiologically confirmed. Of confirmed cases, most were smear-negative, culture positive and were susceptible to all first line drugs.

  16. Second trimester abortion as a cause of maternal death: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avcioglu, Sümeyra Nergiz; Altinkaya, Sündüz Özlem; Küçük, Mert; Zafer, Emre; Sezer, Selda Demircan; Yüksel, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    Each year, an estimated 529 000 maternal deaths occur worldwide. In literature, it is known that maternal mortality can occur during pregnancy, peripartum and also in postpartum period. Although very rare, maternal deaths may occur after spontaneous abortion. In present case, 37 year old G5P4 (Caesarean Section) women was admitted to Adnan Menderes University, Obstetrics and Gynecology clinic with diagnosis of missed abortion at 18 weeks' gestation. She had been hospitalized in the public maternity hospital for five days due to abortus incipience and prolapse of amnion membranes but had no contractions. Fetal heart beats ceased at the second day of hospitalization. Medically induced abortion was recommended but not accepted by the patient. At the fifth day of hospitalization, she was referred to our clinic due to deterioration of general health condition, low blood pressure and tachycardia. In emergency department, it was determined that she was not oriented, had confusion, had blood pressure of 49/25 mmHg and tachycardia. In ultrasonographic examination, 18 week in utero ex fetus was determined and there was free fluid in abdominopelvic cavity. The free fluid was suspected to be amniotic fluid due to rupture of uterus. Laparotomy was performed, no uterine rupture, hematoma or atony was observed. However during laparotomy, a very bad smelling odor, might be due to septicemia, was felt in the operation room. Cardiac arrest occurred during that operation. In autopsy report, it was concluded that maternal death was because of remaining of inutero ex fetus for a long time. In conclusion, although very rare, maternal deaths after spontaneous abortion may occur. Because spontaneous abortion is a common outcome of pregnancy, continued careful, strict monitoring and immediate treatment of especially second trimester spontaneous abortion is recommended to prevent related, disappointing, unexpected maternal deaths.

  17. Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor and probable sudden unexplained death in epilepsy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sîrbu Carmen-Adella

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction This is the first report of the case of a patient with a natural history of dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor associated with probable sudden unexplained death in epilepsy. These tumors are benign, arising within the supratentorial cortex. Over 100 cases have been reported in the literature since the first description by Daumas-Duport in 1988. Case presentation A 24- year-old Caucasian woman had a long period of intractable complex partial seizures, sometimes with tonic-clonic generalization and neuropsychological abnormalities. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a cortico-subcortical parietal tumor with all the characteristics of these types of tumors. After 14 years of evolution, our patient died suddenly during sleep. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of probable sudden unexplained death in symptomatic epilepsy due to dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor with natural history. Early and complete excision, with functional studies before and during the surgery, leads to better control of seizures, avoiding neuropsychological changes and the risk of death. Patients with refractory epilepsy should be evaluated for any sleep disorders and should have complete cardiology assessments including electrocardiographic evaluation of cardiac rhythm disturbances.

  18. Challenges associated with drunk driving measurement: combining police and self-reported data to estimate an accurate prevalence in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Tanara; Lunnen, Jeffrey C; Gonçalves, Veralice; Schmitz, Aurinez; Pasa, Graciela; Bastos, Tamires; Sripad, Pooja; Chandran, Aruna; Pechansky, Flavio

    2013-12-01

    Drunk driving is an important risk factor for road traffic crashes, injuries and deaths. After June 2008, all drivers in Brazil were subject to a "Zero Tolerance Law" with a set breath alcohol concentration of 0.1 mg/L of air. However, a loophole in this law enabled drivers to refuse breath or blood alcohol testing as it may self-incriminate. The reported prevalence of drunk driving is therefore likely a gross underestimate in many cities. To compare the prevalence of drunk driving gathered from police reports to the prevalence gathered from self-reported questionnaires administered at police sobriety roadblocks in two Brazilian capital cities, and to estimate a more accurate prevalence of drunk driving utilizing three correction techniques based upon information from those questionnaires. In August 2011 and January-February 2012, researchers from the Centre for Drug and Alcohol Research at the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul administered a roadside interview on drunk driving practices to 805 voluntary participants in the Brazilian capital cities of Palmas and Teresina. Three techniques which include measures such as the number of persons reporting alcohol consumption in the last six hours but who had refused breath testing were used to estimate the prevalence of drunk driving. The prevalence of persons testing positive for alcohol on their breath was 8.8% and 5.0% in Palmas and Teresina respectively. Utilizing a correction technique we calculated that a more accurate prevalence in these sites may be as high as 28.2% and 28.7%. In both cities, about 60% of drivers who self-reported having drank within six hours of being stopped by the police either refused to perform breathalyser testing; fled the sobriety roadblock; or were not offered the test, compared to about 30% of drivers that said they had not been drinking. Despite the reduction of the legal limit for drunk driving stipulated by the "Zero Tolerance Law," loopholes in the legislation permit many

  19. Death, Depression, Disability and Dementia Associated with Self-Reported Hearing Problems: a 25-Year Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amieva, Hélène; Ouvrard, Camille; Meillon, Céline; Rullier, Laetitia; Dartigues, Jean-François

    2018-01-03

    Hearing loss in older adults is suspected to play a role in social isolation, depression, disability, lower quality of life and risk of dementia. Such suspected associations still need to be consolidated with additional research. With a particularly long follow-up, this study assessed the relationship between hearing status and four major adverse health events: death, dementia, depression, and disability. Prospective community-based study of 3777 subjects aged ≥ 65 followed-up for 25 years. At baseline, 1289 reported hearing problems and 2290 reported no trouble. The risk of occurrence of the negative outcomes, i.e. death, dementia, depressive symptoms, disability in activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental ADL (IADL), was assessed with Cox proportional hazards models. Adjusting for numerous confounders, an increased risk of disability and dementia was found for participants reporting hearing problems. An increased risk of depression was found in men reporting hearing problems. In additional exploratory analyses, such associations were not found in those participants using hearing aids. Mortality was not associated with self-reported hearing loss. Our study confirms the strong link between hearing status and the risk of disability, dementia and depression. These results highlight the importance of assessing the consequences of treating hearing loss in elders in further studies. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Near-death experience and out of body phenomenon during torture--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Maxwell J F

    2011-01-01

    A case of a near death experience (NDE) associated with an "Out of body" phenomenon in an African man as a result of torture is presented. Although NDEs occur in approximately ten per cent of survivors of cardiac arrest, case reports emerging from the medical examination of torture victims are lacking. This may be due to cultural/linguistic barriers and fear of disbelief. Low NDE incidence during torture would suggest that torture techniques rarely induce the critical brain ischaemia considered necessary to provoke an NDE. Alternatively psychological or physical characteristics of torture may render NDE harder to recall. Proof of low incidence during torture would counter the theory that NDEs are a psychological response to perceived threat of death. NDEs often induce transformational benefits in patients' lives and for this reason the author urges physicians to consider the possibility of NDE amongst torture victims under their care. A request for information about similar cases is made.

  1. Different perspectives: a comparison of newspaper articles to medical examiner data in the reporting of violent deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovesi, Andrea L; Donaldson, Amy E; Morrison, Brynna L; Olson, Lenora M

    2010-03-01

    This study compared violent death information reported in state-wide newspaper articles to the medical examiner reports collected for a state public health surveillance system-the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS). While suicides accounted for 83% of deaths in the NVDRS database, more than three-quarters (79%) of violent deaths reported in newspaper articles were homicides. The majority of the suicide incidents were reported in 1-2 newspaper articles whereas the majority of homicide incidents were reported in 11-34 articles. For suicide incidents, the NVDRS reported more circumstances related to mental health problems while newspaper articles reported recent crisis more often. Results show that there is a mismatch in both frequency and type of information reported between a public health surveillance system (NVDRS) and newspaper reporting of violent deaths. As a result of these findings, scientists and other public health professionals may want to engage in media advocacy to provide newspaper reporters with timely and important health information related to the prevention and intervention of violent deaths in their community. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Paediatric suicide in the USA: analysis of the National Child Death Case Reporting System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigylidas, Theodore E; Reynolds, Eliza M; Teshome, Getachew; Dykstra, Heather K; Lichenstein, Richard

    2016-08-01

    Suicide is a leading cause of death among youths. The relationship between mental health, psychosocial factors and youth suicidality needs further analysis. To describe paediatric suicide in the USA and the impact of mental health and substance abuse using the National Child Death Review Case Reporting System (CDR-CRS). To identify psychosocial correlates contributing to suicide and whether these factors are more common among individuals with history of mental illness or substance abuse. Deidentified data (CDR-CRS) from 2004 to 2012 was obtained from 29 participating states. Demographic data and psychosocial correlates, including age, gender, cause of death, history of mental illness and/or substance abuse, school concerns, previous suicide attempts and family history of suicide, were collected. A total of 2850 suicides were identified. Mean age was 15.6±1.9 years; (range 7-21 years) 73.6% male and 65.1% Caucasian. The leading causes of death were asphyxia (50.2%) and weapon/firearm (36.5%). Among all subjects, 25.5% had history of mental illness and 19.0% had history of substance abuse. 60.0% had no report of mental illness or substance abuse. Subjects with both mental illness and substance abuse were more likely to have school concerns (OR=4.1 (psuicide attempts (OR=4.2 (psuicide (OR=3.2 (psuicide records in the CDR-CRS had no indication of mental illness or substance abuse. The youth with mental-illness/substance-abuse issues were more likely to have other compounding psychosocial correlates that may be warning signs of suicide. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Al-Darwish

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Results indicated that dental caries prevalence among school children in Qatar has reached critical levels, and is influenced by socio-demographic factors. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth values obtained in this study were the second highest detected in the Eastern Mediterranean region.

  4. Anesthetic death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauwers, P

    1978-01-01

    Death due to anesthesia is a tragic paradox. The numbers about the frequency of anesthesia-related-death published in many reports have a relative value, as it is impossible to compare them one to another. A synoptic table of 20 important studies made on this subject, shows a great variation in figures concerning the incidence of death related to anesthesia. The most common causes of "anesthetic-death" are mentioned and some suggestions are made to decrease the frequency of death due to anesthesia.

  5. Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanesse Scerri

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is a major nosocomial pathogen worldwide. Malta is one of the countries with the highest MRSA prevalence in Europe, as identified from hospital blood cultures [1]. However, community prevalence of MRSA has never previously been investigated. This study aimed at establishing the prevalence of community MRSA nasal colonization in Maltese individuals and identifying the clonal characteristics of the detected isolates. Nasal swabs were collected from 329 healthy individuals who were also asked to complete a brief questionnaire about risk factors commonly associated with MRSA carriage and infection. The swabs were transported and enriched in a nutrient broth supplemented with NaCl. The presence of MRSA was then determined by culturing on MRSA Select chromogenic agar and then confirming by several assays, including catalase, coagulase and PBP2a agglutination tests. The isolates were assayed for antibiotic susceptibilities and typed by microarray analysis to determine the clonal characteristics of each strain. The prevalence of MRSA nasal colonization in the healthy Maltese population was found to be 8.81% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.75–11.87%, much higher than that found in other studies carried out in several countries. No statistical association was found between MRSA carriage and demographics or risk factors; however, this was hindered by the small sample size. Almost all the isolates were fusidic-acid resistant. The majority were found to belong to a local endemic clone (CC5 which seems to be replacing the previously prevalent European clone UK-EMRSA-15 in the country. A new clone (CC50-MRSA-V was also characterized. The presence of such a significant community reservoir of MRSA increases the burdens already faced by the local healthcare system to control the MRSA epidemic. Colonization of MRSA in otherwise healthy individuals may represent a risk for endogenous infection and transmission to

  6. Tuberculosis Case Fatality and Other Causes of Death among Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Patients in a High HIV Prevalence Setting, 2000-2008, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martie van der Walt

    Full Text Available South Africa has the highest reported rates of multi-drug resistant TB in Africa, typified by poor treatment outcomes, attributable mainly to high default and death rates. Concomitant HIV has become the strongest predictor of death among MDR-TB patients, while anti-retroviral therapy (ART has dramatically reduced mortality. TB Case fatality rate (CFR is an indicator that specifically reports on deaths due to TB.The aim of this paper was to investigate causes of death amongst MDR-TB patients, the contribution of conditions other than TB to deaths, and to determine if causes differ between HIV-uninfected patients, HIV-infected patients receiving ART and those without ART.We carried out a retrospective review of data captured from the register of the MDR-TB programme of the North West Province, South Africa. We included 671 patients treated between 2000-2008; 59% of the cohort was HIV-infected and 33% had received ART during MDR treatment. The register contained data on treatment outcomes and causes of death.Treatment outcomes between HIV-uninfected cases, HIV-infected cases receiving ART and HIV-infected without ART differed significantly (p<0.000. The cohort death rate was 24%, 13% for HIV-uninfected cases and 31% for HIV-infected cases. TB caused most of the deaths, resulting in a cohort CFR of 15%, 9% for HIV-uninfected cases and 20% for HIV-infected cases. Cohort mortality rate due to other conditions was 2%. AIDS-conditions rather than TB caused significantly more deaths among HIV-infected cases receiving ART than those not (p = 0.02.The deaths among HIV-infected individuals contribute substantially to the high death rate. ART co-therapy protected HIV-infected cases from death due to TB and AIDS-conditions. Mechanisms need to be in place to ensure that HIV-infected individuals are retained in care upon completion of their MDR-TB treatment.

  7. The Brazil SimSmoke policy simulation model: the effect of strong tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths in a middle income nation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Levy

    Full Text Available Brazil has reduced its smoking rate by about 50% in the last 20 y. During that time period, strong tobacco control policies were implemented. This paper estimates the effect of these stricter policies on smoking prevalence and associated premature mortality, and the effect that additional policies may have.The model was developed using the SimSmoke tobacco control policy model. Using policy, population, and smoking data for Brazil, the model assesses the effect on premature deaths of cigarette taxes, smoke-free air laws, mass media campaigns, marketing restrictions, packaging requirements, cessation treatment programs, and youth access restrictions. We estimate the effect of past policies relative to a counterfactual of policies kept to 1989 levels, and the effect of stricter future policies. Male and female smoking prevalence in Brazil have fallen by about half since 1989, which represents a 46% (lower and upper bounds: 28%-66% relative reduction compared to the 2010 prevalence under the counterfactual scenario of policies held to 1989 levels. Almost half of that 46% reduction is explained by price increases, 14% by smoke-free air laws, 14% by marketing restrictions, 8% by health warnings, 6% by mass media campaigns, and 10% by cessation treatment programs. As a result of the past policies, a total of almost 420,000 (260,000-715,000 deaths had been averted by 2010, increasing to almost 7 million (4.5 million-10.3 million deaths projected by 2050. Comparing future implementation of a set of stricter policies to a scenario with 2010 policies held constant, smoking prevalence by 2050 could be reduced by another 39% (29%-54%, and 1.3 million (0.9 million-2.0 million out of 9 million future premature deaths could be averted.Brazil provides one of the outstanding public health success stories in reducing deaths due to smoking, and serves as a model for other low and middle income nations. However, a set of stricter policies could further reduce

  8. Serious incidents after death: content analysis of incidents reported to a national database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yardley, Iain E; Carson-Stevens, Andrew; Donaldson, Liam J

    2018-02-01

    Objectives To describe serious incidents occurring in the management of patient remains after their death. Design Incidents occurring after patient deaths were analysed using content analysis to determine what happened, why it happened and the outcome. Setting The Strategic Executive Information System database of serious incidents requiring investigation occurring in the National Health Service in England. Participants All cases describing an incident that occurred following death, regardless of the age of the patient. Main outcome measures The nature of the incident, the underlying cause or causes of the incident and the outcome of the incident. Results One hundred and thirty-two incidents were analysed; these related to the storage, management or disposal of deceased patient remains. Fifty-four incidents concerned problems with the storage of bodies or body parts. Forty-three incidents concerned problems with the management of bodies, including 25 errors in postmortem examination, or postmortems on the wrong body. Thirty-one incidents related to the disposal of bodies, 25 bodies were released from the mortuary to undertakers in error; of these, nine were buried or cremated by the wrong family. The reported underlying causes were similar to those known to be associated with safety incidents occurring before death and included weaknesses in or failures to follow protocol and procedure, poor communication and informal working practices. Conclusions Serious incidents in the management of deceased patient remains have significant implications for families, hospitals and the health service more broadly. Safe mortuary care may be improved by applying lessons learned from existing patient safety work.

  9. The prolongation of somatic support in a pregnant woman with brain-death: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaral Eliana

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical literature has increasingly reported cases of maternal brain death during pregnancy. This is a rare situation which demands the decision and, depending on the gestational age, the implementation of a set of measures to prolong the homeostasis of the human body after brain death for the purpose of maintaining the foetus alive until its viability. Case presentation A 40 year old woman suffered an intracranial haemorrhage during the 25th week of pregnancy. Despite neurosurgical drainage of a gross intraparenchymatous haematoma, the patient developed brain death. Upon confirmation of this diagnosis, she received full ventilatory and nutritional support, vasoactive drugs, maintenance of normothermia, hormone replacement and other supportive measures required to prolong gestation and improve the survival prognosis of her foetus. All decisions regarding the patient's treatment were taken in consensus with her family. She also received corticosteroids to accelerate foetal lung maturity. During the twenty-five days of somatic support, the woman's condition remained stable; however, during the last seven days the foetus developed oligohydramnios and brain-sparring, which led the medical team to take the decision to perform a Caesarean section at that moment. After delivery, the patient's organs were removed for donation. The male infant was born weighing 815 g, with an Apgar score of 9 and 10 at the first and fifth minutes, respectively. The infant was admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit, but did not require mechanical ventilation and had no major complications. He was discharged at 40 days of life, with no sequelae and weighing 1850 g. Conclusion These results are in accordance with findings from previous studies and case reports suggesting the appropriateness and safety of extended somatic support during pregnancy under certain circumstances. They also suggest the need for prompt diagnosis of brain death before the

  10. Prevalence and sociodemographic characteristics of self-reported suicidal behaviours in Latvia in 2010: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rancāns, Elmārs; Pulmanis, Toms; Taube, Māris; Spriņǵe, Lauma; Velika, Biruta; Pudule, Iveta; Grīnberga, Daiga

    2016-01-01

    The fact that Latvia is among the countries with the highest suicide mortality rates in the European Union highlights the importance of research in this field. The aims of the study were to determine the 2010 prevalence of self-reported suicidal behaviours in Latvia, to identify sociodemographic risk factors and to examine sequences for reporting of suicidal behaviours. Computer assisted personal interviews were carried out to gather information on a representative sample of the Latvian population aged 18 to 64 (n = 2816). The study sample was selected using a combination of stratified random sampling and quota methods. Last year prevalence of any type of suicidal behaviour was 18.5% - nearly threefold lower than observed in 2000 (52.6%). Middle age, non-cohabitation status and lower level of education were significant risk factors for serious types of suicidal behaviour (suicidal ideation, suicidal plans, suicide attempts) among men, but only lower level of education was for women. Risk factors regarding mild types of suicidal behaviour (life-weariness, death wishes) were the same for men and women: older and middle aged, non-cohabitation status, and lower level of education. A total of 79.6% reported a continuous pattern of suicidal behaviours. Several sociodemographic risk factors for suicidal behaviours have been found. Further research is needed to clarify additional risk factors, especially in the high-risk groups studied and specific determinants contributing to reduction in prevalence of suicidal behaviours and suicide mortality in Latvia.

  11. Characteristics and Risk Factors for Suicide and Deaths Among College Students: A 23-Year Serial Prevalence Study of Data From 8.2 Million Japanese College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Chiyoko; Uchida, Mai

    2017-04-01

    Suicide is a leading cause of death for college students. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors of suicide among college students that could improve university services to help prevent college suicide. We conducted a 23-year serial prevalence study of the prevalence and characteristics of death and suicide among 8,262,314 Japanese college students. We analyzed rates of suicide from the 1989 to 1990 academic year through the 2011-2012 academic year and characterized suicide among this population, focusing on students' sex and psychiatric and academic backgrounds to identify risk factors for suicide. Suicide rates increased throughout the 23 years, and suicide was the leading cause of death every year from 1996 onward. Suicide accounted for 42.4% of all deaths that happened in the 23 years. Male students, medicine majors, students in the final year of their program, and students who completed extra years of schooling or took academic leaves of absence were at higher risk for suicide. Only 16.4% had received an official psychiatric diagnosis and 16.0% had received services through the university health center prior to the suicides. Results suggest the need for a stronger support system for college students. Areas for improvement could include better advertising of mental health services, student and staff education about suicide risk factors, and mentorship and outreach programs for students in their final year of classes, those majoring in medicine, and those who have taken leaves of absence or failed classes. Accommodations at the administrative level would also be helpful for students who need to retake classes or transfer credit. © Copyright 2017 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  12. Comparison of the prevalence and characteristics of inpatient adverse events using medical records review and incident reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macharia, W M; Muteshi, C M; Wanyonyi, S Z; Mukaindo, A M; Ismail, A; Ekea, H; Abdallah, A; Tole, J M; Ngugi, A K

    2016-09-08

    Information on adverse events (AEs) in hospitalised patients in developing countries is scanty. To compare the magnitude and characteristics of inpatient AEs in a tertiary, not-for-profit healthcare facility in Kenya, using medical records review and incident reporting. Estimation of prevalence was done using incidents reported in 2010 from a random sample of medical records for hospital admissions. Nurse reviewers used 18 screening criteria, followed by physician reviewers to confirm occurrence. An AE was defined as an unexpected clinical event (UE) associated with death, disability or prolonged hospitalisation not explained by the disease condition. The kappa statistic was used to estimate inter-rater agreement, and analysis was done using logistic regression. The study identified 53 UEs from 2 000 randomly selected medical records and 33 reported UEs from 23 026 admissions in the index year. The prevalences of AEs from medical records review and incident reports were 1.4% (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.9 - 2.0) and 0.03% (95% CI 0.012 - 0.063), respectively. Compared with incident reporting, review of medical records identified more disability (13.2% v. 0%; p=0.03) and prolonged hospital stays (43.4% v. 18.2%; p=0.02). Review of medical records is preferable to incident reporting in determining the prevalence of AEs in health facilities with limited inpatient quality improvement experience. Further research is needed to determine whether staff education and a positive culture change through promotion of non-punitive UE reporting or a combination of approaches would improve the comprehensiveness of AE reporting.

  13. Italy SimSmoke: the effect of tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and smoking attributable deaths in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levy David

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While Italy has implemented some tobacco control policies over the last few decades, which resulted in a decreased smoking prevalence, there is still considerable scope to strengthen tobacco control policies consistent with the World Health Organization (WHO policy guidelines. The present study aims to evaluate the effect of past and project the effect of future tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and associated premature mortality in Italy. Methods To assess, individually and in combination, the effect of seven types of policies, we used the SimSmoke simulation model of tobacco control policy. The model uses population, smoking rates and tobacco control policy data for Italy. Results Significant reductions of smoking prevalence and premature mortality can be achieved through tobacco price increases, high intensity media campaigns, comprehensive cessation treatment program, strong health warnings, stricter smoke-free air regulations and advertising bans, and youth access laws. With a comprehensive approach, the smoking prevalence can be decreased by as much as 12% soon after the policies are in place, increasing to a 30% reduction in the next twenty years and a 34% reduction by 30 years in 2040. Without effective tobacco control policies, a total of almost 300 thousand lives will be prematurely lost due to smoking by the year 2040. Conclusion Besides presenting the benefits of a comprehensive tobacco control strategy, the model helps identify information gaps in surveillance and evaluation schemes that will promote the effectiveness of future tobacco control policy in Italy.

  14. Estimation of date of death through wound healing of an extraction socket: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viciano, Joan; D'Anastasio, Ruggero; D'Ovidio, Cristian; Costantini, Sara; Carnevale, Aldo; Capasso, Luigi

    2017-06-01

    Surgical extraction of teeth due to dental pathologies is a relatively common procedure in modern man. The healing of the wound that results occurs in gradual and sequential stages, such that the analysis of this repair process can be very useful in forensic investigations on human remains. The following study reports on a particular case where the remodeling of a tooth socket allowed an estimation of the time that had elapsed from the day of the surgical extraction of the tooth to the time of death. The corpse was that of a woman of 34 years. It was in an advanced state of decomposition, as it was largely skeletonized. Macroscopic, radiographic, and histological examinations of the oral cavity showed the initial stages of alveolar bone remodeling of the first left mandibular molar, which was characterized by: (i) a small reduction in the vertical height of the vestibular surface with respect to the theoretical original position of the tooth; (ii) resorption of the intra-alveolar septum and lamina dura; and (iii) formation of new immature bone, which covered the entire inner surface of the socket. This study established that the subject died 13-42days after the tooth extraction. Knowing the date of the dental extraction provided by the police investigation, it was possible to provide an estimate of the date of death. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Dizziness reported by elderly patients in family practice: prevalence, incidence, and clinical characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maarsingh, Otto R.; Dros, Jacquelien; Schellevis, François G.; van Weert, Henk C.; Bindels, Patrick J.; Horst, Henriette E. van der

    2010-01-01

    Although dizziness in elderly patients is very common in family practice, most prevalence studies on dizziness are community-based and include a study population that is not representative of family practice. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and incidence of dizziness reported

  16. A Good Death? Report of the Second Newcastle Meeting on Laboratory Animal Euthanasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penny Hawkins

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Millions of laboratory animals are killed each year worldwide. There is an ethical, and in many countries also a legal, imperative to ensure those deaths cause minimal suffering. However, there is a lack of consensus regarding what methods of killing are humane for many species and stages of development. In 2013, an international group of researchers and stakeholders met at Newcastle University, United Kingdom to discuss the latest research and which methods could currently be considered most humane for the most commonly used laboratory species (mice, rats and zebrafish. They also discussed factors to consider when making decisions about appropriate techniques for particular species and projects, and priorities for further research. This report summarises the research findings and discussions, with recommendations to help inform good practice for humane killing.

  17. Self-Reported High-Cholesterol Prevalence in the Brazilian Population: Analysis of the 2013 National Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotufo, Paulo A.; Santos, Raul D.; Sposito, Andrei C.; Bertolami, Marcelo; Rocha-Faria Neto, Jose; Izar, M. Cristina; Szwarcwald, Celia; Prado, Rogério R.; Stoppa, Sheila R.; Malta, Deborah C.; Bensenor, Isabela M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Data on the prevalence of dyslipidemia in Brazil are scarce, with surveys available only for some towns. Objective To evaluate the prevalence of the self-reported medical diagnosis of high cholesterol in the Brazilian adult population by use of the 2013 National Health Survey data. Methods Descriptive study assessing the 2013 National Health Survey data, a household-based epidemiological survey with a nationally representative sample and self-reported information. The sample consisted of 60,202 individuals who reported a medical diagnosis of dyslipidemia. The point prevalence and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) for the medical diagnosis of high cholesterol/triglyceride by gender, age, race/ethnicity, geographic region and educational level were calculated. Adjusted odds ratio was calculated. Results Of the 60,202 participants, 14.3% (95%CI=13.7-14.8) never had their cholesterol or triglyceride levels tested, but a higher frequency of women, white individuals, elderly and those with higher educational level had their cholesterol levels tested within the last year. The prevalence of the medical diagnosis of high cholesterol was 12.5% (9.7% in men and 15.1% in women), and women had 60% higher probability of a diagnosis of high cholesterol than men. The frequency of the medical diagnosis of high cholesterol increased up to the age of 59 years, being higher in white individuals or those of Asian heritage, in those with higher educational level and in residents of the Southern and Southeastern regions. Conclusion The importance of dyslipidemia awareness in the present Brazilian epidemiological context must be emphasized to guide actions to control and prevent coronary heart disease, the leading cause of death in Brazil and worldwide. PMID:28591319

  18. Self-Reported High-Cholesterol Prevalence in the Brazilian Population: Analysis of the 2013 National Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo A. Lotufo

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Data on the prevalence of dyslipidemia in Brazil are scarce, with surveys available only for some towns. Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of the self-reported medical diagnosis of high cholesterol in the Brazilian adult population by use of the 2013 National Health Survey data. Methods: Descriptive study assessing the 2013 National Health Survey data, a household-based epidemiological survey with a nationally representative sample and self-reported information. The sample consisted of 60,202 individuals who reported a medical diagnosis of dyslipidemia. The point prevalence and 95% confidence interval (95%CI for the medical diagnosis of high cholesterol/triglyceride by gender, age, race/ethnicity, geographic region and educational level were calculated. Adjusted odds ratio was calculated. Results: Of the 60,202 participants, 14.3% (95%CI=13.7-14.8 never had their cholesterol or triglyceride levels tested, but a higher frequency of women, white individuals, elderly and those with higher educational level had their cholesterol levels tested within the last year. The prevalence of the medical diagnosis of high cholesterol was 12.5% (9.7% in men and 15.1% in women, and women had 60% higher probability of a diagnosis of high cholesterol than men. The frequency of the medical diagnosis of high cholesterol increased up to the age of 59 years, being higher in white individuals or those of Asian heritage, in those with higher educational level and in residents of the Southern and Southeastern regions. Conclusion: The importance of dyslipidemia awareness in the present Brazilian epidemiological context must be emphasized to guide actions to control and prevent coronary heart disease, the leading cause of death in Brazil and worldwide.

  19. Pulmonary thromboembolism and sudden death in psychiatric patients: Two cases reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković Nadica

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Pulmonary thromboembolism occurs usually by running a thrombus from the deep veins of the legs rarely periprostatic or periuteric veins. Virchow's triad of necessary conditions for the occurrence of thrombosis involves disruption of blood flow, disruption of blood chemistry and damage to the vessel wall. Venous thrombosis is often associated with the implementation of antipsychotic therapy. Case report. We reported two cases of sudden death of psychiatric patients who were in both cases fixed during hospitalization. The first case was a 26-year-old woman treated a year with the diagnose of postpartum reactive psychosis. She was hospitalized because of mental state worsening with a dominant depressed mood, visual and auditory hallucinations. Her therapy was determined by diazepam, clozapine, haloperidol and lamotrigine. Suddenly, the patient died on the fifth day of hospitalization. The autopsy showed massive thromboembolism of the pulmonary artery branches. Toxicological analysis revealed the presence of therapeutic doses of antipsychotics. The second case was a-45-yearold men, a long-time alcoholic. On admission, the diagnosis of delirium tremens was established, and diazepam and haloperidol were administered. On the fifth day of hospitalization, he suddenly died. The autopsy showed thromboembolism of the branch of the pulmonary artery. Toxicological analysis established the presence of nordiazepam in urine (0.06 mg/L. Both patients were fixed during hospitalization. Conclusion. Both presented psychiatric patients were younger than 50 years, were not overweight, did not have changes of the venous blood vessels. Nowadays, when the issue of medical responsibility often arises in these and similar cases of sudden death in patients treated in psychiatric clinics, the questions on medical malpractice could be expected.

  20. Prevalence of self-reported hypersensitivity symptoms following intake of alcoholic drinks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, A.; Berg, N.D.; Gonzalez-Quintela, A.

    2008-01-01

    symptoms from the upper and lower airways were significantly more prevalent in persons with AR and asthma (odds ratios between 3.0 and 8.1, P-value self-reported hypersensitivity symptoms following the intake...

  1. A philosophical assessment of TK's autopsy report: Implications for the debate over the brain death criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austriaco, Nicanor Pier Giorgio

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing evidence that the totally brain-dead patient is able to continue to live and to maintain some integrated functions, albeit with the necessary assistance of mechanical ventilation. Several years ago, the autopsy report of a totally brain-dead patient named TK who was kept on life support for nearly twenty years was published in the Journal of Child Neurology. He remains the individual kept on life support the longest after suffering total brain failure. In this essay, I argue that the clinical data described in the autopsy report demonstrate that TK's long-term survival after total brain failure supports the claim acknowledged by the President's Council on Bioethics that the brain-dead patient retains his bodily integrity. As such, he is not dead. He is still a living, though severely disabled, human organism, a human person made in the image and likeness of God. Traditionally, the presence or absence of bodily integration has been used to definitively discern the presence or absence of life in the human being where decomposition of the body is the surest sign of death. The autopsy report of a patient named TK who was brain-dead for nearly twenty years demonstrates that brain-dead patients retain their bodily integrity. As such, TK and other brain-dead patients are not dead. They are living, though severely disabled, human organisms, who are human persons made in the image and likeness of God.

  2. Rapid Death Due to Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome: Case Report and Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Mohanrao Band

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS is one of the most serious complications associated with chronic alcoholism. Sudden deaths are not uncommon in AWS. In severe stages of AWS, delirium tremens (DT occurs, which is characterized with agitation, global confusion, disorientation, visual and auditory hallucinations in addition to autonomic hyperactivity. Case report: A 30-year old man, chronic and heavy alcohol drinker for 10 years, abstained from alcohol for 3 days. Consequently, he started having palpitations, sweating and tremors. A day later, he was found having hallucinations and delirium. The patient was immediately transferred to the hospital. On admission, he was stuporous and had difficulty in breathing. He developed generalized seizures later on. He was successfully intubated, but there was bleeding through it. The patient’s condition deteriorated very rapidly and he died within two hours. After death, his body was transferred to forensic department. In autopsy, gastrointestinal tract was found to be intact. Massive pulmonary hemorrhage was present on cut section. Liver was found to be with yellowish discoloration and early cirrhotic changes. In heart, left ventricular hypertrophy with narrowed lumen was present and coronary arteries were patent. Discussion: Alcoholism is associated with liver dysfunction and especially in final phases with cirrhosis. Hence and due to resultant coagulopathy, patients are vulnerable to internal bleedings. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy also occurs in chronic alcoholics. Therefore, we can speculate that our patient developed pulmonary hemorrhage as a result of combined effect of coagulopathy secondary to cirrhosis, alveolar damage (seizure and artificial ventilation and congestive heart failure. Conclusion: For a patient with delirium, convulsions, respiratory distress and coagulopathy, diagnosis of DT should be kept in mind.

  3. A Good Death? Report of the Second Newcastle Meeting on Laboratory Animal Euthanasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Penny; Prescott, Mark J.; Carbone, Larry; Dennison, Ngaire; Johnson, Craig; Makowska, I. Joanna; Marquardt, Nicole; Readman, Gareth; Weary, Daniel M.; Golledge, Huw D. R.

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Millions of laboratory animals are killed each year worldwide. However, there is a lack of consensus regarding what methods of killing are humane for many species and stages of development. This report summarises research findings and discussions from an international meeting of experts and stakeholders, with recommendations to inform good practice for humane killing of mice, rats and zebrafish. It provides additional guidance and perspectives for researchers designing projects that involve euthanasing animals, researchers studying aspects of humane killing, euthanasia device manufacturers, regulators, and institutional ethics or animal care and use committees that wish to review local practice. Abstract Millions of laboratory animals are killed each year worldwide. There is an ethical, and in many countries also a legal, imperative to ensure those deaths cause minimal suffering. However, there is a lack of consensus regarding what methods of killing are humane for many species and stages of development. In 2013, an international group of researchers and stakeholders met at Newcastle University, United Kingdom to discuss the latest research and which methods could currently be considered most humane for the most commonly used laboratory species (mice, rats and zebrafish). They also discussed factors to consider when making decisions about appropriate techniques for particular species and projects, and priorities for further research. This report summarises the research findings and discussions, with recommendations to help inform good practice for humane killing. PMID:27563926

  4. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Self-Reported Violence of Osaka and Seattle Male Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Laura; Farrington, David P.; Ueda, Mitsuaki; Hill, Karl G.

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, Japan has been regarded as a country with low crime. Comparative research has given insights into the extent of similarities and differences in crime between America and Japan. The importance of these studies is the examination of whether Western-established criminological knowledge is applicable to non- Western societies like Japan. Unfortunately, comparative self-report studies involving Japan and investigating youth offending are scarce. The current study investigates risk factors and self-reports of violence from Osaka and Seattle male youths. The findings reveal that Japanese male youths self-report a higher prevalence of violence than Seattle male youths. Risk factors for violence, issues of comparability, and prevalence versus strength of relationships of risk factors are examined. It is concluded that the higher prevalence of violence in Osaka is primarily a function of the higher prevalence of troubled peers and risk taking. The findings call for replication of this type of comparative research. PMID:24013769

  5. Geriatric Conditions in Patients Undergoing Defibrillator Implantation for Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Death: Prevalence and Impact on Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Ariel R; Leff, Bruce; Wang, Yongfei; Spatz, Erica S; Masoudi, Frederick A; Peterson, Pamela N; Daugherty, Stacie L; Matlock, Daniel D

    2016-01-01

    Geriatric conditions may influence outcomes among patients receiving implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs). We sought to determine the prevalence of frailty and dementia among older adults receiving primary prevention ICDs and to determine the impact of multimorbidity on mortality within 1 year of ICD implantation. The cohort included 83 792 Medicare patients from the National Cardiovascular Data Registry ICD Registry who underwent first primary prevention ICD implantation between 2006 and 2009. These data were merged with Medicare analytic files to determine the prevalence of frailty, dementia, and other conditions before ICD implantation, as well as 1-year mortality. A validated claim-based algorithm was used to identify frail patients. Mutually exclusive patterns of chronic conditions were examined. The association of each pattern with 1-year mortality was assessed using logistic regression models adjusted for selected patient characteristics. Approximately 1 in 10 Medicare patients with heart failure receiving a primary prevention ICD had frailty (10%) or dementia (1%). One-year mortality was 22% for patients with frailty, 27% for patients with dementia, and 12% in the overall cohort. Several multimorbidity patterns were associated with high 1-year mortality rates: dementia with frailty (29%), frailty with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (25%), and frailty with diabetes mellitus (23%). These patterns were present in 8% of the cohort. More than 10% of Medicare beneficiaries with heart failure receiving primary prevention ICDs have frailty or dementia. These patients had significantly higher 1-year mortality than those with other common chronic conditions. Frailty and dementia should be considered in clinical decision-making and guideline development. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Blast injury prevalence in skeletal remains: Are there differences between Bosnian war samples and documented combat-related deaths?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussault, Marie Christine; Hanson, Ian; Smith, Martin J

    2017-11-01

    Court cases at the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) have seen questions raised about the recognition and causes of blast-related trauma and the relationship to human rights abuses or combat. During trials, defence teams argued that trauma was combat related and prosecutors argued that trauma was related to executions. We compared a sample of 81 cases (males between 18 and 75) from a Bosnian mass grave investigation linked to the Kravica warehouse killings to published combat-related blast injury data from World War One, Vietnam, Northern Ireland, the first Gulf War, Operation Iraqi Freedom and Afghanistan. We also compared blast fracture injuries from Bosnia to blast fracture injuries sustained in bombings of buildings in two non-combat 'civilian' examples; the Oklahoma City and Birmingham pub bombings. A Chi-squared statistic with a Holm-Bonferroni correction assessed differences between prevalence of blast-related fractures in various body regions, where data were comparable. We found statistically significant differences between the Bosnian and combat contexts. We noted differences in the prevalence of head, torso, vertebral area, and limbs trauma, with a general trend for higher levels of more widespread trauma in the Bosnian sample. We noted that the pattern of trauma in the Bosnian cases resembled the pattern from the bombing in buildings civilian contexts. Variation in trauma patterns can be attributed to the influence of protective armour; the context of the environment; and the type of munition and its injuring mechanism. Blast fracture injuries sustained in the Bosnian sample showed patterns consistent with a lack of body armour, blast effects on people standing in enclosed buildings and the use of explosive munitions. Copyright © 2017 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The sting of death: a case report of breaking bad news with maternal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maternal death stings core deep for the relatives and the service providers in an obstetric unit where they had anticipated a joyful experience from childbirth. We describe a case of death disclosure and breaking bad news in our unit. This was a case of a 34 year old, Para 1+0, who underwent elective caesarean section at ...

  8. Retrospective Reports of the Lived School Experience of Adolescents after the Death of a Parent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, Ann

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological study was done to better understand the school experience of adolescents after the death of a parent. The participants were adults over the age of 19 and between 3 and 43 years past the death of a parent during adolescence. The study involved personal, reflective interviews with each of the participants. The…

  9. Are Suicide Note Writers Representative of All Suicides? Analysis of the National Violent Death Reporting System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, Steven; Rockett, Ian R H

    2018-02-01

    While suicide notes can offer insights into the causes of suicide and clues for prevention, there is disagreement regarding the degree to which note leavers are representative of the general population of suicides. Previous relevant research on the United States is marked by a series of limitations: small local samples, an over focus on demographic constructs, and lack of multivariable analysis. This study uses a large national sample, a wide range of predictor variables, and multivariable statistical techniques to estimate more reliable similarities and differences between note leavers and other suicides. All data are taken from the National Violent Death Reporting System, which covers 17 states. A total of 9,048 note writers were compared to 21,522 other suicides in terms of 39 variables. In both bivariable (32/39 variables) and multivariable analyses (30/39 variables), note leavers differed from other suicides in most demographic variables, stressful life events, psychiatric issues, and methods of suicide. The national evidence suggests that caution be exercised in generalizing patterns found among writers of suicide notes to suicides in general. This is the first analysis of suicide notes using US data on the issue. © 2016 The American Association of Suicidology.

  10. Reporting of meticillin-resistant and -susceptible Staphylococcus aureus on death certificates in Irish hospitals.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Collins, C J

    2011-02-01

    The documentation of infection with meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) on death certificates has been the subject of considerable public discussion. Using data from five tertiary referral hospitals in Ireland, we compared the documentation of MRSA and meticillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) on death certificates in those patients who died in hospital within 30 days of having MRSA or MSSA isolated from blood cultures. A total of 133 patients had MRSA or MSSA isolated from blood cultures within 30 days of death during the study period. One patient was excluded as the death certificate information was not available; the other 132 patients were eligible for inclusion. MRSA and MSSA were isolated from blood cultures in 59 (44.4%) and 74 (55.6%) cases respectively. One patient was included as a case in both categories as both MRSA and MSSA were isolated from a blood culture. In 15 (25.4%) of the 59 MRSA cases, MRSA was documented on the death certificate. In nine (12.2%) of the 74 patients with MSSA cases, MSSA was documented on the death certificate. MRSA was more likely to be documented on the death certificate than MSSA (odds ratio: 2.46; 95% confidence interval: 1.01-6.01; P < 0.05). These findings indicate that there may be inconsistencies in the way organisms and infections are documented on death certificates in Ireland and that death certification data may underestimate the mortality related to certain organisms. In particular, there appears to be an overemphasis by certifiers on the documentation of MRSA compared with MSSA.

  11. Causes of Death in Men With Prevalent Diabetes and Newly Diagnosed High- Versus Favorable-Risk Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Amico, Anthony V.; Braccioforte, Michelle H.; Moran, Brian J.; Chen, Ming-Hui

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether prevalent diabetes mellitus (pDM) affects the presentation, extent of radiotherapy, or prostate cancer (PCa)-specific mortality (PCSM) and whether PCa aggressiveness affects the risk of non-PCSM, DM-related mortality, and all-cause mortality in men with pDM. Methods: Between October 1997 and July 2907, 5,279 men treated at the Chicago Prostate Cancer Center with radiotherapy for PCa were included in the study. Logistic and competing risk regression analyses were performed to assess whether pDM was associated with high-grade PCa, less aggressive radiotherapy, and an increased risk of PCSM. Competing risks and Cox regression analyses were performed to assess whether PCa aggressiveness described by risk group in men with pDM was associated with the risk of non-PCSM, DM-related mortality, and all-cause mortality. Analyses were adjusted for predictors of high-grade PCa and factors that could affect treatment extent and mortality. Results: Men with pDM were more likely (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR], 1.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-2.7; p = .002) to present with high-grade PCa but were not treated less aggressively (p = .33) and did not have an increased risk of PCSM (p = .58) compared to men without pDM. Among the men with pDM, high-risk PCa was associated with a greater risk of non-PCSM (AHR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.1-4.5; p = .035), DM-related mortality (AHR, 5.2; 95% CI, 2.0-14.0; p = .001), and all-cause mortality (AHR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.2-4.7; p = .01) compared to favorable-risk PCa. Conclusion: Aggressive management of pDM is warranted in men with high-risk PCa.

  12. Toxicologic Laboratory Findings in Cases Reported with Hanging Death: a Two-Year Retrospective Study in Northeast Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ranjbar

    2013-09-01

    How to cite this article: Ranjbar R, Liaghat AR, Ranjbar A, Mohabbati H. Toxicologic Laboratory Findings in Cases Reported with Hanging Death: a Two-Year Retrospective Study in Northeast Iran. Asia Pac J Med Toxicol 2013;2:92-5.

  13. Self-reported heart attack in Mexican-American elders: examination of incidence, prevalence, and 7-year mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otiniano, Max E; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J; Markides, Kyriakos S; Ray, Laura A; Du, Xianglin L

    2003-07-01

    To examine the prevalence, incidence, and mortality of self-reported heart attack in older Mexican Americans and to identify significant factors associated with heart attack. Cross-sectional and longitudinal study. Baseline and three follow-up interviews in five southwestern states (Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas) of the Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiological Study of the Elderly. Three thousand fifty Mexican Americans aged 65 to 107 (mean age = 73). Sociodemographic factors (age, sex, marital status, language of interview, health insurance coverage, living arrangements, and financial strain) and health factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, stroke, cancer, hip fracture, arthritis, depression, limitations in activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), and mortality) were determined at baseline (1993-94). New heart attacks were assessed at follow-ups in 1995-96, 1998-99, and 2000-01. Vital status was determined over the 7-year follow-up. Prevalence of self-reported heart attack was 9.1% at baseline. Incidence of self-reported heart attack was 6.1%, 9.1%, and 7.9%, respectively, for the three subsequent follow-ups. Older age, male sex, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and stroke were significantly associated with heart attack at baseline. Age was a significant predictor for new heart attack at each follow-up. Having ADL (odds ratio (OR) = 2.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.19-3.86) and IADL (OR = 2.25, CI = 1.72-2.94) disabilities was significantly associated with self-reported heart attack. Subjects with heart attack were significantly more likely to die at 7 years (hazard ratio = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.29-1.91). Of those with self-reported heart attack, 42.4% had died of heart attack as the underlying cause of death by 7-year follow-up. In Mexican Americans, self-reported heart attack was associated with being older and male and having diabetes

  14. Deaths due to Plasmodium knowlesi malaria in Sabah, Malaysia: association with reporting as Plasmodium malariae and delayed parenteral artesunate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajahram, Giri S; Barber, Bridget E; William, Timothy; Menon, Jayaram; Anstey, Nicholas M; Yeo, Tsin W

    2012-08-20

    The simian parasite Plasmodium knowlesi is recognized as a common cause of severe and fatal human malaria in Sabah, Malaysia, but is morphologically indistinguishable from and still commonly reported as Plasmodium malariae, despite the paucity of this species in Sabah. Since December 2008 Sabah Department of Health has recommended intravenous artesunate and referral to a general hospital for all severe malaria cases of any species. This paper reviews all malaria deaths in Sabah subsequent to the introduction of these measures. Reporting of malaria deaths in Malaysia is mandatory. Details of reported malaria deaths during 2010-2011 were reviewed to determine the proportion of each Plasmodium species. Demographics, clinical presentations and management of severe malaria caused by each species were compared. Fourteen malaria deaths were reported, comprising seven Plasmodium falciparum, six P. knowlesi and one Plasmodium vivax (all PCR-confirmed). Of the six P. knowlesi deaths, five were attributable to knowlesi malaria and one was attributable to P. knowlesi-associated enterobacter sepsis. Patients with directly attributable P. knowlesi deaths (N = 5) were older than those with P. falciparum (median age 51 [IQR 50-65] vs 22 [IQR 9-55] years, p = 0.06). Complications in fatal P. knowlesi included respiratory distress (N = 5, 100%), hypotension (N = 4, 80%), and renal failure (N = 4, 80%). All patients with P. knowlesi were reported as P. malariae by microscopy. Only two of five patients with severe knowlesi malaria on presentation received immediate parenteral anti-malarial treatment. The patient with P. vivax-associated severe illness did not receive parenteral treatment. In contrast six of seven patients with severe falciparum malaria received immediate parenteral treatment. Plasmodium knowlesi was responsible, either directly or through gram-negative bacteraemia, for almost half of malaria deaths in Sabah. Patients with severe non

  15. Patient-safety-related hospital deaths in England: thematic analysis of incidents reported to a national database, 2010-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Liam J; Panesar, Sukhmeet S; Darzi, Ara

    2014-06-01

    Hospital mortality is increasingly being regarded as a key indicator of patient safety, yet methodologies for assessing mortality are frequently contested and seldom point directly to areas of risk and solutions. The aim of our study was to classify reports of deaths due to unsafe care into broad areas of systemic failure capable of being addressed by stronger policies, procedures, and practices. The deaths were reported to a patient safety incident reporting system after mandatory reporting of such incidents was introduced. The UK National Health Service database was searched for incidents resulting in a reported death of an adult over the period of the study. The study population comprised 2,010 incidents involving patients aged 16 y and over in acute hospital settings. Each incident report was reviewed by two of the authors, and, by scrutinising the structured information together with the free text, a main reason for the harm was identified and recorded as one of 18 incident types. These incident types were then aggregated into six areas of apparent systemic failure: mismanagement of deterioration (35%), failure of prevention (26%), deficient checking and oversight (11%), dysfunctional patient flow (10%), equipment-related errors (6%), and other (12%). The most common incident types were failure to act on or recognise deterioration (23%), inpatient falls (10%), healthcare-associated infections (10%), unexpected per-operative death (6%), and poor or inadequate handover (5%). Analysis of these 2,010 fatal incidents reveals patterns of issues that point to actionable areas for improvement. Our approach demonstrates the potential utility of patient safety incident reports in identifying areas of service failure and highlights opportunities for corrective action to save lives.

  16. Patient-safety-related hospital deaths in England: thematic analysis of incidents reported to a national database, 2010-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam J Donaldson

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hospital mortality is increasingly being regarded as a key indicator of patient safety, yet methodologies for assessing mortality are frequently contested and seldom point directly to areas of risk and solutions. The aim of our study was to classify reports of deaths due to unsafe care into broad areas of systemic failure capable of being addressed by stronger policies, procedures, and practices. The deaths were reported to a patient safety incident reporting system after mandatory reporting of such incidents was introduced. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The UK National Health Service database was searched for incidents resulting in a reported death of an adult over the period of the study. The study population comprised 2,010 incidents involving patients aged 16 y and over in acute hospital settings. Each incident report was reviewed by two of the authors, and, by scrutinising the structured information together with the free text, a main reason for the harm was identified and recorded as one of 18 incident types. These incident types were then aggregated into six areas of apparent systemic failure: mismanagement of deterioration (35%, failure of prevention (26%, deficient checking and oversight (11%, dysfunctional patient flow (10%, equipment-related errors (6%, and other (12%. The most common incident types were failure to act on or recognise deterioration (23%, inpatient falls (10%, healthcare-associated infections (10%, unexpected per-operative death (6%, and poor or inadequate handover (5%. Analysis of these 2,010 fatal incidents reveals patterns of issues that point to actionable areas for improvement. CONCLUSIONS: Our approach demonstrates the potential utility of patient safety incident reports in identifying areas of service failure and highlights opportunities for corrective action to save lives.

  17. Prevalence of self-reported constipation in adults from the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Mateus Queiroz Schmidt

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of self-reported constipation and associated factors in the general population of a Brazilian city. METHOD Secondary analysis of an epidemiological study, population-based, cross-sectional study, about bowel habits of Brazilian population. A total of 2,162 individuals were interviewed using two instruments: sociodemographic data and the adapted and validated Brazilian version of the "Bowel Function in the Community" tool. RESULTS There was a prevalence of 25.2% for the self-reported constipation, 37.2% among women and 10.2% among men. Stroke and old age were associated with constipation in the three statistical models used. CONCLUSION The prevalence found showed to be similar to the findings in the literature, although some associated factors obtained here have never been investigated.

  18. Online news media reporting of football-related fatalities in Australia: A matter of life and death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortington, Lauren V; Bekker, Sheree; Finch, Caroline F

    2018-03-01

    While deaths in sports settings are rare, they do occur. To develop an understanding of the sports and people most at risk, and to identify opportunities for prevention, routine and systematic data detailing the occurrence of these fatalities is required. There is currently no routine reporting of data of this nature in Australia. As there is often strong community interest in these incidents, the media offers an opportunity for surveillance. However before this can occur, understanding of the terminology used by the media is required. The aim of this study was to identify the terminology most frequently used in online Australian news media coverage of football-related deaths. Retrospective review of online news media. Three databases were searched for online news media reports of people who died while participating in football (all football codes) in Australia. A descriptive analysis of terminology was undertaken to identify the common language applied. Thirty-four football-related fatalities in Australia were identified between 2010-2016, via 149 separate articles. The most frequent terms identified in the media items were: Family; Club; Rugby; Football; Player; League; Died; Game; Death; Life; Loved; Hospital; Match; Young; Community; Playing; Friends; Sport; Heart; AFL [Australian Football League]. This study identified terminology used in reporting football-related fatalities in Australia, identifying common reference to terms relating to 'death' as metaphors and the frequent celebration of 'life.' The findings suggest that a reliance on researcher-generated terminology will be insufficient to reflect media discourse in prospective monitoring of sports deaths for surveillance. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Competing causes of death: a death certificate study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mackenbach, J. P.; Kunst, A. E.; Lautenbach, H.; Oei, Y. B.; Bijlsma, F.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite the widespread interest in competing causes of death, empirical information on interrelationships between causes of death is scarce. We have used death certificate information to estimate the prevalence of competing causes of death at the moment of dying from specific underlying

  20. The prevalence of self-reported neck pain in rugby union players in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Repetitive loading of the neck during the scrum or tackle phase may increase neck symptoms and pain. Objectives. The objective of this cross-sectional, descriptive study was to determine the prevalence of self-reported neck pain in rugby union players in Gauteng Province, South Africa. Methods. One hundred rugby union ...

  1. The prevalence of self-reported halitosis and oral hygiene practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims:The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of self-reported halitosis, oral hygiene practices and related diseases among Libyan students and employees.Methods: Six hundred selfadministered structured questionnaires were used to investigate self-perception of halitosis and oral hygiene practices among a ...

  2. Prevalence of self-reported food hypersensitivity among school children in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brugman, E.; Meulmeester, J.F.; Spee-Wekke, A. van der; Beuker, R.J.; Radder, J.J.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.

    1998-01-01

    Objectives: To provide national figures on the prevalence of self-reported food hypersensitivity (S-FH), and the association with socio-demographic variables and some health indicators in schoolchildren in The Netherlands. Design: As part of the Child Health Monitoring System, data were collected

  3. Self-reported gagging in dentistry: prevalence, psycho-social correlates and oral health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Houtem, C.M.H.H.; van Wijk, A.J.; Boomsma, D.I.; Ligthart, L.; Visscher, C.M.; de Jongh, A.

    2015-01-01

    Although gagging has a profound effect on the delivery of dental care, it is a relatively under-investigated phenomenon. This study aimed to derive a prevalence estimate of gagging during dental treatment based on patient-reported information, to determine some socio-demographic and psychological

  4. Comparison of Continuing Bonds Reported by Parents and Siblings after a Child's Death from Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Terrah L.; Gilmer, Mary Jo; Davies, Betty; Dietrich, Mary S.; Barrera, Maru; Fairclough, Diane L.; Vannatta, Kathryn; Gerhardt, Cynthia A.

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have distinguished similarities and differences between continuing bonds as they appear in various bereaved populations, particularly parent versus sibling cohorts following a child's death. This mixed-method study compared how parents and siblings experienced continuing bonds in 40 families who lost a child to cancer. Thirty-six…

  5. Cause-Specific Mortality and Death Certificate Reporting in Adults with Moderate to Profound Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrer, F.; McGrother, C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The study of premature deaths in people with intellectual disability (ID) has become the focus of recent policy initiatives in England. This is the first UK population-based study to explore cause-specific mortality in adults with ID compared with the general population. Methods: Cause-specific standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) and…

  6. A case report: Pavlovian conditioning as a risk factor of heroin 'overdose' death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bácskai Erika

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The authors present a case illustrating a mechanism leading directly to death which is not rare but has received little attention. Case presentation The case was evaluated by autopsy, investigation of morphine concentration in the blood, and clinical data. The heroin dose causing the 'overdose' death of a young man who had previously been treated a number of times for heroin addiction did not differ from his dose of the previous day taken in the accustomed circumstances. The accustomed dose taken in a strange environment caused fatal complications because the conditioned tolerance failed to operate. The concentration of morphine in the blood did not exceed the level measured during earlier treatment. Conclusion These results are in line with the data in the literature indicating that morphine concentrations measured in cases of drug-related death do not differ substantially from those measured in cases where the outcome is not fatal. A knowledge of the conditioning mechanism can contribute to prevention of fatal cases of a similar type. The harm reduction approach places great stress on preventive intervention based on data related to drug-related death.

  7. Urbanicity matters in self-reported child maltreatment prevalence: Findings from a nationally representative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatriz, Elizabeth D; Salhi, Carmel; Griffith, John L; Molnar, Beth E

    2018-05-01

    Despite indications that there are differences in rates of child maltreatment (CM) cases in the child protection system between urban and rural areas, there are no published studies examining the differences in self-reported CM prevalence and its correlates by urbanicity. The present study aimed to: (1) identify the distribution of self-reported childhood experiences of maltreatment by urbanicity, (2) assess whether differences by urbanicity persist after adjusting for known risk factors, and (3) explore whether the associations between these risk factors and CM are modified by urban-rural designation. Using nationally representative data from waves I and III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, the prevalence of six maltreatment outcomes was estimated for rural, minor urban, and major urban areas (N = 14,322). Multivariable logistic models were estimated identifying if risk associated with urbanicity persisted after adjusting for other risk factors. Interactions between urbanicity and main effects were explored. Prevalence estimates of any CM, poly-victimization, supervision neglect, and physical abuse were significantly higher in major urban areas. Those from major urban areas were more likely to report any maltreatment and supervision neglect even after adjusting for child and family risk factors. The association between race/ethnicity, welfare receipt, low parental educational attainment, and disability status and CM were modified by urbanicity. Significant differences in the prevalence and correlates of CM exist between urban and rural areas. Future research and policy should use self-reported prevalence, in conjunction with official reports, to inform child maltreatment prevention and intervention. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Prevalence of Self-Reported Stroke in the Australian National Eye Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keel, Stuart; Foreman, Joshua; Xie, Jing; Taylor, Hugh R; Dirani, Mohamed

    2017-07-01

    The study aimed to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for self-reported stroke in Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. In this national eye study, 1738 Indigenous Australians (41.1% male) aged 40-92 years and 3098 non-Indigenous Australians (46.4% male) aged 50-98 years from 30 randomly selected sites, stratified by remoteness, were recruited and examined. Sociodemographic information and a history of stroke, diabetes, and ocular health were obtained using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. The crude prevalence of self-reported stroke was 5.04% (156 of 3098, 95% confidence interval: 4.29%-5.87%) for non-Indigenous Australians and 8.75% (152 of 1738, 95% confidence interval: 7.46%-10.17%) for Indigenous Australians (P self-reported stroke for non-Indigenous and Indigenous Australians was 4.23% and 12.72%, respectively. The prevalence of stroke increased significantly with age for both Indigenous (odds ratio = 1.06 per year, P ≤ .001) and non-Indigenous Australians (odds ratio = 1.04 per year, P ≤ .001), with the Indigenous prevalence being higher than that of the non-Indigenous group at every age. The prevalence of self-reported stroke was 3 times higher in Indigenous Australians than in non-Indigenous Australians. This disparity is consistent with previous reports, highlighting the need for intensified prevention and support services to reduce the burden of stroke on Indigenous Australians. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Self-reported dysphagia and its correlates within a prevalent population of people with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Richard W; Dunn, Janet R; Gray, William K

    2011-03-01

    Many people with Parkinson's disease (PD) experience dysphagia; however, the prevalence of dysphagia in people with PD is unknown. We studied a prevalent population of PD cases. All of those who consented to participate were assessed for anxiety, depression, cognitive function, and quality of life using standard rating scales. Anyone who answered "yes" to either one of the two questions: Do you have difficulty swallowing food/liquid or tablets? and Do you cough after eating/drinking? was considered to have dysphagia. Question 7 of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) was also used to identify dysphagia. Of 106 prevalent PD cases, 75 (38 males) patients consented to examination and assessment. The prevalence of dysphagia was 32.0% (n=24; 11 males). Using the response to UPDRS Question 7 as an indicator of the impact of swallowing problems on the patient, there were significant correlations with cognitive function, anxiety, depression, quality of life, and UPDRS-reported gait disturbance, postural instability and problems with falling. There was no correlation with disease duration, age, or gender. Almost one third of the participants reported dysphagia. There was a strong correlation between dysphagia and gross motor skills; patients reporting such problems should be screened for swallowing problems. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

  10. A Survey of the Prevalence and Impact of Reporting Guideline Endorsement in Pathology Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Justin E; March, Jordon K; Cohen, Michael B; Schmidt, Robert L

    2017-10-01

    To determine the prevalence of reporting guideline endorsement in pathology journals and to estimate the impact of guideline endorsement. We compared the quality of reporting in two sets of studies: (1) studies published in journals that explicitly mentioned a guideline vs studies published in journals that did not and (2) studies that cited a guideline vs studies that did not. The quality of reporting in prognostic biomarker studies was assessed using the REporting recommendations for tumor MARKer prognostic studies (REMARK) guideline. We found that six (10%) of the 59 leading pathology journals explicitly mention reporting guidelines in the instructions to authors. Only one journal required authors to submit a checklist. There was significant variation in the rate at which various REMARK items were reported (P Journal endorsement was associated with more complete reporting (P = .04). Studies that cited REMARK had greater adherence to the REMARK reporting guidelines than studies that did not (P = .02). The prevalence of guideline endorsement is relatively low in pathology journals, but guideline endorsement may improve the quality of reporting. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  11. AsMA Medical Guidelines for Air Travel: Reported In-Flight Medical Events and Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibeault, Claude; Evans, Anthony D

    2015-06-01

    Medical Guidelines for Airline Travel provide information that enables healthcare providers to properly advise patients who plan to travel by air. Although there are no publicly available databases providing information on the number of in-flight medical emergencies, the few studies published in the literature indicate that they are uncommon. Minor illnesses such as near-fainting, dizziness, and hyperventilation occur more frequently. However, serious illnesses, such as seizures and myocardial infarction, also occur. In-flight deaths are also rare.

  12. Reporting detection of Chlamydia trachomatis DNA in tissues of neonatal death cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Hernandez Trejo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to determine whether C. trachomatis was present in neonates with infection, but without an isolated pathogen, who died during the first week of life. METHODS: early neonatal death cases whose causes of death had been previously adjudicated by the institutional mortality committee were randomly selected. End-point and real-time polymerase chain reaction of the C. trachomatis omp1 gene was used to blindly identify the presence of chlamydial DNA in the paraffinized samples of five organs (from authorized autopsies of each of the dead neonates. Additionally, differential diagnoses were conducted by amplifying a fragment of the 16S rRNA of Mycoplasma spp. RESULTS: in five cases (35.7%, C. trachomatis DNA was found in one or more organs. Severe neonatal infection was present in three cases; one of them corresponded to genotype D of C. trachomatis. Interestingly, another case fulfilled the same criteria but had a positive polymerase chain reaction for Mycoplasma hominis, a pathogen known to produce sepsis in newborns. CONCLUSION: the use of molecular biology techniques in these cases of early infant mortality demonstrated that C. trachomatis could play a role in the development of severe infection and in early neonatal death, similarly to that observed with Mycoplasma hominis. Further study is required to determine the pathogenesis of this perinatal infection.

  13. 42 CFR 71.21 - Radio report of death or illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... passengers must report by radio 24 hours before arrival the number of cases (including zero) of diarrhea in... occur after the 24 hour report must also be reported not less than 4 hours before arrival. (Approved by...

  14. Prevalence and Characterization of Self-Reported Gluten Sensitivity in The Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom van Gils

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: A growing number of individuals reports symptoms related to the ingestion of gluten-containing food in the absence of celiac disease. Yet the actual prevalence is not well established. Methods: Between April 2015 and March 2016, unselected adults visiting marketplaces, dental practices and a university in The Netherlands were asked to complete a modified validated questionnaire for self-reported gluten sensitivity (srGS. Results: Among the 785 adults enquired, two had celiac disease. Forty-nine (6.2% reported symptoms related to the ingestion of gluten-containing food. These individuals were younger, predominantly female and lived more frequently in urban regions compared with the other respondents. Symptoms reported included bloating (74%, abdominal discomfort (49% and flatulence (47%. A total of 23 (47% srGS individuals reported having had tried a gluten-free or gluten-restricted diet. Abdominal discomfort related to fermentable oligosaccharide, disaccharide, monosaccharide and polyol (FODMAP-containing food was more often reported in srGS individuals compared with the other respondents (73.5% vs. 21.7%, p < 0.001. Conclusion: Self-reported GS is common in The Netherlands, especially in younger individuals, females and urban regions, although the prevalence was lower than in a comparable recent UK study. It cannot be excluded that FODMAPs are in part responsible for these symptoms.

  15. Race/ethnicity, substance abuse, and mental illness among suicide victims in 13 US states: 2004 data from the National Violent Death Reporting System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karch, D L; Barker, L; Strine, T W

    2006-12-01

    To calculate the prevalence of substance abuse and mental illness among suicide victims of different racial/ethnic groups and to identify race/ethnicity trends in mental health and substance abuse that may be used to improve suicide prevention. Data are from the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS), a state-based data integration system that, for 2004, includes data from 13 US states. The NVDRS integrates medical examiner, toxicology, death certificate, and law enforcement data. Within participating states, for data year 2004, 6865 suicide incidents in which race/ethnicity are known were identified. This included 5797 (84.4%) non-Hispanic whites, 501 (7.3%) non-Hispanic blacks, 257 (3.7%) Hispanics, and 310 (4.5%) persons from other racial/ethnic groups. At the time of the suicide event, non-Hispanic blacks had lower blood alcohol contents than other groups. Non-Hispanic whites had less cocaine but more antidepressants and opiates. There were no differences in the levels of amphetamines or marijuana by race/ethnicity. Hispanics were less likely to have been diagnosed with a mental illness or to have received treatment, although family reports of depression were comparable to non-Hispanic whites and other racial/ethnic groups. Non-Hispanic whites were more likely to be diagnosed with depression or bipolar disorder and non-Hispanic blacks with schizophrenia. Comorbid substance abuse and mental health problems were more likely among non-Hispanic whites and non-Hispanic blacks, while Hispanics were more likely to have a substance abuse problem without comorbid mental health problems. The results support earlier research documenting differences in race/ethnicity, substance abuse, and mental health problems as they relate to completed suicide. The data suggest that suicide prevention efforts must address not only substance abuse and mental health problems in general, but the unique personal, family, and social characteristics of different racial/ethnic groups.

  16. Perceived HIV stigma among children in a high HIV-prevalence area in central China: beyond the parental HIV-related illness and death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiuyun; Zhao, Guoxiang; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita; Zhang, Liying; Hong, Yan; Zhao, Junfeng; Fang, Xiaoyi

    2010-05-01

    (1) Examine the psychometric properties of two parallel measures of HIV-related stigma (i.e., perceived public stigma and children's personal stigma against people living with HIV/AIDS [PLWHA]) among children affected by HIV/AIDS. (2) Examine whether expressions of stigma measures differ by child's sex, developmental stage, family socioeconomic status (SES), or orphanhood status (i.e., AIDS orphans, vulnerable children, and comparison children). (3) Examine the association between HIV-related stigma and children's psychosocial adjustments among these children. Cross-sectional data were collected from 755 AIDS orphans (children who had lost one or both their parents to AIDS), 466 vulnerable children who lived with HIV infected parents, and 404 comparison children who did not experience HIV-related illness and death in their families. The measures included perceived public stigma, personal stigma, depressive symptoms, loneliness, self-esteem, future expectations, hopefulness about the future, and perceived control over the future. Both stigma scales were positively associated with psychopathological symptoms (e.g., depression, loneliness) and negatively associated with psychosocial well-being (e.g., self-esteem, positive future expectation, hopefulness about future, and perceived control over the future). Both stigma measures contribute to children's psychosocial problems independent of their orphanhood status and other key demographic factors. Community-wide stigma reduction and psychological support should be part of the care efforts for children affected by AIDS. Stigma reduction efforts should not only target the stigma against PLWHA but also possible stigma against the entire community (e.g., villages) with a high prevalence of HIV/AIDS. The stigma reduction efforts also needs to be appropriate for children's age, gender, family SES, and AIDS experience in the family. Future research should explore individual and contextual factors such as social support, coping

  17. Idiopathic systemic granulomatous pathology causing sudden death due to myocarditis: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpal Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic granulomatous myocarditis is extremely rare, particularly since the introduction of drugs effective against tuberculosis (TB, viruses, fungi and the effective treatment of sarcoidosis. Here is a case of a 65-year-old female prisoner having history of sudden collapse and ultimately death. Autopsy findings of various viscera on histopathological examination show granulomatous pathology, that is, in spleen, liver and in the left ventricular wall of heart. Ziehl-Neelsen staining of the sections show the absence of acid fast bacilli, negative for fungal staining as most of the granulomas are noncaseating type with presence of giant cells having no asteroid body and Schuamann body, real-time polymerase chain reaction for TB is negative. Idiopathic giant cell myocarditis is a disease of relatively young adults, that is, between 3 rd and 4 th decade of life. So, this case is strongly considered to be a case of sudden death due to myocarditis as a result of idiopathic systemic granulomatous pathology, a rare case in in literature.

  18. Preventive health care and owner-reported disease prevalence of horses and ponies in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, J L; Wylie, C E; Collins, S N; Verheyen, K L P; Newton, J R

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to describe the provision of preventive health care and owner-reported disease prevalence in horses and ponies within Great Britain (GB), and to assess geographical variations in health care provision. A cross-sectional survey was conducted, using a postal questionnaire administered to a random sample of veterinary-registered owners of horses and ponies in GB (n=797). The majority of animals received regular preventive health care: 95.6% had regular hoof care; 71.3% were vaccinated for both influenza and tetanus and median time since last anthelmintic administration was 8.7 weeks. Thirty-one percent of owners indicated their animal was overweight/obese. A new health problem within the previous 7 days was reported for 7.4% of animals, 59.3% of which were veterinary-diagnosed. Thirty-two percent of animals were reported to have a long-term/recurrent condition, of which osteoarthritis (13.9%) was the most prevalent. Obesity, musculoskeletal disorders, and dermatological conditions were the most prevalent conditions affecting veterinary-registered horses/ponies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Nationwide Prevalence of Self-Reported Serious Sensory Impairments and Their Associations with Self-Reported Cognitive and Functional Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Spencer D; Mudie, Lucy I; Siordia, Carlos; Swenor, Bonnielin K; Friedman, David S

    2018-04-01

    To estimate the nationwide prevalence of self-reported serious vision impairment (SVI), serious hearing impairment (SHI), and serious dual sensory impairment (DSI; i.e., concomitant SVI and SHI) and to characterize their associations with self-reported cognitive, independent living, self-care, and ambulatory difficulties. The American Community Survey (ACS) is a nationwide cross-sectional survey administered by the United States Census Bureau. The 2011-2015 ACS sample contains data on 7 210 535 individuals 45 years of age or older. Descriptive statistics for each of the 4 mutually exclusive sensory impairment categories no sensory impairment (NSI), SVI, SHI, and serious DSI were calculated using the weighted sample. Adjusted odds ratios using several logistic regressions were calculated using the unweighted sample to measure the magnitude of associations between sensory impairment status and the outcome difficulties. Self-reported cognitive, independent living, self-care, and ambulatory difficulty. Among individuals 45 years of age or older, the estimated nationwide prevalence of self-reported SVI alone is 2.8%, that of SHI alone is 6.0%, and that of serious DSI is 1.6%. The prevalence of each sensory impairment increases with age. A greater proportion of American Indians or Alaskan Natives experience SVI (4.8%), SHI (8.5%), and serious DSI (3.7%) than any other race or ethnic group (P self-reported serious sensory impairment increases with age and is distributed unequally among different racial and ethnic groups. Any sensory impairment is associated with greater cognitive and functional difficulties than NSI. Additionally, serious DSI is associated with greater difficulties than SVI or SHI alone, and SVI alone is more serious than SHI alone in each of the 4 cognitive and functional difficulties. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Analysis of prevalence of self-reported hearing loss and associated factors: primary versus proxy informant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevedo, André Luis Alves de; Leotti, Vanessa Bielefeldt; Goulart, Bárbara Niegia Garcia de

    2017-07-03

    The objective was to evaluate differences between prevalence rates for self-reported hearing loss and associated factors, obtained from responses by primary and proxy informants in a Population-Based Study on Human Communication Disorders (DCH-POP in Portuguese). This was a study on epidemiological methods using data from a cross-sectional household survey with a sample of 1,253 individuals from Southern Brazil. To verify differences between prevalence rates comparing primary informants and proxy informants, we used the chi-square or Fisher's exact test for categorical variables and Mann-Whitney for continuous variables. The log-binomial model was adjusted for hearing loss as the dependent variable, considering three datasets: the entire sample, only primary informants, and only proxy informants, estimating association by prevalence ratios. In the final models, only the independent variables age and dizziness were associated with hearing loss, independently of the dataset that was used. Proxy informants generally underestimated the prevalence rates for the target outcomes, when compared to primary informants.

  1. Intimate partner homicide and corollary victims in 16 states: National Violent Death Reporting System, 2003-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sharon G; Fowler, Katherine A; Niolon, Phyllis H

    2014-03-01

    We estimated the frequency and examined the characteristics of intimate partner homicide and related deaths in 16 US states participating in the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS), a state-based surveillance system. We used a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods to analyze NVDRS data from 2003 to 2009. We selected deaths linked to intimate partner violence for analysis. Our sample comprised 4470 persons who died in the course of 3350 intimate partner violence-related homicide incidents. Intimate partners and corollary victims represented 80% and 20% of homicide victims, respectively. Corollary homicide victims included family members, new intimate partners, friends, acquaintances, police officers, and strangers. Our findings, from the first multiple-state study of intimate partner homicide and corollary homicides, demonstrate that the burden of intimate partner violence extends beyond the couple involved. Systems (e.g., criminal justice, medical care, and shelters) whose representatives routinely interact with victims of intimate partner violence can help assess the potential for lethal danger, which may prevent intimate partner and corollary victims from harm.

  2. Intimate Partner Homicide and Corollary Victims in 16 States: National Violent Death Reporting System, 2003–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Katherine A.; Niolon, Phyllis H.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated the frequency and examined the characteristics of intimate partner homicide and related deaths in 16 US states participating in the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS), a state-based surveillance system. Methods. We used a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods to analyze NVDRS data from 2003 to 2009. We selected deaths linked to intimate partner violence for analysis. Results. Our sample comprised 4470 persons who died in the course of 3350 intimate partner violence–related homicide incidents. Intimate partners and corollary victims represented 80% and 20% of homicide victims, respectively. Corollary homicide victims included family members, new intimate partners, friends, acquaintances, police officers, and strangers. Conclusions. Our findings, from the first multiple-state study of intimate partner homicide and corollary homicides, demonstrate that the burden of intimate partner violence extends beyond the couple involved. Systems (e.g., criminal justice, medical care, and shelters) whose representatives routinely interact with victims of intimate partner violence can help assess the potential for lethal danger, which may prevent intimate partner and corollary victims from harm. PMID:24432943

  3. Unusual death due to a bleeding from a varicose vein: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fragkouli Kleio

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Varicose veins are a common entity presenting a worldwide distribution. Although they are usually benign, sometimes are proved to be a threatening condition. Massive hemorrhage is an unusual complication of this common venous pathology that demands immediate medical intervention. Case presentation We present a case of a 66-year-old woman found dead in her house surrounded by a large quantity of blood. Autopsy revealed a 7 mm ulcer on the internal surface of the left lower leg communicating with a varicose vein, signs of exsanguinations and liver cirrhosis. Toxicological analysis was negative. Conclusion Massive hemorrhage from a ruptured varicosity is a severe medical emergency. Awareness of the risk of massive hemorrhage may provoke preventive treatment to be undertaken so as terminal loss of consciousness and a subsequent unattended death to be averted.

  4. Sudden death after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)--case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Goran; Milosevic, Marko; Zelić, Marko; Stimac, Davor

    2014-12-01

    There are only a few cases found in literature regarding air embolism in endoscopic procedures, especially in connection to endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). We are presenting a case of a 56-year-old female patient who suffered from non-Hodgkin lymphoma located in her right groin. She was also diagnosed with choledocholithiasis and underwent ERCP to remove the gallstones. Immediately after the procedure she went into sudden cardiac arrest and subsequently died, despite all of our efforts. We reviewed literature in order to identify possible causes of death because fatal outcome following an uneventful and successful procedure was not expected. It is important to bear in mind all possible complications of ERCP. Our focus during the literature search was on air embolism.

  5. The prevalence of very preterm deliveries, risk factors, and neonatal complications in Arash women hospital: a brief report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abootaleb Beigi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Very preterm birth (26-32 weeks has an important effect on infant morta-lity and disability of infancy. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of very preterm delivery and early neonatal morbidity (the first 28 days after birth.Methods: In this cross-sectional retrospective study, among 4393 delivery in Arash Women's Hospital in Tehran, 59 deliveries were very preterm that resulted in 79 very preterm neonate births. We assessed maternal risk factors and neonatal complications in women who were admitted for delivery from March 2009 to March 2010.Results: Among 59 pregnant women, 17 (12/27% had multiple pregnancies and 17 (12/27% had premature rupture of fetal membranes. Caesarean section method was more common than normal vaginal delivery (46 cases- 97/77%. Women aged 18 to 35 had the highest rate of preterm delivery (45/86%. Among 79 very preterm neonates about half of them were very low birth weight, 74 neonates (93/67% suffered from respiratory distress syndrome and 13 deaths were reported.Conclusion: Premature birth is a multi-factorial phenomenon. Identifying maternal risk factors and increasing knowledge about it can decrease the rate of preterm labor. The prevention of premature labor is better than cure. Further prospective studies with large number of patients and long-term follow-up are recommended for better understanding of the phenomenon.

  6. Identifying and Tracking Gas Suicides in the U.S. Using the National Violent Death Reporting System, 2005-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azrael, Deborah; Mukamal, Alexander; Cohen, Amy P; Gunnell, David; Barber, Catherine; Miller, Matthew

    2016-11-01

    Identifying the source and specific type of gas used in suicides is difficult using most data systems owing to limitations in ICD-10 coding. The National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS), with its rich collection of both coded and free-text variables, has the potential to overcome these limitations. This study used a multipronged approach to identify gas-specific suicides in NVDRS and to track the incidence of these suicides over time. Using suicide cases from the 16 NVDRS states that participated throughout 2005-2012, free-text and code searches were conducted for four types of variables-incident narratives, coroner/medical examiner cause-of-death statements, cause-of-death codes, and substance names-to identify suicides by carbon monoxide, helium, hydrogen sulfide, and four other gases. All analyses were conducted in 2015. Approximately 4% (3,242 of 80,715) of suicides recorded in NVDRS over the study period were the result of gas inhalation. Of these, the majority (73%) were carbon monoxide suicides (almost exclusively from motor vehicle exhaust and charcoal burning). Other types of gas (most notably helium), once rare, are now more common: At the start of the study period non-carbon monoxide gas suicides represented 15% of all gas suicides; at the end of the study period, they represented 40%. Public health policies to reduce a suicidal person's access to more lethal suicide methods require a reliable source of surveillance data on specific methods used in suicide. Small changes to NVDRS could make it an efficient and nimble surveillance system for tracking these deaths. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Tritium releases, birth defects and infant deaths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The AECB has published a report 'Tritium releases from the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station and Birth Defects and Infant Mortality in Nearby Communities 1971-1988' (report number INFO-0401). This presents the results of a detailed analysis of deaths and birth defects occurring in infants born to mothers living in the area (25 Km radius) of the Pickering nuclear power plant, over an 18-year period. The analysis looked at the frequency of these defects and deaths in comparison to the general rate for Ontario, and also in relation to airborne and waterborne releases of tritium from the power plant. The overall conclusion was that the rates of infant death and birth defects were generally not higher in the study population than in all of Ontario. There was no prevalent relationship between these deaths and defects and tritium releases measured either at the power plant or by ground monitoring stations t some distance from the facility

  8. Proxy-Reports in the Ascertainment of Disability Prevalence with American Community Survey Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siordia, C

    2014-01-01

    Population estimates on disability prevalence inform policy makers and public health professionals. Understanding how factors capable of affecting measurement (e.g., proxy-report) vary in the population is important for establishing level of confidence in sample-derived population estimates. To establish how use of proxy-reports varies by six disability types stratified by sex, race-ethnicity, and age group. Specific aim is achieved by investigating the number of proxy-reports used amongst the disable population. Cross-sectional study using American Community Survey (ACS) Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS) 3-year file collected during 2009-2011 survey period. Community-dwelling population in continental United States (US). The unweighted count of 6,003,183 individuals in the microdata are said to represent about 193,277,485 individuals in the continental US population. Stratified disability period estimates are computed. Amongst the disable: the number of proxy-reports; allocations; and Person Inflation Ratios (PRIs) are presented by disability type. Half of all the reported disabilities are derived through the use of proxy-report. In addition, high rates of item-allocation and PRIs are generally found in race-ethnic minorities. Proxy-report use and PRIs are lower for those aged > 65-but not allocation rates. Although use of proxy report in the ascertainment of disability varies in complex ways, data suggest prevalence of proxy reports is lowest amongst Non-Latino-Black females ages 21 to 64. Efforts toward providing clinicians with high quality descriptive epidemiology should continue as a reliable thermometer for measuring disability in the population is needed.

  9. Men's reports of nonconsensual sexual interactions with women: prevalence and impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahé, Barbara; Scheinberger-Olwig, Renate; Bieneck, Steffen

    2003-04-01

    Two studies examined the prevalence and emotional impact of men's nonconsensual sexual interactions with women. The first study included a sample of 247 heterosexual men with a mean age of 18.3 years. The second study was a replication with a sample of 153 heterosexual men with a mean age of 22.3 years. All respondents completed a measure of nonconsensual sexual interactions including the use of three aggressive strategies (physical force, exploitation of the man's incapacitated state, and verbal pressure) and three forms of unwanted sexual contact (kissing/petting, sexual intercourse, and oral sex). In addition, the relationship to the female initiator was explored. For each type of nonconsensual sexual interaction, respondents indicated the affective impact of the experience. In Study 1, 25.1% of respondents reported at least one incident of nonconsensual sex with a woman and 23.9% reported attempts by women to make them engage in nonconsensual sexual activity. In Study 2, the overall prevalence rate for completed nonconsensual sexual interactions was 30.1%, and 23.5% of the men reported attempts at making them engage in nonconsensual sex. In both samples, exploiting the man's inability to offer resistance was the most frequently reported aggressive strategy. Kissing/petting was the most frequently reported unwanted sexual activity, followed by sexual intercourse and oral sex. Prevalence rates were higher for nonconsensual sex with an (ex-)partner or friend than for nonconsensual sex with an unknown women. Ratings of affective impact revealed that men rated their nonconsensual experiences as moderately upsetting. The findings are discussed in the light of previous studies on men's unwanted sexual experiences and the extant literature on women's nonconsensual sexual interactions with men.

  10. Can Community Health Workers Report Accurately on Births and Deaths? Results of Field Assessments in Ethiopia, Malawi and Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Romesh; Amouzou, Agbessi; Munos, Melinda; Marsh, Andrew; Hazel, Elizabeth; Victora, Cesar; Black, Robert; Bryce, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Most low-income countries lack complete and accurate vital registration systems. As a result, measures of under-five mortality rates rely mostly on household surveys. In collaboration with partners in Ethiopia, Ghana, Malawi, and Mali, we assessed the completeness and accuracy of reporting of births and deaths by community-based health workers, and the accuracy of annualized under-five mortality rate estimates derived from these data. Here we report on results from Ethiopia, Malawi and Mali. In all three countries, community health workers (CHWs) were trained, equipped and supported to report pregnancies, births and deaths within defined geographic areas over a period of at least fifteen months. In-country institutions collected these data every month. At each study site, we administered a full birth history (FBH) or full pregnancy history (FPH), to women of reproductive age via a census of households in Mali and via household surveys in Ethiopia and Malawi. Using these FBHs/FPHs as a validation data source, we assessed the completeness of the counts of births and deaths and the accuracy of under-five, infant, and neonatal mortality rates from the community-based method against the retrospective FBH/FPH for rolling twelve-month periods. For each method we calculated total cost, average annual cost per 1,000 population, and average cost per vital event reported. On average, CHWs submitted monthly vital event reports for over 95 percent of catchment areas in Ethiopia and Malawi, and for 100 percent of catchment areas in Mali. The completeness of vital events reporting by CHWs varied: we estimated that 30%-90% of annualized expected births (i.e. the number of births estimated using a FPH) were documented by CHWs and 22%-91% of annualized expected under-five deaths were documented by CHWs. Resulting annualized under-five mortality rates based on the CHW vital events reporting were, on average, under-estimated by 28% in Ethiopia, 32% in Malawi, and 9% in Mali relative

  11. Prevalence and patterns of self-reported animal-related injury among veterinarians in metropolitan Kampala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabuusu, Richard M; Keku, Emmanuel O; Kiyini, Robert; McCann, Theresa J

    2010-12-01

    To establish the prevalence, patterns and risk factors of animal-related injuries among veterinarians, self-administered questionnaires were given to 60 veterinarians practicing in metropolitan Kampala. The prevalence of animal-related injuries in metropolitan Kampala was 72% (95%CI, 57~84). Some veterinarians (34%) suffered multiple injuries with a mean and median of 2.1 and 2.0 injuries per veterinarian, respectively. Of a total of 70 self-reported animal related injuries, cattle accounted for 72%, cats for 25%, dogs for 23%, self inoculation for 15% and birds for 13%. Injuries associated with poultry did not require hospital treatment. The upper limb was the most the frequently (68%) injured anatomical body part of veterinarians, and vaccination of animals (25%) was the major activity associated with injury. Animal-related injuries are common among practicing veterinarians in metropolitan Kampala; however, they did not differ significantly based on the veterinarian's gender, experience or risk awareness.

  12. Prevalence and patterns of self-reported animal-related injury among veterinarians in metropolitan Kampala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keku, Emmanuel O.; Kiyini, Robert; McCann, Theresa J.

    2010-01-01

    To establish the prevalence, patterns and risk factors of animal-related injuries among veterinarians, self-administered questionnaires were given to 60 veterinarians practicing in metropolitan Kampala. The prevalence of animal-related injuries in metropolitan Kampala was 72% (95%CI, 57~84). Some veterinarians (34%) suffered multiple injuries with a mean and median of 2.1 and 2.0 injuries per veterinarian, respectively. Of a total of 70 self-reported animal related injuries, cattle accounted for 72%, cats for 25%, dogs for 23%, self inoculation for 15% and birds for 13%. Injuries associated with poultry did not require hospital treatment. The upper limb was the most the frequently (68%) injured anatomical body part of veterinarians, and vaccination of animals (25%) was the major activity associated with injury. Animal-related injuries are common among practicing veterinarians in metropolitan Kampala; however, they did not differ significantly based on the veterinarian's gender, experience or risk awareness. PMID:21113109

  13. Prevalence of hearing loss and accuracy of self-report among factory workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullagh, Marjorie C; Raymond, Delbert; Kerr, Madeleine J; Lusk, Sally L

    2011-01-01

    Noise represents one of the most common occupational health hazards. A Healthy People 2020 objective aims to reduce hearing loss in the noise-exposed public. The purpose of this study was to describe and compare perceived and measured hearing, and to determine the prevalence of hearing loss among a group of factory workers. Data collected as part of an intervention study promoting hearing protector use among workers at an automotive factory in the Midwest were used. Plant employees (n=2691) provided information regarding their perceived hearing ability, work role, and other demographics. The relationships among audiograms, a single-item measure of perceived hearing ability, and demographic data were explored using chi-square, McNemar's test, Mann-Whitney U-test, sensitivity, and specificity. The prevalence of hearing loss among noise-exposed factory workers was 42% (where hearing loss was defined as >25 dB loss at the OSHA-recommended frequencies of 2, 3, and 4 kHz in either ear). However, 76% of workers reported their hearing ability as excellent or good. The difference in perceived hearing ability was significant at each tested frequency between those with and without measured hearing loss. Self-reported hearing ability was poorly related to results of audiometry. Although this group of workers was employed in a regulated environment and served by a hearing conservation program, hearing loss was highly prevalent. These findings, together with national prevalence estimates, support the need for evaluation of hearing conservation programs and increased attention to the national goal of reducing adult hearing loss.

  14. Prevalence of hearing loss and accuracy of self-report among factory workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie C McCullagh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise represents one of the most common occupational health hazards. A Healthy People 2020 objective aims to reduce hearing loss in the noise-exposed public. The purpose of this study was to describe and compare perceived and measured hearing, and to determine the prevalence of hearing loss among a group of factory workers. Data collected as part of an intervention study promoting hearing protector use among workers at an automotive factory in the Midwest were used. Plant employees (n=2691 provided information regarding their perceived hearing ability, work role, and other demographics. The relationships among audiograms, a single-item measure of perceived hearing ability, and demographic data were explored using chi-square, McNemar′s test, Mann-Whitney U-test, sensitivity, and specificity. The prevalence of hearing loss among noise-exposed factory workers was 42% (where hearing loss was defined as >25 dB loss at the OSHA-recommended frequencies of 2, 3, and 4 kHz in either ear. However, 76% of workers reported their hearing ability as excellent or good. The difference in perceived hearing ability was significant at each tested frequency between those with and without measured hearing loss. Self-reported hearing ability was poorly related to results of audiometry. Although this group of workers was employed in a regulated environment and served by a hearing conservation program, hearing loss was highly prevalent. These findings, together with national prevalence estimates, support the need for evaluation of hearing conservation programs and increased attention to the national goal of reducing adult hearing loss.

  15. Prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder and associated features in German adolescents: A self-report survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möllmann, Anne; Dietel, Fanny A; Hunger, Antje; Buhlmann, Ulrike

    2017-08-01

    Prior research has not yet investigated the prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) in adolescents and young adults based on criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5). In the current study, the point prevalence of BDD, comorbid symptoms, and associated features, such as appearance-related suicidality, level of insight or history of plastic surgeries, were examined in a non-clinical sample of German adolescents and young adults (n=308), between 15 and 21 years old, using self-report measures. Eleven participants (3.6%; 95% CI=[1.9, 5.8]) met DSM-5 criteria for BDD. Self-reported BDD (vs. no-BDD) was related to respondents showing significantly more obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms and lower degrees of insight regarding appearance concerns. Significantly more adolescents and young adults with vs. without self-reported BDD (36.4% vs. 8.8%) reported appearance-related suicidal ideation. In conclusion, body dysmorphic symptoms are common in adolescents and young adults and are associated with high rates of comorbid symptoms and suicidal ideation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Prevalence of parent-reported immediate hypersensitivity food allergy in Chilean school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyos-Bachiloglu, R; Ivanovic-Zuvic, D; Álvarez, J; Linn, K; Thöne, N; de los Ángeles Paul, M; Borzutzky, A

    2014-01-01

    Food allergies (FAs) affect 2-4% of school-aged children in developed countries and strongly impact their quality of life. The prevalence of FA in Chile remains unknown. Cross-sectional survey study of 488 parents of school-aged children from Santiago who were asked to complete a FA screening questionnaire. Parents who reported symptoms suggestive of FA were contacted to answer a second in-depth questionnaire to determine immediate hypersensitivity FA prevalence and clinical characteristics of school-aged Chilean children. A total of 455 parents answered the screening questionnaire: 13% reported recurrent symptoms to a particular food and 6% reported FA. Forty-three screening questionnaires (9%) were found to be suggestive of FA. Parents of 40 children answered the second questionnaire; 25 were considered by authors to have FA. FA rate was 5.5% (95% CI: 3.6-7.9). Foods reported to frequently cause FA included walnut, peanut, egg, chocolate, avocado, and banana. Children with FA had more asthma (20% vs. 7%, PChilean children may suffer from FA, most frequently to walnut and peanut. It is critical to raise awareness in Chile regarding FA and recognition of anaphylaxis, and promote epinephrine autoinjectors in affected children. Copyright © 2013 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Prevalence and causes of self-reported work-related stress in head teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Samantha; Sen, Dil; McNamee, Roseanne

    2007-08-01

    Work-related stress (WRS) is the leading cause of occupational ill-health in the education sector in the UK. Headship is believed to be a stressful role although there is little current research into stress in head teachers. Changes in the education sector since the late 1980s have meant that the findings of many existing studies are outdated. To investigate prevalence and causes of self-reported, WRS in head teachers in West Sussex, UK. A cross-sectional study using postal questionnaire in a population of 290 head teachers and principals. The measuring instrument was a short stress evaluation tool (ASSET) plus additional questions derived from previous studies. Stress cases were defined as respondents who felt their work was 'very or extremely stressful'. Prevalence of self-reported, WRS was 43%. Using ASSET scoring, work overload and work-life imbalance were the key stressors. Females were significantly more stressed than males for a number of stressors including overload and control. Although there was some evidence that primary head teachers fared worse than their secondary counterparts, once the confounding effects of gender were included, there were few significant differences. The prevalence of self-reported stress in head teachers in West Sussex is significantly increased compared to recent studies of workers in the UK. The recurring theme in existing studies of workload as a main stressor is confirmed in the findings of this study. Gender and type of school does affect outcome and female head teachers have more reported stressors than their male colleagues.

  18. High prevalence of self-reported injuries and illnesses in talented female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, A; Clarsen, B; Verhagen, E A L M; Stubbe, J H

    2017-01-01

    A thorough knowledge of the epidemiology and severity of injuries and illness in youth female elite sports is lacking due to the methodological challenges involved in recording them. In this study, the prevalence and incidence of injuries and illness are assessed among youth female elite athletes. Instead of solely focusing on time-loss injuries, our study included all substantial and non-substantial health problems (ie, injuries, mental problems and illnesses). Sixty young elite Dutch female athletes (age: 16.6 years (SD: 2.3), weight: 58.3 kg (SD: 15.1), height: 154.1 cm (SD: 44.2)) participating in soccer (n=23), basketball (n=22) and gymnastic (n=15) talent development programmes were prospectively followed during one season (September 2014 to April 2015). To collect health problem data, all athletes completed the Oslo Sports Trauma Research Center Questionnaire on Health Problems every other week. Main outcome measures were average prevalence of injury and incidence density of injury. At any given time, 47.9% of the athletes reported an injury (95% CI 43.6% to 52.6%) and 9.1% reported an illness (95% CI 5.1 to 19.0). The average injury incidence density was 8.6 per 1000 hours of athlete exposure. The average number of self-reported injuries per athlete per season was significantly higher in soccer athletes (4.3±2.7) than in basketball athletes (2.6±2.0) (p=0.03) and not significantly higher than in the gymnastic squad. The knee and the ankle were two of the most common injury locations for all squads. Knee injuries in basketball and soccer and heel injuries in the gymnastic squad had the highest impact on sports participation. High prevalence of self-reported injuries among talented female athletes suggests that future efforts towards their prevention are warranted.

  19. Trends in adult suicides in New Mexico: utilizing data from the New Mexico violent death reporting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styka, Anne N; White, David S; Zumwalt, Ross E; Lathrop, Sarah L

    2010-01-01

    Although many suicide prevention programs focus on youth suicides, data indicate the vast majority of suicides occur among adults (18-64 years). In 2005 New Mexico joined the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Violent Death Reporting System, collecting data on suicides, homicides, and unintentional firearm fatalities to better inform state and national prevention programs. We utilized data collected by the New Mexico Violent Death Reporting System in its first 2 years of operation (2005 and 2006) in order to define the demographic patterns of adult suicides in the state and characterize risk factors. A total of 526 suicides occurred among adults during this time, with the majority being male (78.5%) and White non-Hispanic (56.7%). The highest incidence was in adults between 45 and 54 years (28.1%). Firearms were the most commonly used mechanism, and "current depressed mood" the most commonly identified risk factor. High rates of adult suicide indicate the need for targeted prevention programs.

  20. Deaths in 122 U.S. cities - 1962-2016. 122 Cities Mortality Reporting System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This file contains the complete set of data reported to 122 Cities Mortality Reposting System. The system was retired as of 10/6/2016. While the system was running...

  1. Trends in Deaths Involving Heroin and Synthetic Opioids Excluding Methadone, and Law Enforcement Drug Product Reports, by Census Region - United States, 2006-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Julie K; Gladden, R Matthew; Seth, Puja

    2017-09-01

    Opioid overdose deaths quadrupled from 8,050 in 1999 to 33,091 in 2015 and accounted for 63% of drug overdose deaths in the United States in 2015. During 2010-2015, heroin overdose deaths quadrupled from 3,036 to 12,989 (1). Sharp increases in the supply of heroin and illicitly manufactured fentanyl (IMF) are likely contributing to increased deaths (2-6). CDC examined trends in unintentional and undetermined deaths involving heroin or synthetic opioids excluding methadone (i.e., synthetic opioids)* by the four U.S. Census regions during 2006-2015. Drug exhibits (i.e., drug products) obtained by law enforcement and reported to the Drug Enforcement Administration's (DEA's) National Forensic Laboratory Information System (NFLIS) that tested positive for heroin or fentanyl (i.e., drug reports) also were examined. All U.S. Census regions experienced substantial increases in deaths involving heroin from 2006 to 2015. Since 2010, the South and West experienced increases in heroin drug reports, whereas the Northeast and Midwest experienced steady increases during 2006-2015. † In the Northeast, Midwest, and South, deaths involving synthetic opioids and fentanyl drug reports increased considerably after 2013. These broad changes in the U.S. illicit drug market highlight the urgent need to track illicit drugs and enhance public health interventions targeting persons using or at high risk for using heroin or IMF.

  2. Maternal death after oocyte donation at high maternal age: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steegers Eric AP

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The percentage of women giving birth after the age of 35 increased in many western countries. The number of women remaining childless also increased, mostly due to aging oocytes. The method of oocyte donation offers the possibility for infertile older women to become pregnant. Gestation after oocyte-donation-IVF, however, is not without risks for the mother, especially at advanced age. Case presentation An infertile woman went abroad for oocyte-donation-IVF, since this treatment is not offered in The Netherlands after the age of 45. The first oocyte donation treatment resulted in multiple gestation, but was ended by induced abortion: the woman could not cope with the idea of being pregnant with twins. During the second pregnancy after oocyte donation, at the age of 50, she was mentally more stable. The pregnancy, again a multiple gestation, was uneventful until delivery. Immediately after delivery the woman had hypertension with nausea and vomiting. A few hours later she had an eclamptic fit. HELLP-syndrome was diagnosed. She died due to cerebral haemorrhage. Conclusion In The Netherlands, the age limit for women receiving donor oocytes is 45 years and commercial oocyte donation is forbidden by law. In other countries there is no age limit, the reason why some women are going abroad to receive the treatment of their choice. Advanced age, IVF and twin pregnancy are all risk factors for pre-eclampsia, the leading cause of maternal death in The Netherlands. Patient autonomy is an important ethical principle, but doctors are also bound to the principle of 'not doing harm', and do have the right to refuse medical treatment such as IVF-treatment. The discussion whether women above 50 should have children is still not closed. If the decision is made to offer this treatment to a woman at advanced age, the doctor should counsel her intensively about the risks before treatment is started.

  3. Prevalence and correlates for self-reported sleep problems among nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelone, A M; Mattei, A; Sbarbati, M; Di Orio, F

    2011-12-01

    University students report significantly worse sleep quality than the general population. Sleep problems are related to increased health concerns, irritability, depression, fatigue, attention and concentration difficulties, along with poor academic performance. The aim of this paper is to conduct a survey based on a questionnaire that would characterize night time and daytime habits in nursing students to estimate the prevalence of chronic insomnia, sleep disturbance and their correlates. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 364 nursing students of the University of L'Aquila, in Italy. Self-reported sleep data were derived from Sleep and Daytime Habits Questionnaire" (S&DHQ) that covered sleep and daytime habits and academic progress. Anxiety and depression symptoms were assessed by the Mental Health Inventory-5 (MHI-5) questionnaire. A supplement includes information about lifestyle, health status and physical activity. The overall prevalence of insomnia was 26.7%. It increased significantly from 10.3% for students aged 40 years. The prevalence of sleep problems were 9.4% for disorders of initiating sleep, 8.3% for disrupted sleep, 7.7% for early morning awakening and subjectively poor quality of sleep 22.3%. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that greater age was significantly associated with an increased risk of insomnia. Other risk predictors of insomnia were headache, severe depression and self perception of poor quality of life. Daytime sleepiness and morning tiredness were significantly associated with current smoking habit and painful physical condition. The risk of unsatisfactory academic progress increased significantly in students reported poor sleep quality. Our study demonstrates that sleep problems are very common among students, and supports the need to assess sleep problems and identify students at risk regarding school achievement.

  4. Self-reported prevalence and risk factors associated with food hypersensitivity in Mexican young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puente-Fernández, Cecilia; Maya-Hernández, Rosalba L; Flores-Merino, Miriam V; Romero-Figueroa, María Del Socorro; Bedolla-Barajas, Martín; Domínguez García, Ma Victoria

    2016-06-01

    Food hypersensitivity (FH) is defined as any unfavorable reaction after the ingestion, contact, or inhalation of a food. Few FH prevalence studies have been performed in the Mexican adult population. To determine the prevalence of self-reported FH and probable food allergy (FA) among a sample of Mexican young adults and to determine the most commonly involved foods, associated symptoms, and risk factors. We designed an observational, cross-sectional study in which 1,253 young adults (aged 18-25 years) born in the State of Mexico answered a questionnaire concerning FH. We obtained information on personal and familial histories of allergic diseases, the involved foods, and the subsequent adverse reactions to their consumption. The prevalence of FH was 30.1% and was significantly higher in women than in men (P vegetables (10.0%), and fruits (8.0%). The food groups most associated with FA were fruits (3.0%) and seafood (1.8%). Female sex, personal history of allergic diseases, maternal history of atopic dermatitis, and parental history of urticaria were significantly associated (P < .05) with the presence of FH. FH in young adults might be more common than previously thought, especially in women. However, further studies are needed to confirm this situation in the Mexican population. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevalence of substance use among students in a Kenyan University: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odek-Ogunde, M; Pande-Leak, D

    1999-06-01

    To investigate the prevalence and pattern of substance use among an undergraduate population in a Kenyan university. Cross-sectional survey, cluster sampling of classrooms, self-administered questionnaires. Private international university in Nairobi province, Kenya. Five hundred fifty eight undergraduate students of both sexes, age range 16-50 and mean age (S.E) of 21.1 +/- 0.2. Self-reported use of psychoactive substances. Percentages of lifetime prevalence rates of commonly used substances were tobacco, 54.7%; alcohol, 84.2%; cannabis, 19.7% and inhalants, 7.2%. The corresponding "past use" and "current use" rates were relatively lower but followed the same pattern. The percentage rates were significantly higher in males than females (p 20 days/month) were higher for tobacco (24.7%) than alcohol (11.5%). The lifetime prevalence rates of other drugs (heroin, cocaine, mandrax, amphetamines and LSD) were low (university. Substances most commonly used by respondents studied were of the licit variety (alcohol and tobacco). The rate of use of the two substances is rather high. The use of illicit drugs seems to be growing and may soon escalate to alarming levels. The findings suggest an urgent need to gather more data, which can be used to guide formulation of health promotion and prevention programmes.

  6. Drug use in Australian nightlife settings: estimation of prevalence and validity of self-report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Peter; Curtis, Ashlee; Jenkinson, Rebecca; Droste, Nicolas; Bowe, Steven J; Pennay, Amy

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to (1) estimate the prevalence of illicit drug use in night-time entertainment districts across five major cities in Australia; and (2) validate self-reported drug use using biochemical marker oral swabs. Street intercept surveys and oral drug swabs conducted over a 7-month period during 2011-12. The night-time entertainment districts of three metropolitan cities (Sydney, Melbourne and Perth) and two regional cities (Wollongong and Geelong) in Australia, between the hours of 10 p.m. and 5 a.m. A total of 7581 individuals agreed to participate in the survey (93% response rate). More than half (62%) the sample was male, with a median age of 22 years (range 18-73). Patrons were approached in thoroughfares and while entering and leaving licensed venues. Data collected included demographics and current session alcohol and other substance use. Drug swabs (n = 401) were performed with a subsample of participants. Approximately 9% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 7-12%] of participants self-reported consumption of illicit or non-prescribed pharmaceutical drugs prior to interview; of those, 81% identified psychostimulants as the drug used. One in five drug swabs returned a positive result, with psychostimulants the most commonly detected drugs (15%; 95% CI = 12-19%). Kappa statistics indicate agreement between self-report of any illicit drug and a positive drug swab is in the slight range [κ = 0.12 (95% CI = 0.05-0.20) P = 0.000]. Self-report findings suggest drug use in Australian nightlife is common, although still very much a minority past-time. Drug swabs indicate a higher prevalence of use (20%) than self-report (9%), which suggests that self-reported drug use may not be reliable in this context. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  7. [Fetal death in utero].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudigoz, R C; Revillard, J P; Audra, P; Luciani, F; Malvolti, B; Griot, J P; Frappart, L; Lafont, S

    1986-11-01

    152 cases of fetal death in utero are reported. The most frequent etiologies were: vasculorenal syndromes: 28.3 p. cent, idiopathic DPPNIs and RCIUs: 28 p. cent, accidental causes (trauma, funicular syndromes): 19.5 p. cent. Cause of death was unknown or imprecise in 18.4 p. cent of cases. Repeated fetal deaths in utero were rare: 5 observations. The authors consider the management of fetal death in utero, associated immunological problems and how to deal with subsequent pregnancies.

  8. Assessing Fidelity to Suicide Reporting Guidelines in Canadian News Media: The Death of Robin Williams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creed, Michael; Whitley, Rob

    2017-05-01

    Mindset is a short recently-published booklet funded by the Mental Health Commission of Canada outlining evidence-based guidelines and best practices for journalists writing about mental health and suicide. Our study aimed to assess fidelity to Mindset recommendations in Canadian newspaper reports of a recent celebrity suicide. A secondary aim is to identify common themes discussed in these newspaper articles. Articles about Robin Williams' suicide from major Canadian newspapers were gathered and coded for presence or absence of each of the 14 recommendations in the "Covering Suicide" section of Mindset. A threshold of 80% was set to test for high fidelity to the guidelines. A qualitative content analysis of the articles was also undertaken to discern common themes and social issues discussed in the articles. Fifty-five per cent of articles surpassed the 80% threshold for high fidelity, while 85% applied at least 70% of the recommendations. The recommendation most commonly overlooked was "Do tell others considering suicide how they can get help," which was absent in 73% of articles. The most common themes discussed were those of addictions and stigma. The news articles generally follow the evidence-based guidelines regarding the reporting of suicide set out in Mindset. This is a welcome development. Future research should continue to examine reporting of suicide to assess for further improvements, while also examining the wider impact of Mindset on the reporting of mental illness per se.

  9. Self-Reported High-Cholesterol Prevalence in the Brazilian Population: Analysis of the 2013 National Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotufo, Paulo A; Santos, Raul D; Sposito, Andrei C; Bertolami, Marcelo; Rocha-Faria, Jose; Izar, M Cristina; Szwarcwald, Celia; Prado, Rogério R; Stoppa, Sheila R; Malta, Deborah C; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2017-05-01

    Data on the prevalence of dyslipidemia in Brazil are scarce, with surveys available only for some towns. To evaluate the prevalence of the self-reported medical diagnosis of high cholesterol in the Brazilian adult population by use of the 2013 National Health Survey data. Descriptive study assessing the 2013 National Health Survey data, a household-based epidemiological survey with a nationally representative sample and self-reported information. The sample consisted of 60,202 individuals who reported a medical diagnosis of dyslipidemia. The point prevalence and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) for the medical diagnosis of high cholesterol/triglyceride by gender, age, race/ethnicity, geographic region and educational level were calculated. Adjusted odds ratio was calculated. Of the 60,202 participants, 14.3% (95%CI=13.7-14.8) never had their cholesterol or triglyceride levels tested, but a higher frequency of women, white individuals, elderly and those with higher educational level had their cholesterol levels tested within the last year. The prevalence of the medical diagnosis of high cholesterol was 12.5% (9.7% in men and 15.1% in women), and women had 60% higher probability of a diagnosis of high cholesterol than men. The frequency of the medical diagnosis of high cholesterol increased up to the age of 59 years, being higher in white individuals or those of Asian heritage, in those with higher educational level and in residents of the Southern and Southeastern regions. The importance of dyslipidemia awareness in the present Brazilian epidemiological context must be emphasized to guide actions to control and prevent coronary heart disease, the leading cause of death in Brazil and worldwide. A prevalência de hipercolesterolemia no Brasil não é conhecida para todo o país, havendo somente inquéritos em algumas cidades. Avaliar a prevalência de diagnóstico médico de colesterol alto autorreferido na população adulta brasileira, utilizando-se dos dados da

  10. Systematic review on the primary and secondary reporting of the prevalence of ghostwriting in the medical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stretton, Serina

    2014-07-14

    Ghostwriting of industry-sponsored articles is unethical and is perceived to be common practice. To systematically review how evidence for the prevalence of ghostwriting is reported in the medical literature. MEDLINE via PubMed 1966+, EMBASE 1966+, The Cochrane Library 1988+, Medical Writing 1998+, The American Medical Writers Association (AMWA) Journal 1986+, Council of Science Editors Annual Meetings 2007+, and the Peer Review Congress 1994+ were searched electronically (23 May 2013) using the search terms ghostwrit*, ghostauthor*, ghost AND writ*, ghost AND author*. All publication types were considered; only publications reporting a numerical estimate of possible ghostwriting prevalence were included. Two independent reviewers screened the publications; discrepancies were resolved by consensus. Data to be collected included a numerical estimate of the prevalence of possible ghostwriting (primary outcome measure), definitions of ghostwriting reported, source of the reported prevalence, publication type and year, study design and sample population. Of the 848 publications retrieved and screened for eligibility, 48 reported numerical estimates for the prevalence of possible ghostwriting. Sixteen primary publications reported findings from cross-sectional surveys or descriptive analyses of published articles; 32 secondary publications cited published or unpublished evidence. Estimates on the prevalence of possible ghostwriting in primary and secondary publications varied markedly. Primary estimates were not suitable for meta-analysis because of the various definitions of ghostwriting used, study designs and types of populations or samples. Secondary estimates were not always reported or cited correctly or appropriately. Evidence for the prevalence of ghostwriting in the medical literature is limited and can be outdated, misleading or mistaken. Researchers should not inflate estimates using non-standard definitions of ghostwriting nor conflate ghostwriting with

  11. Systematic review on the primary and secondary reporting of the prevalence of ghostwriting in the medical literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stretton, Serina

    2014-01-01

    Background Ghostwriting of industry-sponsored articles is unethical and is perceived to be common practice. Objective To systematically review how evidence for the prevalence of ghostwriting is reported in the medical literature. Data sources MEDLINE via PubMed 1966+, EMBASE 1966+, The Cochrane Library 1988+, Medical Writing 1998+, The American Medical Writers Association (AMWA) Journal 1986+, Council of Science Editors Annual Meetings 2007+, and the Peer Review Congress 1994+ were searched electronically (23 May 2013) using the search terms ghostwrit*, ghostauthor*, ghost AND writ*, ghost AND author*. Eligibility criteria All publication types were considered; only publications reporting a numerical estimate of possible ghostwriting prevalence were included. Data extraction Two independent reviewers screened the publications; discrepancies were resolved by consensus. Data to be collected included a numerical estimate of the prevalence of possible ghostwriting (primary outcome measure), definitions of ghostwriting reported, source of the reported prevalence, publication type and year, study design and sample population. Results Of the 848 publications retrieved and screened for eligibility, 48 reported numerical estimates for the prevalence of possible ghostwriting. Sixteen primary publications reported findings from cross-sectional surveys or descriptive analyses of published articles; 32 secondary publications cited published or unpublished evidence. Estimates on the prevalence of possible ghostwriting in primary and secondary publications varied markedly. Primary estimates were not suitable for meta-analysis because of the various definitions of ghostwriting used, study designs and types of populations or samples. Secondary estimates were not always reported or cited correctly or appropriately. Conclusions Evidence for the prevalence of ghostwriting in the medical literature is limited and can be outdated, misleading or mistaken. Researchers should not inflate

  12. Heroin Body Packer’s Death in Shiraz, Iran; a Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Najafi

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: In conclusion, in body packer’s postmortem pathological signs are combined with evidence of the presence of drug pellets in the body as well as toxicological analysis in the ante-mortem history, and clinical reports. Toxicological analysis of the presence of the drug in body fluids, such as plasma, and in tissue extracts may not be of value when the level of the drug decreases after a period of metabolism.

  13. Characteristics of adult male and female firearm suicide decedents: findings from the National Violent Death Reporting System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, M S; McFarland, B H; Huguet, N

    2009-10-01

    To examine the risk factors and precipitating circumstances associated with firearm suicide. Data from the restricted National Violent Death Reporting System (2003-6) for 25 491 male and female suicide decedents aged 18 and older were analysed by multiple logistic regression to estimate the relative odds of firearm use with 95% CIs. Firearms were often used in male (58.1%) and female (31.2%) suicides. Among male decedents, older age, veteran status, residing in areas with higher rates of firearm availability, raised blood alcohol concentration, acute crisis and relationship problems were all associated with firearm use. Conversely, men with a diagnosis of a mental health problem, a history of suicide attempts or alcohol problems had lower odds of firearm use. Among female decedents, factors with a significant effect on firearm use included: being older, married, white and a veteran; residing in areas with higher rates of firearm availability; having an acute crisis; having experienced the death of a relative or friend; being depressed; and having relationship problems. Of note, women who had a treated DSM-IV-diagnosed problem, previous suicide attempts and physical health problems were less likely to use firearms. These findings challenge the conventional view that those who are severely depressed and suicidal are prone to highly lethal methods, such as firearms. Rather, firearms users may be reacting to acute situations.

  14. PREVALENCE OF SELF-REPORTED SPINAL PAIN IN BRAZIL: RESULTS OF THE NATIONAL HEALTH RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIZA GOMES SANTOS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To identify the prevalence and distribution of cases of self-reported spinal disorders by persons who are 18 years or older living in Brazil according to sociodemographic variables. Methods: We used the Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde (PNS, national health research, developed by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE in partnership with the Ministry of Health. The data obtained from the website of IBGE System of Automatic Recovery - SIDRA were analyzed using the SPSS Statistics software version 20.0, IBM. Results: In Brazil 19% of the adult population report chronic spinal pain, 15.26% (± 4.56 men and 20.08% (+/- 4.11 women. After the age of 60, the prevalence is higher. Regarding skin color 18.26% (± 3.53 are white, 17.27% (± 6.65 are black and 17.93% (± 4.05 are brown, with no statistical difference. As for education, 23.55% (±5.70 had low or absent schooling (p < 0.001. The southern region of Brazil has the highest percentage (23.3% of adults with chronic problems in the spine, and the state with the highest percentage is Paraná, with 26%. Conclusions: The results showed that there is a relationship between spinal pain and sociodemographic characteristics, pointing to the southern region as the most affected by spinal disorders when compared to other regions of the country.

  15. The prevalence of self-reported deliberate self harm in Irish adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arensman Ella

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deliberate self harm is major public health problem, in particular among young people. Although several studies have addressed the prevalence of deliberate self harm among young people in the community, little is known about the extent to which deliberate self harm comes to the attention of medical services, the self harm methods used and the underlying motives. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of deliberate self harm in adolescents and the methods, motives and help seeking behaviour associated with this behaviour. Methods A cross-sectional survey using an anonymous self-report questionnaire was administered in 39 schools in the Southern area of the Health Service Executive, Ireland. Of the 4,583 adolescents aged 15–17 years who were invited to participate in the survey, 3,881 adolescents took part (response: 85%. Results A lifetime history of DSH was reported by 9.1% (n = 333 of the adolescents. DSH was more common among females (13.9% than males (4.3%. Self cutting (66.0% and overdose (35.2% were the most common DSH methods. A minority of participants accessed medical services after engaging in DSH (15.3%. Conclusion DSH is a significant problem in Irish adolescents and the vast majority do not come to the attention of health services. Innovative solutions for prevention and intervention are required to tackle DSH in adolescents.

  16. The prevalence of self-reported deliberate self harm in Irish adolescents.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morey, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Deliberate self harm is major public health problem, in particular among young people. Although several studies have addressed the prevalence of deliberate self harm among young people in the community, little is known about the extent to which deliberate self harm comes to the attention of medical services, the self harm methods used and the underlying motives. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of deliberate self harm in adolescents and the methods, motives and help seeking behaviour associated with this behaviour. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey using an anonymous self-report questionnaire was administered in 39 schools in the Southern area of the Health Service Executive, Ireland. Of the 4,583 adolescents aged 15-17 years who were invited to participate in the survey, 3,881 adolescents took part (response: 85%). RESULTS: A lifetime history of DSH was reported by 9.1% (n = 333) of the adolescents. DSH was more common among females (13.9%) than males (4.3%). Self cutting (66.0%) and overdose (35.2%) were the most common DSH methods. A minority of participants accessed medical services after engaging in DSH (15.3%). CONCLUSION: DSH is a significant problem in Irish adolescents and the vast majority do not come to the attention of health services. Innovative solutions for prevention and intervention are required to tackle DSH in adolescents.

  17. Child abuse and the prevalence of suicide attempts among those reporting suicide ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michael S; Dykxhoorn, Jennifer; Afifi, Tracie O; Colman, Ian

    2016-11-01

    Victims of child abuse may be at increased risk of acting on suicide ideation, although this has not been empirically tested. We estimated the risk of suicide attempts associated with child abuse among individuals who reported suicide ideation. Secondary analysis of data from the population-based Canadian Community Health Survey Mental Health (n = 828). This population-based survey included various structured questionnaires, including the Composite International Diagnostic Interview to assess mental illness and suicidal thoughts and behaviours. Approximately 80 % of those who attempted suicide had a history of child abuse. Poor mental health, financial difficulties, poor coping skills, and reporting a suicide plan were also associated with an increased prevalence of attempting suicide; adjusted for these factors, child abuse was associated with a 1.77-fold increased prevalence (95 % CI 0.93, 3.36) of suicide attempts. Most individuals who attempt suicide experience child abuse, and worse health and social functioning. Adopting a life-course perspective to understand trajectories of suicide risk factors may inform prevention and treatment.

  18. HIV/AIDS prevalence among South African health workers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    expected that HIV prevalence among health workers will ... HIV I AIDS. In Malawi,' researchers reported that in 1999 2% of health care workers died of AIDS (60 deaths out of 2 979). Among female health care workers, the highest death rates were among ..... Ministry needs to conduct an in-depth investigation into the·.

  19. Recurrent aborted sudden cardiac death with seizures and rhabdomyolysis due to bulimia-induced hypokalemia: report of one case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finsterer, Josef; Stöllberger, Claudia

    2014-06-01

    Recurrent vomiting due to bulimia associated with abuse of furosemide and laxatives causing severe hypokalemia may result in recurrent aborted sudden cardiac death (SCD) and seizures. We report a 25-year-old female with a history of bulimia associated with abuse of furosemide and laxatives since the age of 15 years, migraine since puberty, renal abscesses at age 20 y, and rhabdomyolysis of unknown cause at age 24 y. She experienced aborted SCD due to severe hypokalemia with symptomatic seizures at 21 and 25 years of age. Bulimia patients additionally taking laxatives or furosemide are at particular risk of SCD and rhabdomyolysis and require periodic determination of electrolytes, potassium substitution, and adequate psychiatric therapy and surveillance.

  20. Prevalence and correlates of self-reported state of teeth among schoolchildren in Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åstrøm Anne N

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oral health status in India is traditionally evaluated using clinical indices. There is growing interest to know how subjective measures relate to outcomes of oral health. The aims of the study were to assess the prevalence and correlates of self-reported state of teeth in 12-year-old schoolchildren in Kerala, India. Methods Cross-sectional survey data were used. The sample consisted of 838 12-year-old schoolchildren. Data was collected using clinical examination and questionnaire. The clinical oral health status was recorded using Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth (DMFT and Oral Hygiene Index – Simplified (OHI-S. The questionnaire included questions on sociodemographics, self reports of behaviour, knowledge and oral problems and a single-item measuring self-reported state and satisfaction with appearance of teeth. The Kappa values for test-retest of the questionnaire ranged from 0.55 to 0.97. Results Twenty-three per cent of the schoolchildren reported the state of teeth as bad. Multivariate logistic regression showed significant associations between schoolchildren who reported to have bad teeth and poor school performance (Odds Ratio (OR = 2.5, having bad breath (OR = 2.4, food impaction (OR = 1.7 dental visits (OR = 1.6, being dissatisfied with appearance of teeth (OR = 4.2 and caries experience (OR = 1.7. The explained variance was highest when the variables dental visits, bleeding gums, bad breath, food impaction and satisfaction with appearance were introduced into the model (19%. Conclusion A quarter of 12-year-olds reported having bad teeth. The self-reported bad state of teeth was associated with poor school performance, having bad breath and food impaction, having visited a dentist, being dissatisfied with teeth appearance and having caries experience. Information from self-reports of children might help in planning effective strategies to promote oral health.

  1. Preliminary Report: Analysis of the baseline study on the prevalence of Salmonella in laying hen flocks of Gallus gallus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine

    This is a preliminary report on the analysis of the Community-wide baseline study to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella in laying hen flocks. It is being published pending the full analysis of the entire dataset from the baseline study. The report contains the elements necessary for the establ......This is a preliminary report on the analysis of the Community-wide baseline study to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella in laying hen flocks. It is being published pending the full analysis of the entire dataset from the baseline study. The report contains the elements necessary...

  2. Communication about HIV and death: Maternal reports of primary school-aged children's questions after maternal HIV disclosure in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochat, Tamsen J; Mitchell, Joanie; Lubbe, Anina M; Stein, Alan; Tomlinson, Mark; Bland, Ruth M

    2017-01-01

    Children's understanding of HIV and death in epidemic regions is under-researched. We investigated children's death-related questions post maternal HIV-disclosure. Secondary aims examined characteristics associated with death-related questions and consequences for children's mental health. HIV-infected mothers (N = 281) were supported to disclose their HIV status to their children (6-10 years) in an uncontrolled pre-post intervention evaluation. Children's questions post-disclosure were collected by maternal report, 1-2 weeks post-disclosure. 61/281 children asked 88 death-related questions, which were analysed qualitatively. Logistic regression analyses examined characteristics associated with death-related questions. Using the parent-report Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL), linear regression analysis examined differences in total CBCL problems by group, controlling for baseline. Children's questions were grouped into three themes: 'threats'; 'implications' and 'clarifications'. Children were most concerned about the threat of death, mother's survival, and prior family deaths. In multivariate analysis variables significantly associated with asking death-related questions included an absence of regular remittance to the mother (AOR 0.25 [CI 0.10, 0.59] p = 0.002), mother reporting the child's initial reaction to disclosure being "frightened" (AOR 6.57 [CI 2.75, 15.70] p=children showed improvements on the CBCL post-intervention; with no significant differences on total problems scores post-intervention (β -0.096 SE1.366 t = -0.07 p = 0.944). The content of questions children asked following disclosure indicate some understanding of HIV and, for almost a third of children, its potential consequence for parental death. Level of maternal disclosure and stability of financial support to the family may facilitate or inhibit discussions about death post-disclosure. Communication about death did not have immediate negative consequences on child behaviour

  3. Regional differences in self-reported screening, prevalence and management of cardiovascular risk factors in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In Switzerland, health policies are decided at the local level, but little is known regarding their impact on the screening and management of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs). We thus aimed at assessing geographical levels of CVRFs in Switzerland. Methods Swiss Health Survey for 2007 (N = 17,879). Seven administrative regions were defined: West (Leman), West-Central (Mittelland), Zurich, South (Ticino), North-West, East and Central Switzerland. Obesity, smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes prevalence, treatment and screening within the last 12 months were assessed by interview. Results After multivariate adjustment for age, gender, educational level, marital status and Swiss citizenship, no significant differences were found between regions regarding prevalence of obesity or current smoking. Similarly, no differences were found regarding hypertension screening and prevalence. Two thirds of subjects who had been told they had high blood pressure were treated, the lowest treatment rates being found in East Switzerland: odds-ratio and [95% confidence interval] 0.65 [0.50-0.85]. Screening for hypercholesterolemia was more frequently reported in French (Leman) and Italian (Ticino) speaking regions. Four out of ten participants who had been told they had high cholesterol levels were treated and the lowest treatment rates were found in German-speaking regions. Screening for diabetes was higher in Ticino (1.24 [1.09 - 1.42]). Six out of ten participants who had been told they had diabetes were treated, the lowest treatment rates were found for German-speaking regions. Conclusions In Switzerland, cardiovascular risk factor screening and management differ between regions and these differences cannot be accounted for by differences in populations' characteristics. Management of most cardiovascular risk factors could be improved. PMID:22452881

  4. Prevalence of intimate partner violence reported by homeless youth in Columbus, Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slesnick, Natasha; Erdem, Gizem; Collins, Jennifer; Patton, Rikki; Buettner, Cynthia

    2010-09-01

    No study to date has reported intimate partner violence (IPV) experiences among homeless youth. This study sought to uncover lifetime prevalence estimates of physical, sexual, and emotional IPV among a nonprobability sample of 180 homeless male and female youth in Columbus, Ohio. To that aim, self-reported IPV and the association between IPV and gender, race, age, and history of childhood abuse were examined. Results showed that physical violence and verbal abuse were the most commonly reported experiences of IPV in the current sample and ranged from 30.0% to 35.4%. Women and those with a history of childhood abuse were more likely to be victimized by their intimate partners. Specifically, multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that women were approximately twice as likely as men to be verbally and physically abused in intimate relationships. Moreover, youth who reported being victims of abuse in childhood were more than twice as likely to experience verbal abuse and physical violence in their relationships. Given the high lifetime occurrence of IPV among homeless youth, intervention efforts should target IPV to prevent future occurrence. Findings also suggest that intervention efforts should consider gender and history of childhood abuse.

  5. Prevalence of Self-reported Symptoms After Gastric Bypass Surgery for Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribsholt, Sigrid Bjerge; Pedersen, Ane Mathilde; Svensson, Elisabeth; Thomsen, Reimar Wernich; Richelsen, Bjørn

    2016-06-01

    Population-based studies on the prevalence of symptoms after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery are sparse. Knowledge about possible predictors of these symptoms is important for prevention. To examine patients' overall well-being and the prevalence and predictors of medical, nutritional, and surgical symptoms after RYGB surgery, and their association with quality of life. A survey was conducted from March 3 to July 31, 2014, among 2238 patients who underwent RYGB surgery between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2011, in the Central Denmark Region. A comparison cohort of 89 individuals who were matched with patients according to sex and body mass index but who did not undergo RYGB surgery were surveyed as a point of reference. Data analysis was conducted from September 1, 2014, to June 25, 2015. Prevalence and severity (based on contacts with health care system, ranging from no contact to hospitalization) of self-reported symptoms following RYGB surgery. Prevalence ratios (PRs) of symptoms associated with different predictors were computed. The association between number of symptoms and quality of life was investigated using the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. Of 2238 patients undergoing RYGB surgery, 1429 (63.7%) responded to the survey. Among these patients, 1266 (88.6%) reported 1 or more symptoms a median of 4.7 years after RYGB surgery. Mean age at the time of the survey was 47.1 years (range, 26.9-68.0 years), and 286 were men (20.0%). A total of 1219 of 1394 patients (87.4%) reported that their well-being was improved after vs before RYGB surgery, while 113 (8.1%) reported reduced well-being. Symptoms after RYGB surgery were reported by 1266 patients (88.6%); 966 patients (67.6%) had been in contact with the health care system about their symptoms vs 31 [34.8%] of those in the comparison group, and 416 (29.1%) had been hospitalized vs 6 [6.7%] of those in the comparison group. The symptoms most commonly leading to health care contact after RYGB

  6. Prevalence and correlates of probable adolescent mental health problems reported by parents in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstadter, Ananda B; Richardson, Lisa; Meyer, Alicia; Sawyer, Genelle; Kilpatrick, Dean G; Tran, Trinh Luong; Trung, Lam Tu; Tam, Nguyen Thanh; Tuan, Tran; Buoi, La Thi; Ha, Tran Thu; Thach, Tran Duc; Gaboury, Mario; Acierno, Ron

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of probable mental health problems in an epidemiologic study of Vietnamese adolescents. A secondary aim was to examine the correlates of probable mental health caseness. Interviewers visited 1,914 households that were randomly selected to participate in a multi-agency study of mental health in select provinces of Vietnam. Semi-structured interviews assessed adolescent mental health problems using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) parent informant version, and additionally the interviewers collected information on demographic variables (age, gender, ethnic group, religious affiliation, social capital). The final sample included data on 1,368 adolescents (aged 11-18 years). The average score on the total problem composite of the SDQ scale was 6.66 (SD=4.89), and 9.1% of the sample was considered a case (n=124). Bivariate analyses were conducted to determine which demographic variables were related to the SDQ case/non-case score. All variables except gender were significant in bivariate analyses, and therefore were entered into a logistic regression. Results indicated that age, religion, and wealth remained significant predictors of probable caseness. Overall, prevalence estimates of mental health problems generated by the SDQ were consistent with those reported in the US and other Western and non-Western samples. Results of the current study suggest some concordance of risk and protective factors between Western and Vietnamese youth (i.e., age and SES).

  7. The prevalence and reliability of self-reported penicillin allergy in a community hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khasawneh FA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Faisal A Khasawneh,1 Megan A R Slaton,2 Stephen L Katzen,2 Ashley A Woolbert,2 Sean D Anderson,2 Michelle B Parker,2 Rachel M Anderson,2 Krystal K Haase,3 Roger D Smalligan41Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, 2School of Medicine, 3School of Pharmacy, 4Department of Internal Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Amarillo, TX, USABackground: Penicillin (PCN accounts for most cases of antibiotic allergies. Reported PCN allergy deprives the patient from this class of antibiotics and creates hesitancy in using other beta-lactam antibiotics. The aim of this study is to report the prevalence of self-reported PCN allergy among adult patients admitted to the hospital and to examine the probable validity of these reports.Methods: A questionnaire was conducted among 192 patients with self-reported PCN allergy who were admitted to a community hospital between July 25, 2011 and January 25, 2012. Patients admitted with an infection and treated with a beta-lactam were also followed until hospital discharge.Results: The mean age of patients at the time of their self-reported allergic reaction was 20.3 years. The most common allergic symptoms reported in decreasing order of frequency were itchy rash, angioedema, and urticaria. Based on analysis of the questionnaires, 121 patients (63.0% had probable PCN allergy, 54 (28.1% had possible PCN allergy, and 17 (8.9% were unlikely to have a PCN allergy. Fifty-one participants (26.6% had self-reported subsequent exposure to PCN in their life. This subsequent exposure was well tolerated in 86.3% of the participants. Fifty participants (25.9% had self-reported subsequent exposure to a first generation cephalosporin and it was well tolerated in 78.4% of them.Conclusion: Taking a detailed history from patients with self-reported PCN allergy can help to distinguish a true PCN allergy from a false positive report of allergy and hence allow clinicians to use this important class

  8. Marital Status, Hypertension, Coronary Heart Disease, Diabetes, and Death among African American Women and Men: Incidence and Prevalence in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwandt, Hilary M.; Coresh, Josef; Hindin, Michelle J.

    2010-01-01

    Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States, and African Americans disproportionately experience more cardiovascular disease, including coronary heart disease (CHD), hypertension, and diabetes. The literature documents a complex relationship between marital status and health, which varies by gender. We prospectively examine…

  9. Self-Reported Food Hypersensitivity: Prevalence, Characteristics, and Comorbidities in the Norwegian Women and Cancer Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Dybdahl Jakobsen

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the prevalence of self-reported food hypersensitivity, (SFH, the characteristics of women with SFH, and whether SFH is associated with multiple health complaints among the participants of the Norwegian Women and Cancer study (NOWAC.We conducted a cross-sectional study among 64,316 women aged 41-76 years. The women were randomly selected from the Norwegian Central Person Register. Information on SFH and all covariates except age and place of residence was collected by questionnaires in 2002-2005.The prevalence of SFH in our study sample was 6.8% (95% confidence interval: 6.7-7.0. Logistic regression analysis showed a negative association between SFH and age (odds ratio [OR] 0.97. The odds of SFH increased among women living in or near urban centers, women with more than 9 years of education, women who did not have full-time work, women who had experienced poor economic conditions in childhood, those living without a partner, and those who did not consume alcohol or smoke (OR varied from 1.10 to 1.70. Women with a low body mass index had higher odds of SFH (OR 1.37 than those with a moderate body mass index. SFH was positively associated with poor self-perceived health (OR 2.56. The odds of SFH increased with the number of concurrent health complaints, with an OR for 5-6 comorbidities of 4.93.We found an association between SFH, poor health, and different socio demographic and lifestyle characteristics. Women with SFH had increased odds of reporting multiple health complaints.

  10. Increase in self-reported migraine prevalence in the Danish adult population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le, Han; Tfelt-Hansen, Peer; Skytthe, Axel

    2012-01-01

    It is uncertain whether migraine prevalence has increased in modern society. The aim of this study was to assess any change in migraine prevalence over an 8-year period among the adult population in Denmark....

  11. Prevalence and correlates of self-reported sleep problems among Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X; Uchiyama, M; Okawa, M; Kurita, H

    2000-02-01

    This study examined the prevalence and correlates of sleep problems in Chinese adolescents. An epidemiological questionnaire survey was carried out in five high schools in Shandong Province of Mainland China. A total of 1365 adolescents between the ages of 12 and 18 years comprising 823 boys and 542 girls. The participants completed a self-administered questionnaire regarding sleep duration, sleep problems, stressful life events, lifestyles, and personal and family characteristics. Mean sleep duration at night was 7.64 hours (SD = 0.86) and decreased with increasing age. Of the sample, 16.9% (95% CI = 13.2-20.5%) reported insomnia symptoms including difficulty initiating sleep (10.8%), difficulty maintaining sleep (6.3%), and early morning awakening (2.1%). Nightmares were reported more frequently by girls (chi2=20.09, pdiet, longer distance from home to school, and life stress experienced during the past 12 months were significantly associated with an increased risk of insomnia. Self-reported sleep problems in Chinese adolescents are common and associated with multiple factors. These findings suggest the need for comprehensive programs to prevent sleep problems in adolescents.

  12. Causes of death in Japanese patients with diabetes based on the results of a survey of 45,708 cases during 2001-2010: Report of the Committee on Causes of Death in Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Jiro; Kamiya, Hideki; Haneda, Masakazu; Inagaki, Nobuya; Tanizawa, Yukio; Araki, Eiichi; Ueki, Kohjiro; Nakayama, Takeo

    2017-05-01

    The principal causes of death among 45,708 patients with diabetes (29,801 men and 15,907 women) who died in 241 hospitals throughout Japan during 2001-2010 were determined based on a survey of the hospital records. Autopsy had been conducted in 978 of the 45,708 cases. The most frequent cause of death was malignant neoplasia (38.3%), followed by, in order of descending frequency: infections (17.0%); and then vascular diseases (14.9%), including renal failure (3.5%), ischemic heart diseases (4.8%) and cerebrovascular diseases (6.6%). Diabetic coma associated with hyperglycemia with or without ketoacidosis accounted for only 0.6% of the deaths. In regard to the relationship between the age and cause of death in patients with diabetes, the incidence of death due to vascular diseases was higher in patients over the age of 30 or 40 years, and the 97.0% of the total death due to vascular diseases was observed in patients over the age of 50 years. The incidence of death due to infectious diseases, especially pneumonia, increased in an age-dependent fashion, and the 80.7% of the total death due to pneumonia was observed in patients over the age of 70 years. 'Poorer' glycemic control was associated with the reduced lifespan of patients with diabetes, especially of those with nephropathy. The average age at death in the survey population was 72.6 years. The lifespan was 1.6 years shorter in patients with 'poorer' glycemic control than in those with 'better' glycemic control. In patients with diabetes of less than 10 years' duration, the incidence of death due to macroangiopathy was higher than that due to nephropathy. Of the 45,708 patients with diabetes, 33.9% were on oral medication, 41.9% received insulin therapy and 18.8% were treated by diet alone. Among the patients in whom the cause of death was diabetic nephropathy, a high percentage, 53.7%, was on insulin therapy. The average age at death of the 45,708 patients with diabetes was 71.4 years in men and 75.1

  13. Death Threat and Death Concerns in the College Student.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobacyk, Jerome; Eckstein, Daniel

    1980-01-01

    Thanatology students reported significantly lesser death threat and significantly greater death concerns. Trait anxiety was found to be a significant predictor of change in death threat in the Thanatology Group, with lesser anxiety associated with greater decline in death threat. (Author)

  14. Mining for Murder-Suicide: An Approach to Identifying Cases of Murder-Suicide in the National Violent Death Reporting System Restricted Access Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Matthew R; Patton, Christina L; Fremouw, William J

    2016-01-01

    The National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) is a United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) database of violent deaths from 2003 to the present. The NVDRS collects information from 32 states on several types of violent deaths, including suicides, homicides, homicides followed by suicides, and deaths resulting from child maltreatment or intimate partner violence, as well as legal intervention and accidental firearm deaths. Despite the availability of data from police narratives, medical examiner reports, and other sources, reliably finding the cases of murder-suicide in the NVDRS has proven problematic due to the lack of a unique code for murder-suicide incidents and outdated descriptions of case-finding procedures from previous researchers. By providing a description of the methods used to access to the NVDRS and coding procedures used to decipher these data, the authors seek to assist future researchers in correctly identifying cases of murder-suicide deaths while avoiding false positives. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  15. Prevalence and Correlates of Self-Reported ADD/ADHD in a Large National Sample of Canadian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesson, Jacqueline; Fowler, Ken

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence and correlates of self-reported attention deficit disorder (ADD)/ADHD in Canadian adults. Prevalence of self-reported ADD/ADHD was examined in a large national sample of Canadians ( n = 16,957). Demographic variables, lifetime, and current psychiatric comorbidities were then compared in a group of adults with self-reported ADD/ADHD ( n = 488) and an age- and gender-matched control group ( n = 488). The prevalence of self-reported ADD/ADHD was 2.9%. Significantly higher lifetime and current prevalence rates of major depressive disorder, bipolar I and II disorders, generalized anxiety disorder, and substance use disorders were observed in the ADD/ADHD group compared with the control group. Within the ADD/ADHD group, lifetime and 12-month prevalence rates of major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder were significantly higher in women, whereas lifetime and current rates of some substance use disorders were significantly higher in men. In a national sample of Canadian adults, self-reported ADD/ADHD was associated with significant psychiatric comorbidity. Gender differences were also noted.

  16. Extraspinal incidental findings on routine MRI of lumbar spine: Prevalence and reporting Rates in 1278 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuncel, Sedat Alpaslan; Cagli, Bekir; Tekatas, Aslan; Kirici, Yadigar Mehmet; Unlu, Ercument; Genchellac, Haken [Trakya University Faculty of Medicine, Balkan Campus, Edirne (Turkmenistan)

    2015-08-15

    The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and reporting rate of incidental findings (IF) in adult outpatients undergoing lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Re-evaluation of a total of 1278 lumbar MRI images (collected from patients with a mean age of 50.5 years, range 16-91 years) captured between August 2010-August 2011 was done by a neuroradiologist and a musculoskeletal radiologist. IFs were classified according to organ or system (liver, gallbladder, kidney, bladder, uterus, ovary, lymph node, intestine and aorta). The rate of reporting of a range of IF was examined. The outcome of each patient's treatment was evaluated based on review of hospital records and by telephone interviews. A total of 253 IFs were found in 241 patients (18.8% of 1278). Among these, clinically significant IFs (n = 34) included: 2 renal masses (0.15%), 2 aortic aneurysms (0.15%), 2 cases of hydronephrosis (0.15%), 11 adrenal masses (0.86%), 7 lymphadenopathies (0.55%), 6 cases of endometrial or cervical thickening (0.47%), 1 liver hemangioma (0.08%), 1 pelvic fluid (0.08%) and 2 ovarian dermoid cysts (0.15%). Overall, 28% (71/253) of IFs were included in the clinical reports, while clinically significant findings were reported in 41% (14/34) of cases. Extraspinal IFs are commonly detected during a routine lumbar MRI, and many of these findings are not clinically significant. However, IFs including clinically important findings are occasionally omitted from formal radiological reports.

  17. Integrating environmental and self-report data to refine cannabis prevalence estimates in a major urban area of Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Been, Frederic; Schneider, Christian; Zobel, Frank; Delémont, Olivier; Esseiva, Pierre

    2016-10-01

    Cannabis consumption is a topical subject because of discussions about reviewing current regulations. In this context, having a more comprehensive approach to assess and monitor prevalence and consumption is highly relevant. The objective of this work was to refine current estimates about prevalence of cannabis use by combining self-report data and results derived from wastewater analysis. Self-report data was retrieved from surveys conducted in Switzerland and Europe. Wastewater samples were collected at the wastewater treatment plant of Lausanne, western Switzerland, over a 15 months period. The occurrence of 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH), a specific metabolite of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), was monitored. Bayesian hierarchical models were used to estimate consumption, prevalence and number of cannabis users in the investigated area. According to survey data, 12-months prevalence in western Switzerland was estimated to 6.2% of the population aged 15 or older, with an estimated daily cannabis consumption of 8.1gday(-1)·1000inhab(-1) (at 11.2% purity). The integrative model comprising self-report and wastewater data substantially reduced the uncertainty in the estimates and suggested a last-year prevalence of 9.4%, with a daily cannabis consumption of 14.0gday(-1)·1000inhab(-1). Although in the same order of magnitude, consumption and prevalence estimates obtained with the integrative model were 78% and 52% higher compared to self-report figures, respectively. Interestingly, these figures are similar to discrepancies observed when comparing self-reported alcohol consumption and sales or tax data. The suggested integrative model allowed to account for known sources of uncertainty and provided refined estimates of cannabis prevalence in a major urban area of Switzerland. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Large increase in the prevalence of self-reported diabetes based on a nationally representative survey in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domján, Beatrix A; Ferencz, Viktória; Tänczer, Tímea; Szili-Janicsek, Zsófia; Barkai, László; Hidvégi, Tibor; Jermendy, György; Kempler, Péter; Winkler, Gábor; Gerő, László; Tabák, Adam G

    2017-04-01

    To estimate and compare the prevalence of self-reported diabetes based on nationally representative surveys of the Hungarian adult population in 2002 (published data - Hungarostudy) and a survey in 2012. A cross-sectional computer-assisted telephone interview survey on a stratified representative sample of community-dwelling adults (n=1000) in 2012. To describe self-reported diabetes prevalence and its temporal changes generalized linear models were used and results were compared to figures from Hungarostudy. Age standardized prevalence of self-reported type 2 diabetes was 11.7% (95%CI 10.0-13.8%) without gender or rural-urban differences in 2012. People with self-reported diabetes were older than controls (mean [SE]: 63.9 [0.9] vs. 45.9 [0.3] years, p<0.0001). The prevalence of diabetes sharply increased after 40 years of age and peaked at age 70 (27.7% [2.5], p age*age <0.0001). The prevalence of self-reported diabetes increased by 89% (OR 1.89, 95%CI 1.53-2.32) from 6.2 to 11.7% between the two surveys with the most pronounced increase in the age group 55-64 years (from 11.6 to 24.4%). We reported an alarming increase in the prevalence of self-reported type 2 diabetes in the last decade that mostly affects working age people. If this trend continues, a major public health crisis in Hungary can be envisaged. Copyright © 2016 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Trends in self-reported prevalence and management of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes in Swiss adults, 1997-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Switzerland has a low mortality rate from cardiovascular diseases, but little is known regarding prevalence and management of cardiovascular risk factors (CV RFs: hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes) in the general population. In this study, we assessed 10-year trends in self-reported prevalence and management of cardiovascular risk factors in Switzerland. Methods data from three national health interview surveys conducted between 1997 and 2007 in representative samples of the Swiss adult population (49,261 subjects overall). Self-reported CV RFs prevalence, treatment and control levels were computed. The sample was weighted to match the sex - and age distribution, geographical location and nationality of the entire adult population of Switzerland. Results self-reported prevalence of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes increased from 22.1%, 11.9% and 3.3% in 1997 to 24.1%, 17.4% and 4.8% in 2007, respectively. Prevalence of self-reported treatment among subjects with CV RFs also increased from 52.1%, 18.5% and 50.0% in 1997 to 60.4%, 38.8% and 53.3% in 2007 for hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes, respectively. Self-reported control levels increased from 56.4%, 52.9% and 50.0% in 1997 to 80.6%, 75.1% and 53.3% in 2007 for hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes, respectively. Finally, screening during the last 12 months increased from 84.5%, 86.5% and 87.4% in 1997 to 94.0%, 94.6% and 94.1% in 2007 for hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes, respectively. Conclusion in Switzerland, the prevalences of self-reported hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes have increased between 1997 and 2007. Management and screening have improved, but further improvements can still be achieved as over one third of subjects with reported CV RFs are not treated. PMID:21332996

  20. Period prevalence and reporting rate of medication errors among nurses in Iran: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matin, Behzad Karami; Hajizadeh, Mohammad; Nouri, Bijan; Rezaeian, Shahab; Mohammadi, Masoud; Rezaei, Satar

    2018-01-22

    To estimate the 1-year period prevalence of medication errors and the reporting rate to nurse managers among nurses working in hospitals in Iran. Medication errors are one of the main factors affecting the quality of hospital services and reducing patient safety in health care systems. A literature search from Iranian and international scientific databases was developed to find relevant studies. Meta-regression was used to identify which characteristics may have a confounding effect on the pooled prevalence estimates. Based on the final 22 studies with 3556 samples, the overall estimated 1-year period prevalence of medication errors and its reporting rate to nurse managers among nurses were 53% (95% confidence interval, 41%-60%) and 36% (95% confidence interval, 23%-50%), respectively. The meta-regression analyses indicated that the sex (female/male) ratio was a statistically significant predictor of the prevalence of medication errors (p medication errors to nurse managers. The period prevalence of medication errors among nurses working in hospitals was high in Iran, whereas its reporting rate to nurse managers was low. Continuous training programmes are required to reduce and prevent medication errors among nursing staff and to improve the reporting rate to nurse managers in in Iran. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Registered report: Fusobacterium nucleatum infection is prevalent in human colorectal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repass, John; Maherali, Nimet; Owen, Kate

    2016-02-11

    The Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology seeks to address growing concerns about reproducibility in scientific research by conducting replications of selected experiments from a number of high-profile papers in the field of cancer biology. The papers, which were published between 2010 and 2012, were selected on the basis of citations and Altmetric scores (Errington et al., 2014). This Registered Report describes the proposed replication plan of key experiments from 'Fusobacterium nucleatum infection is prevalent in human colorectal carcinoma' by Castellarin and colleagues published in Genome Research in 2012 (Castellarin et al., 2012). The experiment to be replicated is reported in Figure 2. Here, Castellarin and colleagues performed a metagenomic analysis of colorectal carcinoma (CRC) to identify potential associations between inflammatory microorganisms and gastrointestinal cancers. They conducted quantitative real-time PCR on genomic DNA isolated from tumor and matched normal biopsies from a patient cohort and found that the overall abundance of Fusobacterium was 415 times greater in CRC versus adjacent normal tissue. These results confirmed earlier studies and provide evidence for a link between tissue-associated bacteria and tumorigenesis. The Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology is a collaboration between the Center for Open Science and Science Exchange and the results of the replications will be published in eLife.

  2. Acute metabolic decompensation and sudden death in Barth syndrome: report of a family and a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Ting-Yu; Hwu, Wuh-Liang; Chien, Yin-Hsiu; Wu, Mei-Hwan; Lin, Ming-Tai; Tsao, Lon-Yen; Hsieh, Wu-Shiun; Lee, Ni-Chung

    2008-08-01

    Barth syndrome presents in infancy with hypotonia, dilated cardiomyopathy, and neutropenia. We report a patient whose family history included two males who had died suddenly at the age of 15 days and 2 years, respectively. The index case presented with acute metabolic decompensation at 13 days of age. Within 8 h of presenting with metabolic acidosis (pH 7.13), lactic acidemia (18.5 mmol/l), hyperammonemia (375 microg/dl), hypoglycemia (25 mg/dl), and coagulopathy, the patient developed respiratory failure and required intubation. The diagnosis was established by the presence of left ventricular noncompaction and molecular analysis (c.C153G or Y51X mutation of the TAZ gene). The gene product, taffazin, is a homologue of the glycerolipid transferases involved in the phospholipid metabolism as tetralinoleoyl-cardiolipin, a component of the mitochondrial inner membrane. In conclusion, mutations in taffazin impair mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes, which may results in the acute metabolic decompensation and sudden death; cardiac transplantation is the only possibility at the present time.

  3. Prevalence of alcohol and other psychoactive substances in drivers in general traffic. Part II: Country reports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houwing, Sjoerd; Hagenzieker, Marjan; Mathijssen, René

    2011-01-01

    by means of roadside surveys and the prevalence of drugs in injury accidents was estimated by means of hospital surveys of seriously injured and/or killed drivers. Accident risk estimates for drug driving were assessed by relating the prevalence of drugs among the general driving population...... to the prevalence among seriously injured and/or killed drivers, by relating medication records to accident data and by relating substance use among accidentinvolved drivers to accident culpability....

  4. Current status of pregnancy-related maternal mortality in Japan: a report from the Maternal Death Exploratory Committee in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Junichi; Sekizawa, Akihiko; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Katsuragi, Shinji; Osato, Kazuhiro; Murakoshi, Takeshi; Nakata, Masahiko; Nakamura, Masamitsu; Yoshimatsu, Jun; Sadahiro, Tomohito; Kanayama, Naohiro; Ishiwata, Isamu; Kinoshita, Katsuyuki; Ikeda, Tomoaki

    2016-03-21

    To clarify the problems related to maternal deaths in Japan, including the diseases themselves, causes, treatments and the hospital or regional systems. Descriptive study. Maternal death registration system established by the Japan Association of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (JAOG). Women who died during pregnancy or within a year after delivery, from 2010 to 2014, throughout Japan (N=213). The preventability and problems in each maternal death. Maternal deaths were frequently caused by obstetric haemorrhage (23%), brain disease (16%), amniotic fluid embolism (12%), cardiovascular disease (8%) and pulmonary disease (8%). The Committee considered that it was impossible to prevent death in 51% of the cases, whereas they considered prevention in 26%, 15% and 7% of the cases to be slightly, moderately and highly possible, respectively. It was difficult to prevent maternal deaths due to amniotic fluid embolism and brain disease. In contrast, half of the deaths due to obstetric haemorrhage were considered preventable, because the peak duration between the initial symptoms and initial cardiopulmonary arrest was 1-3 h. A range of measures, including individual education and the construction of good relationships among regional hospitals, should be established in the near future, to improve primary care for patients with maternal haemorrhage and to save the lives of mothers in Japan. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. Underestimation of Self-Reported Smoking Prevalence in Korean Adolescents: Evidence from Gold Standard by Combined Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jun Hyun; Kim, Jong Yeon; Lee, Do Hoon; Jung, Hye Gyoun; Park, Soon-Woo

    2018-04-05

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the validity of self-reported smoking prevalence in Korean adolescents by using an improved gold standard by a combined method. Using a stratified sampling method, we selected 13 schools from among 397 high schools that participated in the 2015 Korean Youth Health Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey (KYRBS). A second survey (repeated self-reporting questionnaire and urinary cotinine test) was conducted on 1058 students who completed the KYRBS. The gold standard of current smoker was defined as those either self-reporting as a smoker in the second survey or having a urinary cotinine concentration ≥50 ng/mL. The current smoking prevalence in the first survey (KYRBS) was 7.9% (boys 16.5% and girls 1.8%), which was lower than the results based on gold standard (11.3% total, boys 21.9% and girls 3.7%). The sensitivity and specificity of self-reported smoking status was 62.5% and 99.0%, respectively. In particular, the sensitivity of girls (43.5%) was lower than that of boys (67.0%). The self-reported smoking prevalence in Korean adolescents was underestimated, particularly among girls. Careful attention should be paid to interpreting adolescents' smoking prevalence, and supplementary surveys or periodic validity tests need to be considered in Asian countries.

  6. Characteristics of Elderly and Other Vulnerable Adult Victims of Homicide by a Caregiver: National Violent Death Reporting System--17 U.S. States, 2003-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karch, Debra; Nunn, Kelly Cole

    2011-01-01

    Homicides of dependent elderly and nonelderly adults by their caregivers violate trust and have long-term consequences for families. A better understanding of the characteristics of homicide by caregivers may provide insights that can inform prevention efforts. Data collected in the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) between 2003 and…

  7. Dizziness reported by elderly patients in family practice: prevalence, incidence, and clinical characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maarsingh, O.R.; Dros, J.; Schellevis, F.G.; van Weert, H.C.; Bindels, P.J.; van der Horst, H.E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Although dizziness in elderly patients is very common in family practice, most prevalence studies on dizziness are community-based and include a study population that is not representative of family practice. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and incidence of

  8. Prevalence of self-reported finger deformations and occupational risk factors among professional cooks: a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagasu, M.; Sakai, K.; Ito, A.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Tomita, S.; Temmyo, Y.; Ueno, M.; Miyagi, S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have pointed out that the school lunch workers in Japan are suffering from work-related disorders including finger deformations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of self-reported finger deformations and the association with job-related risk

  9. European Sitting Championship: Prevalence and Correlates of Self-Reported Sitting Time in the 28 European Union Member States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loyen, A; van der Ploeg, H.P.; Bauman, A.; Brug, J.; Lakerveld, J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Sedentary behaviour is increasingly recognized as an important health risk, but comparable data across Europe are scarce. The objective of this study was to explore the prevalence and correlates of self-reported sitting time in adults across and within the 28 European Union Member States.

  10. Prevalence of self-reported sleep duration and sleep habits in type 2 diabetes patients in South Trinidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishi Ramtahal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to determine the prevalence of self-reported sleep duration and sleep habits and their associated factors in patients with type 2 diabetes in Trinidad. This was a cross-sectional multicenter study. There were 291 patients with type 2 diabetes studied. Sleep habits were assessed using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey sleep disorder questionnaire. Demographic, anthropometric and biochemical data were also collected. The sample had a mean age of 58.8 years; 66.7% were female. The mean BMI was 28.9 kg/m2. The prevalence of Excessive Daytime Sleepiness (EDS was 11.3%. The prevalence of patients with short sleep (⩽6 h was 28.5%. The prevalence of patients with poor sleep was 63.9%. Poor sleep was associated with age, intensive anti-diabetic treatment and longer duration of diabetes. Short sleep was associated with intensive anti-diabetic treatment and BMI, while EDS was associated with increased BMI. In a sample of patients with type 2 diabetes, a high prevalence of self-reported sleep duration and unhealthy sleep habits was found. There needs to be an increased awareness of sleep conditions in adults with type 2 diabetes by doctors caring for these patients.

  11. Prevalence of Self-Reported Sleep Duration and Sleep Habits in Type 2 Diabetes Patients in South Trinidad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramtahal, Rishi; Khan, Claude; Maharaj-Khan, Kavita; Nallamothu, Sriram; Hinds, Avery; Dhanoo, Andrew; Yeh, Hsin-Chieh; Hill-Briggs, Felicia; Lazo, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to determine the prevalence of self-reported sleep duration and sleep habits and their associated factors in patients with type 2 diabetes in Trinidad. This was a cross-sectional multicenter study. There were 291 patients with type 2 diabetes studied. Sleep habits were assessed using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey sleep disorder questionnaire. Demographic, anthropometric and biochemical data were also collected. The sample had a mean age of 58.8 years; 66.7% were female. The mean BMI was 28.9 kg/m2. The prevalence of Excessive Daytime Sleepiness (EDS) was 11.3%. The prevalence of patients with short sleep (≤6 hours) was 28.5%. The prevalence of patients with poor sleep was 63.9%. Poor sleep was associated with age, intensive anti-diabetic treatment and longer duration of diabetes. Short sleep was associated with intensive antidiabetic treatment and BMI, while EDS was associated with increased BMI. In a sample of patients with type 2 diabetes, a high prevalence of self-reported sleep duration and unhealthy sleep habits was found. There needs to be an increased awareness of sleep conditions in adults with type 2 diabetes by doctors caring for these patients. PMID:26073574

  12. Prevalence of self-reported sleep duration and sleep habits in type 2 diabetes patients in South Trinidad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramtahal, Rishi; Khan, Claude; Maharaj-Khan, Kavita; Nallamothu, Sriram; Hinds, Avery; Dhanoo, Andrew; Yeh, Hsin-Chieh; Hill-Briggs, Felicia; Lazo, Mariana

    2015-12-01

    The present study aims to determine the prevalence of self-reported sleep duration and sleep habits and their associated factors in patients with type 2 diabetes in Trinidad. This was a cross-sectional multicenter study. There were 291 patients with type 2 diabetes studied. Sleep habits were assessed using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey sleep disorder questionnaire. Demographic, anthropometric and biochemical data were also collected. The sample had a mean age of 58.8 years; 66.7% were female. The mean BMI was 28.9 kg/m(2). The prevalence of Excessive Daytime Sleepiness (EDS) was 11.3%. The prevalence of patients with short sleep (⩽6h) was 28.5%. The prevalence of patients with poor sleep was 63.9%. Poor sleep was associated with age, intensive anti-diabetic treatment and longer duration of diabetes. Short sleep was associated with intensive anti-diabetic treatment and BMI, while EDS was associated with increased BMI. In a sample of patients with type 2 diabetes, a high prevalence of self-reported sleep duration and unhealthy sleep habits was found. There needs to be an increased awareness of sleep conditions in adults with type 2 diabetes by doctors caring for these patients. Copyright © 2015 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. All rights reserved.

  13. A systematic review of the prevalence of Morquio A syndrome: challenges for study reporting in rare diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadley, Regina M; Lang, Shona; Misso, Kate; Bekkering, Trudy; Ross, Janine; Akiyama, Takeyuki; Fietz, Michael; Giugliani, Roberto; Hendriksz, Chris J; Hock, Ngu Lock; McGill, Jim; Olaye, Andrew; Jain, Mohit; Kleijnen, Jos

    2014-11-18

    Morquio A (MPS IVA) is a rare disease characterised by a deficiency of N-acetylgalactosamine-6 sulfatase (GALNS) and presenting with short stature, abnormal gait, cervical spine instability and shortened lifespan. To prepare a systematic review of the prevalence of Morquio A in multiple countries and suggest recommendations for reporting rare diseases. Medline, Medline In-Process, Medline Daily Update, Embase, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, Health Technology Assessment Database and PROSPERO were searched from inception to October 2013 to identify relevant information on the epidemiology of Morquio A. Forty Patient Organisation Representatives (POR) and Key Opinion Leaders (KOL) across 24 countries were contacted for data. Observational studies were included and case reports were excluded. Searches were performed without date or language restriction. Two researchers independently screened and extracted data. Quality of study reporting was assessed using a checklist adapted from STROBE (STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology). Point or birth prevalence was stratified according to diagnostic method and discussed narratively. In total 9,074 records were retrieved from searching and 25 studies were included for data extraction. Twenty out of 40 KOL and POR responded (50%) and 9 provided data (23%). Point prevalence of Morquio A was 1 per 926,000 in Australia, 1 per 1,872,000 in Malaysia and 1 per 599,000 in UK and Morquio (unclassified) was 1 per 323, 000 in Denmark. Birth prevalence of Morquio A (using recommended diagnostic methods) ranged from 1 per 71,000 in UAE to 1 per 500,000 in Japan. All results were compromised by poor study reporting and internal validity. The review highlighted that there is a misunderstanding of the definitions for prevalence and incidence in the field; that studies were poorly reported (diagnostic methods and

  14. Prevalence of and factors associated with self-reported high blood pressure in Brazilian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Bernal, Regina Tomie Ivata; Andrade, Silvânia Suely Caribé de Araújo; Silva, Marta Maria Alves da; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo

    2017-06-01

    To analyze factors associated with self-reported high blood pressure among adults in Brazilian state capitals. The study uses data from Sistema de Vigilância de Fatores de Risco e Proteção para Doenças Crônicas por Inquérito Telefônico (Vigitel - Surveillance System of Risk and Protection Factors of Noncommunicable Diseases by Telephone Survey) collected in 2013. Prevalence rates and their respective 95% confidence intervals by gender were estimated according to sociodemographic variables, lifestyle, reported noncommunicable diseases and self-rated health status. Multivariate logistic regression modeling was used to identify variables associated with self-reported high blood pressure with α high blood pressure among adults living in Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District was 24.1%. The following variables were associated with self-reported high blood pressure: age group, taking 18-24 as reference (all age groups presented increased risk - from 25-34 years [OR = 2.6; 95%CI 2.0-3.4] up to 65 years or more [OR = 28.1; 95%CI 21.7-36.4]); low education level (9 to 11 years of study [OR = 0.8; 95%CI 0.7-0.9] and 12 years or more [OR = 0.6; 95%CI 0.6-0.7]); Black race or skin color (OR = 1.3; 95%CI 1.1-1.5); being a former smoker (OR = 1.2; 95%CI 1.1-1.3); obesity (OR = 2.7; 95%CI 2.4-3.0); diabetes (OR = 2.9; 95%CI 2.5-3.5%), and high cholesterol (OR = 1.9; 95%CI 1.8-2.2). Approximately one quarter of the adult population living in Brazilian state capitals reported having high blood pressure. Information from Vigitel is useful to monitor high blood pressure and identity its associated factors, supporting public policies for health promotion, surveillance and care. Analisar os fatores associados à hipertensão arterial autorreferida entre adultos nas capitais brasileiras. Estudo com os dados do Sistema de Vigilância de Fatores de Risco e Proteção para Doenças Crônicas por Inquérito Telefônico (Vigitel) coletados no ano de 2013. Foram estimadas

  15. Habitual sleep duration and insomnia and the risk of cardiovascular events and all-cause death: report from a community-based cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Kuo-Liong; Chen, Pei-Chung; Hsu, Hsiu-Ching; Su, Ta-Chen; Sung, Fung-Chang; Chen, Ming-Fong; Lee, Yuan-Teh

    2010-02-01

    To investigate the relationship between sleep duration and insomnia severity and the risk of all-cause death and cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. Prospective cohort study. Community-based. A total of 3,430 adults aged 35 years or older. None. During a median 15.9 year (interquartile range, 13.1 to 16.9) follow-up period, 420 cases developed cardiovascular disease and 901 cases died. A U-shape association between sleep duration and all-cause death was found: the age and gender-adjusted relative risks (95% confidence interval [CI]) of all-cause death (with 7 h of daily sleep being considered for the reference group) for individuals reporting or = 9 h were 1.15 (0.91-1.45), 1.02 (0.85-1.25), 1.05 (0.88-1.27), and 1.43 (1.16-1.75); P for trend, 0.019. However, the relationship between sleep duration and risk of CVD were linear. The multivariate-adjusted relative risk (95% CI) for all-cause death (using individuals without insomnia) were 1.02 (0.86-1.20) for occasional insomnia, 1.15 (0.92-1.42) for frequent insomnia, and 1.70 (1.16-2.49) for nearly everyday insomnia (P for trend, 0.028). The multivariate adjusted relative risk (95% CI) was 2.53 (1.71-3.76) for all-cause death and 2.07 (1.11-3.85) for CVD rate in participants sleeping > or = 9 h and for those with frequent insomnia. Sleep duration and insomnia severity were associated with all-cause death and CVD events among ethnic Chinese in Taiwan. Our data indicate that an optimal sleep duration (7-8 h) predicted fewer deaths.

  16. Associations and predictions of readmission or death in acutely admitted older medical patients using self-reported frailty and functional measures. A Danish cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jane; Aadahl, Mette; Sørensen, Erik Elgaard

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether frailty in acutely admitted older medical patients, assessed by a self-report questionnaire and evaluation of functional level at discharge, was associated with readmission or death within 6 months after discharge. A second objective was to assess the predictive...... measured. Associations were assessed using Cox regression with first unplanned readmission or death (all-causes) as the outcome. Prediction models including the three exposure variables and known risk factors were modelled using logistic regression and C-statistics. RESULTS: Of 1328 included patients, 50......% were readmitted or died within 6 months. When adjusted for gender and age, there was an 88% higher risk of readmission or death if the TFI scores were 8-13 points compared to 0-1 points (HR 1.88, CI 1.38;2.58). Likewise, higher TUG and lower GS scores were associated with higher risk of readmission...

  17. Hyperthermia, Thermal Injuries, and Death from a Forced Convection Heat Source: A Case Report and Experimental Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher-Hubbard, Amanda O; Sung, LokMan; Hubbard, Sean A; Hlavaty, Leigh

    2017-05-01

    Heat-related deaths of children are most often encountered in the context of enclosed vehicles in summer months. Deviating from this, a 16-month-old boy was found unresponsive in a stroller that was placed adjacent to a space heater during mid-winter. The cause of death was hyperthermia and thermal injuries. Manner of death determination was difficult due to alleged surrounding circumstances. To understand the time-course of this child's injuries, a child death scene investigation was performed; the stroller and space heater were recovered. In a re-enactment of the events, a slaughtered pig approximating the child's size was warmed using a water bath and placed in the stroller beside the space heater. Cutaneous temperature measurements showed rapid initial temperature rise with subsequent steady increases. Tanning of the skin was seen on periodic direct observations. Internal temperature monitoring illustrated steady increases. This experiment was essential in classifying the manner of death as homicide. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  18. Prevalence of Self-Reported Food Allergy in Six Regions of Inner Mongolia, Northern China: A Population-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Yan; Zhuang, Yan; Ma, Ting-Ting; Zhang, Biao; Wang, Xue-Yan

    2018-04-01

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of self-reported food allergy in 6 regions of Inner Mongolia, northern China. MATERIAL AND METHODS A random cluster sampling population study using a field questionnaire was distributed to 4714 individuals in 6 regions within Inner Mongolia, northern China; the study included ethnic Mongol minorities and Chinese Han populations. The questionnaire obtained data on ethnicity, age, sex, level of education, income, socioeconomic status, rural versus urban location, medical and family history, and food allergy. RESULTS There were 4441 (73.5%) completed questionnaires. The prevalence of self-reported food allergy was 18.0% (15.2% men; 20.6% women) and was age-related, being significantly greater in children compared with adults (38.7% vs. 11.9%) (P1, P<0.001). There were no significant associations between the prevalence of food allergy and birth history, infant feeding, and duration of breastfeeding. CONCLUSIONS An increase in the prevalence of self-reported food allergy was found in the Inner Mongolia region of northern China, which was greater in urban areas compared with rural areas.

  19. Prevalence of owner-reported behaviours in dogs separated from the litter at two different ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierantoni, L; Albertini, M; Pirrone, F

    2011-10-29

    The present study examined the prevalence of behaviours in dogs separated from the litter for adoption at different ages. Seventy adult dogs separated from their dam and littermates and adopted between the ages of 30 and 40 days were compared with 70 adult dogs that had been taken from the litter for adoption at two months. Owners were asked to complete a questionnaire eliciting information on whether their dog exhibited potentially problematic behaviours when in its usual environment. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate whether the age at which the dog was separated from the litter might predispose it to developing undesirable behaviours. The odds of displaying destructiveness, excessive barking, fearfulness on walks, reactivity to noises, toy possessiveness, food possessiveness and attention-seeking were significantly greater for the dogs that had been removed from the litter earlier during the socialisation period. In addition, dogs purchased from a pet shop at 30 to 40 days of age were reported to exhibit some of the listed behaviours with a significantly higher frequency than dogs purchased from a pet shop at two months. No significant differences were observed with dogs obtained from other types of sources. The dogs in the youngest age group (18 to 36 months) had a higher probability of displaying destructiveness and tail chasing. These findings indicate that, compared with dogs that remained with their social group for 60 days, dogs that had been separated from the litter earlier were more likely to exhibit potentially problematic behaviours, especially if they came from a pet shop.

  20. An anomalous origin of left coronary artery and sudden death in a soccer player: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meel, B L

    2011-07-01

    Coronary artery anomalies, after hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, are the second most common cause of exercise-related sudden cardiac deaths. These anomalies have been associated with myocardial ischaemia, arrhythmia and sudden death during exercise. Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the right sinus of Valsalva with anterior or posterior courses is not always thought to be a benign anomaly. A 22-year-old man died suddenly on a football field. At autopsy, there was an abnormal origin of the left coronary artery from the right sinus of Valsalva. The abnormal course of the artery between the aorta and pulmonary trunk had limited victim's functional capacity. The history, cause of death and patho-physiology are discussed, and some preventive strategies suggested.

  1. Missed doses of oral antihyperglycemic medications in US adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus: prevalence and self-reported reasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vietri, Jeffrey T; Wlodarczyk, Catherine S; Lorenzo, Rose; Rajpathak, Swapnil

    2016-09-01

    Adherence to antihyperglycemic medication is thought to be suboptimal, but the proportion of patients missing doses, the number of doses missed, and reasons for missing are not well described. This survey was conducted to estimate the prevalence of and reasons for missed doses of oral antihyperglycemic medications among US adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and to explore associations between missed doses and health outcomes. The study was a cross-sectional patient survey. Respondents were contacted via a commercial survey panel and completed an on-line questionnaire via the Internet. Respondents provided information about their use of oral antihyperglycemic medications including doses missed in the prior 4 weeks, personal characteristics, and health outcomes. Weights were calculated to project the prevalence to the US adult population with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Outcomes were compared according to number of doses missed in the past 4 weeks using bivariate statistics and generalized linear models. Approximately 30% of adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus reported missing or reducing ≥1 dose of oral antihyperglycemic medication in the prior 4 weeks. Accidental missing was more commonly reported than purposeful skipping, with forgetting the most commonly reported reason. The timing of missed doses suggested respondents had also forgotten about doses missed, so the prevalence of missed doses is likely higher than reported. Outcomes were poorer among those who reported missing three or more doses in the prior 4 weeks. A substantial number of US adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus miss doses of their oral antihyperglycemic medications.

  2. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Non-Communicable Diseases Prevalence in India: Disparities between Self-Reported Diagnoses and Standardized Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellakkal, Sukumar; Subramanian, S. V.; Millett, Christopher; Basu, Sanjay; Stuckler, David; Ebrahim, Shah

    2013-01-01

    Background Whether non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are diseases of poverty or affluence in low-and-middle income countries has been vigorously debated. Most analyses of NCDs have used self-reported data, which is biased by differential access to healthcare services between groups of different socioeconomic status (SES). We sought to compare self-reported diagnoses versus standardised measures of NCD prevalence across SES groups in India. Methods We calculated age-adjusted prevalence rates of common NCDs from the Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health, a nationally representative cross-sectional survey. We compared self-reported diagnoses to standardized measures of disease for five NCDs. We calculated wealth-related and education-related disparities in NCD prevalence by calculating concentration index (C), which ranges from −1 to +1 (concentration of disease among lower and higher SES groups, respectively). Findings NCD prevalence was higher (range 5.2 to 19.1%) for standardised measures than self-reported diagnoses (range 3.1 to 9.4%). Several NCDs were particularly concentrated among higher SES groups according to self-reported diagnoses (Csrd) but were concentrated either among lower SES groups or showed no strong socioeconomic gradient using standardized measures (Csm): age-standardised wealth-related C: angina Csrd 0.02 vs. Csm −0.17; asthma and lung diseases Csrd −0.05 vs. Csm −0.04 (age-standardised education-related Csrd 0.04 vs. Csm −0.05); vision problems Csrd 0.07 vs. Csm −0.05; depression Csrd 0.07 vs. Csm −0.13. Indicating similar trends of standardized measures detecting more cases among low SES, concentration of hypertension declined among higher SES (Csrd 0.19 vs. Csm 0.03). Conclusions The socio-economic patterning of NCD prevalence differs markedly when assessed by standardized criteria versus self-reported diagnoses. NCDs in India are not necessarily diseases of affluence but also of poverty, indicating likely under-diagnosis and

  3. Using the STROBE statement to assess reporting in blindness prevalence surveys in low and middle income countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Ramke

    Full Text Available Cross-sectional blindness prevalence surveys are essential to plan and monitor eye care services. Incomplete or inaccurate reporting can prevent effective translation of research findings. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE statement is a 32 item checklist developed to improve reporting of observational studies. The aim of this study was to assess the completeness of reporting in blindness prevalence surveys in low and middle income countries (LMICs using STROBE.MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science databases were searched on April 8 2016 to identify cross-sectional blindness prevalence surveys undertaken in LMICs and published after STROBE was published in December 2007. The STROBE tool was applied to all included studies, and each STROBE item was categorized as 'yes' (met criteria, 'no' (did not meet criteria or 'not applicable'. The 'Completeness of reporting (COR score' for each manuscript was calculated: COR score = yes / [yes + no]. In journals with included studies the instructions to authors and reviewers were checked for reference to STROBE.The 89 included studies were undertaken in 32 countries and published in 37 journals. The mean COR score was 60.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] 58.1-63.7%; range 30.8-88.9%. The mean COR score did not differ between surveys published in journals with author instructions referring to STROBE (10/37 journals; 61.1%, 95%CI 56.4-65.8% or in journals where STROBE was not mentioned (60.9%, 95%CI 57.4-64.3%; p = 0.93.While reporting in blindness prevalence surveys is strong in some areas, others need improvement. We recommend that more journals adopt the STROBE checklist and ensure it is used by authors and reviewers.

  4. Using the STROBE statement to assess reporting in blindness prevalence surveys in low and middle income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramke, Jacqueline; Palagyi, Anna; Jordan, Vanessa; Petkovic, Jennifer; Gilbert, Clare E

    2017-01-01

    Cross-sectional blindness prevalence surveys are essential to plan and monitor eye care services. Incomplete or inaccurate reporting can prevent effective translation of research findings. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement is a 32 item checklist developed to improve reporting of observational studies. The aim of this study was to assess the completeness of reporting in blindness prevalence surveys in low and middle income countries (LMICs) using STROBE. MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science databases were searched on April 8 2016 to identify cross-sectional blindness prevalence surveys undertaken in LMICs and published after STROBE was published in December 2007. The STROBE tool was applied to all included studies, and each STROBE item was categorized as 'yes' (met criteria), 'no' (did not meet criteria) or 'not applicable'. The 'Completeness of reporting (COR) score' for each manuscript was calculated: COR score = yes / [yes + no]. In journals with included studies the instructions to authors and reviewers were checked for reference to STROBE. The 89 included studies were undertaken in 32 countries and published in 37 journals. The mean COR score was 60.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] 58.1-63.7%; range 30.8-88.9%). The mean COR score did not differ between surveys published in journals with author instructions referring to STROBE (10/37 journals; 61.1%, 95%CI 56.4-65.8%) or in journals where STROBE was not mentioned (60.9%, 95%CI 57.4-64.3%; p = 0.93). While reporting in blindness prevalence surveys is strong in some areas, others need improvement. We recommend that more journals adopt the STROBE checklist and ensure it is used by authors and reviewers.

  5. Prevalence of self-reported finger deformations and occupational risk factors among professional cooks: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasu, Miwako; Sakai, Kazuhiro; Kogi, Kazutaka; Ito, Akiyoshi; Feskens, Edith J M; Tomita, Shigeru; Temmyo, Yoshiomi; Ueno, Mitsuo; Miyagi, Shigeji

    2011-05-26

    Previous studies have pointed out that the school lunch workers in Japan are suffering from work-related disorders including finger deformations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of self-reported finger deformations and the association with job-related risk factors. A cross-sectional questionnaire study of 5,719 subjects (response rate: 81%, 982 men and 4,737 women) was undertaken during September 2003 to February 2004. Finger deformations were found among 11.7% of the men and 35.6% of the women studied, with significant differences among sex, age and sex-age groups. For both men and women the pattern of finger deformations across the hand was similar for the right and the left hand. For women, the deformations were found in about 10% of the distal interphalangeal joints of all fingers. Based on multiple logistic regression analyses, the factors female sex, age, the number of cooked lunches per cook and cooking activities were independently associated with the prevalence of finger deformations. High prevalence odds ratios were found for those frequently carrying or using tools by hands such as delivering containers, distributing meals, preparing dishes, washing equipment, cutting and stirring foods. Among the school lunch workers studied, women had a higher prevalence of finger deformations on all joints of both hands. Various cooking tasks were associated with the prevalence of finger deformations. The results suggest that improvements in working conditions are important for preventing work-related disorders such as finger deformations.

  6. Sensitization of (colon) cancer cells to death receptor related therapies A report from the FP6-ONCODEATH research consortium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pintzas, A.; Zhivotovsky, B.; Workman, P.; Clarke, P.A.; Linardopoulos, S.; Martinou, J.C.; Lacal, J.C.; Robine, S.; Nasioulas, G.; Anděra, Ladislav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 7 (2012), s. 458-466 ISSN 1538-4047 Grant - others:EK(XE) LSHC-CT-2006-037278 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : cancer * death receptors * kinase inhibitors * mitochondria * targeted therapies Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.287, year: 2012

  7. Self-reported prevalence of childhood allergic diseases in three cities of China: a multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Jing

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies conducted during the 1990s indicated that childhood allergic diseases were increasing worldwide, but more recent investigations in some Western countries have suggested that the trend is stabilizing or may even be reversing. However, few data are available on the current status of allergic disease prevalence in Chinese children. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence rates of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and eczema in children of three major cities of China, to determine the status of allergic diseases among Chinese children generally, and to evaluate the prevalence of allergic diseases in children of different ages. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey between October 2008 and May 2009 in three major cities of China (Beijing, Chongqing, and Guangzhou to evaluate the prevalence rates of childhood allergic diseases including asthma, allergic rhinitis, and eczema, using a questionnaire of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC group. A total of 24,290 children aged 0-14 years were interviewed, using a multi-stage sampling method. To acquire data on children aged 3-14 years, we visited schools and kindergartens. To access children too young to attend school or kindergarten, we extended our survey to community health service centers. Each questionnaire was completed by a parent or guardian of a child after an informed consent form was signed. Results Of the 24,290 children in our study, 12,908 (53.14% were males and 11,382 (46.86% females; 10,372 (42.70% were from Beijing, 9,846 (40.53% from Chongqing, and 4,072 (16.77% from Guangzhou. Our survey indicated that in Beijing, Chongqing, and Guangzhou, the prevalence rates of asthma were 3.15%, 7.45%, and 2.09%, respectively; the rates of allergic rhinitis were 14.46%, 20.42%, and 7.83%; and the rates of eczema were 20.64%, 10.02%, and 7.22%. The prevalence of allergic diseases varied with age. Asthma was

  8. Recovery from a possible cytomegalovirus meningoencephalitis-induced apparent brain stem death in an immunocompetent man: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahardjo, Theresia Monica; Maskoen, Tinni Trihartini; Redjeki, Ike Sri

    2016-08-26

    Recovery from cytomegalovirus meningoencephalitis with brain stem death in an immunocompetent patient is almost impossible. We present a remarkable recovery from a possible cytomegalovirus infection in an immunocompetent man who had severe neurological syndromes, suggesting brain stem death complicated by pneumonia and pleural effusion. A 19-year-old Asian man presented at our hospital's emergency department with reduced consciousness and seizures following high fever, headache, confusion, and vomitus within a week before arrival. He was intubated and sent to our intensive care unit. He had nuchal rigidity and tetraparesis with accentuated tendon reflexes. Electroencephalography findings suggested an acute structural lesion at his right temporal area or an epileptic state. A cerebral spinal fluid examination suggested viral infection. A computed tomography scan was normal at the early stage of disease. Immunoglobulin M, immunoglobulin G anti-herpes simplex virus, and immunoglobulin M anti-cytomegalovirus were negative. However, immunoglobulin G anti-cytomegalovirus was positive, which supported a diagnosis of cytomegalovirus meningoencephalitis. His clinical condition deteriorated, spontaneous respiration disappeared, cranial reflexes became negative, and brain stem death was suspected. Therapy included antivirals, corticosteroids, antibiotics, anticonvulsant, antipyretics, antifungal agents, and a vasopressor to maintain hemodynamic stability. After 1 month, he showed a vague response to painful stimuli at his supraorbital nerve and respiration started to appear the following week. After pneumonia and pleural effusion were resolved, he was weaned from the ventilator and moved from the intensive care unit on day 90. This case highlights several important issues that should be considered. First, the diagnosis of brain stem death must be confirmed with caution even if there are negative results of brain stem death test for a long period. Second, cytomegalovirus

  9. Temporal trends in recording of diabetes on death certificates: results from Translating Research Into Action for Diabetes (TRIAD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Laura N; Karter, Andrew J; Curb, J David; Marrero, David G; Crosson, Jesse C; Herman, William H

    2011-07-01

    To determine the frequency that diabetes is reported on death certificates of decedents with known diabetes and describe trends in reporting over 8 years. Data were obtained from 11,927 participants with diabetes who were enrolled in Translating Research into Action for Diabetes, a multicenter prospective observational study of diabetes care in managed care. Data on decedents (N=2,261) were obtained from the National Death Index from 1 January 2000 through 31 December 2007. The primary dependent variables were the presence of the ICD-10 codes for diabetes listed anywhere on the death certificate or as the underlying cause of death. Diabetes was recorded on 41% of death certificates and as the underlying cause of death for 13% of decedents with diabetes. Diabetes was significantly more likely to be reported on the death certificate of decedents dying of cardiovascular disease than all other causes. There was a statistically significant trend of increased reporting of diabetes as the underlying cause of death over time (Pdeath. The increase in reporting of diabetes as the underlying cause of death was associated with a decrease in the reporting of cardiovascular disease as the underlying cause of death (PDeath certificates continue to underestimate the prevalence of diabetes among decedents. The increase in reporting of diabetes as the underlying cause of death over the past 8 years will likely impact estimates of the burden of diabetes in the U.S.

  10. Dementia in the National Cause of Death Registry in Norway 1969-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidar Hjellvik

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of dementia is expected to increase markedly during the coming decades. Epidemiological studies involving the National Cause of Death Registry (NCDR may be useful for exploring the aetiology of dementia. We therefore wanted to study developments in the reporting of dementia in the NCDR over the last four decades.Methods: We calculated the age- and gender specific proportion of deaths with dementia reported in the NCDR (dementia deaths in the period 1969-2010, and the proportion of vascular dementia and Alzheimer’s disease deaths in 1986-2010. Separate analyses were done for deaths occurring in nursing homes in 1996-2010. The proportion of dementia deaths where dementia was coded as underlying cause of death was also calculated.Results: The proportion of dementia deaths increased more than threefold in the period 1969-2010 among women (from 4% to 15%, and more than doubled among men (from 3% to 7%. In nursing homes the proportion increased from 17% to 26% for women and from 13% to 18% for men. The proportion of dementia deaths with Alzheimer’s disease reported in the NCDR increased from practically zero in 1986 to a maximum of 28% in 2005. The proportion of dementia deaths with dementia as underlying cause of death increased from a minimum of 6% in 1972 to a maximum of 51% in 2009.Conclusion: Although the reporting of dementia in the NCDR increased markedly from 1969 to 2010, dementia is still under-reported for old people and for deaths occurring in nursing homes when compared to prevalence estimates.

  11. Brief Report: Prevalence of Co-Occurring Epilepsy and Autism Spectrum Disorder--The U.S. National Survey of Children's Health 2011-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Shiny; Hovinga, Mary E.; Rai, Dheeraj; Lee, Brian K.

    2017-01-01

    Epilepsy is reported to co-occur in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Previous studies across the world have found prevalence estimates ranging from 4 to 38%. We examined parent-reported prevalence of co-occurring epilepsy and ASD in the most recent U.S. National Survey of Children's Health, 2011-2012. All analyses accounted for…

  12. Gratitude lessens death anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Rosanna W L; Cheng, Sheung-Tak

    2011-09-01

    This study investigated whether a brief gratitude induction could reduce death anxiety. 83 Chinese older adults (mean age = 62.7, SD = 7.13) were randomly assigned into one of three conditions: gratitude, hassle, and neutral, in which they wrote different types of life events before responding to measures of death anxiety and affect. Participants in the gratitude induction reported lower death anxiety than the hassle and the neutral condition, whereas no difference was observed for the latter two conditions. There was no experimental effect on positive affect, and a significant effect on negative affect but which did not favor the gratitude condition. By reexamining life events with a thankful attitude, people may become less fearful of death due to a sense that life has been well-lived. Because gratitude can be induced using a very brief procedure, there are broad applications in clinical and health-care settings for the relief of death anxiety.

  13. Prevalence of self-reported hypercholesterolaemia and its relation to dietary habits, in Greek adults; a national nutrition & health survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagopoulos George

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The strong causal role of hypercholesterolaemia on the progression of atherosclerosis and subsequently on the development of cardiovascular disease is well described. Main aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of self-reported hypercholesterolaemia and its relation to nutritional habits, in a representative nationwide sample of adult Greek population. Methods Cross sectional survey. Based on a multistage sampling, 5003 adults (18 – 74 yr were enrolled (men: 48.8%, women: 51.2%. All participants were interviewed by trained personnel who used a standard questionnaire. The questionnaire included demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, medical history, lifestyle habits and nutritional assessment. Results The prevalence of self-reported hypercholesterolaemia was 16.4% in men and 21.8% in women (P Conclusion Hypercholesterolaemia seems to affect a large part of Greek population. It is hopeful that hypercholesterolaemics may have started adopting some more healthy nutritional behaviour compared to normocholesterolaemic ones.

  14. 38 CFR 3.211 - Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... death occurs abroad: (1) A United States consular report of death bearing the signature and seal of the... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Death. 3.211 Section 3..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Evidence Requirements § 3.211 Death. Death should be...

  15. Evidence-based guideline update: determining brain death in adults: report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijdicks, Eelco F M; Varelas, Panayiotis N; Gronseth, Gary S; Greer, David M

    2010-06-08

    To provide an update of the 1995 American Academy of Neurology guideline with regard to the following questions: Are there patients who fulfill the clinical criteria of brain death who recover neurologic function? What is an adequate observation period to ensure that cessation of neurologic function is permanent? Are complex motor movements that falsely suggest retained brain function sometimes observed in brain death? What is the comparative safety of techniques for determining apnea? Are there new ancillary tests that accurately identify patients with brain death? A systematic literature search was conducted and included a review of MEDLINE and EMBASE from January 1996 to May 2009. Studies were limited to adults. In adults, there are no published reports of recovery of neurologic function after a diagnosis of brain death using the criteria reviewed in the 1995 American Academy of Neurology practice parameter. Complex-spontaneous motor movements and false-positive triggering of the ventilator may occur in patients who are brain dead. There is insufficient evidence to determine the minimally acceptable observation period to ensure that neurologic functions have ceased irreversibly. Apneic oxygenation diffusion to determine apnea is safe, but there is insufficient evidence to determine the comparative safety of techniques used for apnea testing. There is insufficient evidence to determine if newer ancillary tests accurately confirm the cessation of function of the entire brain.

  16. Explanation and Elaboration of the Standards of Reporting of Neurological Disorders Checklist: A Guideline for the Reporting of Incidence and Prevalence Studies in Neuroepidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Derrick A; Brayne, Carol; Feigin, Valery L; Barker-Collo, Suzanne; Brainin, Michael; Davis, Daniel; Gallo, Valentina; Jetté, Nathalie; Karch, André; Kurtzke, John F; Lavados, Pablo M; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Nagel, Gabriele; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Rothwell, Peter M; Svenson, Lawrence W

    2015-01-01

    Incidence and prevalence studies of neurological disorders play an extremely important role in hypothesis-generation, assessing the burden of disease and planning of health services. However, the assessment of disease estimates is hindered by the poor quality of reporting for such studies. We developed the Standards of Reporting of Neurological Disorders (STROND) guideline in order to improve the quality of reporting of neurological disorders from which prevalence, incidence, and outcomes can be extracted for greater generalisability. The guideline was developed using a 3-round Delphi technique in order to identify the 'basic minimum items' important for reporting, as well as some additional 'ideal reporting items.' An e-consultation process was then used in order to gauge opinion by external neuroepidemiological experts on the appropriateness of the items included in the checklist. The resultant 15 items checklist and accompanying recommendations were developed using a similar process and structured in a similar manner to the Strengthening of the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology checklist for ease of use. This paper presents the STROND checklist with an explanation and elaboration for each item, as well as examples of good reporting from the neuroepidemiological literature. The introduction and use of the STROND checklist should lead to more consistent, transparent and contextualised reporting of descriptive neuroepidemiological studies that should facilitate international comparisons, and lead to more accessible information for multiple stakeholders, ultimately supporting better healthcare decisions for neurological disorders.

  17. Apical Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy in a Case with Chest Pain and Family History of Sudden Cardiac Death: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Ahmadi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM is the most common genetic cardiovascular disease, which is caused by a multitude of mutations in genes encoding proteins of the cardiac sarcomere (1. Apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (AHCM is an uncommon type of HCM. The sudden cardiac death is less likely to occur in the patients inflicted with AHCM (2. Herein, we presented the case of a 29-year-old man with AHCM, who had typical exertional chest pain without any cardiovascular risk factors, except for a sudden cardiac death in his older brother at the age of 28 years. After performing complete clinical and paraclinical evaluations, the patient underwent optimal medical treatment with beta-blocker agents without any symptoms.

  18. Absence of Doppler signal in transcranial color-coded ultrasonography may be confirmatory for brain death: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Akif Topçuoğlu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD is a valuable tool for demonstrating cerebral circulatory arrest (CCA in the setting of brain death. Complete reversal of diastolic flow (to-and-fro flow and systolic spikes in bilateral terminal internal carotid arteries and vertebrobasilar circulation are considered as specific sonogram configurations supporting the diagnosis of CCA. Because of the possibility of sonic bone window impermeability, absence of any waveform in TCD is not confirmatory for CCA unless there is documentation of disappearance of a previously well detected signal by the same recording settings. Transcranial color-coded sonography (TCCS with B-mode imaging can reliably detect adequacy of bone windows with clarity contralateral skull and ipsilateral planum temporale visualization. Therefore, absence of detectable intracranial Doppler signal along with available ultrasound window in TCCS can confirm clinical diagnosis of brain death. We herein discuss this entity from the frame of a representative case.

  19. Prevalence of self-reported lactose intolerance in multiethnic sample of adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    According to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, between 30 and 50 million Americans have the potential for lactose-intolerance symptoms. However, lactose-intolerance prevalence rates in practical life settings may be lower than originally suggested. The goal of thi...

  20. Brief Report: Prevalence of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder among Individuals with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Ellen; Cerban, Bettina M.; Slater, Chelsea M.; Caccamo, Laura M.; Bacic, Janine; Chan, Eugenia

    2013-01-01

    Currently, both the DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10 preclude the diagnosis of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in cases that present with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This criterion will be removed in the upcoming DSM-V, but the relationship between ASD and ADHD, and in particular the prevalence of ADHD among the ASD population, remains…

  1. The prevalence of self-reported neck pain in rugby union players in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Rugby is a highly demanding sport that carries a high risk of injury, specifically to the neck region. Repetitive loading of the neck during the scrum or tackle phase may increase neck symptoms and pain. Objectives. The objective of this cross-sectional, descriptive study was to determine the prevalence of ...

  2. prevalence of self-reported low back pain among patients with type ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Low back pain should be accorded necessary attention when treating patients with T2DM. Keywords: Low back pain, Type 2 diabetes mellitus, Prevalence. INTRODUCTION. Low Back Pain (LBP) is a pain or discomfort localised between the twelfth rib and the inferior gluteal folds, with or without radiating pain ...

  3. Brief Report: Behaviorally Induced Insufficient Sleep Syndrome in Older Adolescents: Prevalence and Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallesen, Stale; Saxvig, Ingvild West; Molde, Helge; Sorensen, Eli; Wilhelmsen-Langeland, Ane; Bjorvatn, Bjorn

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of "behaviorally induced insufficient sleep syndrome (BIISS)" which is a newly defined hypersomnia, among adolescents. BIISS is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, short habitual sleep duration and sleeping considerably longer than usual during weekend/vacations.…

  4. Effect of gender on hospital admissions for asthma and prevalence of self-reported asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, E; Lange, P; Vestbo, J

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Women are more often admitted to hospital for asthma than men. A study was undertaken to determine whether this is caused by gender differences in the prevalence or severity of the disease. METHODS: Admissions to hospital for asthma in 13,540 subjects were followed from 1977 to 1993. ...

  5. Prevalence of injuries and reporting of accidents among health care workers at the University Hospital of the West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Kurt; McGrowder, Donovan; Crawford, Tazhmoye; Alexander-Lindo, Ruby Lisa; Irving, Rachael

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the knowledge, awareness and practices of health care workers towards universal precautions at the University Hospital of the West Indies. The study also examined the prevalence of injuries experienced by health care workers, as well as incidence of accidents and compliance with post-exposure prophylaxis. A cross sectional survey was conducted in September and October 2007. A 28-item self-administered questionnaire was provided to two hundred health care workers including medical doctors, medical technologists, nurses and porters to assess knowledge and practices regarding universal precautions, prevalence of injuries and incidence of accidents. Almost two-thirds (62.3%) of the respondents were aware of policies and procedures for reporting accidents while one-third (33.2%) were unsure. All nurses were aware of policies and procedures for reporting accidents, followed by medical doctors (88%) and medical technologists (61.2%). The majority (81.5%) of the respondents experienced splashes from bodily fluid. Over three-quarters of medical doctors (78%) and two-thirds of nurses (64%) reported having experienced needle stick injuries, while the incidence among medical technologists was remarkably lower (26%). The majority of the respondents (59%) experienced low accident incidence while just over one-tenth (14%) reported high incidence. Eighty four respondents reported needle stick injuries; just under two-thirds (59.5%) of this group received post-exposure treatment. The study found that majority of health care workers were aware of policies and procedures for reporting accidents. Splashes from body fluids, needle stick injuries and cuts from other objects were quite prevalent among health care workers. There is a need for monitoring systems which would provide accurate information on the magnitude of needle stick injuries and trends over time, potential risk factors, emerging new problems, and the effectiveness of interventions at The

  6. The impact of definition and question order on the prevalence of bullying victimization using student self-reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Francis L; Cornell, Dewey G

    2015-12-01

    Accurate measurement is essential to determining the prevalence of bullying and evaluating the effectiveness of intervention efforts. The most common measurement approach is through anonymous self-report surveys, but previous studies have suggested that students do not adhere to standard definitions of bullying and may be influenced by the order of questions about types of victimization. In the current study, we have presented findings from 2 randomized experiments designed to determine (a) the impact of using or not using a definition of bullying and (b) asking about general versus specific types of bullying victimization and how the order of these questions affects victimization-prevalence rates. The study was conducted using a sample of 17,301 students attending 119 high schools. Findings indicate that the use of a definition had no impact on prevalence rates, but asking specific bullying-victimization questions (e.g., "I have been verbally bullied at school") prior to general bullying-victimization questions (e.g., "I have been bullied at school"), resulted in a 29-76% increase in victimization-prevalence rates. Results suggest that surveys that ask general-to-specific bullying-victimization questions, such as those found in national and international surveys, may be underreporting bullying victimization. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Preliminary Report: Analysis of the baseline study on the prevalence of Salmonella in laying hen flocks of Gallus gallus

    OpenAIRE

    Hald, Tine

    2006-01-01

    This is a preliminary report on the analysis of the Community-wide baseline study to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella in laying hen flocks. It is being published pending the full analysis of the entire dataset from the baseline study. The report contains the elements necessary for the establishment of the Community target for reduction of Salmonella in laying hens in accordance with Article 4 of Regulation No 2160/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council on the control of salmo...

  8. Funerals against death

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, Tara; Walter, Tony

    2015-01-01

    While anthropological studies in non-Western societies show how funerals protect the community from the threat of death, sociological studies of British funerals have so far focused on meanings for the private family. The article reports on results from a Mass Observation directive - the first British study to focus specifically on the entire funeral congregation – and shows how attendees experience the contemporary life-centred funeral as a symbolic conquest of death. While the eulogy’s accu...

  9. Oral Contraceptive Use and Prevalence of Self-Reported Glaucoma or Ocular Hypertension in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ye Elaine; Kakigi, Caitlin; Barbosa, Diego; Porco, Travis; Chen, Rebecca; Wang, Sophia; Li, Yingjie; Singh, Kuldev; Pasquale, Louis R; Lin, Shan C

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the association between oral contraceptive (OC) use and glaucoma prevalence in the United States. Cross-sectional study. A total of 3406 female participants, aged 40 years or older, from the 2005 to 2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, who reported a presence or absence of glaucoma or ocular hypertension completed both the vision and the reproductive health questionnaires and underwent eye examinations. Multivariate regression analysis was used to assess the correlation between OC use and self-reported glaucoma or ocular hypertension (n = 231 cases), controlling for potential confounders, including age, ethnicity, systemic comorbidities such as hypertension and stroke, ocular diseases such as cataract and diabetic retinopathy, and reproductive health factors, including age at menopause, age at menarche, history of hormone replacement therapy, and gynecological surgical history. The outcome variable was self-reported glaucoma or ocular hypertension. After adjusting for confounders, those with ≥3 years of OC use had greater odds (odds ratio, 1.94; 95% confidence interval, 1.22-3.07) of self-reported glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Other factors associated with higher glaucoma or ocular hypertension prevalence included older age, African American race, and later age at menarche. Oral contraceptive use may be associated with increased risk of self-reported glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Prevalence of Self-Reported Lifetime History of Traumatic Brain Injury and Associated Disability: A Statewide Population-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteneck, Gale G; Cuthbert, Jeffrey P; Corrigan, John D; Bogner, Jennifer A

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of all severities of traumatic brain injury (TBI), regardless of treatment setting, and their associated negative outcomes. A total of 2701 adult Coloradoans. A statewide, population-based, random digit-dialed telephone survey. The lifetime history of TBI was assessed by a modification of the Ohio State University TBI Identification Method; activity limitation and life satisfaction were also assessed. The distribution of self-reported lifetime injury was as follows: 19.8%, no injury; 37.7%, injury but no TBI; 36.4%, mild TBI; and 6.0%, moderate-severe TBI. Of those reporting a TBI, 23.1% were hospitalized, 38.5% were treated in an emergency department, 9.8% were treated in a physician's office, and 27.5% did not seek medical care. A clear gradient of activity limitations and low life satisfaction was seen, with the highest proportions of these negative outcomes occurring in people reporting more severe TBI and the lowest proportions in those not reporting a TBI. Approximately twice as many people reported activity limitations and low life satisfaction after nonhospitalized TBI compared with hospitalized TBI. This investigation highlights the seriousness of TBI as a public health problem and the importance of including all severities of TBI, no matter where, or if treated, in estimating the prevalence of disability co-occurring with TBI.

  11. First Report of Toxoplasma gondii Prevalence in Tibetan Pigs in Tibet, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Song-Ming; Ciren, Danba; Huang, Si-Yang; Xu, Min-Jun; Ga, Gong; Yan, Chao; Mahmoud, Mona S.; Zou, Feng-Cai

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Toxoplasma gondii infection is widely prevalent in humans and animals, including pigs throughout the world. In this study, the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in Tibetan pigs in China was investigated for the first time. A total of 427 serum samples were collected from Tibetan pigs in Nyingchi prefecture, Tibet, between April and December 2010, and were assayed for antibodies to T. gondii using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Ninety-seven (22.72%) pigs were found to be positive with MAT titers of 1:25 or higher. Slaughter pigs had the highest seroprevalence, compared with seroprevalence in fattening pigs, growing pigs, or piglets, although the difference was not statistically significant (p≥0.05). The results of the present survey indicate that T. gondii is highly prevalent in Tibetan pigs in Tibet, which poses a significant public health concern in this unique region of the world. PMID:22651381

  12. Self-reported diabetes in older people: comparison of prevalences and control measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Rizzato Stopa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to analyze the prevalence of diabetes in older people and the adopted control measures. METHODS Data regarding older diabetic individuals who participated in the Health Surveys conducted in the Municipality of Sao Paulo, SP, ISA-Capital, in 2003 and 2008, which were cross-sectional studies, were analyzed. Prevalences and confidence intervals were compared between 2003 and 2008, according to sociodemographic variables. The combination of the databases was performed when the confidence intervals overlapped. The Chi-square (level of significance of 5% and the Pearson’s Chi-square (Rao-Scott tests were performed. The variables without overlap between the confidence intervals were not tested. RESULTS The age of the older adults was 60-69 years. The majority were women, Caucasian, with an income of between > 0.5 and 2.5 times the minimum salary and low levels of schooling. The prevalence of diabetes was 17.6% (95%CI 14.9;20.6 in 2003 and 20.1% (95%CI 17.3;23.1 in 2008, which indicates a growth over this period (p at the limit of significance. The most prevalent measure adopted by the older adults to control diabetes was hypoglycemic agents, followed by diet. Physical activity was not frequent, despite the significant differences observed between 2003 and 2008 results. The use of public health services to control diabetes was significantly higher in older individuals with lower income and lower levels of education. CONCLUSIONS Diabetes is a complex and challenging disease for patients and the health systems. Measures that encourage health promotion practices are necessary because they presented a smaller proportion than the use of hypoglycemic agents. Public health policies should be implemented, and aimed mainly at older individuals with low income and schooling levels. These changes are essential to improve the health condition of older diabetic patients.

  13. Prevalence of hearing loss and accuracy of self-report among factory workers

    OpenAIRE

    Marjorie C McCullagh; Delbert Raymond; Madeleine J Kerr; Sally L Lusk

    2011-01-01

    Noise represents one of the most common occupational health hazards. A Healthy People 2020 objective aims to reduce hearing loss in the noise-exposed public. The purpose of this study was to describe and compare perceived and measured hearing, and to determine the prevalence of hearing loss among a group of factory workers. Data collected as part of an intervention study promoting hearing protector use among workers at an automotive factory in the Midwest were used. Plant employees (n=2691) p...

  14. Sudden death in the dysphagic stroke patient--a case of airway obstruction caused by a food bolus: a brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finestone, H M; Fisher, J; Greene-Finestone, L S; Teasell, R W; Craig, I D

    1998-01-01

    The clinical events leading up to the sudden death of a dysphagic stroke patient with dementia is described. A 63-yr-old man sustained right thalamic and mid-brain infarctions. On the inpatient stroke rehabilitation ward, he exhibited significant impulsivity and dementia, the latter felt to be premorbid. The patient frequently coughed, and modified barium swallow testing showed dysphagia, with aspiration occurring only when consuming greater than teaspoon amounts of liquid. He subsequently died at home while eating a meal. Autopsy showed an intact large cheese ball (bocconcini) occluding the airway. Sudden death in the impulsive stroke patient secondary to airway occlusion by a food bolus has not previously been reported, although such patients seem to be at greater risk. New eating-related interventions are warranted for dysphagic patients who exhibit impulsivity. It is proposed that food particle size be limited to 1 cm2 and that such patients be closely monitored while eating.

  15. Prevalence and severity of self-reported asthma in young adults, 1976-2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browatzki, A; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Lange, P

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the prevalence and severity of asthma in young Danish adults over three decades. Males and females aged 20-35 yrs were sampled from the population of Copenhagen for the three surveys (1976-1978, 1991-1993 and 2001-2004). A total of 3,285 (46% male) sub...... to increase over the last three decades among young Danish adults, and the observed increase in severity seems, at least partly, to be related to the increase in prevalence of obesity.......The aim of the present study was to describe the prevalence and severity of asthma in young Danish adults over three decades. Males and females aged 20-35 yrs were sampled from the population of Copenhagen for the three surveys (1976-1978, 1991-1993 and 2001-2004). A total of 3,285 (46% male...... index, especially >30 kg.m(-2), was associated with a lower percentage predicted FEV1 (pobesity on FEV1. The proportion of smokers declined from 60 to 38% (p

  16. Dialysis Disequilibrium Syndrome: Brain death following hemodialysis for metabolic acidosis and acute renal failure – A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagshaw Sean M

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dialysis disequilibrium syndrome (DDS is the clinical phenomenon of acute neurologic symptoms attributed to cerebral edema that occurs during or following intermittent hemodialysis (HD. We describe a case of DDS-induced cerebral edema that resulted in irreversible brain injury and death following acute HD and review the relevant literature of the association of DDS and HD. Case Presentation A 22-year-old male with obstructive uropathy presented to hospital with severe sepsis syndrome secondary to pneumonia. Laboratory investigations included a pH of 6.95, PaCO2 10 mmHg, HCO3 2 mmol/L, serum sodium 132 mmol/L, serum osmolality 330 mosmol/kg, and urea 130 mg/dL (46.7 mmol/L. Diagnostic imaging demonstrated multifocal pneumonia, bilateral hydronephrosis and bladder wall thickening. During HD the patient became progressively obtunded. Repeat laboratory investigations showed pH 7.36, HCO3 19 mmol/L, potassium 1.8 mmol/L, and urea 38.4 mg/dL (13.7 mmol/L (urea-reduction-ratio 71%. Following HD, spontaneous movements were absent with no pupillary or brainstem reflexes. Head CT-scan showed diffuse cerebral edema with effacement of basal cisterns and generalized loss of gray-white differentiation. Brain death was declared. Conclusions Death is a rare consequence of DDS in adults following HD. Several features may have predisposed this patient to DDS including: central nervous system adaptations from chronic kidney disease with efficient serum urea removal and correction of serum hyperosmolality; severe cerebral intracellular acidosis; relative hypercapnea; and post-HD hemodynamic instability with compounded cerebral ischemia.

  17. Prevalence of self-reported finger deformations and occupational risk factors among professional cooks: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomita Shigeru

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have pointed out that the school lunch workers in Japan are suffering from work-related disorders including finger deformations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of self-reported finger deformations and the association with job-related risk factors. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire study of 5,719 subjects (response rate: 81%, 982 men and 4,737 women was undertaken during September 2003 to February 2004. Results Finger deformations were found among 11.7% of the men and 35.6% of the women studied, with significant differences among sex, age and sex-age groups. For both men and women the pattern of finger deformations across the hand was similar for the right and the left hand. For women, the deformations were found in about 10% of the distal interphalangeal joints of all fingers. Based on multiple logistic regression analyses, the factors female sex, age, the number of cooked lunches per cook and cooking activities were independently associated with the prevalence of finger deformations. High prevalence odds ratios were found for those frequently carrying or using tools by hands such as delivering containers, distributing meals, preparing dishes, washing equipment, cutting and stirring foods. Conclusions Among the school lunch workers studied, women had a higher prevalence of finger deformations on all joints of both hands. Various cooking tasks were associated with the prevalence of finger deformations. The results suggest that improvements in working conditions are important for preventing work-related disorders such as finger deformations.

  18. Prevalence of Self-Reported Diabetes and Its Associated Factors: A Population-Based Study in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da-Mata, Fabiana A. F.; Galvao, Tais F.; Pereira, Mauricio G.; Silva, Marcus T.

    2015-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of diabetes and its associated risk factors in adults from Brasilia, Brazil. Methods. The present cross-sectional population-based study consisted of interviews with individuals aged 18–65 years. Participants were selected through two-stage probability sampling by clusters and stratified by sex and age. Demographic and clinical data were collected directly with participants from February to May 2012. Self-reported diabetes prevalence was calculated at a 95% confidence interval (CI). Prevalence ratios (PR) were adjusted by Poisson regression with robust variance. Results. In all, 1,820 individuals were interviewed. Diabetes prevalence in the adult population of Brasilia was 10.1% (95% CI, 8.5%–11.6%). Variables associated with diabetes were an age between 35 and 49 years (PR = 1.83; 95% CI, 1.19–2.82) or 50 and 65 years (PR = 1.95; 95% CI, 1.17–3.23), hypertension (PR = 4.04; 95% CI, 2.66–6.13), respiratory disease (PR = 1.67; 95% CI, 1.11–2.50), cardiovascular disease (PR = 1.74; 95% CI, 1.15–2.63), and pain/discomfort (PR = 1.71; 95% CI, 1.21–2.41). Conclusion. Diabetes is a prevalent condition in adults living in Brasilia, and disease risk increases with age and comorbidities. Future health policies should focus on screening programs and prevention for the more vulnerable groups. PMID:26089888

  19. Prevalence and risk factors for self-reported non-communicable diseases among older Ugandans: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Ojiambo Wandera

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is limited evidence about the prevalence and risk factors for non-communicable diseases (NCDs among older Ugandans. Therefore, this article is aimed at investigating the prevalence of self-reported NCDs and their associated risk factors using a nationally representative sample. Design: We conducted a secondary analysis of the 2010 Uganda National Household Survey (UNHS using a weighted sample of 2,382 older people. Frequency distributions for descriptive statistics and Pearson chi-square tests to identify the association between self-reported NCDs and selected explanatory variables were done. Finally, multivariable complementary log–log regressions to estimate the risk factors for self-reported NCDs among older people in Uganda were done. Results: About 2 in 10 (23% older persons reported at least one NCD [including hypertension (16%, diabetes (3%, and heart disease (9%]. Among all older people, reporting NCDs was higher among those aged 60–69 and 70–79; Muslims; and Pentecostals and Seventh Day Adventists (SDAs. In addition, the likelihood of reporting NCDs was higher among older persons who depended on remittances and earned wages; owned a bicycle; were sick in the last 30 days; were disabled; and were women. Conversely, the odds of reporting NCDs were lower for those who were relatives of household heads and were poor. Conclusions: In Uganda, self-reported NCDs were associated with advanced age, being a woman, having a disability, ill health in the past 30 days, being rich, depended on remittances and earning wages, being Muslim, Pentecostal and SDAs, and household headship. The Ministry of Health should prevent and manage NCDs by creating awareness in the public and improving the supply of essential drugs for these health conditions. Finally, there is a need for specialised surveillance studies of older people to monitor the trends and patterns of NCDs over time.

  20. Prevalence of retinopathy among adults with self-reported diabetes mellitus: the Sri Lanka diabetes and Cardiovascular Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katulanda, Prasad; Ranasinghe, Priyanga; Jayawardena, Ranil

    2014-08-20

    At present there are no large scale nationally-representative studies from Sri Lanka on the prevalence and associations of Diabetic Retinopathy (DR). The present study aims to evaluate the prevalence and risk factors for DR in a community-based nationally-representative sample of adults with self-reported diabetes mellitus from Sri Lanka. A cross-sectional community-based national study among 5,000 adults (≥18 years) was conducted in Sri Lanka, using a multi-stage stratified cluster sampling technique. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. Ophthalmological evaluation of patients with 'known' diabetes (previously diagnosed at a government hospital or by a registered medical practitioner) was done using indirect ophthalmoscopy. A binary-logistic regression analysis was performed with 'presence of DR' as the dichotomous dependent variable and other independent covariates. Crude prevalence of diabetes was 12.0% (n = 536), of which 344 were patients with 'known' diabetes. Mean age was 56.4 ± 10.9 years and 37.3% were males. Prevalence of any degree of DR was 27.4% (Males-30.5%, Females-25.6%; p = 0.41). In patients with DR, majority had NPDR (93.4%), while 5.3% had maculopathy. Patients with DR had a significantly longer duration of diabetes than those without. In the binary-logistic regression analysis in all adults duration of diabetes (OR:1.07), current smoking (OR:1.67) and peripheral neuropathy (OR:1.72) all were significantly associated with DR. Nearly 1/3rd of Sri Lankan adults with self-reported diabetes are having retinopathy. DR was associated with diabetes duration, cigarette smoking and peripheral neuropathy. However, further prospective follow up studies are required to establish causality for identified risk factors.

  1. Which aortic clamp strategy is better to reduce postoperative stroke and death: Single center report and a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liyu; Hua, Xiumeng; Song, Jiangping; Wang, Liqing

    2018-03-01

    Stroke is severe complication of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) which may be associated with clamp strategy, there are 2 strategies to clamp aorta including single aortic clamp (SAC) and partial aortic clamp (PAC). It is controversial that which clamping strategy is better to reduce the postoperative stroke and death, so this study aims to investigate which is better for reducing postoperative stroke and death within 30 days. We collected 469 patients who had on-pump CABG in Fuwai Hospital during January 2014 to July 2015. The SAC group consisted of 265 patients while the PAC group included 204 patients. We compared the 2 group patient difference. At the same time, 12 studies were identified by systematic search. The odds ratio (OR) was used as effect index to compare SAC and PAC strategy by fix-effect modeling. We also tested heterogeneity and publication bias. The primary end point of study was occurrence of postoperative stroke within 30 days of operation, the second end point of study was the incidence of 30-day mortality. The single center retrospective study showed that the patients in the SAC group were older than those in the PAC group (62.5 ± 8.1 vs 60.3 ± 8.0 years, P = .01). The proportions of peripheral vascular disease and hypertension of SAC were higher than PAC (71 (26.8%) versus 36 (17.6%), P = .02; 183 (69.1%) versus 115 (56.4%), P = .01, respectively). Besides, the number of vascular anastomosis was more in the SAC group (3.29 ± 0.74 versus 2.97 ± 0.974, P < .001). The linear-regression analysis suggested that the time of cardiopulmonary bypass of SAC was shorter than the PAC group (93.2 ± 22.4 vs.103.4 ± 26.8 minutes, P-regression < .001) and postoperative death within 30-days was similar (1 (0.4%) vs. 2 (1.0%), P-regression = .47). There was no stroke occurring in both the groups. And the meta-analysis suggested the postoperative stroke and death within 30-days were similar between

  2. Prevalence of Self-Reported Gluten Sensitivity and Adherence to a Gluten-Free Diet in Argentinian Adult Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Chávez, Francisco; Dezar, Gimena V. A.; Islas-Zamorano, Anna P.; Espinoza-Alderete, Jesús G.; Vergara-Jiménez, Marcela J.; Magaña-Ordorica, Dalia; Ontiveros, Noé

    2017-01-01

    Background: Previous studies suggest that the prevalence of wheat/gluten sensitivity and adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD) are high in Latin population despite a poor diagnosis of celiac disease. However, these prevalence rates still remain unknown in most Latin American countries. Methods: A cross-sectional survey study was conducted in Santa Fe, Argentina. Results: The estimated self-reported prevalence rates were (95% Confidence Interval [CI]): self-reported gluten sensitivity (SR-GS) 7.61% (6.2–9.2), SR-GS currently following a GFD 1.82% (1.2–2.7), celiac disease 0.58% (0.3–1.2), wheat allergy 0.33% (0.12–0.84), self-reported non-celiac gluten sensitivity (SR-NCGS) 6.28% (5.1–7.8), SR-NCGS currently following a GFD 0.91% (0.5–1.6), and adherence to a GFD 6.37% (5.1–7.9). SR-GS was more common in women (6.0%; p < 0.001) and associated with irritable bowel syndrome (p < 0.001). Among the GFD followers, 71.4% were doing it for reasons other than health-related benefits and 50.6% without medical/dietitian advice. In the non-SR-GS group, the main motivations for following a GFD were weight control and the perception that a GFD is healthier. Conclusion: In Argentina, gluten sensitivity is commonly reported and it seems that physicians/gastroenterologists are aware of celiac disease diagnosis. Trustable information about the benefits and potential consequences of following a GFD should be given to the general population. PMID:28117706

  3. Prevalence of Self-Reported Gluten Sensitivity and Adherence to a Gluten-Free Diet in Argentinian Adult Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Cabrera-Chávez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies suggest that the prevalence of wheat/gluten sensitivity and adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD are high in Latin population despite a poor diagnosis of celiac disease. However, these prevalence rates still remain unknown in most Latin American countries. Methods: A cross-sectional survey study was conducted in Santa Fe, Argentina. Results: The estimated self-reported prevalence rates were (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: self-reported gluten sensitivity (SR-GS 7.61% (6.2–9.2, SR-GS currently following a GFD 1.82% (1.2–2.7, celiac disease 0.58% (0.3–1.2, wheat allergy 0.33% (0.12–0.84, self-reported non-celiac gluten sensitivity (SR-NCGS 6.28% (5.1–7.8, SR-NCGS currently following a GFD 0.91% (0.5–1.6, and adherence to a GFD 6.37% (5.1–7.9. SR-GS was more common in women (6.0%; p < 0.001 and associated with irritable bowel syndrome (p < 0.001. Among the GFD followers, 71.4% were doing it for reasons other than health-related benefits and 50.6% without medical/dietitian advice. In the non-SR-GS group, the main motivations for following a GFD were weight control and the perception that a GFD is healthier. Conclusion: In Argentina, gluten sensitivity is commonly reported and it seems that physicians/gastroenterologists are aware of celiac disease diagnosis. Trustable information about the benefits and potential consequences of following a GFD should be given to the general population.

  4. Prevalence of self-reported food allergy in Hong Kong children and teens--a population survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Marco H K; Lee, So Lun; Wong, Wilfred H S; Ip, Patrick; Lau, Yu Lung

    2012-12-01

    There is a paucity of data on the prevalence, natural history and management of food allergy in most of the populous Asian countries, including China. To determine the point prevalence of self-reported food allergy in Chinese children and teenagers in Hong Kong. A cross-sectional population-based questionnaire survey targeted at children aged 0-14y was conducted by use of face-to-face interviews and self-administered questionnaires. Information was obtained from the parent as proxy respondent for children aged 10 and below and from both parent and child for children aged 11 to 14. Households were drawn from the Register of Quarters maintained by the Census and Statistics Department by systematic replicated sampling. A total of 7,393 land-based noninstitutionalized children aged 14 and below in Hong Kong were recruited, excluding those with non-Cantonese speaking parents and those living in non-built-up areas. The sample was representative of the 884,300 children in the target population. 352 reported having adverse reactions to foods and the estimated prevalence was 4.8% (95% CI 4.3-5.3%). The estimated prevalence of peanut allergy was 0.3-0.5% (95%CI 0.1 to 0.7%). In terms of relative frequency, shellfish, which was the top allergen, accounted for more than a third of all reactions. The second most common was hen's egg (14.5%), the third cow's milk and dairy products (10.8%) and co-fourth were peanut and combined fruits (8.5%). Out of 352 subjects who reported adverse reactions, 127 (36.1%) had urticaria and or angioedema and 79 (22.4%) had eczema exacerbations. Combined gastrointestinal symptoms accounted for 20.8 % (diarrhoea 12.8%; vomiting 5.4%; abdominal pain 2.6%). Fifty-five (15.6%) had anaphylaxis, and 7 (2%) had respiratory difficulties. This survey has provided the first population based epidemiological information related to food allergy amongst children and younger teenagers in Hong Kong. The prevalence of food allergy, including that from more common

  5. Effect of gender on hospital admissions for asthma and prevalence of self-reported asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, E; Lange, P; Vestbo, J

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Women are more often admitted to hospital for asthma than men. A study was undertaken to determine whether this is caused by gender differences in the prevalence or severity of the disease. METHODS: Admissions to hospital for asthma in 13,540 subjects were followed from 1977 to 1993......% confidence interval 1.2 to 2.4). This increased risk was not due to misclassification of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as asthma. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate gender-related differences in either the severity, perception, or management of asthma....

  6. Is Sexual Victimization Gender Specific? The Prevalence of Forced Sexual Activity among Men and Women in Denmark, and Self-Reported Well-Being among Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Vanita; Laursen, Bjarne; Helweg-Larsen, Karin

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigates the prevalence of sexual victimization and correlations between sexual victimization and indicators of poor health in two representative samples of men and women in Denmark. Specifically, the authors explore the prevalence of self-reported victimization among adolescents (N = 5,829) and adults (N = 3,932) and analyze…

  7. Report: Prevalence and antibiotic trials against Salmonella enterica isolated from diarrheic lambs and kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Muhammad Kashif; Ijaz, Muhammad; Aslam, Hassaan Bin; Farooqi, Shahid Hussain; Ahmad, Syed Saleem; Akhtar, Raheela

    2017-11-01

    Salmonella enterica (S. enterica) is the major zoonotic threat for small ruminants and humans responsible for huge economic losses and high mortality in Pakistan. Lambs and kids of Lahore district were examined to determine the prevalence, hematology and chemotherapy of S. enterica. A total of 200 diarrheic samples (n=100 lambs; n=100 kids) were collected and examined; 59 (29.50%) were found positive for S. enterica. Lambs had lightly greater prevalence (31%) than kids (29%). The frequency analysis (OR=1.16 [reciprocal =0.87]) showed non-significant difference in both the lambs and kids. The significant decrease (Pℜ0.001) in hemoglobin, pack cell volume and total erythrocyte count was observed in infected lambs and kids. Results of in-vitro antibiotic susceptibility test revealed that S. enteric isolated from both lambs and kids were susceptible to levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, gentamicin, azithromycin, tobramycin, amoxicillin, ampicillin and nalidixic acid. Where as the results of in vivo antibiotic trials showed that isolates from both lambs and the kids with diarrhea were susceptible to levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin.

  8. Congenital Letterer-Siwe disease with intrauterine fetal death: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, C P; Tseng, H H; Tu, Y C

    1990-09-01

    Letterer-Siwe disease is a rare proliferative disorder of the Langerhans cells, usually encountered inpatients under the age of 3 years. We present an unusual case of intrauterine fetal death at the 28th gestational week associated with generalized papular skin eruptions and systemic histiocytic infiltrates characteristic of Letterer-Siwe disease. Histopathologic features of Langerhans cells were further confirmed by immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy. The events occurring in pregnancy which may be worth mentioning are: (1) routine chest P-A view X-ray exposure of the mother 2 days before LMP, (2) the mother was exposed to certain Chinese herbs, in particular, the 101 hair growth solution (A Chinese herb mixture used for alopecia; contents unknown) from assisting her husband in topical applications, and (3) the mother has worked in front of computer monitors 8 hours a day for 10 years.

  9. Prevalence and characteristics of self-reported physical and mental disorders among adults with hearing loss in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammeyer, Jesper; Chapman, Madeleine

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Existing research shows that people with hearing loss have a high risk of additional physical and mental disorders. However, only a few population-based studies have been conducted. This study assesses the prevalence and characteristics of additional disorders among adults with hearing loss...... in Denmark and thereby contributes a population-based study to this area of research. Method Data on self-reported physical and mental disorders from a national survey of 772 adults with hearing loss were compared to corresponding data from a national survey of 18,017 adults from the general population....... Results People with hearing loss reported more physical and mental disorders than the general population. Specifically, they reported higher incidences of visual impairment, cerebral palsy, intellectual impairment, and “other mental disorders”. Conclusion Adults with hearing loss have a greater risk...

  10. The prevalence of self-reported halitosis and oral hygiene practices among Libyan students and office workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eldarrat, A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims:The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of self-reported halitosis, oral hygiene practices and related diseases among Libyan students and employees.Methods: Six hundred self-administered structured questionnaires were used to investigate self-perception of halitosis and oral hygiene practices among a group of Libyan volunteers. Chi square test was used to detect significant differences between frequencies and to test correlation between self-perception of halitosis and measures of oral hygiene. Results: Forty three percent of the subjects were males and 57% were females. Forty four percent of the males and 54% of the females revealed self-perception malodour. Malodour was reported with the highest frequency (68% during wake up time. Malodour was perceived by 31.7% of the females and 23.4% of the males during the hand-on-mouth test (p=0.04. Significantly more females (89.9% than males (75.7% practiced brushing (p<0.001. Fifty one percent of the males and 49.6% of females had dental caries. Smoking was significantly (p<0.001 more prevalent among males (17% than among females (1%. Brushing was practiced by 85% of non-smokers and 68% of smokers (p=0.004. About 71% of the subjects who practiced brushing reported malodour during wake up time in comparison to subjects who did not practice brushing (p=0.041. Conclusions: The prevalence of self-perceived malodour among the Libyan volunteers in this study is within the range of other studies. There is a great demand to reduce the incidence of dental caries and periodontal diseases.

  11. Prevalence and correlates of self-reported chronic non-communicable diseases in Botswana: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letamo, Gobopamang; Keetile, Mpho; Navaneetham, Kannan; Phatsimo, Mpho

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to estimate the prevalence of self-reported chronic non-communicable diseases and their correlates in Botswana. This is a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey. This is a cross-sectional study of respondents aged 10-64 years using data from the Botswana AIDS Impact Survey IV conducted in 2013. Three self-reported non-communicable diseases, namely, hypertension, diabetes and asthma were used. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify their correlates. Out of the 2153 participants, the prevalence rates of hypertension, diabetes and asthma were 14.2%, 3.3% and 5.3%, respectively. The study found that among other factors, older populations are at a much higher risk of having more than one non-communicable disease. After controlling for other covariates, the ORs of self-reported non-communicable disease was highest among older respondents aged 50 years and over (AOR=12.01, pnon-communicable diseases are likely to increase in the future due to the rise in the old age population resulting from fertility transition and improvement in life expectancy in Botswana. Therefore urgent and holistic intervention programmes are required to halt the problem. Failure to act now is likely to result in high morbidity and mortality. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Reported prevalence and quantitative LC-MS methods for the analysis of veterinary drug residues in honey: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venable, Ryan; Haynes, Carion; Cook, Jo Marie

    2014-04-01

    Insect pollination increases the value and productivity of three-quarters of crop species grown for food. Declining beehive health in commercial apiaries has resulted in numerous reports from government laboratories worldwide of contamination with antimicrobial chemicals in honey. This review includes pertinent discussion of legislation and events leading to increased government oversight in the commercial honey market. A detailed summary of the variety and prevalence of veterinary drug residues being found in honey as well as a selection of robust quantitative and confirmatory LC-MS methods with an emphasis on those adopted by government testing laboratories are presented.

  13. Surviving death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerstroem, Anna

    2013-01-01

    by another bank to which bankers needed to adapt. Even in the acquiring organization, the legacy organizational identity continued to play a significant role. The paper contributes to the important and timely emergence of theory on legacy organizational identity by showing how members of a dead organization...... such phases. The aim of this paper is to explore how an organization’s identity is re-constructed after organizational death. Based on interviews with members of a bankrupted bank who narrate their bankruptcy experiences, the paper explores how legacy organizational identity is constructed after...... organizational death. The paper shows how members draw on their legacy organizational identity to justify their past interpretations and responses to the intensifying bankruptcy threats. Members refer to their firm belief in the bank’s solid and robust identity claim when they explain how they disregarded...

  14. The prevalence of statistical reporting errors in psychology (1985-2013)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuijten, M.B.; Hartgerink, C.H.J.; van Assen, M.A.L.M.; Epskamp, S.; Wicherts, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    This study documents reporting errors in a sample of over 250,000 p-values reported in eight major psychology journals from 1985 until 2013, using the new R package “statcheck.” statcheck retrieved null-hypothesis significance testing (NHST) results from over half of the articles from this period.

  15. Prevalence of self-reported halitosis and associated factors among dental patients attending a tertiary hospital in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehinde Adesola Umeizudike

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the prevalence of self-reported halitosis among dental patients seen in a teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study that included 135 dental patients enrolled at the Oral Diagnosis/Periodontology Clinics of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital. Self-administered questionnaires were used to assess self-reported halitosis (oral malodor in the subjects. Association between self-reported halitosis and sociodemography (age, gender, education, marital status, ethnicity, and religion and intraoral findings (gingivitis, periodontitis, tongue coating, caries, and number of mobile teeth was determined. Results: The prevalence of self-reported halitosis was 14.8% and was significantly associated with age of 40 years and above (P = 0.025, and male gender (P = 0.032. Subjects with gingivitis were 2 times more likely to have halitosis than those without gingivitis (odds ratio [OR] = 2.19 while subjects with tongue coating were 2 times more likely to have halitosis than those without tongue coating OR = 2.02. About 50% perceived halitosis by themselves, 25% by family and friends, and 20% from presumed actions of people around them. The majority (70% of the patients perceived the halitosis from their mouths, 30% from their mouth and nose. Most (75% of the subjects had perceived the halitosis for more than 4 weeks while only 3% had sought professional treatment. Conclusion: Older age of 40 years and above and male gender were the factors associated with self-reported halitosis in this study. The health-seeking behavior of the patients for the treatment of the halitosis was poor.

  16. Prevalence and correlates of self-reported sexual dysfunction in CKD: a meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navaneethan, Sankar D; Vecchio, Mariacristina; Johnson, David W; Saglimbene, Valeria; Graziano, Giusi; Pellegrini, Fabio; Lucisano, Giuseppe; Craig, Jonathan C; Ruospo, Marinella; Gentile, Giorgio; Manfreda, Valeria Maria; Querques, Marialuisa; Stroumza, Paul; Torok, Marietta; Celia, Eduardo; Gelfman, Ruben; Ferrari, Juan Nin; Bednarek-Skublewska, Anna; Dulawa, Jan; Bonifati, Carmen; Hegbrant, Jörgen; Wollheim, Charlotta; Jannini, Emmanuele A; Strippoli, Giovanni F M

    2010-10-01

    Sexual dysfunction is an under-recognized problem in men and women with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The prevalence, correlates, and predictors of this condition in patients with CKD have not been evaluated comprehensively. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Patients treated using dialysis (dialysis patients), patients treated using transplant (transplant recipients), and patients with CKD not treated using dialysis or transplant (nondialysis nontransplant patients with CKD). Observational studies conducted in patients with CKD only or including a control group without CKD. Type of study population. Sexual dysfunction in men and women with CKD using validated tools, such as the International Index of Erectile Function, the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), or other measures as reported by study investigators. 50 studies (8,343 patients) of variable size (range, 16-1,023 patients) were included in this review. Almost all studies explored sexual dysfunction in men and specifically erectile dysfunction. The summary estimate of erectile dysfunction in men with CKD was 70% (95% CI, 62%-77%; 21 studies, 4,389 patients). Differences in reported prevalence rates of erectile dysfunction between different studies were attributable primarily to age, study populations, and type of study tool used to assess the presence of erectile dysfunction. In women, the reported prevalence of sexual dysfunction was assessed in only 306 patients from 2 studies and ranged from 30%-80%. Compared with the general population, women with CKD had a significantly lower overall FSFI score (8 studies or subgroups, 407 patients; mean difference, -9.28; 95% CI, -12.92 to -5.64). Increasing age, diabetes mellitus, and depression consistently were found to correlate with sexual dysfunction in 20 individual studies of patients with CKD using different methods. Suboptimal and lack of uniform assessment of outcome measures. Sexual dysfunction is highly prevalent in both men and women with CKD

  17. Funerals against death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Tara; Walter, Tony

    2016-04-02

    While anthropological studies in non-Western societies show how funerals protect the community from the threat of death, sociological studies of British funerals have so far focused on meanings for the private family. The article reports on results from a Mass Observation directive - the first British study to focus specifically on the entire funeral congregation - and shows how attendees experience the contemporary life-centred funeral as a symbolic conquest of death. While the eulogy's accuracy is important, even more so - at least for some - is its authenticity, namely that the speaker has personal knowledge of the deceased. Whereas Davies analyses the power of professionally delivered ritual words against death, our data reveals how admired is the courage exercised by non-professionals in speaking against death, however faltering their words. Further, the very presence of a congregation whose members have known the deceased in diverse ways embodies a configurational eulogy, which we term relationships against death. We thus argue that funerals symbolically conquer death not only through words delivered by ritual specialists, but also through those who knew the deceased congregating and speaking .

  18. Year-Round Prevalence of Norovirus in the Environment of Catering Companies without a Recently Reported Outbreak of Gastroenteritis▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxman, Ingeborg L. A.; Verhoef, Linda; Dijkman, Remco; Hägele, Geke; te Loeke, Nathalie A. J. M.; Koopmans, Marion

    2011-01-01

    Food handlers play an important role in the transmission of norovirus (NoV) in food-borne outbreaks of gastroenteritis (GE). In a year-round prevalence study, the prevalence of NoV in catering companies without recently reported outbreaks of GE was investigated and compared to the observed prevalence in catering companies with recently reported outbreaks. Swab samples were collected from surfaces in the kitchens and (staff) bathrooms in 832 randomly chosen companies and analyzed for the presence of NoV RNA. In total, 42 (1.7%) out of 2,496 environmental swabs from 35 (4.2%) catering companies tested positive. In contrast, NoV was detected in 147 (39.7%) of the 370 samples for 44 (61.1%) of the 72 establishments associated with outbreaks of gastroenteritis. NoV-positive swabs were more frequently found in winter, in specific types of companies (elderly homes and lunchrooms), and in establishments with separate bathrooms for staff. We found a borderline association with population density but no relation to the number of employees. Sequence analysis showed that environmental strains were interspersed with strains found in outbreaks of illness in humans. Thus, the presence of NoV in catering companies seemed to mirror the presence in the population but was strongly increased when associated with food-borne GE. Swabs may therefore serve as a valuable tool in outbreak investigations for the identification of the causative agent, although results should be interpreted with care, taking into account all other epidemiological data. PMID:21378056

  19. Year-round prevalence of norovirus in the environment of catering companies without a recently reported outbreak of gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxman, Ingeborg L A; Verhoef, Linda; Dijkman, Remco; Hägele, Geke; Te Loeke, Nathalie A J M; Koopmans, Marion

    2011-05-01

    Food handlers play an important role in the transmission of norovirus (NoV) in food-borne outbreaks of gastroenteritis (GE). In a year-round prevalence study, the prevalence of NoV in catering companies without recently reported outbreaks of GE was investigated and compared to the observed prevalence in catering companies with recently reported outbreaks. Swab samples were collected from surfaces in the kitchens and (staff) bathrooms in 832 randomly chosen companies and analyzed for the presence of NoV RNA. In total, 42 (1.7%) out of 2,496 environmental swabs from 35 (4.2%) catering companies tested positive. In contrast, NoV was detected in 147 (39.7%) of the 370 samples for 44 (61.1%) of the 72 establishments associated with outbreaks of gastroenteritis. NoV-positive swabs were more frequently found in winter, in specific types of companies (elderly homes and lunchrooms), and in establishments with separate bathrooms for staff. We found a borderline association with population density but no relation to the number of employees. Sequence analysis showed that environmental strains were interspersed with strains found in outbreaks of illness in humans. Thus, the presence of NoV in catering companies seemed to mirror the presence in the population but was strongly increased when associated with food-borne GE. Swabs may therefore serve as a valuable tool in outbreak investigations for the identification of the causative agent, although results should be interpreted with care, taking into account all other epidemiological data.

  20. Physical health symptoms reported by trafficked women receiving post-trafficking support in Moldova: prevalence, severity and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oram, Siân; Ostrovschi, Nicolae V; Gorceag, Viorel I; Hotineanu, Mihai A; Gorceag, Lilia; Trigub, Carolina; Abas, Melanie

    2012-07-26

    Many trafficked people suffer high levels of physical, sexual and psychological abuse. Yet, there has been limited research on the physical health problems associated with human trafficking or how the health needs of women in post-trafficking support settings vary according to socio-demographic or trafficking characteristics. We analysed the prevalence and severity of 15 health symptoms reported by 120 trafficked women who had returned to Moldova between December 2007 and December 2008 and were registered with the International Organisation for Migration Assistance and Protection Programme. Women had returned to Moldova an average of 5.9 months prior to interview (range 2-12 months). Headaches (61.7%), stomach pain (60.9%), memory problems (44.2%), back pain (42.5%), loss of appetite (35%), and tooth pain (35%) were amongst the most commonly reported symptoms amongst both women trafficked for sexual exploitation and women trafficked for labour exploitation. The prevalence of headache and memory problems was strongly associated with duration of exploitation. Trafficked women who register for post-trafficking support services after returning to their country of origin are likely to have long-term physical and dental health needs and should be provided with access to comprehensive medical services. Health problems among women who register for post-trafficking support services after returning to their country of origin are not limited to women trafficked for sexual exploitation but are also experienced by victims of labour exploitation.

  1. Prevalence of self-reported hypertension and its relation to dietary habits, in adults; a nutrition & health survey in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xenaki Dimitra

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypertension leads to many degenerative diseases, the most common being cardiovascular in origin. This study has been designed to estimate the prevalence of self-reported hypertension in a random nationwide sample of adult Greek population, while focus was set to the assessment of participants' nutritional habits in relation to their hypertension status. Methods A random-digit dialed telephone survey. Based on a multistage, stratified sampling, 5003 adults (18 – 74 yr participated (men: 48.8%, women: 51.2%. All participants were interviewed via telephone by trained personnel who used a standard questionnaire. The questionnaire included demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, medical history, lifestyle habits and nutritional assessment. Results The prevalence of self-reported hypertension was 13.3% in men and 17.7% in women (P Conclusion Hypertension seems to be a serious public health problem in Greece. It is encouraging that hypertensives may have started adopting some more healthy nutritional behaviour compared to normotensive ones. However, they can gain significant benefits regarding to blood pressure control, if they increase the level of compliance with dietary recommendations.

  2. Physical health symptoms reported by trafficked women receiving post-trafficking support in Moldova: prevalence, severity and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oram Siân

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many trafficked people suffer high levels of physical, sexual and psychological abuse. Yet, there has been limited research on the physical health problems associated with human trafficking or how the health needs of women in post-trafficking support settings vary according to socio-demographic or trafficking characteristics. Methods We analysed the prevalence and severity of 15 health symptoms reported by 120 trafficked women who had returned to Moldova between December 2007 and December 2008 and were registered with the International Organisation for Migration Assistance and Protection Programme. Women had returned to Moldova an average of 5.9 months prior to interview (range 2-12 months. Results Headaches (61.7%, stomach pain (60.9%, memory problems (44.2%, back pain (42.5%, loss of appetite (35%, and tooth pain (35% were amongst the most commonly reported symptoms amongst both women trafficked for sexual exploitation and women trafficked for labour exploitation. The prevalence of headache and memory problems was strongly associated with duration of exploitation. Conclusions Trafficked women who register for post-trafficking support services after returning to their country of origin are likely to have long-term physical and dental health needs and should be provided with access to comprehensive medical services. Health problems among women who register for post-trafficking support services after returning to their country of origin are not limited to women trafficked for sexual exploitation but are also experienced by victims of labour exploitation.

  3. Prevalence and burden of self-reported blindness, low vision, and visual impairment in the French community: a nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brézin, Antoine Pierre; Lafuma, Antoine; Fagnani, Francis; Mesbah, Mounir; Berdeaux, Gilles

    2005-08-01

    To estimate the prevalence of self-reported visual impairment and its association with disabilities, handicaps, and socioeconomic consequences. A national survey was conducted on a random stratified sample of 359 010 French citizens living in the community; 21 760 subjects were selected at random and 16 945 persons (78%) agreed to further questioning. Four thousand ninety-one randomly selected caregivers were interviewed. Four subgroups of subjects were defined (blind or light perception only, low vision or still have form perception, other visual problems, and no visual problems). These were compared after adjustment for age, comorbidity, and household size differences. The prevalence of blindness was 0.10% and of low vision, 1.94%. Subjects with blindness needed assistance with daily activities more often than subjects with no visual problems; they also needed more house modifications. Many subjects with blindness (46.8%) and subjects with low vision (29.0%) were registered for social allowances. Subjects with blindness had fewer paid activities (4.5%) than subjects with no visual problems (20.7%). Social allowances increased considerably (by 277) between those with low vision and those with blindness. Monthly household incomes were lower (Pvisual problems (1851). Collected data included social demography, home description, household income, handicaps, disabilities, social allowances, and daily activities. The results demonstrate associations between self-reported visual impairment and daily living.

  4. Cyberbullying among primary school students in Turkey: self-reported prevalence and associations with home and school life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Sevda; Savaser, Sevim; Hallett, Victoria; Balci, Serap

    2012-10-01

    The current study examined the self-reported prevalence and nature of cyberbullying and victimization among second, third, and fourth grade students (N=372) and explored associated features of home and school life. Of the children in the current sample, 27 percent had been victims of cyberbullying, 18 percent had been aggressors, and 15 percent had been both cyberbullies and victims. Boys were significantly more likely to carry out cyberbullying than girls. Cyberbullying exposure (as both a bully and a victim) was significantly associated with low levels of self-reported school satisfaction (bullies odds ratio [OR]: 2.45; victims OR: 2.10; pcyberbully. Increased awareness and regulation is now required within schools and within the home to tackle this escalating problem.

  5. Prevalence and correlates of sleep paralysis in adults reporting childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Murray P; Mulligan, Ashlee D; Carleton, R Nicholas; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2008-12-01

    Sleep paralysis (SP) occurs when rapid eye movement (REM) activity and concomitant paralysis of the skeletal muscles persist as an individual awakens and becomes conscious of his/her surroundings. SP is often accompanied by frightening hallucinations that some researchers suggest may be confounded with memories of childhood sexual abuse (CSA; [McNally, R. J., & Clancy, S. A. (2005). Sleep paralysis in adults reporting repressed, recovered, or continuous memories of childhood sexual abuse. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 19, 595-602]). The purpose of this study was to evaluate relationships between CSA and SP. Based on self-report, participants (n=263) were categorized into three CSA groups: confirmed, unconfirmed, or no history of CSA. Relative to participants reporting no CSA history, those reporting CSA reported more frequent and more distressing episodes of SP. Post hoc analyses revealed that participants with clinically significant post-traumatic symptoms (irrespective of CSA history) also reported more frequent and more distressing episodes of SP. Significant correlations were found among SP indices and measures of post-traumatic symptoms, depression, dissociation, and absorption. Implications and future research directions are discussed.

  6. Using Internet reports for early estimates of the final death toll of earthquake-generated tsunami: the March 11, 2011, Tohoku, Japan, earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongliang Wu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective case study was conducted for the March 11, 2011, earthquake that occurred off the east Pacific coast of Tohoku, Japan, with reference to the Sumatra-Andaman earthquake and Indian Ocean tsunami on December 26, 2004. The regularities of the temporal variations of the number of deaths reported through the Internet is used to make an early stage quick-and-rough estimate to assist in the emergency decision making, and to continue the revision of the estimate as new data comes in. The quick-and-rough estimate of the final fatalities that was obtained on the second day after the earthquake is shown to agree with the final reported fatalities to within an order of magnitude. This also has an added advantage over other estimation models, in that the estimates can be updated with new data as they become available.

  7. Death penalty

    OpenAIRE

    Ondík, Ján

    2008-01-01

    The issue of the death penalty is not just a matter of legal and political, but mainly social, ethical and moral. As other questions like abortion, euthanasia and gay adoption of children, this issue forces us to make up our own opinion and take an attitude. In addition, capital punishment is not only historical relic, but there are still lot of states that retained it in their legal system and also a lot of states that can perform it today. And it is not just a totalitarian or authoritarian ...

  8. Parental Divorce or Death During Childhood and Adolescence and Its Association With Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebeka, Sarah; Hoertel, Nicolas; Dubertret, Caroline; Le Strat, Yann

    2016-09-01

    Despite the severity of the loss of a parent and the frequency of parental divorce, few studies compared their impact on mental health in the general adult population. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence, sociodemographic correlates, and psychiatric comorbidity of parental loss and parental divorce during childhood and adolescence. Data were drawn from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a nationally representative sample of US adults (n = 43,093). Of the 43,093 participants, parental divorce during childhood or adolescence was reported by 5776 participants, whereas 3377 experienced parental death during childhood or adolescence. Participants reporting a history of parental divorce present a significantly higher prevalence of psychiatric disorders, particularly alcohol and drug use disorders compared with control subjects. While participants experiencing the death of a parent reported a poorer overall health, the prevalence of psychiatric disorder after 17 years of age was not significantly higher than that of the control subjects.

  9. The prevalence of age-related macular degeneration in Italy (PAMDI) study: report 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piermarocchi, Stefano; Segato, Tatiana; Scopa, Pasquale; Masetto, Morena; Ceca, Stela; Cavarzeran, Fabiano; Peto, Tunde

    2011-06-01

    The present study aimed to estimate prevalence and risk factors associated with age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) in an Italian population and to analyze differences between urban and rural communities. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study among elderly residents in Northeast Italy. Participants were divided into urban and rural groups based on whether they lived in the city of Padova or the villages of Teolo and Torreglia, respectively. Fundus photographs were graded according to the International Classification for Age-related Maculopathy. A total of 1162 randomly selected subjects aged 61 years or more were invited to participate in the study. We examined 885 subjects, and 845 were eligible for fundus photograph grading. ARMD was estimated to affect 62.7% of the whole population (drusen 63-124 μm = 48.3%; drusen ≥125 μm = 10.4%; advanced ARMD = 4.1%). Age was confirmed as a risk factor for drusen ≥125 μm and advanced ARMD (Odds Ratio [OR] = 1.47, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.28-1.69 and OR = 1.62, 95% CI 1.28-2.05, respectively, for a 5-year increase in age). The rural group appeared to be at a higher risk of developing large drusen compared to the urban sample (OR = 1.61, 95% CI 1.01-2.63) when adjusting for age and gender. The results confirmed that ARMD affects a high percentage of the elderly population in Italy. This study does not support the hypothesis that living in a rural environment or belonging to a population of the Mediterranean basin may be protective against the intermediate stages of the disease.

  10. Malaria prevalence and morbidity among children reporting at health facilities in Nouakchott, Mauritania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekweiry, Khadijetou Mint; Basco, Leonardo K; Salem, Mohamed Salem O Ahmedou; Hafid, Jamal Eddine; Marin-Jauffre, Adeline; Weddih, Abdallahi O; Briolant, Sébastien; Bogreau, Hervé; Pradines, Bruno; Rogier, Christophe; Trape, Jean-François; Boukhary, Ali O Mohamed Salem O

    2011-12-01

    Although malaria has become a serious public health problem in Mauritania since the late 1990s, few documented data on its epidemiology exist. The objective of this study was to assess the morbidity of clinical malaria among children in Nouakchott. Three hundred and one febrile children, consulting at three health facilities of Nouakchott, were screened for malaria in 2009 (n=216) and 2010 (n=85). Plasmodium species identification and parasite density were determined by microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained thin and thick films and confirmed by rapid diagnostic test and nested PCR. Of 301 febrile children, 105 (34.9%) were malaria-positive by nested PCR and 87 (28.9%) by microscopy. Plasmodium vivax represented 97.1% (102/105) and P. falciparum accounted for 2.9% (3/105) of positive cases. All positive children under five years old were infected with P. vivax. The highest numbers of malaria positives were found during or shortly after the rainy season and the lowest during the dry season. Fifty-four of 105 (51.4%) malaria cases, all with P. vivax, had never travelled outside Nouakchott. Individuals belonging to the Moors ethnic group represented 97.0% of P. vivax cases. Results of the present study indicate that malaria is endemic in Nouakchott and that P. vivax is the principal causative agent. Regular surveillance is required to monitor malaria prevalence and incidence, and further measures are needed to counter the possible spread of malaria in the country. Copyright © 2011 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Are Prevalent Self-reported Cardiovascular Disorders Associated with Delayed Recovery From Whiplash-associated Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmlöf, Lina; Côté, Pierre; Holm, Lena W

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES:: The aim of this cohort study was to investigate the association between self-reported cardiovascular disorders (CVD) and recovery from whiplash associated disorder (WAD) after a traffic collision. METHODS:: This study was based on the Saskatchewan Government Insurance cohort, including...

  12. An autoerotic death in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sung-Kook

    2013-01-01

    Accidental autoerotic asphyxia occurring during autoerotic activity is usually considered the unanticipated failure of a sexual stimulation device to induce hypoxia during solitary sexual arousal. Here, we provide the first reported case of autoerotic death in Korea. In the present case, a young man died from asphyxiation as a result of being suspended with his head in a plastic bag. The death was considered accidental and not suicidal. The diagnosis of autoerotic death may be difficult when typical features are absent.

  13. Reported high salt intake is associated with increased prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysm and larger aortic diameter in older men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Golledge

    Full Text Available Salt intake has been implicated in the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA through studies in rodent models but not previously studied in humans. The aim of this study was to examine the association between reported addition of salt to food and the prevalence of AAA.A risk factor questionnaire which contained a question about salt intake was included as part of a population screening study for AAA in 11742 older men. AAA presence was assessed by abdominal ultrasound imaging using a reproducible protocol.The prevalence of AAA was 6.9, 8.5 and 8.6% in men who reported adding salt to food never, sometimes and always, respectively, p = 0.005. Addition of salt to food sometimes (odds ratio [OR]: 1.22, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03-1.44 or always (OR: 1.23, 95% CI 1.04-1.47 was independently associated with AAA after adjustment for other risk factors including age, waist-hip ratio, blood pressure, history of hypertension, high cholesterol, angina, diabetes, myocardial infarction and stroke. Salt intake was also independently associated with aortic diameter (beta 0.023, p = 0.012. In men with no prior history of hypertension, high cholesterol, angina, myocardial infarction or stroke (n = 4185, the association between addition of salt to food sometimes (OR: 1.41, 95% CI 0.96-2.08 or always (OR: 1.52, 95% CI 1.04-2.22 and AAA remained evident.Reported salt intake is associated with AAA in older men. Additional studies are needed to determine whether reducing salt intake would protect against AAA.

  14. The Role of Institutional Factors on On-Campus Reported Rape Prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotzer, Rebecca L; MacCartney, Danielle

    2016-10-01

    Sexual assault is a serious concern on college and university campuses across the United States. However, the institutional factors that may make campuses more or less prone to rape are poorly understood. This study utilizes routine activities theory (RAT) to examine campus-related factors across 524 four-year campuses in the United States to determine what features of a campus community are most closely associated with increased reports of sexual assault. Results suggest that the type of athletic program, the number of students who live on campus, and the institution's alcohol policy were all found to be related to reported sexual assaults. Implications for understanding campus communities and prevention of sexual assaults are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Child abuse and the prevalence of suicide attempts among those reporting suicide ideation

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Michael S.; Dykxhoorn, Jennifer; Afifi, Tracie O.; Colman, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Objective Victims of child abuse may be at increased risk of acting on suicide ideation, although this has not been empirically tested. We estimated the risk of suicide attempts associated with child abuse among individuals who reported suicide ideation. Methods Secondary analysis of data from the population-based Canadian Community Health Survey Mental Health (n?=?828). This population-based survey included various structured questionnaires, including the Composite International Diagnostic I...

  16. Births and deaths including fetal deaths

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Access to a variety of United States birth and death files including fetal deaths: Birth Files, 1968-2009; 1995-2005; Fetal death file, 1982-2005; Mortality files,...

  17. [Deaths in hotels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risse, Manfred; Weilbächer, Nadine; Birngruber, Christoph; Verhoff, Marcel A

    2010-01-01

    There are no verified statistics about deaths occurring in hotels, and only a few cases have been described in the literature. A recent case induced us to conduct a systematic search for deaths in hotels in the autopsy reports of the Institute of Legal Medicine in Giessen for the period from 1968 to 2009. This search yielded 22 evaluable cases in which persons had been found dead or had died in hotels. Data evaluated in the study were sex and age of the deceased, reason for the stay in the hotel and cause of death. Among the deaths, 18 were males and 4 females and the average age was 41 and 40 years respectively. 6 of the male guests had died from a natural and 10 from a non-natural cause. In the remaining two cases, the cause of death could not be determined, but as there was no evidence that another party had been involved, the cases were not further investigated. Of the 4 female guests, 3 had died of a natural cause; in one case, the cause of death remained unclear even after morphological and toxicological investigations. Surprisingly, a third of the men were found to be temporarily living in hotels due to social circumstances. This was not true for any of the women. Our retrospective analysis is based on a comparatively small number of deaths in what were mostly hotels in small to medium-sized towns. Interestingly, the gender ratio of 18:4 for deceased men and women was significantly higher than the usual gender ratio of 2:1 found for forensic autopsies. To be able to draw further conclusions, a greater number of cases would have to be analysed, for example by recruiting additional case files from other institutes of legal medicine. This would also open up the option of investigating possible regional variations.

  18. Report of Increasing Overdose Deaths that include Acetyl Fentanyl in Multiple Counties of the Southwestern Region of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in 2015-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Jessica B; Janssen, Jennifer; Luckasevic, Todd M; Williams, Karl E

    2018-01-01

    Acetyl fentanyl is a Schedule I controlled synthetic opioid that is becoming an increasingly detected "designer drug." Routine drug screening procedures in local forensic toxicology laboratories identified a total of 41 overdose deaths associated with acetyl fentanyl within multiple counties of the southwestern region of the state of Pennsylvania. The range, median, mean, and standard deviation of blood acetyl fentanyl concentrations for these 41 cases were 0.13-2100 ng/mL, 11 ng/mL, 169.3 ng/mL, and 405.3 ng/mL, respectively. Thirty-six individuals (88%) had a confirmed history of substance abuse, and all but one case (96%) were ruled multiple drug toxicities. This report characterizes this localized trend of overdose deaths associated with acetyl fentanyl and provides further evidence supporting an alarmingly concentrated opiate and opioid epidemic of both traditional and novel drugs within this region of the United States. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  19. Sex Differences in Suicide Incident Characteristics and Circumstances among Older Adults: Surveillance Data from the National Violent Death Reporting System—17 U.S. States, 2007–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra Karch

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Each year in the U.S. more than 7,000 adults aged 60 years and older die of suicide and as the population ages, these numbers are expected to increase. While sex is an important predictor of older adult suicide, differences between males and females are often overlooked due to low occurrence, particularly among women. The National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS bridges this gap by providing detailed information on older adult suicide by sex in 17 US states (covering approximately 26% of the U.S. population. NVDRS data for 2007–2009 were used to characterize male (n = 5,004 and female (n = 1,123 suicide decedents aged 60 years and older, including incident characteristics and circumstances precipitating suicide. Stratification of NVDRS data by sex shows significant differences with regard to the presence of antidepressants (19% and 45% respectively, opiates (18%, 37%, and 14 precipitating circumstances concerning mental health, interpersonal problems, life stressors and a history of suicide attempts. No differences were found for alcohol problems, suicide/other death of family or friends, non-criminal legal problems, financial problems, or disclosure of intent to take their own life. The findings of this study demonstrate the value of using comprehensive surveillance data to understand sex-specific suicide circumstances so that opportunities for targeted prevention strategies may be considered.

  20. Prevalence of self-reported early glaucoma eye drop bottle exhaustion and associated risk factors: a patient survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Daniel B; Walton, Charlene; Moeller, Kristy L; Slabaugh, Mark A; Mudumbai, Raghu C; Chen, Philip P

    2014-06-13

    One barrier to patient adherence with chronic topical glaucoma treatment is an inadequate amount of medication available between prescription refills. We examined the self-reported prevalence of early exhaustion of glaucoma eye drops prior to a scheduled refill, and associated risk factors. This cross-sectional survey was performed at a University-based clinical practice. Glaucoma patients at the University of Washington who were experienced with eye drop application and were on a steady regimen of self-administered glaucoma drops in both eyes took a survey at the time of clinic examination. The main outcome measure was self-reported early eye drop bottle exhaustion. 236 patients were eligible and chose to participate. In general, patients included were relatively healthy (mean 2.3 comorbid medical conditions). Sixty patients (25.4%) reported any problem with early exhaustion of eye drop bottles, and this was associated with visual acuity ≤ 20/70 in the better eye (P = .049). Twelve patients (5.1%) reported that they "often" (5-7 times per year), "usually" (8-11 times per year) or "always" ran out of eye drops prior to a scheduled refill. Patients affected by this higher level (≥ 5 times yearly) of eye drop bottle exhaustion were more likely to have poor visual acuity in their worse eye ≤  20/70 (P = .015) and had significantly lower worse-eye logMAR (P = .043). Self-reported early glaucoma bottle exhaustion regularly affected 5% of patients in our population and 25% reported early exhaustion at least once; the main risk factor was poor vision in at least one eye. These results may not be generalizable to a broad patient population, or to those inexperienced with eye drop self-administration. However, this pilot study compels further evaluation and consideration of early eye drop bottle exhaustion in glaucoma patients.

  1. Coagulopthy, acute kidney injury and death following Hypnale zara envenoming: the first case report from Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maduwage, Kalana; Kularatne, Keerthi; Wazil, Abdul; Gawarammana, Indika

    2011-12-01

    Snakebite is a major medical problem in developing Asia. Hump-nosed pit viper (Genus Hypnale) causes the most number of snakebites with significant morbidity and mortality in Sri Lanka. Even though there are three species (Hypnale hypnale, Hypnale zara and Hypnale nepa) in Sri Lanka there are few published literature on species-specific clinico-epidemiological data. This report describes an authenticated fatal case of a 47 years old male due to coagulopthy and acute kidney injury following envenoming by H. zara in Sri Lanka. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. "A good death"--sequence (not stigma), to an enigma called life: case report on end-of-life decision making and care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Sushma; Joshi, Saurabh

    2013-11-01

    Fear of death and the stigma associated with the terminal events of illness prevents us from dying well. Lack of recognition of palliative care as a speciality, in many countries, leads us to die a pathetic death in ICU rather than dying at home with near and dear ones around. Its time to break the taboo of death and to start talking about this terminal sequence (good death) of good living.

  3. Cause of death affects racial classification on death certificates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Noymer

    Full Text Available Recent research suggests racial classification is responsive to social stereotypes, but how this affects racial classification in national vital statistics is unknown. This study examines whether cause of death influences racial classification on death certificates. We analyze the racial classifications from a nationally representative sample of death certificates and subsequent interviews with the decedents' next of kin and find notable discrepancies between the two racial classifications by cause of death. Cirrhosis decedents are more likely to be recorded as American Indian on their death certificates, and homicide victims are more likely to be recorded as Black; these results remain net of controls for followback survey racial classification, indicating that the relationship we reveal is not simply a restatement of the fact that these causes of death are more prevalent among certain groups. Our findings suggest that seemingly non-racial characteristics, such as cause of death, affect how people are racially perceived by others and thus shape U.S. official statistics.

  4. Pitbull mauling deaths in Detroit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewe, Cheryl L; Diaz, Francisco J; Bechinski, John

    2007-12-01

    Between the years 1987 and 2005, there were 6 deaths reported in Wayne County, Michigan, associated with pitbull dog attacks. This article discusses the age incidence, scene investigation, nature of the injuries, and discussion relative to fatal dog attacks, an unusual accidental type of death.

  5. Sudden Cardiac Death in Children. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye.V. Pshenichnaya

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the prevalence, terminology, classification of sudden cardiac death. A description of congenital structural heart diseases associated with a risk of sudden cardiac death is given. The issues of etiology and pathogenesis of life-threatening conditions are described in detail.

  6. Prevalence and Predictors of Self-Reported Sexual Abuse in Severely Obese Patients in a Population-Based Bariatric Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle L. Gabert

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sexual abuse may be associated with poorer weight loss outcomes following bariatric treatment. Identifying predictors of abuse would enable focused screening and may increase weight management success. Methods. We analyzed data from 500 consecutively recruited obese subjects from a population-based, regional bariatric program. The prevalence of self-reported sexual abuse was ascertained using a single interview question. Health status was measured using a visual analogue scale (VAS. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify sexual abuse predictors. Results. The mean age was 43.7 y (SD 9.6, 441 (88.2% were females, 458 (91.8% were white, and the mean body mass index (BMI was 47.9 kg/m2 (SD 8.1. The self-reported prevalence of past abuse was 21.8% (95% CI 18.4–25.4%. Abused subjects had worse health status (VAS score 53.1 (SD 21.2 versus 58.0 (SD 20.1, P=0.03. BMI was not associated with abuse (P>0.5. Age, sex, BMI, and covariate-adjusted independent predictors of abuse included alcohol addiction (adjusted odds ratio 15.8; 95% CI 4.0–62.8, posttraumatic stress disorder (4.9; 2.5–9.5, borderline personality (3.8; 1.0–13.8, depression (2.4; 1.3–4.3, and lower household income (3.4; 1.6–7.0. Conclusions. Abuse was common amongst obese patients managed in a population-based bariatric program; alcohol addiction, psychiatric comorbidities, and low-income status were highly associated with sexual abuse.

  7. Self-reported creativity in bipolar disorder: prevalence, types and associated outcomes in mania versus hypomania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCraw, Stacey; Parker, Gordon; Fletcher, Kathryn; Friend, Paul

    2013-12-01

    Bipolar (BP) disorder has been linked to creativity following investigation of prominent artists and controlled trials of creativity in BP disorder patients. However, it is unclear whether creativity is differentially expressed across the BP I and BP II subtypes. 219 patients (aged 19-63 years) diagnosed with BP disorder by clinical interview and DSM-IV criteria were asked whether they tended to be more creative during hypo/manic episodes, and answered five questions about personality styles associated with creativity. Qualitative analyses were performed on a smaller subset of 69 BP patients (n=19 BP I, n=50 BP II) who provided written responses of the types of creative activities engaged in when hypo/manic and any perceived advantages or disadvantages of their creative pursuits. 82% of BP patients affirmed being creative when hypo/manic, with comparable results for the BP I and BP II subtypes (84% and 81% respectively). Both BP subtypes engaged mostly in writing, painting, work or business ideas and 'other' forms of art; however BP II patients were more likely to draw and be musical. Both subgroups reported the consequences of feeling good, being productive or quitting their project. BP I patients were more likely to overspend during their creative highs while BP II patients were more likely to experience improved focus and clarity. BP patients affirming creative highs were significantly more likely to report creative personality styles more generally outside of a mood episode. BP patients' self-reported creative activities were not retrospectively judged for quality or originality and so may reflect common creative abilities rather than exceptional quality. The impact of depressive episodes on creativity was not assessed. Uneven sample sizes in the BP I and BP II subgroups may have compromised statistical power. Creativity during hypo/manic episodes was extremely common in both BP subtypes. While some nuances in activity type and outcomes were observed, no

  8. Prevalence rates of borderline symptoms reported by adolescent inpatients with BPD, psychiatrically healthy adolescents and adult inpatients with BPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanarini, Mary C; Temes, Christina M; Magni, Laura R; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Aguirre, Blaise A; Goodman, Marianne

    2017-08-01

    The validity of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in children and adolescents has not been studied in a rigorous manner reflecting the criteria of Robins and Guze first detailed in 1970. This paper and the others in this series address some aspects of this multifaceted validation paradigm, which requires that a disorder has a known clinical presentation, can be delimited from other disorders, 'runs' in families, and something of its aetiology, treatment response and course is known. Three groups of subjects were studied: 104 adolescent inpatients meeting the Revised Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines and DSM-IV criteria for BPD, 60 psychiatrically healthy adolescents and 290 adult inpatients meeting the Revised Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines and DSM-III-R criteria for BPD. Adolescents with BPD had significantly higher prevalence rates of 22 of the 24 symptoms studied than psychiatrically healthy adolescents. Only rates of serious treatment regressions and countertransference problems failed to reach the Bonferroni-corrected level of 0.002. Adolescents and adults with BPD had only four symptomatic differences that reached this level of significance, with adolescents with BPD reporting significantly lower levels of quasi-psychotic thought, dependency/masochism, devaluation/manipulation/sadism and countertransference problems than adults with BPD. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that adolescents report BPD as severe as that reported by adults. They also suggest that BPD in adolescents is not a tumultuous phase of normal adolescence. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Physician reported adherence to immunosuppressants in renal transplant patients: Prevalence, agreement, and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabst, Selma; Bertram, Anna; Zimmermann, Tanja; Schiffer, Mario; de Zwaan, Martina

    2015-11-01

    Adherence to immunosuppressants (IS) is crucial to prevent allograft rejection. Even though there is evidence that non-adherence to IS among kidney transplant recipients is common, it is rarely routinely assessed in clinical practice. Especially, little is known about how physicians estimate patients' adherence to IS medication. In a single center, cross-sectional study adult patients at least 1 year after kidney transplantation were asked to complete measures of adherence (BAASIS©, Transplant Effect Questionnaire) and of general psychopathology (anxiety, depression, perceived social support). Also the physicians were asked to estimate their patients' adherence. Medical data (time since transplantation, treatment for rejection, IS serum trough levels and target levels) were taken from the patients' charts. Physicians rated 22 of 238 (9.2%) patients as non-adherent. Physicians' estimations of non-adherence were lower compared to the results of the self-ratings and biopsy-proven rejections. No association was found between physicians' estimates and the variability of IS through levels. Significantly more women and patients who reported that their native language was not German were rated as non-adherent by the physicians. Also, physician-rated non-adherent patients reported significantly higher depression and anxiety scores as well as less social support compared to adherent patients. Our results suggest that physicians tend to underestimate patient non-adherence to IS medication. They appear to use observable cues such as sex, language skills, and elevated anxiety and depression scores in particular, to make inferences about an individual patient's adherence. Underestimation of medication non-adherence may impede physicians' ability to provide high quality care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Undifferentiated connective tissue disease presenting with prevalent interstitial lung disease: Case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sfriso Paolo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Undifferentiated connective tissue diseases (UCTDs are clinical entities characterised by signs and symptoms suggestive of a systemic autoimmune disease, which do not fulfil the diagnostic criteria for a defined connective tissue disease. Lung involvement can complicate the course and management of the disease, often determining a worse outcome. Respiratory dysfunction as the first clinical manifestation has seldom been reported. We describe a case of a female patient who developed significant respiratory dysfunction as the principal clinical sign. Video-assisted thoracoscopy was performed and a histological pattern of nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP was found. A pathological diagnosis suggested careful follow-up with extensive immunological screening which then detected Raynaud's phenomenon and positivity of antinuclear antibodies. After a multidisciplinary discussion (pneumologist, radiologist, pathologist and rheumatologist a final diagnosis of NSIP associated with UCTD was made. The diagnosis of UCTD should be considered when NSIP is diagnosed even in cases with evident first clinical manifestations of severe respiratory dysfunction. A multidisciplinary approach in the field of interstitial lung disease with NSIP, also including rheumatologic expertise, is fundamental to achieve a prompt and correct diagnosis.

  11. Gambling problems in the family – A stratified probability sample study of prevalence and reported consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øren Anita

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prior studies on the impact of problem gambling in the family mainly include help-seeking populations with small numbers of participants. The objective of the present stratified probability sample study was to explore the epidemiology of problem gambling in the family in the general population. Methods Men and women 16–74 years-old randomly selected from the Norwegian national population database received an invitation to participate in this postal questionnaire study. The response rate was 36.1% (3,483/9,638. Given the lack of validated criteria, two survey questions ("Have you ever noticed that a close relative spent more and more money on gambling?" and "Have you ever experienced that a close relative lied to you about how much he/she gambles?" were extrapolated from the Lie/Bet Screen for pathological gambling. Respondents answering "yes" to both questions were defined as Concerned Significant Others (CSOs. Results Overall, 2.0% of the study population was defined as CSOs. Young age, female gender, and divorced marital status were factors positively associated with being a CSO. CSOs often reported to have experienced conflicts in the family related to gambling, worsening of the family's financial situation, and impaired mental and physical health. Conclusion Problematic gambling behaviour not only affects the gambling individual but also has a strong impact on the quality of life of family members.

  12. Gambling problems in the family--a stratified probability sample study of prevalence and reported consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, Hanne Gro; Oren, Anita; Bakken, Inger Johanne

    2008-12-16

    Prior studies on the impact of problem gambling in the family mainly include help-seeking populations with small numbers of participants. The objective of the present stratified probability sample study was to explore the epidemiology of problem gambling in the family in the general population. Men and women 16-74 years-old randomly selected from the Norwegian national population database received an invitation to participate in this postal questionnaire study. The response rate was 36.1% (3,483/9,638). Given the lack of validated criteria, two survey questions ("Have you ever noticed that a close relative spent more and more money on gambling?" and "Have you ever experienced that a close relative lied to you about how much he/she gambles?") were extrapolated from the Lie/Bet Screen for pathological gambling. Respondents answering "yes" to both questions were defined as Concerned Significant Others (CSOs). Overall, 2.0% of the study population was defined as CSOs. Young age, female gender, and divorced marital status were factors positively associated with being a CSO. CSOs often reported to have experienced conflicts in the family related to gambling, worsening of the family's financial situation, and impaired mental and physical health. Problematic gambling behaviour not only affects the gambling individual but also has a strong impact on the quality of life of family members.

  13. Prevalence of sleep breathing complaints reported by treatment-seeking chronic insomnia disorder patients on presentation to a sleep medical center: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakow, Barry; Ulibarri, Victor A

    2013-03-01

    Few studies have examined the co-morbidity between insomnia and sleep-disordered breathing in the clinical setting. This study evaluated treatment-seeking insomnia patients and their self-report of sleep breathing complaints. A retrospective chart review was conducted on 1,035 consecutive treatment-seeking, chronic insomnia patients who reported insomnia as their primary problem upon seeking care at a private, community-based sleep medical center. Measurements included the insomnia severity index, standard subjective sleep measures as well as rankings, attributions, and self-reports about sleep breathing disorders, problems, and symptoms. A total of 1,035 adult, treatment-seeking insomnia patients indicated insomnia interfered with daytime functioning, and their average insomnia severity was in the range of a clinically relevant problem: total sleep time (5.50 h, SD = 1.60), sleep efficiency (71.05 %, SD = 18.26), wake time after sleep onset (120.70 min, SD = 92.56), and an insomnia severity index (18.81, SD = 5.09). Of these 1,035 insomnia patients, 42 % also ranked a sleep breathing disorder among their list of reasons for seeking treatment, another 13 % revealed a concern about a sleep breathing problem, and another 26 % reported awareness of sleep breathing symptoms. Only 19 % of this clinical insomnia sample reported no awareness or concerns about sleep breathing disorders, problems, or symptoms. A greater proportion of men than women reported significantly more sleep breathing disorders, problems, or symptoms. Sleep breathing complaints were extremely common among a large sample of treatment-seeking, self-identified, adult chronic insomnia patients. Prospective prevalence research is needed to corroborate or revise these findings, and polysomnography should be considered in appropriate cohorts to determine the clinical relevance of treatment-seeking chronic insomnia patients' sleep breathing complaints.

  14. Prevalence of cold-related musculoskeletal pain according to self-reported threshold temperature among the Finnish adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pienimäki, T; Karppinen, J; Rintamäki, H; Borodulin, K; Laatikainen, T; Jousilahti, P; Hassi, J; Näyhä, S

    2014-02-01

    Exposure to cold reportedly increases musculoskeletal pains. We assessed the prevalence of such pain and self-reported threshold temperature (TT) at which the pain emerges. A random sample of 6591 people in Finland, aged 25-74 years, answered a questionnaire on repeated cold-related musculoskeletal pain (CMP) and its TT. The response rate was 64%. We used quantile regression to quantify the effects of personal characteristics and region of residence on TT at various locations of its distribution. Of the participants, 1892 (30%) experienced CMP in at least one body site and 1692 reported TT. Ten percent of the participants who perceived CMP did so at -2 °C, 50% at -14 °C and 90% at -23 °C. Residence in the South elevated TT by 1-6 °C compared with residence in the North, depending on the proportion of participants reporting CMP at various temperatures. Joint disorders increased TT at milder temperatures, at which only 10% of all participants perceived CMP, whereas back disorders did so mainly at lower temperatures, at which 70% were affected. Overweight was associated with a 2 °C lower TT, and physical inactivity with a 1 °C higher TT, and TT increased by 1 °C per 10-year increase in age. The greatest model-estimated difference in median TT between subgroups was 12 °C. People suffering from musculoskeletal disorders and those living in the warmer areas of Finland need special advice to protect themselves against the cold. Our study provides preliminary information to support such advice. © 2013 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  15. No further increase in the parent reported prevalence of allergies in Bavarian preschool children: Results from three cross-sectional studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Alisa; Herr, Caroline; Hendrowarsito, Lana; Meyer, Nicole; Nennstiel-Ratzel, Uta; von Mutius, Erika; Bolte, Gabriele; Colon, Diana; Kolb, Stefanie

    2016-07-01

    After three decades of an increase in the prevalence of asthma and allergies, new findings show a plateau in the prevalence of industrialized nations. The objective of this study was to determine whether there was a change in the parent reported prevalence of asthma and allergies among Bavarian preschool children since 2004. A parent questionnaire was administered as part of the Bavarian school entrance examination in three cross-sectional studies from 2004/2005, 2006/2007 and 2012/2013. The questionnaire included items on allergy testing history, identified allergens, symptoms (e.g. wheezing, itchy eyes, rash), medically diagnosed asthma, hay fever and atopic dermatitis. Logistic regression was performed to observe time patterns and adjust for risk factors. Data were available for 6350 (2004/2005), 6483 (2006/2007) and 5052 (2012/2013) individuals. Symptoms and diseases were more frequent in boys, except for allergies which affect the skin. From 2004 to 2012 the parent reported prevalence of asthma (2.6% to 2.8%), hay fever (4.7% to 4.0%) and atopic dermatitis (12.4% to 11.1%) either remained quite stable or decreased not significantly. Results from these three cross-sectional surveys of parent reports suggest that the parent reported prevalences of asthma and allergies are quite stable with small fluctuations since 2004 for Bavarian preschool children. Future research is needed to determine if this trend will continue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Cyanide poisoning deaths in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oruc, H H; Yilmaz, R; Bagdas, D; Ozyigit, M O

    2006-12-01

    In 2005, the deaths of three dogs were reported in Erdek, Turkey. Examining appropriate historical and clinical signs, postmortem findings and the discovery of cyanide in their stomachs and intestinal contents and livers supported a diagnosis of cyanide poisoning.

  17. Deaths in Custody: A 25-Year Review of Jail Deaths in Bexar County, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Jason G; Molina, D Kimberley

    2015-12-01

    Although deaths in custody are an expected occurrence, they are often subjected to increased scrutiny and raise many questions as to circumstances surrounding the death as well as the cause and manner of death. It is usually the responsibility of the medical examiner to answer these questions. Relatively few studies have reviewed the causes and manners of death that occur while in custody and even fewer specific to jail populations. This study reviews the cause and manner of death of persons in custody in an urban county from 1985 to 2010. A retrospective review of death investigations, including death certificates and autopsy reports, was conducted on all deaths that occurred in custody during the period. The age and sex of the decedent as well as the place of death were also recorded. Most deaths were attributed to natural disease followed by suicide, and most deaths occurred either in the emergency department or in the hospital. Regarding the cause of death, cardiovascular disease followed by suicide by hanging accounted for the most number of deaths (25% and 20% of all deaths, respectively). It is recommended that all deaths in custody be reported to the medical examiner and that a thorough death investigation be conducted to properly define and document the cause and manner of death. This is particularly important given the increased scrutiny to which deaths in custody are often subjected.

  18. Diabetes mellitus auto-referido no Município de São Paulo: prevalência e desigualdade Self-reported diabetes mellitus in the city of São Paulo: prevalence and inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulete Goldenberg

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available Constitui objetivo do presente trabalho a caracterização da prevalência do Diabetes Mellitus Auto-Referido (DMAR no Município de São Paulo, obtida a partir do inquérito domiciliar realizado pelo Estudo Multicêntrico sobre a Prevalência do Diabetes no Brasil, de 1986 a 1988. A amostra foi composta por 2007 indivíduos de 30 a 69 anos de idade, de ambos os sexos, selecionados em três áreas de distintas condições sociais, nas quais estavam sendo implantados programas assistenciais aos diabéticos. A prevalência, obtida através de glicemia capilar, 2h após sobrecarga de 75 g de glicose, foi de 9,7%. A prevalência do DMAR foi de 4,7%, tendo sido observado aumento de acordo com a idade, e estreita relação com o relato de história familiar de diabetes. Observou-se, ainda, diferença significante segundo o sexo (3,5% na população masculina e 5,7% na feminina, concentrando-se maiores valores nos níveis sócio-econômicos mais elevados, na população masculina, e, nos níveis mais baixos, na população feminina.This report analyzes characteristics of self-reported diabetes mellitus in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The data were obtained from the Brazilian Multicenter Study on Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus, a household survey performed in 1986-88. The São Paulo sample consisted of 2,007 individuals aged 30-69 years, of both sexes, selected from three areas with distinct socio-economic levels. The estimated prevalence using a 75g glucose load and measurement of two-hour capillary glycemia was 9.7%. Prevalence of self-reported diabetes was 4.7% and increased with age and presence of family history of diabetes. There was a significant difference between sexes (3.5% in men and 5.7% in women, with higher rates of self-reported diabetes at higher economic levels among men and higher rates at lower socio-economic levels among women.

  19. Sudden unexpected death in infancy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, Bo Gregers; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Theilade, Juliane

    2011-01-01

    of the ICD-10 code for SIDS (R95) in the Danish Cause of Death registry. Design. A retrospective analysis of all infant deaths (reports were read. Results. We identified 192 SUDI cases (10% of total deaths, 0.42 per 1000 births......Abstract Background. Incidence of sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI) and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) differs among studies and non-autopsied cases are difficult to assess. Objectives. To investigate causes of sudden death in infancy in a nationwide setting. Validate the use......) with autopsy performed in 87% of cases. In total, 49% of autopsied SUDI cases were defined as SIDS (5% of all deaths, 0.22 per 1000 births); Cardiac cause of death was denoted in 24% of cases. The Danish Cause of Death Registry misclassified 30% of SIDS cases. Conclusions. A large proportion of infant deaths...

  20. Obesity-related mortality in France, Italy, and the United States: a comparison using multiple cause-of-death analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Magali; Désesquelles, Aline; Egidi, Viviana; Demuru, Elena; Frova, Luisa; Meslé, France; Pappagallo, Marilena

    2017-07-01

    We investigate the reporting of obesity on death certificates in three countries (France, Italy, and the United States) with different levels of prevalence, and we examine which causes are frequently associated with obesity. We use cause-of-death data for all deaths at ages 50-89 in 2010-2011. Since obesity may not be the underlying cause (UC) of death, we compute age- and sex-standardized death rates considering all mentions of obesity (multiple causes or MC). We use cluster analyses to identify patterns of cause-of-death combinations. Obesity is selected as UC in no more than 20% of the deaths with a mention of obesity. Mortality levels, whether measured from the UC or the MC, are weakly related to levels of prevalence. Patterns of cause-of-death combinations are similar across the countries. In addition to strong links with cardiovascular diseases and diabetes, we identify several less familiar associations. Considering all mentions on the deaths certificates reduces the underestimation of obesity-related mortality based on the UC only. It also enables us to describe the various mortality patterns involving obesity.

  1. Relationship of Death Education to the Anxiety, Fear, and Meaning Associated with Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Kim H.; Elfenbein, Morton H.

    1993-01-01

    Compared death anxiety and fear of death levels expressed by 29 college students who had completed death and dying course with comparison group of 74 students. Found that those enrolled in thanatology class reported significantly higher death anxiety at end of semester. Results suggest different effect that thanatology course can have on…

  2. KAROSHI (WORK TO DEATH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh. Toriqul Chaer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available When the tide of unemployment hit the USA and Europe, in Japan the opposite phenomenon occurs. In 2002, in Japan deaths were recorded because of excessive works. In this country, the phenomenon of death because of excessive works is called Karoshi. Karoshi is common in Japan.  It becomes deadly syndrome as a consequence of long hours works. The debate about deaths from excessive work already sticking out in Japan since the 70s. The first official case of Karoshi was reported in 1969 when a 29-year-old male worker died because of stroke. It is estimated over ten thousand workers died each year due to death by brain and stroke caused by an overload work. Karoshi often happen to male workers dominantly. The main cause of karoshi is stress due to high pressure in the work environment, and work habits of exceeding a  standard of normal working time (8 hours. In addition, their extra time to work is imbalance with and the salary they earn. In its development, the phenomenon of karoshi contributes to the term salaryman and workaholic.

  3. Prevalence of HIV among MSM in Europe: comparison of self-reported diagnoses from a large scale internet survey and existing national estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Ulrich

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Country level comparisons of HIV prevalence among men having sex with men (MSM is challenging for a variety of reasons, including differences in the definition and measurement of the denominator group, recruitment strategies and the HIV detection methods. To assess their comparability, self-reported data on HIV diagnoses in a 2010 pan-European MSM internet survey (EMIS were compared with pre-existing estimates of HIV prevalence in MSM from a variety of European countries. Methods The first pan-European survey of MSM recruited more than 180,000 men from 38 countries across Europe and included questions on the year and result of last HIV test. HIV prevalence as measured in EMIS was compared with national estimates of HIV prevalence based on studies using biological measurements or modelling approaches to explore the degree of agreement between different methods. Existing estimates were taken from Dublin Declaration Monitoring Reports or UNAIDS country fact sheets, and were verified by contacting the nominated contact points for HIV surveillance in EU/EEA countries. Results The EMIS self-reported measurements of HIV prevalence were strongly correlated with existing estimates based on biological measurement and modelling studies using surveillance data (R2=0.70 resp. 0.72. In most countries HIV positive MSM appeared disproportionately likely to participate in EMIS, and prevalences as measured in EMIS are approximately twice the estimates based on existing estimates. Conclusions Comparison of diagnosed HIV prevalence as measured in EMIS with pre-existing estimates based on biological measurements using varied sampling frames (e.g. Respondent Driven Sampling, Time and Location Sampling demonstrates a high correlation and suggests similar selection biases from both types of studies. For comparison with modelled estimates the self-selection bias of the Internet survey with increased participation of men diagnosed with HIV has to be

  4. Prevalence of HIV among MSM in Europe: comparison of self-reported diagnoses from a large scale internet survey and existing national estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Ulrich; Hickson, Ford; Weatherburn, Peter; Schmidt, Axel J

    2012-11-14

    Country level comparisons of HIV prevalence among men having sex with men (MSM) is challenging for a variety of reasons, including differences in the definition and measurement of the denominator group, recruitment strategies and the HIV detection methods. To assess their comparability, self-reported data on HIV diagnoses in a 2010 pan-European MSM internet survey (EMIS) were compared with pre-existing estimates of HIV prevalence in MSM from a variety of European countries. The first pan-European survey of MSM recruited more than 180,000 men from 38 countries across Europe and included questions on the year and result of last HIV test. HIV prevalence as measured in EMIS was compared with national estimates of HIV prevalence based on studies using biological measurements or modelling approaches to explore the degree of agreement between different methods. Existing estimates were taken from Dublin Declaration Monitoring Reports or UNAIDS country fact sheets, and were verified by contacting the nominated contact points for HIV surveillance in EU/EEA countries. The EMIS self-reported measurements of HIV prevalence were strongly correlated with existing estimates based on biological measurement and modelling studies using surveillance data (R(2)=0.70 resp. 0.72). In most countries HIV positive MSM appeared disproportionately likely to participate in EMIS, and prevalences as measured in EMIS are approximately twice the estimates based on existing estimates. Comparison of diagnosed HIV prevalence as measured in EMIS with pre-existing estimates based on biological measurements using varied sampling frames (e.g. Respondent Driven Sampling, Time and Location Sampling) demonstrates a high correlation and suggests similar selection biases from both types of studies. For comparison with modelled estimates the self-selection bias of the Internet survey with increased participation of men diagnosed with HIV has to be taken into account. For most countries self-reported EMIS

  5. Self-reported lactose intolerance in clinic patients with functional gastrointestinal symptoms: prevalence, risk factors, and impact on food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, X; Chu, H; Cong, Y; Deng, Y; Long, Y; Zhu, Y; Pohl, D; Fried, M; Dai, N; Fox, M

    2015-08-01

    Many patients complain of abdominal symptoms with dairy products; however, clinical and psychosocial factors associated with self-reported lactose intolerance (SLI) have not been assessed in large studies. In particular, data are lacking from lactase deficient populations. This prospective cohort study assessed the prevalence of, and risk factors for, SLI in Chinese patients attending a gastroenterology clinic. Consecutive patients completed questionnaires to assess digestive health (Rome III), psychological state (HADS), life event stress (LES), food intake, and quality-of-life (SF-8). A representative sample completed genetic studies and hydrogen breath testing (HBT) at the clinically relevant dose of 20 g lactose. SLI was present in 411/910 (45%) clinic patients with functional abdominal symptoms. The genotype in all subjects was C/C-13910. A small number of novel SNPs in lactase promoter region were identified, including C/T-13908 which appeared to confer lactase persistence. Over half of the patients (54%) completed the 20 g lactose HBT with 58% (285/492) reporting typical symptoms. Positive and negative predictive values of SLI for abdominal symptoms during HBT were 60% and 44%, respectively. Psychological state and stress were not associated with SLI in clinic patients. SLI impacted on physical quality-of-life and was associated with reduced ingestion of dairy products, legumes, and dried fruit (p ≤ 0.05). In a lactase deficient population, approximately half of patients attending clinic with functional gastrointestinal symptoms reported intolerance to dairy products; however, SLI did not predict findings on 20 g lactose HBT. Independent of psychosocial factors, SLI impacted on quality-of-life and impacted on food choices with restrictions not limited to dairy products. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Prevalence of mood and anxiety disorder in self reported irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. An epidemiological population based study of women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykletun Arnstein

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is commonly regarded as a functional disorder, and is hypothesized to be associated with anxiety and depression. This evidence mainly rests on population-based studies utilising self-report screening instruments for psychopathology. Other studies applying structured clinical interviews are generally based on small clinical samples, which are vulnerable to biases. The extant evidence base for an association between IBS and psychopathology is hence not conclusive. The aim of this study was therefore to re-examine the hypothesis using population-based data and psychiatric morbidity established with a structured clinical interview. Methods Data were derived from a population-based epidemiological study (n = 1077. Anxiety and mood disorders were established using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR (SCID-I/NP and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12. Current and lifetime IBS was self-reported. Hypertension and diabetes were employed as comparison groups as they are expected to be unrelated to mental health. Results Current IBS (n = 69, 6.4% was associated with an increased likelihood of current mood and/or anxiety disorders (OR = 2.62, 95%CI 1.49 - 4.60. Half the population reporting a lifetime IBS diagnosis also had a lifetime mood or anxiety disorder. Exploratory analyses demonstrated an increased prevalence of IBS across most common anxiety and mood disorders, the exception being bipolar disorder. The association with IBS and symptoms load (GHQ-12 followed a curved dose response pattern. In contrast, hypertension and diabetes were consistently unrelated to psychiatric morbidity. Conclusions IBS is significantly associated with anxiety and mood disorders. This study provides indicative evidence for IBS as a disorder with a psychosomatic aspect.

  7. Prevalence of mood and anxiety disorder in self reported irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). An epidemiological population based study of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mykletun, Arnstein; Jacka, Felice; Williams, Lana; Pasco, Julie; Henry, Margaret; Nicholson, Geoffrey C; Kotowicz, Mark A; Berk, Michael

    2010-08-05

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is commonly regarded as a functional disorder, and is hypothesized to be associated with anxiety and depression. This evidence mainly rests on population-based studies utilising self-report screening instruments for psychopathology. Other studies applying structured clinical interviews are generally based on small clinical samples, which are vulnerable to biases. The extant evidence base for an association between IBS and psychopathology is hence not conclusive. The aim of this study was therefore to re-examine the hypothesis using population-based data and psychiatric morbidity established with a structured clinical interview. Data were derived from a population-based epidemiological study (n = 1077). Anxiety and mood disorders were established using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR (SCID-I/NP) and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Current and lifetime IBS was self-reported. Hypertension and diabetes were employed as comparison groups as they are expected to be unrelated to mental health. Current IBS (n = 69, 6.4%) was associated with an increased likelihood of current mood and/or anxiety disorders (OR = 2.62, 95%CI 1.49 - 4.60). Half the population reporting a lifetime IBS diagnosis also had a lifetime mood or anxiety disorder. Exploratory analyses demonstrated an increased prevalence of IBS across most common anxiety and mood disorders, the exception being bipolar disorder. The association with IBS and symptoms load (GHQ-12) followed a curved dose response pattern. In contrast, hypertension and diabetes were consistently unrelated to psychiatric morbidity. IBS is significantly associated with anxiety and mood disorders. This study provides indicative evidence for IBS as a disorder with a psychosomatic aspect.

  8. Incidental lung nodules on CT examinations of the abdomen: Prevalence and reporting rates in the PACS era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinaldi, Maria Francesca [Radiologia III - Azienda Ospedaliera Pol. S.Orsola-Malpighi, via Massarenti 9 - 40138 Bologna (Italy); Bartalena, Tommaso, E-mail: t.bartalena@email.i [Radiologia III - Azienda Ospedaliera Pol. S.Orsola-Malpighi, via Massarenti 9 - 40138 Bologna (Italy); Giannelli, Giovanni; Rinaldi, Giovanni [Radiologia III - Azienda Ospedaliera Pol. S.Orsola-Malpighi, via Massarenti 9 - 40138 Bologna (Italy); Sverzellati, Nicola [Dipartimento di Scienze Cliniche, sezione di Radiologia - Universita di Parma, via Gramsci 14 - 43100 Parma (Italy); Canini, Romeo [Dipartimento Clinico di Scienze Radiologiche ed Istocitopatologiche, divisione di Diagnostica per Immagini - Universita di Bologna, via Massarenti 9 - 40138 Bologna (Italy); Gavelli, Giampaolo [Servizio di Diagnostica per Immagini, Istituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori (I.R.S.T.), via Piero Maroncelli, 40 - 47014 Meldola (Italy)

    2010-06-15

    Objectives: To retrospectively evaluate prevalence, reporting rates and clinical implications of incidental pulmonary nodules detected in multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) abdominal studies. Materials and methods: Abdominal MDCT studies of 243 consecutive patients, 94 of whom had a history of cancer, were evaluated. Lung bases included in the scan were reviewed on a PACS workstation with different window settings and post-processing techniques. Nodules were classified according to their density (calcified, solid noncalcified, non-solid, part-solid) and size (<4 mm; 4-6 mm; 6-8 mm; >8 mm). The study findings were compared with the corresponding radiologic reports. Previous of following CT studies, when available from the PACS, were also reviewed to evaluate changes in number and size of the detected nodules. Results: An average of 8.2 cm of lung parenchyma was imaged in each patient. 213 noncalcified nodules (NCNs) were identified in 95 patients (39.1%) but only 8 patients (8.4%) had it mentioned in the final report. Comparison CT studies were available for 44 out of the 95 positive patients showing disappearance of the nodules in 2 cases, no interval change in 26 and progression in size and/or number in 16 patients, in whom a final diagnosis of metastasis or primary lung cancers was achieved. Conclusion: Radiologists tend to overlook lung portions on abdominal CT studies. Underreporting may affect patient care and have medico-legal implications since images are permanently stored in digital format on PACS and CD-ROMs. Management of the discovered nodules should be tailored to the clinical situation of the patient, and particular care should be reserved to patients with oncologic history.

  9. Self-reported prevalence of atherothrombosis in a general population sample of adults in Greece; A telephone survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of selected atherothrombotic risk factors and several clinical manifestations of atherothrombosis, as well as the utilization rates of selected vascular interventions in Greece. Methods During December 2009, 3,007 adults (aged 47 ± 16 years, 48.3% men and 51.7% women) recruited in a random-digit dialed telephone survey (response rate: 16%). The sample size was selected following a multistage and stratified by gender, age group, and Greek region procedure in order to be more representative. Data regarding medical history and socio-demographic characteristics of the participants were collected. Results Overall, 6.5%, 17.7% and 14.0% of participants reported that they had been diagnosed with diabetes mellitus, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia, respectively. In the overall sample, 2.5% of participants reported that they had been diagnosed with angina, 2.0% with myocardial infarction, 1.6% with stroke and 2.5% with peripheral artery disease. Overall, 1.5% of participants reported that they had undergone percutaneous coronary intervention, 1.4% coronary artery bypass grafting, 0.6% angioplasty of a peripheral vessel, and 0.7% surgery of a peripheral vessel. Conclusion Despite the limitations may occur due to the sampling procedure, the findings of the present study indicate that atherothrombosis affects a large portion of the population in Greece and it is expected to impose a significant economic burden. The data of the current study could contribute in obtaining an accurate estimation of the economic burden of atherothrombosis in Greece because people who are aware of their condition/disease are those who use health care resources. PMID:21492471

  10. [Prevalence and Comorbidity of Self-Reported Diagnosis of Burnout Syndrome in the General Population - Results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maske, Ulrike E; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G; Seiffert, Ingeburg; Jacobi, Frank; Hapke, Ulfert

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence and comorbid mental disorders of self-reported diagnosis of burnout syndrome in the general population of Germany. Methods: In the German Health Interview and Examination Survey (DEGS1) self-reported diagnosis of a burnout syndrome made by a physician or psychotherapist was assessed in a standardized interview (N = 7987). For N = 4483 mental disorders were determined with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Weighted lifetime and 12-month prevalences were calculated. Results: Lifetime prevalence of diagnosed burnout syndrome was 4.2 % (women 5.2 %, men 3.3 %), 12-month prevalence was 1.5 % (women 1.9 %, men 1.1 %). Highest prevalences were found in 40 - 59 year olds, in people with middle and high socio-economic status and in women with low and men with high social support. Among the 12-month cases, 70.9 % had at least one DSM-IV disorder. Associations were found for the diagnosis of burnout syndrome with somatoform, affective and anxiety disorders. Conclusion: The diagnosis of burnout syndrome is less frequently given and reported than expected. People with a burnout diagnosis often have a manifest mental disorder. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. INTRAUTERINE FETAL DEATH CASES AT TERTIARY CENTER

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    Babu Lal Bishnoi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Intrauterine fetal death is a tragic event for the parents and a great cause of stress for the caregiver. It is an important indicator of maternal and perinatal health of a given population. This study was undertaken to study the maternal and fetal factors associated with intrauterine fetal death. Aim and Objective- This was an Analytical study aimed to evaluate and understand the prevalence, socio-epidemiological and etiological factors of IUFD methodology should not be mixed with aims and objectives MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was carried out at March 2017 to June 2017 (4 months study which was conducted at Dr. S. N. Medical College, Jodhpur, Rajasthan. The details were entered in a preformed proforma. IUD is defined as fetal death beyond 20 weeks of gestation and/or birth weight >500g. The details of complaints at admission, obstetrics history, menstrual history, examination findings, per vaginal examination findings, mode and method of delivery and fetal outcomes and investigation reports were recorded. RESULTS A total of 227 intrauterine fetal deaths were reported amongst 6264 deliveries conducted during the study period. The incidence rate of intrauterine fetal death was 36/1000 live births. 192 (84.56% deliveries were unbooked and unsupervised and 133 (58.59% belonged to rural population and 126 (55.5% were preterm and 221 (97.55% were singleton pregnancy. Among the identifiable causes hypertensive disorders (24.22% and severe anemia (13.10% were most common followed by placental causes (9.97%. Congenital malformations were responsible for 12.39% and unidentifiable causes were 11.01%. Induction was done in 103 patients, 94 patients had spontaneous onset of labour and caesarean section was done in 30 patients. Incidence of intrauterine foetal demise gradually decreased as parity advanced. CONCLUSION Institutional deliveries should be promoted to prevent intrapartum fetal deaths. Decrease in the incidence of IUD would

  12. Source of parental reports of child height and weight during phone interviews and influence on obesity prevalence estimates among children aged 3-17 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Asheley Cockrell; Miles, Donna; Perrin, Eliana M; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; Ford, Carol

    2013-01-01

    We compared parental reports of children's height and weight when the values were estimated vs. parent-measured to determine how these reports influence the estimated prevalence of childhood obesity. In the 2007 and 2008 North Carolina Child Health Assessment and Monitoring Program surveys, parents reported height and weight for children aged 3-17 years. When parents reported the values were not measured (by doctor, school, or home), they were asked to measure their child and were later called back. We categorized body mass index status using standard CDC definitions, and we used Chi-square tests and the Stuart-Maxwell test of marginal homogeneity to examine reporting differences. About 80% (n=509) of the 638 parents who reported an unmeasured height and/or weight participated in a callback and provided updated measures. Children originally classified as obese were subsequently classified as obese (67%), overweight (13%), and healthy weight (19%). An estimated 28% of younger children (children (aged ≥10 years) were reclassified on callback. Having parents who guessed the height and weight of their children and then reported updated values did not significantly change the overall population estimates of obesity. Our findings demonstrate that using parent-reported height and weight values may be sufficient to provide reasonable estimates of obesity prevalence. Systematically asking the source of height and weight information may help improve how it is applied to research of the prevalence of childhood obesity when gold-standard measurements are not available.

  13. Sepsis-related mortality in the Czech Republic: multiple causes of death analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechholdová, M

    2017-01-01

    Sepsis represents an increasingly frequent complication in the survival of the hospitalized persons. The nation-wide burden of the sepsis-related mortality in the Czech Republic has not yet been analysed. The present study aims to assess the trends and the disparities in the sepsis-related mortality in the Czech Republic for the period 1998-2011 using multiple causes of death reported on the death certificates. Individual death records provided by the Institute for Health Information and Statistics were used to identify sepsis-related deaths based on the codes of the 10th revision of the International classification of the diseases (ICD-10). Frequencies, age-standardized rates and comorbidity patterns were studied. A total of 41,425 cases (3%) out of 1,456,539 deaths within the period 1998-2011 were associated with sepsis. In 2011, sepsis was reported in 8% of all in-hospital deaths. Sepsis is the most likely to be reported as immediate cause of death (66%), which results in its considerable underestimation in the underlying cause of death statistics. The sepsis-related mortality almost tripled between 1998 and 2011, and the most of the increase is attributable to persons aged 65 and over. In 44% of cases, circulatory disease or cancer was reported as the underlying cause of death. Significant associations with sepsis were however found for infectious diseases, diseases of skin, and metabolic or musculoskeletal disorders. Multiple cause of death analysis of sepsis-related mortality revealed that sepsis represents a growing burden related to the population ageing and increased prevalence of complications of chronic diseases. The observed upward trends, as well as the expected continuation of the ageing process, may result in further increase of sepsis-related mortality. Preventive measures in the clinical management of sepsis are recommended.

  14. Impressions That Last: Particularly Negative and Positive Experiences Reported by Parents Five Years after the End of a Child’s Successful Cancer Treatment or Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boger, Marike; Ander, Malin; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Cernvall, Martin; von Essen, Louise; Hovén, Emma

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the experience of parenting a child diagnosed with cancer by examining particularly negative and positive experiences reported by parents of childhood cancer survivors and parents of children lost to cancer. Methods 168 parents (88 mothers, 80 fathers) participated. Data were collected five years after the end of successful treatment or the child’s death. The parents’ experiences were identified by open-ended semi-structured questions about particularly negative and positive experiences of the child’s cancer. An inductive approach was used in which the manifest verbal content of the answers was analysed using content analysis. Results The analysis revealed eight categories of negative experience (child late effects; distressing events; healthcare; impaired relationships; long-term psychological consequences; own reactions; surrounding institutions; the fact that the child got cancer) and seven categories of positive experience (healthcare; improved relationships; long-term consequences for the child; personal development; support systems; treatment outcome; unexpected joy). The categories were related to past events or to the present situation. The findings indicate variations in experiences between parents of survivors and bereaved parents, and between fathers and mothers, as some experiences were only reported by parents of survivors and some experiences were only reported by mothers. Conclusions The results highlight the importance of past and present events to parents, and accordingly the long-lasting impact of paediatric cancer on parents. The results also point to the wide range of negative as well as positive experiences involved in parenting a child diagnosed with cancer, and provide a comprehensive understanding of the overall experience for parents of children with cancer. Specifically, the findings give guidance to healthcare providers by illustrating the need to provide healthcare personnel with continuous training in

  15. Impressions That Last: Particularly Negative and Positive Experiences Reported by Parents Five Years after the End of a Child's Successful Cancer Treatment or Death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Ljungman

    Full Text Available To describe the experience of parenting a child diagnosed with cancer by examining particularly negative and positive experiences reported by parents of childhood cancer survivors and parents of children lost to cancer.168 parents (88 mothers, 80 fathers participated. Data were collected five years after the end of successful treatment or the child's death. The parents' experiences were identified by open-ended semi-structured questions about particularly negative and positive experiences of the child's cancer. An inductive approach was used in which the manifest verbal content of the answers was analysed using content analysis.The analysis revealed eight categories of negative experience (child late effects; distressing events; healthcare; impaired relationships; long-term psychological consequences; own reactions; surrounding institutions; the fact that the child got cancer and seven categories of positive experience (healthcare; improved relationships; long-term consequences for the child; personal development; support systems; treatment outcome; unexpected joy. The categories were related to past events or to the present situation. The findings indicate variations in experiences between parents of survivors and bereaved parents, and between fathers and mothers, as some experiences were only reported by parents of survivors and some experiences were only reported by mothers.The results highlight the importance of past and present events to parents, and accordingly the long-lasting impact of paediatric cancer on parents. The results also point to the wide range of negative as well as positive experiences involved in parenting a child diagnosed with cancer, and provide a comprehensive understanding of the overall experience for parents of children with cancer. Specifically, the findings give guidance to healthcare providers by illustrating the need to provide healthcare personnel with continuous training in communication skills, offering

  16. Prevalence of 1691G>A FV mutation in females from Bosnia and Herzegovina - a preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Valjevac

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Factor V is the liver-synthesized multidomain glycoprotein encoded by a gene localised on chromosome 1q23. The point mutation 1691G>A in this gene results in formation of an altered protein of V Factor resistant to activated protein C (APC cleavage. This mutation alone is the most frequent cause of inborn thrombophilia and the most widely acknowledged genetic risk factor for venous thrombosis in a Caucasian population. This study was designed to provide the first estimate of the frequency of the allele 1691A FV in the Bosnian female population. The 1691G>A FV mutation was examined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism, in a group of 67 women, mean age of 58.6 years with no history of cardiovascural incident. Our findings revealed an absence of the mutated allele 1691A FV in the studied group.This is the first report on the 1691G>A FV mutation in a population from Bosnia and Herzegovina. Further research is needed to establish prevalence of the mutated allele in the population from Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  17. Brief Report: Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Conditions in Children Aged 5-11 Years in Cambridgeshire, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Fiona J.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Bolton, Patrick; Brayne, Carol

    2002-01-01

    A study investigated the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders in children (ages 5-11) in Cambridgeshire, United Kingdom. Using 1999 data from public records, screening instruments, educational psychology and special education needs coordinator records, a prevalence of almost 0.6% was found, with a ratio of 4:1 males to females. (Contains…

  18. Self-reported prevalence and severity of xerostomia and its related conditions in individuals attending hospital for general health examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E; Lee, Y-H; Kim, W; Kho, H-S

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, severity, and relationships between xerostomia and its related symptoms in individuals who attended hospital for general health examinations. Participants included 883 men and 618 women aged between 30 and 60 years. History of symptoms during the previous 6 months, current symptoms, and severity of current symptoms were evaluated using a questionnaire that included questions about xerostomia, burning mouth, taste disturbance, and oral malodor. The prevalence of xerostomia and its related symptoms was 60.2%; the prevalence of oral malodor was 52.3%, xerostomia 33.0%, burning mouth 13.6%, and taste disturbance 12.5%. Men in their 30s and women in their 60s showed significantly higher prevalence and greater severity of xerostomia, burning mouth, and taste disturbance compared with their counterparts. The prevalence of xerostomia, burning mouth, and taste disturbance, and the severity of xerostomia increased significantly with age in women. The prevalence and severity of these four symptoms were significantly related and the association was the highest between burning mouth and taste disturbance. In conclusion, xerostomia and its related symptoms were highly prevalent at all ages. The prevalence and severity of these symptoms were closely related. Copyright © 2013 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Dementia before death in ageing societies--the promise of prevention and the reality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Brayne

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Dementia and severe cognitive impairment are very closely linked to ageing. The longer we live the more likely we are to suffer from these conditions. Given population increases in longevity it is important to understand not only risk and protective factors for dementia and severe cognitive impairment at given ages but also whether protection affects cumulative risk. This can be explored by examining the effect on cumulative risk by time of death of factors found consistently to reduce risk at particular ages, such as education and social status.In this analysis we report the prevalence of dementia and severe cognitive impairment in the year before death in a large population sample. In the Medical Research Council Cognitive Function and Ageing Study (a 10-y population-based cohort study of individuals 65 and over in England and Wales, these prevalences have been estimated by age, sex, social class, and education. Differences have been explored using logistic regression. The overall prevalence of dementia at death was 30%. There was a strong increasing trend for dementia with age from 6% for those aged 65-69 y at time of death to 58% for those aged 95 y and above at time of death. Higher prevalences were seen for severe cognitive impairment, with similar patterns. People with higher education and social class had significantly reduced dementia and severe cognitive impairment before death, but the absolute difference was small (under 10%.Reducing risk for dementia at a given age will lead to further extension of life, thus cumulative risk (even in populations at lower risk for given ages remains high. Ageing of populations is likely to result in an increase in the number of people dying with dementia and severe cognitive impairment even in the presence of preventative programmes. Policy development and research for dementia must address the needs of individuals who will continue to experience these conditions before death.

  20. Physician-reported barriers to referring cancer patients to specialists: prevalence, factors, and association with career satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Daniel H; Tisnado, Diana M; Keating, Nancy L; Klabunde, Carrie N; Adams, John L; Rastegar, Afshin; Hornbrook, Mark C; Kahn, Katherine L

    2015-01-01

    Quality care for patients with cancer often requires access to specialty providers, but little is known about barriers to referring cancer patients for specialized care. Referral barriers may also lessen physician career satisfaction. The study was aimed at determining what factors are associated with these barriers and whether greater barriers are associated with low career satisfaction. This cross-sectional study examined 1562 primary care physicians (PCPs) and 2144 specialists responding to the multiregional Cancer Care Outcomes Research and Surveillance Consortium physician survey. The prevalence of physician-reported barriers to referring cancer patients for more specialized care (restricted provider networks, preauthorization requirements, patient inability to pay, lack of surgical subspecialists, and excessive patient travel time) was assessed. The 5 items were averaged to calculate a barrier score. A multivariate linear regression was used to determine physician and practice setting characteristics associated with the barrier score, and a multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze the association of the barrier score with physician career satisfaction. Three in 5 physicians reported always, usually, or sometimes encountering any barrier to cancer patient specialty referrals. In adjusted analyses of PCPs and specialists, international medical graduates, physicians practicing in solo or government-owned practices, and physicians with <90% of their patients in managed care plans had higher barrier scores than others (P < .05). High barrier scores were associated with lower physician career satisfaction among PCPs and specialists (P < .05). Many physicians experience barriers to specialty referral for cancer patients. Uniform systems for providing and tracking timely referrals may enhance care and promote physician career satisfaction. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  1. How accurate is the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents derived from self-reported data? A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jinbo; Cai, Zhihui; Fan, Xitao

    2018-03-08

    The aim of the current meta-analysis was to evaluate the accuracy of using BMI based on self-reported height and weight (BMIsr) to estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents. A systematic literature search was conducted to select studies that compared the prevalence rates of overweight and obesity based on BMIsr and BMIm (BMI based on measured height and weight). A random-effect model was assumed to estimate summary prevalence rates and prevalence ratio (PR). Thirty-seven studies were included. The aggregated prevalence of overweight and obesity based on BMIsr (0·190, 95 % CI 0·163, 0·221) was significantly lower than that based on BMIm (0·233, 95 % CI 0·203, 0·265). The pooled mean PR was 0·823 (95 % CI 0·775, 0·875). Moderator analyses showed that the underestimation was related to gender, age, weight status screened (overweight v. obesity) and weight status screening tool. BMIsr may produce less biased results under some conditions than others. Future researchers using BMIsr may consider these findings and avoid the conditions that could lead to more severe underestimation of the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents.

  2. Urban-Rural Differences in the Prevalence of Self-Reported Diabetes and its Risk Factors: The WHO STEPS Iranian Noncommunicable Disease Risk Factor Surveillance in 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Khorrami

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The high prevalence of diabetes in Iran and other developing countries is chiefly attributed to urbanization. The objectives of the present study were to assess the prevalence of self-reported diabetes and to determine its associated risk factors. This study is a part of the national noncommunicable disease risk factor surveillance, conducted in 31 provinces of Iran in 2011. First, 10069 individuals, between 20 and 70 years old (3036 individuals from rural and 7033 from urban areas, were recruited. The major risk factors were studied using a modified WHO STEPS approach. Diabetes was considered based on self-reported diabetes. The prevalence of self-reported diabetes was 10% overall. The prevalence in the rural and urban settings was 7.4% and 11.1%, respectively. Moderate physical activity (OR=0.45, 95% CI=0.29–0.71 and family history of diabetesOR=6.53, 95% CI=4.29–9.93 were the most important risk factors among the rural residents and systolic blood pressure (OR=1.01, 95% CI=1–1.02, waist circumference (OR=1.02, 95% CI=1.01–1.03, and overweight (OR=1.36, 95% CI= 1–1.84 were significantly associated with self-reported diabetes in the urban residents. The prevalence of self-reported diabetes in the urban setting was higher than that in the rural setting. Physical inactivity, abdominal obesity, and high blood pressure were the most important risk factors associated with self-reported diabetes in Iran.

  3. Deaths from abdominal trauma: analysis of 1888 forensic autopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POLYANNA HELENA COELHO BORDONI

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to evaluate the epidemiological profile of deaths due to abdominal trauma at the Forensic Medicine Institute of Belo Horizonte, MG - Brazil. Methods: we conducted a retrospective study of the reports of deaths due to abdominal trauma autopsied from 2006 to 2011. Results: we analyzed 1.888 necropsy reports related to abdominal trauma. Penetrating trauma was more common than blunt one and gunshot wounds were more prevalent than stab wounds. Most of the individuals were male, brown-skinned, single and occupationally active. The median age was 34 years. The abdominal organs most injured in the penetrating trauma were the liver and the intestines, and in blunt trauma, the liver and the spleen. Homicide was the most prevalent circumstance of death, followed by traffic accidents, and almost half of the cases were referred to the Forensic Medicine Institute by a health unit. The blood alcohol test was positive in a third of the necropsies where it was performed. Cocaine and marijuana were the most commonly found substances in toxicology studies. Conclusion: in this sample. there was a predominance of penetrating abdominal trauma in young, brown and single men, the liver being the most injured organ.

  4. The prevalence of common mental disorders among hospital physicians and their association with self-reported work ability: a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruitenburg, Martijn M.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.; Sluiter, Judith K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: We studied the prevalence of common mental disorders among Dutch hospital physicians and investigated whether the presence of a mental disorder was associated with insufficient self-reported work ability. Methods: A questionnaire was sent to all (n = 958) hospital physicians of one

  5. Prevalence of and interventions for sarcopenia in ageing adults - a systematic review report of the international sarcopenia initiative (EWGSOP and IWGS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: to examine the clinical evidence reporting the prevalence of sarcopenia and the effect of nutrition and exercise interventions from studies using the consensus definition of sarcopenia proposed by the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP). Methods: PubMed and Dial...

  6. Identity after Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerstrøm, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore how legacy organizational identity and death relate to each other and, thereby, contribute to closing the gap in knowledge on organizational identity constructions in times of death. Design/methodology/approach: The paper opted for an exploratory...... study relying on primary data from in-depth narrative interviews with 20 organizational members of a bank that went bankrupt. The primary data, as well as documents like websites, newspapers, magazines, booklets, minutes, and reports, were complemented by secondary interviews with other members...... of the financial industry. Findings: The paper finds that members of a dead organization construct a bankruptcy narrative that is also a legacy organizational identity narrative including a legacy organizational identity transformation and several identities that have positive and negative aspects...

  7. Death from Nitrous Oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäckström, Björn; Johansson, Bengt; Eriksson, Anders

    2015-11-01

    Nitrous oxide is an inflammable gas that gives no smell or taste. It has a history of abuse as long as its clinical use, and deaths, although rare, have been reported. We describe two cases of accidental deaths related to voluntary inhalation of nitrous oxide, both found dead with a gas mask covering the face. In an attempt to find an explanation to why the victims did not react properly to oncoming hypoxia, we performed experiments where a test person was allowed to breath in a closed system, with or without nitrous oxide added. Vital signs and gas concentrations as well as subjective symptoms were recorded. The experiments indicated that the explanation to the fact that neither of the descendents had reacted to oncoming hypoxia and hypercapnia was due to the inhalation of nitrous oxide. This study raises the question whether nitrous oxide really should be easily, commercially available. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  8. Global Childhood Deaths From Pertussis: A Historical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Maria Yui Kwan; Khandaker, Gulam; McIntyre, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Impact of pertussis vaccines on mortality is a key World Health Organization indicator, and trends in mortality rates and age distribution can inform maternal immunization strategies. We systematically reviewed studies reporting pertussis mortality rates (PMRs) per million population, identifying 19 eligible studies. During a prevaccine observation period of ≥50 years in high-income countries (HICs), PMRs reduced in both infants and 1- to 4-year-olds by >80%, along with improvements in living conditions. In studies in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), PMRs resembled highest prevaccine HIC rates. Postvaccine in HICs, significant further reduction in deaths (>98%) occurred, but with a large left shift in age of onset among residual deaths. Postvaccine in LMICs, limited data also show large and rapid decreases in PMRs, first in older infants and children, but long-term data fully enumerating residual deaths are lacking. In Sweden, large increases in the prevalence of undetectable pertussis antibodies were found at 10 years after high childhood coverage of acellular pertussis vaccines. Such data are not available from LMICs using whole-cell vaccines in a primary schedule without boosters. Data on residual infant deaths and maternal seroprevalence would be valuable inputs into consideration of pertussis vaccination in pregnancy in LMIC settings, especially if more precise immune correlates of infant protection against death from pertussis were known. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  9. Differences in prevalence of bullying victimization between native and immigrant children in the Nordic countries: a parent-reported serial cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjereld, Y; Daneback, K; Petzold, M

    2015-07-01

    Bullying among children is a problem with severe consequences for the victim. The present study examined parent-reported bullying victimization among children in the Nordic countries at two points in time, 1996 and 2011, and studied differences in prevalence of bullying victimization between immigrant and native children. Data came from the parent-reported NordChild, carried out in the Nordic countries in 1996 and 2011. NordChild is a serial cross-sectional comparative study. A total of 7107 children aged 7-13 were included in the analyses. The prevalence of bullying victimization in the total Nordic countries was lower in 2011 (19.2%) than 1996 (21.7%). Difference in prevalence of bullying victimization was found both between native and immigrant children, and between countries. The largest difference in prevalence of bullying victimization was measured in Sweden 2011, where 8.6% of the native children were bullied, to be compared with the 27.8% of the immigrant children. Immigrant children had higher odds to be bullied than native children in Norway, Sweden and in the total Nordic countries at both measurements, also when adjusted for potentially confounding factors. The higher prevalence of bullying victimization among immigrant children should be taken into consideration in the design and development of preventive work against bullying. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Attitudes toward Death Education and Grief Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Nina Ribak

    1981-01-01

    Counselors and counselor educators were surveyed regarding their attitudes toward death education and grief counseling. Comparative results found that death education and grief training has increased significantly in recent years, but that many school counselors report seminars on death education are not conveniently available. (Author)

  11. Scintigraphic evaluation of brain death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, C. H.; Bai, M. S.; Cho, K. K.; Kim, S. J.; Yoon, S. N.; Cho, C. W.

    1997-01-01

    A law recognizing brain death is a life saving legal measure in patients suffering from badly diseased organs such as kidney, liver, heart, and lung. Such law is being discussed for legalization at the Korean National Assembly. There are various criteria used for brain death in western world and brain scintiscan is one of them. However, the scintiscan is not considered in establishing brain death in the draft of the law. The purpose of this report is to spread this technique in nuclear medicine society as well as in other medical societies. We evaluated 7 patients with clinical suspicion of brain death by various causes. The patient's age ranged from 5 to 39 years. We used 5-20mCi 99m Tc-HMPAO (d.1-hexamethyl propylene amine oxime) or ECD (Ethyl Cysteinate Dimer), lipophilic agents that cross BBB (blood brain barrier). A dynamic study followed by static or SPECT (single photon emission tomography) was performed. Interpretive criteria used for brain death were 1) no intracranial circulation 2) no brain uptake. The second criteria is heavily used. Five of 7 patients were scintigraphically brain dead and the remaining 2 had some brain uptake excluding the diagnosis of scintigraphic brain death. In conclusion, cerebral perfusion study using a lipophilic brain tracer offers a noninvasive, rapid, easy, accurate and reliable mean in the diagnosis of brain death. We believe that this modality should be included in the criteria of brain death in the draft of the proposed Korean law

  12. Sudden death in eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jáuregui-Garrido, Beatriz; Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    Eating disorders are usually associated with an increased risk of premature death with a wide range of rates and causes of mortality. "Sudden death" has been defined as the abrupt and unexpected occurrence of fatality for which no satisfactory explanation of the cause can be ascertained. In many cases of sudden death, autopsies do not clarify the main cause. Cardiovascular complications are usually involved in these deaths. The purpose of this review was to report an update of the existing literature data on the main findings with respect to sudden death in eating disorders by means of a search conducted in PubMed. The most relevant conclusion of this review seems to be that the main causes of sudden death in eating disorders are those related to cardiovascular complications. The predictive value of the increased QT interval dispersion as a marker of sudden acute ventricular arrhythmia and death has been demonstrated. Eating disorder patients with severe cardiovascular symptoms should be hospitalized. In general, with respect to sudden death in eating disorders, some findings (eg, long-term eating disorders, chronic hypokalemia, chronically low plasma albumin, and QT intervals >600 milliseconds) must be taken into account, and it must be highlighted that during refeeding, the adverse effects of hypophosphatemia include cardiac failure. Monitoring vital signs and performing electrocardiograms and serial measurements of plasma potassium are relevant during the treatment of eating disorder patients.

  13. Causes of death in Vanuatu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Karen; Tovu, Viran; Langati, Jeffrey Tila; Buttsworth, Michael; Dingley, Lester; Calo, Andy; Harrison, Griffith; Rao, Chalapati; Lopez, Alan D; Taylor, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The population of the Pacific Melanesian country of Vanuatu was 234,000 at the 2009 census. Apart from subsistence activities, economic activity includes tourism and agriculture. Current completeness of vital registration is considered too low to be usable for national statistics; mortality and life expectancy (LE) are derived from indirect demographic estimates from censuses/surveys. Some cause of death (CoD) data are available to provide information on major causes of premature death. Deaths 2001-2007 were coded for cause (ICDv10) for ages 0-59 years from: hospital separations (HS) (n = 636), hospital medical certificates (MC) of death (n = 1,169), and monthly reports from community health facilities (CHF) (n = 1,212). Ill-defined causes were 3 % for hospital deaths and 20 % from CHF. Proportional mortality was calculated by cause (excluding ill-defined) and age group (0-4, 5-14 years), and also by sex for 15-59 years. From total deaths by broad age group and sex from 1999 and 2009 census analyses, community deaths were estimated by deduction of hospital deaths MC. National proportional mortality by cause was estimated by a weighted average of MC and CHF deaths. National estimates indicate main causes of deaths <5 years were: perinatal disorders (45 %) and malaria, diarrhea, and pneumonia (27 %). For 15-59 years, main causes of male deaths were: circulatory disease 27 %, neoplasms 13 %, injury 13 %, liver disease 10 %, infection 10 %, diabetes 7 %, and chronic respiratory disease 7 %; and for females: neoplasms 29 %, circulatory disease 15 %, diabetes 10 %, infection 9 %, and maternal deaths 8 %. Infection included tuberculosis, malaria, and viral hepatitis. Liver disease (including hepatitis and cancer) accounted for 18 % of deaths in adult males and 9 % in females. Non-communicable disease (NCD), including circulatory disease, diabetes, neoplasm, and chronic respiratory disease, accounted for 52 % of premature deaths in adult

  14. Prevalence of COPD in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Peder; Løkke, Anders; Marott, Jacob Louis

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: COPD is a leading cause of death worldwide; however, prevalence estimates have varied considerably in previous studies. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and severity of COPD in Copenhagen using data from the 4th examination of The Copenhagen City Heart Study, to investig...

  15. Prevalence of COPD in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Peder; Løkke, Anders; Marott, Jacob Louis

    2011-01-01

    COPD is a leading cause of death worldwide; however, prevalence estimates have varied considerably in previous studies. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and severity of COPD in Copenhagen using data from the 4th examination of The Copenhagen City Heart Study, to investigate...

  16. Psychotropic medication in the French child and adolescent population: prevalence estimation from health insurance data and national self-report survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Legleye Stéphane

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this work is to estimate the French frequencies of dispensed psychotropic prescriptions in children and adolescents. Prevalence estimations of dispensed prescriptions are compared to the frequencies of use of psychotropic reported by 17 year-old adolescents. Methods Prescription data is derived from national health insurance databases. Frequencies of dispensed prescriptions are extrapolated to estimate a range for the 2004 national rates. Self-report data is derived from the 2003 and 2005 ESCAPAD study, an epidemiological study based on a questionnaire focused on health and drug consumption. Results The prevalence estimation shows that the prevalence of prescription of a psychotropic medication to young persons between 3 and 18 years is about 2.2%. In 2005, the self-report study (ESCAPAD shows that 14.9% of 17 year-old adolescents took medication for "nerves" or "to sleep" during the previous 12 months. The same study in 2003 also shows that 62.3% of adolescents aged 17 and 18 reporting psychotropic use, took the medication for anxiety and 56.8% to sleep. Only 49.7% of these medications are suggested by a doctor. Conclusion This study underlines a similar range of prevalence of psychotropic prescriptions in France to that observed in other European countries. Nevertheless, the proportion of antipsychotics and benzodiazepines seems to be higher, whereas the proportion of methylphenidate is lower. Secondly, a disparity between the prevalence of dispensed prescriptions and the self-report of actual use of psychotropics has been highlighted by the ESCAPAD study which shows that these treatments are widely used as "self-medication".

  17. Higher self-reported prevalence of hypertension among Moluccan-Dutch than among the general population of The Netherlands: results from a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wal, Junus M; Bodewes, Adee J; Agyemang, Charles O; Kunst, Anton E

    2014-12-15

    Several studies in The Netherlands revealed ethnic disparities in hypertension prevalence, but none have focused on the Moluccan-Dutch, a migrant group from Indonesia that settled in The Netherlands in 1951. The Moluccan-Dutch are considered to be fairly well integrated in Dutch society. The aim of this study was to compare hypertension prevalence among the Moluccan-Dutch to the native Dutch and to explore the contribution of known risk factors. A health interview survey was conducted from August 2012 till March 2013 among nineteen Moluccan neighborhoods, resulting in the inclusion of 708 participants. The primary outcome variable was self-reported prevalence of hypertension. Explanatory variables were BMI, exercise, smoking, alcohol intake and mental health status. Data on the control group was extracted from the Dutch National Health Survey 2011, using a similar questionnaire. Differences in risk factor exposure were explored using Chi-square tests and the contribution of risk factors, separately and combined, was explored using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Moluccan-Dutch showed higher odds for reporting hypertension when compared to native Dutch, after adjusting for age and level of education (OR = 1.38; 95% CI = 1.13-1.69) and additional risk factors (OR = 1.49; 95% CI = 1.19-1.88). A higher prevalence of hypertension was found in both Moluccan-Dutch men (26.4% vs. 16.7%; p < 0.001) and women (26.7% vs. 17.9%; p < 0.001), when compared to the control group. Not only middle-aged, but also young Moluccan-Dutch men showed higher prevalence of hypertension. The Moluccan-Dutch may be at increased risk for reporting hypertension. These results suggest that long-term stay over several generations does not necessarily result in similar levels of hypertension prevalence as the host population.

  18. Epidemiology, neurobiology and pharmacological interventions related to suicide deaths and suicide attempts in bipolar disorder: Part I of a report of the International Society for Bipolar Disorders Task Force on Suicide in Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Ayal; Isometsä, Erkki T; Tondo, Leonardo; Moreno, Doris H; Sinyor, Mark; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Turecki, Gustavo; Weizman, Abraham; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Ha, Kyooseob; Reis, Catherine; Cassidy, Frederick; Goldstein, Tina; Rihmer, Zoltán; Beautrais, Annette; Chou, Yuan-Hwa; Diazgranados, Nancy; Levitt, Anthony J; Zarate, Carlos A; Yatham, Lakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Bipolar disorder is associated with elevated risk of suicide attempts and deaths. Key aims of the International Society for Bipolar Disorders Task Force on Suicide included examining the extant literature on epidemiology, neurobiology and pharmacotherapy related to suicide attempts and deaths in bipolar disorder. Methods Systematic review of studies from 1 January 1980 to 30 May 2014 examining suicide attempts or deaths in bipolar disorder, with a specific focus on the incidence and characterization of suicide attempts and deaths, genetic and non-genetic biological studies and pharmacotherapy studies specific to bipolar disorder. We conducted pooled, weighted analyses of suicide rates. Results The pooled suicide rate in bipolar disorder is 164 per 100,000 person-years (95% confidence interval = [5, 324]). Sex-specific data on suicide rates identified a 1.7:1 ratio in men compared to women. People with bipolar disorder account for 3.4–14% of all suicide deaths, with self-poisoning and hanging being the most common methods. Epidemiological studies report that 23–26% of people with bipolar disorder attempt suicide, with higher rates in clinical samples. There are numerous genetic associations with suicide attempts and deaths in bipolar disorder, but few replication studies. Data on treatment with lithium or anticonvulsants are strongly suggestive for prevention of suicide attempts and deaths, but additional data are required before relative anti-suicide effects can be confirmed. There were limited data on potential anti-suicide effects of treatment with antipsychotics or antidepressants. Conclusion This analysis identified a lower estimated suicide rate in bipolar disorder than what was previously published. Understanding the overall risk of suicide deaths and attempts, and the most common methods, are important building blocks to greater awareness and improved interventions for suicide prevention in bipolar disorder. Replication of genetic findings and

  19. Fournier gangrene and unexpected death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bury, Danielle; Byard, Roger W

    2012-11-01

    Fournier gangrene represents a rare but progressive perineal infection that may result in rapid death. A 70-year-old man with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus and alcohol abuse is reported who was found unexpectedly dead. He had last been contacted the night before his death. At autopsy, the most striking finding was deep necrotic ulceration of the scrotum with exposure of underlying deep muscles and testicles, with blood cultures positive for Escherichia coli. Death was, therefore, attributed to necrotic ulceration/gangrene of the perineum (Fournier gangrene) that was due to E. coli sepsis with underlying contributing factors of diabetes mellitus and alcoholism. In addition there was morbid obesity (body mass index 46.9), cirrhosis of the liver, and marked focal coronary artery atherosclerosis with significant cardiomegaly. Fournier gangrene may be an extremely aggressive condition that can result in rapid death, as was demonstrated by the rapid progression in the reported case. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  20. High prevalence of unhealthy alcohol use and comparison of self-reported alcohol consumption to phosphatidylethanol among women engaged in sex work and their male clients in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couture, Marie-Claude; Page, Kimberly; Sansothy, Neth; Stein, Ellen; Vun, Mean Chhi; Hahn, Judith A

    2017-01-01

    Background In Cambodia, most of the female sex workers (FSW) work in venues where unhealthy alcohol use is ubiquitous and potentially contributing to the HIV epidemic. However, no accurate data exists. We compare self-reported unhealthy alcohol consumption to a biomarker of alcohol intake in Cambodian FSW and male clients, and determine factors associated with unhealthy alcohol use. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among FSW (n=100) and male clients (n=100) in entertainment and sex work venues in Cambodia. Self-reported unhealthy alcohol use (AUDIT-C) was compared to phosphatidylethanol (PEth) positive (≥50ng/ml), a biomarker of alcohol intake. Sociodemographics data was collected. Correlates of self-reported unhealthy alcohol use and PEth positive were determined. Results The prevalence of PEth positive in FSW was 60.0%. Self-reported unhealthy alcohol consumption was reported by 85.0% of the women. Almost all women (95.0%) testing PEth positive also reported unhealthy alcohol use. Prevalence of unhealthy alcohol consumption (self-report and PEth positive) was higher in FSW working in entertainment establishments compared to other sex work venues (p<0.01). Among male clients, 47.0% reported unhealthy alcohol consumption and 42.0% had a PEth positive. However, only 57.1% of male clients with PEth positive reported unhealthy alcohol use. Conclusions Unhealthy alcohol consumption is prevalent in Cambodian sex work settings. Self-reported unhealthy alcohol use is well reported by FSW, but less by male clients. These findings highlight the urgency of using accurate measures of unhealthy alcohol consumption and integrating this health issue into HIV prevention interventions. PMID:27251102

  1. Patterns of accidental deaths in Kuwait: a retrospective descriptive study from 2003-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kandary, Nadia; Al-Waheeb, Salah

    2015-03-28

    Accidents are a preventable cause of death. Unfortunately it accounts for a large number of deaths in many societies. In Kuwait, road traffic accidents (RTA) is the leading cause of death in young people. The study investigated the patterns of accidental deaths in Kuwait, one of the Gulf States which incorporates a wide variety of multi-ethnic communities. The study was retrospective from 2003-2009. Data of forensic cases were collected from the general department of criminal evidence (GDCE) in the ministry of interior (MOI).We attempted to find out causes of accidental death and the prevelance of each cause. Furthermore, the relationship of demographic factors (eg. Age, sex, marital status and nationality) with each cause of accidental death in Kuwait were studied. The material of this study constituted a total of 4886 reported accidental deaths referred for Medico-legal examination. Road traffic accidents was by far the most prevalent cause of death (64.6%) followed by fall from height (13.1%). Poisoning and mine explosions were amongst the least common causes. The government of Kuwait needs to take strong measures to promote safety in the workplace and households by educational campaigns.

  2. Tracking population health based on self-reported impairments: Trends in the prevalence of hearing loss in US adults, 1976-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Nayu; Murray, Christopher J L; Salomon, Joshua A

    2009-07-01

    Trends in the prevalence of hearing loss among US adults remain ambiguous because of variation across surveys in question wording and limited use of audiometric examinations. Pooling samples of participants aged 20-69 years in 4 nationally representative cross-sectional survey series conducted from 1976 to 2006 (N = 990,609), the authors performed logistic regression to quantify self-reporting biases compared with audiometric measurements. Statistically significant underreporting or overreporting of hearing loss was observed, with various patterns of bias across age groups and surveys. Substantial upward reporting biases appeared among young adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey since 1999 and in the National Health Interview Survey since 1997. Trends in age-standardized prevalence of bilateral hearing loss were estimated with corrections for self-reporting biases. Prevalence in men shifted from 9.6% (95% confidence interval (CI): 7.8, 11.8) in 1978 to 12.2% (95% CI: 10.1, 14.7) in 1993 and declined to 8.1% (95% CI: 7.0, 9.5) in 2000. In women, prevalence was relatively constant at approximately 6%-7% until the early 1990s and decreased from 7.0% (95% CI: 5.5, 9.1) in 1993 to 4.2% (95% CI: 3.4, 5.3) in 2000. Prevalence was stable in both sexes in the early 2000s. This approach to adjust for biases in self-reported impairments by using measured performance may be useful in various health domains.

  3. The role of alcohol in deaths presenting to the coroner's service in Cork City and County.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bellis, M

    2009-01-01

    A retrospective study was conducted in order to determine the prevalence and concentration of alcohol in post-mortem blood samples sent for toxicological analysis in Cork City and County in 2003 and 2004. Post mortem reports of these deaths were reviewed for the presence or absence of alcohol at the time of autopsy, blood alcohol concentration (BAC) at time of death, age and sex of the decedents. Of samples sent for blood alcohol analysis (BAA), 38.4% were positive for alcohol. Significant differences were found between the proportions of alcohol positive cases by cause of death. Alcohol positive cases were significantly younger (44.3 +\\/- 17.8 years) than alcohol negative cases (51.9 +\\/- 19.4 years) and fifty two percent of drivers were positive for alcohol at the time of death. Awareness of the harmful and potentially fatal effects of alcohol should continue to be raised within the community, so as to prevent future fatalities.

  4. Muscle-tendon-related pain in 100 patients with hip dysplasia: prevalence and associations with self-reported hip disability and muscle strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Julie Sandell; Hölmich, Per; Thorborg, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    ) with a mean age of 29 years (SD 9) were included. Clinical entity approach was carried out to identify muscle-tendon-related pain. Associations between muscle-tendon-related pain and self-reported hip disability and muscle strength were tested with multiple regression analysis, including adjustments for age......The primary aim was to identify muscle-tendon-related pain in 100 patients with hip dysplasia. The secondary aim was to test whether muscle-tendon-related pain is associated with self-reported hip disability and muscle strength in patient with hip dysplasia. One hundred patients (17 men...... and gender. Self-reported hip disability was recorded with the Copenhagen Hip and Groin Outcome Score (HAGOS), and muscle strength was assessed with a handheld dynamometer. Iliopsoas- and abductor-related pain were most prevalent with prevalences of 56% (CI 46; 66) and 42% (CI 32; 52), respectively. Adductor...

  5. Muscle-tendon-related pain in 100 patients with hip dysplasia: prevalence and associations with self-reported hip disability and muscle strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Julie Sandell; Hølmich, Per; Thorborg, Kristian

    2018-01-01

    ) with a mean age of 29 years (SD 9) were included. Clinical entity approach was carried out to identify muscle-tendon-related pain. Associations between muscle-tendon-related pain and self-reported hip disability and muscle strength were tested with multiple regression analysis, including adjustments for age......The primary aim was to identify muscle-tendon-related pain in 100 patients with hip dysplasia. The secondary aim was to test whether muscle-tendon-related pain is associated with self-reported hip disability and muscle strength in patient with hip dysplasia. One hundred patients (17 men...... and gender. Self-reported hip disability was recorded with the Copenhagen Hip and Groin Outcome Score (HAGOS), and muscle strength was assessed with a handheld dynamometer. Iliopsoas- and abductor-related pain were most prevalent with prevalences of 56% (CI 46; 66) and 42% (CI 32; 52), respectively. Adductor...

  6. Prevalence of self-reported medical diagnosis of uterine leiomyomas in a Brazilian population: demographic and socioeconomic patterns in the Pro-Saúde Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boclin, Karine de Lima Sírio; Faerstein, Eduardo

    2013-06-01

    Uterine leiomyomas (UL) are considered the most common tumors of the female reproductive system. However, there are few epidemiological studies about this condition in Brazil. To estimate the prevalence of self-reported history of UL according to demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, and to markers of access to health care. We analyzed data from 1,733 university employees who participated at the baseline waves of the Pro-Saude Study (1999-2001), in relation to three outcomes: (1) self-reported medical diagnosis of UL, (2) UL with symptoms prior to diagnosis, and (3) cases with hysterectomy due to UL. Prevalence and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated in relation to strata of variables related to demographic (age, color/race) and socioeconomic characteristics (education, income) and of markers of access to health care (Pap smear, breast clinical exam and private health insurance status). The prevalence of medically-diagnosed UL was 23.3% (95% CI - 21.3, 25.2), the UL with symptoms prior to diagnosis of 13.3% (95% CI - 11.7, 15.0) and hysterectomy due to UL, 8.4% (95% CI - 7.5, 10.3). Among participants younger than 45 years old, higher prevalence was observed among women with worse socioeconomic conditions and of black color/race. Among those with 45 years or more, there was higher prevalence among women with better access to health care. In this study population of Brazilian women, UL is a relevant health problem, and its prevalence and associated socio-demographic gradients are similar to those observed in other countries.

  7. Collecting Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Data in Suicide and Other Violent Deaths: A Step Towards Identifying and Addressing LGBT Mortality Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Ann P; Lane, Andrew

    2015-03-01

    Sexual orientation and gender identity (SO/GI) are not systematically recorded at time of death, limiting identification of mortality disparities in lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people. LGBT populations are thought to have elevated risk of suicide based on high rates of reported lifetime suicide attempts. Lack of data on suicide deaths, however, hinders understanding of the prevalence and patterns of suicide among LGBT populations and development of targeted interventions and prevention programs. This report describes recent efforts to address this knowledge gap by systematically collecting SO/GI information in the investigation of suicide and other violent deaths.

  8. Arrhythmias and sudden death among older children and young adults following tetralogy of Fallot repair in the current era: are previously reported risk factors still applicable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Swati; Kovach, Julie; Singh, Harinder; Karpawich, Peter P

    2014-01-01

    Young adult patients (pts) with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) remain at risk for arrhythmias (Ar) and sudden cardiac death (SCD). Based on past studies with earlier pt subsets, Ar/SCD events were associated with right ventricular (RV) systolic pressures >60 mm Hg, outflow tract gradients >20 mm Hg, and QRS duration >180 ms. However, there are limited recent studies to evaluate these risk factors in the current patient generation. Patients with TOF followed over the past 50 years were grouped by presence of any arrhythmias (group 1), absence of arrhythmias (group 2), and presence of SCD or significant ventricular arrhythmias (group 3) and correlated with current pt age, gender, age at repair, repair types, echocardiogram, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, electrocardiogram/Holter, hemodynamics, and electrophysiology findings. Of 109 pts, 52 were male aged 17-58 years. Of these, 59 (54%) had Ar, two of whom had SCD. These 59 pts were chronologically older at the time of analysis, with repair at an older age and wider QRS duration (78-240, mean 158 ms) when compared with those without Ar. However, there was no correlation with surgical era, surgical repair, gender, RV pressure >60 mm Hg, right ventricular outflow tract gradient >20 mm Hg, or RV end-diastolic volume on CMRI. Ar/SCD risk continues to correlate with repair age and advancing pt age. QRS duration is longer in these patients but at a shorter interval (mean 158 ms) and less RV pressure (mean 43 mm Hg) than previously reported. In the current TOF patient generation, neither surgical era, type of repair, RV outflow gradient nor RV volume correlate with Ar/SCD. Electrophysiologic testing to verify and identify arrhythmias remains clinically effective. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Prevalence of diabetes and impaired fasting glucose in Peru: report from PERUDIAB, a national urban population-based longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seclen, Segundo N; Rosas, Moises E; Arias, Arturo J; Huayta, Ernesto; Medina, Cecilia A

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to estimate the prevalences of diabetes and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) in a national sample in Peru and assess the relationships with selected sociodemographic variables. We estimated prevalence in PERUDIAB study participants, a nationwide, stratified urban and suburban population selected by random cluster sampling. Between 2010 and 2012, questionnaires were completed and blood tests obtained from 1677 adults ≥25 years of age. Known diabetes was defined as participants having been told so by a doctor or nurse and/or receiving insulin or oral antidiabetic agents. Newly diagnosed diabetes was defined as fasting plasma glucose ≥126 mg/dL determined during the study and without a previous diabetes diagnosis. IFG was defined as fasting plasma glucose of 100-125 mg/dL. The estimated national prevalence of diabetes was 7.0% (95% CI 5.3% to 8.7%) and it was 8.4% (95% CI 5.6% to 11.3%) in metropolitan Lima. No gender differences were detected. Known and newly diagnosed diabetes prevalences were estimated as 4.2% and 2.8%, respectively. A logistic regression response surface model showed a complex trend for an increased prevalence of diabetes in middle-aged individuals and in those with no formal education. Diabetes prevalence was higher in coastal (8.2%) than in highlands (4.5%; p=0.03), and jungle (3.5%; pjungle regions (14.9%; p=0.07). This study confirms diabetes as an important public health problem, especially for middle-aged individuals and those with no formal education. 40% of the affected individuals were undiagnosed. The elevated prevalence of IFG shows that nearly a quarter of the adult population of Peru has an increased risk of diabetes.

  10. Trends in adult chlamydia and gonorrhoea prevalence, incidence and urethral discharge case reporting in Mongolia from 1995 to 2016 – estimates using the Spectrum-STI model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badrakh, Jugderjav; Zayasaikhan, Setsen; Jagdagsuren, Davaalkham; Enkhbat, Erdenetungalag; Jadambaa, Narantuya; Munkhbaatar, Sergelen; Taylor, Melanie; Rowley, Jane; Mahiané, Guy

    2017-01-01

    Objective To estimate Mongolia’s prevalence and incidence trends of gonorrhoea and chlamydia in women and men 15–49 years old to inform control of STIs and HIV, a national health sector priority. Methods We applied the Spectrum-STI estimation model, fitting data from two national population surveys (2001 and 2008) and from routine gonorrhoea screening of pregnant women in antenatal care (1997 to 2016) adjusted for diagnostic test performance, male/female differences and missing high-risk populations. Prevalence and incidence estimates were then used to assess completeness of national case reporting. Results Gonorrhoea prevalence was estimated at 3.3% (95% confidence interval, 1.6–3.9%) in women and 2.9% (1.6–4.1%) in men in 2016; chlamydia prevalence levels were 19.5% (17.3–21.9%) and 15.6% (10.0–21.2%), respectively. Corresponding new incident cases in women and men in 2016 totalled 60 334 (36 147 to 121 933) and 76 893 (35 639 to 254 913) for gonorrhoea and 131 306 (84 232 to 254 316) and 148 162 (71 885 to 462 588) for chlamydia. Gonorrhoea and chlamydia prevalence declined by an estimated 33% and 11%, respectively from 2001 to 2016. Comparing numbers of symptomatic and treated cases estimated by Spectrum with gonorrhoea case reports suggests that 15% of symptomatic treated gonorrhoea cases were reported in 2016; only a minority of chlamydia episodes were reported as male urethral discharge cases. Discussion Gonorrhoea and chlamydia prevalence are estimated to have declined in Mongolia during the early 2000s, possibly associated with syndromic management in primary care facilities and improving treatment coverage since 2001 and scale up of HIV/STI prevention interventions since 2003. However, prevalence remains high with most gonorrhoea and chlamydia cases not treated or recorded in the public health system. PMID:29487760

  11. Benefits of implantable defibrillators are overestimated by sudden death rates and better represented by the total arrhythmic death rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S G; Fisher, J D; Furman, S; Gross, J; Zilo, P; Roth, J A; Ferrick, K J; Brodman, R

    1991-06-01

    Benefits of the implantable defibrillator on survival were studied in 56 consecutive patients (concomitant coronary bypass or arrythmia surgery in 15) during an 8 year period between 1982 and 1990. During a follow-up period of 29 +/- 25 months, six patients had a sudden death and eight patients had a nonsudden cardiac death. Nonsudden cardiac deaths included three surgical deaths (death within 30 days after the surgery; two in patients without and one in a patient with concomitant cardiac surgery), one arrhythmia-related nonsudden death (death within 24 h after an arrhythmic event despite initial termination of the arrhythmia by the implantable defibrillators) and four nonarrhythmic cardiac deaths. The actuarial survival rate free of events at 1, 2 and 3 years was 96%, 96% and 92%, respectively, for sudden death, 91%, 91% and 87% for sudden death and surgical mortality and 89%, 89% and 85% for total arrhythmic death (sudden death, surgical mortality and arrhythmia-related nonsudden death). Thus, in patients treated with an implantable defibrillator, 1) the rate of sudden death is low (8% at 3 years); 2) 50% of nonsudden cardiac deaths are causally related to arrhythmia (surgical mortality or arrhythmia-related nonsudden death); 3) the total arrhythmic death rate is substantially higher than the sudden death rate; and 4) benefits of an implantable defibrillator are overestimated by reported sudden death and nonsudden cardiac death rates. The benefits may be better represented by the total arrhythmic death and nonarrhythmic cardiac death rates.

  12. Prevalence of visual impairment and uncorrected refractive error - report from a Canadian urban population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Barbara; Feng, Yunwei; Woods, Craig A; Fonn, Desmond; Gold, Deborah; Gordon, Keith

    2013-06-01

    The prevalence of visual impairment due to uncorrected refractive error has not been previously studied in Canada. A population-based study was conducted in Brantford, Ontario. The target population included all people 40 years of age and older. Study participants were selected using a randomized sampling strategy based on postal codes. Presenting distance and near visual acuities were measured with habitual spectacle correction, if any, in place. Best corrected visual acuities were determined for all participants who had a presenting distance visual acuity of less than 20/25. Population weighted prevalence of distance visual impairment (visual acuity refraction. Population weighted prevalence of near visual impairment (visual acuity refraction. Multivariable adjusted analysis showed that the odds of having distance visual impairment was independently associated with increased age (odds ratio, OR, 3.56, 95% CI 1.22-10.35; ≥65 years compared to those 39-64 years), and time since last eye examination (OR 4.93, 95% CI 1.19-20.32; ≥5 years compared to ≤2 years). The same factors appear to be associated with increased prevalence of near visual impairment but were not statistically significant. The majority of visual impairment found in Brantford was due to uncorrected refractive error. Factors that increased the prevalence of visual impairment were the same for distance and near visual acuity measurements.

  13. Prevalence of Self-Reported Shaking and Smothering and Their Associations with Co-Sleeping among 4-Month-Old Infants in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujiko Yamada

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have investigated the prevalence of shaking and smothering and whether they are associated with co-sleeping. In Japan, co-sleeping is common during infancy and early childhood. This study investigates the prevalence of shaking and smothering and their associations with co-sleeping among 4-month-old infants in Japan. A questionnaire was administered to mothers who participated in a 4-month health checkup program in Kamagaya City in Japan (n = 1307; valid response rate, 82%. The questionnaire investigated the frequency of self-reported shaking and smothering during the past one month, co-sleeping status, and living arrangements with grandparents, in addition to traditional risk factors such as stress due to crying. Associations between co-sleeping and self-reported shaking or smothering were analyzed using multiple logistic regression. The prevalence of self-reported shaking and smothering at least one time during the past one month was 3.4% (95% confidence interval (CI, 2.4%–4.3% and 2.4% (95% CI, 1.5%–3.2%, respectively. Co-sleeping was marginally associated with the amount of crying and not associated with stress due to crying. Further, co-sleeping was not associated with either self-reported shaking or smothering, although stress due to crying showed strong association with shaking and smothering. Co-sleeping was not a risk factor for shaking and smothering.

  14. Causes of death in familial adenomatous polyposis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, T S; Juel, K; Bülow, S

    1999-01-01

    The prognosis in familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) has improved over the past decades owing to a reduction in the prevalence of colorectal cancer, resulting from effective early screening. During the same period several polyposis registers have recorded an increasing number of deaths due to du...... to duodenal/periampullary cancer and desmoid tumours. The aim of this study was to examine the causes of death with special emphasis on duodenal/periampullary cancer....

  15. Collecting Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Data in Suicide and Other Violent Deaths: A Step Towards Identifying and Addressing LGBT Mortality Disparities

    OpenAIRE

    Haas, Ann P.; Lane, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Sexual orientation and gender identity (SO/GI) are not systematically recorded at time of death, limiting identification of mortality disparities in lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people. LGBT populations are thought to have elevated risk of suicide based on high rates of reported lifetime suicide attempts. Lack of data on suicide deaths, however, hinders understanding of the prevalence and patterns of suicide among LGBT populations and development of targeted interventions an...

  16. Prevalence of self-reported stomach symptoms after consuming milk among indigenous Sami and non-Sami in Northern- and Mid-Norway – the SAMINOR study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketil Lenert Hansen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The main purpose of this work was to identify the prevalence of self-reported stomach symptoms after consuming milk among Sami and non-Sami adults. Study design: A cross-sectional population-based study (the SAMINOR study. Data were collected by self-administrated questionnaires. Method: SAMINOR is a population-based study of health and living conditions conducted in 24 municipalities in Northern Norway during 2003 and 2004. The present study included 15,546 individuals aged between 36 and 79, whose ethnicity was categorized as Sami (33.4%, Kven (7.3% and Norwegian majority population (57.2%. Results: Sami respondents had a higher prevalence of self-reported stomach symptoms after consuming milk than the Norwegian majority population. The reporting was highest among Sami females (27.1%. Consumption of milk and dairy products (yoghurt and cheese was high among all the ethnic groups. However, significantly more Sami than non-Sami never (or rarely consume milk or cheese, and individuals who reported stomach symptoms after consuming milk had an significant lower intake of dairy products than those not reporting stomach symptoms after consuming dairy products. Sami reported general abdominal pain more often than the majority population. The adjusted models show a significant effect of Sami ethnicity in both men and women on self-reported stomach symptoms after consuming milk. In females, the odds ratio (OR=1.77 (p=0.001 and in males OR=1.64 (p=0.001. Conclusion: Our study shows that the Sami population reported more stomach symptoms after consuming milk, suggesting a higher prevalence of milk intolerance among the Sami population than the Norwegian majority population.

  17. The use of coroner's autopsy reports to validate the use of targeted swabbing rather than tissue collection for rapid confirmation of virological causes of sudden death in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Catherine; Jones, Rachel

    2015-02-01

    In this study, coroner's autopsy reports were used to validate results obtained from respiratory virus screening of swabs rather than tissue collected during autopsy in cases of adult death of unknown cause. Coroner's autopsy samples collected for respiratory virus screening between October 2010 and February 2011, were identified. Autopsy reports were requested from cases positive for a virus. Each report was reviewed to correlate findings at autopsy with the virology result and to determine whether the virus found was listed as a contributing factor in the death. Sixty-four coroner's autopsy cases were identified and a respiratory virus was found in 25 cases. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus was found most frequently, then RSV and influenza B with a dual influenza A and B infection and a parainfluenza type 1. Where multiple sites were swabbed, the virus was detected in all sites. Autopsy reports for 12 cases were obtained each reporting findings consistent with respiratory infection. Influenza A was always listed as a contributing factor in the death whereas RSV was listed once and influenza B was omitted in one case. The quality of the reports was variable and full histology was less likely to be performed in the elderly. While coroner's reports supported the use of swabbing rather than tissue collection, the lack of consistency and omission of the virology findings as contributing factors to death means that the burden of viruses on mortality statistics will remain under-estimated particularly in the elderly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Correlates of death anxiety in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhail, Kausar; Akram, Saima

    2002-01-01

    To ascertain the effect of gender, age, and religiosity on death anxiety, 132 participants were interviewed using Templer Death Anxiety Scale and Collett-Lester Fear of Death Scale (CLS). Women, older participants, and less religious participants were found to be more scared of their impending death. Gender effect was more pronounced, however, on the CLS. Women and less religious people reported to experience greater anxiety than their respective counterparts about different dimensions of death, for example, the shortness of life, total isolation of death, fear of not being, and disintegration of body after dying. The findings of the current work indicate that the general predictors of death anxiety, gender, age, and religiosity reported in Western, predominantly Christian samples also hold in an Eastern, Muslim sample.

  19. History of maltreatment among unintentional injury deaths: analyses of Texas child fatality review data, 2005-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Sharyn E; Mirchandani, Gita; Rodriguez, Susan; Hellsten, John

    2011-02-01

    This report examines unintentional injury deaths among children with and without a history of child maltreatment. Data are from reviews of 1192 unintentional injury deaths occurring among children in Texas during 2005-2007. The study examined differences in child demographic characteristics, injury mechanism, and supervisor status at time of death between children with and without maltreatment history by using descriptive statistics and χ² tests. Separate analyses compared characteristics of asphyxia, drowning, and poisoning deaths. In 10% of the unintentional injury deaths that were reviewed, the child had a history of maltreatment. The prevalence of a history of maltreatment was highest among black decedents and lowest among white decedents. Prevalence of a history of maltreatment was highest among infant decedents and lowest among youth decedents, ages 10-14 years. Among deaths where there was no maltreatment history, 54% were due to motor vehicle related incidents, whereas 51% of deaths among children with maltreatment history were caused by drowning, asphyxia, and poisoning. Supervisors of child decedents with a history of maltreatment were significantly more likely to have been alcohol impaired (6.9% vs 1.6%; pdeath. Differences between child decedents with and without maltreatment history were observed in infant sleep surface in suffocation deaths, location and barrier type in drowning deaths, and substance type in poisoning deaths. These data show that the mechanisms and circumstances surrounding unintentional injury deaths among children with a history of maltreatment differ from those without a history of maltreatment. This underscores the need for appropriate interventions to prevent unintentional and intentional injuries in families with a history of maltreatment.

  20. Renal disease in adult Nigerians with sickle cell anemia: A report of prevalence, clinical features and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R A Bolarinwa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal abnormalities in adult Nigerians with sickle cell anemia (SCA have not been extensively studied. To determine the prevalence, pattern and the associated risk factors of renal disease, 72 subjects with SCA from two centers in the southwestern Nigeria were investigated. Socio-demographic data, body mass index and clinical findings were documented. The urine analysis, serum bio-chemistry, hemogram and renal factors attributable to SCA were determined. Presence of albuminuria of at least 1+ or microalbuminuria in those negative with dipstick; and the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR using the Cockcroft-Gault formula categorized subjects to various stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD. Subjects with and without albuminuria were compared to determine the relative risk associated with renal disease. Four (5.6% subjects had macro-albuminuria, while 32 (44.4% had micro-albuminuria and 30 (41.7% had hemoglobinuria. In the subjects with albuminuria, age, hematocrit, systolic blood pressure, serum creatinine, urea and creatinine clearance were numerically higher while the eGFR was numerically lower. There was no significant difference in the clinical parameters studied in the two groups of subjects. The diastolic blood pressure was significantly higher in the albuminuric group. Based on eGFR, 22 (30.6% subjects had hyperfiltration (GFR > 140 mL/min/1.73 m2, of whom 36.4% had albuminuria, 18 (25.0% had stage 1 CKD, 30 (41.7% had stage 2 CKD and two (2.7% subjects had stage 3 CKD with albuminuria. None had stage 4 and 5 CKD. We conclude that renal abnormalities, importantly albuminuria, is common in adult Nigerians with SCA and the pattern and incidence are similar to those reported from other parts of the world. Regular blood pressure monitoring, early diagnosis and active intervention are advocated to delay progression to end-stage kidney disease in view of poor outcomes of renal replacement therapy in SCA patients with nephropathy.

  1. Doença de still na gravidez: relato de um caso com óbito neonatal Still's disease in pregnancy: report of a case with neonatal death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Pacheco Ribeiro Cascaes

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A doença de Still do adulto é uma desordem inflamatória sistêmica rara, caracterizada por febre alta, erupção evanescente, poliartrite e leucocitose. A gravidez não é referida como fator de risco para a doença. Os autores relatam um caso iniciado na 30ª semana de gestação, com febre alta, poliartrite, erupção cutânea, mialgia, cefaléia, nódulos subcutâneos em membros inferiores e linfadenopatia cervical. Evoluiu com oligoidrâmnio acentuado e alteração do fluxo fetoplacentário e cerebral fetal, sendo realizada cesárea na 33ª semana de gestação. O recém-nascido teve Apgar de 7/8, peso de 1.500 g, sendo internado em unidade de terapia intensiva com desconforto respiratório, icterícia, exantema, enterocolite necrotizante, entre outras complicações, indo a óbito após 41 dias de internação. A paciente evoluiu com quadros clínico e laboratorial sugestivos de doença de Still do adulto, sendo investigadas outras patologias febris como diagnóstico diferencial. Houve evolução satisfatória com o uso de indometacina, prednisona e metotrexato, estando atualmente em remissão, fazendo uso apenas de metotrexato. A paciente apresentou diagnóstico definitivo para doença de Still do adulto segundo os critérios propostos para a doença e o óbito fetal ocorreu em decorrência da prematuridade e risco infeccioso, fatos que talvez pudessem ter sido minimizados com o diagnóstico materno precoce.The adult-onset Still disease is a rare systemic inflammatory disease characterized by high fever, evanescent eruption, polyarthritis and leukocytosis. Pregnancy is not a risk factor for this disease. The authors report a case which started on the pregnancy's thirtieth week, with high fever, polyarthritis, cutaneous eruption, myalgia, headache, subcutaneous nodules in lower limbs and cervical lymphadenopathy. It evolved to accentuated oligohydramnios and alteration of the fetus-placenta and fetal cerebral flow. A Caesarean section

  2. Prevalence and prevention of cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakumar, Pitchai; Maung-U, Khin; Jagadeesh, Gowraganahalli

    2016-11-01

    Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) have become important causes of mortality on a global scale. According to the report of World Health Organization (WHO), NCDs killed 38 million people (out of 56 million deaths that occurred worldwide) during 2012. Cardiovascular diseases accounted for most NCD deaths (17.5 million NCD deaths), followed by cancers (8.2 million NCD deaths), respiratory diseases (4.0 million NCD deaths) and diabetes mellitus (1.5 million NCD deaths). Globally, the leading cause of death is cardiovascular diseases; their prevalence is incessantly progressing in both developed and developing nations. Diabetic patients with insulin resistance are even at a greater risk of cardiovascular disease. Obesity, high cholesterol, hypertriglyceridemia and elevated blood pressure are mainly considered as major risk factors for diabetic patients afflicted with cardiovascular disease. The present review sheds light on the global incidence of cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. Additionally, measures to be taken to reduce the global encumbrance of cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus are highlighted. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Night terrors and sudden unexplained nocturnal death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melles, R B; Katz, B

    1988-06-01

    A high incidence of sudden unexplained nocturnal deaths has been reported among young Asian males. These deaths are known as Pokkuri in Japan, Bangungut in the Philippines and Sudden Unexplained Nocturnal Death in the United States. Post mortem analysis has demonstrated cardiac conduction defects in many of the victims. Careful review of the terminal events surrounding these deaths suggests that the victims suffered from night terrors. Night terrors are a sleep disorder characterized by vocalization, motor activity, a nonarousable state, and severe autonomic discharge. The proposed recognition of both night terrors and cardiac anomalies in these patients offers a pathophysiologic mechanism for their sudden death.

  4. High prevalence of self-reported symptoms of digital ischemia in elite male volleyball players in the Netherlands: a cross-sectional national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Pol, Daan; Kuijer, P Paul F M; Langenhorst, Ton; Maas, Mario

    2012-10-01

    In the past 3 years, 6 volleyball players with ischemic digits and small microemboli in the digital arteries of the dominant hand presented themselves in our hospital. These complaints were caused by an aneurysmatic dilation of the posterior circumflex humeral artery (PCHA) with distal occlusion and digital emboli in the isolateral limb. All were elite male volleyball players active in the national top league. Little is known about the exact symptoms associated with PCHA pathological lesions with digital emboli (PCHAP with DE) and its prevalence in elite volleyball players. If vascular injury can be identified at an early stage, thromboembolic complications and irreversible damage to the digits might be prevented. To assess the prevalence of symptoms that are consistent with digital ischemia and may be caused by PCHAP with DE in elite male volleyball players in the Netherlands. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. A questionnaire survey was performed among elite volleyball players in the Dutch national top league and the Dutch beach volleyball team. The questionnaire was constructed using literature-based data on symptoms associated with PCHAP with DE, together with data retrieved from medical files. A total of 99 of the 107 athletes participated, with a response rate of 93%. The most frequently reported symptoms associated with PCHAP with DE were cold, blue, or pale digits in the dominant hand during or immediately after practice or competition. The prevalence of these symptoms ranged from 11% to 27%. The prevalence of cold digits during practice and competition was 27%. The prevalence of cold, blue, and pale digits during or immediately after practice and competition was 12%. An unexpectedly high percentage of elite volleyball players reported symptoms that are associated with PCHAP with DE in the dominant hand. Because these athletes are considered potentially at risk for developing critical digital ischemia, further analysis of the presence of digital

  5. Discriminação autorrelatada por adolescentes de uma coorte de nascimentos brasileira: prevalência e associações Self-reported discrimination by adolescents in a Brazilian birth cohort: prevalence and associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Gonçalves

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a prevalência e os fatores associados à discriminação autorrelatada por adolescentes. MÉTODOS: Análise transversal dos adolescentes pertencentes à coorte de nascidos vivos em 1993 na cidade de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Dos 5 249 membros da coorte, foram coletadas informações em 2004 e 2005 sobre discriminação autorrelatada, variáveis sociodemográficas, atributos físicos e estado nutricional em 4 452 adolescentes. Regressão de Poisson foi utilizada nas análises bruta e ajustada para estimar as razões de prevalência (RP. RESULTADOS: A prevalência global de discriminação autorrelatada foi de 16,4%. Na análise ajustada, a discriminação foi mais relatada por meninas (RP = 1,27, IC95%: 1,10 a 1,48; heteroclassificados pretos (RP = 1,28, IC95%: 1,04 a 1,57; pelos mais pobres (RP = 1,58, IC95%: 1,23 a 2,02; os que se perceberam como muito magros ou muito gordos (RP = 1,81 e 1,54, respectivamente, com dificuldades financeiras familiares (RP = 1,76, IC95%: 1,49 a 2,08; que usavam óculos (RP = 1,74, IC95%: 1,45 a 2,10, com autopercepção negativa da aparência dental (RP = 1,58, IC95%: 1,21 a 2,07, com reprovação escolar (RP = 1,23, IC95%: 1,01 a 1,51 ou que participaram em brigas no último ano (RP = 1,62, IC95%: 1,36 a 1,94. A associação entre discriminação e estado nutricional foi diferente conforme o sexo (P de interação = 0,009. Meninos magros relataram maior discriminação, enquanto aqueles com sobrepeso e obesidade apresentaram menor prevalência. Em meninas, a prevalência de discriminação foi maior entre as obesas, sendo esse efeito mais forte entre as ricas do que nas pobres. CONCLUSÕES: A discriminação autorrelatada foi prevalente e desigualmente distribuída na população. Intervenções para reduzir experiências discriminatórias devem ser implementadas em fases iniciais da vida.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of and factors associated with discrimination self-reported

  6. Patient-reported prevalence and symptomatic burden of uterine fibroids among women in the United States: findings from a cross-sectional survey analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuldeore MJ

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mahesh J Fuldeore, Ahmed M Soliman Health Economics and Outcomes Research, AbbVie Inc., North Chicago, IL, US Purpose: To estimate the prevalence of women diagnosed with uterine fibroids and the associated symptom burden in the US.Patients and methods: Responses of women aged 18–54 years, who completed an online survey, were analyzed. Data were weighted based on age, education, race, geographic region, income, and propensity score to derive national estimates of the prevalence of women diagnosed with uterine fibroids and associated symptom burden. Weighted means and percentages were reported. Prevalence across age and ethnic groups was examined. Symptom burden among women with and without uterine fibroids was compared using weighted logistic regressions.Results: Of 59,411 respondents who met study inclusion criteria, 7.7% reported receiving a diagnosis of uterine fibroids. Of these, 5,670 women (1,402 in the uterine fibroid group and 4,268 in the control group were excluded from analysis because they had a hysterectomy. Among the non-hysterectomized study participants, 3,031 self-reported a diagnosis of uterine fibroids (prevalence: 5.8%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.5%–6.1%; prevalence increased as women aged and was greatest in the 50–54 age group (11.4%; 95% CI: 10.4%–12.4%. In addition, prevalence was greater in black vs white women (9.8%; 95% CI: 8.7%–11.0% vs 5.4%; 95% CI: 5.1%–5.7%. A greater percentage of women with uterine fibroids (vs those without experienced severe heavy menstrual bleeding (16.7% vs 7.7%, severe constipation/bloating/diarrhea (7.7% vs 4.7%, severe passage of clots (6.7% vs 2.4%, severe spotting/bleeding between periods (1.7% vs 1.0%, and severe pelvic pressure (1.6% vs 0.6%. Among uterine fibroid patients with these typical uterine fibroid-related symptoms, 56.4%, 32.3%, 26.4%, 25.8%, and 20.4% reported heavy menstrual bleeding, passage of clots, spotting/bleeding between periods, constipation

  7. High Prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni in Six Health Areas of - Kasansa Health Zone, Democratic Republic of the Congo: Short Report.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linsuke, S.; Nundu, S.; Mupoyi, R.; Mukele, R.; Mukunda, F.; Kabongo, M.M.; Inocencio da Luz, R.; Van Geertruyden, J.P.; Van Sprundel, M.; Boelaert, M.; Polman, K.; Lutumba, P.

    2014-01-01

    School-aged children suffer the most from schistosomiasis infection in sub Saharan Africa due to poverty and limited sanitary conditions. Mapping of disease burden is recommended and there is a need of updating prevalence data which is as old as 20 years in the Democratic Republic of Congo. An

  8. Reported Hours of Sleep, Diabetes Prevalence and Glucose Control in Jamaican Adults: Analysis from the Jamaica Lifestyle Survey 2007-2008

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    Chisa G. Cumberbatch

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There are limited data on sleep duration and diabetes from developing countries. We therefore examined the relationship between reported hours of sleep, diabetes prevalence and glucose control in Jamaican adults. Methods. Data on reported hours of sleep and diabetes (based on glucose measurement and medication use from a national survey of 15–74-year-old Jamaicans were analyzed. Results. The 2,432 participants (31% M, Age 42±16 years, BMI 27.6±6.6 kg/m2, diabetes prevalence 12% reported sleeping 8.2±1.8 hours. In men, sleeping less than 6 hours (OR (95% CI = 2.65 (1.09–6.48 or more than 10 hours (OR (95% CI = 4.36 (1.56–12.19 was associated with diabetes when adjusted for age, BMI, and family history of diabetes. In women sleeping less than 6 hours was associated with a reduced likelihood of diabetes after adjusting for the same confounders ((OR (95% CI = 0.43 (0.23–0.78. There was no significant association between sleep and glucose control. Conclusion. Insufficient and excessive sleep was associated with increased diabetes prevalence in Jamaican men but not women.

  9. Corrimento vaginal referido entre gestantes em localidade urbana no Sul do Brasil: prevalência e fatores associados Self-reported vaginal discharge among pregnant women in an urban area in Southern Brazil: prevalence and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia M. V. da Fonseca

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Por intermédio de delineamento transversal, buscou-se determinar a prevalência e identificar fatores associados à ocorrência de corrimento vaginal referido entre gestantes da cidade de Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Utilizando-se de questionário padrão, foram investigadas características sócio-econômicas, demográficas, reprodutivas, condições de moradia, assistência recebida e ocorrência de corrimento vaginal referido entre estas gestantes. Para as comparações entre proporções utilizou-se teste do qui-quadrado e para análise multivariada regressão de Poisson. Dentre as 339 gestantes estudadas, 51,6% referiram corrimento vaginal na gestação. As seguintes variáveis mostraram-se significativamente associadas à ocorrência de corrimento vaginal referido: idade (razão de prevalências: RP= 1,49, estado civil (RP = 1,31, ocorrência de infecção urinária (RP = 1,56, hiperglicemia na gestação atual (RP = 1,48, uso de dispositivo intra-uterino (RP = 2,35, ocorrência prévia de parto prematuro (RP = 1,37 e utilização de anticoncepcional oral como fator de proteção (RP = 0,79. Este estudo mostrou prevalência elevada de corrimento vaginal referido entre as gestantes estudadas e permitiu identificar aquelas com maior risco de adoecer por esta causa, o que pode contribuir para a adoção de medidas preventivas.The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with self-reported vaginal discharge among pregnant women in the city of Rio Grande, South Brazil. Using a cross-sectional design, a standard interview was applied to pregnant women at home by previously trained interviewers, covering the following: demographic, reproductive, and socioeconomic data, household conditions, health care, and illnesses during pregnancy, including vaginal discharge. The chi-square test was used to compare proportions, and Poisson regression was used in the multivariate analysis. Among the 339

  10. New measures to capture end of life concerns in Huntington disease: Meaning and Purpose and Concern with Death and Dying from HDQLIFE (a patient reported outcomes measurement system)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlozzi, N.E.; Downing, N.R.; McCormack, M.K.; Schilling, S.G.; Perlmutter, J.S.; Hahn, E. A.; Lai, J.-S.; Frank, S.; Quaid, K.A.; Paulsen, J. S.; Cella, D.; Goodnight, S.M.; Miner, J.A.; Nance, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Huntington disease (HD) is an incurable terminal disease. Thus, end of life (EOL) concerns are common in these individuals. A quantitative measure of EOL concerns in HD would enable a better understanding of how these concerns impact health-related quality of life. Therefore, we developed new measures of EOL for use in HD. Methods An EOL item pool of 45 items was field tested in 507 individuals with prodromal or manifest HD. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (EFA and CFA, respectively) were conducted to establish unidimensional item pools. Item response theory (IRT) and differential item functioning analyses were applied to the identified unidimensional item pools to select the final items. Results EFA and CFA supported two separate unidimensional sets of items: Concern with Death and Dying (16 items), and Meaning and Purpose (14 items). IRT and DIF supported the retention of 12 Concern with Death and Dying items and 4 Meaning and Purpose items. IRT data supported the development of both a computer adaptive test (CAT) and a 6-item, static short-form for Concern with Death and Dying. Conclusions The HDQLIFE Concern with Death and Dying CAT and corresponding 6-item short form, and the 4-item calibrated HDQLIFE Meaning and Purpose Scale demonstrate excellent psychometric properties. These new measures have the potential to provide clinically meaningful information about end of life preferences and concerns to clinicians and researchers working with individuals with HD. In addition, these measures may also be relevant and useful for other terminal conditions. PMID:27393121

  11. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Self-Reported Smell and Taste Alterations: Results from the 2011–2012 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawal, Shristi; Hoffman, Howard J.; Bainbridge, Kathleen E.; Huedo-Medina, Tania B.

    2016-01-01

    Chemosensory problems challenge health through diminished ability to detect warning odors, consume a healthy diet, and maintain quality of life. We examined the prevalence and associated risk factors of self-reported chemosensory alterations in 3603 community-dwelling adults (aged 40+ years), from the nationally representative, US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011–2012. In this new NHANES component, technicians surveyed adults in the home about perceived smell and taste problems, distortions, and diminished abilities since age 25 (termed “alterations”), and chemosensory-related health risks and behaviors. The prevalence of self-reported smell alteration was 23%, including phantosmia at 6%; taste was 19%, including dysgeusia at 5%. Prevalence rates increased progressively with age, highest in those aged 80+ years (smell, 32%; taste, 27%). In multivariable logistic regression, controlling for sociodemographics, health behaviors, and chemosensory-related conditions, the strongest independent risk factor for smell alteration was sinonasal symptoms (odds ratio [OR] = 2.06; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.63–2.61), followed by heavy drinking, loss of consciousness from head injury, family income ≤110% poverty threshold, and xerostomia. For taste, the strongest risk factor was xerostomia (OR = 2.65; 95% CI: 1.97–3.56), followed by nose/facial injury, lower educational attainment, and fair/poor health. Self-reported chemosensory alterations are prevalent in US adults, supporting increased attention to decreasing their modifiable risks, managing safety/health consequences, and expanding chemosensory screening/testing and treatments. PMID:26487703

  12. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Self-Reported Smell and Taste Alterations: Results from the 2011-2012 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawal, Shristi; Hoffman, Howard J; Bainbridge, Kathleen E; Huedo-Medina, Tania B; Duffy, Valerie B

    2016-01-01

    Chemosensory problems challenge health through diminished ability to detect warning odors, consume a healthy diet, and maintain quality of life. We examined the prevalence and associated risk factors of self-reported chemosensory alterations in 3603 community-dwelling adults (aged 40+ years), from the nationally representative, US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011-2012. In this new NHANES component, technicians surveyed adults in the home about perceived smell and taste problems, distortions, and diminished abilities since age 25 (termed "alterations"), and chemosensory-related health risks and behaviors. The prevalence of self-reported smell alteration was 23%, including phantosmia at 6%; taste was 19%, including dysgeusia at 5%. Prevalence rates increased progressively with age, highest in those aged 80+ years (smell, 32%; taste, 27%). In multivariable logistic regression, controlling for sociodemographics, health behaviors, and chemosensory-related conditions, the strongest independent risk factor for smell alteration was sinonasal symptoms (odds ratio [OR] = 2.06; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.63-2.61), followed by heavy drinking, loss of consciousness from head injury, family income ≤110% poverty threshold, and xerostomia. For taste, the strongest risk factor was xerostomia (OR = 2.65; 95% CI: 1.97-3.56), followed by nose/facial injury, lower educational attainment, and fair/poor health. Self-reported chemosensory alterations are prevalent in US adults, supporting increased attention to decreasing their modifiable risks, managing safety/health consequences, and expanding chemosensory screening/testing and treatments. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Self-Reported Prevalence of Symptomatic Adverse Reactions to Gluten and Adherence to Gluten-Free Diet in an Adult Mexican Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noe Ontiveros

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of symptomatic adverse reactions to gluten and adherence to gluten-free diet in Latin American countries is unknown. These measurements are strongly linked to gluten-related disorders. This work aimed to estimate the prevalence of adverse reactions to oral gluten and the adherence to gluten-free diet in the adult Mexican population. To reach this aim, a self-administered questionnaire was designed and tested for clarity/comprehension and reproducibility. Then, a self-administered questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the Mexican population. The estimated prevalence rates were (95% CI: 11.9% (9.9–13.5 and 7.8 (6.4–9.4 for adverse and recurrent adverse reactions to gluten respectively; adherence to gluten-free diet 3.7% (2.7–4.8, wheat allergy 0.72% (0.38–1.37; celiac disease 0.08% (0.01–0.45, and NCGS 0.97% (0.55–1.68. Estimated pooled prevalence of self-reported physician-diagnosis of gluten-related disorders was 0.88% (0.49–1.5, and 93.3% respondents reported adherence to gluten-free diet without a physician-diagnosis of gluten-related disorders. Symptom comparisons between those who reported recurrent adverse reactions to gluten and other foods showed statistically significant differences for bloating, constipation, and tiredness (p < 0.05. Gluten-related disorders may be underdiagnosed in the Mexican population and most people adhering to a gluten-free diet are doing it without proper diagnostic work-up of these disorders, and probably without medical/dietician advice.

  14. Self-Reported Prevalence of Symptomatic Adverse Reactions to Gluten and Adherence to Gluten-Free Diet in an Adult Mexican Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ontiveros, Noe; López-Gallardo, Jesús A; Vergara-Jiménez, Marcela J; Cabrera-Chávez, Francisco

    2015-07-21

    The prevalence of symptomatic adverse reactions to gluten and adherence to gluten-free diet in Latin American countries is unknown. These measurements are strongly linked to gluten-related disorders. This work aimed to estimate the prevalence of adverse reactions to oral gluten and the adherence to gluten-free diet in the adult Mexican population. To reach this aim, a self-administered questionnaire was designed and tested for clarity/comprehension and reproducibility. Then, a self-administered questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the Mexican population. The estimated prevalence rates were (95% CI): 11.9% (9.9-13.5) and 7.8 (6.4-9.4) for adverse and recurrent adverse reactions to gluten respectively; adherence to gluten-free diet 3.7% (2.7-4.8), wheat allergy 0.72% (0.38-1.37); celiac disease 0.08% (0.01-0.45), and NCGS 0.97% (0.55-1.68). Estimated pooled prevalence of self-reported physician-diagnosis of gluten-related disorders was 0.88% (0.49-1.5), and 93.3% respondents reported adherence to gluten-free diet without a physician-diagnosis of gluten-related disorders. Symptom comparisons between those who reported recurrent adverse reactions to gluten and other foods showed statistically significant differences for bloating, constipation, and tiredness (p Gluten-related disorders may be underdiagnosed in the Mexican population and most people adhering to a gluten-free diet are doing it without proper diagnostic work-up of these disorders, and probably without medical/dietician advice.

  15. Current asthma deaths among adults in Japan

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    Tsugio Nakazawa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent asthma deaths were examined from yearly reports of the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare of Japan and from reports published by the Japan Asthma Death Investigation Committee on 811 deaths over the period 1992–2000. The rate and number of recent asthma deaths in Japan have been decreasing rapidly. Most asthma deaths were of patients aged 70–90 years and there has been a marked trend for increased asthma deaths in the elderly. As for the circumstances surrounding the deaths, sudden death, unstable sudden aggravation and intermittent aggravation were mainly noted. Respiratory infections, fatigue and stress were the major courses of fatal attacks contributing to deaths due to asthma. Many of the patients who died from asthma had been diagnosed as having as moderate to severe asthma and many had non-atopic asthma. There are some reports that suggest that the recent decrease in asthma deaths in Japan is correlated with the use of inhaled cortico- steroids.

  16. Sudden cardiac death in children (1-18 years)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, Bo Gregers; Risgaard, Bjarke; Sadjadieh, Golnaz

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: Hitherto, sudden cardiac death in children (SCDc)-defined as sudden cardiac death (SCD) in the 1-18 years old-has been incompletely described in the general population. Knowledge on incidence rates, causes of death and symptoms prior to death is sparse and has been affected by reporting....... A cardiac disease was known prior to death in 18% of all sudden unexpected death cases. In two-thirds of all sudden unexpected death cases no previous medical history was registered. Causes of death in autopsied cases were cardiac or unknown in 70%. Unexplained deaths, presumed to be a primary cardiac......, and syncope. In total, 61% of SCDc were not known with any prior disease; 23% were known with congenital or other heart disease prior to death. In total, 43 (49%) of all sudden unexpected deaths died of a potential inherited cardiac disease. The incidence rate of sudden unexpected death was 1.5 per 100 000...

  17. Sudden death in eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jáuregui-Garrido B

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Beatriz Jáuregui-Garrido1, Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera2,31Department of Cardiology, University Hospital Virgen del Rocío, 2Behavioral Sciences Institute, 3Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, SpainAbstract: Eating disorders are usually associated with an increased risk of premature death with a wide range of rates and causes of mortality. “Sudden death” has been defined as the abrupt and unexpected occurrence of fatality for which no satisfactory explanation of the cause can be ascertained. In many cases of sudden death, autopsies do not clarify the main cause. Cardiovascular complications are usually involved in these deaths. The purpose of this review was to report an update of the existing literature data on the main findings with respect to sudden death in eating disorders by means of a search conducted in PubMed. The most relevant conclusion of this review seems to be that the main causes of sudden death in eating disorders are those related to cardiovascular complications. The predictive value of the increased QT interval dispersion as a marker of sudden acute ventricular arrhythmia and death has been demonstrated. Eating disorder patients with severe cardiovascular symptoms should be hospitalized. In general, with respect to sudden death in eating disorders, some findings (eg, long-term eating disorders, chronic hypokalemia, chronically low plasma albumin, and QT intervals >600 milliseconds must be taken into account, and it must be highlighted that during refeeding, the adverse effects of hypophosphatemia include cardiac failure. Monitoring vital signs and performing electrocardiograms and serial measurements of plasma potassium are relevant during the treatment of eating disorder patients.Keywords: sudden death, cardiovascular complications, refeeding syndrome, QT interval, hypokalemia

  18. Medication errors among nurses in teaching hospitals in the west of Iran: what we need to know about prevalence, types, and barriers to reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Fathi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES This study aimed to examine the prevalence and types of medication errors (MEs, as well as barriers to reporting MEs, among nurses working in 7 teaching hospitals affiliated with Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in 2016. METHODS A convenience sampling method was used to select the study participants (n=500 nurses. A self-constructed questionnaire was employed to collect information on participants’ socio-demographic characteristics (10 items, their perceptions about the main causes of MEs (31 items, and barriers to reporting MEs to nurse managers (11 items. Data were collected from September 1 to November 30, 2016. Negative binomial regression was used to identify the main predictors of the frequency of MEs among nurses. RESULTS The prevalence of MEs was 17.0% (95% confidence interval, 13.7 to 20.3%. The most common types of MEs were administering medications at the wrong time (24.0%, dosage errors (16.8%, and administering medications to the wrong patient (13.8%. A heavy workload and the type of shift work were considered to be the main causes of MEs by nursing staff. Our findings showed that 45.0% of nurses did not report MEs. A heavy workload due to a high number of patients was the most important reason for not reporting MEs (mean score, 3.57±1.03 among nurses. Being male, having a second unrelated job, and fixed shift work significantly increased MEs among nurses (p=0.001. CONCLUSIONS Our study documented a high prevalence of MEs among nurses in the west of Iran. A heavy workload was considered to be the most important barrier to reporting MEs among nurses. Thus, appropriate strategies (e.g., reducing the nursing staff workload should be developed to address MEs and improve patient safety in hospital settings in Iran.

  19. Medication errors among nurses in teaching hospitals in the west of Iran: what we need to know about prevalence, types, and barriers to reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES This study aimed to examine the prevalence and types of medication errors (MEs), as well as barriers to reporting MEs, among nurses working in 7 teaching hospitals affiliated with Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in 2016. METHODS A convenience sampling method was used to select the study participants (n=500 nurses). A self-constructed questionnaire was employed to collect information on participants’ socio-demographic characteristics (10 items), their perceptions about the main causes of MEs (31 items), and barriers to reporting MEs to nurse managers (11 items). Data were collected from September 1 to November 30, 2016. Negative binomial regression was used to identify the main predictors of the frequency of MEs among nurses. RESULTS The prevalence of MEs was 17.0% (95% confidence interval, 13.7 to 20.3%). The most common types of MEs were administering medications at the wrong time (24.0%), dosage errors (16.8%), and administering medications to the wrong patient (13.8%). A heavy workload and the type of shift work were considered to be the main causes of MEs by nursing staff. Our findings showed that 45.0% of nurses did not report MEs. A heavy workload due to a high number of patients was the most important reason for not reporting MEs (mean score, 3.57±1.03) among nurses. Being male, having a second unrelated job, and fixed shift work significantly increased MEs among nurses (p=0.001). CONCLUSIONS Our study documented a high prevalence of MEs among nurses in the west of Iran. A heavy workload was considered to be the most important barrier to reporting MEs among nurses. Thus, appropriate strategies (e.g., reducing the nursing staff workload) should be developed to address MEs and improve patient safety in hospital settings in Iran. PMID:28774169

  20. Prevalence of extended-spectrum-β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae: first systematic meta-analysis report from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samyyia Abrar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background South-Asia is known as a hub for multidrug-resistant (MDR bacteria. Unfortunately, proper surveillance and documentation of MDR pathogens is lacking in Pakistan. The alarming increase in the prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae is a serious problem. From this perspective, we analysed published data regarding ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in different regions of Pakistan. Methods A meta-analysis was performed to determine the prevalence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Pakistan. A Web-based search was conducted in electronic databases, including PubMed, Scopus and PakMedi Net (for non-indexed Pakistani journals. Articles published (in either indexed or non-indexed journals between January 2002 and July 2016 were included in the study. Relevant data were extracted, and statistical analysis was performed using the Metaprop command of STATA version 14.1. Results A total of 68 studies were identified from the electronic data base search, and 55 of these studies met our inclusion criteria. Pakistan’s overall pooled proportion of ESBL-producers was 0.40 (95% CI: 0.34–0.47. The overall heterogeneity was significant (I2 = 99.75%, p < 0.001, and significant ES = 0 (Z = 18.41, p < 0.001 was found. OXA, SHV, TEM and CTX-M were the most commonly found gene variants for ESBLs in these studies. Conclusion The prevalence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae is high in Pakistan. Little is known about the annual frequency of ESBLs and their prevalence in different provinces of Pakistan. No data are available regarding ESBL frequency in Baluchistan. This underscores an urgent demand for regular surveillance to address this antimicrobial resistance problem. Surveillance to better understand the annual ESBL burden is crucial to improve national and regional guidelines.

  1. Grief after patient death: direct care staff in nursing homes and homecare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerner, Kathrin; Burack, Orah R; Jopp, Daniela S; Mock, Steven E

    2015-02-01

    Patient death is common in long-term care (LTC). Yet, little attention has been paid to how direct care staff members, who provide the bulk of daily LTC, experience patient death and to what extent they are prepared for this experience. To 1) determine how grief symptoms typically reported by bereaved family caregivers are experienced among direct care staff, 2) explore how prepared the staff members were for the death of their patients, and 3) identify characteristics associated with their grief. This was a cross-sectional study of direct care staff experiencing recent patient death. Participants were 140 certified nursing assistants and 80 homecare workers. Standardized assessments and structured questions addressed staff (e.g., preparedness for death), institutional (e.g., support availability), and patient/relational factors (e.g., relationship quality). Data analyses included bivariate group comparisons and hierarchical regression. Grief reactions of staff reflected many of the core grief symptoms reported by bereaved family caregivers in a large-scale caregiving study. Feelings of being "not at all prepared" for the death and struggling with "acceptance of death" were prevalent among the staff. Grief was more intense when staff-patient relationships were closer, care was provided for longer, and staff felt emotionally unprepared for the death. Grief symptoms like those experienced by family caregivers are common among direct care workers after patient death. Increasing preparedness for this experience via better training and support is likely to improve the occupational experience of direct care workers and ultimately allow them to provide better palliative care in nursing homes and homecare. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Growing burden of sepsis-related mortality in northeastern Italy: a multiple causes of death analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedeli, Ugo; Piccinni, Pasquale; Schievano, Elena; Saugo, Mario; Pellizzer, Giampietro

    2016-07-13

    Few population-based data are available on mortality due to sepsis. The aim of the study was to estimate sepsis-related mortality rates and to assess the associated comorbidities. From multiple causes of death data (MCOD) of the Veneto Region (northeastern Italy), all deaths with sepsis mentioned anywhere in the death certificate were retrieved for the period 2008-2013. Among these deaths the prevalence of common chronic comorbidities was investigated, as well as the distribution of the underlying cause of death (UCOD), the single disease selected from all condition mentioned in the certificate and usually tabulated in mortality statistics. Age-standardized mortality rates were computed for sepsis selected as the UCOD, and for sepsis mentioned anywhere in the certificate. Overall 16,906 sepsis-related deaths were tracked. Sepsis was mentioned in 6.3 % of all regional deaths, increasing from 4.9 in 2008 to 7.7 % in 2013. Sepsis was the UCOD in 0.6 % of total deaths in 2008, and in 1.6 % in 2013. Age-standardized mortality rates increased by 45 % for all sepsis-related deaths, and by 140 % for sepsis as the UCOD. Sepsis was often reported in the presence of chronic comorbidities, especially neoplasms, diabetes, circulatory diseases, and dementia. Respiratory tract and intra-abdominal infections were the most frequently associated sites of infection. MCOD analyses provide an estimate of the burden of sepsis-related mortality. MCOD data suggest an increasing importance attributed to sepsis by certifying physicians, but also a real increase in mortality rates, thus confirming trends reported in some other countries by analyses of hospital discharge records.

  3. High prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni in six health areas of - Kasansa health zone, Democratic Republic of the Congo: short report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Linsuke

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available School-aged children suffer the most from schistosomiasis infection in sub Saharan Africa due to poverty and limited sanitary conditions. Mapping of disease burden is recommended and there is a need of updating prevalence data which is as old as 20 years in the Democratic Republic of Congo. An epidemiological and parasitological study was carried out in 2011 in the health zone of Kasansa. Six health areas (HA were included in the study. In each health area, one primary school was selected. School-aged children were screened for S. mansoni infection using parallel Kato-Katz and direct microscopy techniques. A total of 335 school-aged children were screened. The average prevalence was 82.7% and ranged between 59.5-94.9%. Four of the six HAs had a prevalence level over 91%. Of all infected children, about half 112 (43.2% had light parasite density. These results demonstrate that Schistosoma mansoni infection is a bigger problem than anticipated and there is an urgent need to implement effective control measures.

  4. Long-term outcomes of war-related death of family members in Kosovar civilian war survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morina, Nexhmedin; Reschke, Konrad; Hofmann, Stefan G

    2011-04-01

    Exposure to war-related experiences can comprise a broad variety of experiences and the very nature of certain war-related events has generally been neglected. To examine the long-term outcomes of war-related death of family members, the authors investigated the prevalence rates of major depressive episode (MDE), anxiety disorders, and quality of life among civilian war survivors with or without war-related death of first-degree family members 9 years after the war in Kosovo. Compared to participants without war-related death of family members, those who had experienced such loss had signficantly higher prevalence rates of MDE, posttraumatic stress disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder, and reported a lower quality of life 9 years after the war. These results indicate that bereaved civilian survivors of war experience significant mental health problems many years after the war.

  5. Preventing Stroke Deaths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... die within minutes. Strokes happen more in some populations and geographic areas. Stroke death declines have stalled in 3 out of every 4 states. Blacks have the highest stroke death rates among all ...

  6. National Death Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Death Index (NDI) is a centralized database of death record information on file in state vital statistics offices. Working with these state offices, the...

  7. God's dominion over death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulling, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    This article briefly overviews the criteria for and physiological process of death, contrasting physical death with biblical passages revealing how God interceded in this universal process when Jesus was on earth.

  8. Gestational diabetes mellitus prevalence in Maela refugee camp on the Thai–Myanmar Border: a clinical report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Ellen Gilder

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Individuals in conflict-affected areas rarely get appropriate care for chronic or non-infectious diseases. The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is increasing worldwide, and new evidence shows conclusively that the negative effects of hyperglycemia occur even at mild glucose elevations and that these negative effects can be attenuated by treatment. Scientific literature on gestational diabetes in refugee camp settings is critically limited. Methods: A 75 g 2-hour glucose tolerance test was administered to 228 women attending the antenatal care (ANC clinic in Maela refugee camp on the Thai–Myanmar border. Prevalence of GDM was determined using the HAPO trial cut-offs [≥92 mg/dL (fasting,≥180 (1 hour, and≥153 (2 hour] and the WHO criteria [≥126 mg/dL (fasting, and 140 mg/dL (2 hour]. Results: From July 2011 to March 2012, the prevalence of GDM was 10.1% [95% confidence interval (CI: 6.2–14.0] when the cut-off determined by the HAPO trial was applied. Applying the older WHO criteria yielded a prevalence of 6.6% (95% CI 3.3–9.8. Age, parity, and BMI emerged as characteristics that may be significantly associated with GDM in this population. Other risk factors that are commonly used in screening guidelines were not applicable in this diabetes-naïve population. Discussion: The prevalence of GDM is lower in this population compared with other populations, but still complicates 10% of pregnancies. New evidence regarding gestational diabetes raises new dilemmas for healthcare providers in resource-poor settings. Efforts to identify and treat patients at risk for adverse outcomes need to be balanced with awareness of the risks and burdens associated with over diagnosis and unnecessary interventions. Screening approaches based on risk factors or using higher cut-off values may help minimize this burden and identify those most likely to benefit from intervention.

  9. Self-reported arm-lymphedema and functional impairment after breast cancer treatment--a nationwide study of prevalence and associated factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gärtner, Rune; Jensen, Maj-Britt; Kronborg, Lise

    2010-01-01

    Lymphedema and impairment of function are well-established sequelae to breast cancer treatment and affect an increasing number of women due to continually improved survival. The aim of the present nationwide questionnaire study was to examine the impact of breast cancer treatment on perceived....../heaviness varied from 13 to 65%. Associated factors were young age, axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) and radiotherapy but not type of breast surgery or use of chemotherapy. Depending on treatment group 11-44% had to give up activities. Giving up activities was associated with pain and swelling...... swelling/sensation of heaviness (lymphedema) and on function, reporting prevalence in 12 subgroups of modern treatment and offering estimates for treatment-related associated factors. 3253 Women (87%) returned the study questionnaire. Depending on treatment group prevalence of perceived swelling...

  10. Sudden death victims

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ceelen, Manon; van der Werf, Christian; Hendrix, Anneke; Naujocks, Tatjana; Woonink, Frits; de Vries, Philip; van der Wal, Allard; Das, Kees

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to ascertain accordance between cause of death established by the forensic physician and autopsy results in young sudden death victims in the Netherlands. Sudden death victims aged 1-45 years examined by forensic physicians operating in the participating regions which also

  11. Separation, Part I: Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Anne Devereaux

    1997-01-01

    Contends literature is the one place where death still abides, where grief is felt and consolation can be sought. States that young readers can gain a recognition in books that death is natural. Discusses death in folk and fairy tales, in 17th-century didactic children's books and in modern and contemporary literature. Outlines characteristics of…

  12. Sudden unexpected death caused by stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ågesen, Frederik Nybye; Risgaard, Bjarke; Zachariasardóttir, Sára

    2018-01-01

    Background Stroke is the fifth leading cause of death in young individuals globally. Data on the burden of sudden death by stroke are sparse in the young. Aims The aim of this study was to report mortality rates, cause of death, stroke subtype, and symptoms in children and young adults who suffered...... contacted the healthcare system because of neurological symptoms, whereof one was suspected of having a stroke (6%). Conclusions Sudden death by stroke in children and young adults occurs primarily due to hemorrhagic stroke. We report a high frequency of neurological symptoms prior to sudden death by stroke....... Increased awareness among healthcare professionals towards stroke symptoms in children and young adults may lead to earlier detection of stroke, and thereby potentially lowering the incidence of sudden death by stroke....

  13. Unpredicted Sudden Death due to Recurrent Infratentorial Hemangiopericytoma Presenting as Massive Intratumoral Hemorrhage: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihide Tanaka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Unpredicted sudden death arising from hemangiopericytoma with massive intracranial hemorrhage is quite rare. We encountered a patient with recurrent infratentorial hemangiopericytoma presenting as life-threatening massive intracerebral hemorrhage. A 43-year-old man who had undergone craniotomy for total resection of an infratentorial hemangiopericytoma 17 months earlier presented with morning headache and generalized convulsions. Computed tomography revealed a massive hematoma in the right infratentorial region causing tonsillar herniation and emergency surgery was performed to evacuate the hematoma. Histological findings revealed hemangiopericytoma with hemorrhage. Neurological status remained unimproved and brain death was confirmed postoperatively. Hemangiopericytoma presenting as massive hemorrhage is quite rare. Since the risk of life-threatening massive hemorrhage should be considered, careful postoperative long-term follow-up is very important to identify tumor recurrences, particularly in the posterior cranial fossa, even if the tumor is completely removed.

  14. [Smuggling of the cocaine in the gastrointestinal tract ended in sudden death--the first case report from the Upper Silesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celiński, Rafał; Jabłoński, Christian; Skowronek, Rafał; Korczyńska, Małgorzata; Kulikowska, Joanna; Nowicka, Joanna; Chowaniec, Czesław; Uttecht-Pudełko, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Fifty-year old man was found dead in the bathroom of his apartment. Forensic autopsy was ordered to determine the cause and manner of death. Autopsy revealed the presence of 55 latex "balls" in the stomach and foregut. In the past the victim was suspected of drug's dealing and smuggling. The content of "balls" and biological material (blood, urine, bloody fluid from internal organs) were analysed with LC MS/MS in the Chair and Department of Forensic Medicine and Forensic Toxicology, Medical University of Silesia in Katowice. The range of cocaine' concentration in the "balls" was 91.2-96.1%, whereas concentration in blood - 107.50 microg/ml, in urine - 284.60 microg/ml and in bloody fluid - 192.30 microg/ml. The cause of death was acute cocaine intoxication.

  15. Physical Death in the Digital Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotved, Stine

    2016-01-01

    the physical death of an individual), the digital possibilities in the different stages are presented. They range from the need for being prepared to the intricate questions of digital assets and inheritance, from the service of online undertakers to the shared memorials on social network sites. The truely...... cross-disciplinary research into death online is in the process of assembling as a field, thus reporting from the diverse and dynamic activity surrounding the physical death in the digital age....

  16. Prevalence of smoking in northwest Iran: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Moosazadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco addiction is a major cause of preventable death worldwide. Thus, efforts to eliminate its use have the potential of producing significant health benefits. The purpose of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis to estimate the prevalence of cigarette smoking among people in the age range of 15 to 64. The specific objective of this meta-analysis was to provide valid data that policy makers can use to make evidence-based decisions. Methods: To determine the prevalence of smoking among the adult population in northwest Iran, we used reports published by the surveillance system used to assess the risk factors for non-communicable diseases in different provinces in northwest Iran for the years 2004 and 2006-2009. Several variables were extracted, including the years of study, gender, ages, and smoking prevalence. Based on the heterogeneity of the results, we used fixed or random effects models to estimate the overall prevalence of cigarette smoking. The analyses were performed using Stata 11 software. Results: A total of 28,436 subjects (14,248 males and 14,188 females in five age groups, i.e., 15-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-54, and 55-64, were interviewed. Meta-analysis in men showed that, across the age groups, the lowest prevalence was 22.9%, the highest prevalence was 26.5%, and the average prevalence was 24.7%. Among women, the lowest prevalence was 0.3%, the highest prevalence was 0.8%, and the average prevalence was 0.5%. Conclusion: We found that approximately one-fourth of males in the age range of 15-64 in northwest Iran smoked cigarettes daily. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct effective interventions to reduce the prevalence of addiction to tobacco in this area.

  17. Reported versus measured body weight and height of 4-year-old children and the prevalence of overweight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Salome; Brunekreef, Bert; Visscher, Tommy L. S.; Smit, Henriette A.; Kerkhof, Marjan; de Jongste, Johan C.; Gerritsen, Jorrit; Wijga, Alet H.

    Background: In adults, body weight tends to be underestimated when based on self-reported data. Whether this discrepancy between measured and reported data exists in healthy young children is unclear. We studied whether parental reported body weight and height of 4-year-old children corresponded

  18. Reported versus measured body weight and height of 4-year-old children and the prevalence of overweight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, S.; Brunekreef, B.; Visscher, T.L.S.; Smit, H.A.; van de Kerkhof, M.; de Jongste, J.C.; Gerritsen, J.; Wijga, A.H.

    2007-01-01

    Background: In adults, body weight tends to be underestimated when based on self-reported data. Whether this discrepancy between measured and reported data exists in healthy young children is unclear. We studied whether parental reported body weight and height of 4-year-old children corresponded

  19. Eyelid closure at death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A D Macleod

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To observe the incidence of full or partial eyelid closure at death. Materials and Methods: The presence of ptosis was recorded in 100 consecutive hospice patient deaths. Results: Majority (63% of the patients died with their eyes fully closed, however, 37% had bilateral ptosis at death, with incomplete eye closure. In this study, central nervous system tumor involvement and/or acute hepatic encephalopathy appeared to be pre-mortem risk factors of bilateral ptosis at death. Conclusion: Organicity and not psychogenicity is, therefore, the likely etiology of failure of full eyelid closure at death.

  20. Prevalence of eating disorders in males: a review of rates reported in academic research and UK mass media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeting, Helen; Walker, Laura; MacLean, Alice; Patterson, Chris; Räisänen, Ulla; Hunt, Kate

    Media presentations of health issues affect evaluations of personal susceptibility to particular illnesses and hence help-seeking behaviours. We examined data on prevalence of eating disorders (EDs - which are often characterised as 'female') among males in: scientific literature; readily-accessible web-based information; and UK newspaper articles (published 7/12/2002-7/12/2012). This revealed conflicting statistics. Academic papers suggest men comprise around 25% of community-based samples, but much lower proportions (10% or less) of clinic samples. Websites and newspapers present widely differing statistics both on prevalence overall (numbers with EDs in the UK ranged from 60,000 to 2.7 million), and in men (generally suggesting they constituted 10-25% of those with EDs), rarely distinguishing between diagnosed and non-diagnosed samples. By 2011, newspapers were more consistent on overall numbers with EDs in the UK (1.6 million) and the proportion who were men (20%), drawing on one website as the authoritative source. Conflicting statistics may confuse men searching for ED (or other) health-related information, lead to underestimations of male susceptibility to EDs and/or reinforce inappropriate stereotypes of EDs as confined to adolescent girls.

  1. Prevalence of eating disorders in males: a review of rates reported in academic research and UK mass media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeting, Helen; Walker, Laura; MacLean, Alice; Patterson, Chris; Räisänen, Ulla; Hunt, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Media presentations of health issues affect evaluations of personal susceptibility to particular illnesses and hence help-seeking behaviours. We examined data on prevalence of eating disorders (EDs – which are often characterised as ‘female’) among males in: scientific literature; readily-accessible web-based information; and UK newspaper articles (published 7/12/2002-7/12/2012). This revealed conflicting statistics. Academic papers suggest men comprise around 25% of community-based samples, but much lower proportions (10% or less) of clinic samples. Websites and newspapers present widely differing statistics both on prevalence overall (numbers with EDs in the UK ranged from 60,000 to 2.7 million), and in men (generally suggesting they constituted 10-25% of those with EDs), rarely distinguishing between diagnosed and non-diagnosed samples. By 2011, newspapers were more consistent on overall numbers with EDs in the UK (1.6 million) and the proportion who were men (20%), drawing on one website as the authoritative source. Conflicting statistics may confuse men searching for ED (or other) health-related information, lead to underestimations of male susceptibility to EDs and/or reinforce inappropriate stereotypes of EDs as confined to adolescent girls. PMID:26290657

  2. Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy in Urban Slums: The Aditya Jyot Diabetic Retinopathy in Urban Mumbai Slums Study-Report 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunita, Mohan; Singh, Arvind Kumar; Rogye, Ashwini; Sonawane, Manish; Gaonkar, Ravina; Srinivasan, Radhika; Natarajan, Sundaram; Stevens, Fred C J; Scherpbier, A J J A; Kumaramanickavel, Govindasamy; McCarty, Catherine

    2017-10-01

    The aims of the study were to estimate the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and enumerate history-based risk factors in the urban slums of Western India. The population-based study was conducted in seven wards of Mumbai urban slums, where we screened 6569 subjects of ≥ 40 years age, with a response rate of 98.4%, for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) based on American Diabetes Association criteria. All subjects with T2DM underwent dilated 30° seven-field stereo-fundus-photography for DR severity grading based on modified Airlie House classification. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess the correlation of DR with the history-based risk factors. The prevalence of DR in the general population of Mumbai urban slums was 1.41% (95% CI 0.59-2.23) and in the T2DM population it was 15.37% (95% CI 8.87-21.87). The positive associations with DR were the longer duration of DM (≥ 11 years: OR, 12.77; 95% CI 2.93-55.61) and male gender (OR, 2.05; 95% CI 1.08-3.89); increasing severity of retinopathy was also significantly associated with longer duration of DM (p Mumbai urban slums. Duration of DM and male gender were significantly associated with DR. The slums in Western India show the trends of urban lifestyle influences similar to the rest of urban India.

  3. Prevalence of streptococcus group B in tracheal tube secretions of neonates with respiratory distress: a brief report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosravi N

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infection with group B streptococcus (GBS can present with respiratory distress, Pneumonia, meningitis and Osteomyelitis in neonates. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of GBS colonization in trachea of intubated neonates.Methods: This observational analytic study was performed upon 33 intubated neonates due to respiratory distress in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU Rasoul Hospital in Tehran, Iran during 2010-2012. Tracheal secretions cultured upon TODD-HEWITT BROTH and sheep blood agar 5%., chi-square test was used for compare the qualitative variables. P<0.05 was considered meaningful.Results: Three cases had positive streptococcal culture (9.1% and four cases had posi-tive culture for non-streptococcal organisms. no meaningful relation observed between positive GBS culture and neonatal gender, kind of delivery, PROM.Conclusion: Prevalence of GBS positive results (9% in present study is very close to GBS colonization in pregnant women; although the higher colonization rate of pregnant women are expected.

  4. The first report of ovine cerebral neosporosis and evaluation of Neospora caninum prevalence in sheep in New South Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Stephanie; King, Jessica; Windsor, Peter; Reichel, Michael P; Ellis, John; Slapeta, Jan

    2010-05-28

    Presence of Neospora caninum DNA was detected in the brain and spinal cord of an adult Merino sheep suspected of dying with acute non-suppurative meningoencephalitis and mild to moderate non-suppurative myelitis. The most severe neurological lesions were found in the midbrain at the rostral coliculi with moderate to severe multifocal vasculitis and gliosis. As this was the first known occurrence of cerebral disease in sheep in Australia caused by N. caninum, we surveyed sera from five sheep properties in New South Wales (NSW) to obtain information on the likely prevalence of N. caninum infection in NSW sheep flocks. Serology using a commercial indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) revealed no N. caninum antibody-positive sheep (n=184). However an observed prevalence for N. caninum antibodies using a commercially available competitive ELISA was 2.2% (5/232). We conclude that although the diagnosis of fatal ovine cerebral neosporosis is of importance to our surveillance program for transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) exclusion, sheep in NSW are not commonly infected with N. caninum and this species likely plays only a minor role in the life cycle of this parasite in Australia. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Muscle-tendon-related pain in 100 patients with hip dysplasia: prevalence and associations with self-reported hip disability and muscle strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Julie Sandell

    dysplasia. The secondary aim was to test if muscle-tendon related pain is linearly associated to self-reported hip disability and muscle strength in patients with hip dysplasia. Materials and methods One hundred patients (17 men) with a mean age of 29+9 years were included. Clinical entity approach...... was carried out to identify muscle-tendon related pain. Muscle strength was assessed with a handheld dynamometer and self-reported hip disability was recorded with the Copenhagen Hip and Groin Outcome Score (HAGOS). Results Iliopsoas- and abductor-related pain were frequently identified with prevalences of 56......% (CI 46; 66) and 42% (CI 32; 52), respectively. Adductor-, hamstrings- and rectus abdominis-related pain were less common. There was a significant inverse linear association between muscle-tendon related pain and self-reported hip disability ranging from -3.35 to -7.51 points in the adjusted analysis...

  6. Muscle-tendon related pain in 100 patients with hip dysplasia: prevalence and associations with self-reported hip disability and muscle strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Julie Sandell

    2017-01-01

    dysplasia. The secondary aim was to test if muscle-tendon related pain is linearly associated to self-reported hip disability and muscle strength in patients with hip dysplasia. Materials and methods One hundred patients (17 men) with a mean age of 29+9 years were included. Clinical entity approach...... was carried out to identify muscle-tendon related pain. Muscle strength was assessed with a handheld dynamometer and self-reported hip disability was recorded with the Copenhagen Hip and Groin Outcome Score (HAGOS). Results Iliopsoas- and abductor-related pain were frequently identified with prevalences of 56......% (CI 46; 66) and 42% (CI 32; 52), respectively. Adductor-, hamstrings- and rectus abdominis-related pain were less common. There was a significant inverse linear association between muscle-tendon related pain and self-reported hip disability ranging from -3.35 to -7.51 points in the adjusted analysis...

  7. Worldwide prevalence of hypospadias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, A; van den Heijkant, M; Baumann, S

    2016-06-01

    Hypospadias is a common congenital malformation. Surgical repair and management of the long-term consequences require a substantial amount of socioeconomic resources. It is generally accepted that genetic and environmental factors play a major role in the etiology of hypospadias. There have been contradictory reports on rising hypospadias rates, and regional and ethnical differences. The exact prevalence of hypospadias is of major interest for healthcare providers, clinical medicine, and research. To review the literature regarding the worldwide prevalence of hypospadias. Pubmed, EMBASE and Google were systematically screened for: hypospadias, congenital malformation, anomaly, incidence, prevalence, and epidemiology. Exclusion criteria were surgical and risk-factor studies. To give an additional comprehensive overview, prevalence data were harvested from the Annual Report of the International Clearinghouse Centre for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research. Prevalence was reported as per 10,000 live births. Data were available from 1910 to 2013. The median study period was 9 years (range: 1-36 years). Approximately 90,255,200 births have been screened in all studies. The mean prevalence were: Europe 19.9 (range: 1-464), North America 34.2 (6-129.8), South America 5.2 (2.8-110), Asia 0.6-69, Africa 5.9 (1.9-110), and Australia 17.1-34.8. There were major geographical, regional, and ethnical differences, with an extreme heterogeneity of published studies. Numerous studies showed an increasing prevalence; on the other hand, there were a lot of contradictory data on the prevalence of hypospadias. The summary table shows contradictory data from the five largest international studies available. There was huge literature available on the prevalence of hypospadias. Most data derived from Europe and North America. Many methodological factors influenced the calculation of an accurate prevalence, and even more of the true changes in prevalence over time (no generally accepted

  8. Self-reported prevalence and health correlates of functional limitation among Massachusetts elderly Puerto Ricans, Dominicans, and non-Hispanic white neighborhood comparison group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, K L; Falcon, L M; Bianchi, L A; Cacho, E; Bermudez, O I

    2000-02-01

    Limited data suggest that Puerto Ricans experience greater disability than other ethnic groups, but few studies have examined the factors associated with this apparent difference. We describe the prevalence of functional limitation and disability in a representative sample of Puerto Rican and Dominican elders in Massachusetts, and in a neighborhood comparison group of non-Hispanic whites (NHWs). We then relate disability scores, based on both prevalence and severity of ADL or IADL limitation, with self-reported history of diagnosed health conditions--adjusting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI; weight kg/height m(2)), income, education, living alone, smoking, and alcohol use. Seventy-five percent of Dominican women and 73% of Puerto Rican women reported difficulty with at least one ADL, compared with 64% of NHW women. Puerto Rican men reported significantly more limitation than did NHW or Dominican men. Conditions significantly associated with at least two disability measures among the NHW included smoking, former heavy alcohol use, arthritis, cataract, respiratory disease, and high BMI, but not stroke, diabetes, history of heart attack, or depression. The patterns for Puerto Ricans differed, with the strongest associations between disability and stroke, arthritis, diabetes, and depression, followed by history of heart attack, high BMI, cataract, poverty status, and respiratory disease. Only arthritis and depression were consistently significantly associated with disability among this smaller sample of Dominican elders. Functional limitation and disability are more prevalent among Puerto Ricans and among Dominican women than among neighborhood NHWs in Massachusetts. Greater disability is associated with the presence of chronic health conditions, which differ by ethnic group. Additional research is needed to further define the social and health factors that contribute to these ethnic differences.

  9. Prevalence of COPD in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Peder; Løkke, Anders; Marott, Jacob Louis

    2011-01-01

    COPD is a leading cause of death worldwide; however, prevalence estimates have varied considerably in previous studies. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and severity of COPD in Copenhagen using data from the 4th examination of The Copenhagen City Heart Study, to investigate...... the relationship between tobacco consumption and COPD, and to characterize the subjects with COPD with regard to BMI, dyspnoea, treatment with respiratory medication and co-morbidities....

  10. Self-reported prevalence of pests in Dutch households and the use of the health belief model to explore householders' intentions to engage in pest control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan A Lipman

    Full Text Available Pests in the home are a health risk because they can be vectors for infectious disease, contribute to allergies and cause damage to buildings. The aims of this study were to record which categories of pests were reported in homes and to use a social cognition model, the health belief model, to investigate which psychological factors influence householders' intentions to control pests. An online questionnaire was completed by 413 respondents between 11 September and 31 November 2015. A large majority of respondents reported pests in or around their home within the previous year. The prevalences were: flying insects 98%, crawling insects 85%, rodents 62%, birds 58%, and moles 20%. Regression analysis for the health belief model revealed that perceiving greater benefits and fewer barriers to pest control and expecting severe consequences of zoonotic infections predicted higher intention to control pests. Intentions towards pest control were not influenced by perceiving oneself as susceptible to catching a disease from pests or health motivation (striving towards a healthy lifestyle. Intentions to engage in pest control were lower for households reporting bird prevalence. The findings suggest that interventions aimed at improving the effectiveness of domestic pest control should focus on increasing the benefits that individuals associate with effective pest control, lowering barriers, and on underlining the severity of the diseases that pests may carry.

  11. Prevalence and Reporting of Needle Stick Injuries: A Survey of Surgery Team Members in Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatony, Alireza; Abdi, Alireza; Jafari, Faranak; Vafaei, Kamran

    2015-08-19

    Surgeons are one of the groups, most highly exposed to the risk of needle stick injuries at work. The present study aims to determine the prevalence and reporting of needle stick injuries during the first 6 months of 2012, in faculty surgeons affiliated to the Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences. In a cross-sectional descriptive-analytical survey, 29 surgeons were studied based on the census method. A reliable and valid questionnaire was used as a research instrument to collect the data. Data was analyzed using SPSS v.16 and based on descriptive and inferential statistics. Among 29 recruited surgeons, 5 (17.2%) had needle stick injuries during the 6 months, only one of whom had followed the established guidelines about reporting and following treatment. The most common instrument causing injury was the suture needle (60%). Significant differences were found in both groups of the injured and non-injured in term of gender (X(2)=5.612, P= 0.003), and number of patients (Z= 2.40, P=0.016) and daily working hours (Z=2.85, P=0.04). In relation to the relatively high prevalence of needle stick injuries among the surgeons and their lack of reporting, it is suggested that the Safety Guidelines in the operating room are carefully observed. Moreover, safer and lower risk surgical Instruments should be used.

  12. Self-reported prevalence of pests in Dutch households and the use of the health belief model to explore householders' intentions to engage in pest control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, Stefan A; Burt, Sara A

    2017-01-01

    Pests in the home are a health risk because they can be vectors for infectious disease, contribute to allergies and cause damage to buildings. The aims of this study were to record which categories of pests were reported in homes and to use a social cognition model, the health belief model, to investigate which psychological factors influence householders' intentions to control pests. An online questionnaire was completed by 413 respondents between 11 September and 31 November 2015. A large majority of respondents reported pests in or around their home within the previous year. The prevalences were: flying insects 98%, crawling insects 85%, rodents 62%, birds 58%, and moles 20%. Regression analysis for the health belief model revealed that perceiving greater benefits and fewer barriers to pest control and expecting severe consequences of zoonotic infections predicted higher intention to control pests. Intentions towards pest control were not influenced by perceiving oneself as susceptible to catching a disease from pests or health motivation (striving towards a healthy lifestyle). Intentions to engage in pest control were lower for households reporting bird prevalence. The findings suggest that interventions aimed at improving the effectiveness of domestic pest control should focus on increasing the benefits that individuals associate with effective pest control, lowering barriers, and on underlining the severity of the diseases that pests may carry.

  13. Prevalence study of oral mucosal lesions, mucosal variants, and treatment required for patients reporting to a dental school in North India: In accordance with WHO guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Bhatnagar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions (OML in adult patients reporting to the dental outpatient department at the Institute of Dental Studies and Technologies, Modinagar, Uttar Pradesh, India. The purpose was to determine the priorities in oral health education, preventive measures, and identify the group in urgent need of treatment. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted over a period of 6 months in 2010, when 8866 subjects were offered structured interviews and standardized extraoral and intraoral examinations according to the World Health Organization (WHO guidelines . Result: Overall prevalence of OML was 1736 (16.8%, the most prevalent being smoker′s palate (10.44% followed by leukoplakia (2.83%, oral submucous fibrosis (1.97%, oral candidiasis (1.61%, recurrent aphthous stomatitis (1.53%, oral lichen planus (0.8% and others (0.78%. The highest prevalence of the tobacco habit in both forms was recorded in the group aged 40-44 yearsand those aged between 60 and 64 years who wore dentures. Lesions were most prevalent in those aged 40-44 years with a significant predominance of males at 3:1 (M = 12.6% and F = 4.3%. Patients who consumed tobacco in any form or wore dentures had a significantly higher prevalence of OML (P < 0.001. The highest number of lesions were on the palate (59.7% followed by buccal mucosa (19.9%. Various normal mucosal variants were recorded. Fordyce′s granules (0.13%, fissured tongue (3.3%, leukoedema (1.47%, and lingual varices (2.73% were also recorded. The tongue showed the highest number of variants (64.4%. Patients were grouped according to the treatment needed under the WHO criteria. One hundred and ninety-seven patients were given oral hygiene instructions only, whereas 1422 patients were advised on change of habit and a follow-up and 674 patients needed definitive treatment. Conclusion: This study thus highlights diagnostic criteria, multifactorial risk factors to

  14. No longer diseases of the wealthy: prevalence and health-seeking for self-reported chronic conditions among urban poor in Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhojani, Upendra; Beerenahalli, Thriveni S; Devadasan, Roopa; Munegowda, C M; Devadasan, Narayanan; Criel, Bart; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2013-08-13

    The burden of chronic conditions is high in low- and middle-income countries and poses a significant challenge to already weak healthcare delivery systems in these countries. Studies investigating chronic conditions among the urban poor remain few and focused on specific chronic conditions rather than providing overall profile of chronic conditions in a given community, which is critical for planning and managing services within local health systems. We aimed to assess the prevalence and health- seeking behaviour for self-reported chronic conditions in a poor neighbourhood of a metropolitan city in India. We conducted a house-to-house survey covering 9299 households (44514 individuals) using a structured questionnaire. We relied on self-report by respondents to assess presence of any chronic conditions, including diabetes and hypertension. Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyse the prevalence and health-seeking behaviour for self-reported chronic conditions in general as well as for diabetes and hypertension in particular. The predictor variables included age, sex, income, religion, household poverty status, presence of comorbid chronic conditions, and tiers in the local health care system. Overall, the prevalence of self-reported chronic conditions was 13.8% (95% CI = 13.4, 14.2) among adults, with hypertension (10%) and diabetes (6.4%) being the most commonly reported conditions. Older people and women were more likely to report chronic conditions. We found reversal of socioeconomic gradient with people living below the poverty line at significantly greater odds of reporting chronic conditions than people living above the poverty line (OR = 3, 95% CI = 1.5, 5.8). Private healthcare providers managed over 80% of patients. A majority of patients were managed at the clinic/health centre level (42.9%), followed by the referral hospital (38.9%) and the super-specialty hospital (18.2%) level. An increase in income was positively associated with the use

  15. Twelve-Month Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Suicide Attempts in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borges, Guilherme; Nock, Matthew K.; Haro Abad, Josep M.; Hwang, Irving; Sampson, Nancy A.; Alonso, Jordi; Andrade, Laura Helena; Angermeyer, Matthias C.; Beautrais, Annette; Bromet, Evelyn; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Florescu, Silvia; Gureje, Oye; Hu, Chiyi; Karam, Elie G.; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Lee, Sing; Levinson, Daphna; Elena Medina-Mora, Maria; Ormel, Johan; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sagar, Rajesh; Tomov, Toma; Uda, Hidenori; Williams, David R.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Although suicide is a leading cause of death worldwide, clinicians and researchers lack a data-driven method to assess the risk of suicide attempts. This study reports the results of an analysis of a large cross-national epidemiologic survey database that estimates the 12-month prevalence

  16. Agreement on cause of death between proxies, death certificates, and clinician adjudicators in the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halanych, Jewell H; Shuaib, Faisal; Parmar, Gaurav; Tanikella, Rajasekhar; Howard, Virginia J; Roth, David L; Prineas, Ronald J; Safford, Monika M

    2011-06-01

    Death certificates may lack accuracy and misclassify the cause of death. The validity of proxy-reported cause of death is not well established. The authors examined death records on 336 participants in the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study, a national cohort study of 30,239 community-dwelling US adults (2003-2010). Trained experts used study data, medical records, death certificates, and proxy reports to adjudicate causes of death. The authors computed agreement on cause of death from the death certificate, proxy, and adjudication, as well as sensitivity and specificity for certain diseases. Adjudicated cause of death had a higher rate of agreement with proxy reports (73%; Cohen's kappa (κ) statistic = 0.69) than with death certificates (61%; κ = 0.54). The agreement between proxy reports and adjudicators was better than agreement with death certificates for all disease-specific causes of death. Using the adjudicator assessments as the "gold standard," for disease-specific causes of death, proxy reports had similar or higher specificity and higher sensitivity (sensitivity = 50%-89%) than death certificates (sensitivity = 31%-81%). Proxy reports may be more concordant with adjudicated causes of death than with the causes of death listed on death certificates. In many settings, proxy reports may represent a better strategy for determining cause of death than reliance on death certificates.

  17. Prevalence and Occupational and Environmental Risk Factors of Self-Reported Asthma: Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Survey in Seven Chinese Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Ling Fu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases and associated with significant morbidity and mortality. However, few data on occupational and environmental risk factors of asthma are available, particularly in Asian adults. Based on a national cross-sectional survey, we assessed the prevalence and risk factors of asthma in Chinese adults. Methods: A total of 9974 participants aged 15 years and over in seven Chinese cities were selected using a stratified four-stage random sampling. All participants were interviewed face-to-face in their homes using a standardized self-administered questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were adopted to determine various risk factors for asthma. Results: The prevalence of self-reported lifetime asthma was 2.46% among the entire adult population, 3.02% among males and 1.93% among females. The prevalence varied by age group, ethnicity, marital status, education, and floor space per person (p < 0.05. After adjusting for socio-demographic variables and smoking, we found independent occupational and environmental determinants of asthma, including a clearance-related job (OR = 2.28, 95%CI: 1.07–4.89, occupational exposure to industrial or occupational poisonous gas (OR = 4.21, 95%CI: 2.43–7.30, having large amounts of carpet in the workplace (OR = 2.61, 95%CI: 1.20–5.69 and using coal for cooking (OR = 2.65, 95%CI: 1.26–5.57. Conclusions: Asthma is a serious public health problem in China. Our study provides important updated information on the prevalence of asthma and its associated risk factors, which may help us better understand the epidemiology of asthma and prevent this disorder.

  18. Prevalence of and interventions for sarcopenia in ageing adults: a systematic review. Report of the International Sarcopenia Initiative (EWGSOP and IWGS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Jentoft, Alfonso J.; Landi, Francesco; Schneider, Stéphane M.; Zúñiga, Clemente; Arai, Hidenori; Boirie, Yves; Chen, Liang-Kung; Fielding, Roger A.; Martin, Finbarr C.; Michel, Jean-Pierre; Sieber, Cornel; Stout, Jeffrey R.; Studenski, Stephanie A.; Vellas, Bruno; Woo, Jean; Zamboni, Mauro; Cederholm, Tommy

    2014-01-01

    Objective: to examine the clinical evidence reporting the prevalence of sarcopenia and the effect of nutrition and exercise interventions from studies using the consensus definition of sarcopenia proposed by the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP). Methods: PubMed and Dialog databases were searched (January 2000–October 2013) using pre-defined search terms. Prevalence studies and intervention studies investigating muscle mass plus strength or function outcome measures using the EWGSOP definition of sarcopenia, in well-defined populations of adults aged ≥50 years were selected. Results: prevalence of sarcopenia was, with regional and age-related variations, 1–29% in community-dwelling populations, 14–33% in long-term care populations and 10% in the only acute hospital-care population examined. Moderate quality evidence suggests that exercise interventions improve muscle strength and physical performance. The results of nutrition interventions are equivocal due to the low number of studies and heterogeneous study design. Essential amino acid (EAA) supplements, including ∼2.5 g of leucine, and β-hydroxy β-methylbutyric acid (HMB) supplements, show some effects in improving muscle mass and function parameters. Protein supplements have not shown consistent benefits on muscle mass and function. Conclusion: prevalence of sarcopenia is substantial in most geriatric settings. Well-designed, standardised studies evaluating exercise or nutrition interventions are needed before treatment guidelines can be developed. Physicians should screen for sarcopenia in both community and geriatric settings, with diagnosis based on muscle mass and function. Supervised resistance exercise is recommended for individuals with sarcopenia. EAA (with leucine) and HMB may improve muscle outcomes. PMID:25241753

  19. Prevalence and genetic mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in Staphylococcus species: A multicentre report of the indian council of medical research antimicrobial resistance surveillance network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunanda Rajkumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Routine surveillance of antimicrobial resistance (AMR is an essential component of measures aimed to tackle the growing threat of resistant microbes in public health. This study presents a 1-year multicentre report on AMR in Staphylococcus species as part of Indian Council of Medical Research-AMR surveillance network. Materials and Methods: Staphylococcus species was routinely collected in the nodal and regional centres of the network and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed against a panel of antimicrobials. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values of vancomycin (VAN, daptomycin, tigecycline and linezolid (LNZ against selected methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA isolates were determined by E-test and MIC creep, if any, was determined. Resistant genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction for those isolates showing phenotypic resistance. Results: The prevalence of MRSA was found to be range from moderate (21% to high (45% among the centres with an overall prevalence of 37.3%. High prevalence of resistance was observed with commonly used antimicrobials such as ciprofloxacin and erythromycin in all the centres. Resistance to LNZ was not encountered except for a single case. Full-blown resistance to VAN in S. aureus was not observed; however, a few VAN-intermediate S. aureus isolates were documented. The most common species of coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS identified was Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Resistance among CoNS was relatively higher than S. aureus. Most phenotypically resistant organisms possessed the corresponding resistance genes. Conclusion: There were localised differences in the prevalence of resistance between the centres. The efficacy of the anti-MRSA antimicrobials was very high; however, almost all these antimicrobials showed evidence of creeping MIC.

  20. What young Dutch adults say they do to keep from gaining weight: self-reported prevalence of overeating, compensatory behaviours and specific weight control behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wammes, B; French, S; Brug, J

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of and differences in self-reported occasions of overeating (such as at celebrations and other parties), compensatory behaviours and specific weight gain prevention strategies among young Dutch adults according to sociodemographics and overweight status. Cross-sectional data were analysed from Dutch adults aged 20-40 years, recruited from an Internet research panel (n = 857, response rate = 76.6%). Using electronic questionnaires, self-report data were collected on sociodemographics, body mass index (BMI), occasions of overeating, compensatory behaviours, and diet and physical activity used as weight gain prevention strategies. Associations were tested using multiple linear and logistic regression analyses. Of the participants, 48.6% reported occasions of overeating at least once a week during the 4-week period, 44.6% reported compensating for these occasions and 72.9% reported engaging in dietary and physical activities specifically for weight gain prevention purposes. Only 32.1% of the respondents reported using the recommended combination of diet and physical activity as a weight gain prevention strategy. In addition, results showed that overweight people (BMI > or = 25 kg m-2) and women were more likely to report overeating than people with healthy body weights (odds ratio (OR) = 1.79; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.32-2.42) and men (OR = 1.50; 95% CI 1.14-1.97). Overweight people, women and people who regularly reported overeating were also significantly more likely to report compensatory behaviours by eating less and to report specific weight gain prevention strategies using diet and physical activity. The present study suggests that people experience frequent occasions of overeating and try to compensate for such occasions in different ways. However, the combination of dietary changes and physical activity recommended by experts was seldom reported.

  1. Notification of brain death in the hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Soares de Jesus Souza

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to identifying brain death in the hospital. Methods: it is a cross sectional and quantitative study which analyzed secondary data extracted from the notified brain death registers and from the medical records of the eligible patients. The data were processed and analyzed through descriptive statistics and comparisons. Results: of the 64 cases of notifications, the male gender predominated (67.2% within the age range from 40 to 59 years (64.1%. There was a greater proportion (71.8% of causes of death related to Hemorrhagic Cerebral Vascular Accident and Traumatic Brain Injury caused by motorcycle accident, showing statistically significant difference (p<0.05 regarding the gender, age and location. Conclusion: the Hemorrhagic Cerebral Vascular Accident was the most prevalent cause of notification of brain death and the Intensive Therapy Unit was the most notified venue.

  2. The validity of drug users' self-reports in a non-treatment setting: prevalence and predictors of incorrect reporting methadone treatment modalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langendam, M. W.; van Haastrecht, H. J.; van Ameijden, E. J.

    1999-01-01

    Epidemiological studies among drug users are often based on retrospective self-reports. However, among others, memory failure, being under the influence of drugs, psychopathology, misunderstanding of questions and socially desirable answering may generate inaccurate reporting. This study validated

  3. DSM-5 Changes and the Prevalence of Parent-Reported Autism Spectrum Symptoms in Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Anne C.; Mussey, Joanna; Villagomez, Adrienne; Bishop, Ellen; Raspa, Melissa; Edwards, Anne; Bodfish, James; Bann, Carla; Bailey, Donald B.

    2015-01-01

    We used survey methodology to assess parent-reported autism symptomology in 758 individuals (639 males; 119 females) with fragile X syndrome (FXS). Caregivers reported whether their child with FXS had been diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and endorsed symptoms based on a list of observable behaviors related to ASD diagnoses.…

  4. Vocal problems of group fitness instructors: prevalence of self-reported sensory and auditory-perceptual voice symptoms and the need for preventative education and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbach, Anna F

    2013-07-01

    To determine the prevalence and nature of both acute and chronic voice problems experienced by group fitness instructors (GFIs) and gather information about the level of education currently being received by fitness professionals, the source of their education, and their opinion on mandatory voice training to highlight potential training needs. Prospective self-completion questionnaire design. A total of 361 GFIs (81 males and 280 females), aged between 18 and 67 years currently active in the Australian fitness industry completed a self-report questionnaire distributed via SurveyMonkey. The prevalence of self-reported acute and chronic voice symptoms was high at 78.95% and 70.91%, respectively. Partial voice loss and hoarseness while instructing was experienced most often (57.62%), followed by partial voice loss and hoarseness immediately after instructing (46.81%). Aphonia after teaching was less frequently reported (9.97%). Over 25% of the total cohort reported chronic voice symptoms of increased hoarseness (39.61%), difficulty with high notes (31.58%), strained voice (32.13%), and limited singing range (27.7%). Only 30% of GFIs reported having received any voice education, with even fewer respondents (10%) receiving any practical voice training, despite 98.06% agreeing that formal voice education should be covered as a standard topic in all official GFI training. The results of this study confirm that voice problems represent a significant occupational hazard for GFIs. Speech-language pathologists and other voice professionals should consider taking a proactive stance in understanding the vocal demands of the profession and engage in training for instructors to prevent both acute and chronic voice problems. Copyright © 2013 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Firearm availability and suicide, homicide, and unintentional firearm deaths among women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew; Azrael, Deborah; Hemenway, David

    2002-03-01

    In the United States, more than 45,000 women died from gun violence over the last decade. To determine whether measures of firearm availability are related to rates of suicide, homicide, and unintentional firearm deaths among women in the United States. Pooled cross-sectional time series data on suicide, homicide, and unintentional firearm deaths (1988-1997) were used to estimate the association between the rate of violent death among women and four proxies of firearm availability. Two proxies came from survey reports of household firearm ownership rates; two were derived from mortality statistics. United States, 1988-1997. The increased rate of suicide and homicide in states with high gun levels was accounted for primarily by significantly elevated firearm suicide and firearm homicide rates. Unintentional firearm death rates were also increased in states with more guns. At the regional level, qualitatively similar results were obtained. Between 1988 and 1997, the suicide, homicide, and unintentional firearm death rates among women were disproportionately higher in states where guns were more prevalent. The elevated rates of violent death in states with more guns was not entirely explained by a state's poverty or urbanization and was driven primarily by lethal firearm violence, not by lethal nonfirearm violence.

  6. Programmed cell death: Superman meets Dr Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Pascal; Silke, John

    2003-12-01

    This year's Cold Spring Harbor meeting on programmed cell death (September 17-21, 2003), organised by Craig Thompson and Junying Yuan, was proof that the 'golden age' of research in this field is far from over. There was a flurry of fascinating insights into the regulation of diverse apoptotic pathways and unexpected non-apoptotic roles for some of the key apoptotic regulators and effectors. In addition to their role in cell death, components of the apoptotic molecular machinery are now known to also function in a variety of essential cellular processes, such as regulating glucose homeostasis, lipid metabolism, cell proliferation and differentiation.

  7. Maternal deaths in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangen, Siri; Bødker, Birgit; Ellingsen, Liv

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Despite the seriousness of the event, maternal deaths are substantially underreported. There is often a missed opportunity to learn from such tragedies. The aim of the study was to identify maternal deaths in the five Nordic countries, to classify causes of death based...... on internationally acknowledged criteria, and to identify areas that would benefit from further teaching, training or research to possibly reduce the number of maternal deaths. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We present data for the years 2005-2013. National audit groups collected data by linkage of registers and direct...... reporting from hospitals. Each case was then assessed to determine the cause of death, and level of care provided. Potential improvements to care were evaluated. RESULTS: We registered 168 maternal deaths, 90 direct and 78 indirect cases. The maternal mortality ratio was 7.2/100 000 live births ranging from...

  8. Death and Dying Anxiety among Elderly Arab Muslims in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azaiza, Faisal; Ron, Pnina; Shoham, Meyrav; Gigini, Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    Death and dying anxiety were examined among elderly Arab Muslims in Israel. A total of 145 people aged 60 and over were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. Nursing home residents reported higher death anxiety than others; women and uneducated participants reported greater levels of fear of death and dying than others. There were no…

  9. Reported prevalence of gestational diabetes in Scotland: The relationship with obesity, age, socioeconomic status, smoking and macrosomia, and how many are we missing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Andrew; Abraham, E Christie; Armstrong, Julie; Godwin, Jon; Monteath, Kirsten; Lindsay, Robert

    2017-03-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as 'carbohydrate intolerance of varying degrees of severity with onset or first recognition during pregnancy,' and is associated with increased fetal and maternal risks. The aims of the present study were to investigate the prevalence of GDM in Scotland over 32 years (1981-2012), and using the data from 2012, to assess how GDM related to maternal body mass index, maternal age, parity, smoking, Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation, infant gender and macrosomia status. GDM prevalence along with anthropometric, obstetric and demographic data were collected on a total of 1,891,097 women with a delivery episode between 1 January 1981 and 31 December 2012 using data extracted from the Scottish Morbidity Record 02. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was undertaken to investigate their association with GDM. A ninefold increase in GDM prevalence was observed from 1981 to 2012 (P macrosomia were positively associated with GDM. Reported smoking status at booking was inversely associated with GDM. Multivariable analysis showed that fetal macrosomia was not associated with GDM status. The present study confirmed that the reporting of GDM is low in Scotland, and that GDM is associated with maternal body mass index, maternal age, multiparity and social deprivation. GDM was negatively associated with smoking and requires further investigation. The lack of association between GDM and macrosomia (following multivariate analysis) might reflect the screening processes undertaken in Scotland. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  10. Existential Concerns About Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moestrup, Lene; Hansen, Helle Ploug

    2015-01-01

    patients in Danish hospices. The main findings demonstrated how the patients faced the forthcoming death without being anxious of death but sorrowful about leaving life. Furthermore, patients expressed that they avoided thinking about death. However, some had reconstructed specific and positive ideas about...... psychology or Kübler-Ross’ theory about death stages. The complex concerns might be explained using Martin Heidegger’s phenomenological thinking. We aimed to illuminate dying patients´ existential concerns about the impending death through a descriptive analysis of semi-structured interviews with 17 cancer...... afterlife and made accurate decisions for practical aspects of their death. The patients wished to focus on positive aspects in their daily life at hospice. It hereby seems important to have ongoing reflections and to include different theoretical perspectives when providing existential support to dying...

  11. [Prevalence of self-reported food allergy and food intolerance and their associated factors in 3 - 12 year-old children in 9 areas in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yarong; Chen, Yun; Zhao, Ai; Li, Hongliang; Mu, Zhishen; Zhang, Yumei; Wang, Peiyu

    2015-03-01

    To measure the prevalence and the associated factors of food allergy and food intolerance in 3 - 12 year-old children in 9 areas in China. 1792 children selected by multistage cluster sampling method from 7 cities and 2 rural areas, from November 2011 to April 2012, with a face-to-face survey to children and their parents, and the logistic regression was used to analyze the associated factors of food allergy and food intolerance of children. The prevalence of self-reported food allergy and food intolerance were 8. 4% and 7. 7%, respectively. The common foods led to food allergy reported by children's parents were seafood, fish, egg, fruit and milk. The parental allergy was risk factors of food allergy of children (OR = 4. 49 (95% CI 2. 52 - 8. 01), P food intolerance of children(OR = 2. 40(95% CI 1. 43 - 4. 02), P food intolerance of children (the mother with college degree and above relative to with middle school degree and below (OR = 0. 40 (95% CI 0. 20 - 0. 80), P = 0. 01). Children' s food allergy and food intolerance were associated with genetic factors and environmental factors included parental education and family economic status. Variable foods were necessary for children' s growth and development, therefore, it is demanded to conduct intervention studies based on the associated factors.

  12. Hypospadias - prevalence, birth weight and associated major congenital anomalies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Karin Baekgaard; Udesen, Ann; Garne, Ester

    2015-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of hypospadias over 24 years in a Danish population and to describe the relation to birth weight and associated major congenital anomalies. METHODS: Population-based study of all cases (live births, fetal deaths and elective terminations...... of pregnancy) with hypospadias born in the period 1986-2009 in Funen County and reported to the EUROCAT registry of congenital anomalies. Cases were included only if surgery for hypospadias was performed. RESULTS: 223 cases of hypospadias were registered during the period 1986-2009 with an overall prevalence...... of 16.9 per 10,000 births. The prevalence was significantly higher in 2000-2009 compared to 1986-1999 (phypospadias. Infants with isolated hypospadias were more likely to have mild hypospadias (68...

  13. Prevalence of Pragmatically Defined High CV Risk and its Correlates in LMIC: A Report From 10 LMIC Areas in Africa, Asia, and South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M; Miranda, J Jaime; Li, Xian; Cui, Chendi; Xu, Xiaolin; Ali, Mohammed; Alam, Dewan S; Gaziano, Thomas A; Gupta, Rajeev; Irazola, Vilma; Levitt, Naomi S; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Rubinstein, Adolfo; Steyn, Krisela; Tandon, Nikhil; Xavier, Denis; Wu, Yangfeng; Yan, Lijing L

    2016-03-01

    Currently available tools for assessing high cardiovascular risk (HCR) often require measurements not available in resource-limited settings in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). There is a need to assess HCR using a pragmatic evidence-based approach. This study sought to report the prevalence of HCR in 10 LMIC areas in Africa, Asia, and South America and to investigate the profiles and correlates of HCR. Cross-sectional analysis using data from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-UnitedHealth Group Centers of Excellence. HCR was defined as history of heart disease/heart attack, history of stroke, older age (≥50 years for men and ≥60 for women) with history of diabetes, or older age with systolic blood pressure ≥160 mm Hg. Prevalence estimates were standardized to the World Health Organization's World Standard Population. A total of 37,067 subjects ages ≥35 years were included; 53.7% were women and mean age was 53.5 ± 12.1 years. The overall age-standardized prevalence of HCR was 15.4% (95% confidence interval: 15.0% to 15.7%), ranging from 8.3% (India, Bangalore) to 23.4% (Bangladesh). Among men, the prevalence was 1.7% for the younger age group (35 to 49 years) and 29.1% for the older group (≥50); among women, 3.8% for the younger group (35 to 59 years) and 40.7% for the older group (≥60). Among the older group, measured systolic blood pressure ≥160 mm Hg (with or without other conditions) was the most common criterion for having HCR, followed by diabetes. The proportion of having met more than 1 criterion was nearly 20%. Age, education, and body mass index were significantly associated with HCR. Cross-site differences existed and were attenuated after adjusting for age, sex, education, smoking, and body mass index. The prevalence of HCR in 10 LMIC areas was generally high. This study provides a starting point to define targeted populations that may benefit from interventions combining both primary and secondary prevention

  14. Prevalência de diagnóstico auto-referido de osteoporose, Brasil, 2006 Prevalencia de diagnóstico auto-referido de osteoporosis, Brasil, 2006 Prevalence of self-reported diagnosis of osteoporosis in Brazil, 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Araujo Martini

    2009-11-01

    variable individualmente, y en modelo multivariado, considerándose odds ratio como proxy de la razón de prevalencia. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de osteoporosis referida fue de 4,4%, predominantemente entre mujeres (7,0%, con edad >45 años, estado civil no soltero y ex-fumador. Entre hombres, tener más de 65 años, ser casado o viudo y sedentario se asociaron positivamente a osteoporosis. CONCLUSIONES: Entre los factores asociados a la osteoporosis, se destacan aspectos modificables relacionados con la prevención de la enfermedad, como la actividad física y tabaquismo.OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of self-reported osteoporosis (with previous medical diagnosis and the associated risk and protection factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out, based on data from the system Vigilância de Fatores de Risco e Proteção para Doenças Crônicas por Inquérito Telefônico (VIGITEL - telephone-based surveillance of risk and protective factors for chronic diseases. A total of 54,369 individuals aged >18 years living in homes served by at least one fixed telephone line in Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District in 2006 were interviewed. Estimates of osteoporosis in relation to socioeconomic and behavioral factors and the body mass index were stratified according to sex. The risk of occurrence of osteoporosis was calculated for each variable separately and through a multivariate model, taking the odds ratio to be a proxy for the prevalence ratio. RESULTS: The reported prevalence of osteoporosis was 4.4%, predominantly among women (7.0% >45 years of age whose marital status was not single and who were former smokers. Among men, age > 65 years, married or widowed status and sedentarism were positively associated with this outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Among the factors associated with osteoporosis, modifiable characteristics relating to disease prevention were highlighted, such as physical activity and smoking habits.

  15. Variations of Lipoprotein(a Levels in the Metabolic Syndrome: A Report from the Maracaibo City Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valmore Bermúdez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Lipoprotein(a [Lp(a] is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease, yet its influence on metabolic syndrome (MS is still controversial. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact generated by this diagnosis in serum Lp(a concentrations. Materials and Methods. A total of 1807 subjects of both genders (55.3% women and 44.7% men belonging to the Maracaibo City Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence Study were evaluated. Results were expressed as Mean ± SD, determining differences through Student’s t-test and One-Way ANOVA test. Multiple logistic regression models were utilized for analyzing factors associated with elevated serum Lp(a levels and MS. Total cholesterol and LDL-C were corrected according to Lp(a-Cholesterol when necessary. Results. No differences were found in Lp(a values between genders; P=0,292. The association between MS and the classification of Lp(a was statistically significant (χ2=28.33; P<0,0001, with greater levels in subjects with this diagnosis. In the univariate analysis, subjects with each of the separate diagnostic criteria showed higher serum Lp(a concentrations, except for hyperglycemia. Conclusions. Lp(a values exhibit important variations regarding MS and each of its components. Impaired fasting glucose appeared as a protecting factor against elevated Lp(a concentrations, whereas its association with LDL-C and hs-CRP suggests a potential pro-inflammatory role.

  16. A review of factors associated with greater likelihood of suicide attempts and suicide deaths in bipolar disorder: Part II of a report of the International Society for Bipolar Disorders Task Force on Suicide in Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Ayal; Isometsä, Erkki T; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Cassidy, Frederick; Goldstein, Tina; Rihmer, Zoltán; Sinyor, Mark; Tondo, Leonardo; Moreno, Doris H; Turecki, Gustavo; Reis, Catherine; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Ha, Kyooseob; Weizman, Abraham; Beautrais, Annette; Chou, Yuan-Hwa; Diazgranados, Nancy; Levitt, Anthony J; Zarate, Carlos A; Yatham, Lakshmi

    2018-01-01

    Objectives Many factors influence the likelihood of suicide attempts or deaths in persons with bipolar disorder. One key aim of the International Society for Bipolar Disorders Task Force on Suicide was to summarize the available literature on the presence and magnitude of effect of these factors. Methods A systematic review of studies published from 1 January 1980 to 30 May 2014 identified using keywords ‘bipolar disorder’ and ‘suicide attempts or suicide’. This specific paper examined all reports on factors putatively associated with suicide attempts or suicide deaths in bipolar disorder samples. Factors were subcategorized into: (1) sociodemographics, (2) clinical characteristics of bipolar disorder, (3) comorbidities, and (4) other clinical variables. Results We identified 141 studies that examined how 20 specific factors influenced the likelihood of suicide attempts or deaths. While the level of evidence and degree of confluence varied across factors, there was at least one study that found an effect for each of the following factors: sex, age, race, marital status, religious affiliation, age of illness onset, duration of illness, bipolar disorder subtype, polarity of first episode, polarity of current/recent episode, predominant polarity, mood episode characteristics, psychosis, psychiatric comorbidity, personality characteristics, sexual dysfunction, first-degree family history of suicide or mood disorders, past suicide attempts, early life trauma, and psychosocial precipitants. Conclusion There is a wealth of data on factors that influence the likelihood of suicide attempts and suicide deaths in people with bipolar disorder. Given the heterogeneity of study samples and designs, further research is needed to replicate and determine the magnitude of effect of most of these factors. This approach can ultimately lead to enhanced risk stratification for patients with bipolar disorder. PMID:26175498

  17. Student Deaths Shake Up College Campuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Linda Meggett

    2001-01-01

    Reports on two murders at historically Black colleges in South Carolina. Explores reasons for press attention, the schools' responses, law enforcement activities, and recent deaths at other colleges. Sidebars present information on crisis response and statistics on campus crime. (EV)

  18. Amblyopia risk factor prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Robert W

    2013-01-01

    In 2003, the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus (AAPOS) published a set of risk factors for amblyopia. The intent was to promote uniformity of reporting and development in screening. Because this prevalence is not yet known, this meta-analysis is an attempt to estimate it. Major community preschool eye examination studies were reviewed and AAPOS cut-offs estimated. The approximate prevalence of anisometropia is 1.2%, hyperopia is 6%, astigmatism is 15%, myopia is 0.6%, strabismus is 2.5%, and visual acuity less than 20/40 is 6%. The mean combined prevalence is 21% ± 2% compared to a prevalence of amblyopia 20/40 and worse of 2.5%. Knowing risk factor prevalence simplifies validation efforts. Amblyopia screening with a risk factor sensitivity less than 100% is expected and desirable. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. Odds Ratio or Prevalence Ratio? An Overview of Reported Statistical Methods and Appropriateness of Interpretations in Cross-sectional Studies with Dichotomous Outcomes in Veterinary Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brayan Alexander Fonseca Martinez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the most commonly observational study designs employed in veterinary is the cross-sectional study with binary outcomes. To measure an association with exposure, the use of prevalence ratios (PR or odds ratios (OR are possible. In human epidemiology, much has been discussed about the use of the OR exclusively for case–control studies and some authors reported that there is no good justification for fitting logistic regression when the prevalence of the disease is high, in which OR overestimate the PR. Nonetheless, interpretation of OR is difficult since confusing between risk and odds can lead to incorrect quantitative interpretation of data such as “the risk is X times greater,” commonly reported in studies that use OR. The aims of this study were (1 to review articles with cross-sectional designs to assess the statistical method used and the appropriateness of the interpretation of the estimated measure of association and (2 to illustrate the use of alternative statistical methods that estimate PR directly. An overview of statistical methods and its interpretation using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA guidelines was conducted and included a diverse set of peer-reviewed journals among the veterinary science field using PubMed as the search engine. From each article, the statistical method used and the appropriateness of the interpretation of the estimated measure of association were registered. Additionally, four alternative models for logistic regression that estimate directly PR were tested using our own dataset from a cross-sectional study on bovine viral diarrhea virus. The initial search strategy found 62 articles, in which 6 articles were excluded and therefore 56 studies were used for the overall analysis. The review showed that independent of the level of prevalence reported, 96% of articles employed logistic regression, thus estimating the OR. Results of the multivariate models

  20. Prevalence of recreational drug use reported by men who have sex with men attending sexual health clinics in Manchester, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkins, A; Ahmad, S; Cannon, L; Higgins, S P; Kliner, M; Kolyva, A; Ward, C; Vivancos, R

    2018-03-01

    Recreational drug use (RDU) has been reported to be disproportionately higher in men who have sex with men (MSM) when compared to their heterosexual counterparts. To identify RDU, links to risky sexual practices and infections for MSM attending three sexual health clinics across Manchester, United Kingdom, a retrospective case note review was conducted using a random powered sample of service users attending three sites during 2014. Three hundred and fifty-seven case notes were reviewed across three sites. Eighteen per cent of service users reported any type of RDU. Use of at least one of the three drugs associated with chemsex (crystal methamphetamine, mephedrone, gamma hydroxybutyrate/gamma butyrolactone) was reported by 3.6%. A statistically significant difference was identified between non-drug users and any-drug users reporting: group sex (odds ratio [OR] 5.88, p = 0.013), condomless receptive anal intercourse (CRAI) (OR 2.77, p = 0.003) and condomless oral intercourse (OR 2.52, p = 0.016). A statistically significant difference was identified between chemsex-related drug user and non-drug user groups reporting: group sex (OR 13.05, p = 0.023), CRAI (OR 3.69, p = 0.029) and condomless insertive anal intercourse (OR 1.27, p = 0.039). There was also a statistically higher incidence of gonorrhoea infection in chemsex-related drug use compared with those not using drugs (p = 0.002, OR 6.88). This study identifies that substance use is common in MSM attending sexual health clinics in Manchester. High-risk sexual practices and certain sexually transmitted infections are more common in MSM reporting RDU.

  1. Malignant hyperthermia deaths related to inadequate temperature monitoring, 2007-2012: a report from the North American malignant hyperthermia registry of the malignant hyperthermia association of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larach, Marilyn Green; Brandom, Barbara W; Allen, Gregory C; Gronert, Gerald A; Lehman, Erik B

    2014-12-01

    AMRA (adverse metabolic or muscular reaction to anesthesia) reports submitted to The North American Malignant Hyperthermia Registry of the Malignant Hyperthermia Association of the United States from 1987 to 2006 revealed a 2.7% cardiac arrest and a 1.4% death rate for 291 malignant hyperthermia (MH) events. We analyzed 6 years of recent data to update MH cardiac arrest and death rates, summarized characteristics associated with cardiac arrest and death, and documented differences between early and recent cohorts of patients in the MH Registry. We also tested whether the available data supported the hypothesis that risk of dying from an episode of MH is increased in patients with inadequate temperature monitoring. We included U.S. or Canadian reports of adverse events after administration of at least 1 anesthetic drug, received between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2012, with an MH clinical grading scale rank of "very likely MH" or "almost certain MH." We excluded reports that, after review, were judged to be due to pathologic conditions other than MH. We analyzed patient demographics, family and patient anesthetic history, anesthetic management including temperature monitoring, initial dantrolene dose, use of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, MH complications, survival, and reported molecular genetic DNA analysis of RYR1 and CACNA1S. A one-sided Cochran-Armitage test for proportions evaluated associations between mode of monitoring and mortality. We used Miettinen and Nurminen's method for assessing the relative risk of dying according to monitoring method. We used the P value of the slope to evaluate the relationship between duration of anesthetic exposure before dantrolene administration and peak temperature. We calculated the relative risk of death in this cohort compared with our previous cohort by using the Miettinen and Nurminen method adjusted for 4 comparisons. Of 189 AMRA reports, 84 met our inclusion criteria. These included 7 (8.3%) cardiac arrests, no

  2. Prevalence and profile of ophthalmic disorders in oculocutaneous albinism: a field report from South-Eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udeh, N N; Eze, B I; Onwubiko, S N; Arinze, O C; Onwasigwe, E N; Umeh, R E

    2014-12-01

    To assess the burden and spectrum of refractive and non-refractive ophthalmic disorders in south-eastern Nigerians with oculocutaneous albinism. In a population-based survey in Enugu state, between August, 2011 and January, 2012, albinos were identified using the database of the Enugu state's Albino Foundation, and mass media-based mobilisation. The participants were enrolled at the Eye Clinics of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital and Enugu State University of Science and Technology Teaching Hospital using a defined protocol. Relevant socio-demographic and clinical data were obtained from each participant. Descriptive and comparative statistics were performed. Statistical significance was indicated by p < 0.05. The participants (n = 153; males, 70) were aged 23.5 + 10.4 SD years (range 6-60 years). Both refractive and non-refractive disorders were present in all participants. Non-refractive disorders comprised nystagmus, foveal hypoplasia, hypopigmented fundi and prominent choroidal vessels in 100.0% participants; and strabismus in 16.3% participants. Refractive disorders comprised astigmatism -73.2% eyes, myopia -23.9% and hypermetropia 2.9%. Spherical refractive errors ranged from -14.00 DS to +8.00 DS while astigmatic errors ranged from -6.00 DC to +6 DC. Mixed refractive and non-refractive disorder i.e. presenting visual impairment was present in 100.0% participants. Overall, refractive error was associated with non-possession of tertiary education (OR 0.61; 95% CI 0.38-0.96; p = 0.0374). There is high prevalence of refractive, non-refractive and mixed ophthalmic disorders among albinos in south-eastern Nigeria. This underscores the need for tailored provision of resources to address their eye care needs, and creation of needs awareness amongst them.

  3. Education for Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puolimatka, Tapio; Solasaari, Ulla

    2006-01-01

    Death is an unavoidable fact of human life, which cannot be totally ignored in education. Children reflect on death and raise questions that deserve serious answers. If an educator completely evades the issue, children will seek other conversation partners. It is possible to find arguments both from secular and religious sources, which alleviate…

  4. BRAIN DEATH DIAGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calixto Machado

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Brain death (BD diagnosis should be established based on the following set of principles, i.e. excluding major confusing factors, identifying the cause of coma, determining irreversibility, and precisely testing brainstem reflexes at all levels of the brainstem. Nonetheless, most criteria for BD diagnosis do not mention that this is not the only way of diagnosing death. The Cuban Commission for the Determination of Death has emphasized the aforesaid three possible situations for diagnosing death: a outside intensive care environment (without life support physicians apply the cardio-circulatory and respiratory criteria; b in forensic medicine circumstances, physicians utilize cadaveric signs (they do not even need a stethoscope; c in the intensive care environment (with life support when cardiorespiratory arrest occurs physicians utilize the cardio-circulatory and respiratory criteria. This methodology of diagnosing death, based on finding any of the death signs, is not related to the concept that there are different types of death. The irreversible loss of cardio-circulatory and respiratory functions can only cause death when ischemia and anoxia are prolonged enough to produce an irreversible destruction of the brain. The sign of irreversible loss of brain functions, that is to say BD diagnosis, is fully reviewed.

  5. Death, Children, and Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Robin L.

    The books listed in this annotated bibliography are intended to help children understand the reality of death and deal with the mystery and emotions that accompany it. Each entry indicates the genre and reading level of the book and provides a brief description of the attitude toward death that it conveys. The selections include fables, fantasy,…

  6. Brain Death and Islam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziad-Miller, Amna; Elamin, Elamin M.

    2014-01-01

    How one defines death may vary. It is important for clinicians to recognize those aspects of a patient’s religious beliefs that may directly influence medical care and how such practices may interface with local laws governing the determination of death. Debate continues about the validity and certainty of brain death criteria within Islamic traditions. A search of PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE, Web of Science, PsycNet, Sociological Abstracts, DIALOGUE ProQuest, Lexus Nexus, Google, and applicable religious texts was conducted to address the question of whether brain death is accepted as true death among Islamic scholars and clinicians and to discuss how divergent opinions may affect clinical care. The results of the literature review inform this discussion. Brain death has been acknowledged as representing true death by many Muslim scholars and medical organizations, including the Islamic Fiqh Academies of the Organization of the Islamic Conference and the Muslim World League, the Islamic Medical Association of North America, and other faith-based medical organizations as well as legal rulings by multiple Islamic nations. However, consensus in the Muslim world is not unanimous, and a sizable minority accepts death by cardiopulmonary criteria only. PMID:25287999

  7. Programmed cell death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this conference to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on the role programmed cell death plays in normal development and homeostasis of many organisms. This volume contains abstracts of papers in the following areas: invertebrate development; immunology/neurology; bcl-2 family; biochemistry; programmed cell death in viruses; oncogenesis; vertebrate development; and diseases.

  8. Death proteases come alive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woltering, E.J.

    2004-01-01

    Cell death in plants exhibits morphological features comparable to caspase-mediated apoptosis in animals, suggesting that plant cell death is executed by (caspase-like) proteases. However, to date, no caspase homologues have been identified in plants and therefore the existence and nature of these

  9. Death Writ Large

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastenbaum, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Mainstream thanatology has devoted its efforts to improving the understanding, care, and social integration of people who are confronted with life-threatening illness or bereavement. This article suggests that it might now be time to expand the scope and mission to include large-scale death and death that occurs through complex and multi-domain…

  10. Updated prevalence rates of overweight and obesity in 4- to 10-year-old children in Germany. Results from the telephone-based KiGGS Wave 1 after correction for bias in parental reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brettschneider, Anna-Kristin; Schienkiewitz, Anja; Schmidt, Steffen; Ellert, Ute; Kurth, Bärbel-Maria

    2017-04-01

    The nationwide 'German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents' (KiGGS), conducted in 2003-2006, showed an increase in the prevalence rates of overweight and obesity compared to the early 1990s, indicating the need for regular monitoring. Recently, a follow-up-KiGGS Wave 1 (2009-2012)-was carried out as a telephone-based survey, providing parent-reported height and weight from 5155 children aged 4-10 years. Since parental reports lead to a bias in prevalence rates of weight status, a correction is needed. From a subsample of KiGGS Wave 1 participants, measurements for height and weight were collected in a physical examination. In order to correct prevalence rates derived from parent reports, weight status categories based on parent-reported and measured height and weight were used to estimate a correction formula according to an established procedure. The corrected prevalence rates derived from KiGGS Wave 1 for overweight, including obesity, in children aged 4-10 years in Germany showed that stagnation is reached compared to the KiGGS baseline study (2003-2006). The rates for overweight, including obesity, in Germany have levelled off. However, they still remain at a high level, indicating a need for further public health action. What is Known: • In the last decades, prevalence of overweight and obesity has risen. Now a days, the prevalence seems to be stagnating. • In Germany, prevalence estimates of overweight and obesity are only available from regional or non-representative studies. What is New: • This article gives an update for prevalence rates of overweight and obesity amongst children aged 4-10 years in Germany based on a nationwide and representative sample. • Results show that stagnation in prevalence rates for overweight in children in Germany is reached.

  11. Sudden cardiac death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Parakh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sudden cardiac death is one of the most common cause of mortality worldwide. Despite significant advances in the medical science, there is little improvement in the sudden cardiac death related mortality. Coronary artery disease is the most common etiology behind sudden cardiac death, in the above 40 years population. Even in the apparently healthy population, there is a small percentage of patients dying from sudden cardiac death. Given the large denominator, this small percentage contributes to the largest burden of sudden cardiac death. Identification of this at risk group among the apparently healthy individual is a great challenge for the medical fraternity. This article looks into the causes and methods of preventing SCD and at some of the Indian data. Details of Brugada syndrome, Long QT syndrome, Genetics of SCD are discussed. Recent guidelines on many of these causes are summarised.

  12. Coronary artery disease prevalence and outcome in patients hospitalized with acute heart failure: an observational report from seven Middle Eastern countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, Amar M; Sulaiman, Kadhim; Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim; Alsheikh-Ali, Alawi; Aljaraallah, Mohammed; Al Faleh, Husam; Elasfar, Abdelfatah; Panduranga, Prasanth; Singh, Rajvir; Abi Khalil, Charbel; Al Suwaidi, Jassim

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to report prevalence, clinical characteristics, precipitating factors, management and outcome of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) among patients hospitalized with heart failure (HF) in seven Middle Eastern countries and compare them to non-CAD patients. Data were derived from Gulf CARE (Gulf aCute heArt failuRe rEgistry), a prospective multicenter study of 5005 consecutive patients hospitalized with acute HF during February-November 2012 in 7 Middle Eastern countries. The prevalence of CAD among Acute Heart Failure (AHF) patients was 60.2% and varied significantly among the 7 countries (Qatar 65.7%, UAE 66.6%, Kuwait 68.0%, Oman 65.9%, Saudi Arabia 62.5%, Bahrain 52.7% and Yemen 49.1%) with lower values in the lower income countries. CAD patients were older and more likely to have diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia and chronic kidney disease. Moreover, CAD patients were more likely to have history of cerebrovascular and peripheral vascular disease when compared to non-CAD patients. In-hospital mortality rates were comparable although CAD patients had more frequent re-hospitalization and worse long-term outcome. However, CAD was not an independent predictor of poor outcome. The prevalence of CAD amongst patients with HF in the Middle East is variable and may be related to healthcare sources. Regional and national studies are needed for assessing further the impact of various etiologies of HF and for developing appropriate strategies to combat this global concern.

  13. Prevalence of Neuropathic Pain and Patient-Reported Outcomes in Korean Adults with Chronic Low Back Pain Resulting from Neuropathic Low Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Hwan; Hong, Jae Taek; Lee, Chong-Suh; Kim, Keun-Su; Suk, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Jin-Hyok; Park, Ye-Soo; Chang, Bong-Soon; Jun, Deuk Soo; Kim, Young-Hoon; Lee, Jung-Hee; Min, Woo-Kie; Lee, Jung-Sub; Park, Si-Young; Oh, In-Soo; Hong, Jae-Young; Shin, Hyun-Chul; Kim, Woo-Kyung; Kim, Joo-Han; Lee, Jung-Kil; Kim, In-Soo; Ha, Yoon; Im, Soo-Bin; Kim, Sang Woo; Han, In-Ho; Shin, Jun-Jae; Rim, Byeong Cheol; Seo, Bo-Jeong; Kim, Young-Joo; Lee, Juneyoung

    2017-12-01

    A noninterventional, multicenter, cross-sectional study. We investigated the prevalence of neuropathic pain (NP) and patient-reported outcomes (PROs) of the quality of life (QoL) and functional disability in Korean adults with chronic low back pain (CLBP). Among patients with CLBP, 20%-55% had NP. Patients older than 20 years with CLBP lasting for longer than three months, with a visual analog scale (VAS) pain score higher than four, and with pain medications being used for at least four weeks before enrollment were recruited from 27 general hospitals between December 2014 and May 2015. Medical chart reviews were performed to collect demographic/clinical features and diagnosis of NP (douleur neuropathique 4, DN4). The QoL (EuroQoL 5-dimension, EQ-5D; EQ-VAS) and functional disability (Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale, QBPDS) were determined through patient surveys. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to compare PROs between the NP (DN4≥4) and non-NP (DN4NP. The prevalence of NP was higher in male patients (46.8%; p p p NP group vs. non-NP group: 0.4±0.3 vs. 0.5±0.3; p NP group vs. non-NP group: 45.8±21.2 vs. 36.3±20.2; p NP showed lower EQ-5D (β=-0.1; p p NP. NP was highly prevalent in Korean patients with CLBP. Patients with CLBP having NP had a lower QoL and more severe dysfunction than those without NP. To enhance the QoL and functional status of patients with CLBP, this study highlights the importance of appropriately diagnosing and treating NP.

  14. Prevalence of suicide attempt and clinical characteristics of suicide attempters with obsessive-compulsive disorder: a report from the International College of Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders (ICOCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Osso, Bernardo; Benatti, Beatrice; Arici, Chiara; Palazzo, Carlotta; Altamura, A Carlo; Hollander, Eric; Fineberg, Naomi; Stein, Dan J; Nicolini, Humberto; Lanzagorta, Nuria; Marazziti, Donatella; Pallanti, Stefano; van Ameringen, Michael; Lochner, Christine; Karamustafalioglu, Oguz; Hranov, Luchezar; Figee, Martijn; Drummond, Lynne; Rodriguez, Carolyn I; Grant, John; Denys, Damiaan; Menchon, Jose M; Zohar, Joseph

    2018-02-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is associated with variable risk of suicide and prevalence of suicide attempt (SA). The present study aimed to assess the prevalence of SA and associated sociodemographic and clinical features in a large international sample of OCD patients. A total of 425 OCD outpatients, recruited through the International College of Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders (ICOCS) network, were assessed and categorized in groups with or without a history of SA, and their sociodemographic and clinical features compared through Pearson's chi-squared and t tests. Logistic regression was performed to assess the impact of the collected data on the SA variable. 14.6% of our sample reported at least one SA during their lifetime. Patients with an SA had significantly higher rates of comorbid psychiatric disorders (60 vs. 17%, p<0.001; particularly tic disorder), medical disorders (51 vs. 15%, p<0.001), and previous hospitalizations (62 vs. 11%, p<0.001) than patients with no history of SA. With respect to geographical differences, European and South African patients showed significantly higher rates of SA history (40 and 39%, respectively) compared to North American and Middle-Eastern individuals (13 and 8%, respectively) (χ2=11.4, p<0.001). The logistic regression did not show any statistically significant predictor of SA among selected independent variables. Our international study found a history of SA prevalence of ~15% in OCD patients, with higher rates of psychiatric and medical comorbidities and previous hospitalizations in patients with a previous SA. Along with potential geographical influences, the presence of the abovementioned features should recommend additional caution in the assessment of suicide risk in OCD patients.

  15. Prevalence and risk factors for self-reported diabetes among adult men and women in India: findings from a national cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Sutapa; Ebrahim, Shah

    2012-06-01

    We examined the distribution of diabetes and modifiable risk factors to provide data to aid diabetes prevention programmes in India. Population-based cross-sectional survey of men and women included in India's third National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3, 2005-2006). The sample is a multistage cluster sample with an overall response rate of 98 %. All states of India are represented in the sample (except the small Union Territories), covering more than 99 % of the country's population. Women (n 99 574) and men (n 56 742) aged 20-49 years residing in the sample households. Prevalence of diabetes was 1598/100 000 (95 % CI 1462, 1735) among men and 1054/100 000 (95 % CI 974, 1134) among women in India. Rural-urban and marked geographic variation were found with higher rates in south and north-eastern India. Weekly and daily fish intake contributed to a significantly higher risk of diabetes among both women and men. Risks of diabetes increased with increased BMI, age and wealth status of both women and men, but no effects of the consumption of milk/curd, vegetables, eggs, television watching, alcohol consumption or smoking were found. Daily consumption of pulse/beans or fruits was associated with a significantly reduced risk of diabetes among women, whereas non-significant inverse associations were observed in the case of men. Prevalence was underestimated using self-reports. The wide variation in self-reported diabetes is unlikely to be due entirely to reporting biases or access to health care, and indicates that modifiable risk factors exist. Prevention of diabetes should focus on obesity and target specific socio-economic groups in India.

  16. Brugada syndrome ECG is highly prevalent in schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, Marieke T.; Cohen, Dan; Seldenrijk, Adrie; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Nijpels, Giel; Stehouwer, Coen D. A.; Dekker, Jacqueline M.; Tan, Hanno L.

    2014-01-01

    The causes of increased risk of sudden cardiac death in schizophrenia are not resolved. We aimed to establish (1) whether ECG markers of sudden cardiac death risk, in particular Brugada-ECG pattern, are more prevalent among patients with schizophrenia, and (2) whether increased prevalence of these

  17. Beethoven's terminal illness and death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, F M M

    2006-10-01

    There is dispute about the cause of Beethoven's death; alcoholic cirrhosis, syphilis, infectious hepatitis, lead poisoning, sarcoidosis and Whipple's disease have all been proposed. In this article all primary source documents related to Beethoven's terminal illness and death are reviewed. The documents include his letters, the report of his physician Andreas Wawruch, his Conversation Books, the autopsy report, and a new toxicological report of his hair. His terminal illness was characterised by jaundice, ascites, ankle oedema and abdominal pain. The autopsy data indicate that Beethoven had cirrhosis of the liver, and probably also renal papillary necrosis, pancreatitis and possibly diabetes mellitus. His lifestyle for at least the final decade of his life indicated that he overindulged in alcohol in the form of wine. Alcohol was by far the most common cause of cirrhosis at that period. Toxicological analysis of his hair showed that the level of lead was elevated. During the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, lead was added illegally to inexpensive wines to sweeten and refresh them. These findings strongly suggest that liver failure secondary to alcoholic cirrhosis, associated with terminal spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, was the cause of death. This was complicated in the end stages by renal failure. If the presence of endogenous lead was verified by analysis of Beethoven's skeletal remains, it would suggest that the lead was derived from wine that he drank. Lead poisoning may account for some of his end-of-life symptoms. There is little clinical or autopsy evidence that Beethoven suffered from syphilis.

  18. Death in media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavićević Aleksandra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the role of media in a construction of public image speech and presentation of death. The main research questions could be posed as follows: does the media discourse confirm a thesis about modern society as the one which intensely avoids encounter with Death, or does it defy it? Frequent images or hints of death in visual media in films informative and entertainment programs-suggest certain changes related to this issue in the past few decades. This analysis focuses on printed media hence the paper assesses numerous issues of the daily journal Politika from 1963, 1972, 1973, 1979, 1985, 1991, 1995, 1999, 2007 and 2008, as well as some other daily journals after 2000. The analysis confirms a strong connection between the current political systems and ideology and speech about death. In addition, it reveals a political usage of this event but also speaks up about cultural and historical models, underlying all other constructions. During the 1960's and 1970's, the presentations, including the speech about death relied on the traditional understandings about inevitability of death and dying, and alternatively on atheistic beliefs related to the progress and wellbeing of the society. In this particular discourse, death was present to a limited degree, serving primarily to glorify socialist order. The end of the 1970's witnessed an increase in the glorification of the death, correlated with the decrease of the dominant political ideology. On the other hand, the 1990's brought about more presence of the national and religious symbolism and glorification of the dead as heroes. After 2000, mercantilism is evident throughout the media. All of the media broadcast drastic images of death and dead, thus providing an answer to the posed question at the beginning of this paper about the relationship of the modern society towards death but nevertheless, this still leaves out many implicit consequences and possible meanings.

  19. Trends in the Prevalence of Intraoperative Adverse Events at Two Academic Hospitals After Implementation of a Mandatory Reporting System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanderer, Jonathan P; Gratch, David M; Jacques, Paul St; Rodriquez, Luis I; Epstein, Richard H

    2018-01-01

    Anesthesia information management systems (AIMSs) have been effectively used to improve quality in anesthesia care, and have enabled the development of mandatory quality assurance (QA) reporting systems for adverse events (AEs). While this approach has been shown to increase event reporting over time, the long-term effect of such a system on quality is unknown. We investigated the trends in AE reporting over time after implementing AIMS-based mandatory reporting systems at 2 academic medical centers. At Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, AEs were retrieved after imp