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Sample records for prevalence rates reported

  1. Analysis of self-reported versus biomarker based smoking prevalence: methodology to compute corrected smoking prevalence rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ram B

    2017-07-01

    Prevalence of smoking is needed to estimate the need for future public health resources. To compute and compare smoking prevalence rates by using self-reported smoking statuses, two serum cotinine (SCOT) based biomarker methods, and one urinary 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) based biomarker method. These estimates were then used to develop correction factors to be applicable to self-reported prevalences to arrive at corrected smoking prevalence rates. Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for 2007-2012 for those aged ≥20 years (N = 16826) were used. Self-reported prevalence rate for the total population computed as the weighted number of self-reported smokers divided by weighted number of all participants was 21.6% and 24% when computed by weighted number of self-reported smokers divided by the weighted number of self-reported smokers and nonsmokers. The corrected prevalence rate was found to be 25.8%. A 1% underestimate in smoking prevalence is equivalent to not being able to identify 2.2 million smokers in US in a given year. This underestimation, if not corrected, could lead to serious gap in the public health services available and needed to provide adequate preventive and corrective treatment to smokers.

  2. Short report: entomologic inoculation rates and Plasmodium falciparum malaria prevalence in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, J C; Killeen, G F; Githure, J I

    1999-07-01

    Epidemiologic patterns of malaria infection are governed by environmental parameters that regulate vector populations of Anopheles mosquitoes. The intensity of malaria parasite transmission is normally expressed as the entomologic inoculation rate (EIR), the product of the vector biting rate times the proportion of mosquitoes infected with sporozoite-stage malaria parasites. Malaria transmission intensity in Africa is highly variable with annual EIRs ranging from 1,000 infective bites per person per year. Malaria control programs often seek to reduce morbidity and mortality due to malaria by reducing or eliminating malaria parasite transmission by mosquitoes. This report evaluates data from 31 sites throughout Africa to establish fundamental relationships between annual EIRs and the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection. The majority of sites fitted a linear relationship (r2 = 0.71) between malaria prevalence and the logarithm of the annual EIR. Some sites with EIRs 80%. The basic relationship between EIR and P. falciparum prevalence, which likely holds in east and west Africa, and across different ecologic zones, shows convincingly that substantial reductions in malaria prevalence are likely to be achieved only when EIRs are reduced to levels less than 1 infective bite per person per year. The analysis also highlights that the EIR is a more direct measure of transmission intensity than traditional measures of malaria prevalence or hospital-based measures of infection or disease incidence. As such, malaria field programs need to consider both entomologic and clinical assessments of the efficacy of transmission control measures.

  3. Period Prevalence and Reporting Rate of Needlestick Injuries to Nurses in Iran: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Satar; Hajizadeh, Mohammad; Zandian, Hamed; Fathi, Afshin; Nouri, Bijan

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to provide a precise estimate of the period prevalence of needlestick injuries (NSI) among nurses working in hospitals in Iran and the reporting rate of NSI to nurse managers. We searched both international (PubMed, Scopus and the Institute for Scientific Information) and Iranian (Scientific Information Database, Iranmedex and Magiran) scientific databases to find studies published from 2000 to 2016 of NSI among Iranian nurses. The following keywords in Persian and English were used: "needle-stick" or "needle stick" or "needlestick," with and without "injury" or "injuries," "prevalence" or "frequency," "nurses" or "nursing staff," and "Iran." In a sample of 21 articles with 6,480 participants, we estimated that the overall 1-year period prevalence of NSI was 44% (95% confidence interval [CI], 35-53%) among Iranian nurses. The overall 1-year period prevalence of reporting NSI to nurse managers was 42% (95% CI, 33-52%). In meta-regression analysis, sample size, mean age, years of experience, and gender ratio were not associated with prevalence of NSI or reporting rate. The year of data collection was positively associated with period prevalence of NSI (p managers. Results indicated a high NSI period prevalence and low NSI reporting rate among nurses in Iran. Thus, effective interventions are required in hospitals in Iran to reduce the prevalence and increase the reporting rate of NSI. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Extraspinal incidental findings on routine MRI of lumbar spine: Prevalence and reporting Rates in 1278 patients

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    Tuncel, Sedat Alpaslan; Cagli, Bekir; Tekatas, Aslan; Kirici, Yadigar Mehmet; Unlu, Ercument; Genchellac, Haken [Trakya University Faculty of Medicine, Balkan Campus, Edirne (Turkmenistan)

    2015-08-15

    The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and reporting rate of incidental findings (IF) in adult outpatients undergoing lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Re-evaluation of a total of 1278 lumbar MRI images (collected from patients with a mean age of 50.5 years, range 16-91 years) captured between August 2010-August 2011 was done by a neuroradiologist and a musculoskeletal radiologist. IFs were classified according to organ or system (liver, gallbladder, kidney, bladder, uterus, ovary, lymph node, intestine and aorta). The rate of reporting of a range of IF was examined. The outcome of each patient's treatment was evaluated based on review of hospital records and by telephone interviews. A total of 253 IFs were found in 241 patients (18.8% of 1278). Among these, clinically significant IFs (n = 34) included: 2 renal masses (0.15%), 2 aortic aneurysms (0.15%), 2 cases of hydronephrosis (0.15%), 11 adrenal masses (0.86%), 7 lymphadenopathies (0.55%), 6 cases of endometrial or cervical thickening (0.47%), 1 liver hemangioma (0.08%), 1 pelvic fluid (0.08%) and 2 ovarian dermoid cysts (0.15%). Overall, 28% (71/253) of IFs were included in the clinical reports, while clinically significant findings were reported in 41% (14/34) of cases. Extraspinal IFs are commonly detected during a routine lumbar MRI, and many of these findings are not clinically significant. However, IFs including clinically important findings are occasionally omitted from formal radiological reports.

  5. Prevalence rates of borderline symptoms reported by adolescent inpatients with BPD, psychiatrically healthy adolescents and adult inpatients with BPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanarini, Mary C; Temes, Christina M; Magni, Laura R; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Aguirre, Blaise A; Goodman, Marianne

    2017-08-01

    The validity of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in children and adolescents has not been studied in a rigorous manner reflecting the criteria of Robins and Guze first detailed in 1970. This paper and the others in this series address some aspects of this multifaceted validation paradigm, which requires that a disorder has a known clinical presentation, can be delimited from other disorders, 'runs' in families, and something of its aetiology, treatment response and course is known. Three groups of subjects were studied: 104 adolescent inpatients meeting the Revised Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines and DSM-IV criteria for BPD, 60 psychiatrically healthy adolescents and 290 adult inpatients meeting the Revised Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines and DSM-III-R criteria for BPD. Adolescents with BPD had significantly higher prevalence rates of 22 of the 24 symptoms studied than psychiatrically healthy adolescents. Only rates of serious treatment regressions and countertransference problems failed to reach the Bonferroni-corrected level of 0.002. Adolescents and adults with BPD had only four symptomatic differences that reached this level of significance, with adolescents with BPD reporting significantly lower levels of quasi-psychotic thought, dependency/masochism, devaluation/manipulation/sadism and countertransference problems than adults with BPD. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that adolescents report BPD as severe as that reported by adults. They also suggest that BPD in adolescents is not a tumultuous phase of normal adolescence. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Prevalence of eating disorders in males: a review of rates reported in academic research and UK mass media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeting, Helen; Walker, Laura; MacLean, Alice; Patterson, Chris; Räisänen, Ulla; Hunt, Kate

    Media presentations of health issues affect evaluations of personal susceptibility to particular illnesses and hence help-seeking behaviours. We examined data on prevalence of eating disorders (EDs - which are often characterised as 'female') among males in: scientific literature; readily-accessible web-based information; and UK newspaper articles (published 7/12/2002-7/12/2012). This revealed conflicting statistics. Academic papers suggest men comprise around 25% of community-based samples, but much lower proportions (10% or less) of clinic samples. Websites and newspapers present widely differing statistics both on prevalence overall (numbers with EDs in the UK ranged from 60,000 to 2.7 million), and in men (generally suggesting they constituted 10-25% of those with EDs), rarely distinguishing between diagnosed and non-diagnosed samples. By 2011, newspapers were more consistent on overall numbers with EDs in the UK (1.6 million) and the proportion who were men (20%), drawing on one website as the authoritative source. Conflicting statistics may confuse men searching for ED (or other) health-related information, lead to underestimations of male susceptibility to EDs and/or reinforce inappropriate stereotypes of EDs as confined to adolescent girls.

  7. Prevalence Rates of Mental Disorders in Chilean Prisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundt, Adrian P.; Alvarado, Rubén; Fritsch, Rosemarie; Poblete, Catalina; Villagra, Carolina; Kastner, Sinja; Priebe, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Objective High rates of mental disorders have been reported for prison populations worldwide, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The present study aimed to establish prevalence rates of mental disorders in Chilean prisoners. Method A nationwide random sample of 1008 prisoners was assessed in 7 penal institutions throughout Chile. Twelve-month prevalence rates were established using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) and compared to the prevalence rates previously published for the general population. Results Prevalence rates were 12.2% (95% CI, 10.2-14.1) for any substance use disorder, 8.3% (6.6-10.0) for anxiety disorders, 8.1% (6.5-9.8) for affective disorders, 5.7% (4.4-7.1) for intermittent explosive disorders, 2.2% (1.4-3.2) for ADHD of the adult, and 0.8% (0.3-1.3) for non-affective psychoses. Significantly higher prevalence rates among prisoners as compared to the general population in Chile were seen for major depression (6.1% vs. 3.7% males, Z=2.58, pprison population than in the general population. One-year prevalence rates of alcohol abuse (2.3% vs. 3.9%; Z=-2.04; pprison population than in the general population. Conclusions Service provision for prison populations in Chile should acknowledge high rates of depression and illicit drug use. Overall prevalence rates are lower than reported in other LMICs. Previous research in prison populations in LMICs might have overestimated prevalence rates of mental disorders. PMID:23894415

  8. Updated prevalence rates of overweight and obesity in 4- to 10-year-old children in Germany. Results from the telephone-based KiGGS Wave 1 after correction for bias in parental reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brettschneider, Anna-Kristin; Schienkiewitz, Anja; Schmidt, Steffen; Ellert, Ute; Kurth, Bärbel-Maria

    2017-04-01

    The nationwide 'German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents' (KiGGS), conducted in 2003-2006, showed an increase in the prevalence rates of overweight and obesity compared to the early 1990s, indicating the need for regular monitoring. Recently, a follow-up-KiGGS Wave 1 (2009-2012)-was carried out as a telephone-based survey, providing parent-reported height and weight from 5155 children aged 4-10 years. Since parental reports lead to a bias in prevalence rates of weight status, a correction is needed. From a subsample of KiGGS Wave 1 participants, measurements for height and weight were collected in a physical examination. In order to correct prevalence rates derived from parent reports, weight status categories based on parent-reported and measured height and weight were used to estimate a correction formula according to an established procedure. The corrected prevalence rates derived from KiGGS Wave 1 for overweight, including obesity, in children aged 4-10 years in Germany showed that stagnation is reached compared to the KiGGS baseline study (2003-2006). The rates for overweight, including obesity, in Germany have levelled off. However, they still remain at a high level, indicating a need for further public health action. What is Known: • In the last decades, prevalence of overweight and obesity has risen. Now a days, the prevalence seems to be stagnating. • In Germany, prevalence estimates of overweight and obesity are only available from regional or non-representative studies. What is New: • This article gives an update for prevalence rates of overweight and obesity amongst children aged 4-10 years in Germany based on a nationwide and representative sample. • Results show that stagnation in prevalence rates for overweight in children in Germany is reached.

  9. Prevalence rates of mental disorders in Chilean prisons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian P Mundt

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: High rates of mental disorders have been reported for prison populations worldwide, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. The present study aimed to establish prevalence rates of mental disorders in Chilean prisoners. METHOD: A nationwide random sample of 1008 prisoners was assessed in 7 penal institutions throughout Chile. Twelve-month prevalence rates were established using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI and compared to the prevalence rates previously published for the general population. RESULTS: Prevalence rates were 12.2% (95% CI, 10.2-14.1 for any substance use disorder, 8.3% (6.6-10.0 for anxiety disorders, 8.1% (6.5-9.8 for affective disorders, 5.7% (4.4-7.1 for intermittent explosive disorders, 2.2% (1.4-3.2 for ADHD of the adult, and 0.8% (0.3-1.3 for non-affective psychoses. Significantly higher prevalence rates among prisoners as compared to the general population in Chile were seen for major depression (6.1% vs. 3.7% males, Z=2.58, p<0.05 and illicit drug use (3.3% vs. 0.6% males with drug abuse, Z=2.04, p<0.05; 2.6% vs. 0.1% females with drug abuse, Z=5.36, p<0.001; 3.4% vs. 1.1% males with drug dependence, Z=3.70; p<0.001. Dysthymia (6.5% vs. 15.6%, Z=-2.39, p<0.05, simple (3.3% vs. 11.5%, Z=-3.13, p<0.001 and social phobias (3.9% vs. 9.7%, Z=2.38, p<0.05 were significantly less frequent in the female prison population than in the general population. One-year prevalence rates of alcohol abuse (2.3% vs. 3.9%; Z=-2.04; p<0.05 and dependence (2.7% vs. 8.2%; Z=-5.24; p<0.001 were less prevalent in the male prison population than in the general population. CONCLUSIONS: Service provision for prison populations in Chile should acknowledge high rates of depression and illicit drug use. Overall prevalence rates are lower than reported in other LMICs. Previous research in prison populations in LMICs might have overestimated prevalence rates of mental disorders.

  10. Updated prevalence rates of overweight and obesity in 11- to 17-year-old adolescents in Germany. Results from the telephone-based KiGGS Wave 1 after correction for bias in self-reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brettschneider, Anna-Kristin; Brettschneidera, Anna-Kristin; Schaffrath Rosario, Angelika; Kuhnert, Ronny; Schmidt, Steffen; Wiegand, Susanna; Ellert, Ute; Kurth, Bärbel-Maria

    2015-11-06

    The nationwide "German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents" (KiGGS), conducted in 2003-2006, showed an increase in the prevalence rates of overweight and obesity compared to the early 1990s, indicating the need for regularly monitoring. Recently, a follow-up-KiGGS Wave 1 (2009-2012)-was carried out as a telephone-based survey, providing self-reported height and weight. Since self-reports lead to a bias in prevalence rates of weight status, a correction is needed. The aim of the present study is to obtain updated prevalence rates for overweight and obesity for 11- to 17-year olds living in Germany after correction for bias in self-reports. In KiGGS Wave 1, self-reported height and weight were collected from 4948 adolescents during a telephone interview. Participants were also asked about their body perception. From a subsample of KiGGS Wave 1 participants, measurements for height and weight were collected in a physical examination. In order to correct prevalence rates derived from self-reports, weight status categories based on self-reported and measured height and weight were used to estimate a correction formula according to an established procedure under consideration of body perception. The correction procedure was applied and corrected rates were estimated. The corrected prevalence of overweight, including obesity, derived from KiGGS Wave 1, showed that the rate has not further increased compared to the KiGGS baseline survey (18.9 % vs. 18.8 % based on the German reference). The rates of overweight still remain at a high level. The results of KiGGS Wave 1 emphasise the significance of this health issue and the need for prevention of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents.

  11. Concordance Between Self-Reported Childhood Maltreatment Versus Case Record Reviews for Child Welfare?Affiliated Adolescents: Prevalence Rates and Associations With Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Negriff, Sonya; Schneiderman, Janet U.; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2016-01-01

    The present study used data from an ongoing longitudinal study of the effects of maltreatment on adolescent development to (1) describe rates of maltreatment experiences obtained from retrospective self-report versus case record review for adolescents with child welfare?documented maltreatment histories, (2) examine self-reported versus child welfare?identified maltreatment in relation to mental health and risk behavior outcomes by maltreatment type, and (3) examine the association between th...

  12. Prevalence rate of chronic overuse pain in taekwondo athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Jae-Ok

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of chronic overuse pain (COP) and to identify possible risk factors of COP in sport poomsae taekwondo. This is a cross-sectional survey. A total of 263 sport-poomsae competitors (112 females; 151 males; aged between 12-44 years), who competed at the 2014 sport poomsae taekwondo competition, participated in this study. The prevalence rate of COP and possible risk factors associated with COP were analyzed by using Chi-square tests and independent t-tests. A total of 173 athletes reported that they experienced COP (65.8%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 60.5-71.5). Female athletes showed a higher prevalence rate than their male counterparts (75.9% vs. 58.3%). Lower body (61.5%) and knee joints (26.4%) were the two primarily injured body part. A total of 101 athletes reported that they injured in the previous year. Among those, 81.2% were suffered from COP. The technique that caused pain most frequently was side-kick among females and front-kick among males. Prevalence rates of COP were significantly different by sex, education level, training hour, and a history of injury. The prevalence of COP is high among sport poomsae taekwondo athletes. Competitors who are female, have a history of injury, and train for extended hours were more likely to experience COP. To identify other potential risk factors of COP in sport poomsae taekwondo, more research is needed to build upon the findings.

  13. Concordance Between Self-Reported Childhood Maltreatment Versus Case Record Reviews for Child Welfare–Affiliated Adolescents: Prevalence Rates and Associations With Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negriff, Sonya; Schneiderman, Janet U.; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2017-01-01

    The present study used data from an ongoing longitudinal study of the effects of maltreatment on adolescent development to (1) describe rates of maltreatment experiences obtained from retrospective self-report versus case record review for adolescents with child welfare–documented maltreatment histories, (2) examine self-reported versus child welfare–identified maltreatment in relation to mental health and risk behavior outcomes by maltreatment type, and (3) examine the association between the number of different types of maltreatment and mental health and risk behavior outcomes. Maltreatment was coded from case records using the Maltreatment Case Record Abstraction Instrument (MCRAI) and participants were asked at mean age = 18.49 about childhood maltreatment experiences using the Comprehensive Trauma Interview (CTI). Results showed that an average of 48% of maltreatment found by the MCRAI for each type of maltreatment were unique cases not captured by the CTI, whereas an average of 40% self-reported maltreatment (CTI) was not indicated by the MCRAI. Analyses with outcomes showed generally, self-reported maltreatment, regardless of concordance with MCRAI, was related to the poorest outcomes. The difference in associations with the outcomes indicates both self-report and case record review data may have utility depending on the outcomes being assessed. PMID:27777329

  14. Child maltreatment in Germany: prevalence rates in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Andreas; Brown, Rebecca C; Plener, Paul L; Brähler, Elmar; Fegert, Jörg M

    2017-01-01

    Child maltreatment and its consequences are considered a major public health problem. So far, there is only one study from Germany reporting prevalence rates on different types of maltreatment. A representative sample of the German general population was examined for experiences of child maltreatment using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) between September and November 2016. A total of 2510 (53.3% female) participants between 14 and 94 years (M = 48.8 years) were enrolled. Besides the CTQ, a range of sociodemographic information was collected. The interrelatedness of different types of maltreatment was examined using configuration analysis and predictors for maltreatment were identified by performing binary logistic regression analyses. Overall, 2.6% (f: 3.9%, m: 1.2%) of all participants reported severe emotional abuse, 3.3% (f: 3.4%, m: 3.3%) severe physical abuse, 2.3% (f: 3.7%, m: 0.7%) severe sexual abuse, 7.1% (f: 8.1%, m: 5.9%) severe emotional neglect and 9% (f: 9.2%, m: 8.9%) severe physical neglect. Women were more likely to report at least moderate sexual and emotional abuse than men. The largest difference between age groups was reported for physical neglect, with participants aged over 70 years reporting the highest rates. Participants who reported childhood maltreatment were more likely to be unemployed or have lower educational outcomes. The most common combination of maltreatment types were physical and emotional neglect, all five types of maltreatment combined and physical and emotional neglect and physical abuse combined. Child maltreatment, especially physical neglect is common in the German population. Women seem to be at greater risk for sexual and emotional abuse than men. Knowledge about different types of maltreatment based on the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) can help to put findings of future studies into an epidemiological and societal context.

  15. The geography of HIV/AIDS prevalence rates in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Campbell, Eugene K; Rakgoasi, Serai Dan; Madi-Segwagwe, Banyana C; Fako, Thabo T

    2012-01-01

    Botswana has the second-highest human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection rate in the world, with one in three adults infected. However, there is significant geographic variation at the district level and HIV prevalence is heterogeneous with the highest prevalence recorded in Selebi-Phikwe and North East. There is a lack of age-and location-adjusted prevalence maps that could be used for targeting HIV educational programs and efficient allocation of resources to higher risk groups. We used a nationally representative household survey to investigate and explain district level inequalities in HIV rates. A Bayesian geoadditive mixed model based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques was applied to map the geographic distribution of HIV prevalence in the 26 districts, accounting simultaneously for individual, household, and area factors using the 2008 Botswana HIV Impact Survey. Overall, HIV prevalence was 17.6%, which was higher among females (20.4%) than males (14.3%). HIV prevalence was higher in cities and towns (20.3%) than in urban villages and rural areas (16.6% and 16.9%, respectively). We also observed an inverse U-shape association between age and prevalence of HIV, which had a different pattern in males and females. HIV prevalence was lowest among those aged 24 years or less and HIV affected over a third of those aged 25-35 years, before reaching a peak among the 36-49-year age group, after which the rate of HIV infection decreased by more than half among those aged 50 years and over. In a multivariate analysis, there was a statistically significant higher likelihood of HIV among females compared with males, and in clerical workers compared with professionals. The district-specific net spatial effects of HIV indicated a significantly higher HIV rate of 66% (posterior odds ratio of 1.66) in the northeast districts (Selebi-Phikwe, Sowa, and Francistown) and a reduced rate of 27% (posterior odds ratio of 0.73) in Kgalagadi North and Kweneng West districts

  16. Epidemiology of Eating Disorders : Incidence, Prevalence and Mortality Rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smink, Frederique R. E.; van Hoeken, Daphne; Hoek, Hans W.

    Eating disorders are relatively rare among the general population. This review discusses the literature on the incidence, prevalence and mortality rates of eating disorders. We searched online Medline/Pubmed, Embase and PsycINFO databases for articles published in English using several keyterms

  17. College Students' Perceived Disease Risk versus Actual Prevalence Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Dickerson, Justin B.; Sosa, Erica T.; McKyer, E. Lisako J.; Ory, Marcia G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare college students' perceived disease risk with disease prevalence rates. Methods: Data were analyzed from 625 college students collected with an Internet-based survey. Paired t-tests were used to separately compare participants' perceived 10-year and lifetime disease risk for 4 diseases: heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and…

  18. Prevalence of estimated GFR reporting among US clinical laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accetta, Nancy A; Gladstone, Elisa H; DiSogra, Charles; Wright, Elizabeth C; Briggs, Michael; Narva, Andrew S

    2008-10-01

    Routine laboratory reporting of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) may help clinicians detect kidney disease. The current national prevalence of eGFR reporting in clinical laboratories is unknown; thus, the extent of the situation of laboratories not routinely reporting eGFR with serum creatinine results is not quantified. Observational analysis. National Kidney Disease Education Program survey of clinical laboratories conducted in 2006 to 2007 by mail, web, and telephone follow-up. A national random sample, 6,350 clinical laboratories, drawn from the Federal Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments database and stratified by 6 major laboratory types/groupings. Laboratory reports serum creatinine results. Reporting eGFR values with serum creatinine results. Percentage of laboratories reporting eGFR along with reporting serum creatinine values, reporting protocol, eGFR formula used, and style of reporting cutoff values. Of laboratories reporting serum creatinine values, 38.4% report eGFR (physician offices, 25.8%; hospitals, 43.6%; independents, 38.9%; community clinics, 47.2%; health fair/insurance/public health, 45.5%; and others, 43.2%). Physician office laboratories have a reporting prevalence lower than other laboratory types (P laboratories reporting eGFR, 66.7% do so routinely with all adult serum creatinine determinations; 71.6% use the 4-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study equation; and 45.3% use the ">60 mL/min/1.73 m(2)" reporting convention. Independent laboratories are least likely to routinely report eGFR (50.6%; P laboratories across all strata are more likely to report eGFR (P laboratories, federal database did not have names of laboratory directors/managers (intended respondents), assumed accuracy of federal database for sample purposes. Routine eGFR reporting with serum creatinine values is not yet universal, and laboratories vary in their reporting practices.

  19. Oppositional Defiant Disorder: prevalence based on parent and teacher ratings of Malaysian primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Rapson; Hafetz, Nina; Gomez, Rashika Miranjani

    2013-08-01

    This study examined the prevalence rate of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) in Malaysian primary school children. In all 934 Malaysian parents and teachers completed ratings of their children using a scale comprising DSM-IV-TR ODD symptoms. Results showed rates of 3.10%, 3.85%, 7.49% and 0.64% for parent, teacher, parent or teacher ("or-rule"), and parent and teacher ("and-rule") ratings, respectively. When the functional impairment criterion was not considered, the rate reported by parents was higher at 13.28%. The theoretical, diagnostic and cultural implications of the findings are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Prevalence and incidence rate of injuries in runners at a local athletic club in Cape Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Hendricks

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available People across the world are running on a daily basis to improvetheir health status. However, running can predispose an individual to injuryto the back and lower limb. Baseline data on prevalence, incidence rate ofinjury and aetiological factors associated with running injuries are neededby physiotherapists to develop and implement effective prevention programmesto allow optimal performance in runners. Thus, the purpose of this study wasto determine the prevalence and incidence of injuries in runners at a localathletic club.Methods: A prospective, non-experimental cohort study was conductedover a 16 week period. A sample of 50 runners completed a self-administeredquestionnaire and an injury report form recording injuries sustained during the 16 week study period. Injury prevalence andcumulative incidence was calculated as a proportion rate along with 95% confidence interval.Results: The prevalence rate of injuries was 32%. The incidence rate of injuries was 0.67 per 1000km run (95% CI: 0.41- 1.08.The most common anatomical sites for new injuries were the calf (20% and the knee (18%.Conclusions: The study found a moderate prevalence and incidence rate of injury in runners, thus the need for physiotherapyledinjury surveillance and prevention programmes have been highlighted.

  1. Prevalence rates for depression by industry: a claims database analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulsin, Lawson; Alterman, Toni; Timothy Bushnell, P; Li, Jia; Shen, Rui

    2014-11-01

    To estimate and interpret differences in depression prevalence rates among industries, using a large, group medical claims database. Depression cases were identified by ICD-9 diagnosis code in a population of 214,413 individuals employed during 2002-2005 by employers based in western Pennsylvania. Data were provided by Highmark, Inc. (Pittsburgh and Camp Hill, PA). Rates were adjusted for age, gender, and employee share of health care costs. National industry measures of psychological distress, work stress, and physical activity at work were also compiled from other data sources. Rates for clinical depression in 55 industries ranged from 6.9 to 16.2 %, (population rate = 10.45 %). Industries with the highest rates tended to be those which, on the national level, require frequent or difficult interactions with the public or clients, and have high levels of stress and low levels of physical activity. Additional research is needed to help identify industries with relatively high rates of depression in other regions and on the national level, and to determine whether these differences are due in part to specific work stress exposures and physical inactivity at work. Claims database analyses may provide a cost-effective way to identify priorities for depression treatment and prevention in the workplace.

  2. Prevalence rates for depression by industry: a claims database analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alterman, Toni; Bushnell, P. Timothy; Li, Jia; Shen, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To estimate and interpret differences in depression prevalence rates among industries, using a large, group medical claims database. Methods Depression cases were identified by ICD-9 diagnosis code in a population of 214,413 individuals employed during 2002–2005 by employers based in western Pennsylvania. Data were provided by Highmark, Inc. (Pittsburgh and Camp Hill, PA). Rates were adjusted for age, gender, and employee share of health care costs. National industry measures of psychological distress, work stress, and physical activity at work were also compiled from other data sources. Results Rates for clinical depression in 55 industries ranged from 6.9 to 16.2 %, (population rate = 10.45 %). Industries with the highest rates tended to be those which, on the national level, require frequent or difficult interactions with the public or clients, and have high levels of stress and low levels of physical activity. Conclusions Additional research is needed to help identify industries with relatively high rates of depression in other regions and on the national level, and to determine whether these differences are due in part to specific work stress exposures and physical inactivity at work. Clinical significance Claims database analyses may provide a cost-effective way to identify priorities for depression treatment and prevention in the workplace. PMID:24907896

  3. Gambling disorder: estimated prevalence rates and risk factors in Macao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Anise M S; Lai, Mark H C; Tong, Kwok-Kit

    2014-12-01

    An excessive, problematic gambling pattern has been regarded as a mental disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM) for more than 3 decades (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 1980). In this study, its latest prevalence in Macao (one of very few cities with legalized gambling in China and the Far East) was estimated with 2 major changes in the diagnostic criteria, suggested by the 5th edition of DSM (APA, 2013): (a) removing the "Illegal Act" criterion, and (b) lowering the threshold for diagnosis. A random, representative sample of 1,018 Macao residents was surveyed with a phone poll design in January 2013. After the 2 changes were adopted, the present study showed that the estimated prevalence rate of gambling disorder was 2.1% of the Macao adult population. Moreover, the present findings also provided empirical support to the application of these 2 recommended changes when assessing symptoms of gambling disorder among Chinese community adults. Personal risk factors of gambling disorder, namely being male, having low education, a preference for casino gambling, as well as high materialism, were identified.

  4. Burden of type 2 diabetes in Mexico: past, current and future prevalence and incidence rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza, Rafael; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Tonatiuh; Rojas-Martinez, Rosalba; Reynoso-Noverón, Nancy; Palacio-Mejia, Lina Sofia; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio

    2015-12-01

    Mexico diabetes prevalence has increased dramatically in recent years. However, no national incidence estimates exist, hampering the assessment of diabetes trends and precluding the development of burden of disease analyses to inform public health policy decision-making. Here we provide evidence regarding current magnitude of diabetes in Mexico and its future trends. We used data from the Mexico National Health and Nutrition Survey, and age-period-cohort models to estimate prevalence and incidence of self-reported diagnosed diabetes by age, sex, calendar-year (1960-2012), and birth-cohort (1920-1980). We project future rates under three alternative incidence scenarios using demographic projections of the Mexican population from 2010-2050 and a Multi-cohort Diabetes Markov Model. Adult (ages 20+) diagnosed diabetes prevalence in Mexico increased from 7% to 8.9% from 2006 to 2012. Diabetes prevalence increases with age, peaking around ages 65-68 to then decrease. Age-specific incidence follows similar patterns, but peaks around ages 57-59. We estimate that diagnosed diabetes incidence increased exponentially during 1960-2012, roughly doubling every 10 years. Projected rates under three age-specific incidence scenarios suggest diabetes prevalence among adults (ages 20+) may reach 13.7-22.5% by 2050, affecting 15-25 million individuals, with a lifetime risk of 1 in 3 to 1 in 2. Diabetes prevalence in Mexico will continue to increase even if current incidence rates remain unchanged. Continued implementation of policies to reduce obesity rates, increase physical activity, and improve population diet, in tandem with diabetes surveillance and other risk control measures is paramount to substantially reduce the burden of diabetes in Mexico. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevalence Rates of the Incubus Phenomenon: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc L. Molendijk

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe incubus phenomenon is a paroxysmal sleep-related disorder characterized by compound hallucinations experienced during brief phases of (apparent wakefulness. The condition has an almost stereotypical presentation, characterized by a hallucinated being that exerts pressure on the thorax, meanwhile carrying out aggressive and/or sexual acts. It tends to be accompanied by sleep paralysis, anxiety, vegetative symptoms, and feelings of suffocation. Its prevalence rate is unknown since, in prior analyses, cases of recurrent isolated sleep paralysis with/without an incubus phenomenon have been pooled together. This is unfortunate, since the incubus phenomenon has a much greater clinical relevance than isolated sleep paralysis.MethodsPubMed, Embase, and PsycINFO were searched for prevalence studies of the incubus phenomenon, and a meta-analysis was performed.ResultsOf the 1,437 unique records, 13 met the inclusion criteria, reporting on 14 (k independent prevalence estimates (total N = 6,079. The pooled lifetime prevalence rate of the incubus phenomenon was 0.19 [95% confidence interval (CI = 0.14–0.25, k = 14, N = 6,079] with heterogeneous estimates over different samples. In selected samples (e.g., patients with a psychiatric disorder, refugees, and students, prevalence rates were nearly four times higher (0.41, 95% CI = 0.25–0.56, k = 4, n = 1,275 than in the random samples (0.11, 95% CI = 0.08–0.14, k = 10, n = 4,804. This difference was significant (P < 0.001.ConclusionThis review and meta-analysis yielded a lifetime prevalence of the incubus phenomenon in the general population of 0.11 and, in selected samples, of 0.41. This is slightly higher than the prevalence rates in previous analyses that included cases of recurrent isolated sleep paralysis without an incubus phenomenon. Based on the condition’s robust clinical presentation and the relatively high prevalence rates, we advocate

  6. National HIV/AIDS mortality, prevalence, and incidence rates are associated with the Human Development Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Li-Xia; Chen, Yi; Yu, Chao-Hui; Li, You-Ming; Ye, Juan

    2014-10-01

    HIV/AIDS is a worldwide threat to human health with mortality, prevalence, and incidence rates varying widely. We evaluated the association between the global HIV/AIDS epidemic and national socioeconomic development. We obtained global age-standardized HIV/AIDS mortality, prevalence, and incidence rates from World Health Statistics Report of the World Health Organization. The human development indexes (HDIs) of 141 countries were obtained from a Human Development Report. Countries were divided into 4 groups according to the HDI distribution. We explored the association between HIV/AIDS epidemic and HDI information using Spearman correlation analysis, regression analysis, and the Kruskal-Wallis test. HIV/AIDS mortality, prevalence, and incidence rates were inversely correlated with national HDI (r = -0.675, -0.519, and -0.398, respectively; P birth, mean years of schooling, expected years of schooling, and gross national income per capita). Low HDI countries had higher HIV/AIDS mortality, prevalence, and incidence rates than that of medium, high, and very high HDI countries. Quantile regression results indicated that HDI had a greater negative effect on the HIV/AIDS epidemic in countries with more severe HIV/AIDS epidemic. Less-developed countries are likely to have more severe HIV/AIDS epidemic. There is a need to pay more attention to HIV/AIDS control in less-developed countries, where lower socioeconomic status might have accelerated the HIV/AIDS epidemic more rapidly. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Impact of Disease Prevalence Adjustment on Hospitalization Rates for Chronic Ambulatory Care-Sensitive Conditions in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollmanns, Johannes; Romano, Patrick S; Weyermann, Maria; Geraedts, Max; Drösler, Saskia E

    2018-04-01

    To explore effects of disease prevalence adjustment on ambulatory care-sensitive hospitalization (ACSH) rates used for quality comparisons. County-level hospital administrative data on adults discharged from German hospitals in 2011 and prevalence estimates based on administrative ambulatory diagnosis data were used. A retrospective cross-sectional study using in- and outpatient secondary data was performed. Hospitalization data for hypertension, diabetes, heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and asthma were obtained from the German Diagnosis Related Groups (DRG) database. Prevalence estimates were obtained from the German Central Research Institute of Ambulatory Health Care. Crude hospitalization rates varied substantially across counties (coefficients of variation [CV] 28-37 percent across conditions); this variation was reduced by prevalence adjustment (CV 21-28 percent). Prevalence explained 40-50 percent of the observed variation (r = 0.65-0.70) in ACSH rates for all conditions except asthma (r = 0.07). Between 30 percent and 38 percent of areas moved into or outside condition-specific control limits with prevalence adjustment. Unadjusted ACSH rates should be used with caution for high-stakes public reporting as differences in prevalence may have a marked impact. Prevalence adjustment should be considered in models analyzing ACSH. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  8. HIV infection among tuberculosis patients in Vietnam: prevalence and impact on tuberculosis notification rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thanh, D. H.; Sy, D. N.; Linh, N. D.; Hoan, T. M.; Dien, H. T.; Thuy, T. B.; Hoa, N. P.; Tung, L. B.; Cobelens, F.

    2010-01-01

    Vietnam has an emerging human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic (estimated population prevalence 0.5%), but valid data on HIV prevalence among tuberculosis (TB) patients are limited. Recent increases in TB notification rates among young adults may be related to HIV. To assess the prevalence of

  9. High prevalence rate of left superior vena cava determined by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-10-08

    Oct 8, 2013 ... persistent LSVC (6). There was a similar high prevalence, in the current study, of persistent LSVC in patients with tetralogy of. Fallot and coarctation of the aorta when compared to other studies (6, 8). This can be explained by the fact that the patient sample in the current study with these lesions was small.

  10. Prevalence rate of supernumerary teeth among non-syndromic South Indian population: An analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Nazargi Mahabob

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Supernumerary teeth are considered as one of the most significant dental anomalies during the primary and early mixed dentition stage. The main objective of the study was to determine the prevalence rate of supernumerary teeth in the patients who reported to the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology and to study the associated clinical complications. Materials and Methods: A longitudinal observational study was conducted of 2216 patients for a period of 4 months with the documentation of demographic data, the presence of supernumerary teeth, their location, and associated complications such as mechanical trauma, dental caries, and associated pathology. Results: The study recorded 27 supernumerary teeth from the examined 2216 patients. This yields a prevalence of 1.2%, with greater frequency in males which was 1.49% and in females the frequency was 0.85%. The greatest proportion of supernumerary teeth was found in the maxillary anterior region (77.8%. Out of this, 85.7% were classified as mesiodens based on their location. The displacement of adjacent teeth was the most common finding, followed by dental caries. Conclusion: The prevalence of supernumerary teeth in this study was 1.2% which is in agreement with that reported in similar studies and the maxillary mesiodens was the most common location. Displacement of adjacent teeth was the most common finding.

  11. Prevalence, Treatment, and Control Rates of Conventional and Ambulatory Hypertension Across 10 Populations in 3 Continents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melgarejo, Jesus D.; Maestre, Gladys E; Thijs, Lutgarde

    2017-01-01

    Hypertension is a major global health problem, but prevalence rates vary widely among regions. To determine prevalence, treatment, and control rates of hypertension, we measured conventional blood pressure (BP) and 24-hour ambulatory BP in 6546 subjects, aged 40 to 79 years, recruited from 10 com...

  12. Incidence and prevalence rates of diabetes mellitus in Saudi Arabia: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alotaibi, Abdulellah; Perry, Lin; Gholizadeh, Leila; Al-Ganmi, Ali

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to report on the trends in incidence and prevalence rates of diabetes mellitus in Saudi Arabia over the last 25 years (1990-2015). A descriptive review. A systematic search was conducted for English-language, peer reviewed publications of any research design via Medline, EBSCO, PubMed and Scopus from 1990 to 2015. Of 106 articles retrieved, after removal of duplicates and quality appraisal, 8 studies were included in the review and synthesised based on study characteristics, design and findings. Studies originated from Saudi Arabia and applied a variety of research designs and tools to diagnosis diabetes. Of the 8 included studies; three reported type 1 diabetes and five on type 2 diabetes. Overall, findings indicated that the incidence and prevalence rate of diabetes is rising particularly among females, older children/adolescent and in urban areas. Further development are required to assess the health intervention, polices, guidelines, self-management programs in Saudi Arabia. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Estimation of the prevalence and rate of acute transfusion reactions occurring in Windhoek, Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza, Benjamin P.L.; Lohrke, Britta; Wilkinson, Robert; Pitman, John P.; Shiraishi, Ray W.; Bock, Naomi; Lowrance, David W.; Kuehnert, Matthew J.; Mataranyika, Mary; Basavaraju, Sridhar V.

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute transfusion reactions are probably common in sub-Saharan Africa, but transfusion reaction surveillance systems have not been widely established. In 2008, the Blood Transfusion Service of Namibia implemented a national acute transfusion reaction surveillance system, but substantial under-reporting was suspected. We estimated the actual prevalence and rate of acute transfusion reactions occurring in Windhoek, Namibia. Methods The percentage of transfusion events resulting in a reported acute transfusion reaction was calculated. Actual percentage and rates of acute transfusion reactions per 1,000 transfused units were estimated by reviewing patients’ records from six hospitals, which transfuse >99% of all blood in Windhoek. Patients’ records for 1,162 transfusion events occurring between 1st January – 31st December 2011 were randomly selected. Clinical and demographic information were abstracted and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Healthcare Safety Network criteria were applied to categorize acute transfusion reactions1. Results From January 1 – December 31, 2011, there were 3,697 transfusion events (involving 10,338 blood units) in the selected hospitals. Eight (0.2%) acute transfusion reactions were reported to the surveillance system. Of the 1,162 transfusion events selected, medical records for 785 transfusion events were analysed, and 28 acute transfusion reactions were detected, of which only one had also been reported to the surveillance system. An estimated 3.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.3–4.4) of transfusion events in Windhoek resulted in an acute transfusion reaction, with an estimated rate of 11.5 (95% CI: 7.6–14.5) acute transfusion reactions per 1,000 transfused units. Conclusion The estimated actual rate of acute transfusion reactions is higher than the rate reported to the national haemovigilance system. Improved surveillance and interventions to reduce transfusion-related morbidity and mortality

  14. ICD-11 Prevalence Rates of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in a German Nationwide Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maercker, Andreas; Hecker, Tobias; Augsburger, Mareike; Kliem, Sören

    2018-04-01

    Prevalence rates are still lacking for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and complex PTSD (CPTSD) diagnoses based on the new ICD-11 criteria. In a nationwide representative German sample (N = 2524; 14-99 years), exposure to traumatic events and symptoms of PTSD or CPTSD were assessed with the International Trauma Questionnaire. A clinical variant of CPTSD with a lower threshold for core PTSD symptoms was also calculated, in addition to conditional prevalence rates dependent on trauma type and differential predictors. One-month prevalence rates were as follows: PTSD, 1.5%; CPTSD, 0.5%; and CPTSD variant, 0.7%. For PTSD, the highest conditional prevalence was associated with kidnapping or rape, and the highest CPTSD rates were associated with sexual childhood abuse or rape. PTSD and CPTSD were best differentiated by sexual violence. Combined PTSD and CPTSD (ICD-11) rates were in the range of previously reported prevalences for unified PTSD (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition; ICD-10). Evidence on differential predictors of PTSD and CPTSD is still preliminary.

  15. Prevalence, awareness and reporting of symptoms of obstructive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Obstructive sleep apnoea is the most common form of sleep- disordered breathing in adults and children. It is associated with many adverse health consequences. The objectives this study were to determine the prevalence, awareness and reporting of symptoms of obstructive sleep apnoea among hospitalized ...

  16. Prevalence of self-reported hypertension and diabetes and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of self-reported hypertension and diabetes and associated risk factors among university employees in Jos, Nigeria. ... Concerted efforts to implement NCD prevention measures will serve to reduce the high burden of NCDs. Keywords: Non-communicable disease, Diabetes mellitus, Hypertension, Lifestyle, risk ...

  17. Smoking rate and periodontal disease prevalence: 40-year trends in Sweden 1970-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstrom, Jan

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the relationship between smoking rate and periodontal disease prevalence in Sweden. National smoking rates were found from Swedish National Statistics on smoking habits. Based on smoking rates for the years 1970-2010, periodontal disease prevalence estimates were calculated for the age bracket 40-70 years and smoking-associated relative risks between 2.0 and 20.0. The impact of smoking on the population was estimated according to the concept of population attributable fraction. The age-standardized smoking rate in Sweden declined from 44% in 1970 to 15% in 2010. In parallel with the smoking decline the calculated prevalence estimate of periodontal disease dropped from 26% to 12% assuming a 10-fold smoking-associated relative risk. Even at more moderate magnitudes of the relative risk, e.g. 2-fold or 5-fold, the prevalence decrease was quite tangible, suggesting that the current prevalence in Sweden is about 20-50% of the level 40 years ago. The population attributable fraction, estimating the portion of the disease that would have been avoided in the absence of smoking, was 80% in 1970 and 58% in 2010 at a ten-fold relative risk. Calculated estimates of periodontal disease prevalence are closely related to real changes in smoking rate. As smoking rate drops periodontal disease prevalence will drop. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The impact of height during childhood on the national prevalence rates of overweight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dommelen, Paula; De Kroon, Marlou L A; Cameron, Noël; Schon̈beck, Yvonne; Van Buuren, Stef

    2014-01-01

    Background: It is known that height and body mass index (BMI) are correlated in childhood. However, its impact on the (trend of) national prevalence rates of overweight and obesity has never been investigated. The aim of our study is to investigate the relation between height and national prevalence

  19. The impact of height during childhood on the national prevalence rates of overweight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dommelen, P. van; Kroon, M.L.A. de; Cameron, N.; Schonbeck, Y.; Buuren, S. van

    2014-01-01

    Background It is known that height and body mass index (BMI) are correlated in childhood. However, its impact on the (trend of) national prevalence rates of overweight and obesity has never been investigated. The aim of our study is to investigate the relation between height and national prevalence

  20. Food allergies in developing and emerging economies: need for comprehensive data on prevalence rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boye Joyce Irene

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although much is known today about the prevalence of food allergy in the developed world, there are serious knowledge gaps about the prevalence rates of food allergy in developing countries. Food allergy affects up to 6% of children and 4% of adults. Symptoms include urticaria, gastrointestinal distress, failure to thrive, anaphylaxis and even death. There are over 170 foods known to provoke allergic reactions. Of these, the most common foods responsible for inducing 90% of reported allergic reactions are peanuts, milk, eggs, wheat, nuts (e.g., hazelnuts, walnuts, almonds, cashews, pecans, etc., soybeans, fish, crustaceans and shellfish. Current assumptions are that prevalence rates are lower in developing countries and emerging economies such as China, Brazil and India which raises questions about potential health impacts should the assumptions not be supported by evidence. As the health and social burden of food allergy can be significant, national and international efforts focusing on food security, food safety, food quality and dietary diversity need to pay special attention to the role of food allergy in order to avoid marginalization of sub-populations in the community. More importantly, as the major food sources used in international food aid programs are frequently priority allergens (e.g., peanut, milk, eggs, soybean, fish, wheat, and due to the similarities between food allergy and some malnutrition symptoms, it will be increasingly important to understand and assess the interplay between food allergy and nutrition in order to protect and identify appropriate sources of foods for sensitized sub-populations especially in economically disadvantaged countries and communities.

  1. Association between Search Behaviors and Disease Prevalence Rates at 18 U.S. Children's Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Dennis; Wolbrink, Traci; Logvinenko, Tanya; Harper, Marvin; Burns, Jeffrey

    2017-10-01

    Background Usage of online resources by clinicians in training and practice can provide insight into knowledge gaps and inform development of decision support tools. Although online information seeking is often driven by encountered patient problems, the relationship between disease prevalence and search rate has not been previously characterized. Objective This article aimed to (1) identify topics frequently searched by pediatric clinicians using UpToDate (http://www.uptodate.com) and (2) explore the association between disease prevalence rate and search rate using data from the Pediatric Health Information System. Methods We identified the most common search queries and resources most frequently accessed on UpToDate for a cohort of 18 children's hospitals during calendar year 2012. We selected 64 of the most frequently searched diseases and matched ICD-9 data from the PHIS database during the same time period. Using linear regression, we explored the relationship between clinician query rate and disease prevalence rate. Results The hospital cohort submitted 1,228,138 search queries across 592,454 sessions. The majority of search sessions focused on a single search topic. We identified no consistent overall association between disease prevalence and search rates. Diseases where search rate was substantially higher than prevalence rate were often infectious or immune/rheumatologic conditions, involved potentially complex diagnosis or management, and carried risk of significant morbidity or mortality. None of the examined diseases showed a decrease in search rate associated with increased disease prevalence rates. Conclusion This is one of the first medical learning needs assessments to use large-scale, multisite data to identify topics of interest to pediatric clinicians, and to examine the relationship between disease prevalence and search rate for a set of pediatric diseases. Overall, disease search rate did not appear to be associated with hospital

  2. HIV infection among tuberculosis patients in Vietnam: prevalence and impact on tuberculosis notification rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, D H; Sy, D N; Linh, N D; Hoan, T M; Dien, H T; Thuy, T B; Hoa, N P; Tung, L B; Cobelens, F

    2010-08-01

    Vietnam has an emerging human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic (estimated population prevalence 0.5%), but valid data on HIV prevalence among tuberculosis (TB) patients are limited. Recent increases in TB notification rates among young adults may be related to HIV. To assess the prevalence of HIV infection among smear-positive TB patients in six provinces with relatively high HIV population prevalence in Vietnam. All patients who registered for treatment of smear-positive TB during the fourth quarter of 2005 were offered HIV testing. Of the 1217 TB patients included in the study, 100 (8.2%) tested HIV-positive. HIV prevalence varied between 2% and 17% in the provinces, and was strongly associated with age Vietnam, HIV infection is concentrated in drug users, as well as in specific geographic areas where it has considerable impact on TB notification rates among men aged 15-34 years.

  3. Changes in hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control rates in Turkey from 2003 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengul, Sule; Akpolat, Tekin; Erdem, Yunus; Derici, Ulver; Arici, Mustafa; Sindel, Sukru; Karatan, Oktay; Turgan, Cetin; Hasanoglu, Enver; Caglar, Sali; Erturk, Sehsuvar

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The study aimed to assess the current epidemiology of hypertension, including its prevalence, the awareness of the condition and its treatment and control, in Turkey to evaluate changes in these factors over the last 10 years by comparing the results with the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in Turkey (PatenT) study data (2003), as well as to assess parameters affecting awareness and the control of hypertension. Methods: The PatenT 2 study was conducted on a representative sample of the Turkish adult population (n = 5437) in 2012. Specifically trained staff performed the data collection. Hypertension was defined as mean SBP or DBP at least 140/90 mmHg, previously diagnosed disease or the use of antihypertensive medication. Awareness and treatment were assessed by self-reporting, and control was defined as SBP/DBP less than 140/90 mmHg. Results: Although the prevalence of hypertension in the PatenT and PatenT 2 surveys was stable at approximately 30%, hypertension awareness, treatment, and control rates have improved in Turkey. Overall, 54.7% of hypertensive patients were aware of their diagnosis in 2012 compared with 40.7% in 2003. The hypertension treatment rate increased from 31.1% in 2003 to 47.4% in 2012, and the control rate in hypertensives increased from 8.1% in 2003 to 28.7% in 2012. The rate of hypertension control in treated patients improved between 2003 (20.7%) and 2012 (53.9%). Awareness of hypertension was positively associated with older age, being a woman, residing in an urban area, a history of parental hypertension, being a nonsmoker, admittance by a physician, presence of diabetes mellitus, and being obese or overweight; it was inversely associated with a higher amount of daily bread consumption. Factors associated with better control of hypertension were younger age, female sex, residing in an urban area, and higher education level in Turkey. Conclusion: Although some progress has been made in

  4. HIV infection among foreign transsexual sex workers in Rome: prevalence, behavior patterns, and seroconversion rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spizzichino, L; Zaccarelli, M; Rezza, G; Ippolito, G; Antinori, A; Gattari, P

    2001-07-01

    The Azienda Sanitaria Locale Roma E (ASL-RME) outpatient clinic is the main reference center in Rome for HIV testing of foreign people. To define the prevalence and incidence of HIV infection among foreign transsexual sex workers attending the center. A cross-sectional, follow-up study was conducted. Between 1993 and 1999, 353 transsexuals attended the ASL-RME. They were from Colombia (n = 208), Brazil (n = 122), and other countries (n = 23). Most of these transsexuals reported having 5 to 10 partners per day. The overall HIV prevalence was 38.2%, which multivariate analysis found to be associated with origin from Brazil and a higher number of sex partners. The observed HIV seroconversion rate was 4.1 per 100 person-years, and non-regular condom use was the only factor related to seroconversion. The data from this study suggest that promotion of safer sex practices and regular condom use still is the main priority among marginalized population subgroups, such as foreign prostitutes, involved in sex activities that put them at risk for HIV infection.

  5. Prevalence rates and socioeconomic characteristics of post-partum depression in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Emese; Molnar, Peter; Pal, Attila; Orvos, Hajnalka

    2011-01-30

    The rapid socioeconomic transition in post-communist Hungary adversely affected the overall morbidity and mortality rates in the 1990s. Prevalence data on depressive disorders from the region are still scarce, however. This study reports the findings of the first epidemiological survey, using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), on the prevalence of post-partum depression and the associated risk factors in Hungary. A total of 1030 mothers who delivered their babies between May and July 1999 in 16 counties in Hungary were screened for depressive symptoms 3-26 weeks post-partum. The survey found that 10.81% of the sample was above the cut-off score of 13, and the EPDS detected post-partum depressive symptoms with 76% (95% confidence interval (CI)=60.5-87.1) sensitivity and 92% (95% CI=90.5-94.1) specificity. In addition, 24 socio-demographic, socio-psychiatric data and personal and obstetric variables were surveyed. Results of a hierarchical logistic regression analysis showed that depression of the mother during pregnancy was the strongest predictor of depressive symptoms post-partum. Depression before pregnancy, housing conditions, marital relationship status and family history of alcohol problems were also identified as predictors for post-partum depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Statewide prevalence of school children at risk of anaphylaxis and rate of adrenaline autoinjector activation in Victorian government schools, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loke, Paxton; Koplin, Jennifer; Beck, Cara; Field, Michael; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Tang, Mimi L K; Allen, Katrina J

    2016-08-01

    The prevalence of school students at risk of anaphylaxis in Victoria is unknown and has not been previously studied. Similarly, rates of adrenaline autoinjector usage in the school environment have yet to be determined given increasing prescription rates. We sought to determine time trends in prevalence of school children at risk of anaphylaxis across all year levels and the annual usage rate of adrenaline autoinjectors in the school setting relative to the number of students at risk of anaphylaxis. Statewide surveys from more than 1,500 government schools including more than 550,000 students were used and prevalence rates (%) with 95% CIs were calculated. The overall prevalence of students at risk of anaphylaxis has increased 41% from 0.98% (95% CI, 0.95-1.01) in 2009 to 1.38% (95% CI, 1.35-1.41) in 2014. There was a significant drop in reporting of anaphylaxis risk with transition from the final year of primary school to the first year of secondary school, suggesting a change in parental reporting of anaphylaxis risk among secondary school students. The number of adrenaline autoinjectors activated per 1000 students at risk of anaphylaxis ranged from 6 to 8 per year, with consistently higher activation use in secondary school students than in primary school students. Statewide prevalence of anaphylaxis risk has increased in children attending Victorian government schools. However, adrenaline autoinjector activation has remained fairly stable despite known increase in the rates of prescription. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Relationship Between Child Mortality Rates and Prevalence of Celiac Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagi, Federico; Raiteri, Alberto; Schiepatti, Annalisa; Klersy, Catherine; Corazza, Gino R

    2018-02-01

    Some evidence suggests that prevalence of celiac disease in the general population is increasing over time. Because the prognosis of celiac disease was a dismal one before discovering the role of gluten, our aim was to investigate a possible relationship between children under-5 mortality rates and prevalence rates of celiac disease. Thanks to a literature review, we found 27 studies performed in 17 different countries describing the prevalence of celiac disease in schoolchildren; between 1995 and 2011, 4 studies were performed in Italy. A meta-analysis of prevalence rates was performed. Prevalence was compared between specific country under-5 mortality groups, publication year, and age. In the last decades, under-5 mortality rates have been decreasing all over the world. This reduction is paralleled by an increase of the prevalence of celiac disease. The Spearman correlation coefficient was -63%, 95% confidence interval -82% to -33% (P celiac disease in the general population. In the near future, the number of patients with celiac disease will increase, thanks to the better environmental conditions that nowadays allow a better survival of children with celiac disease.

  8. Does multimorbidity influence the occurrence rates of chronic conditions? A claims data based comparison of expected and observed prevalence rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingmar Schäfer

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Multimorbidity is a complex phenomenon with an almost endless number of possible disease combinations with unclear implications. One important aspect in analyzing the clustering of diseases is to distinguish between random coexistence and statistical dependency. We developed a model to account for random coexistence based on stochastic distribution. We analyzed if the number of diseases of the patients influences the occurrence rates of chronic conditions. METHODS: We analyzed claims data of 121,389 persons aged 65+ using a list of 46 chronic conditions. Expected prevalences were simulated by drawing without replacement from all observed diseases using observed overall prevalences as initial probability weights. To determine if a disease occurs more or less frequently than expected by chance we calculated observed-minus-expected deltas for each disease. We defined clinical relevance as |delta| ≥ 5.0%. 18 conditions were excluded because of a prevalence < 5.0%. RESULTS: We found that (1 two chronic conditions (e.g. hypertension were more frequent than expected in patients with a low number of comorbidities; (2 four conditions (e.g. renal insufficiency were more frequent in patients with many comorbidities; (3 six conditions (e.g. cancer were less frequent with many comorbidities; and (4 16 conditions had an average course of prevalences. CONCLUSION: A growing extent of multimorbidity goes along with a rapid growth of prevalences. This is for the largest part merely a stochastic effect. If we account for this effect we find that only few diseases deviate from the expected prevalence curves. Causes for these deviations are discussed. Our approach also has methodological implications: Naive analyses of multimorbidity might easily be affected by bias, because the prevalence of all chronic conditions necessarily increases with a growing extent of multimorbidity. We should therefore always examine and discuss the stochastic interrelations

  9. Self-reported dysphagia and its correlates within a prevalent population of people with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Richard W; Dunn, Janet R; Gray, William K

    2011-03-01

    Many people with Parkinson's disease (PD) experience dysphagia; however, the prevalence of dysphagia in people with PD is unknown. We studied a prevalent population of PD cases. All of those who consented to participate were assessed for anxiety, depression, cognitive function, and quality of life using standard rating scales. Anyone who answered "yes" to either one of the two questions: Do you have difficulty swallowing food/liquid or tablets? and Do you cough after eating/drinking? was considered to have dysphagia. Question 7 of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) was also used to identify dysphagia. Of 106 prevalent PD cases, 75 (38 males) patients consented to examination and assessment. The prevalence of dysphagia was 32.0% (n=24; 11 males). Using the response to UPDRS Question 7 as an indicator of the impact of swallowing problems on the patient, there were significant correlations with cognitive function, anxiety, depression, quality of life, and UPDRS-reported gait disturbance, postural instability and problems with falling. There was no correlation with disease duration, age, or gender. Almost one third of the participants reported dysphagia. There was a strong correlation between dysphagia and gross motor skills; patients reporting such problems should be screened for swallowing problems. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

  10. The National and Regional Prevalence Rates of Disability, Type, of Disability and Severity in Saudi Arabia-Analysis of 2016 Demographic Survey Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindawas, Saad M; Vennu, Vishal

    2018-02-28

    The prevalence of disability varies between countries ranging from less than 1% to up to 30% in some countries, thus, the estimated global disability prevalence is about 15%. However, it is unknown what the current estimate of disability and its types and severity are in Saudi Arabia. Thus, the objective of this study is to estimate national and regional prevalence rates of any disability, types of disability, and their severity among Saudi populations. Data on disability status were extracted from the national demographic survey conducted in 2016 as reported by the General Authority for Statistics, Saudi Arabia (N = 20,064,970). Prevalence rates per a population of 100,000 of any disability, type of disability, and its severity were calculated at the national level and in all 13 regions. Out of 20,064,970 Saudi citizens surveyed, 667,280 citizens reported disabilities, accounting for a prevalence rate of 3326 per a population of 100,000 (3.3%). Individuals aged 60 years and above (11,014) and males (3818) had a higher prevalence rate of disability compared with females (2813). The Tabuk region has the highest rate of reported disability, at 4.3%. The prevalence rates of extreme disabilities in mobility and sight were higher in Madinah (57,343) and Northern border (41,236) regions, respectively. In Saudi Arabia, more than half a million Saudi citizens (1 out of every 30 individuals) reported the presence of disability during the year 2016. A higher prevalence rate of disability was seen among those aged 60 years and above, and males. Targeted efforts are required at the national and regional levels to expand and improve rehabilitation and social services for all people with disabilities.

  11. High prevalence of self-reported photophobia in adult ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise eBijlenga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Many adult outpatients with ADHD report an oversensitivity to light. We explored the link between ADHD and photophobia in an online survey (N=494. Self-reported photophobia was prevalent in 69% of respondents with, and in 28% of respondents without, ADHD (symptoms. The ADHD (symptoms group wore sunglasses longer during daytime in all seasons. Photophobia may be related to the functioning of the eyes, which mediate dopamine and melatonin production systems in the eye. In the brain, dopamine and melatonin are involved in both ADHD and circadian rhythm disturbances. Possibly, the regulation of the dopamine and melatonin systems in the eyes and in the brain are related. Despite the study’s limitations, the results are encouraging for further study on the pathophysiology of ADHD, eye functioning, and circadian rhythm disturbances.

  12. [Analysis of prevalence of self-reported hearing loss and associated factors: primary versus proxy informant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevedo, André Luis Alves de; Leotti, Vanessa Bielefeldt; Goulart, Bárbara Niegia Garcia de

    2017-07-03

    The objective was to evaluate differences between prevalence rates for self-reported hearing loss and associated factors, obtained from responses by primary and proxy informants in a Population-Based Study on Human Communication Disorders (DCH-POP in Portuguese). This was a study on epidemiological methods using data from a cross-sectional household survey with a sample of 1,253 individuals from Southern Brazil. To verify differences between prevalence rates comparing primary informants and proxy informants, we used the chi-square or Fisher's exact test for categorical variables and Mann-Whitney for continuous variables. The log-binomial model was adjusted for hearing loss as the dependent variable, considering three datasets: the entire sample, only primary informants, and only proxy informants, estimating association by prevalence ratios. In the final models, only the independent variables age and dizziness were associated with hearing loss, independently of the dataset that was used. Proxy informants generally underestimated the prevalence rates for the target outcomes, when compared to primary informants.

  13. Prevalence, Diagnosis, and Treatment Rates of Mood Disorders among Opioid Users under Criminal Justice Supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbaba, Mary; Brown, Shan-Estelle; Wooditch, Alese; Kiss, Marissa; Murphy, Amy; Kumari, Suneeta; Taxman, Faye; Altice, Frederick; Lawson, William B; Springer, Sandra A

    2018-01-15

    Individuals involved in the criminal justice system have disproportionately high rates of psychiatric disorders when compared to the general U.S. If left untreated, the likelihood of subsequent arrest increases and risk for adverse health consequences is great, particularly among opioid users. To explore the prevalence, characteristics, and treatment of mood disorders among justice involved opioid-dependent populations. The current study enrolled 258 treatment-seeking opioid-dependent individuals under community-based criminal justice supervision (e.g., probation, parole) screened from the larger parent study, Project STRIDE, a seek/test/treat randomized control trial (RCT) examining HIV and opioid use treatment. During baseline, individuals were screened for depression using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and screened for bipolar disorder using the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) tool. Overall, 78 (30%) participants screened positive for moderate to severe depression and 54 (21%) screened positive for bipolar disorder. Participants self-reported mood disorders at higher rates than they screened positive for these conditions. Participants screening positive for these conditions experienced significantly greater family, legal, and medical problems on the Addiction Severity Index-Lite (ASI-Lite) than those who did not screen positive. Incidence of a lifetime suicide attempt was found to be associated with a positive screen for both mood disorders. Prescribed psychotropic treatment utilization was similar among those who screened positive for depression or bipolar disorder with approximately 38% reporting taking medication. Findings suggest universal mood disorder screening to improve comprehensive psychiatric care and treatment of opioid-dependent justice-involved individuals.

  14. A Survey of the Prevalence and Impact of Reporting Guideline Endorsement in Pathology Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Justin E; March, Jordon K; Cohen, Michael B; Schmidt, Robert L

    2017-10-01

    To determine the prevalence of reporting guideline endorsement in pathology journals and to estimate the impact of guideline endorsement. We compared the quality of reporting in two sets of studies: (1) studies published in journals that explicitly mentioned a guideline vs studies published in journals that did not and (2) studies that cited a guideline vs studies that did not. The quality of reporting in prognostic biomarker studies was assessed using the REporting recommendations for tumor MARKer prognostic studies (REMARK) guideline. We found that six (10%) of the 59 leading pathology journals explicitly mention reporting guidelines in the instructions to authors. Only one journal required authors to submit a checklist. There was significant variation in the rate at which various REMARK items were reported (P pathology journals, but guideline endorsement may improve the quality of reporting. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  15. Analyse of the prevalence rate and risk factors of pulmonary embolism in the patients with dyspnea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Yanxia; Su Jian; Wang Bingsheng; Wu Songhong; Dai Ruiting; Cao Caixia

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To analyse the prevalence rate and risk factors of pulmonary embolism (PE) in patients with dyspnea and to explore the predisposing causes and its early clinical manifestations. Methods: Retrospective analysis was done in 461 patients with dyspnea performed 99 Tc m -macroaggregated albumin (MAA) lung perfusion imaging and 99 Tc m -DTPA ventilation imaging or 99 Tc m -MAA perfusion imaging and chest X-ray examination. Among them, 48 cases without apparent disease were considered as control group, whereas the remaining patients with other underlying illnesses as patients group. PEMS statistics software package was used for estimation of prevalence rate, χ 2 test and PE risk factor analysis. Results: There were 251 PE patients among 461 patients, the prevalence rate [ (π)=95% confidence interval (CI) ] was: lower extremity thrombosis and varicosity (80.79-95.47 ), post cesarean section (55.64-87.12), lower extremity bone surgery or fracture (52.76-87.27 ), cancer operation (52.19-78.19), atrial fibrillation or heart failure (53.30-74.88), obesity (23.14-50.20), post abdominal surgery (20.23-59.43), diabetes (19.12-63.95), chronic bronchitis (1.80-23.06), normal control group (3.47-22.66). Except chronic bronchitis, PE prevalence rate between patients group and control group had significant difference (P 99 Tc m -MAA and DTPA lung imaging should be done as early as possible. (authors)

  16. Back pain in the working population: Prevalence rates in Dutch trades and professions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hildebrandt, V.H.

    1995-01-01

    An analysis of three health surveys in the Dutch working population is described, aimed at the identification of Dutch trades and professions with relative high and low prevalence rates of back pain. The sample was representative of the working population in the Netherlands and consisted of 5840 men

  17. Hypertension prevalence and influence of basal metabolic rate on blood pressure among adult students in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurshad Ali

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypertension is a global health issue and is currently increasing at rapid pace in South Asian countries including Bangladesh. Although, some studies on hypertension have been conducted in Bangladesh, there is a lack of scientific evidence in the adult student population that was missing from the previous and recent national cross-sectional studies. Moreover, the specific risk factors of hypertension in the Bangladeshi adults still need to be investigated. This study was conducted to estimate hypertension prevalence among adult students in Bangladesh and to test the hypothesis of Luke et al. (Hypertension 43:555–560, 2004 that basal metabolic rate (BMR and blood pressure are positively associated independent of body size. Method The data was collected on 184 adult university students (118 female and 66 male in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Anthropometric, BMR details and an average of at least two blood pressure measurements were obtained. Hypertension was defined by a systolic blood pressure (SBP ≥ 140 mmHg and/or, diastolic blood pressure (DBP ≥ 90 mmHg. Results Overall, 6.5% of participants had hypertension with significantly (p < 0.001 higher prevalence in male (12.1% than in the female (3.4% students. Age and BMI showed positive and significant correlation with hypertension among the students. When adjusted for body mass index (BMI, as well as other potentially confounding variables such as age, sex, smoking status and degree of urbanization, BMR was positively correlated with SBP and DBP (p < 0.001. Thus, higher BMR is associated with SBP and DBP; this is opposite the well documented inverse relationship between physical activity and blood pressure. If the influence of BMR on blood pressure is confirmed, the systematically elevated BMR might be an important predictor that can explain relatively high blood pressure and hypertension in humans. Conclusion This study reports the prevalence and associated risk factors

  18. Hypertension prevalence and influence of basal metabolic rate on blood pressure among adult students in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nurshad; Mahmood, Shakil; Manirujjaman, M; Perveen, Rasheda; Al Nahid, Abdullah; Ahmed, Shamim; Khanum, Farida Adib; Rahman, Mustafizur

    2017-07-25

    Hypertension is a global health issue and is currently increasing at rapid pace in South Asian countries including Bangladesh. Although, some studies on hypertension have been conducted in Bangladesh, there is a lack of scientific evidence in the adult student population that was missing from the previous and recent national cross-sectional studies. Moreover, the specific risk factors of hypertension in the Bangladeshi adults still need to be investigated. This study was conducted to estimate hypertension prevalence among adult students in Bangladesh and to test the hypothesis of Luke et al. (Hypertension 43:555-560, 2004) that basal metabolic rate (BMR) and blood pressure are positively associated independent of body size. The data was collected on 184 adult university students (118 female and 66 male) in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Anthropometric, BMR details and an average of at least two blood pressure measurements were obtained. Hypertension was defined by a systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥ 140 mmHg and/or, diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥ 90 mmHg. Overall, 6.5% of participants had hypertension with significantly (p < 0.001) higher prevalence in male (12.1%) than in the female (3.4%) students. Age and BMI showed positive and significant correlation with hypertension among the students. When adjusted for body mass index (BMI), as well as other potentially confounding variables such as age, sex, smoking status and degree of urbanization, BMR was positively correlated with SBP and DBP (p < 0.001). Thus, higher BMR is associated with SBP and DBP; this is opposite the well documented inverse relationship between physical activity and blood pressure. If the influence of BMR on blood pressure is confirmed, the systematically elevated BMR might be an important predictor that can explain relatively high blood pressure and hypertension in humans. This study reports the prevalence and associated risk factors of hypertension in the Bangladeshi adult students. The

  19. Prevalence rate and dentoskeletal features associated with buccally displaced maxillary canines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucedero, Manuela; Ricchiuti, Maria Rosaria; Cozza, Paola; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the prevalence and distribution of buccally displaced canines (BDCs) in subjects scheduled for orthodontic treatment and to investigate the association between BDC and sagittal, vertical, and transverse dentoskeletal relationships. A study sample of 1852 subjects was examined, and it was divided randomly into two groups. A first group of 252 subjects served as control group: the 'reference' prevalence rates for the examined parameters were calculated in this group. The remaining 1600 subjects comprised the sample from which the experimental BDC group was derived. Presence of unilateral or bilateral maxillary BDC, ANB, and SN GOGn angles for sagittal and vertical skeletal relationships, intercanine and intermolar distances, and tooth crowding at the maxillary arch were recorded for each subject. The statistical significance of differences between the BDC and the control groups in transverse relations and tooth crowding at the upper arch was tested by means of independent sample t-tests. Chi-square tests were performed to compare the prevalence rates of BDC and also sagittal and vertical skeletal features in the two groups. The prevalence rate of BDC was 3.06 per cent with a male-to-female ratio of 1:1. BDC subjects exhibited a significant association with hyperdivergent skeletal relationships (38.8%), reduced maxillary intercanine width, and crowding in the upper arch. The presence of specific dentoskeletal characteristics can be considered as a risk indicator for developing a buccal displacement of upper permanent canines.

  20. Estimates of global HIV/AIDS mortality, prevalence and incidence rates, and their association with the Human Development Index

    OpenAIRE

    Kamyar Mansori; Erfan Ayubi; Fatemeh Khosravi Shadmani; Shiva Mansouri Hanis; Somayeh Khazaei; Mohadeseh Sani; Yousef Moradi; Salman Khazaei; Abolfazl Mohammadbeigi

    2017-01-01

    Background: HIV/AIDS is one of greatest global public health concerns today due to the high incidence, prevalence and mortality rates. The aim of this research was investigate and estimate the global HIV/AIDS mortality, prevalence and incidence rates, and explore their associations with the Human Development Index. Methods: The global age-standardized rates of mortality, prevalence and incidence of HIV/AIDS were obtained from the UNAIDS for different countries in 2015. The human developm...

  1. Prevalence, Treatment, and Control Rates of Conventional and Ambulatory Hypertension Across 10 Populations in 3 Continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melgarejo, Jesus D; Maestre, Gladys E; Thijs, Lutgarde; Asayama, Kei; Boggia, José; Casiglia, Edoardo; Hansen, Tine W; Imai, Yutaka; Jacobs, Lotte; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Li, Yan; Malyutina, Sofia; Nikitin, Yuri; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Wang, Ji-Guang; Staessen, Jan A

    2017-07-01

    Hypertension is a major global health problem, but prevalence rates vary widely among regions. To determine prevalence, treatment, and control rates of hypertension, we measured conventional blood pressure (BP) and 24-hour ambulatory BP in 6546 subjects, aged 40 to 79 years, recruited from 10 community-dwelling cohorts on 3 continents. We determined how between-cohort differences in risk factors and socioeconomic factors influence hypertension rates. The overall prevalence was 49.3% (range between cohorts, 40.0%-86.8%) for conventional hypertension (conventional BP ≥140/90 mm Hg) and 48.7% (35.2%-66.5%) for ambulatory hypertension (ambulatory BP ≥130/80 mm Hg). Treatment and control rates for conventional hypertension were 48.0% (33.5%-74.1%) and 38.6% (10.1%-55.3%) respectively. The corresponding rates for ambulatory hypertension were 48.6% (30.5%-71.9%) and 45.6% (18.6%-64.2%). Among 1677 untreated subjects with conventional hypertension, 35.7% had white coat hypertension (23.5%-56.2%). Masked hypertension (conventional BP hypertension rates. Higher social and economic development, measured by the Human Development Index, was associated with lower rates of conventional and ambulatory hypertension. In conclusion, high rates of hypertension in all cohorts examined demonstrate the need for improvements in prevention, treatment, and control. Strategies for the management of hypertension should continue to not only focus on preventable and modifiable risk factors but also consider societal issues. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Methodology used in studies reporting chronic kidney disease prevalence: a systematic literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brück, Katharina; Jager, Kitty J.; Dounousi, Evangelia; Kainz, Alexander; Nitsch, Dorothea; Ärnlöv, Johan; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Browne, Gemma; Capuano, Vincenzo; Ferraro, Pietro Manuel; Ferrieres, Jean; Gambaro, Giovanni; Guessous, Idris; Hallan, Stein; Kastarinen, Mika; Navis, Gerjan; Gonzalez, Alfonso Otero; Palmieri, Luigi; Romundstad, Solfrid; Spoto, Belinda; Stengel, Benedicte; Tomson, Charles; Tripepi, Giovanni; Völzke, Henry; Wiȩcek, Andrzej; Gansevoort, Ron; Schöttker, Ben; Wanner, Christoph; Vinhas, Jose; Zoccali, Carmine; van Biesen, Wim; Stel, Vianda S.; Jousilahti, Pekka; Helmer, Catherine; Metzger, Marie; Ruidavets, Jean Bernard; Bongard, Vanina; Koenig, Wolfgang; Denkinger, Michael D.; Brenner, Hermann; Saum, Kai-Uwe; Nauck, Matthias; Stracke, Sylvia; Perry, Ivan; Eustace, Joseph; Lupo, Antonio; Donfrancesco, Chiara; Palleschi, Simonetta; Lamaida, Norman; Capuano, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    Many publications report the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the general population. Comparisons across studies are hampered as CKD prevalence estimations are influenced by study population characteristics and laboratory methods. For this systematic review, two researchers

  3. Methodology used in studies reporting chronic kidney disease prevalence : a systematic literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruck, Katharina; Jager, Kitty J.; Dounousi, Evangelia; Kainz, Alexander; Nitsch, Dorothea; Arnlov, Johan; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Browne, Gemma; Capuano, Vincenzo; Ferraro, Pietro Manuel; Ferrieres, Jean; Gambaro, Giovanni; Guessous, Idris; Hallan, Stein; Kastarinen, Mika; Navis, Gerjan; Otero Gonzalez, Alfonso; Palmieri, Luigi; Romundstad, Solfrid; Spoto, Belinda; Stengel, Benedicte; Tomson, Charles; Tripepi, Giovanni; Voelzke, Henry; Wiecek, Andrzej; Gansevoort, Ron; Schoettker, Ben; Wanner, Christoph; Vinhas, Jose; Zoccali, Carmine; Van Biesen, Wim; Stel, Vianda S.

    Background. Many publications report the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the general population. Comparisons across studies are hampered as CKD prevalence estimations are influenced by study population characteristics and laboratory methods. Methods. For this systematic review, two

  4. Prevalence rates and epidemiological risk factors for astigmatism in Singapore school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Louis; Saw, Seang-Mei; Carkeet, Andrew; Chan, Wai-Ying; Wu, Hui-Min; Tan, Donald

    2002-09-01

    This study examined the prevalence rate of astigmatism and its epidemiological risk factors in Singapore school children. In a study of school children aged 7 to 9 years old in two schools in Singapore in 1999, a detailed questionnaire was administered to parents regarding reading or close-work habits, past history of close-work, family history, and socioeconomic factors. Cycloplegic refraction was performed five times in each eye. Defining astigmatism as worse than or equal to 0.5, 0.75, and 1 D cylinder in the right eye, the prevalence of astigmatism was calculated. The study population consisted of 1028 children. The prevalence rate of astigmatism (worse than or equal to 1 D cylinder) was 19.2% (95% confidence interval, 16.8 to 21.6). This was not different between genders, ethnic groups, or age (p > 0.05). With-the-rule astigmatism was more common than against-the-rule astigmatism. The prevalence of astigmatism and myopia was 9.8% (95% confidence interval, 8.0 to 11.6). A high AC/A ratio was associated (p = 0.003) with astigmatism, even after exclusion of myopic children. On vectorial analysis, J0 and J45 were associated with the number of hours of playing video games, whereas J45 was also associated with computer use. Only J45 was associated to male gender, a high AC/A ratio, and a family history of myopia. The prevalence rate of astigmatism (> or = 1 D) was 19%. Playing video games and computer use may be associated with astigmatism severity, although the presence of astigmatism (> or = 1 D) was not associated with any nearwork factors. A family history of myopia was associated with oblique astigmatism severity. A high AC/A ratio is associated with astigmatism, and this requires further investigation.

  5. Human schistosomiasis in Puerto Rico: reduced prevalence rate and absence of Biomphalaria glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giboda, M; Malek, E A; Correa, R

    1997-11-01

    A combined epidemiologic and malacologic survey of schistosomiasis in Puerto Rico was carried out in areas where previous surveys had reported the prevalence of the disease. This limited survey, with 495 persons examined, found a low prevalence (0.6%) of Schistosoma mansoni infections. The infections were restricted to three people more than 36 years of age. No infections were detected in children 16 years of age or less, and this cohort comprised 57.8% of the study group. Malacologic surveys of the four streams, 10 rivers, and eight lakes throughout the island revealed the absence of intermediate host Biomphalaria glabrata and the presence of Thiara granifera, a competitive species of B. glabrata and the predatory snail Marisa cornuarietis. We believe that the absence of B. glabrata is the primary reason for the sustained reduction in the prevalence of schistosomiasis in Puerto Rico.

  6. Depressive symptomatology in severe dementia in a European sample: prevalence, associated factors and prescription rate of antidepressants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giebel, Clarissa M; Sutcliffe, Caroline; Renom-Guiteras, Anna; Arve, Seija; Hallberg, Ingalill Rahm; Soto, Maria; Zabalegui, Adelaida; Hamers, Jan; Saks, Kai; Challis, David

    2015-04-01

    Depression is a common comorbid disorder of dementia. This study explores the prevalence of and factors associated with depressive symptomatology, and antidepressant prescription rates in severe dementia across eight European countries. In total, 414 people with severe dementia completed measures of cognition and quality of life (QoL), whilst carers completed proxy measures of activities of daily living (ADLs), depression, neuropsychiatric symptoms, QoL and comorbidity. Findings indicated that 30% of the sample had depression, whilst the highest and lowest prevalence of depression was reported in Germany and Finland, respectively. Lower QoL, the presence of pain and more frequent neuropsychiatric symptoms were associated with depressive symptomatology, whilst no significant relationship between impairment of ADLs, comorbidity, and depression emerged. Spain and Estonia had the highest and lowest rates of antidepressant prescribing, respectively, whilst Germany had the highest discrepancy between depressive symptomatology and prescription. The study highlights variations across countries in the prevalence of depressive symptomatology in severe dementia and prescription of antidepressants. Information about factors associated with depressive symptomatology may help to better identify and manage depression.

  7. Proxy-Reports in the Ascertainment of Disability Prevalence with American Community Survey Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siordia, C

    2014-01-01

    Population estimates on disability prevalence inform policy makers and public health professionals. Understanding how factors capable of affecting measurement (e.g., proxy-report) vary in the population is important for establishing level of confidence in sample-derived population estimates. To establish how use of proxy-reports varies by six disability types stratified by sex, race-ethnicity, and age group. Specific aim is achieved by investigating the number of proxy-reports used amongst the disable population. Cross-sectional study using American Community Survey (ACS) Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS) 3-year file collected during 2009-2011 survey period. Community-dwelling population in continental United States (US). The unweighted count of 6,003,183 individuals in the microdata are said to represent about 193,277,485 individuals in the continental US population. Stratified disability period estimates are computed. Amongst the disable: the number of proxy-reports; allocations; and Person Inflation Ratios (PRIs) are presented by disability type. Half of all the reported disabilities are derived through the use of proxy-report. In addition, high rates of item-allocation and PRIs are generally found in race-ethnic minorities. Proxy-report use and PRIs are lower for those aged > 65-but not allocation rates. Although use of proxy report in the ascertainment of disability varies in complex ways, data suggest prevalence of proxy reports is lowest amongst Non-Latino-Black females ages 21 to 64. Efforts toward providing clinicians with high quality descriptive epidemiology should continue as a reliable thermometer for measuring disability in the population is needed.

  8. A Continuation of the Paradigm Wars? Prevalence Rates of Methodological Approaches across the Social/Behavioral Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alise, Mark A.; Teddlie, Charles

    2010-01-01

    A new line of research has emerged that examines the prevalence rates of mixed methods within disciplines in the social/behavioral sciences. Research presented in this article is unique in that it examines prevalence rates across multiple disciplines using an established cross-disciplinary classification scheme. Results indicate that there are…

  9. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) normative elevation rates: comparisons with epidemiological prevalence rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarescavage, Anthony M; Marek, Ryan J; Finn, Jacob A; Hicks, Adam; Rapier, Jessica L; Ben-Porath, Yossef S

    2013-01-01

    Odland, Berthelson, Sharma, Martin, and Mittenberg ( 2013 ) caution that clinically elevated scale scores produced by members of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008 /2011) normative sample raise concerns about the potential for false positive findings of psychopathology. However, the MMPI-2-RF normative sample is intended to represent the general population of the United States, 26.2% of which met criteria for a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV (APA, 1994 ) disorder in a 12-month period (Kessler, Chiu, Demler, & Walters, 2005 ). In the current study we compare scale elevation rates in the MMPI-2-RF normative sample to prevalence rates of mental disorders primarily drawn from the National Comorbidity Study Replication (Kessler et al., 2005 ). Our objective was to evaluate MMPI-2-RF elevation rates in an epidemiological context. Results indicate that MMPI-2-RF scale elevation rates were generally consistent with epidemiological data when examined in the context of standard interpretation guidelines for the inventory. We also reiterate Ben-Porath and Tellegen's (2008/2011) caution that MMPI-2-RF scale elevations alone are not sufficient to indicate the presence of psychiatric disorder. Rather they are best viewed as indications of the need to evaluate the individual for possible disorder(s). Implications of these results, limitations of this study, and future directions in research are discussed.

  10. Feeding and eating disorders in the DSM-5 era: a systematic review of prevalence rates in non-clinical male and female samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindvall Dahlgren, Camilla; Wisting, Line; Rø, Øyvind

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to systematically review the literature on the prevalence of eating disorders (EDs) during the DSM-5 era, and to report rates of point- and lifetime prevalence. A PubMed search was conducted targeting articles on the epidemiology of EDs, in particular, reported rates of prevalence. The review was performed in accordance with PRISMA guidelines, and was limited to DSM-5 based eating disorder diagnoses published between 2012 and 2017. A total of 19 studies fulfilled inclusion criteria and were included in the study. Following the transition to DSM-5, it is evident that the prevalence of eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS)/other specified feeding and eating disorders (OSFED) has decreased as intended, and there is preliminary evidence suggesting that rates of anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) have increased. Further, we observed higher rates of BED prevalence among females compared to males, with rates increasing with age. A limitation to the study was the search date, and that none of the included studies investigated the "new" DSM-5 feeding disorders avoidant restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID), pica or rumination disorder warranting attention in future studies investigating the epidemiology of feeding and eating disorders.

  11. Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Al-Darwish

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Results indicated that dental caries prevalence among school children in Qatar has reached critical levels, and is influenced by socio-demographic factors. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth values obtained in this study were the second highest detected in the Eastern Mediterranean region.

  12. A study of variations in the reported haemophilia B prevalence around the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonebraker, J S; Bolton-Maggs, P H B; Michael Soucie, J; Walker, I; Brooker, M

    2012-05-01

    The objectives of this article were to study the reported prevalence of haemophilia B (HB) on a country-by-country basis and to analyse whether the prevalence of HB varied by national economy. The prevalence of HB is the proportion of diagnosed, reported cases of HB in a population at a specific point of time. We collected data on the HB prevalence for 105 countries from the World Federation of Hemophilia annual global surveys. Our results showed that the HB prevalence varied considerably among countries, even among the wealthiest of countries. The HB prevalence (per 100 000 males) for the highest income countries was 2.69 ± 1.61 (mean ± SD), whereas the prevalence for the rest of the world was 1.20 ± 1.33 (mean ± SD). Ireland had the highest reported HB prevalence of 8.07 per 100 000 males. There was a strong trend of increasing HB prevalence (per 100 000 males) over time. Prevalence data reported from the WFH compared well with prevalence data from the literature. The WFH annual global surveys have some limitations, but they are the best available source of worldwide haemophilia data. Prevalence data are extremely valuable information for the planning efforts of national healthcare agencies in setting priorities and allocating resources for the treatment of HB. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. ANALYSIS OF PREVALENCE, HOSPITALIZATION RATE AND MORTALITY LEVELS RELATED TO GASTROINTESTINAL DISORDERS IN THE MOSCOW REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Gurov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rationale: According to prognosis made by World Health Organization experts, by mid-21st century gastrointestinal disorders will be among the leaders, partially due to lifestyle of a modern man (stress, unhealthy diet, lack of physical exercise, unhealthy habits, environmental pollution, genetically modified and low quality foods.Aim: To provide informational support of activities aimed at improvement of organization of medical care to patients with gastrointestinal disorders and at further development of specialized gastroenterological care to the population of the Moscow Region, its better availability and higher efficacy and quality.Materials and methods: We calculated and analyzed gastrointestinal morbidity in 2014 (according to referrals among the main age categories (children, adolescents, adults of the population of the Moscow Region, as well as hospitalization rates and in-hospital mortality. The information was taken from the Federal Statistical Surveillance report forms # 12 and # 14.Results: In 2014, the highest prevalence of gastrointestinal disorders was registered in adolescents, being by 42.7% higher than that in adults and by 11.7% higher than that in children. The leading causes of referrals in all age categories were gastritis and duodenitis, as well as gall bladder and bile tract disorders. The structure of morbidity was characterized by a high proportion of pancreatic disorders, stomach and duodenal ulcers in adults. The rate of hospitalizations due to gastrointestinal disorders was 17.8 cases per 1000 patients, being 17.4‰ in adults and 19.8‰ in children and adolescents. The main reasons for hospitalization in adults were diseases of pancreas (23.9% of all hospitalization due to gastrointestinal disorders, gall bladder and bile tract disorders (16.3%. In children and adolescents, the main reasons for hospitalizations were intestinal disorders (36.4%, gastritis and duodenitis (17.9%. In-hospital mortality from

  14. Disturbances of motor unit rate modulation are prevalent in muscles of spastic-paretic stroke survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, C. J.; Powers, R. K.; Rymer, W. Z.; Suresh, N. L.

    2014-01-01

    Stroke survivors often exhibit abnormally low motor unit firing rates during voluntary muscle activation. Our purpose was to assess the prevalence of saturation in motor unit firing rates in the spastic-paretic biceps brachii muscle of stroke survivors. To achieve this objective, we recorded the incidence and duration of impaired lower- and higher-threshold motor unit firing rate modulation in spastic-paretic, contralateral, and healthy control muscle during increases in isometric force generated by the elbow flexor muscles. Impaired firing was considered to have occurred when firing rate became constant (i.e., saturated), despite increasing force. The duration of impaired firing rate modulation in the lower-threshold unit was longer for spastic-paretic (3.9 ± 2.2 s) than for contralateral (1.4 ± 0.9 s; P unit was also longer for the spastic-paretic (1.7 ± 1.6 s) than contralateral (0.3 ± 0.3 s; P = 0.007) and control (0.1 ± 0.2 s; P = 0.009) muscles. This impaired firing rate of the lower-threshold unit arose, despite an increase in the overall descending command, as shown by the recruitment of the higher-threshold unit during the time that the lower-threshold unit was saturating, and by the continuous increase in averages of the rectified EMG of the biceps brachii muscle throughout the rising phase of the contraction. These results suggest that impairments in firing rate modulation are prevalent in motor units of spastic-paretic muscle, even when the overall descending command to the muscle is increasing. PMID:24572092

  15. Smoking prevalence in Medicaid has been declining at a negligible rate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Hong Zhu

    Full Text Available In recent decades the overall smoking prevalence in the US has fallen steadily. This study examines whether the same trend is seen in the Medicaid population.National Health Interview Survey (NHIS data from 17 consecutive annual surveys from 1997 to 2013 (combined N = 514,043 were used to compare smoking trends for 4 insurance groups: Medicaid, the Uninsured, Private Insurance, and Other Coverage. Rates of chronic disease and psychological distress were also compared.Adjusted smoking prevalence showed no detectable decline in the Medicaid population (from 33.8% in 1997 to 31.8% in 2013, trend test P = 0.13, while prevalence in the other insurance groups showed significant declines (38.6%-34.7% for the Uninsured, 21.3%-15.8% for Private Insurance, and 22.6%-16.8% for Other Coverage; all P's<0.005. Among individuals who have ever smoked, Medicaid recipients were less likely to have quit (38.8% than those in Private Insurance (62.3% or Other Coverage (69.8%; both P's<0.001. Smokers in Medicaid were more likely than those in Private Insurance and the Uninsured to have chronic disease (55.0% vs 37.3% and 32.4%, respectively; both P's<0.01. Smokers in Medicaid were also more likely to experience severe psychological distress (16.2% for Medicaid vs 3.2% for Private Insurance and 7.6% for the Uninsured; both P's<0.001.The high and relatively unchanging smoking prevalence in the Medicaid population, low quit ratio, and high rates of chronic disease and severe psychological distress highlight the need to focus on this population. A targeted and sustained campaign to help Medicaid recipients quit smoking is urgently needed.

  16. Prevalence of self-reported medical conditions among dental patients

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    Mukhatar A Javali

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: The results of our study found a high prevalence of medical conditions among patients seeking periodontal treatment, thereby highlighting the need to record patients' medical and dental care history in detail.

  17. Studies of human mutation rates: Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neel, J.V.

    1988-01-01

    Progress was recorded between January 1 and July 1, 1987 on a project entitled ''Studies of Human Mutation Rates''. Studies underway include methodology for studying mutation at the DNA level, algorithms for automated analyses of two-dimensional polyacrylamide DNA gels, theoretical and applied population genetics, and studies of mutation frequency in A-bomb survivors

  18. Reducing Bias in Citizens’ Perception of Crime Rates: Evidence From a Field Experiment on Burglary Prevalence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin Vinæs; Olsen, Asmus Leth

    2018-01-01

    Citizens are on average too pessimistic when assessing the trajectory of current crime trends. In this study, we examine whether we can correct this perceptual bias with respect to burglaries. Using a field experiment coupled with a large panel survey (n=4,895), we explore whether a public...... information campaign can reduce misperceptions about the prevalence of burglaries. Embedding the correct information about burglary rates in a direct mail campaign, we find that it is possible to substantially reduce citizens’ misperceptions. The effects are not short lived – they are detectable several weeks...... after the mailer was sent, but they are temporary. Eventually the perceptual bias re-emerges. Our results suggest that if citizens were continually supplied with correct information about crime rates they would be less pessimistic. Reducing bias in citizens’ perception of crime rates might therefore...

  19. Prevalence and incidence rates of autism in the UK: time trend from 2004–2010 in children aged 8 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Brent; Jick, Hershel; MacLaughlin, Dean

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To update UK studies begun in the early 1990s on the annual prevalence and incidence rates of autism in children; undertaken in response to a March 2012 press release, widely covered by the media, from the US Centre for Disease Control (CDC) reporting that the autism prevalence rate in 2008 in 8-year-old US children was 1 in 88, a 78% increase from a CDC estimate in 2004. This finding suggested a continuation of the dramatic increase in children diagnosed as autistic, which occurred in the 1990s. Design Population study using the UK General Practice Research Database (GPRD). Methods Annual autism prevalence rates were estimated for children aged 8 years in 2004–2010 by dividing the number diagnosed as autistic in each or any previous year by the number of children active in the study population that year. We also calculated annual incidence rates for children aged 2–8 years, by dividing the number newly diagnosed in 2004–2010 by the same denominators. Results Annual prevalence rates for each year were steady at approximately 3.8/1000 boys and 0.8/1000 girls. Annual incidence rates each year were also steady at about 1.2/1000 boys and 0.2/1000 girls. Conclusions Following a fivefold increase in the annual incidence rates of autism during the 1990s in the UK, the incidence and prevalence rates in 8-year-old children reached a plateau in the early 2000s and remained steady through 2010. Whether prevalence rates have increased from the early 2000s in the USA remains uncertain. PMID:24131525

  20. Prevalence Rate and Risk Factors of Depression in Outpatients with Premature Ejaculation

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    Xiansheng Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the prevalence rate and risk factors of depression in outpatients who were diagnosed with PE. Therefore, between September 2009 and September 2011, 1801 outpatients at andrology clinics were enrolled and consented to participate in our survey by completed a verbal questionnaire. It included the following: (1 demographic data (e.g., age, body mass index, (2 PE duration, medical history, and sexual history, (3 self-estimated intravaginal ejaculatory latency times, (4 the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS, and (5 the National Institute of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI and (6 the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5. The results showed that a total of 1,206 patients were diagnosed with PE. The prevalence rate of depression in these PE patients was 26.78%. Depression was associated with PE duration, NIH-CPSI score, and IIEF-5 score. Risk factors for depression specifically included PE durations for 13–24, 25–60, or ≥61 months, CPSI scores of 15–30 or ≥31, and IIEF-5 scores <22. These findings suggested that several associated factors (PE duration, CPSI scores, and IIEF-5 scores were the risk factors of depression in men with PE.

  1. The impact of height during childhood on the national prevalence rates of overweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dommelen, Paula; de Kroon, Marlou L A; Cameron, Noël; Schönbeck, Yvonne; van Buuren, Stef

    2014-01-01

    It is known that height and body mass index (BMI) are correlated in childhood. However, its impact on the (trend of) national prevalence rates of overweight and obesity has never been investigated. The aim of our study is to investigate the relation between height and national prevalence rates of overweight and obesity in childhood between 1980, 1997, and 2009, and to calculate which fixed value of p (2.0,2.1, …,3.0) in kg/m(p) during childhood is most accurate in predicting adult overweight. Cross-sectional growth data of children from three Dutch nationwide surveys in 1980, 1997, and 2009, and longitudinal data from the Terneuzen Birth Cohort and the Harpenden Growth Study were used. Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Our study showed that tall (>1 standard deviation (SD)) girls aged 5.0-13.9 y were more often overweight (RR = 3.5,95%CI:2.8-4.4) and obese (RR = 3.9,95%CI:2.1-7.4) than short girls (rates of overweight and obesity than their shorter peers. We suggest taking into account the impact of height when evaluating trends and variations of BMI distributions in childhood, and to use BMI to predict adult overweight.

  2. Clinical investigation of proximate exposed group. 1. A study for prevalence rate of diabetes mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Chikako; Hasegawa, Kazuyo; Kato, Masafumi; Kumasawa, Toshihiko

    1984-11-01

    In order to investigate effects of the A-bombing on prevalence of diabetes mellitus, follow-up studies were made on 5907 A-bomb survivors who received glucose tolerance test (GTT) during 20 years between 1963 and 1983. The A-bomb survivors were divided into the group A (1899 men and 1165 women exposed within 1.9 km from the hypocenter) and the group B (1725 men and 1118 women exposed 3.0 km or farther from it). Among non-obese survivors, 21.9% and 21.8% were being treated for diabetes mellitus or were evaluated as having diabetic type on GTT in the group A and the group B, respectively; while this was seen in 52.1% of obese survivors in the group A and 49.9% in the group B. There was no difference between the groups. In non-obese survivors, the annual development rate from the normal type to the diabetic type was 0.89% in the group A and 0.65% in the group B; the annual development rate from the borderline type to the diabetic type was 5.73% in the group A and 5.49% in the group B, showing no differences between the groups. The annual development rate from the normal or borderline type to the diabetic type was two times or higher in obese survivors than in non-obese survivors irrespective of exposure status. Regarding the number of diabetic survivors who became non-diabetic type in spite of having no treatment, and prevalence of diabetic complications, no difference was seen between the groups. These results suggest that the A-bombing has scarcely influenced the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and clinical course.

  3. Dengue virus serological prevalence and seroconversion rates in children and adults in Medellin, Colombia: implications for vaccine introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabali, Mabel; Lim, Jacqueline Kyungah; Velez, Diana Carolina; Trujillo, Andrea; Egurrola, Jorge; Lee, Kang Sung; Kaufman, Jay S; DaSilva, Luiz Jacinto; Velez, Ivan Dario; Osorio, Jorge E

    2017-05-01

    Dengue is an important public health problem worldwide. A vaccine has recently been licensed in some countries of Latin America and Asia. Recommendations for dengue vaccine introduction include endemicity and a high serological prevalence of dengue in the territories considering its introduction. A community-based survey was conducted to estimate dengue seroprevalence and age-specific seroconversion rates in a community in Medellin, Colombia, using a dengue serological test (IgG indirect ELISA). Residents were selected at random and were first screened for dengue infection; they were then followed over 2.5 years. A total of 3684 individuals aged between 1 and 65 years participated in at least one survey. The overall dengue seroprevalence was 61%, and only 3.3% of seropositive subjects self-reported a past history of dengue. Among dengue virus (DENV)-naïve subjects with more than two visits (n=1002), the overall seroconversion rate was 8.7% (95% confidence interval 7.3-10.4) per 1000 person-months, over the study period. Overall, the mean age of DENV prevalent subjects was significantly higher than the mean age of seroconverted subjects. Specifically, DENV seropositivity over 70% was observed in participants over 21 years old. Serotype-specific plaque-reduction neutralization tests (PRNT) revealed that all four dengue serotypes were circulating, with DENV4 being most prevalent. These laboratory-based findings could inform dengue vaccine decisions, as they provide age-specific seroprevalence and seroconversion data, evidencing permanent and ongoing dengue transmission in the study area. This study provides evidence for the existing rates of secondary and heterotypic responses, presenting a challenge that must be addressed adequately by the new vaccine candidates. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder and associated features in German adolescents: A self-report survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möllmann, Anne; Dietel, Fanny A; Hunger, Antje; Buhlmann, Ulrike

    2017-08-01

    Prior research has not yet investigated the prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) in adolescents and young adults based on criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5). In the current study, the point prevalence of BDD, comorbid symptoms, and associated features, such as appearance-related suicidality, level of insight or history of plastic surgeries, were examined in a non-clinical sample of German adolescents and young adults (n=308), between 15 and 21 years old, using self-report measures. Eleven participants (3.6%; 95% CI=[1.9, 5.8]) met DSM-5 criteria for BDD. Self-reported BDD (vs. no-BDD) was related to respondents showing significantly more obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms and lower degrees of insight regarding appearance concerns. Significantly more adolescents and young adults with vs. without self-reported BDD (36.4% vs. 8.8%) reported appearance-related suicidal ideation. In conclusion, body dysmorphic symptoms are common in adolescents and young adults and are associated with high rates of comorbid symptoms and suicidal ideation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevalence of parent-reported immediate hypersensitivity food allergy in Chilean school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyos-Bachiloglu, R; Ivanovic-Zuvic, D; Álvarez, J; Linn, K; Thöne, N; de los Ángeles Paul, M; Borzutzky, A

    2014-01-01

    Food allergies (FAs) affect 2-4% of school-aged children in developed countries and strongly impact their quality of life. The prevalence of FA in Chile remains unknown. Cross-sectional survey study of 488 parents of school-aged children from Santiago who were asked to complete a FA screening questionnaire. Parents who reported symptoms suggestive of FA were contacted to answer a second in-depth questionnaire to determine immediate hypersensitivity FA prevalence and clinical characteristics of school-aged Chilean children. A total of 455 parents answered the screening questionnaire: 13% reported recurrent symptoms to a particular food and 6% reported FA. Forty-three screening questionnaires (9%) were found to be suggestive of FA. Parents of 40 children answered the second questionnaire; 25 were considered by authors to have FA. FA rate was 5.5% (95% CI: 3.6-7.9). Foods reported to frequently cause FA included walnut, peanut, egg, chocolate, avocado, and banana. Children with FA had more asthma (20% vs. 7%, Phistory compatible with anaphylaxis. Of 13 children who sought medical attention, 70% were diagnosed with FA; none were advised to acquire an epinephrine autoinjector. Up to 5.5% of school-aged Chilean children may suffer from FA, most frequently to walnut and peanut. It is critical to raise awareness in Chile regarding FA and recognition of anaphylaxis, and promote epinephrine autoinjectors in affected children. Copyright © 2013 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Self-Reported Prevalence of Gluten-Related Disorders and Adherence to Gluten-Free Diet in Colombian Adult Population

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    Francisco Cabrera-Chávez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Celiac disease seems to be rare in Colombians, but there are currently no data about the prevalence rates of symptomatic adverse reactions to gluten or adherence to gluten-free diet (GFD in this population. Aim. to evaluate the self-reported prevalence rates of adverse reactions to gluten, adherence to GFD, and gluten-related disorders at population level in Colombia. Methods. A self-administered questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was conducted in a population from Northwest Colombia. Results. The estimated prevalence rates were (95% CI 7.9% (6.5–9.6 and 5.3% (4.1–6.7 for adverse and recurrent adverse reactions to wheat/gluten, respectively, adherence to GFD 5.9% (4.7–7.4, wheat allergy 0.74% (0.3–1.4, and nonceliac gluten sensitivity 4.5% (3.5–5.8. There were no self-reported cases of celiac disease. Prevalence of self-reported physician-diagnosis of gluten-related disorders was 0.41% (0.17–0.96. Most respondents reported adherence to GFD without a physician-diagnosis of gluten-related disorders (97.2%. The proportion of gluten avoiders was 17.2% (15.2–19.5. Most of them did not report recurrent adverse reactions to wheat/gluten (87.0%. Conclusions. Nonceliac gluten sensitivity is rarely formally diagnosed in Colombia, but this population has the highest prevalence rate of adherence to GFD reported to date. Consequently, most respondents were avoiding wheat- and/or gluten-based products for reasons other than health-related symptoms.

  7. Prevalence of xerostomia and the salivary flow rate in diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malicka, Barbara; Kaczmarek, Urszula; Skośkiewicz-Malinowska, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia, which results from relative or absolute insulin deficiency. One of the first oral symptoms of diabetes is xerostomia. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of the xerostomia symptoms and salivary flow rate in diabetic patients according to the type of diabetes, the level of metabolic control and the duration of the disease. The study involved 156 adult patients of both sexes including 34 patients with diabetes type 1 (group C1), 59 with diabetes type 2 (group C2), and 63 generally healthy individuals as two control groups, sex- and age-matched to the diabetic group. The patients suffering from both types of diabetes were additionally subdivided according to the level of metabolic control and the duration of the disease. Xerostomia was diagnosed with the use of a specially prepared questionnaire and Fox's test. Moreover, the salivary flow rate of resting mixed saliva was measured. In type 1 diabetics, a significantly lower salivary flow rate in comparison to the age-matched control group (0.38 ± 0.19 mL/min vs. 0.53 ± 0.20 mL/min, p diabetics, a slight lower salivary flow rate was noticed (on average, 20% lower). Dry mouth was far more frequently diagnosed in type 1 diabetics than in the control group. In type 1 diabetics, in comparison to healthy subjects, a significantly lower resting flow rate of saliva and significantly higher prevalence of xerosomia were observed, but in type 2 diabetics, only a trend of such variability was observed.

  8. Gender differences in drunk driving prevalence rates and trends: a 20-year assessment using multiple sources of evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Jennifer

    2008-09-01

    This research tracked women's and men's drunk driving rates and the DUI sex ratio in the United States from 1982-2004 using three diverse sources of evidence. Sex-specific prevalence estimates and the sex ratio are derived from official arrest statistics from the Federal Bureau of Investigation, self-reports from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and traffic fatality data from the National Highway and Transportation Safety Administration. Drunk driving trends were analyzed using Augmented Dickey Fuller time series techniques. Female DUI arrest rates increased whereas male rates declined then stabilized, producing a significantly narrower sex ratio. According to self-report and traffic data, women's and men's drunk driving rates declined and the gender gap was unchanged. Women's overrepresentation in arrests relative to their share of offending began in the 1990s and accelerated in 2000. Women's arrest gains, contrasted with no systematic change in DUI behavior, and the timing of this shift suggest an increased vulnerability to arrest. More stringent laws and enforcement directed at less intoxicated offenders may inadvertently target female offending patterns.

  9. Changes in Yearly Birth Prevalence Rates of Children with Down Syndrome in the Period 1986-2007 in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, G.; Haveman, M.; Hochstenbach, R.; Engelen, J.; Gerssen-Schoorl, K.; Poddighe, P.; Smeets, D.; van Hove, G.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The Netherlands are lacking reliable national empirical data in relation to the development of birth prevalence of Down syndrome. Our study aims at assessing valid national live birth prevalence rates for the period 1986-2007. Method: On the basis of the annual child/adult ratio of Down syndrome diagnoses in five out of the eight Dutch…

  10. Prevalence rates of ADIPOQ polymorphisms in Indian population and a comparison with other populations

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    Sandhya Kiran Pemmasani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The adiponectin gene, ADIPOQ, encodes an adipocytokine, known as adiponectin hormone. This hormone is known to be associated with insulin sensitization, fat metabolism, immunity, and inflammatory response. Polymorphisms in ADIPOQ gene lower the adiponectin levels, increasing the risk for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Aims: The study aimed to calculate the prevalence rates of ADIPOQ polymorphisms in Indian population and to compare those prevalence rates with that of other populations. Subjects and Methods: Microarray-based genotypic data of 14 ADIPOQ polymorphisms from 703 individuals of Indian origin were used. Statistical Analysis Used: Frequency estimation, identity-by-descent, Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium, Chi-square test of significance were used for statistical analysis. Results: Allelic and genotypic frequencies of ADIPOQ polymorphisms, Chi-square tests of significance for allelic and genotypic frequencies across various populations. Conclusions: East Asians are very different from Indians in terms of allelic and genotypic frequencies of ADIPOQ polymorphisms. Europeans have similar genotypic and allelic patterns with Indians. Admixture Americans and Africans also showed significant differences with polymorphisms of the Indian population.

  11. [Correlative factors on prevalence rate of dislipidemia among 1 337 coal miners in Shanxi province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Z D; Wen, D D; Wang, B; Xue, S L; Liu, G S; Li, X H; Zhao, Z H; Wang, J; Wei, B G; Wang, S P

    2017-02-10

    Objective: To understand the prevalence rate and correlative factors of dislipidemia among Shanxi coal miners and to provide evidence for the development of programs on dislipidemia prevention. Methods: We investigated 1 337 mine workers from a Coal Group in April 2016 and collected data related to their blood biochemistry. We then classified the types in accordance with the diagnostic criteria of " Guidelines for prevention and treatment of dyslipidemia in Chinese adults (2007)" , using χ (2) test and unconditional logistic regression model for analysis. Results: The overall prevalence rate of Dislipidemia was 59.1% (790/1 337), with males as 60.4% (708/1 173) and females as 50.0%(82/164) while males appeared higher ( χ (2)=6.386, P dislipidemia ( χ (2)=7.117, P dislipidemia ( P dislipidemia. Conclusion: Among the coal mine workers, those who were males, aged from 20 to 34, having high blood pressure (systolic blood pressure abnormalities) or with high BMI (≥24.0 kg/m(2)) need to be taken special attention on care and prevention of dislipidemia.

  12. Regional differences in self-reported screening, prevalence and management of cardiovascular risk factors in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In Switzerland, health policies are decided at the local level, but little is known regarding their impact on the screening and management of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs). We thus aimed at assessing geographical levels of CVRFs in Switzerland. Methods Swiss Health Survey for 2007 (N = 17,879). Seven administrative regions were defined: West (Leman), West-Central (Mittelland), Zurich, South (Ticino), North-West, East and Central Switzerland. Obesity, smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes prevalence, treatment and screening within the last 12 months were assessed by interview. Results After multivariate adjustment for age, gender, educational level, marital status and Swiss citizenship, no significant differences were found between regions regarding prevalence of obesity or current smoking. Similarly, no differences were found regarding hypertension screening and prevalence. Two thirds of subjects who had been told they had high blood pressure were treated, the lowest treatment rates being found in East Switzerland: odds-ratio and [95% confidence interval] 0.65 [0.50-0.85]. Screening for hypercholesterolemia was more frequently reported in French (Leman) and Italian (Ticino) speaking regions. Four out of ten participants who had been told they had high cholesterol levels were treated and the lowest treatment rates were found in German-speaking regions. Screening for diabetes was higher in Ticino (1.24 [1.09 - 1.42]). Six out of ten participants who had been told they had diabetes were treated, the lowest treatment rates were found for German-speaking regions. Conclusions In Switzerland, cardiovascular risk factor screening and management differ between regions and these differences cannot be accounted for by differences in populations' characteristics. Management of most cardiovascular risk factors could be improved. PMID:22452881

  13. Federal Prevailing Rate Advisory Committee (FPRAC) Annual Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — Annual reports of the Federal Prevailing Rate Advisory Committee (FPRAC), which studies the prevailing (market) rate system for wages and other matters pertinent to...

  14. Trends in self-reported prevalence and management of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes in Swiss adults, 1997-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Switzerland has a low mortality rate from cardiovascular diseases, but little is known regarding prevalence and management of cardiovascular risk factors (CV RFs: hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes) in the general population. In this study, we assessed 10-year trends in self-reported prevalence and management of cardiovascular risk factors in Switzerland. Methods data from three national health interview surveys conducted between 1997 and 2007 in representative samples of the Swiss adult population (49,261 subjects overall). Self-reported CV RFs prevalence, treatment and control levels were computed. The sample was weighted to match the sex - and age distribution, geographical location and nationality of the entire adult population of Switzerland. Results self-reported prevalence of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes increased from 22.1%, 11.9% and 3.3% in 1997 to 24.1%, 17.4% and 4.8% in 2007, respectively. Prevalence of self-reported treatment among subjects with CV RFs also increased from 52.1%, 18.5% and 50.0% in 1997 to 60.4%, 38.8% and 53.3% in 2007 for hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes, respectively. Self-reported control levels increased from 56.4%, 52.9% and 50.0% in 1997 to 80.6%, 75.1% and 53.3% in 2007 for hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes, respectively. Finally, screening during the last 12 months increased from 84.5%, 86.5% and 87.4% in 1997 to 94.0%, 94.6% and 94.1% in 2007 for hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes, respectively. Conclusion in Switzerland, the prevalences of self-reported hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes have increased between 1997 and 2007. Management and screening have improved, but further improvements can still be achieved as over one third of subjects with reported CV RFs are not treated. PMID:21332996

  15. Prevalence rate of post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD and other psychological disorders among Saudi firefighters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Alghamd

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Firefighters have a high probability of being exposed to a variety of traumatic events. Potentially traumatic events can occur during a single rescue such as: providing aid to seriously injured or helpless victims. Moreover, firefighters who are injured in the line of duty may have to retire as a consequence of their injury. The psychological cost of this exposure may increase the risk of long-term problems, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms, depression, and anxiety. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of PTSD symptoms, depression, anxiety, and assess related variables such as coping strategies and social support among Saudi firefighters. Method: Two hundred firefighters completed the Fire-fighter Trauma History Screen (FTHS to measure the number of traumatic events, Screen for Post-traumatic Stress Symptoms (SPTSS scale to assess the prevalence of PTSD symptoms, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales (HADS to assess depression and anxiety, Brief Cope (BC scale to measure coping strategies used, and Social Support scale was used to evaluate the firefighter's support received. Results: The results showed that 84% (169/200 of firefighters were exposed to at least one traumatic event. The result presented that 57% (96/169 of exposure firefighters fully met the DSM-IV criteria for PTSD with high levels of depression and anxiety; 39% (66/169 partially met the PTSD criteria. However, only 4% participants have not met the PTSD criteria. The results also revealed that adaptive coping strategies and higher perceived social support was associated with lower levels of PTSD. Conclusion: The high prevalence rate of PTSD related to the type and severity of the traumatic events and years of experience in the job. Accordingly, many firefighters were severely affected by their experiences, and we should be developing methods to help them.

  16. The impact of height during childhood on the national prevalence rates of overweight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula van Dommelen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is known that height and body mass index (BMI are correlated in childhood. However, its impact on the (trend of national prevalence rates of overweight and obesity has never been investigated. The aim of our study is to investigate the relation between height and national prevalence rates of overweight and obesity in childhood between 1980, 1997, and 2009, and to calculate which fixed value of p (2.0,2.1, …,3.0 in kg/m(p during childhood is most accurate in predicting adult overweight. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Cross-sectional growth data of children from three Dutch nationwide surveys in 1980, 1997, and 2009, and longitudinal data from the Terneuzen Birth Cohort and the Harpenden Growth Study were used. Relative risks (RR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated. Our study showed that tall (>1 standard deviation (SD girls aged 5.0-13.9 y were more often overweight (RR = 3.5,95%CI:2.8-4.4 and obese (RR = 3.9,95%CI:2.1-7.4 than short girls (<-1 SD. Similar results were found in boys aged 5.0-14.9 y (RR = 4.4,95%CI:3.4-5.7 and RR = 5.3,95%CI:2.6-11.0. No large differences were found in the other age groups and in comparison with children with an average stature. Tall boys aged 2.0-4.9 y had a significantly higher positive trend in overweight between 1980 and 1997 compared to short boys (RR = 4.0,95%CI:1.38-11.9. For other age groups and in girls, no significant trends were found. The optimal Area Under the Curve (AUC to predict adult overweight was found for p = 2.0. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Tall girls aged 5.0-13.9y and tall boys aged 5.0-14.9y have much higher prevalence rates of overweight and obesity than their shorter peers. We suggest taking into account the impact of height when evaluating trends and variations of BMI distributions in childhood, and to use BMI to predict adult overweight.

  17. Brief Report: Prevalence of Autistic Spectrum Disorders in the Sultanate of Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Farsi, Yahya M.; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M.; Al-Farsi, Omar A.; Al-Shafaee, Mohammed S.; Brooks, Daniel R.; Waly, Mostafa I.

    2011-01-01

    Prevalence of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) in Oman is unknown. We conducted a cross-sectional study to estimate the prevalence of ASD among 0-14 year old children. Diagnoses were made as per DSM-IV-TR criteria and supplemented with information collected with the standard Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) questionnaire. A total 113 cases of…

  18. The effect of somatic symptom attribution on the prevalence rate of depression and anxiety among nursing home patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalbrugge, Martin; Pot, Anne Margriet; Jongenelis, Lineke; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Eefsting, Jan A

    2005-01-01

    The validity of diagnostic psychiatric instruments for depression and anxiety disorders may be compromised among patients with complex physical illness and disability. The objective of this study was to determine the effect on the prevalence rate of depression and anxiety in a nursing home population of attributing somatic symptoms of depression and anxiety to either somatic or psychiatric disorder. Symptoms of major depression (MD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and panic disorder (PD) were measured using the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN). Somatic symptoms of MD, GAD and PD were attributed to somatic causes when the interviewer was not sure about a psychiatric cause. To analyse the effect of this attribution on the prevalence rate of MD, GAD and PD, a sensitivity analysis was undertaken in which symptoms that were attributed to somatic causes were recoded as symptoms attributed to psychiatric disorder. Prevalence rates of MD, GAD and PD were calculated before and after recoding. The prevalence of MD after recoding rose from 7.5% to 8.1%. The prevalence of GAD did not change. The prevalence of PD rose from 1.5% to 1.8%. Attribution of somatic symptoms to either somatic or psychiatric disorder when the interviewer was not sure about a psychiatric cause of the somatic symptoms had only a very modest effect on the prevalence rate of major depression, generalized anxiety disorder and panic disorder in a nursing home population.

  19. Prevalence of sinus floor elevation procedures and survival rates of implants placed in the posterior maxilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceyda Ozçakır Tomruk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of sinus-lifting procedures and survival rates of implants placed in the posterior maxilla. This retrospective chart review examined consecutive patients with tooth/teeth loss in the posterior maxilla between 2008 and 2012 treated with sinus lift, when needed, and implant insertion. Demographic variables, health status, residual alveolar bone height, augmentation types, the implant position, diameter and height, and implant failure, prosthesis types, and the marginal bone loss were recorded. The study included 302 patients at a mean age of 5.2 years, who received a total of 609 dental implants. A total of 380 (62.3% implants were inserted in native areas, 203 (33.3% ones in external sinus-lifted areas and 26 (4.4% ones in internal lifted areas. The survival rate in native or internal lifted areas were 100% and 95.6% in external sinus lifted ones (10 implant failures/203 implants. Almost half of the implants were examined radiologically with a mean duration of 30 months and the mean marginal bone loss was 0.64 ± 1.2 mm. The results showed that the survival rates of native bone and the internal sinus lifting were slightly higher than that of external sinus lifting. Implants placed with sinus augmentation exhibited more marginal bone loss than implants in native bone.

  20. Prevalence Rate of Using ٍEcstasy among Medical Sciences Students in Urmia University in 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Miri Ghaffarzadeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The present study aims to achieve a comprehensive depiction of ecstasy consumption among the students of Urmia University of medical sciences in 2007.Materials & Methods: Totally 950 students were surveyed in this cross-sectional descriptive study. A census was used as a sampling method. A self-report questionnaire regarding demographic details and ecstasy consumption was completed by students. Data was stored in a database and then was analyzed through descriptive tests by SPSS software. Chi square test was used to determine the correlation coefficient.Results: There were 798 subjects of all target population who had never used this drug. However, 132 subjects (18 regularly, 56 occasionally for fun and 58 at least once consumed ecstasy pills. Thus the point prevalence of ecstasy consumption among the students was 14.19 percent. There were 232 subjects who had never heard of the term “ecstasy". Instead, the knowledge source of the rest about ecstasy was books (116 subject, internet (56 subjects, mass media (489 subjects, friends (28 subjects, and family (2 subjects. A significant relation was observed between ecstasy consumption and other variables (parents' education, residence in student campus, attending parties, smoking, canabis and opium consumption. Conclusion: Results of this study revealed that the point prevalence of ecstasy pills consumption among university students was 14.19% that raises the need for purposive intervention and the necessity of planning to prevent and decrease this phenomenon.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2012;18(4:67-72

  1. The trend of pressure ulcer prevalence rates in German hospitals: results of seven cross-sectional studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottner, Jan; Wilborn, Doris; Dassen, Theo; Lahmann, Nils

    2009-05-01

    Pressure ulcer prevalence rates provide useful information about the magnitude of this health problem. Only limited information on pressure ulcers in Germany was available before 2001. The purpose of this study was to compare results of seven pressure ulcer prevalence surveys which were conducted annually between 2001 and 2007 and to explore whether pressure ulcer prevalence rates decreased. The second aim was to evaluate if the measured prevalence rates of our sample could be generalised for all German hospitals. Results of seven point pressure ulcer prevalence studies conducted in 225 German hospitals were analysed. Chi-square tests, chi-square trend tests and one-way ANOVA to assess differences and trends across the years were applied. The sample was stratified according to pressure ulcer risk and speciality. Finally, study samples were compared with the potential population. In total data of 40,247 hospital patients were analysed. The overall pressure ulcer prevalence rate in German hospitals was 10.2%. Patient samples of each year were comparable regarding gender, age and pressure ulcer risk. Pressure ulcer prevalence rates decreased from 13.9% (year 2001) to 7.3% (year 2007) (pcare units remained stable. With some limitations our study results are representative for all hospitals within Germany. It is highly probable that the decrease of prevalence rates was due to an increased awareness of the pressure ulcer problem in Germany and subsequent efforts to improve pressure ulcer prevention and treatment. The quality of clinical practice regarding pressure ulcer prevention and treatment has improved. However, pressure ulcers are still relevant and require attention. In 2007, one out of 10 hospital patients who were at pressure ulcer risk had at least one pressure related skin damage.

  2. Self-reported premature ejaculation prevalence and characteristics in Korean young males: community-based data from an internet survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Hwancheol; Song, Sang Hoon; Kim, Soo Woong; Paick, Jae-Seung

    2010-01-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is suspected to be the most prevalent male sexual complaint, and the prevalence of PE is considerably high also in the younger generation. We investigated the PE prevalence based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed text revision; DSM-IV-TR) definition and the risk factors of PE in Korean young men via Internet survey. Subjects (n = 3980) aged from 20 to 59, who performed sexual intercourse more than once a month during the past 6 months were asked to participate in this study. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire that consisted of questions on general, medical, and sexual history related to ejaculation. A total of 600 subjects were included in this study. PE prevalence was found to be 18.3%. Prevalences were not significantly different across age groups, after excluding subjects with erectile dysfunction (ED). Educational level, marital status and duration, average income, sexual orientation, smoking, alcohol consumption, and circumcision status showed no difference in the PE and non-PE groups. Partners perceived satisfaction rates were 45.0% in the PE group and 63.9% in the non-PE group. Significant differences were found between the PE and non-PE groups in terms of ED, obesity, and depression prevalence. However, multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the significant risk factors of PE were age and the frequency of conversations with partners about sexual intercourse. This Internet-based study is limited because participants probably represent a selected population of Internet users with non-representative educational and socioeconomic profiles. This study is the first to report the prevalence of both self-reported PE and PE on the basis of the DSM-IV-TR definition in the Korean population. This study demonstrates that PE in Korea is as prevalent as it is in European countries and the United States.

  3. Low disease prevalence and inappropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator shock rate in Brugada syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Jensen, Henrik Kjærulf; Eschen, Ole

    2012-01-01

    AimsBrugada syndrome (BrS) is an inherited channelopathy that predisposes to malignant ventricular arrhythmias and thereby syncope and sudden cardiac death. Prior studies characterizing BrS patients have used highly selected referral populations from tertiary centres and prevalence estimates have...... been carried out using electrocardiogram (ECG) surveys only. We aimed to identify and characterize all diagnosed BrS patients in Denmark (population 5.4 million).Methods and resultsBrugada syndrome patients were identified using several modalities including identification in all Danish tertiary......%) experienced inappropriate shocks during a median follow-up of 47 months. No patient died or experienced aborted sudden cardiac death during follow-up.ConclusionsWe report the first nationwide study of BrS patients. We found a low incidence of diagnosed definite BrS compared with estimates from ECG surveys...

  4. The prevalence of PFS and prevalence and characteristics of reported food allergy; a survey of UK adults aged 18-75 incorporating a validated PFS diagnostic questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skypala, I J; Bull, S; Deegan, K; Gruffydd-Jones, K; Holmes, S; Small, I; Emery, P W; Durham, S R

    2013-08-01

    Pollen-food syndrome (PFS), a food allergy affecting pollen-sensitized individuals, is likely to be the most prevalent food allergy in adults, estimated to affect 50-90% of people allergic to birch tree pollen. A validated PFS diagnostic questionnaire (PFSDQ2) was used to determine the prevalence of PFS and also to characterize those who report reactions to foods. Five UK General practices each sent the PFSDQ2 by post to 2000 patients aged 18-75 years randomly selected from their practice database. The validated questionnaire was accompanied by an additional set of questions to ascertain the demographic of the population, the foods involved and the age of onset. There were 3590 subjects who returned completed questionnaires, with an average return rate from each practice of 36% (range 22-47%). Of these, 73 were diagnosed with PFS according to the questionnaire (PFS+ve) giving a population prevalence of 2%. A further 482 subjects reported reactions to foods but did not fulfil the diagnostic criteria for PFS. The greatest prevalence of PFS was in the Croydon (SE England) urban practice (4.1%) and the lowest in the Aberdeen (Scotland) urban practice (0.8%) (P < 0.001).The most frequently reported trigger foods were apples, hazelnuts and kiwifruit and the majority of those with PFS first experienced symptoms below the age of 20 years. PFS+ve subjects were also more likely to be female and have a higher socio-economic status than those who did not report reactions to foods. The UK prevalence of PFS was 2%, although this varied according to the location of the practice population. The majority of PFS+ve subjects first reported symptoms in their teens. The reported age of onset has important implications for the diagnosis of primary and cross-reactive peanut and tree nut allergies in teenagers and young adults. The continuing rise in aeroallergen sensitization is likely to result in an increased frequency of PFS presenting in both primary and secondary care. © 2013

  5. Interrelation between the prevalence rate of suicides and the length of working hours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Korotkov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is known that overworking as well as deficiency of work (plenty of free time are major factors of a suicide on an individual level which allows when passing to the level of a real social group (employees to suppose of existence of a certain optimum of working time or a parabolic (U-shaped connection between the suicide rate and an average duration of working time. From the theoretical point of view the supposed parabolic dependence of the level of prevalence of suicides from an average duration of working time of employees is described from the point of view of suicidology: excessive increase of working time is an external tendency which prevents satisfaction of actual needs of an employee and limits physically the space (off-work time for their realization. Multidirectional tendencies form a life conflict which has crucial significance when transferring to a suicidal phase. The objective of this article consists in a qualitative assessment of an influence of “an average duration of working time” on the level of prevalence of suicides when other things are fixed (economic, social, religious and others in a relatively stable social situation. For the econometric analysis, reliable and comparable data of the European database of detailed mortality data of the World Health Organization and Eurostat are used for 22 European countries for the period from 1998 till 2012. Based on analysis of a dynamics of the studied variables different hypothesis have been made: 1 about existence of statistically significant linear or logarithmic dependence of the level of prevalence of suicides from an average factual duration of working time inside a country 2 about existence of a parabolic (U-shaped dependence of the level of prevalence of suicides from an average factual duration of working time between countries. A set of panel unit root tests and stationarity testify that the examined variables are unsteady variables with integratedness order I(1. The

  6. The prevalence of self-reported neck pain in rugby union players in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    however, very little research has been done on the prevalence of self- reported neck pain in rugby .... Car accident. Other. Fall. Other sport ... Driving. Work. Personal care. Recreation. Concentration. Sleeping. Reading. Lifting. Headaches.

  7. Call for early prevention: prevalence rates of overweight among Turkish and Moroccan children in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dommelen, Paula; Schönbeck, Yvonne; HiraSing, Remy A; van Buuren, Stef

    2015-10-01

    Monitoring overweight in risk groups is necessary. Our aim is to assess the trend in overweight and obesity in Turkish and Moroccan children in the Netherlands since 1997 and to monitor the levels of lifestyle-related behaviours in 2009. We selected cross-sectional data of Turkish and Moroccan children aged 2-18 years from two national Growth Studies performed in 1997 and 2009 in the Netherlands. Lifestyle-related behaviours were obtained in the 2009 study by questionnaire. In 2009, 31.9% of Turkish and 26.6% of Moroccan children had overweight, whereas this was, respectively, 26.7% and 19.6% in 1997. Already at 2 years, 21.1% in Turkish and 22.7% in Moroccan children had overweight in 2009. The prevalence of obesity was above 4% from 3 years onwards. High (i.e. ≥ 25%) prevalence rates of unhealthy lifestyle-related behaviours were found for not having breakfast (26-49%) among Turkish and Moroccan adolescent (i.e. 15-18 years) girls, consuming no fruit (29-45%) and watching TV/PC ≥ 2 h (35-72%) among all Turkish and Moroccan adolescents, no walking/cycling to school/day care among preschool children (2-4 years) (28-56%) and adolescents (34-94%), drinking ≥ 2 glasses of sweet beverages (44-74%) and being children. An upward trend of overweight and obesity occurred in Turkish and Moroccan children. Already at 2 years of age, one out of five Turkish and Moroccan children had overweight, which calls for early prevention with attention to specific lifestyle-related behaviours. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Self-Reported Violence of Osaka and Seattle Male Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Laura; Farrington, David P.; Ueda, Mitsuaki; Hill, Karl G.

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, Japan has been regarded as a country with low crime. Comparative research has given insights into the extent of similarities and differences in crime between America and Japan. The importance of these studies is the examination of whether Western-established criminological knowledge is applicable to non- Western societies like Japan. Unfortunately, comparative self-report studies involving Japan and investigating youth offending are scarce. The current study investigates risk factors and self-reports of violence from Osaka and Seattle male youths. The findings reveal that Japanese male youths self-report a higher prevalence of violence than Seattle male youths. Risk factors for violence, issues of comparability, and prevalence versus strength of relationships of risk factors are examined. It is concluded that the higher prevalence of violence in Osaka is primarily a function of the higher prevalence of troubled peers and risk taking. The findings call for replication of this type of comparative research. PMID:24013769

  9. Trends of increases in potential risk factors and prevalence rates of diabetes mellitus in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavasit, V; Kriengsinyos, W; Photi, J; Tontisirin, K

    2017-07-01

    Over the past three decades, undernutrition in Thailand has drastically reduced by over seven times. However, since 1995 the number of patients afflicted with non-communicable diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, has rapidly increased, even among the young. Unhealthy life styles due to urbanization are a major reason for this increase. Less physical activity and low consumption of fruits and vegetables, as well as high consumption of added free sugar, are common. Every year, the Thai people increase their consumption of energy from fat and protein, while lowering their intake of energy from complex carbohydrates. Per capita and on average, a Thai individual consumes up to 20% of total energy from added free sugar. Barker's hypothesis and Developmental Origins of Health and Disease hypothesis (DOHaD) can partially explain the increase in diabetes mellitus at this rapid rate. To alleviate the problem, the main strategy has been consumer education to reduce diabetes mellitus prevalence. Sugar elimination from infant formula is mandatory and sugar taxation is being considered. Simplified nutrition labeling is voluntarily as part of consumer education, as well as encouraging food industries to produce healthier food products. Currently, a multi-sectoral approach is used for alleviating diabetes mellitus in Thailand.

  10. High third-generation cephalosporin resistant Enterobacteriaceae prevalence rate among neonatal infections in Dakar, Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien Breurec

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neonatal infection constitutes one of Senegal’s most important public health problems, with a mortality rate of 41 deaths per 1,000 live births. Methods Between January 2007 and March 2008, 242 neonates with suspected infection were recruited at three neonatal intensive care units in three major tertiary care centers in Dakar, the capital of Senegal. Neonatal infections were confirmed by positive bacterial blood or cerebrospinal fluid culture. The microbiological pattern of neonatal infections and the antibiotic susceptibility of the isolates were characterized. In addition, the genetic basis for antibiotic resistance and the genetic background of third-generation cephalosporin-resistant (3GC-R Enterobacteriaceae were studied. Results A bacteriological infection was confirmed in 36.4 % (88/242 of neonates: 22.7 % (30/132 during the early-onset and 52.7 % (58/110 during the late-onset periods (p > 0.20. Group B streptococci accounted for 6.8 % of the 88 collected bacterial isolates, while most of them were Enterobacteriaceae (n = 69, 78.4 %. Of these, 55/69 (79.7 % were 3GC-R. The blaCTX-M-15 allele, the blaSHV and the blaTEM were highly prevalent (63.5, 65.4 and 53.8 %, respectively, usually associated with qnr genes (65.4 %. Clonally related strains of 3GC-R Klebsiella pneumoniae and 3GC-R Enterobacter cloacae, the two most commonly recovered 3GC-R Enterobacteriaceae (48/55, were detected at the three hospitals, underlining the role of cross-transmission in their spread. The overall case fatality rate was 18.6 %. Conclusions Measures should be taken to prevent nosocomial infections and the selection of resistant bacteria.

  11. Provider-Initiated Patient Satisfaction Reporting Yields Improved Physician Ratings Relative to Online Rating Websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardi, Benjamin F; Waddell, Brad S; Nodzo, Scott R; Lange, Jeffrey; Nocon, Allina A; Amundsen, Spencer; Tarity, T David; McLawhorn, Alexander S

    2017-09-01

    Recently, providers have begun to publicly report the results of patient satisfaction surveys from their practices. However, these outcomes have never been compared with the findings of commercial online physician rating websites. The goals of the current study were to (1) compare overall patient satisfaction ratings for orthopedic surgeons derived from provider-based third-party surveys with existing commercial physician rating websites and (2) determine the association between patient ratings and provider characteristics. The authors identified 12 institutions that provided publicly available patient satisfaction outcomes derived from third-party surveys for their orthopedic surgeons as of August 2016. Orthopedic surgeons at these institutions were eligible for inclusion (N=340 surgeons). Provider characteristics were recorded from publicly available data. Four high-traffic commercial online physician rating websites were identified: Healthgrades.com, UCompareHealthCare.com, Vitals.com, and RateMDs.com. For each surgeon, overall ratings (on a scale of 1-5), total number of ratings, and percentage of negative ratings were compared between provider-initiated internal ratings and each commercial online website. Associations between baseline factors and overall physician ratings and negative ratings were assessed. Provider-initiated internal patient satisfaction ratings showed a greater number of overall patient ratings, higher overall patient satisfaction ratings, and a lower percentage of negative comments compared with commercial online physician rating websites. A greater number of years in practice had a weak association with lower internal ratings, and an academic practice setting and a location in the Northeast were protective factors for negative physician ratings. Compared with commercial online physician rating websites, provider-initiated patient satisfaction ratings of orthopedic surgeons appear to be more favorable, with greater numbers of responses

  12. Prevalence of Occupational Exposure to Pathogens and Reporting Behaviour among Cypriot Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Efstathiou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Occupational exposure to pathogens forms a major concern among nurses, the largest team among healthcare professionals. Unfortunately, international literature marks high rates of occupational exposure to pathogens among nurses. Data from these studies allow to the implementation of prevention programs to avoid such incidences.Aim:To assess the prevalence of Cypriot nurses’ occupational exposure to pathogens as well as their reporting behaviour following such incidences.Methodology: A cross sectional survey has been conducted among a convenience sample of 577 nurses, during March and May 2010.Results: Our analysis demonstrated that almost half of Cypriot nurses (48.4% had at least one incidence of occupational exposure to pathogens, with more than 20% of the exposed nurses having been exposed via more than one mode. The majority of them have made a report of the incident, according to the policy of their hospital. Main reasons for not reporting such a critical incident included being too busy and forgetfulness.Conclusions: The results indicate that exposure to pathogens among Cypriot nurses is high, a fact that puts them into danger for acquiring an infection. A risk management program should be implemented to reduce such incidents.

  13. Epilepsy or seizure disorder? The effect of cultural and socioeconomic factors on self-reported prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroner, Barbara L; Fahimi, Mansour; Gaillard, William D; Kenyon, Anne; Thurman, David J

    2016-09-01

    Self-reported epilepsy may be influenced by culture, knowledge, and beliefs. We screened 6420 residents of the District of Columbia (DC) for epilepsy to investigate whether socio-demographics were associated with whether they reported their diagnosis as epilepsy or as seizure disorder. Lifetime and active prevalence rates were 0.54% and 0.21%, respectively for 'epilepsy' and 1.30% and 0.70%, respectively for 'seizure disorder'. Seizure disorder was reported significantly more often than epilepsy among blacks, females, respondents≥50years, those with lower level education, respondents who lived alone and in low income neighborhoods, and those who resided in DC for at least five years. Clinicians should assure that patients and caregivers understand that epilepsy is synonymous with seizure disorder and other culturally appropriate terms, in order to optimize compliance with treatment, disease management instructions, and utilization of other resources targeted at persons with epilepsy. Furthermore, education and awareness campaigns aimed at improving access-to-care, reducing stigma, and increasing awareness of adverse events, such as SUDEP, should include a more diverse definition of epilepsy in their messages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Publicly Reported Wound Healing Rates: The Fantasy and the Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fife, Caroline E.; Eckert, Kristen A.; Carter, Marissa J.

    2018-01-01

    Significance: We compare real-world data from the U.S. Wound Registry (USWR) with randomized controlled trials and publicly reported wound outcomes and develop criteria for honest reporting of wound outcomes, a requirement of the new Quality Payment Program (QPP). Recent Advances: Because no method has existed by which wounds could be stratified according to their likelihood of healing among real-world patients, practitioners have reported fantastically high healing rates. The USWR has developed several risk-stratified wound healing quality measures for diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) and venous leg ulcers (VLUs) as part of its Qualified Clinical Data Registry (QCDR). This allows practitioners to report DFU and VLU healing rates in comparison to the likelihood of whether the wound would have healed. Critical Issues: Under the new QPP, practitioners must report at least one practice-relevant outcome measure, and it must be risk adjusted so that clinicians caring for the sickest patients do not appear to have worse outcomes than their peers. The Wound Healing Index is a validated risk-stratification method that can predict whether a DFU or VLU will heal, leveling the playing field for outcome reporting and removing the need to artificially inflate healing rates. Wound care practitioners can report the USWR DFU and VLU risk-stratified outcome measure to satisfy the quality reporting requirements of the QPP. Future Directions: Per the requirements of the QPP, the USWR will begin publicly reporting of risk-stratified healing rates once quality measure data have met the reporting standards of the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Some basic rules for data censoring are proposed for public reporting of healing rates, and others are needed, which should be decided by consensus among the wound care community. PMID:29644145

  15. Prevalence of self-reported finger deformations and occupational risk factors among professional cooks: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasu, Miwako; Sakai, Kazuhiro; Kogi, Kazutaka; Ito, Akiyoshi; Feskens, Edith J M; Tomita, Shigeru; Temmyo, Yoshiomi; Ueno, Mitsuo; Miyagi, Shigeji

    2011-05-26

    Previous studies have pointed out that the school lunch workers in Japan are suffering from work-related disorders including finger deformations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of self-reported finger deformations and the association with job-related risk factors. A cross-sectional questionnaire study of 5,719 subjects (response rate: 81%, 982 men and 4,737 women) was undertaken during September 2003 to February 2004. Finger deformations were found among 11.7% of the men and 35.6% of the women studied, with significant differences among sex, age and sex-age groups. For both men and women the pattern of finger deformations across the hand was similar for the right and the left hand. For women, the deformations were found in about 10% of the distal interphalangeal joints of all fingers. Based on multiple logistic regression analyses, the factors female sex, age, the number of cooked lunches per cook and cooking activities were independently associated with the prevalence of finger deformations. High prevalence odds ratios were found for those frequently carrying or using tools by hands such as delivering containers, distributing meals, preparing dishes, washing equipment, cutting and stirring foods. Among the school lunch workers studied, women had a higher prevalence of finger deformations on all joints of both hands. Various cooking tasks were associated with the prevalence of finger deformations. The results suggest that improvements in working conditions are important for preventing work-related disorders such as finger deformations.

  16. The validated hypoallergenic cosmetics rating system: its 30-year evolution and effect on the prevalence of cosmetic reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verallo-Rowell, Vermén M

    2011-01-01

    The validated hypoallergenic (vh) rating system was initiated in 1988 to try to objectively validate the "hypoallergenic" claim in cosmetics. To show how the system rates cosmetic hypoallergenicity and to compare the prevalence of cosmetic contact dermatitis (CCD) among users of regular cosmetics versus cosmetics with high VH numbers. (1) Made a VH list based on top allergens from patch-test results published by the North American Contact Dermatitis Group (NACDG) and the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA); (2) reviewed global regulatory, cosmetic, drug, packaging, and manufacturing practices to show how allergens may contaminate products; (3) compared cosmetic ingredients lists against the VH list to obtain the VH rating (the more allergens absent, the higher the VH rating); and (4) obtained CCD prevalence among users of regular cosmetics versus users of cosmetics with high VH ratings. (1) Two VH lists (1988, 2003) included only cosmetic allergens in the NACDG surveys, the third (2007) included cosmetic and potential contaminant noncosmetic allergens, and the fourth (2010) adds ESSCA patch-test surveys. (2) CCD prevalence is 0.05 to 0.12% (average, 0.08%) among users of cosmetics with high VH ratings versus 2.4 to 36.3% among users of regular cosmetics. The VH rating system is shown to objectively validate the hypoallergenic cosmetics claim.

  17. Prevalence and rupture rate of cerebral aneurysms discovered during intra-arterial chemotherapy of brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourekas, E C; Newton, H B; Figg, G M; Slone, H W

    2006-02-01

    During the administration of intra-arterial (IA) chemotherapy for the treatment of brain tumors (BTs), angiography may demonstrate asymptomatic, incidental cerebral aneurysms. The prevalence and complication rate of incidental aneurysms in patients undergoing IA chemotherapy remains unknown. It remains unclear whether the presence of an aneurysm represents an increased risk or a contraindication to this form of treatment. We performed a chart and angiography review of BT patients receiving IA chemotherapy over the previous 16 months. Seventy-eight patients were identified with primary (39) and metastatic (39) BTs. The cohort consisted of 40 men and 38 women, with a mean age of 47.8 years (range, 22-80 years). During initial angiography, 8 patients (10.3%) were identified with incidental cerebral aneurysms. The aneurysms were saccular and varied in size from 2-4 mm (mean, 3 mm). Seven of the 8 patients continued IA chemotherapy after detection of the aneurysm, for a total of 35 IA procedures. Of these 7 patients, 5 expired from nonaneurysmal complications (mean survival, 5.4 months; range, 2-10 months); 4 from the primary tumor, and one from an infected craniotomy site. Two patients continue to survive; one remains in treatment, and the other has completed 12 months of IA therapy. There were no aneurysmal complications during or after IA treatment in any of the BT patients. Incidental aneurysms may be more common in patients with BTs than the general population. In our patient population, there was no indication that an incidental aneurysm was reason to preclude or delay the use of IA chemotherapy.

  18. Computed tomography (CT) findings in 88 neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) patients: Prevalence rates and correlations of thoracic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, Ken, E-mail: k-ueda@radiol.med.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Honda, Osamu [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Satoh, Yukihisa [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases (Japan); Kawai, Misa; Gyobu, Tomoko; Kanazawa, Toru; Hidaka, Shojiro; Yanagawa, Masahiro [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Sumikawa, Hiromitsu [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Osaka Rosai Hospital (Japan); Tomiyama, Noriyuki [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Various thoracic CT findings, including cysts, mediastinal masses, etc. were found. • Cysts show upper and peripheral dominant distribution. • The number, size, and distribution of the pulmonary cysts in NF-1 revealed significant correlation. • It is suspected that thoracic CT findings in NF-1 occur independently. - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence rates and the correlations of thoracic computed tomography (CT) findings of neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) in 88 patients. Materials and methods: Chest CT images of 88 NF1 patients were independently reviewed by three observers, and the CT findings were evaluated. If abnormal findings were present, their number, size, and distribution were recorded. The prevalence rate of each CT finding was calculated, and the correlations between CT findings were analyzed. Results: Of the 88 cases, 13 were positive for cysts, 16 for emphysema, 8 for nodules, 8 for GGNs (ground glass nodules), 13 for mediastinal masses, 20 for scoliosis, 44 for subcutaneous nodules, and 34 for skin nodules. Cysts showed upper and peripheral dominant distributions. Regarding 13 mediastinal masses, 2 were diagnosed as malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs), 1 was diagnosed as primary lung cancer, 2 were diagnosed as lateral meningocele, 3 were diagnosed as neurofibromas, and the remaining 7 were considered neurofibromas. There was a significant correlation between the prevalence of subcutaneous nodules and that of skin nodules. Significant positive correlations were also seen between size and number, size and rate of central distribution, and number and rate of central distribution of cysts. Conclusion: Various CT findings were found in NF-1 patients, and the prevalence rates of subcutaneous and skin nodules were higher than other findings. Though the prevalence rates of subcutaneous nodules and skin nodules were significantly correlated, the other CT findings in NF-1 occurred independently. The number, size, and

  19. Computed tomography (CT) findings in 88 neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) patients: Prevalence rates and correlations of thoracic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Ken; Honda, Osamu; Satoh, Yukihisa; Kawai, Misa; Gyobu, Tomoko; Kanazawa, Toru; Hidaka, Shojiro; Yanagawa, Masahiro; Sumikawa, Hiromitsu; Tomiyama, Noriyuki

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Various thoracic CT findings, including cysts, mediastinal masses, etc. were found. • Cysts show upper and peripheral dominant distribution. • The number, size, and distribution of the pulmonary cysts in NF-1 revealed significant correlation. • It is suspected that thoracic CT findings in NF-1 occur independently. - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence rates and the correlations of thoracic computed tomography (CT) findings of neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) in 88 patients. Materials and methods: Chest CT images of 88 NF1 patients were independently reviewed by three observers, and the CT findings were evaluated. If abnormal findings were present, their number, size, and distribution were recorded. The prevalence rate of each CT finding was calculated, and the correlations between CT findings were analyzed. Results: Of the 88 cases, 13 were positive for cysts, 16 for emphysema, 8 for nodules, 8 for GGNs (ground glass nodules), 13 for mediastinal masses, 20 for scoliosis, 44 for subcutaneous nodules, and 34 for skin nodules. Cysts showed upper and peripheral dominant distributions. Regarding 13 mediastinal masses, 2 were diagnosed as malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs), 1 was diagnosed as primary lung cancer, 2 were diagnosed as lateral meningocele, 3 were diagnosed as neurofibromas, and the remaining 7 were considered neurofibromas. There was a significant correlation between the prevalence of subcutaneous nodules and that of skin nodules. Significant positive correlations were also seen between size and number, size and rate of central distribution, and number and rate of central distribution of cysts. Conclusion: Various CT findings were found in NF-1 patients, and the prevalence rates of subcutaneous and skin nodules were higher than other findings. Though the prevalence rates of subcutaneous nodules and skin nodules were significantly correlated, the other CT findings in NF-1 occurred independently. The number, size, and

  20. Transfusion rate and prevalence of unexpected red blood cell alloantibodies in women undergoing hysterectomy for benign disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoestesen, Lisbeth M; Rasmussen, Kjeld L; Lauszus, Finn F

    2011-01-01

    To determine transfusion rates, risk factors for transfusion and the prevalence of unexpected red blood cell alloantibodies in women undergoing hysterectomy for benign disease. In addition, we aimed to evaluate the necessity of the pretransfusion testing for red blood cell alloantibodies....

  1. The effect of somatic symptom attribution on the prevalence rate of depression and anxiety among nursing home patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smalbrugge, M.; Pot, A.M.; Jongenelis, L.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Eefsting, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    The validity of diagnostic psychiatric instruments for depression and anxiety disorders may be compromised among patients with complex physical illness and disability. The objective of this study was to determine the effect on the prevalence rate of depression and anxiety in a nursing home

  2. Rare chromosome abnormalities, prevalence and prenatal diagnosis rates from population-based congenital anomaly registers in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellesley, Diana; Dolk, Helen; Boyd, Patricia A.; Greenlees, Ruth; Haeusler, Martin; Nelen, Vera; Garne, Ester; Khoshnood, Babak; Doray, Berenice; Rissmann, Anke; Mullaney, Carmel; Calzolari, Elisa; Bakker, Marian; Salvador, Joaquin; Addor, Marie-Claude; Draper, Elizabeth; Rankin, Judith; Tucker, David

    The aim of this study is to quantify the prevalence and types of rare chromosome abnormalities (RCAs) in Europe for 2000-2006 inclusive, and to describe prenatal diagnosis rates and pregnancy outcome. Data held by the European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies database were analysed on all the

  3. Self-reported prevalence of childhood allergic diseases in three cities of China: a multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Jing

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies conducted during the 1990s indicated that childhood allergic diseases were increasing worldwide, but more recent investigations in some Western countries have suggested that the trend is stabilizing or may even be reversing. However, few data are available on the current status of allergic disease prevalence in Chinese children. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence rates of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and eczema in children of three major cities of China, to determine the status of allergic diseases among Chinese children generally, and to evaluate the prevalence of allergic diseases in children of different ages. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey between October 2008 and May 2009 in three major cities of China (Beijing, Chongqing, and Guangzhou to evaluate the prevalence rates of childhood allergic diseases including asthma, allergic rhinitis, and eczema, using a questionnaire of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC group. A total of 24,290 children aged 0-14 years were interviewed, using a multi-stage sampling method. To acquire data on children aged 3-14 years, we visited schools and kindergartens. To access children too young to attend school or kindergarten, we extended our survey to community health service centers. Each questionnaire was completed by a parent or guardian of a child after an informed consent form was signed. Results Of the 24,290 children in our study, 12,908 (53.14% were males and 11,382 (46.86% females; 10,372 (42.70% were from Beijing, 9,846 (40.53% from Chongqing, and 4,072 (16.77% from Guangzhou. Our survey indicated that in Beijing, Chongqing, and Guangzhou, the prevalence rates of asthma were 3.15%, 7.45%, and 2.09%, respectively; the rates of allergic rhinitis were 14.46%, 20.42%, and 7.83%; and the rates of eczema were 20.64%, 10.02%, and 7.22%. The prevalence of allergic diseases varied with age. Asthma was

  4. Using Self-reports or Claims to Assess Disease Prevalence: It's Complicated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Clair, Patricia; Gaudette, Étienne; Zhao, Henu; Tysinger, Bryan; Seyedin, Roxanna; Goldman, Dana P

    2017-08-01

    Two common ways of measuring disease prevalence include: (1) using self-reported disease diagnosis from survey responses; and (2) using disease-specific diagnosis codes found in administrative data. Because they do not suffer from self-report biases, claims are often assumed to be more objective. However, it is not clear that claims always produce better prevalence estimates. Conduct an assessment of discrepancies between self-report and claims-based measures for 2 diseases in the US elderly to investigate definition, selection, and measurement error issues which may help explain divergence between claims and self-report estimates of prevalence. Self-reported data from 3 sources are included: the Health and Retirement Study, the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey, and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Claims-based disease measurements are provided from Medicare claims linked to Health and Retirement Study and Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey participants, comprehensive claims data from a 20% random sample of Medicare enrollees, and private health insurance claims from Humana Inc. Prevalence of diagnosed disease in the US elderly are computed and compared across sources. Two medical conditions are considered: diabetes and heart attack. Comparisons of diagnosed diabetes and heart attack prevalence show similar trends by source, but claims differ from self-reports with regard to levels. Selection into insurance plans, disease definitions, and the reference period used by algorithms are identified as sources contributing to differences. Claims and self-reports both have strengths and weaknesses, which researchers need to consider when interpreting estimates of prevalence from these 2 sources.

  5. Do physicians attend to base rates? Prevalence data and statistical discrimination in the diagnosis of coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maserejian, Nancy N; Lutfey, Karen E; McKinlay, John B

    2009-12-01

    To examine whether physicians attend to gender prevalence data in diagnostic decision making for coronary heart disease (CHD) and to test the hypothesis that previously reported gender differences in CHD diagnostic certainty are due to discrimination arising from reliance on prevalence data ("statistical discrimination"). A vignette-based experiment of 256 randomly sampled primary care physicians conducted from 2006 to 2007. Factorial experiment. Physicians observed patient presentations of cardinal CHD symptoms, standardized across design factors (gender, race, age, socioeconomic status). Structured interview. Most physicians perceived the U.S. population CHD prevalence as higher in men (48.4 percent) or similar by gender (44.9 percent). For the observed patient, 52 percent did not change their CHD diagnostic certainty based on patient gender. Forty-eight percent of physicians were inconsistent in their population-level and individual-level CHD assessments. Physicians' assessments of CHD prevalence did not attenuate the observed gender effect in diagnostic certainty for the individual patient. Given an adequate presentation of CHD symptoms, physicians may deviate from their prevalence data during diagnostic decision making. Physicians' priors on CHD prevalence did not explain the gender effect in CHD certainty. Future research should examine personal stereotypes as an explanation for gender differences.

  6. Association between the Delta Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate and the Prevalence of Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance in Korean Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Dong Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We investigated the association between the reduction in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR and the prevalence of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS in Korean males. Methods. We enrolled 723 healthy Korean males. Serum creatinine concentration, serum electrophoresis, serum immunofixation, and the serum free light chain assay were performed. We calculated delta eGFR per year (ΔeGFR/yr. The prevalence of MGUS was compared based on the ΔeGFR/yr and age group. Results. Thirteen (1.8% of 723 participants exhibited the monoclonal band on serum immunofixation. Prevalence of MGUS by age group was 0.00% (0/172 for 40 years, 1.63% (6/367 for 60 years, and 3.80% (7/184 for >60 years. The median decrease in ΔeGFR/yr was 5.3%. The prevalence of MGUS in participants in their 50s with >5.3% decline in ΔeGFR/yr was significantly higher than those with 5.3% decrease in ΔeGFR/yr was similar to that of healthy males in their 60s. Conclusion. Using the rate of reduction in ΔeGFR/yr in healthy Korean males who had their serum creatinine level checked regularly may increase the MGUS detection rate in clinical practice.

  7. Notwithstanding High Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity, Smoking Remains the Most Important Factor in Poor Self-rated Health and Hospital Use in an Australian Regional Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Mary Haines

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To classify a rural community sample by their modifiable health behaviours and identify the prevalence of chronic conditions, poor self-rated health, obesity and hospital use. Method: Secondary analysis of a cross- sectional self-report questionnaire in the Hume region of Victoria, Australia. Cluster analysis using the two-step method was applied to responses to health behaviour items. Results: 1,259 questionnaires were completed. Overall 63% were overweight or obese. Three groups were identified: ‘Healthy Lifestyle’ (63%, ‘Non Smoking, Unhealthy Lifestyle’ (25% and ‘Smokers’ (12%. ‘Healthy lifestyle’ were older and more highly educated than the other two groups while ‘Non Smoking, Unhealthy Lifestyle’ were more likely to be obese. ‘Smokers’ had the highest rate of poor self-rated health. Prevalence of chronic conditions was similar in each group (>20%. ‘Smokers’ were twice as likely to have had two or more visits to hospital in the preceding year even after adjustment for age, gender and education. Conclusion: High rates of overweight and obesity were identified but ‘Smokers’ were at the greatest risk for poor self-rated health and hospitalisation. Implications for Public Health: Within an environment of high rates of chronic ill health and obesity, primary care clinicians and public health policy makers must maintain their vigilance in encouraging people to quit smoking.

  8. Transfusion transmitted virus prevalence rate in IDU patients: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soudbakhsh AR, Nami MA, Hadjiabdolbaghi M, Kazemi B

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Transfusion-Transmitted Virus (TTV is a nonenveloped, single-stranded and circular DNA virus belongs to circuviridae family genus Anellovirus, discovered by Nishizawa in 1997. As the usage of common syringes is the known and most common route of the virus transmission, and because of increasing population of Injection drug users (IDU we decided to study infection rate in IDU population of our Society. "nMethods: In a cross-sectional study at Infectious ward of Imam Khomeini hospital, 60 IDU patients were studied. Blood samples were dispatched to lab in citrated test tube for Genome Virus isolation operation, using boiling method, then PCR assay performed based on their available primers. Patient's information gathered by interview and questionnaire methods."n "nResults: All of our 60 patients were men and their age average was 35.30(SD±9.68 years old. 26(43.3% patients had positive TTV PCR and 24(92.30% of them had prison history. 23(88.50% of these 26 patients had positive HCV Ab, 17(65.40% had positive HIV Ab and 8(30.80% had positive HBS Ag. Of 60 study patients 48(80% had HCV Ab+, 43(71.70% HIV Ab+, 26(43% TTV PCR and 43(26.70% had HBS Ag+ Of 26 patients who had TTV, 34.60% of them had no contemporary sickness and 11.50% of them displayed clear sign of hepatitis (fever, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, RUQ tenderness and Icter. 34.60% of them had LFT more than Upper limit normal (45u/l. Time average of injection in 26 TTV patient was 9 years (SD±7.16 and the patient's age average was 36.35%(SD±9.2. "nConclusions: One of the most important route of TTV infection is use of common syringes, TTV infection transmission chance is less than HIV and HCV infection and is more than HBV. In regard to high prevalence of TTV infection in IDU population and because there is no comprehensive information about pathogenesis of this virus in addition to another way of transmission of the virus, the fecal-oral way, we must make

  9. [Rate of prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension among women at reproductive age in China in 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z Q; Zhao, Y F; Yang, J; Wang, L M; Zhao, Z P; Zeng, X Y; Wang, L H

    2017-12-06

    Objective: To analyze the rate of prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension among women at reproductive age (18-49 years old) in China in 2013. Methods: The analysis used data obtained from the China Chronic and non-communicable disease surveillance in 2013.The surveillance included 176 534 adults aging ≥18 years old, who were selected from 302 surveillance points by multi-stage cluster random sampling method. A total of 46 674 women at reproductive age (18-49 years old) were investigated. Blood pressures were measured by electronic blood pressure monitor. After being weighted according to complex sampling scheme and post-stratification, the rate of prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension were compared by different characteristics such as age, education, urban and rural areas, and geographic locations. Results: The prevalence of hypertension among women at reproductive age (18-49 years old) in China in 2013 was 13.5%. The rate in the rural areas was higher than that in urban areas (χ(2)=46.23, P 0.05). The hypertension prevalence in all age groups (18-24, 25-29, 30-34, 35-39, 40-44, 45-49 years old) were 6.6%, 9.2%, 9.6%, 12.0%, 17.9% and 28.3%, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension showed a rising trend with age increasing ( t= 12.32, Pareas; and 21.3%, 18.5% and 5.9%, respectively in rural areas. The rates in urban areas were all higher than those in rural areas (chi square were separately 18.98, 21.31, and 6.80, P values areas.

  10. Prevalence of self-reported lactose intolerance in multiethnic sample of adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    According to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, between 30 and 50 million Americans have the potential for lactose-intolerance symptoms. However, lactose-intolerance prevalence rates in practical life settings may be lower than originally suggested. The goal of thi...

  11. [Prevalence and Comorbidity of Self-Reported Diagnosis of Burnout Syndrome in the General Population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maske, Ulrike E; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G; Seiffert, Ingeburg; Jacobi, Frank; Hapke, Ulfert

    2016-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and comorbid mental disorders of self-reported diagnosis of burnout syndrome in the general population of Germany. In the German Health Interview and Examination Survey (DEGS1) self-reported diagnosis of a burnout syndrome made by a physician or psychotherapist was assessed in a standardized interview (N = 7987). For N = 4483 mental disorders were determined with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Weighted lifetime and 12-month prevalences were calculated. Lifetime prevalence of diagnosed burnout syndrome was 4.2 % (women 5.2 %, men 3.3 %), 12-month prevalence was 1.5 % (women 1.9 %, men 1.1 %). Highest prevalences were found in 40 - 59 year olds, in people with middle and high socio economic status and in women with low and men with high social support. Among the 12-month cases, 70.9 % had at least one DSM-IV disorder. Associations were found for the diagnosis of burnout syndrome with somatoform, affective and anxiety disorders. The diagnosis of burnout syndrome is less frequently given and reported than expected. People with a burnout diagnosis often have a manifest mental disorder. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. One explanatory basis for the discrepancy of reported prevalences of sleep paralysis among healthy respondents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, K

    1993-12-01

    In a previous study, the author and coworkers found 39.8% of healthy young adults had experienced sleep paralysis. Some other studies reported prevalence as about the same or higher (i.e., 40.7% to 62.0%) than that previous estimate, while yet other studies, including Goode's work cited by ASDC and ASDA classifications, suggested much lower prevalences (i.e., 4.7% to 26.2%). The author tested the hypothesis that this discrepancy among the reported prevalences is partly due to the expression used in each questionnaire. University students who answered the questionnaire using the term 'transient paralysis' reported the lower prevalence (26.4%), while the second group of respondents who answered the questionnaire using the term kanashibari, the Japanese folklore expression for sleep paralysis, gave the higher prevalence (39.3%). The third group who answered the questionnaire with the term 'condition,' probably a rather neutral expression, marked the middle (31.0%) of these.

  13. Prevalence rates of male and female sexual violence perpetrators in a national sample of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybarra, Michele L; Mitchell, Kimberly J

    2013-12-01

    IMPORTANCE Sexual violence can emerge in adolescence, yet little is known about youth perpetrators-especially those not involved with the criminal justice system. OBJECTIVE To report national estimates of adolescent sexual violence perpetration and details of the perpetrator experience. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Data were collected online in 2010 (wave 4) and 2011 (wave 5) in the national Growing Up With Media study. Participants included 1058 youths aged 14 to 21 years who at baseline read English, lived in the household at least 50% of the time, and had used the Internet in the last 6 months. Recruitment was balanced on youths' biological sex and age. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Forced sexual contact, coercive sex, attempted rape, and completed rape. RESULTS Nearly 1 in 10 youths (9%) reported some type of sexual violence perpetration in their lifetime; 4% (10 females and 39 males) reported attempted or completed rape. Sixteen years old was the mode age of first sexual perpetration (n = 18 [40%]). Perpetrators reported greater exposure to violent X-rated content. Almost all perpetrators (98%) who reported age at first perpetration to be 15 years or younger were male, with similar but attenuated results among those who began at ages 16 or 17 years (90%). It is not until ages 18 or 19 years that males (52%) and females (48%) are relatively equally represented as perpetrators. Perhaps related to age at first perpetration, females were more likely to perpetrate against older victims, and males were more likely to perpetrate against younger victims. Youths who started perpetrating earlier were more likely than older youths to get in trouble with caregivers; youths starting older were more likely to indicate that no one found out about the perpetration. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Sexual violence perpetration appears to emerge earlier for males than females, perhaps suggesting different developmental trajectories. Links between perpetration and violent sexual

  14. Self-rated Health and Internet Addiction in Iranian Medical Sciences Students; Prevalence, Risk Factors and Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadbeigi, Abolfazl; Valizadeh, Farzaneh; Mirshojaee, Seyede Roqaie; Ahmadli, Robabeh; Mokhtari, Mohsen; Ghaderi, Ebrahim; Ahmadi, Ali; Rezaei, Heshmatollah; Ansari, Hossein

    2016-06-01

    Self-rated health is a brief measure for general health. It is a comprehensive and sensitive index for prediction of health in future. Due to the high internet usage in medical students, the current study designed to evaluate the self-rated health (SRH) in relationship with internet addiction risk factors in medical students. This cross sectional study conducted on 254 students of Qom University of Medical Sciences 2014. Participants selected by two stage sampling method including stratified and simple random sampling. The Young's questionnaire of internet addiction and SRH question used for data collection. Chi-square, t-test, and logistic regression used in data analysis. More than 79.9% of students reported their general health good and very good. The student's mean score of general health was higher than the average. In addition, the prevalence of internet addiction was 28.7%. An inverse significant correlation observed between SRH and internet addiction score (r=-0.198, p=0.002). Using internet for Entertainment, using private Email and chat rooms were the most important predictors of affecting to internet addiction. Moreover, internet addiction is the most predictors of SRH and increased the odds of bad SRH. The good SRH of medical students was higher than general population but in health faculty' students were lower than others. Due to the effect of internet addiction on SRH and increasing trend of internet use in medical students, as well as low age of participants, attention to psychological aspects and the job expectancy in future, can effective on increasing the good SRH.

  15. Accuracy of Herdsmen Reporting versus Serologic Testing for Estimating Foot-and-Mouth Disease Prevalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handel, Ian G.; Tanya, Vincent N.; Hamman, Saidou M.; Nfon, Charles; Bergman, Ingrid E.; Malirat, Viviana; Sorensen, Karl J.; Bronsvoort, Barend M. de C.

    2014-01-01

    Herdsman-reported disease prevalence is widely used in veterinary epidemiologic studies, especially for diseases with visible external lesions; however, the accuracy of such reports is rarely validated. Thus, we used latent class analysis in a Bayesian framework to compare sensitivity and specificity of herdsman reporting with virus neutralization testing and use of 3 nonstructural protein ELISAs for estimates of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) prevalence on the Adamawa plateau of Cameroon in 2000. Herdsman-reported estimates in this FMD-endemic area were comparable to those obtained from serologic testing. To harness to this cost-effective resource of monitoring emerging infectious diseases, we suggest that estimates of the sensitivity and specificity of herdsmen reporting should be done in parallel with serologic surveys of other animal diseases. PMID:25417556

  16. 32 CFR 635.33 - Crime rate reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... rate reporting. (a) The USACRC is the Army's collection point and analytic center for all Army... the Chief of Staff of the Army, the Chief, Operations Division, Office of the Provost Marshal General...) Normally, raw data will not be released without analysis on routine or non-routine requests. Comparison of...

  17. FLECHT low flooding rate skewed test series data report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosal, E.R.; Conway, C.E.; Krepinevich, M.C.

    1977-05-01

    The FLECHT Low Flooding Rate Tests were conducted in an improved original FLECHT Test Facility to provide heat transfer coefficient and entrainment data at forced flooding rates of 1 in./sec. and with electrically heated rod bundles which had cosine and top skewed axial power profiles. The top-skewed axial power profile test series has now been successfully completed and is here reported. For these tests the rod bundle was enclosed in a low mass cylindrical housing which would minimize the wall housing effects encountered in the cosine test series. These tests examined the effects of initial clad temperature, variable stepped and continuously variable flooding rates, housing heat release, rod peak power, constant low flooding rates, coolant subcooling, hot and cold channel entrainment, and bundle stored and generated power. Data obtained in runs which met the test specifications are reported here, and include rod clad temperatures, turn around and quench times, heat transfer coefficients, inlet flooding rates, overall mass balances, differential pressures and calculated void fractions in the test section, thimble wall and steam temperatures, and exhaust steam and liquid carryover rates

  18. Development of a model for case-mix adjustment of pressure ulcer prevalence rates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bours, G.J.J.W.; Halfens, J.; Berger, M.P.; Abu-Saad, H.H.; Grol, R.P.T.M.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute care hospitals participating in the Dutch national pressure ulcer prevalence survey use the results of this survey to compare their outcomes and assess their quality of care regarding pressure ulcer prevention. The development of a model for case-mix adjustment is essential for the

  19. Child maltreatment in numbers : a multimethod study of year prevalence rates and risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Euser, Saskia

    2013-01-01

    How often does child maltreatment occur in the Netherlands and which factors increase the risk of child maltreatment? In this thesis we describe the findings of two epidemiological studies aimed at answering these questions. First, in the Netherlands’ Prevalence study on Maltreatment of children and

  20. Monitoring and prevalence rates of metabolic syndrome in military veterans with serious mental illness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameed Ahmed M Khatana

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality among patients with serious mental illness (SMI and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome--a constellation of cardiovascular risk factors--is significantly higher in these patients than in the general population. Metabolic monitoring among patients using second generation antipsychotics (SGAs--a risk factor for metabolic syndrome--has been shown to be inadequate despite the release of several guidelines. However, patients with SMI have several factors independent of medication use that predispose them to a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Our study therefore examines monitoring and prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with SMI, including those not using SGAs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We retrospectively identified all patients treated at a Veterans Affairs Medical Center with diagnoses of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder or bipolar disorder during 2005-2006 and obtained demographic and clinical data. Incomplete monitoring of metabolic syndrome was defined as being unable to determine the status of at least one of the syndrome components. Of the 1,401 patients included (bipolar disorder: 822; schizophrenia: 222; and schizoaffective disorder: 357, 21.4% were incompletely monitored. Only 54.8% of patients who were not prescribed SGAs and did not have previous diagnoses of hypertension or hypercholesterolemia were monitored for all metabolic syndrome components compared to 92.4% of patients who had all three of these characteristics. Among patients monitored for metabolic syndrome completely, age-adjusted prevalence of the syndrome was 48.4%, with no significant difference between the three psychiatric groups. CONCLUSIONS: Only one half of patients with SMI not using SGAs or previously diagnosed with hypertension and hypercholesterolemia were completely monitored for metabolic syndrome components compared to greater than 90% of those with these characteristics

  1. The first report of the prevalence of Nosema ceranae in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rositsa Shumkova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae are the two main microsporidian parasites causing nosematosis in the honey bee Apis mellifera. The aim of the present study is to investigate the presence of Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae in the area of Bulgaria. The 16S (SSU rDNA gene region was chosen for analysis. A duplex PCR assay was performed on 108 honey bee samples from three different parts of the country (South, North and West Bulgaria. The results showed that the samples from the northern part of the country were with the highest prevalence (77.2% for Nosema ceranae while those from the mountainous parts (the Rodopa Mountains, South Bulgaria were with the lowest rate (13.9%. Infection with Nosema apis alone and co-infection N. apis/N. ceranae were not detected in any samples. These findings suggest that Nosema ceranae is the dominant species in the Bulgarian honey bee. It is not known when the introduction of Nosema ceranae in Bulgaria has occurred, but as in the rest of the world, this species has become the dominant one in Bulgarian Apis mellifera. In conclusion, this is the first report for molecular detection of Nosema infection of honey bee in Bulgaria. The results showed that N. ceranae is the main Nosema species in Bulgaria.

  2. Social motivation in prospective memory: higher importance ratings and reported performance rates for social tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penningroth, Suzanna L; Scott, Walter D; Freuen, Margaret

    2011-03-01

    Few studies have addressed social motivation in prospective memory (PM). In a pilot study and two main studies, we examined whether social PM tasks possess a motivational advantage over nonsocial PM tasks. In the pilot study and Study 1, participants listed their real-life important and less important PM tasks. Independent raters categorized the PM tasks as social or nonsocial. Results from both studies showed a higher proportion of tasks rated as social when important tasks were requested than when less important tasks were requested. In Study 1, participants also reported whether they had remembered to perform each PM task. Reported performance rates were higher for tasks rated as social than for those rated as nonsocial. Finally, in Study 2, participants rated the importance of two hypothetical PM tasks, one social and one nonsocial. The social PM task was rated higher in importance. Overall, these findings suggest that social PM tasks are viewed as more important than nonsocial PM tasks and they are more likely to be performed. We propose that consideration of the social relevance of PM will lead to a more complete and ecologically valid theoretical description of PM performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. The prevalence of self-reported halitosis and oral hygiene practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims:The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of self-reported halitosis, oral hygiene practices and related diseases among Libyan students and employees.Methods: Six hundred selfadministered structured questionnaires were used to investigate self-perception of halitosis and oral hygiene practices among a ...

  4. Prevalence of self-reported food hypersensitivity among school children in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brugman, E.; Meulmeester, J.F.; Spee-Wekke, A. van der; Beuker, R.J.; Radder, J.J.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.

    1998-01-01

    Objectives: To provide national figures on the prevalence of self-reported food hypersensitivity (S-FH), and the association with socio-demographic variables and some health indicators in schoolchildren in The Netherlands. Design: As part of the Child Health Monitoring System, data were collected

  5. Self-reported gagging in dentistry: prevalence, psycho-social correlates and oral health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Houtem, C.M.H.H.; van Wijk, A.J.; Boomsma, D.I.; Ligthart, L.; Visscher, C.M.; de Jongh, A.

    2015-01-01

    Although gagging has a profound effect on the delivery of dental care, it is a relatively under-investigated phenomenon. This study aimed to derive a prevalence estimate of gagging during dental treatment based on patient-reported information, to determine some socio-demographic and psychological

  6. FLECHT low flooding rate cosine test series data report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosal, E.R.; Hochreiter, L.E.; McGuire, M.F.; Krepinevich, M.C.

    1975-12-01

    The FLECHT Low Flooding Rate Tests were conducted in an improved original FLECHT Test Facility to provide heat transfer coefficient and entrainment data at forced flooding rates of 1 in./sec and below. In addition these tests were performed to supplement parametric effects studied in the original FLECHT program, provide data for reflood model development, repeat original FLECHT tests with new instrumentation and data processing techniques, and to provide data to establish test repeatability. These tests examined the effects of low initial clad temperature, variable stepped and continuously variable flooding rates, housing heat release, run peak power, constant low flooding rates, coolant subcooling, hot and cold channel entrainment, and bundle stored and generated power. Data obtained in sixty four runs which met the test specifications are reported, and include rod clad temperatures, turn around and quench times, heat transfer coefficients, inlet flooding rates, overall mass balances, differential pressures and calculated void fractions in the test section, thimble wall and steam temperatures, exhaust steam and liquid carryover rates, and housing total and rate of heat release

  7. Prevalence of Self-Reported Gluten Sensitivity and Adherence to a Gluten-Free Diet in Argentinian Adult Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Chávez, Francisco; Dezar, Gimena V. A.; Islas-Zamorano, Anna P.; Espinoza-Alderete, Jesús G.; Vergara-Jiménez, Marcela J.; Magaña-Ordorica, Dalia; Ontiveros, Noé

    2017-01-01

    Background: Previous studies suggest that the prevalence of wheat/gluten sensitivity and adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD) are high in Latin population despite a poor diagnosis of celiac disease. However, these prevalence rates still remain unknown in most Latin American countries. Methods: A cross-sectional survey study was conducted in Santa Fe, Argentina. Results: The estimated self-reported prevalence rates were (95% Confidence Interval [CI]): self-reported gluten sensitivity (SR-GS) 7.61% (6.2–9.2), SR-GS currently following a GFD 1.82% (1.2–2.7), celiac disease 0.58% (0.3–1.2), wheat allergy 0.33% (0.12–0.84), self-reported non-celiac gluten sensitivity (SR-NCGS) 6.28% (5.1–7.8), SR-NCGS currently following a GFD 0.91% (0.5–1.6), and adherence to a GFD 6.37% (5.1–7.9). SR-GS was more common in women (6.0%; p < 0.001) and associated with irritable bowel syndrome (p < 0.001). Among the GFD followers, 71.4% were doing it for reasons other than health-related benefits and 50.6% without medical/dietitian advice. In the non-SR-GS group, the main motivations for following a GFD were weight control and the perception that a GFD is healthier. Conclusion: In Argentina, gluten sensitivity is commonly reported and it seems that physicians/gastroenterologists are aware of celiac disease diagnosis. Trustable information about the benefits and potential consequences of following a GFD should be given to the general population. PMID:28117706

  8. Prevalence of Self-Reported Gluten Sensitivity and Adherence to a Gluten-Free Diet in Argentinian Adult Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Cabrera-Chávez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies suggest that the prevalence of wheat/gluten sensitivity and adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD are high in Latin population despite a poor diagnosis of celiac disease. However, these prevalence rates still remain unknown in most Latin American countries. Methods: A cross-sectional survey study was conducted in Santa Fe, Argentina. Results: The estimated self-reported prevalence rates were (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: self-reported gluten sensitivity (SR-GS 7.61% (6.2–9.2, SR-GS currently following a GFD 1.82% (1.2–2.7, celiac disease 0.58% (0.3–1.2, wheat allergy 0.33% (0.12–0.84, self-reported non-celiac gluten sensitivity (SR-NCGS 6.28% (5.1–7.8, SR-NCGS currently following a GFD 0.91% (0.5–1.6, and adherence to a GFD 6.37% (5.1–7.9. SR-GS was more common in women (6.0%; p < 0.001 and associated with irritable bowel syndrome (p < 0.001. Among the GFD followers, 71.4% were doing it for reasons other than health-related benefits and 50.6% without medical/dietitian advice. In the non-SR-GS group, the main motivations for following a GFD were weight control and the perception that a GFD is healthier. Conclusion: In Argentina, gluten sensitivity is commonly reported and it seems that physicians/gastroenterologists are aware of celiac disease diagnosis. Trustable information about the benefits and potential consequences of following a GFD should be given to the general population.

  9. Review of U.S. Army Aviation Accident Reports: Prevalence of Environmental Stressors and Medical Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-18

    terminology related to an aforementioned stressor or medical condition. Table 1 presents the identified operational stressor with the keywords extracted...USAARL Report No. 2018-02 Review of U.S. Army Aviation Accident Reports: Prevalence of Environmental Stressors and Medical Conditions By Kathryn...Environmental Stressors and Medical Conditions N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Feltman, Kathryn A. Kelley, Amanda M. Curry, Ian P. Boudreaux, David A. Milam

  10. Associations between presence of relevant information in referrals to radiology and prevalence rates in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedner, Charlotta; Sundgren, Pia C; Kelly, Aine Marie

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess if the presence of information including the pretest probability (Wells score), other known risk factors, and symptoms given on referrals for computed tomography (CT) pulmonary angiography correlated with prevalence rates for pulmonary embolism (PE). Also, to evaluate for differences between a university and a regional hospital setting regarding patient characteristics, amount of relevant information provided on referrals, and prevalence rates for pulmonary embolism. Retrospective review of all consecutive referrals (emergency room, inpatient, and outpatient) for CT performed on children and adults for suspected PE from two sites: a tertiary (university) hospital (site 1) and a secondary (regional) hospital (site 2) over a 5-year period. The overall prevalence rate was 510/3641 or 14% of all referrals. Significantly higher number of males had a positive CT compared to women (18% versus 12%, P relevant information on the referral and the probability for positive finding existed, a slight trend was noted (P = .09). In two categories, "hypoxia" and "signs of deep vein thrombosis," the presence of this information conferred a higher probability for pulmonary embolism, P information conferred a higher probability for pulmonary embolism. The amount of relevant clinical information on the request did not correlate with prevalence rates, which may reflect a lack of documentation on the part of emergency physicians who may use a "gestalt" approach. Request forms likely did not capture all relevant patient risks and many factors may interact with each other, both positively and negatively. Pretest probability estimations were rarely performed, despite their inclusion in major society guidelines. Copyright © 2013 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevalence of hypertension and hypertension control rates among elderly adults during the cold season in rural Northeast China: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawazoe, Nobuo; Zhang, Xiumin; Chiang, Chifa; Liu, Hongjian; Li, Jinghua; Hirakawa, Yoshihisa; Aoyama, Atsuko

    2018-05-01

    Objective: The burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) is increasing in China, together with economic development and social changes. The prevalence of risk factors for NCDs, such as overweight/obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia, is reported to be high even among poor residents of rural areas. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of hypertension among elderly adults in rural Northeast China and the proportion with controlled hypertension among those on antihypertensive medication (hypertension control rate). We also aimed to examine the association of hypertension control with health facilities that provide treatment. Methods: We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study in six rural villages of Northeast China from February to early March, 2012. We interviewed 1593 adults aged 50-69 years and measured their blood pressure. We examined the differences in mean blood pressure between participants who obtained antihypertensive medication from village clinics and those who obtained medication from other sources, using analysis of covariance adjusted for several covariates. Results: The prevalence of hypertension among participants was as high as 63.3%, but the hypertension control rate was only 8.4%. Most villagers (98.1%) were not registered in the chronic disease treatment scheme of the public rural health insurance. The mean systolic blood pressure, adjusted for the covariates, of participants who obtained antihypertensive medication from village clinics was significantly lower than that of participants who obtained medication from township hospitals (by 16.5 mmHg) or from private pharmacies (by 7.3 mmHg). Conclusion: The prevalence of hypertension was high and the hypertension control rate low among elderly villagers during the cold season. As treatment at village clinics, which villagers can access during the cold season seems to be more effective than self-medication or treatment at distant hospitals, improving the quality of treatment

  12. Prevalence of self-reported specific phobia symptoms in an Israeli sample of young conscripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iancu, Iulian; Levin, Jennifer; Dannon, Pinhas N; Poreh, Amir; Yehuda, Yoram Ben; Kotler, Moshe

    2007-01-01

    Specific phobia is a very prevalent disorder with high comorbidity rates. The aim of this study was to assess prevalence of specific phobia symptoms in a sample of Israeli young adults. Eight hundred fifty young Israeli soldiers participated in the study. Measures included a questionnaire on specific phobias and a socio-demographic questionnaire. Data on eight specific fears representing DSM-IV-TR specific phobias were analyzed to evaluate prevalence of phobic symptoms and find potential socio-demographic correlates. Prevalence of fears and specific phobic symptoms was 49.1 and 8.7%, respectively. Most frequent phobic symptoms were from animals, being alone, heights, injury and closed places. The following variables were accompanied by more phobic symptoms: male gender, role of mechanic, not having completed the matriculation exams, lack of friends and romantic relationships, therapy prior to enlistment or during the military service and having received psychotropic drugs in the past. Based on a stepwise regression analysis, the following variables contributed significantly to the prediction of phobic symptoms: lack of friends and romantic relationships, school absenteeism and role of mechanic. Our findings corroborate results from other studies in the Western world regarding the high prevalence of specific phobia symptomatology, as well as its distribution and socio-demographic correlates.

  13. Anterior disc displacement with reduction and symptomatic hypermobility in the human temporomandibular joint : Prevalence rates and risk factors in children and teenagers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slater, James J. R. Huddleston; Lobbezoo, Frank; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Naeije, Machiel

    2007-01-01

    Aims: To assess the prevalence rates and risk factors of anterior disc displacement with reduction (ADDR) and symptomatic hypermobility in a large sample of children and teenagers. Prevalence rates were also established in samples of young adults and adults. Methods: Children from 7 Dutch primary

  14. Prevalence of Self-Reported Gluten-Related Disorders and Adherence to a Gluten-Free Diet in Salvadoran Adult Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noé Ontiveros

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Gluten-related disorders are not considered of relevance at public health level in Central America. The prevalence of gluten-related disorders, and adherence to a gluten-free diet, remain unknown in the Central American region. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of the Central American population from San Salvador, El Salvador, to estimate the prevalence rates of self-reported gluten-related disorders and adherence to a gluten-free diet. 1326 individuals were surveyed. Self-reported prevalence rates were (95% Confidence Interval: gluten sensitivity 3.1% (2.3–4.2; physician-diagnosed celiac disease 0.15% (0.04–0.5; wheat allergy 0.75% (0.4–1.3; non-celiac gluten sensitivity 0.98% (0.5–1.6. The prevalence rate of adherence to a gluten-free diet was 7.0% (5.7–8.5. Seven self-reported physician diagnosed gluten-sensitive cases informed the co-existence of non-celiac gluten sensitivity with celiac disease and/or wheat allergy. Among the non-self-reported gluten sensitivity individuals following a gluten-free diet, 50% reported that they were seeing a health professional for gluten-free dietary advice. Gluten sensitivity is commonly reported in Salvadoran population, but some health professionals acknowledge the coexistence of wheat allergy, celiac disease, and non-celiac gluten sensitivity. Among studies at population level, the prevalence of adherence to a gluten-free diet in Salvadoran population is the highest reported until now. However, just a few of the gluten-free diet followers were doing it for health-related benefits; the others reported weight control and the perception that the diet is healthier as the main motivation for adopting such a diet.

  15. Prevalence of Self-Reported Gluten-Related Disorders and Adherence to a Gluten-Free Diet in Salvadoran Adult Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ontiveros, Noé; Rodríguez-Bellegarrigue, Cecilia Ivonne; Galicia-Rodríguez, Gerardo; Vergara-Jiménez, Marcela de Jesús; Zepeda-Gómez, Elia María; Arámburo-Galvez, Jesús Gilberto; Gracia-Valenzuela, Martina Hilda; Cabrera-Chávez, Francisco

    2018-04-18

    Gluten-related disorders are not considered of relevance at public health level in Central America. The prevalence of gluten-related disorders, and adherence to a gluten-free diet, remain unknown in the Central American region. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of the Central American population from San Salvador, El Salvador, to estimate the prevalence rates of self-reported gluten-related disorders and adherence to a gluten-free diet. 1326 individuals were surveyed. Self-reported prevalence rates were (95% Confidence Interval): gluten sensitivity 3.1% (2.3–4.2); physician-diagnosed celiac disease 0.15% (0.04–0.5); wheat allergy 0.75% (0.4–1.3); non-celiac gluten sensitivity 0.98% (0.5–1.6). The prevalence rate of adherence to a gluten-free diet was 7.0% (5.7–8.5). Seven self-reported physician diagnosed gluten-sensitive cases informed the co-existence of non-celiac gluten sensitivity with celiac disease and/or wheat allergy. Among the non-self-reported gluten sensitivity individuals following a gluten-free diet, 50% reported that they were seeing a health professional for gluten-free dietary advice. Gluten sensitivity is commonly reported in Salvadoran population, but some health professionals acknowledge the coexistence of wheat allergy, celiac disease, and non-celiac gluten sensitivity. Among studies at population level, the prevalence of adherence to a gluten-free diet in Salvadoran population is the highest reported until now. However, just a few of the gluten-free diet followers were doing it for health-related benefits; the others reported weight control and the perception that the diet is healthier as the main motivation for adopting such a diet.

  16. Prevalence of self-reported finger deformations and occupational risk factors among professional cooks: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomita Shigeru

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have pointed out that the school lunch workers in Japan are suffering from work-related disorders including finger deformations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of self-reported finger deformations and the association with job-related risk factors. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire study of 5,719 subjects (response rate: 81%, 982 men and 4,737 women was undertaken during September 2003 to February 2004. Results Finger deformations were found among 11.7% of the men and 35.6% of the women studied, with significant differences among sex, age and sex-age groups. For both men and women the pattern of finger deformations across the hand was similar for the right and the left hand. For women, the deformations were found in about 10% of the distal interphalangeal joints of all fingers. Based on multiple logistic regression analyses, the factors female sex, age, the number of cooked lunches per cook and cooking activities were independently associated with the prevalence of finger deformations. High prevalence odds ratios were found for those frequently carrying or using tools by hands such as delivering containers, distributing meals, preparing dishes, washing equipment, cutting and stirring foods. Conclusions Among the school lunch workers studied, women had a higher prevalence of finger deformations on all joints of both hands. Various cooking tasks were associated with the prevalence of finger deformations. The results suggest that improvements in working conditions are important for preventing work-related disorders such as finger deformations.

  17. [Diabetes mellitus in Spain: death rates, prevalence, impact, costs and inequalities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Ramos, Miguel; Escolar-Pujolar, Antonio; Mayoral-Sánchez, Eduardo; Corral-San Laureano, Florentino; Fernández-Fernández, Isabel

    2006-03-01

    Describing the situation of diabetes mellitus (DM) in Spain from a public health perspective. manual review of books and other documents on diabetes mellitus in Spain was conducted. In addition, a specific research of articles published using MeSH terms diabetes mortality, prevalence, incidence, cost, inequalities and Spain was conducted in Medline through Internet (PubMed). Minimun Basic Data Set was utilized as source for complication description by Communities Autonomus. DM is one of the leading cause of mortality and the third one in women. With regard to Autonomous Communities, Canary Islands, Ceuta y Melilla and Andalusia show the greatest mortality with a downward trend. Diabetics present greater mortality than non diabetic patients, being complications the main cause of the over-mortality, especially ischemic heart disease. Estimations of prevalence for DM2 range from 4.8% to 18.7% and for DM1, from .08% to .2%. In pregnancy, it has been noted a prevalence ranging from 4.5% to 16.1%. With respect to incidence per year, it is estimated a range from 146 to 820 per 100,000 inhabitants for DM2 and a range from 10 to 17 new cases annually per 100,000 inhabitants for DM1. Costs for DM1 show very different results, averaging between 1,262 and 3,311 euro per people and year. There are differences for DM2 costs as well, averaging between 381 and 2,560 euro per patient and year. Total costs estimated range from 758 to 4,348 euro per person and year. Relationship between a low socioeconomic level (LSL) and DM2 risk has been proved. Moreover, it has been noted that the less LSL the worse is the disease control, coupled with a greater frequency and more frequent factors of DM2 risk. The knowledge about the situation of the DM as a Public Health problem in Spain is limited. Mortality data available does not gather its real magnitude, and prevalence, incidence, costs and inequalities research are very poor and hardly comparable. In spite of this degree of incertitude, we

  18. High rates of incident and prevalent anal human papillomavirus infection among young men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Sara Nelson; Feng, Qinghua; Popov, Viorica; Koutsky, Laura A; Golden, Matthew R

    2014-02-01

    There are few published estimates of anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection rates among young men who have sex with men (YMSM). We estimated incidence and prevalence of type-specific anal HPV infection using clinician-collected anal swabs for HPV DNA testing obtained during a 1-year prospective study of 94 YMSM (mean age, 21 years) in Seattle. Seventy percent of YMSM had any HPV infection detected during the study, and HPV-16 and/or -18 were detected in 37%. The incidence rate for any new HPV infection was 38.5 per 1000 person-months and 15.3 per 1000 person-months for HPV-16/18; 19% had persistent HPV-16/18 infection. No participant tested positive for all 4 HPV types in the quadrivalent vaccine. The number of lifetime male receptive anal sex partners was significantly associated with HPV infection. The prevalence of HPV-16/18 was 6% among YMSM with a history of 1 receptive anal sex partner and 31% among YMSM with ≥ 2 partners. Although the high prevalence of HPV among YMSM highlights the desirability of vaccinating all boys as a strategy to avert the morbidity of HPV infection, most YMSM appear to remain naive to either HPV-16 or -18 well into their sexual lives and would benefit from HPV immunization.

  19. Prevalence, rates and correlates of intimate partner violence among South African women during pregnancy and the postpartum period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Allison K; Moodley, Dhayendre; McNaughton-Reyes, Luz; Martin, Sandra L; Foshee, Vangie; Maman, Suzanne

    2015-03-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health problem in South Africa. However, limited research exists on IPV during pregnancy and the postpartum period in South Africa. The purpose of this study is to describe the prevalence, rates and correlates of IPV among South African women during pregnancy and the first 9 months postpartum. Data are from a longitudinal study with women recruited during pregnancy between 2008 and 2010 at a public clinic in Durban. We used a modified version of the World Health Organization's IPV scale to estimate prevalence and rates of IPV during pregnancy, at 4 months postpartum and 9 months postpartum and we used logistic regression to assess the correlates of IPV during this time. More than 20 % of all women experienced at least one act of physical, psychological or sexual IPV during pregnancy. Nearly one-quarter of all women experienced at least one act of physical, psychological or sexual IPV during the first 9 months postpartum. Psychological IPV was the most prevalent type of IPV during pregnancy and the first 4 months postpartum. Age and previous violence within the relationship were associated with IPV during pregnancy and IPV during the postpartum period. The high levels of IPV during pregnancy and the postpartum period highlight the need to develop screening and intervention strategies specifically for this time. Further, women should be screened not only for physical violence but also psychological violence given that psychological violence may result in distinct negative consequences.

  20. Prevalence and rates of intimate partner violence among South African women during pregnancy and the postpartum period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Allison K.; Moodley, Dhayendre; McNaughton-Reyes, Luz; Martin, Sandra L.; Foshee, Vangie; Maman, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health problem in South Africa. However, limited research exists on IPV during pregnancy and the postpartum period in South Africa. The purpose of this study is to describe the prevalence, rates and correlates of IPV among South African women during pregnancy and the first nine months postpartum. Methods Data are from a longitudinal study with women recruited during pregnancy between 2008 and 2010 at a public clinic in Durban. We used a modified version of the World Health Organization’s IPV scale to estimate prevalence and rates of IPV during pregnancy, at four months postpartum and nine months postpartum and we used logistic regression to assess the correlates of IPV during this time. Results More than 20% of all women experienced at least one act of physical, psychological or sexual IPV during pregnancy. Nearly one-quarter of all women experienced at least one act of physical, psychological or sexual IPV during the first nine months postpartum. Psychological IPV was the most prevalent type of IPV during pregnancy and the first four months postpartum. Age and previous violence within the relationship were associated with IPV during pregnancy and IPV during the postpartum period. Conclusions The high levels of IPV during pregnancy and the postpartum period highlight the need to develop screening and intervention strategies specifically for this time. Further, women should be screened not only for physical violence but also psychological violence given that psychological violence may result in distinct negative consequences. PMID:24889116

  1. The Dynamics of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Prevalence and Management Rates among Rural Population in Henan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaotian Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the dynamics of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM prevalence and management rates based on a rural cohort study in Henan Province of China. The rural prospective study was conducted for 20194 Chinese population ≥18 years in 2007-2008 and followed during 2013-2014. A total of 14009 individuals were recruited for the prospective analysis ultimately. Over 5.74 years of follow-up, the age-standardized prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of T2DM increased from 6.18%, 44.41%, 34.39%, and 19.08% at baseline to 7.87%, 59.64%, 52.17%, and 26.52% at follow-up in total population, respectively. Similar changes were found in men and women except the age-standardized control in men. The four parameters of T2DM were higher among various factors at follow-up than those at baseline. There was no statistical difference in awareness (P=0.089 and treatment (P=0.257 in the newly diagnosed T2DM compared with the rates at baseline. The current study indicated that the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of T2DM displayed chronological increasing trends while the awareness, treatment, and control of T2DM were still disproportionally low in central China. More works are needed urgently to popularize public health education and improve the quality of medical care in T2DM.

  2. How does relaxing the algorithm for autism affect DSM-V prevalence rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L; Hattier, Megan A; Williams, Lindsey W

    2012-08-01

    Although it is still unclear what causes autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), over time researchers and clinicians have become more precise with detecting and diagnosing ASD. Many diagnoses, however, are based on the criteria established within the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM); thus, any change in these diagnostic criteria can have a great effect upon children with ASD and their families. It is predicted that the prevalence of ASD diagnoses will dramatically decrease with the adoption of the proposed DSM-5 criteria in 2013. The aim of this current study was to inspect the changes in prevalence first using a diagnostic criteria set which was modified slightly from the DSM-5 criteria (Modified-1 criteria) and again using a set of criteria which was relaxed even a bit more (Modified-2 criteria). Modified-1 resulted in 33.77 % fewer toddlers being diagnosed with ASD compared to the DSM-IV, while Modified-2 resulted in only a 17.98 % decrease in ASD diagnoses. Children diagnosed with the DSM-5 criteria exhibited the greatest levels of autism symptomatology, but the Mod-1, Mod-2, and DSM-IV groups still demonstrated significant impairments. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  3. Prevalence and characteristics of reported penicillin allergy in an urban outpatient adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albin, Stephanie; Agarwal, Shradha

    2014-01-01

    Penicillin allergy remains the most common drug allergy, with a reported prevalence of 10% in the United States. Epidemiology of penicillin allergy in outpatient populations is relatively scarce. This study sought to determine the prevalence and characteristics of reported penicillin allergy in an urban outpatient population and to identify trends in clinical evaluation and management from a tertiary center serving a large inner-city population. A retrospective review of electronic medical records was performed of adult patients seen in the Internal Medicine Associates Clinic of Mount Sinai Hospital between January 31, 2012, and July 31, 2012. Medical records were selected based on the documentation of penicillin in patient's allergy section. Of the 11,761 patients seen in the clinic, 1348 patients (11.5%) reported a history of penicillin allergy. The most common allergic reactions were rash (37%), unknown/undocumented (20.2%), hives (18.9%), swelling/angioedema (11.8%), and anaphylaxis (6.8%). There was an increased prevalence of penicillin allergy in female patients compared with male patients (odds ratio [OR] = 1.82; 95% CI = 1.60, 2.08; p penicillin allergy compared with Caucasians (OR = 0.51; 95% CI = 0.32, 0.83; p = 0.007). However, only 78 (6%) of the patients reporting penicillin allergy had a referral to an allergy specialist. Overall, improved referral to an allergist will help to identify patients who have penicillin allergy requiring avoidance.

  4. Bounding quantum gate error rate based on reported average fidelity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, Yuval R; Wallman, Joel J; Sanders, Barry C

    2016-01-01

    Remarkable experimental advances in quantum computing are exemplified by recent announcements of impressive average gate fidelities exceeding 99.9% for single-qubit gates and 99% for two-qubit gates. Although these high numbers engender optimism that fault-tolerant quantum computing is within reach, the connection of average gate fidelity with fault-tolerance requirements is not direct. Here we use reported average gate fidelity to determine an upper bound on the quantum-gate error rate, which is the appropriate metric for assessing progress towards fault-tolerant quantum computation, and we demonstrate that this bound is asymptotically tight for general noise. Although this bound is unlikely to be saturated by experimental noise, we demonstrate using explicit examples that the bound indicates a realistic deviation between the true error rate and the reported average fidelity. We introduce the Pauli distance as a measure of this deviation, and we show that knowledge of the Pauli distance enables tighter estimates of the error rate of quantum gates. (fast track communication)

  5. Prevalent Rate of Nonalbuminuric Renal Insufficiency and Its Association with Cardiovascular Disease Event in Korean Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Won Lee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundNonalbuminuric renal insufficiency is a unique category of diabetic kidney diseases. The objectives of the study were to evaluate prevalent rate of nonalbuminuric renal insufficiency and to investigate its relationship with previous cardiovascular disease (CVD event in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM.MethodsLaboratory and clinical data of 1,067 subjects with T2DM were obtained and reviewed. Study subjects were allocated into four subgroups according to the CKD classification. Major CVD events were included with coronary, cerebrovascular, and peripheral vascular events.ResultsNonalbuminuric stage ≥3 CKD group, when compared with albuminuric stage ≥3 CKD group, had shorter diabetic duration, lower concentrations of glycated hemoglobin, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, lower prevalent rates of retinopathy and previous CVD, and higher rate of treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers. Nonalbuminuric stage ≥3 CKD group showed a greater association with prior CVD events than no CKD group; however, albuminuric stage ≥3 CKD group made addition to increase prevalence of prior CVD events significantly when CKD categories were applied as covariates. Association of prior CVD events, when compared with normal estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR and nonalbuminuria categories, became significant for declined eGFR, which was higher for eGFR of <30 mL/min/1.73 m2, and albuminuria.ConclusionThe results show that subjects with nonalbuminuric stage ≥3 CKD is significantly interrelated with occurrence of prior CVD events than those with normal eGFR with or without albuminuria. Comparing with normal eGFR and nonalbuminuria categories, the combination of increased degree of albuminuria and declined eGFR is becoming significant for the association of prior CVD events.

  6. Prevalence and Characterization of Self-Reported Gluten Sensitivity in The Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom van Gils

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: A growing number of individuals reports symptoms related to the ingestion of gluten-containing food in the absence of celiac disease. Yet the actual prevalence is not well established. Methods: Between April 2015 and March 2016, unselected adults visiting marketplaces, dental practices and a university in The Netherlands were asked to complete a modified validated questionnaire for self-reported gluten sensitivity (srGS. Results: Among the 785 adults enquired, two had celiac disease. Forty-nine (6.2% reported symptoms related to the ingestion of gluten-containing food. These individuals were younger, predominantly female and lived more frequently in urban regions compared with the other respondents. Symptoms reported included bloating (74%, abdominal discomfort (49% and flatulence (47%. A total of 23 (47% srGS individuals reported having had tried a gluten-free or gluten-restricted diet. Abdominal discomfort related to fermentable oligosaccharide, disaccharide, monosaccharide and polyol (FODMAP-containing food was more often reported in srGS individuals compared with the other respondents (73.5% vs. 21.7%, p < 0.001. Conclusion: Self-reported GS is common in The Netherlands, especially in younger individuals, females and urban regions, although the prevalence was lower than in a comparable recent UK study. It cannot be excluded that FODMAPs are in part responsible for these symptoms.

  7. Prevalence of and factors associated with self-reported high blood pressure in Brazilian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Bernal, Regina Tomie Ivata; Andrade, Silvânia Suely Caribé de Araújo; Silva, Marta Maria Alves da; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo

    2017-06-01

    To analyze factors associated with self-reported high blood pressure among adults in Brazilian state capitals. The study uses data from Sistema de Vigilância de Fatores de Risco e Proteção para Doenças Crônicas por Inquérito Telefônico (Vigitel - Surveillance System of Risk and Protection Factors of Noncommunicable Diseases by Telephone Survey) collected in 2013. Prevalence rates and their respective 95% confidence intervals by gender were estimated according to sociodemographic variables, lifestyle, reported noncommunicable diseases and self-rated health status. Multivariate logistic regression modeling was used to identify variables associated with self-reported high blood pressure with α high blood pressure among adults living in Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District was 24.1%. The following variables were associated with self-reported high blood pressure: age group, taking 18-24 as reference (all age groups presented increased risk - from 25-34 years [OR = 2.6; 95%CI 2.0-3.4] up to 65 years or more [OR = 28.1; 95%CI 21.7-36.4]); low education level (9 to 11 years of study [OR = 0.8; 95%CI 0.7-0.9] and 12 years or more [OR = 0.6; 95%CI 0.6-0.7]); Black race or skin color (OR = 1.3; 95%CI 1.1-1.5); being a former smoker (OR = 1.2; 95%CI 1.1-1.3); obesity (OR = 2.7; 95%CI 2.4-3.0); diabetes (OR = 2.9; 95%CI 2.5-3.5%), and high cholesterol (OR = 1.9; 95%CI 1.8-2.2). Approximately one quarter of the adult population living in Brazilian state capitals reported having high blood pressure. Information from Vigitel is useful to monitor high blood pressure and identity its associated factors, supporting public policies for health promotion, surveillance and care. Analisar os fatores associados à hipertensão arterial autorreferida entre adultos nas capitais brasileiras. Estudo com os dados do Sistema de Vigilância de Fatores de Risco e Proteção para Doenças Crônicas por Inquérito Telefônico (Vigitel) coletados no ano de 2013. Foram estimadas

  8. The Influence of Survey Methodology in Estimating Prevalence Rates of Childhood Sexual Abuse Among Navy Recruits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Olson, Cheryl B; Stander, Valerie A; Merril, Lex L

    2000-01-01

    ...% of the participants self-defined themselves as abused. Despite these differences in abuse rates, data from the SHIP survey, from SRB operational definitions, and from SRB self-definitions all independently accounted for variability in participants...

  9. Preventive health care and owner-reported disease prevalence of horses and ponies in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, J L; Wylie, C E; Collins, S N; Verheyen, K L P; Newton, J R

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to describe the provision of preventive health care and owner-reported disease prevalence in horses and ponies within Great Britain (GB), and to assess geographical variations in health care provision. A cross-sectional survey was conducted, using a postal questionnaire administered to a random sample of veterinary-registered owners of horses and ponies in GB (n=797). The majority of animals received regular preventive health care: 95.6% had regular hoof care; 71.3% were vaccinated for both influenza and tetanus and median time since last anthelmintic administration was 8.7 weeks. Thirty-one percent of owners indicated their animal was overweight/obese. A new health problem within the previous 7 days was reported for 7.4% of animals, 59.3% of which were veterinary-diagnosed. Thirty-two percent of animals were reported to have a long-term/recurrent condition, of which osteoarthritis (13.9%) was the most prevalent. Obesity, musculoskeletal disorders, and dermatological conditions were the most prevalent conditions affecting veterinary-registered horses/ponies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. High prevalence and resistance rates to antibiotics in anaerobic bacteria in specimens from patients with chronic balanitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyanova, Lyudmila; Mitev, Angel; Gergova, Galina; Mateev, Grisha; Mitov, Ivan

    2012-08-01

    Aim of the study was to assess both prevalence and antibiotic resistance in anaerobic bacteria from glans penis skin of 70 adults. Strain susceptibility was determined by breakpoint susceptibility test or E test. In 9 asymptomatic, 48 untreated and 13 treated symptomatic patients, anaerobes were found in 22.2%, 70.8% and 53.3%, respectively. Gram-positive strains (GPAs) were 2.2-fold more common than Gram-negative ones. Prevalent Gram-negative (GNAs) and GPAs were Prevotella spp. and anaerobic cocci, respectively. Clostridium difficile strain was found in an untreated patient. In GNAs, resistance rates to amoxicillin, metronidazole, clindamycin, tetracycline, levofloxacin, and amoxicillin/clavulanate were 42.1, 0, 52.6, 53.3, 86.7 and 5.2%, respectively. In GPAs, the resistance rates to metronidazole, clindamycin, tetracycline, levofloxacin and amoxicillin/clavulanate were 18.2, 34.1, 52.6, 36.8 and 0%, respectively. In conclusion, anaerobes were 1.6-fold more frequent in untreated symptomatic patients compared with other patients, suggesting their participation in development of chronic balanitis. GPAs were more common than GNAs. The resistance rates to amoxicillin, clindamycin, tetracycline, and levofloxacin were high. Most active agents were metronidazole and amoxicillin/clavulanate. Resistance in anaerobes varies according to sites of specimens and years of study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Caries prevalence in chronic alcoholics and the relationship to salivary flow rate and pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukić, Walter; Dobrijević, Tanja Trivanović; Katunarić, Marina; Lesić, Stjepanka

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the dental status of alcoholics; to evaluate the relationship of unstimulated and stimulated saliva pH on their decayed/missing/filled teeth (DMFT); and to evaluate the relationship of unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rate on their DMFT. A cross-sectional study was conducted in patients treated for alcohol dependency (n = 70; mean age 41.7 years) and a control group of non-alcoholics (n = 70; mean age 39.1 years). Examinations for dental caries were conducted using the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria and questionnaires. The correlation between nominal variables was determined using chi2 test (alpha = 0.05). The correlation between interval variables was determined using Pearson's correlation coefficient. The mean DMFT was similar in alcoholics (14.40) and the control group (13.44) (p > 0.05). There was a statistically significant correlation between alcoholism and unstimulated salivary flow rate (p salivary flow rate (p > 0.05) or stimulated salivary flow on DMFT (p > 0.05). There was a statistically significant correlation between alcoholism and the pH value of stimulated saliva (p 0.05). No major differences were found with respect to overall DMFT in alcoholics compared to the control group. Alcoholism and stimulated salivary flow rate showed no correlation. Unstimulated salivary flow rate as well as the pH values of both unstimulated and stimulated saliva, were lower in the alcoholic group.

  12. Rare chromosome abnormalities, prevalence and prenatal diagnosis rates from population-based congenital anomaly registers in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wellesley, Diana; Dolk, Helen; Boyd, Patricia A

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to quantify the prevalence and types of rare chromosome abnormalities (RCAs) in Europe for 2000-2006 inclusive, and to describe prenatal diagnosis rates and pregnancy outcome. Data held by the European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies database were analysed on all the...... currently requiring specialised genetic counselling services in the perinatal period for these conditions and, for some, long-term care.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 11 January 2012; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2011.246....

  13. Effect of gender on hospital admissions for asthma and prevalence of self-reported asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, E; Lange, P; Vestbo, J

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Women are more often admitted to hospital for asthma than men. A study was undertaken to determine whether this is caused by gender differences in the prevalence or severity of the disease. METHODS: Admissions to hospital for asthma in 13,540 subjects were followed from 1977 to 1993....... RESULTS: At baseline 315 subjects (2.3%) reported asthma, 2.2% of women and 2.5% of men. During follow up 160 subjects were admitted to hospital for asthma. After controlling for self-reported asthma and smoking, women had a higher risk of being admitted to hospital than men (relative risk 1.7, 95...

  14. Generating Fast and Accurate Compliance Reports for Various Data Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penugonda, Srinath

    As the demands on the industry data rates have increased there is a need for interoperable interfaces to function flawlessly. Added to this complexity, the number of I/O data lines are also increasing making it more time consuming to design and test. This in general leads to creating of compliance standards to which interfaces must adhere. The goal of this theses is to aid the Signal Integrity Engineers with a better and fast way of rendering a full picture of the interface compliance parameters. Three different interfaces at various data rates were chosen. They are: 25Gbps Very Short Reach (VSR) based on Optical Internetworking Forum (OIF), Mobile Industry Processer Interface (MIPI) particularly for camera based on MIPI Alliance organization upto 1.5Gbps and for a passive Universal Serial Bus (USB) Type-C cable based on USB organization particularly for generation-I with data rate of 10Gbps. After a full understanding of each of the interfaces, a complete end-to-end reports for each of the interfaces were developed with an easy to use user interface. A standard one-to-one comparison is done with commercially available software tools for the above mentioned interfaces. The tools were developed in MATLAB and Python. Data was usually obtained by probing at interconnect, from either an oscilloscope or vector network analyzer.

  15. Case-mix adjustment approach to benchmarking prevalence rates of nosocomial infection in hospitals in Cyprus and Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritsotakis, Evangelos I; Dimitriadis, Ioannis; Roumbelaki, Maria; Vounou, Emelia; Kontou, Maria; Papakyriakou, Panikos; Koliou-Mazeri, Maria; Varthalitis, Ioannis; Vrouchos, George; Troulakis, George; Gikas, Achilleas

    2008-08-01

    To examine the effect of heterogeneous case mix for a benchmarking analysis and interhospital comparison of the prevalence rates of nosocomial infection. Cross-sectional survey. Eleven hospitals located in Cyprus and in the region of Crete in Greece. The survey included all inpatients in the medical, surgical, pediatric, and gynecology-obstetrics wards, as well as those in intensive care units. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria were used to define nosocomial infection. The information collected for all patients included demographic characteristics, primary admission diagnosis, Karnofsky functional status index, Charlson comorbidity index, McCabe-Jackson severity of illness classification, use of antibiotics, and prior exposures to medical and surgical risk factors. Outcome data were also recorded for all patients. Case mix-adjusted rates were calculated by using a multivariate logistic regression model for nosocomial infection risk and an indirect standardization method.Results. The overall prevalence rate of nosocomial infection was 7.0% (95% confidence interval, 5.9%-8.3%) among 1,832 screened patients. Significant variation in nosocomial infection rates was observed across hospitals (range, 2.2%-9.6%). Logistic regression analysis indicated that the mean predicted risk of nosocomial infection across hospitals ranged from 3.7% to 10.3%, suggesting considerable variation in patient risk. Case mix-adjusted rates ranged from 2.6% to 12.4%, and the relative ranking of hospitals was affected by case-mix adjustment in 8 cases (72.8%). Nosocomial infection was significantly and independently associated with mortality (adjusted odds ratio, 3.6 [95% confidence interval, 2.1-6.1]). The first attempt to rank the risk of nosocomial infection in these regions demonstrated the importance of accounting for heterogeneous case mix before attempting interhospital comparisons.

  16. HCV infection among Saudi population: high prevalence of genotype 4 and increased viral clearance rate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed S Abdel-Moneim

    Full Text Available HCV is a major etiological agent of liver disease with a high rate of chronic evolution. The virus possesses 6 genotypes with many subtypes. The rate of spontaneous clearance among HCV infected individuals denotes a genetic determinant factor. The current study was designed in order to estimate the rate of HCV infection and ratio of virus clearance among a group of infected patients in Saudi Arabia from 2008 to 2011. It was additionally designed to determine the genotypes of the HCV in persistently infected patients. HCV seroprevalence was conducted on a total of 15,323 individuals. Seropositive individuals were tested by Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HCV assay to determine the ratio of persistently infected patients to those who showed spontaneous viral clearance. HCV genotyping on random samples from persistently infected patients were conducted based on the differences in the 5'untranslated region (5'UTR. Anti-HCV antibodies were detected in 7.3% of the totally examined sera. A high percentage of the HCV infected individuals experienced virus clearance (48.4%. HCV genotyping revealed the presence of genotypes 1 and 4, the latter represented 97.6% of the tested strains. Evidences of the widespread of the HCV genotype 4 and a high rate of HCV virus clearance were found in Saudi Arabia.

  17. The Prevalent Rate of Problem-Solving Approach in Teaching Mathematics in Ghanaian Basic Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyala, Joseph; Assuah, Charles; Ayebo, Abraham; Tse, Newel

    2016-01-01

    Stakeholders of mathematics education decry the rate at which students' performance are falling below expectation; they call for a shift to practical methods of teaching the subject in Ghanaian basic schools. The study explores the extent to which Ghanaian basic school mathematics teachers use problem-solving approach in their lessons. The…

  18. Prevalence and Correlates of Self-Reported ADHD Symptoms in Children Attending School in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaisoorya, T S; Beena, K V; Beena, M; Ellangovan, K; George, Sanju; Thennarasu, K; Srinath, Shoba

    2016-09-02

    To study the prevalence and correlates of self-reported ADHD symptoms among school-going adolescents from Kerala, India. Seven thousand five hundred sixty students from Classes 8, 10, and 12, aged 12 to 19 years, across 73 schools selected by cluster random sampling, were invited to participate, but only 7,150 successfully completed the questionnaire incorporating standardized instruments. Three hundred five (4.3%) self-reported symptoms for ADHD combined type, 131 (1.8%) for ADHD hyperactive-impulsive type, and 102 (1.4%) for ADHD inattentive type with a male predominance. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that those with symptoms of ADHD (combined type) compared with the non-ADHD group had poorer academic performance, significantly higher substance use, psychological distress, suicidality, and sexual abuse. The high prevalence of self-reported ADHD symptoms and its association with negative correlates previously reported in literature in those with a diagnosis of ADHD suggests that clinically significant self-reported ADHD symptoms could be as disabling as ADHD. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Prevalence Rate of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis and Identification of Candida Species in Women in Referred to Hamedan Hospitals 2013 - 2014, West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Habibipour

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Vulvovaginal candidiasis is a common gynecological finding among the women worldwide. Objectives In this study determine of prevalence rate of vulvovaginal candidiasis and identification of Candida species was investigated. Patients and Methods In this cross-sectional study study, 350 females selected and examined by wet mount and culture procedure. Results The prevalence rate, by means of culture procedure was 26%. Candida albicans was responsible for 81.3% episodes of volvovaginal candidiasis. Conclusions In order to decrease the prevalence rate of vulvovaginitis, more epidemiological surveillance and accurate informative programs about public health care, symptoms and signs and transmission ways should be performed in the future.

  20. The impact of urbanization and population density on childhood Plasmodium falciparum parasite prevalence rates in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabaria, Caroline W; Gilbert, Marius; Noor, Abdisalan M; Snow, Robert W; Linard, Catherine

    2017-01-26

    Although malaria has been traditionally regarded as less of a problem in urban areas compared to neighbouring rural areas, the risk of malaria infection continues to exist in densely populated, urban areas of Africa. Despite the recognition that urbanization influences the epidemiology of malaria, there is little consensus on urbanization relevant for malaria parasite mapping. Previous studies examining the relationship between urbanization and malaria transmission have used products defining urbanization at global/continental scales developed in the early 2000s, that overestimate actual urban extents while the population estimates are over 15 years old and estimated at administrative unit level. This study sought to discriminate an urbanization definition that is most relevant for malaria parasite mapping using individual level malaria infection data obtained from nationally representative household-based surveys. Boosted regression tree (BRT) modelling was used to determine the effect of urbanization on malaria transmission and if this effect varied with urbanization definition. In addition, the most recent high resolution population distribution data was used to determine whether population density had significant effect on malaria parasite prevalence and if so, could population density replace urban classifications in modelling malaria transmission patterns. The risk of malaria infection was shown to decline from rural areas through peri-urban settlements to urban central areas. Population density was found to be an important predictor of malaria risk. The final boosted regression trees (BRT) model with urbanization and population density gave the best model fit (Tukey test p value <0.05) compared to the models with urbanization only. Given the challenges in uniformly classifying urban areas across different countries, population density provides a reliable metric to adjust for the patterns of malaria risk in densely populated urban areas. Future malaria risk

  1. Measuring functional developmental delay in infants and young children: prevalence rates from the NHIS-D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Gloria A; Colpe, Lisa; Greenspan, Stanley

    2003-01-01

    In order to measure the prevalence of developmental delay among US infants and children, two types of questions were asked of parents in the 1994-95 National Health Interview Survey on Disability (NHIS-D). To measure functional delay (FD), questions from the Functional Developmental Growth Chart (FDQ), which measures specific age-appropriate tasks, were used. General delay (GD) was defined using the general type of questions about developmental delay that had been used in previous surveys. Using a nationally representative sample of 15 291 infants and children aged 4-59 months from the NHIS-D, analyses revealed that, according to these questions, approximately 3.3% had FD and 3.4% of the children had GD. However, only one-third of the children were identified by both sets of questions. Thus, two-thirds of the children identified as having FD were not recognised by their parents as having a delay. Conversely, many parents responded to the GD questions indicating that their child had a delay, but failed to indicate that their child had a functional problem. In addition, only 17% of the children with FD and 31% of those with GD were receiving special services. Multivariable logistic regression analyses found that children with both FD and GD were more likely to be male and to be living in families with incomes below 200% of the poverty level. The findings suggest that the general types of developmental delay questions used in national surveys may not identify children with functional delays. As parents failed to identify these children, it is possible that many of these children may be slipping through paediatric surveillance. Further research to evaluate the use of these measures in population surveys is recommended.

  2. Comparing Sexual Assult Survey Prevalence Rates at Military Service Academies and U.S. Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-15

    and Weitzman, L. (1988). The incidence and dimensions of sexual harassment in academia and the workplace . Journal of Vocational Behavior, 32, 152...nonconforming,” or as something not listed on the survey. This group had high rates of being victims of nonconsensual sexual contact and harassment . However...physical harm or promised rewards, or 4) failure to obtain affirmative consent. The study also collected data on sexual harassment , stalking, and

  3. High third-generation cephalosporin resistant Enterobacteriaceae prevalence rate among neonatal infections in Dakar, Senegal

    OpenAIRE

    Breurec, Sebastien; Bouchiat, Coralie; Sire, Jean-Marie; Moquet, Olivier; Bercion, Raymond; Cisse, Moussa Fafa; Glaser, Philippe; Ndiaye, Ousmane; Ka, Sidy; Salord, Helene; Seck, Abdoulaye; Sy, Haby Signate; Michel, Remy; Garin, Benoit

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Background: Neonatal infection constitutes one of Senegal’s most important public health problems, with amortality rate of 41 deaths per 1,000 live births.Methods: Between January 2007 and March 2008, 242 neonates with suspected infection were recruited at threeneonatal intensive care units in three major tertiary care centers in Dakar, the capital of Senegal. Neonatal infections wereconfirmed by positive bacterial blood or cerebrospinal fluid culture. The microbiologi...

  4. Prevalence of hearing loss and accuracy of self-report among factory workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie C McCullagh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise represents one of the most common occupational health hazards. A Healthy People 2020 objective aims to reduce hearing loss in the noise-exposed public. The purpose of this study was to describe and compare perceived and measured hearing, and to determine the prevalence of hearing loss among a group of factory workers. Data collected as part of an intervention study promoting hearing protector use among workers at an automotive factory in the Midwest were used. Plant employees (n=2691 provided information regarding their perceived hearing ability, work role, and other demographics. The relationships among audiograms, a single-item measure of perceived hearing ability, and demographic data were explored using chi-square, McNemar′s test, Mann-Whitney U-test, sensitivity, and specificity. The prevalence of hearing loss among noise-exposed factory workers was 42% (where hearing loss was defined as >25 dB loss at the OSHA-recommended frequencies of 2, 3, and 4 kHz in either ear. However, 76% of workers reported their hearing ability as excellent or good. The difference in perceived hearing ability was significant at each tested frequency between those with and without measured hearing loss. Self-reported hearing ability was poorly related to results of audiometry. Although this group of workers was employed in a regulated environment and served by a hearing conservation program, hearing loss was highly prevalent. These findings, together with national prevalence estimates, support the need for evaluation of hearing conservation programs and increased attention to the national goal of reducing adult hearing loss.

  5. Prevalence of hearing loss and accuracy of self-report among factory workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullagh, Marjorie C; Raymond, Delbert; Kerr, Madeleine J; Lusk, Sally L

    2011-01-01

    Noise represents one of the most common occupational health hazards. A Healthy People 2020 objective aims to reduce hearing loss in the noise-exposed public. The purpose of this study was to describe and compare perceived and measured hearing, and to determine the prevalence of hearing loss among a group of factory workers. Data collected as part of an intervention study promoting hearing protector use among workers at an automotive factory in the Midwest were used. Plant employees (n=2691) provided information regarding their perceived hearing ability, work role, and other demographics. The relationships among audiograms, a single-item measure of perceived hearing ability, and demographic data were explored using chi-square, McNemar's test, Mann-Whitney U-test, sensitivity, and specificity. The prevalence of hearing loss among noise-exposed factory workers was 42% (where hearing loss was defined as >25 dB loss at the OSHA-recommended frequencies of 2, 3, and 4 kHz in either ear). However, 76% of workers reported their hearing ability as excellent or good. The difference in perceived hearing ability was significant at each tested frequency between those with and without measured hearing loss. Self-reported hearing ability was poorly related to results of audiometry. Although this group of workers was employed in a regulated environment and served by a hearing conservation program, hearing loss was highly prevalent. These findings, together with national prevalence estimates, support the need for evaluation of hearing conservation programs and increased attention to the national goal of reducing adult hearing loss.

  6. Prevalence and causes of self-reported work-related stress in head teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Samantha; Sen, Dil; McNamee, Roseanne

    2007-08-01

    Work-related stress (WRS) is the leading cause of occupational ill-health in the education sector in the UK. Headship is believed to be a stressful role although there is little current research into stress in head teachers. Changes in the education sector since the late 1980s have meant that the findings of many existing studies are outdated. To investigate prevalence and causes of self-reported, WRS in head teachers in West Sussex, UK. A cross-sectional study using postal questionnaire in a population of 290 head teachers and principals. The measuring instrument was a short stress evaluation tool (ASSET) plus additional questions derived from previous studies. Stress cases were defined as respondents who felt their work was 'very or extremely stressful'. Prevalence of self-reported, WRS was 43%. Using ASSET scoring, work overload and work-life imbalance were the key stressors. Females were significantly more stressed than males for a number of stressors including overload and control. Although there was some evidence that primary head teachers fared worse than their secondary counterparts, once the confounding effects of gender were included, there were few significant differences. The prevalence of self-reported stress in head teachers in West Sussex is significantly increased compared to recent studies of workers in the UK. The recurring theme in existing studies of workload as a main stressor is confirmed in the findings of this study. Gender and type of school does affect outcome and female head teachers have more reported stressors than their male colleagues.

  7. Has prenatal screening influenced the prevalence of comorbidities associated with Down syndrome and subsequent survival rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Jane; Collins, Veronica; Riley, Merilyn; Youssef, Danielle; Muggli, Evelyne

    2009-01-01

    With this study we aimed to compare survival rates for children with Down syndrome in 2 time periods, 1 before prenatal screening (1988-1990) and 1 contemporaneous with screening (1998-2000), and to examine the frequency of comorbidities and their influence on survival rates. Record-linkage was performed between the population-based Victorian Birth Defects Register and records of deaths in children up to 15 years of age collected under the auspice of the Consultative Council on Obstetric and Pediatric Mortality and Morbidity. Cases of Down syndrome were coded according to the presence or absence of comorbidities by using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision classification of birth defects. Kaplan-Meier survival functions and log rank tests for equality of survival distributions were performed. Of infants liveborn with Down syndrome in 1998-2000, 90% survived to 5 years of age, compared with 86% in the earlier cohort. With fetal deaths excluded, the proportion of isolated Down syndrome cases in the earlier cohort was 48.7% compared with 46.1% in the most recent cohort. In 1988-1990 there was at least 1 cardiac defect in 41.1% of cases and in 45.4% in 1998-2000. There was significant variation in survival rates for the different comorbidity groupings in the 1988-1990 cohort, but this was not so evident in the 1998-2000 cohort. Survival of children with Down syndrome continues to improve, and there is an overall survival figure of 90% to at least 5 years of age. It is clear from this study that prenatal screening technologies are not differentially ascertaining fetuses with Down syndrome and additional defects, because there has been no proportional increase in births of isolated cases with Down syndrome.

  8. Agent Orange exposure and prevalence of self-reported diseases in Korean Vietnam veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Sang-Wook; Ohrr, Heechoul; Hong, Jae-Seok; Yi, Jee-Jeon

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between Agent Orange exposure and self-reported diseases in Korean Vietnam veterans. A postal survey of 114 562 Vietnam veterans was conducted. The perceived exposure to Agent Orange was assessed by a 6-item questionnaire. Two proximity-based Agent Orange exposure indices were constructed using division/brigade-level and battalion/company-level unit information. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for age and other confounders were calculated using a logistic regression model. The prevalence of all self-reported diseases showed monotonically increasing trends as the levels of perceived self-reported exposure increased. The ORs for colon cancer (OR, 1.13), leukemia (OR, 1.56), hypertension (OR, 1.03), peripheral vasculopathy (OR, 1.07), enterocolitis (OR, 1.07), peripheral neuropathy (OR, 1.07), multiple nerve palsy (OR, 1.14), multiple sclerosis (OR, 1.24), skin diseases (OR, 1.05), psychotic diseases (OR, 1.07) and lipidemia (OR, 1.05) were significantly elevated for the high exposure group in the division/brigade-level proximity-based exposure analysis, compared to the low exposure group. The ORs for cerebral infarction (OR, 1.08), chronic bronchitis (OR, 1.05), multiple nerve palsy (OR, 1.07), multiple sclerosis (OR, 1.16), skin diseases (OR, 1.05), and lipidemia (OR, 1.05) were significantly elevated for the high exposure group in the battalion/company-level analysis. Korean Vietnam veterans with high exposure to Agent Orange experienced a higher prevalence of several self-reported chronic diseases compared to those with low exposure by proximity-based exposure assessment. The strong positive associations between perceived self-reported exposure and all self-reported diseases should be evaluated with discretion because the likelihood of reporting diseases was directly related to the perceived intensity of Agent Orange exposure.

  9. Examination of anonymous canine faecal samples provides data on endoparasite prevalence rates in dogs for comparative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinney, Barbara; Gottwald, Michaela; Moser, Jasmine; Reicher, Bianca; Schäfer, Bhavapriya Jasmin; Schaper, Roland; Joachim, Anja; Künzel, Frank

    2017-10-15

    Several endoparasites of dogs cannot only be detrimental to their primary host but might also represent a threat to human health because of their zoonotic potential. Due to their high dog population densities, metropolitan areas can be highly endemic for such parasites. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of endoparasites in dogs in the Austrian capital of Vienna by examining a representative number of canine faecal samples and to compare the prevalences with two neighbouring peri-urban and rural regions. In addition we analysed whether the density of dog populations and cleanliness of dog zones correlated with parasite occurrence. We collected 1001 anonymous faecal samples from 55 dog zones from all 23 districts of the federal state of Vienna, as well as 480 faecal samples from the Mödling district and Wolkersdorf with a peri-urban and rural character, respectively. Faeces were examined by flotation and by Baermann technique. Additionally we evaluated 292 Viennese, 102 peri-urban and 50 rural samples for Giardia and Cryptosporidium by GiardiaFASTest ® and CryptoFASTest ® . Samples from "clean" dog zones were compared to samples from "dirty" zones. The infection rate of Toxocara was surprisingly low, ranging from 0.6% to 1.9%. Trichuris was the most frequent helminth (1.8-7.5%) and Giardia the most frequent protozoan (4.0-10.8%). Ancylostomatidae, Crenosoma, Capillaria, Taeniidae, Cystoisospora and Sarcocystis were found in 1.8-2.2%, 0-0.9%, 0-0.9%, 0-0.6%, 0.3-3.1% and 0-0.6% of the samples, respectively. Samples from "dirty" dog zones in Vienna showed a significantly higher rate of parasites overall (p=0.003) and of Trichuris (p=0.048) compared to samples from "clean" dog zones. There were no statistically significant differences in densely vs. less densely populated areas of Vienna. Samples from the rural region of Wolkersdorf had significantly higher overall parasite, Trichuris and Cystoisospora prevalences than the peri-urban Mödling district and Vienna (p

  10. The prevalence of common mental disorders among hospital physicians and their association with self-reported work ability: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruitenburg Martijn M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We studied the prevalence of common mental disorders among Dutch hospital physicians and investigated whether the presence of a mental disorder was associated with insufficient self-reported work ability. Methods A questionnaire was sent to all (n = 958 hospital physicians of one academic medical center, using validated scales to assess burnout, work-related fatigue, stress, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, anxiety and depression. Furthermore, respondents were asked to rate their current work ability against the work ability in their own best period (adapted version of the first WAI item. The prevalence of each common mental disorder was calculated. In addition, odds ratios of reporting insufficient work ability for subjects with high complaint scores compared to physicians with low complaint scores were calculated for each mental disorder. Results The response rate was 51%, and 423 questionnaires were eligible for analysis. The mental disorder prevalence rates were as follows: work-related fatigue 42%, depression 29%, anxiety 24%, posttraumatic stress complaints 15%, stress complaints 15% and burnout 6%. The mean score for self-reported work ability was 8.1 (range 0–10, and 4% of respondents rated their own work ability as insufficient. Physicians with high mental health complaints were 3.5- for fatigue, 5.6- for PTSD, 7.1- for anxiety, 9.5- for burnout, 10.8- for depression and 13.6-fold for stress more likely to report their work ability as insufficient. Conclusions The prevalence of common mental disorders among hospital physicians varied from 6% for burnout to 42% for work-related fatigue. Those physicians with high complaints had significantly 4- to 14 times increased odds of reporting their own work ability as insufficient. This work suggests that to ensure future workers health and patients safety occupational health services should plan appropriate intervention strategies.

  11. Prevalence of self-reported stroke and disability in the French adult population: a transversal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzler, Alexis; Woimant, France; Tuppin, Philippe; de Peretti, Christine

    2014-01-01

    In France, the prevalence of stroke and the level of disability of stroke survivors are little known. The aim of this study was to evaluate functional limitations in adults at home and in institutions, with and without self-reported stroke. A survey named "the Disability Health survey" was carried out in people's homes (DHH) and in institutions (DHI). Medical history and functional level (activities-of-daily-living, ADL and instrumented-activities-of-daily-living IADL) were collected through interviews. The modified Rankin score (mRS) and the level of dependence and disability were compared between participants with and without stroke. 33896 subjects responded. The overall prevalence of stroke was 1.6% (CI95% [1.4%-1.7%]). The mRS was over 2 for 34.4% of participants with stroke (28.7% of participants at home and 87.8% of participants in institutions) versus respectively 3.9%, 3.1% and 71.6% without stroke. Difficulty washing was the most frequently reported ADL for those with stroke (30.6% versus 3% for those without stroke). Difficulty with ADL and IADL increased with age but the relative risk was higher below the age of 60 (17 to 25) than over 85 years (1.5 to 2.2), depending on the ADL. In the overall population, 22.6% of those confined to bed or chair reported a history of stroke. These results thus demonstrate a high national prevalence of stroke. Older people are highly dependent, irrespective of stroke history and the relative risk of dependence in young subjects with a history of stroke is high compared with those without.

  12. An investigation of the prevalence rate of fatty liver disease among people undergoing physical examination in Tangshan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MENG Yulin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the prevalence rate of fatty liver disease among people undergoing physical examination in Tangshan, China, and to provide a reasonable basis for the prevention and treatment of fatty liver disease. MethodsThe clinical data of 12 808 individuals who underwent physical examination in Tangshan from March 2014 to February 2016 were collected, and among these individuals, 3540 had fatty liver disease. The data including age, sex, body mass index (BMI, fasting plasma glucose (FPG, total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, and liver ultrasound findings were analyzed. The t-test was used for comparison of continuous data between groups and the chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups. Results Of all 7151 male individuals who underwent physical examination, 2750 (38.46% had fatty liver disease, and of all 5657 female individuals, 790 (13.96% had fatty liver disease; there was a significant difference in the prevalence rate of fatty liver disease between male and female individuals (χ2=947.25, P<0.01. There was a significant difference in the detection rate of fatty liver disease between male and female individuals in each age group of 18-29, 30-39, 40-49, and ≥50 years (χ2=337.58, 474.06, 449.38, and 12.86, all P<0.01. There was a significant difference in the detection rate of fatty liver disease between male or female individuals with different BMIs [obese (BMI ≥28, overweight (24≤BMI<28, and normal (BMI<24] (χ2=1104.01 and 500.23, both P<0.01. In the three groups of obese (BMI ≥28, overweight (24≤BMI<28, and normal (BMI<24 individuals who underwent physical examination, there was a significant difference in the detection rate of fatty liver disease between male and female individuals in each group (χ2=71.24, 87.97, and 323.84, all P<0.01. Male and female individuals with obesity (BMI ≥28 and overweight (24

  13. Systematic review on the primary and secondary reporting of the prevalence of ghostwriting in the medical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stretton, Serina

    2014-07-14

    Ghostwriting of industry-sponsored articles is unethical and is perceived to be common practice. To systematically review how evidence for the prevalence of ghostwriting is reported in the medical literature. MEDLINE via PubMed 1966+, EMBASE 1966+, The Cochrane Library 1988+, Medical Writing 1998+, The American Medical Writers Association (AMWA) Journal 1986+, Council of Science Editors Annual Meetings 2007+, and the Peer Review Congress 1994+ were searched electronically (23 May 2013) using the search terms ghostwrit*, ghostauthor*, ghost AND writ*, ghost AND author*. All publication types were considered; only publications reporting a numerical estimate of possible ghostwriting prevalence were included. Two independent reviewers screened the publications; discrepancies were resolved by consensus. Data to be collected included a numerical estimate of the prevalence of possible ghostwriting (primary outcome measure), definitions of ghostwriting reported, source of the reported prevalence, publication type and year, study design and sample population. Of the 848 publications retrieved and screened for eligibility, 48 reported numerical estimates for the prevalence of possible ghostwriting. Sixteen primary publications reported findings from cross-sectional surveys or descriptive analyses of published articles; 32 secondary publications cited published or unpublished evidence. Estimates on the prevalence of possible ghostwriting in primary and secondary publications varied markedly. Primary estimates were not suitable for meta-analysis because of the various definitions of ghostwriting used, study designs and types of populations or samples. Secondary estimates were not always reported or cited correctly or appropriately. Evidence for the prevalence of ghostwriting in the medical literature is limited and can be outdated, misleading or mistaken. Researchers should not inflate estimates using non-standard definitions of ghostwriting nor conflate ghostwriting with

  14. Systematic review on the primary and secondary reporting of the prevalence of ghostwriting in the medical literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stretton, Serina

    2014-01-01

    Background Ghostwriting of industry-sponsored articles is unethical and is perceived to be common practice. Objective To systematically review how evidence for the prevalence of ghostwriting is reported in the medical literature. Data sources MEDLINE via PubMed 1966+, EMBASE 1966+, The Cochrane Library 1988+, Medical Writing 1998+, The American Medical Writers Association (AMWA) Journal 1986+, Council of Science Editors Annual Meetings 2007+, and the Peer Review Congress 1994+ were searched electronically (23 May 2013) using the search terms ghostwrit*, ghostauthor*, ghost AND writ*, ghost AND author*. Eligibility criteria All publication types were considered; only publications reporting a numerical estimate of possible ghostwriting prevalence were included. Data extraction Two independent reviewers screened the publications; discrepancies were resolved by consensus. Data to be collected included a numerical estimate of the prevalence of possible ghostwriting (primary outcome measure), definitions of ghostwriting reported, source of the reported prevalence, publication type and year, study design and sample population. Results Of the 848 publications retrieved and screened for eligibility, 48 reported numerical estimates for the prevalence of possible ghostwriting. Sixteen primary publications reported findings from cross-sectional surveys or descriptive analyses of published articles; 32 secondary publications cited published or unpublished evidence. Estimates on the prevalence of possible ghostwriting in primary and secondary publications varied markedly. Primary estimates were not suitable for meta-analysis because of the various definitions of ghostwriting used, study designs and types of populations or samples. Secondary estimates were not always reported or cited correctly or appropriately. Conclusions Evidence for the prevalence of ghostwriting in the medical literature is limited and can be outdated, misleading or mistaken. Researchers should not inflate

  15. [The effectiveness of error reporting promoting strategy on nurse's attitude, patient safety culture, intention to report and reporting rate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myoungsoo

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of strategies to promote reporting of errors on nurses' attitude to reporting errors, organizational culture related to patient safety, intention to report and reporting rate in hospital nurses. A nonequivalent control group non-synchronized design was used for this study. The program was developed and then administered to the experimental group for 12 weeks. Data were analyzed using descriptive analysis, X(2)-test, t-test, and ANCOVA with the SPSS 12.0 program. After the intervention, the experimental group showed significantly higher scores for nurses' attitude to reporting errors (experimental: 20.73 vs control: 20.52, F=5.483, p=.021) and reporting rate (experimental: 3.40 vs control: 1.33, F=1998.083, porganizational culture and intention to report. The study findings indicate that strategies that promote reporting of errors play an important role in producing positive attitudes to reporting errors and improving behavior of reporting. Further advanced strategies for reporting errors that can lead to improved patient safety should be developed and applied in a broad range of hospitals.

  16. Prevalence of sustainability reporting practices of listed companies on established and emerging stock exchanges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan K. Turk

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The business sector has a substantial role in addressing current environmental issues and concerns. Consequently, there is a growing adoption of corporate sustainability principles and practices across all market sectors. This study examined four developed and four emerging stock markets and the sustainability reporting practices of the top 20 and bottom 20 companies in each. The results illustrate that the developed market sector was more advanced in its corporate sustainability reporting, both in the proportion of companies issuing a sustainability report (approximately 60 per cent and the proportion of company webpages dedicated to sustainability reporting. This difference was largely due to the effect of the top 20 companies. There was little difference between developed and developing markets when only the bottom 20 companies were considered, of which less than one-third provided sustainability reports.  These results show that sustainability reporting is prevalent in both developed and developing markets, especially among market leading companies, but that overall, most developing markets have some catching up to do.

  17. PREVALENCE OF SELF-REPORTED SPINAL PAIN IN BRAZIL: RESULTS OF THE NATIONAL HEALTH RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIZA GOMES SANTOS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To identify the prevalence and distribution of cases of self-reported spinal disorders by persons who are 18 years or older living in Brazil according to sociodemographic variables. Methods: We used the Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde (PNS, national health research, developed by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE in partnership with the Ministry of Health. The data obtained from the website of IBGE System of Automatic Recovery - SIDRA were analyzed using the SPSS Statistics software version 20.0, IBM. Results: In Brazil 19% of the adult population report chronic spinal pain, 15.26% (± 4.56 men and 20.08% (+/- 4.11 women. After the age of 60, the prevalence is higher. Regarding skin color 18.26% (± 3.53 are white, 17.27% (± 6.65 are black and 17.93% (± 4.05 are brown, with no statistical difference. As for education, 23.55% (±5.70 had low or absent schooling (p < 0.001. The southern region of Brazil has the highest percentage (23.3% of adults with chronic problems in the spine, and the state with the highest percentage is Paraná, with 26%. Conclusions: The results showed that there is a relationship between spinal pain and sociodemographic characteristics, pointing to the southern region as the most affected by spinal disorders when compared to other regions of the country.

  18. The prevalence of self-reported deliberate self harm in Irish adolescents.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morey, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Deliberate self harm is major public health problem, in particular among young people. Although several studies have addressed the prevalence of deliberate self harm among young people in the community, little is known about the extent to which deliberate self harm comes to the attention of medical services, the self harm methods used and the underlying motives. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of deliberate self harm in adolescents and the methods, motives and help seeking behaviour associated with this behaviour. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey using an anonymous self-report questionnaire was administered in 39 schools in the Southern area of the Health Service Executive, Ireland. Of the 4,583 adolescents aged 15-17 years who were invited to participate in the survey, 3,881 adolescents took part (response: 85%). RESULTS: A lifetime history of DSH was reported by 9.1% (n = 333) of the adolescents. DSH was more common among females (13.9%) than males (4.3%). Self cutting (66.0%) and overdose (35.2%) were the most common DSH methods. A minority of participants accessed medical services after engaging in DSH (15.3%). CONCLUSION: DSH is a significant problem in Irish adolescents and the vast majority do not come to the attention of health services. Innovative solutions for prevention and intervention are required to tackle DSH in adolescents.

  19. Preliminary Report: Analysis of the baseline study on the prevalence of Salmonella in laying hen flocks of Gallus gallus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine

    This is a preliminary report on the analysis of the Community-wide baseline study to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella in laying hen flocks. It is being published pending the full analysis of the entire dataset from the baseline study. The report contains the elements necessary for the establ......This is a preliminary report on the analysis of the Community-wide baseline study to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella in laying hen flocks. It is being published pending the full analysis of the entire dataset from the baseline study. The report contains the elements necessary...

  20. Measuring the prevalence of regional mutation rates: an analysis of silent substitutions in mammals, fungi, and insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuch Brian B

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The patterns of mutation vary both within and across genomes. It has been shown for a few mammals that mutation rates vary within the genome, while for unknown reasons, the sensu stricto yeasts have uniform rates instead. The generality of these observations has been unknown. Here we examine silent site substitutions in a more expansive set (20 mammals, 27 fungi, 4 insects to determine why some genomes demonstrate this mosaic distribution and why others are uniform. Results We applied several intragene and intergene correlation tests to measure regional substitution patterns. Assuming that silent sites are a reasonable approximation to neutrally mutating sequence, our results show that all multicellular eukaryotes exhibit mutational heterogeneity. In striking contrast, all fungi are mutationally uniform – with the exception of three Candida species: C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, and C. tropicalis. We speculate that aspects of replication timing may be responsible for distinguishing these species. Our analysis also reveals classes of genes whose silent sites behave anomalously with respect to the mutational background in many species, indicating prevalent selective pressures. Genes associated with nucleotide binding or gene regulation have consistently low silent substitution rates in every mammalian species, as well as multiple fungi. On the other hand, receptor genes repeatedly exhibit high silent substitution rates, suggesting they have been influenced by diversifying selection. Conclusion Our findings provide a framework for understanding the regional mutational properties of eukaryotes, revealing a sharp difference between fungi and multicellular species. They also elucidate common selective pressures acting on eukaryotic silent sites, with frequent evidence for both purifying and diversifying selection.

  1. Psychotropic medication in the French child and adolescent population: prevalence estimation from health insurance data and national self-report survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Legleye Stéphane

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this work is to estimate the French frequencies of dispensed psychotropic prescriptions in children and adolescents. Prevalence estimations of dispensed prescriptions are compared to the frequencies of use of psychotropic reported by 17 year-old adolescents. Methods Prescription data is derived from national health insurance databases. Frequencies of dispensed prescriptions are extrapolated to estimate a range for the 2004 national rates. Self-report data is derived from the 2003 and 2005 ESCAPAD study, an epidemiological study based on a questionnaire focused on health and drug consumption. Results The prevalence estimation shows that the prevalence of prescription of a psychotropic medication to young persons between 3 and 18 years is about 2.2%. In 2005, the self-report study (ESCAPAD shows that 14.9% of 17 year-old adolescents took medication for "nerves" or "to sleep" during the previous 12 months. The same study in 2003 also shows that 62.3% of adolescents aged 17 and 18 reporting psychotropic use, took the medication for anxiety and 56.8% to sleep. Only 49.7% of these medications are suggested by a doctor. Conclusion This study underlines a similar range of prevalence of psychotropic prescriptions in France to that observed in other European countries. Nevertheless, the proportion of antipsychotics and benzodiazepines seems to be higher, whereas the proportion of methylphenidate is lower. Secondly, a disparity between the prevalence of dispensed prescriptions and the self-report of actual use of psychotropics has been highlighted by the ESCAPAD study which shows that these treatments are widely used as "self-medication".

  2. Assessing conflict communication in couples: comparing the validity of self-report, partner-report, and observer ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Keith

    2010-04-01

    This study of married couples investigated the short-term predictive validity of the partner-report and self-report scales of the Conflict Communication Inventory and compared the validity of these scales with the validity of observer ratings. A sample of 83 married couples completed two problem-solving conversations. Self-report, partner-report, and observer ratings from Conversation 1 were used to predict behavior in Conversation 2, as rated by a separate panel of observers. The short-term predictive validity of partner-report ratings was extremely high and indistinguishable from the validity of observer ratings. Self-report ratings also demonstrated good validity, albeit slightly lower than other methods. Both partner-report and self-report scores explained a substantial amount of variance in concurrent observer ratings of communication after controlling for relationship satisfaction. 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  3. A Servey on the prevalence rate of Linguatula serrata in stary dogs of the city of Urmia

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    S Rasoli

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Linguatla serrata is a zoonotic parasite which causes different forms of liguatulosis in humans, carnivores and ruminants. The most important way of human infection is injection of vegetables, fruits and water contaminated by parasite eggs and through nasal and oral secretions and feces of carnivorous especially stray dogs. Also, consumption of raw and under cook meat of sheep, goats, cattle and other herbivores is another risk factor in human infection by Linguatla serrata.  This study was conducted in order to determine the infection rate of dogs by Linguatla serrata in the city of Urmia. In the present study, 37 dogs including 22 male and 15 female animals from different parts of the city were studied. The frontal sinuses, nasal turbinates, brain cavity, nasopharynx and eustachian tubes were examined for adult Linguatla serrata. The recovered parasites were fixed in 10% formalin solution, cleared by lactophenol and stained with azocarmin. Thirty of the studied dogs (81.01% were infected by Linguatla serrata. The results indicated that body weight, age, sex and geographical locations had no significant effect in the prevalence rate of the parasite. The number of parasites recovered from each dog ranged from 1 to 7 with an average of 2.93 in each dog. The length of the mature linguatula varied from 35-50 mm in females and 2-18 mm in males. The greatest number of parasites was found in the cranial part of the frontal sinus with 7 parasites.

  4. Prevalence of Skin Tears in Elderly Patients: A Retrospective Chart Review of Incidence Reports in 6 Long-term Care Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, Joyce; Shannon, Mary

    2018-04-01

    The incidence and prevalence of skin tears in long-term care (LTC) facilities has not been well established. To ascertain the point prevalence of reported skin tears, a retrospective review of incident reports was performed in 6 LTC facilities in western Pennsylvania from November 1, 2016 through December 31, 2016. Report data, including resident age; gender; mobility limitations; skin tear location, number, and cause (if known); occurrence time (7 am to 3 pm, 3 pm to 11 pm, or 11 pm to 7 am nursing shift); and history of previous skin tears, were abstracted. All data were entered into a statistical analysis program and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Period prevalence was used to determine prevalence rate; an independent t test was used to compare the presence of skin tears between genders. Differences between location and cause of skin tears were evaluated using a multinomial test of related proportions. A test of proportions was used to evaluate skin tear occurrence time (nursing shift) differences. The overall point prevalence rate was 9% (N = 1253 residents) ranging from 6 to 28 skin tears per facility. The average age of residents with a skin tear (n = 119) was 83.5 years. The majority (111, 93%) had mobility limitations. Falls accounted for 38 skin tears (31.9%), followed by propelling in a wheelchair (18, 15.1%; X2 =7.14; P = .008). Forearm skin tears (37, 31.1%) occurred significantly more frequently than lower leg skin tears (19, 16%; P = .016). Significantly more skin tears occurred during the 7 am to 3 pm shift (47, 39.5%) and 3 pm to 11 pm shift (49, 41.2%) than during the 11 pm to 7 am shift (23, 19.3%; X2 = 5.78; P skin tears are a significant problem among elderly residents in LTC, especially because the reported rate is likely lower than the actual rate. Research to further elucidate the incidence and prevalence of skin tears and associated risk factors is needed to help develop evidence-based risk assessment, classification systems

  5. Sexual victimization of youth with a physical disability: an examination of prevalence rates, and risk and protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller-Johnson, Katrin; Eisner, Manuel P; Obsuth, Ingrid

    2014-11-01

    Children with disabilities have been shown to be at greater risk of victimization than those without. Although much of the research combines disability of any type into a single disability category, recent evidence suggests that not all types of disabilities are equally associated with victimization. To date, little knowledge exists about the victimization of youth with physical disabilities. This study used data from a national school-based survey of adolescents (n = 6,749, mean age = 15.41, SD = .66) in Switzerland to investigate sexual victimization (SV) among physically disabled youth. Two subtypes of SV were differentiated: contact SV, including penetration or touching/kissing, and non-contact SV, such as exhibitionism, verbal harassment, exposure to sexual acts, or cyber SV. A total of 360 (5.1%) youth self-identified as having a physical disability. Lifetime prevalence rates for contact SV were 25.95% for girls with a physical disability (odds ratio [OR] = 1.29 compared with able-bodied girls), 18.50% for boys with physical disability (OR = 2.78 compared with able-bodied boys), and 22.35% for the total sample with physical disability (OR = 1.74 compared with able-bodied youth). For non-contact SV, the lifetime prevalence was 48.11% for girls with a physical disability (OR = 1.44 compared with able-bodied girls), 31.76% for boys with physical disability (OR = 1.95 compared with able-bodied boys), and 40.28% for the total sample with physical disability (OR = 1.67 compared with able-bodied youth). After controlling for other risk factors, physical disability was a significant predictor of contact and non-contact SV for boys, but not for girls. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Antimicrobial Resistance status and prevalence rates of Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL producers isolated from a mixed human population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth A. Afunwa

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the increasing epidemiological and therapeutic challenges associated with infections due to ESBL producers, ESBL prevalence rate among some bacteria isolates from healthy and non-healthy human population in a metropolitan Nigerian setting was evaluated.A total of one hundred and forty-five (145 bacteria strains were isolated from a total of four hundred and sixty (460 samples collected from urine, wound, throat and anal swabs of 220 healthy volunteers in the community and from 240 patients in 2 secondary and 2 tertiary hospitals (altogether, 4 in Enugu metropolis. The presumptive confirmatory test used for ESBL detection was the Double Disc Synergy Test (DDST method. Conjugation and plasmid curing studies were also done for resistance factor determination.Of the 145 isolates, 20 were ESBL producers with 35% of these ESBL producers being of community origin and 65% from hospitals. This translates to 4.8% and 9% incidences (comparably higher than established prevalence of 4.4% and 7.5 respectively for community and hospital infections respectively. The ESBL isolates showed high resistance to tetracycline, gentamicin, pefloxacin, ceftriaxone, cefuroxime, ciprofloxacin and Augmentin® (Amoxicilin and clavulanic acid combination. Conjugation studies for Resistance plasmid transfer showed non-transference of resistance determinants between the ESBL transconjugants and recipient strains. Correspondingly, the plasmid curing studies revealed that the acridine orange could not effect a cure on the isolates as they still retained high resistance to the antibiotics after the treatment.This study confirms the growing incidences/pool of ESBL strains in Nigeria and call for widespread and continuous monitoring towards an effective management of the potential therapeutic hurdle posed by this trend.

  7. Reconciling disparate prevalence rates of PTSD in large samples of US male Vietnam veterans and their controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gottesman Irving I

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two large independent studies funded by the US government have assessed the impact of the Vietnam War on the prevalence of PTSD in US veterans. The National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study (NVVRS estimated the current PTSD prevalence to be 15.2% while the Vietnam Experience Study (VES estimated the prevalence to be 2.2%. We compared alternative criteria for estimating the prevalence of PTSD using the NVVRS and VES public use data sets collected more than 10 years after the United States withdrew troops from Vietnam. Methods We applied uniform diagnostic procedures to the male veterans from the NVVRS and VES to estimate PTSD prevalences based on varying criteria including one-month and lifetime prevalence estimates, combat and non-combat prevalence estimates, and prevalence estimates using both single and multiple indicator models. Results Using a narrow and specific set of criteria, we derived current prevalence estimates for combat-related PTSD of 2.5% and 2.9% for the VES and the NVVRS, respectively. Using a more broad and sensitive set of criteria, we derived current prevalence estimates for combat-related PTSD of 12.2% and 15.8% for the VES and NVVRS, respectively. Conclusion When comparable methods were applied to available data we reconciled disparate results and estimated similar current prevalences for both narrow and broad definitions of combat-related diagnoses of PTSD.

  8. 45 CFR 98.100 - Error Rate Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND... the total dollar amount of payments made in the sample); the average amount of improper payment; and... not received. (e) Costs of Preparing the Error Rate Report—Provided the error rate calculations and...

  9. Prevalence of positive urinary dipstick analysis (leucocyte esterase, nitrite, haemoglobin, or glucose) in a population of 3645 adult subjects--consequence for measurement of urinary albumin excretion rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Jensen, J S; Borch-Johnsen, K

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess prevalence of positive urinary dipstick analysis for leucocyte esterase, nitrite, haemoglobin, or glucose in the general population and measure the urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) in subjects with or without a positive dipstick analysis. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study...... of 3645 subjects. SETTING: An unselected urban population study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence data of positive dipstick analyses and UAER values. RESULTS: Prevalence data of a positive dipstick analysis were 12%, 4%, 3% and 6%, respectively, for leucocyte esterase, nitrite, haemoglobin, and glucose...

  10. Prevalence Rate and Demographic and Clinical Correlates of Child Sexual Abuse Among New Psychiatric Outpatients in a City in Northern Alberta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyapong, Vincent I O; Juhás, Michal; Ritchie, Amanda; Ogunsina, Olurotimi; Ambrosano, Lorella; Corbett, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence rate for child sexual abuse among new psychiatric outpatients in Fort McMurray was 20.7%. With an odds ratio for sex of 3.30, female patients are about 3 times more likely to report a history of child sexual abuse compared with male patients when controlling for other factors. Similarly, patients with at most high school education and those with previous contact with psychiatric services were about 2 times more likely to report a history of child sexual abuse compared to the patients with college or university education or no previous contact with psychiatric services, respectively. Similarly, patients with histories of substance abuse and patients with family histories of mental illness had higher likelihoods of reporting histories of child sexual abuse compared to patients without histories of substance abuse or family histories of mental illness, respectively. Our findings suggest that victims of child sexual abuse are an at-risk population in need of ongoing mental health and educational support.

  11. Self-Reported Food Hypersensitivity: Prevalence, Characteristics, and Comorbidities in the Norwegian Women and Cancer Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Dybdahl Jakobsen

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the prevalence of self-reported food hypersensitivity, (SFH, the characteristics of women with SFH, and whether SFH is associated with multiple health complaints among the participants of the Norwegian Women and Cancer study (NOWAC.We conducted a cross-sectional study among 64,316 women aged 41-76 years. The women were randomly selected from the Norwegian Central Person Register. Information on SFH and all covariates except age and place of residence was collected by questionnaires in 2002-2005.The prevalence of SFH in our study sample was 6.8% (95% confidence interval: 6.7-7.0. Logistic regression analysis showed a negative association between SFH and age (odds ratio [OR] 0.97. The odds of SFH increased among women living in or near urban centers, women with more than 9 years of education, women who did not have full-time work, women who had experienced poor economic conditions in childhood, those living without a partner, and those who did not consume alcohol or smoke (OR varied from 1.10 to 1.70. Women with a low body mass index had higher odds of SFH (OR 1.37 than those with a moderate body mass index. SFH was positively associated with poor self-perceived health (OR 2.56. The odds of SFH increased with the number of concurrent health complaints, with an OR for 5-6 comorbidities of 4.93.We found an association between SFH, poor health, and different socio demographic and lifestyle characteristics. Women with SFH had increased odds of reporting multiple health complaints.

  12. Self-Reported Food Hypersensitivity: Prevalence, Characteristics, and Comorbidities in the Norwegian Women and Cancer Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Monika Dybdahl; Braaten, Tonje; Obstfelder, Aud; Abelsen, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the prevalence of self-reported food hypersensitivity, (SFH), the characteristics of women with SFH, and whether SFH is associated with multiple health complaints among the participants of the Norwegian Women and Cancer study (NOWAC). We conducted a cross-sectional study among 64,316 women aged 41-76 years. The women were randomly selected from the Norwegian Central Person Register. Information on SFH and all covariates except age and place of residence was collected by questionnaires in 2002-2005. The prevalence of SFH in our study sample was 6.8% (95% confidence interval: 6.7-7.0). Logistic regression analysis showed a negative association between SFH and age (odds ratio [OR] 0.97). The odds of SFH increased among women living in or near urban centers, women with more than 9 years of education, women who did not have full-time work, women who had experienced poor economic conditions in childhood, those living without a partner, and those who did not consume alcohol or smoke (OR varied from 1.10 to 1.70). Women with a low body mass index had higher odds of SFH (OR 1.37) than those with a moderate body mass index. SFH was positively associated with poor self-perceived health (OR 2.56). The odds of SFH increased with the number of concurrent health complaints, with an OR for 5-6 comorbidities of 4.93. We found an association between SFH, poor health, and different socio demographic and lifestyle characteristics. Women with SFH had increased odds of reporting multiple health complaints.

  13. Prevalence and reporting of recruitment, randomisation and treatment errors in clinical trials: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelland, Lisa N; Kahan, Brennan C; Dent, Elsa; Lee, Katherine J; Voysey, Merryn; Forbes, Andrew B; Cook, Jonathan A

    2018-06-01

    Background/aims In clinical trials, it is not unusual for errors to occur during the process of recruiting, randomising and providing treatment to participants. For example, an ineligible participant may inadvertently be randomised, a participant may be randomised in the incorrect stratum, a participant may be randomised multiple times when only a single randomisation is permitted or the incorrect treatment may inadvertently be issued to a participant at randomisation. Such errors have the potential to introduce bias into treatment effect estimates and affect the validity of the trial, yet there is little motivation for researchers to report these errors and it is unclear how often they occur. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of recruitment, randomisation and treatment errors and review current approaches for reporting these errors in trials published in leading medical journals. Methods We conducted a systematic review of individually randomised, phase III, randomised controlled trials published in New England Journal of Medicine, Lancet, Journal of the American Medical Association, Annals of Internal Medicine and British Medical Journal from January to March 2015. The number and type of recruitment, randomisation and treatment errors that were reported and how they were handled were recorded. The corresponding authors were contacted for a random sample of trials included in the review and asked to provide details on unreported errors that occurred during their trial. Results We identified 241 potentially eligible articles, of which 82 met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. These trials involved a median of 24 centres and 650 participants, and 87% involved two treatment arms. Recruitment, randomisation or treatment errors were reported in 32 in 82 trials (39%) that had a median of eight errors. The most commonly reported error was ineligible participants inadvertently being randomised. No mention of recruitment, randomisation

  14. Growth rates of breeder reactor fuel. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, K.O.

    1979-01-01

    During the contract period, a consistent formalism for the definition of the growth rates (and thus the doubling time) of breeder reactor fuel has been developed. This formalism was then extended to symbiotic operation of breeder and converter reactors. Further, an estimation prescription for the growth rate has been developed which is based upon the breeding worth factors. The characteristics of this definition have been investigated, which led to an additional integral concept, the breeding bonus

  15. Cohort Graduation Rate: Training & Validation Legislative Report, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon Department of Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    In a budget note in HB 5016 (2015), the Oregon Legislature directed the Oregon Department of Education (ODE) to report back to the Legislature prior to March 1, 2016 on its efforts to provide direction, and if necessary, training to staff from school districts and education service districts for reporting graduation data. This note also asked…

  16. Prevalence, correlates, and description of self-reported diabetes in brazilian capitals - results from a telephone survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betine Pinto Moehlecke Iser

    Full Text Available The prevalence of diabetes is increasing worldwide. The objective of this study is to estimate the prevalence of self-reported diabetes in Brazilian adults and to describe its population correlates as well as the clinical characteristics of the reported cases.We analyzed basic and supplementary data of 54.144 subjects participating in VIGITEL 2011 (Surveillance System for Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases, a telephone survey based on a probabilistic sample of subjects ≥ 18 years old residing in Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District. Estimates reported are weighted so as to represent the surveyed population.The prevalence of self-reported diabetes was 6.3% (95% CI 5.9-6.7, increasing markedly with age and nutritional status, and decreasing with level of education. Prevalence was higher among those self-declaring their race/color as black. Most cases (90% reported the diagnosis being made at 35 years or older. The vast majority (99.8% of self-reported cases informed having previously performed at least one glucose test, and 76% of those not reporting diabetes also informed having previously performed glucose testing. Most cases (92.6% reported following some form of diabetes treatment, 79% taking medication.The estimated prevalence of known diabetes found, 6.3%, is consistent with estimates given by international summaries. The additional data collected in VIGITEL 2011 regarding previous glucose testing and current treatment support the use of telephone-based information to monitor the prevalence of known diabetes in Brazilian capitals.

  17. Prevalence, correlates, and description of self-reported diabetes in brazilian capitals - results from a telephone survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iser, Betine Pinto Moehlecke; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; de Moura, Lenildo; Vigo, Alvaro; Schmidt, Maria Inês

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes is increasing worldwide. The objective of this study is to estimate the prevalence of self-reported diabetes in Brazilian adults and to describe its population correlates as well as the clinical characteristics of the reported cases. We analyzed basic and supplementary data of 54.144 subjects participating in VIGITEL 2011 (Surveillance System for Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases), a telephone survey based on a probabilistic sample of subjects ≥ 18 years old residing in Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District. Estimates reported are weighted so as to represent the surveyed population. The prevalence of self-reported diabetes was 6.3% (95% CI 5.9-6.7), increasing markedly with age and nutritional status, and decreasing with level of education. Prevalence was higher among those self-declaring their race/color as black. Most cases (90%) reported the diagnosis being made at 35 years or older. The vast majority (99.8%) of self-reported cases informed having previously performed at least one glucose test, and 76% of those not reporting diabetes also informed having previously performed glucose testing. Most cases (92.6%) reported following some form of diabetes treatment, 79% taking medication. The estimated prevalence of known diabetes found, 6.3%, is consistent with estimates given by international summaries. The additional data collected in VIGITEL 2011 regarding previous glucose testing and current treatment support the use of telephone-based information to monitor the prevalence of known diabetes in Brazilian capitals.

  18. Drug Dosing in Patients with Renal Insufficiency in a Hospital Setting using Electronic Prescribing and Automated Reporting of Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anita L.; Henriksen, Daniel Pilsgaard; Marinakis, Christianna

    2014-01-01

    In patients with impaired renal function, drug dose adjustment is often required. Non-adherence to clinical prescribing recommendations may result in severe adverse events. In previous studies, the prevalence rate of non-adherence to recommended dosing has been reported to be 19-67%. Using the cl...... decision support systems should be explored. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  19. The prevalence of very preterm deliveries, risk factors, and neonatal complications in Arash women hospital: a brief report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abootaleb Beigi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Very preterm birth (26-32 weeks has an important effect on infant morta-lity and disability of infancy. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of very preterm delivery and early neonatal morbidity (the first 28 days after birth.Methods: In this cross-sectional retrospective study, among 4393 delivery in Arash Women's Hospital in Tehran, 59 deliveries were very preterm that resulted in 79 very preterm neonate births. We assessed maternal risk factors and neonatal complications in women who were admitted for delivery from March 2009 to March 2010.Results: Among 59 pregnant women, 17 (12/27% had multiple pregnancies and 17 (12/27% had premature rupture of fetal membranes. Caesarean section method was more common than normal vaginal delivery (46 cases- 97/77%. Women aged 18 to 35 had the highest rate of preterm delivery (45/86%. Among 79 very preterm neonates about half of them were very low birth weight, 74 neonates (93/67% suffered from respiratory distress syndrome and 13 deaths were reported.Conclusion: Premature birth is a multi-factorial phenomenon. Identifying maternal risk factors and increasing knowledge about it can decrease the rate of preterm labor. The prevention of premature labor is better than cure. Further prospective studies with large number of patients and long-term follow-up are recommended for better understanding of the phenomenon.

  20. Urethrotomy has a much lower success rate than previously reported.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santucci, Richard; Eisenberg, Lauren

    2010-05-01

    We evaluated the success rate of direct vision internal urethrotomy as a treatment for simple male urethral strictures. A retrospective chart review was performed on 136 patients who underwent urethrotomy from January 1994 through March 2009. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to analyze stricture-free probability after the first, second, third, fourth and fifth urethrotomy. Patients with complex strictures (36) were excluded from the study for reasons including previous urethroplasty, neophallus or previous radiation, and 24 patients were lost to followup. Data were available for 76 patients. The stricture-free rate after the first urethrotomy was 8% with a median time to recurrence of 7 months. For the second urethrotomy stricture-free rate was 6% with a median time to recurrence of 9 months. For the third urethrotomy stricture-free rate was 9% with a median time to recurrence of 3 months. For procedures 4 and 5 stricture-free rate was 0% with a median time to recurrence of 20 and 8 months, respectively. Urethrotomy is a popular treatment for male urethral strictures. However, the performance characteristics are poor. Success rates were no higher than 9% in this series for first or subsequent urethrotomy during the observation period. Most of the patients in this series will be expected to experience failure with longer followup and the expected long-term success rate from any (1 through 5) urethrotomy approach is 0%. Urethrotomy should be considered a temporizing measure until definitive curative reconstruction can be planned. 2010 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Self-reported use of novel psychoactive substances in a US nationally representative survey: Prevalence, correlates, and a call for new survey methods to prevent underreporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palamar, Joseph J; Martins, Silvia S; Su, Mark K; Ompad, Danielle C

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, there has been an increase in emergence and use of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) in the US and worldwide. However, there is little published epidemiological survey data estimating the prevalence of use in the US. Data on self-reported NPS use came from the National Survey of Drug Use and Health (2009-2013), a national representative sample of non-institutionalized individuals in the US. Subjects were asked to provide names of (non-traditional) drugs they used that they were not specifically asked about. We examined lifetime prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of self-reported use of new and uncommon synthetic drugs (NPS) among subjects ages 12-34-years-old. 1.2% of subjects self-reported any use of the 57 NPS we examined. Use of psychedelic tryptamines (primarily DMT) was most common, followed by psychedelic phenethylamines (e.g., 2C series) and synthetic cannabinoids. Prevalence of self-reported use of NPS increased from 2009 to 2013 and use was most common among males, whites, older subjects, those of lower income, and among those residing in cities. Lifetime use of various other illicit drugs (e.g., LSD, cocaine, ecstasy/MDMA) was highly prevalent among NPS users. This the first study reporting on use of a variety of NPS in a nationally representative US sample; however, use appears to be underreported as other national data suggest higher rates of NPS (e.g., synthetic cannabinoid) use. Developing more adaptable survey tools and systematically assessing NPS use would allow researchers to ask about hundreds of NPS and improve reporting as new drugs continue to rapidly emerge. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Integrating environmental and self-report data to refine cannabis prevalence estimates in a major urban area of Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Been, Frederic; Schneider, Christian; Zobel, Frank; Delémont, Olivier; Esseiva, Pierre

    2016-10-01

    Cannabis consumption is a topical subject because of discussions about reviewing current regulations. In this context, having a more comprehensive approach to assess and monitor prevalence and consumption is highly relevant. The objective of this work was to refine current estimates about prevalence of cannabis use by combining self-report data and results derived from wastewater analysis. Self-report data was retrieved from surveys conducted in Switzerland and Europe. Wastewater samples were collected at the wastewater treatment plant of Lausanne, western Switzerland, over a 15 months period. The occurrence of 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH), a specific metabolite of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), was monitored. Bayesian hierarchical models were used to estimate consumption, prevalence and number of cannabis users in the investigated area. According to survey data, 12-months prevalence in western Switzerland was estimated to 6.2% of the population aged 15 or older, with an estimated daily cannabis consumption of 8.1gday(-1)·1000inhab(-1) (at 11.2% purity). The integrative model comprising self-report and wastewater data substantially reduced the uncertainty in the estimates and suggested a last-year prevalence of 9.4%, with a daily cannabis consumption of 14.0gday(-1)·1000inhab(-1). Although in the same order of magnitude, consumption and prevalence estimates obtained with the integrative model were 78% and 52% higher compared to self-report figures, respectively. Interestingly, these figures are similar to discrepancies observed when comparing self-reported alcohol consumption and sales or tax data. The suggested integrative model allowed to account for known sources of uncertainty and provided refined estimates of cannabis prevalence in a major urban area of Switzerland. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Growth rates and the prevalence and progression of scoliosis in short-statured children on Australian growth hormone treatment programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McPhee Ian

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Study design and aim This was a longitudinal chart review of a diverse group (cohort of patients undergoing HGH (Human Growth Hormone treatment. Clinical and radiological examinations were performed with the aim to identify the presence and progression of scoliosis. Methods and cohort 185 patients were recruited and a database incorporating the age at commencement, dose and frequency of growth hormone treatment and growth charts was compiled from their Medical Records. The presence of any known syndrome and the clinical presence of scoliosis were included for analysis. Subsequently, skeletally immature patients identified with scoliosis were followed up over a period of a minimum four years and the radiologic type, progression and severity (Cobb angle of scoliosis were recorded. Results Four (3.6% of the 109 with idiopathic short stature or hormone deficiency had idiopathic scoliosis (within normal limits for a control population and scoliosis progression was not prospectively observed. 13 (28.8% of 45 with Turner syndrome had scoliosis radiologically similar to idiopathic scoliosis. 11 (48% of 23 with varying syndromes, had scoliosis. In the entire cohort, the growth rates of those with and without scoliosis were not statistically different and HGH treatment was not ceased because of progression of scoliosis. Conclusion In this study, there was no evidence of HGH treatment being responsible for progression of scoliosis in a small number of non-syndromic patients (four. An incidental finding was that scoliosis, similar to the idiopathic type, appears to be more prevalent in Turner syndrome than previously believed.

  4. Etiology and prevalence rate of bilateral sensorineural hearing impairment in children born in Kobe city over a 10 year period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Mieko; Naito, Yashushi

    2008-01-01

    The study was carried out on children born over a 10 year period from 1997 to 2006 in Kobe city and referred to our center for specialist audiological assessment. A total of 107 cases had a bilateral sensorineural hearing impairment averaging 25 dB or over in the better hearing ear during the study period. To ascertain causes of sensorineural hearing impairment, full medical histories were obtained with detailed family history relevant to hearing impairment and perinatal course for adverse etiological factors. The children were investigated for possible congenital infection and chromosomal anomalies. Children with positive family history of deafness in parents or siblings constituted 11.2% of cases (genetic group). Other etiological groups showed the following distribution: syndromal group 5.6%; inner ear anomalies 5.6%; perinatal group 13.1%; congenital infection 11.2%; chromosomal anomalies 16.8%; multiple congenital anomalies 5.6%; causes unknown 30.9%. The high incidence of causes unknown indicates that steps should be taken to yield a diagnosis. The total number of children born in Kobe city was 117,896 during the period from 1997 to 2005, which gave a prevalence rate of hearing impairment of 0.87/1,000 births. Newborn hearing screening identified many children earlier and also provide the opportunity to finetune the evaluation. (author)

  5. New Jersey motorcycle fatality rates : final report, December 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Motorcycle crashes have been increasing in recent years, more than doubling since 1991. In 2007 there were 84 fatal motorcycle crashes in New Jersey. This report describes the methods and findings of an investigation of motorcycle crashes in New Jers...

  6. [Prevalence of hypertension and assessment of its impact on self-rated health in rural populations: a cross-sectional study in northern Senegal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seck, S M; Diop-Dia, A; Dia, D Gueye; Gueye, L

    2015-01-01

    High blood pressure (hypertension) is a growing public health problem, and its impact on the overall health of patients in Africa is not well known. The objective of this study was to determine its prevalence and its influence on self-rated health among people living in rural areas of Senegal. This cross-sectional study was conducted over a two-week period in the rural communities of Labgar and Lougré Thiolly, located in the central northern region of Senegal, in an agricultural area. Randomly recruited volunteers were questioned during direct individual interviews about socio-demographic (age, sex, marital status, education, occupation) and lifestyle data (smoking or alcohol, physical activity). Clinical data (medical history, weight, height, blood pressure, course of treatment) were also collected. Self-rated health (SRH) was assessed by asking if they felt their health was bad or good. We included 627 patients with a mean age of 40.93 ± 17.2 years (range: 15-100 years), 59.9% of them women. Illiteracy and overweight were more common among women than among men, and smoking and alcohol consumption more frequent in men. The overall prevalence of hypertension was 23.4% and did not differ significantly between men (24.9%) and women (22.4%)(P = 0.50). Self-rated health was similar in men and women (with respectively 66.9% and 72.9% reporting good health, P = 0.10). On univariate analysis, the factors associated with perceived health status were age (OR = 1.34, P = 0.04), smoking (OR = 2.16, P = 0.03), educational level (OR = 1.21, P = 0.04), and the presence of hypertension (OR = 0.63, P = 0.05). The multivariate regression analysis showed that among women, advanced age (≥50 years) and hypertension (≥140/90 mmHg) were associated with poorer perceived health, whereas for men, only smoking was significantly correlated with poor health status (OR = 0.41, P = 0.01). This study shows that hypertension is common in this rural area of Senegal and is significantly

  7. Prevalence of overweight, obesity and underweight among 5-year-old children in Saint Lucia by three methods of classification and a comparison with historical rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, K; Bird, J; Canning, P M; Frizzell, L M; Smith, L M

    2011-01-01

    The study aimed to determine if child obesity rates have risen in the Caribbean nation of Saint Lucia, as found globally, and whether under-nutrition coexists, as in other developing nations. The average adult in Saint Lucia is overweight, thus considerable child obesity might be expected, but there are no current data. Heights and weights were obtained from a sample (n= 425) of the 2001 birth cohort of Saint Lucian children measured during the nation-wide 2006/2007 Prior to School Entry Five-Year Assessment. Prevalence of overweight, obesity and underweight were estimated by Centers for Disease Control (CDC), Cole et al. and new World Health Organization (WHO) methods. Previously reported 1976 estimates, including children ≤60 months of age only, based on National Centre for Health Statistics curves, were adjusted to new WHO equivalents using an algorithm developed by Yang and de Onis, and compared with rates in our subsample of children ≤60 months of age (n= 99). Regardless of classification method, overweight and obesity rates were high: 14.4% and 9.2% (WHO); 11.3% and 12.0% (CDC); and 9.9% and 7.1% (Cole et al.), respectively. Underweight estimates also varied: 4.7% (WHO); 11.3% (CDC) and 6.6% (Cole et al.). Obesity in our young subsample (15.2%; WHO) was more than 3 times the adjusted 1976 rate (4.3%). Obesity among Saint Lucian pre-schoolers has tripled in 30 years. Our findings also suggest that this country, like many undergoing a 'nutrition transition', faces the dual challenge of over-nutrition and under-nutrition. Routine monitoring of overweight and underweight is needed in Saint Lucia, as is the implementation and evaluation of programmes to address these problems. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. The prevalence of specific reading disability in an amblyopic population. A preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koklanis, Konstandina; Georgievski, Zoran; Brassington, Kate; Bretherton, Lesley

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of specific reading disability in children with functional amblyopia and to explore the relationship between the two. In this prospective study, 20 consecutive children, aged 6 to 15 years (mean 8 +/-1.99 years), and diagnosed with amblyopia underwent a vision and reading assessment. The orthoptic examination included the assessment of participants' visual acuity, ocular motility and binocular functions. Specific reading disability was diagnosed using the Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT III Reading Subtest). Intelligence, phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming (RAN), and the ability to read pseudo or nonsense words was also assessed using various psycho-linguistic reading tests. The prevalence of specific reading disability in this small series of amblyopic children was found to be 5% (n=1/20). This was even less than that reported in the local Victoria general population (16%). The type of amblyopia appeared related to phonological awareness (p=0.018) and decoding words (p=0.024), those with anisometropic amblyopia performing significantly better on these tasks than the strabismic amblyopes. The presence of binocular vision functions was also related to decoding words; those with binocular single vision performed better than those with suppression and lacking single binocular vision (p=0.007). Generally, amblyopic children also showed a lower RAN score when compared to phonological awareness score. There was no statistically significant difference for the severity of amblyopia (p=>0.05). In this very small pilot series, reading disorders were relatively rare in children with amblyopia. However, strabismic amblyopia and presence of suppression may have an adverse effect on phonological skills. In addition, amblyopia may be associated with a deficit in RAN. Further research is needed and planned to gain a better understanding about the relationship between amblyopia and reading ability.

  9. Youth with Disabilities in the Corrections System: Prevalence Rates and Identification Issues. Monograph Series on Education, Disability and Juvenile Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Robert B., Jr.; Bullis, Michael; Anderson, Cindy Wheeler; Griller-Clark, Heather M.

    This monograph, one of a series on youth with disabilities and the juvenile justice system, reviews current data on disabilities requiring special education and related supports. Statistics on the prevalence of juvenile crime are followed by statistics on the prevalence of special education disabilities in the system, specifically specific…

  10. 47 CFR 1.787 - Reports of proposed changes in depreciation rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reports of proposed changes in depreciation... Reports and Requests § 1.787 Reports of proposed changes in depreciation rates. Carriers shall file reports regarding proposed changes in depreciation rates as required by part 43 of this chapter. ...

  11. Prevalence and occurrence rate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Haarlem family multi-drug resistant in the worldwide population: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramazanzadeh, Rashid; Roshani, Daem; Shakib, Pegah; Rouhi, Samaneh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) can occur in different ways. Furthermore, drug resistant in M. tuberculosis family is a major problem that creates obstacles in treatment and control of tuberculosis (TB) in the world. One of the most prevalent families of M. tuberculosis is Haarlem, and it is associated with drug resistant. Our objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and occurrence rate of M. tuberculosis Haarlem family multi-drug resistant (MDR) in the worldwide using meta-analysis based on a systematic review that performed on published articles. Materials and Methods: Data sources of this study were 78 original articles (2002-2012) that were published in the literatures in several databases including PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, Biological abstracts, ISI web of knowledge and IranMedex. The articles were systematically reviewed for prevalence and rate of MDR. Data were analyzed using meta-analysis and random effects models with the software package Meta R, Version 2.13 (P < 0.10). Results: Final analysis included 28601 persons in 78 articles. The highest and lowest occurrence rate of Haarlem family in M. tuberculosis was in Hungary in 2006 (66.20%) with negative MDR-TB and in China in 2010 (0.8%), respectively. From 2002 to 2012, the lowest rate of prevalence was in 2010, and the highest prevalence rate was in 2012. Also 1.076% were positive for MDR and 9.22% were negative (confidence interval: 95%).0020. Conclusion: Many articles and studies are performed in this field globally, and we only chose some of them. Further studies are needed to be done in this field. Our study showed that M. tuberculosis Haarlem family is prevalent in European countries. According to the presence of MDR that was seen in our results, effective control programs are needed to control the spread of drug-resistant strains, especially Haarlem family. PMID:25767526

  12. Prevalence and occurrence rate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Haarlem family multi-drug resistant in the worldwide population: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Ramazanzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis can occur in different ways. Furthermore, drug resistant in M. tuberculosis family is a major problem that creates obstacles in treatment and control of tuberculosis (TB in the world. One of the most prevalent families of M. tuberculosis is Haarlem, and it is associated with drug resistant. Our objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and occurrence rate of M. tuberculosis Haarlem family multi-drug resistant (MDR in the worldwide using meta-analysis based on a systematic review that performed on published articles. Materials and Methods: Data sources of this study were 78 original articles (2002-2012 that were published in the literatures in several databases including PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, Biological abstracts, ISI web of knowledge and IranMedex. The articles were systematically reviewed for prevalence and rate of MDR. Data were analyzed using meta-analysis and random effects models with the software package Meta R, Version 2.13 (P < 0.10. Results: Final analysis included 28601 persons in 78 articles. The highest and lowest occurrence rate of Haarlem family in M. tuberculosis was in Hungary in 2006 (66.20% with negative MDR-TB and in China in 2010 (0.8%, respectively. From 2002 to 2012, the lowest rate of prevalence was in 2010, and the highest prevalence rate was in 2012. Also 1.076% were positive for MDR and 9.22% were negative (confidence interval: 95%.0020. Conclusion: Many articles and studies are performed in this field globally, and we only chose some of them. Further studies are needed to be done in this field. Our study showed that M. tuberculosis Haarlem family is prevalent in European countries. According to the presence of MDR that was seen in our results, effective control programs are needed to control the spread of drug-resistant strains, especially Haarlem family.

  13. WHIZARD rate at LCFORUM 2012. A status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reuter, Juergen

    2012-04-15

    This is a status report of the WHIZARD Monte Carlo multi-purpose event generator given at the LCFORUM 2012 at DESY. I review here the development of the WHIZARD generator version 2 with a special emphasis on linear collider physics. In case you use the program, please do cite the official reference(s).

  14. WHIZARD rate at LCFORUM 2012. A status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, Juergen

    2012-04-01

    This is a status report of the WHIZARD Monte Carlo multi-purpose event generator given at the LCFORUM 2012 at DESY. I review here the development of the WHIZARD generator version 2 with a special emphasis on linear collider physics. In case you use the program, please do cite the official reference(s).

  15. [Influence of the self-reported skin color on the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in an urban Brazilian population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Paulo José Bastos; Lessa, Ines; Almeida Filho, Naomar de; Magalhães, Lucélia Batista N Cunha; Araújo, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MS) has a high prevalence in different parts of the world, with variations between different ethnic groups. This study aims at exploring the influence of the self-reported skin color on the prevalence of MS Methods: Cross-sectional study, carried out in a population subgroup (n=1,439 adults) in Salvador, Brazil. The self-reported skin color (white, mulatto or black) was used as well as the MS criterion of ATP-III. The Chi-square test for tendency was used to analyze the prevalence gradient between the groups and logistic regression, for association analysis. The general prevalence of MS, adjusted for potentially confounder variables, did not differ among whites (23.3%), mulattos (23.3%) and blacks (23.4%). The analysis by sex showed, among men, a reduction in the MS prevalence of whites (26.2%, 95%CI: 20.7-31.7), in comparison to blacks (17.5%, 95%CI: 12.3-22.8) and an intermediate prevalence among mulattos, 21.9%, 95%CI: 18.6-25.1, p tend. = 0.002. Among the women, the tendency was the opposite, being higher among the blacks, 27.0%, 95%CI: 22.2-31.8, and lower among the whites, 20.5%, 95%CI: 15.6-25.4, p tend. = 0.02. The multivariate analysis of the association between skin color and MS (white = group of reference) showed that the black color of the skin was a protective factor among black men, with a prevalence ratio (PR) = 0.60 (0.36-0.97), whereas it tended to be a risk factor among black women, with a PR = 1.33 (0.94-1.78). The prevalence of MA presented an inverse variation according to the color of skin between men and women. To be black was a protective factor among men and a risk factor among women.

  16. Prevalence of alcohol and other psychoactive substances in drivers in general traffic. Part II: Country reports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houwing, Sjoerd; Hagenzieker, Marjan; Mathijssen, René

    2011-01-01

    by means of roadside surveys and the prevalence of drugs in injury accidents was estimated by means of hospital surveys of seriously injured and/or killed drivers. Accident risk estimates for drug driving were assessed by relating the prevalence of drugs among the general driving population...... to the prevalence among seriously injured and/or killed drivers, by relating medication records to accident data and by relating substance use among accidentinvolved drivers to accident culpability....

  17. Challenges associated with drunk driving measurement: combining police and self-reported data to estimate an accurate prevalence in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Tanara; Lunnen, Jeffrey C; Gonçalves, Veralice; Schmitz, Aurinez; Pasa, Graciela; Bastos, Tamires; Sripad, Pooja; Chandran, Aruna; Pechansky, Flavio

    2013-12-01

    Drunk driving is an important risk factor for road traffic crashes, injuries and deaths. After June 2008, all drivers in Brazil were subject to a "Zero Tolerance Law" with a set breath alcohol concentration of 0.1 mg/L of air. However, a loophole in this law enabled drivers to refuse breath or blood alcohol testing as it may self-incriminate. The reported prevalence of drunk driving is therefore likely a gross underestimate in many cities. To compare the prevalence of drunk driving gathered from police reports to the prevalence gathered from self-reported questionnaires administered at police sobriety roadblocks in two Brazilian capital cities, and to estimate a more accurate prevalence of drunk driving utilizing three correction techniques based upon information from those questionnaires. In August 2011 and January-February 2012, researchers from the Centre for Drug and Alcohol Research at the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul administered a roadside interview on drunk driving practices to 805 voluntary participants in the Brazilian capital cities of Palmas and Teresina. Three techniques which include measures such as the number of persons reporting alcohol consumption in the last six hours but who had refused breath testing were used to estimate the prevalence of drunk driving. The prevalence of persons testing positive for alcohol on their breath was 8.8% and 5.0% in Palmas and Teresina respectively. Utilizing a correction technique we calculated that a more accurate prevalence in these sites may be as high as 28.2% and 28.7%. In both cities, about 60% of drivers who self-reported having drank within six hours of being stopped by the police either refused to perform breathalyser testing; fled the sobriety roadblock; or were not offered the test, compared to about 30% of drivers that said they had not been drinking. Despite the reduction of the legal limit for drunk driving stipulated by the "Zero Tolerance Law," loopholes in the legislation permit many

  18. Underestimation of Self-Reported Smoking Prevalence in Korean Adolescents: Evidence from Gold Standard by Combined Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jun Hyun; Kim, Jong Yeon; Lee, Do Hoon; Jung, Hye Gyoun; Park, Soon-Woo

    2018-04-05

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the validity of self-reported smoking prevalence in Korean adolescents by using an improved gold standard by a combined method. Using a stratified sampling method, we selected 13 schools from among 397 high schools that participated in the 2015 Korean Youth Health Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey (KYRBS). A second survey (repeated self-reporting questionnaire and urinary cotinine test) was conducted on 1058 students who completed the KYRBS. The gold standard of current smoker was defined as those either self-reporting as a smoker in the second survey or having a urinary cotinine concentration ≥50 ng/mL. The current smoking prevalence in the first survey (KYRBS) was 7.9% (boys 16.5% and girls 1.8%), which was lower than the results based on gold standard (11.3% total, boys 21.9% and girls 3.7%). The sensitivity and specificity of self-reported smoking status was 62.5% and 99.0%, respectively. In particular, the sensitivity of girls (43.5%) was lower than that of boys (67.0%). The self-reported smoking prevalence in Korean adolescents was underestimated, particularly among girls. Careful attention should be paid to interpreting adolescents' smoking prevalence, and supplementary surveys or periodic validity tests need to be considered in Asian countries.

  19. Sex and Geographic Differences in the Prevalence of Reported Childhood Motor Disability and Their Trends in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Yen-Cheng

    2018-01-01

    Motor disability (MD) is not uncommon in children, but data at the national level are scarce. As the Taiwan government certifies and registers disabled residents for providing services on a routine basis, the registry provides a unique opportunity for studying MD. Using data from the registry, we calculated the prevalence of MD by age, sex, and geographic area and assessed the changes from 2004 to 2010. We excluded cases under 3 years old because the government discourages the certification at this age. We found that cases between 3 and 17 years old decreased from 8187 to 6022 per year from 2004 to 2010 and the prevalence generally decreased every year in all age groups. There were more boy cases than girl cases every year, and the prevalence rate ratios ranged from 1.26 to 1.39 (p < 0.05 in all years), with a decreasing trend over time (p < 0.01). Rural areas had higher prevalence in all the years, and the prevalence rate ratio decreased from 1.31 to 1.23 (p < 0.05 in all years), with a decreasing trend over time (p < 0.05). Further studies identifying the risk factors contributing to the decreases might help in the prevention of MD in the future. PMID:29850547

  20. Sex and Geographic Differences in the Prevalence of Reported Childhood Motor Disability and Their Trends in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Fang Tsai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Motor disability (MD is not uncommon in children, but data at the national level are scarce. As the Taiwan government certifies and registers disabled residents for providing services on a routine basis, the registry provides a unique opportunity for studying MD. Using data from the registry, we calculated the prevalence of MD by age, sex, and geographic area and assessed the changes from 2004 to 2010. We excluded cases under 3 years old because the government discourages the certification at this age. We found that cases between 3 and 17 years old decreased from 8187 to 6022 per year from 2004 to 2010 and the prevalence generally decreased every year in all age groups. There were more boy cases than girl cases every year, and the prevalence rate ratios ranged from 1.26 to 1.39 (p<0.05 in all years, with a decreasing trend over time (p<0.01. Rural areas had higher prevalence in all the years, and the prevalence rate ratio decreased from 1.31 to 1.23 (p<0.05 in all years, with a decreasing trend over time (p<0.05. Further studies identifying the risk factors contributing to the decreases might help in the prevention of MD in the future.

  1. Associations of Undergoing a Routine Medical Examination or Not with Prevalence Rates of Hypertension and Diabetes Mellitus: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Lingling; Tian, Danping; Li, Li; Deng, Xin; Deng, Jing; Ning, Peishan; Hu, Guoqing

    2016-06-23

    Undergoing a routine medical examination may be associated with the prevalence rate of chronic diseases from a population-based household interview survey. However, this important issue has not been examined so far. Data came from the first health service household interview of Hunan province, China, in 2013. A Rao-Scott chi-square test was performed to examine the difference in prevalence rates between subgroups. Adjusted odds ratio (OR) was calculated using the PROC SURVEYLOGISTIC procedure of SAS9.1 statistical software. In total, 24,282 residents of 8400 households were surveyed. A higher proportion of elderly adults had undergone a medical examination within the prior 12 months compared with young adults (≥65 years, 60%; 45-64 years, 46%; 18-44 years, 37%). After controlling for location, sex, and household income per capita, undergoing a medical examination was significantly associated with high prevalence rates of hypertension (adjusted OR: 2.0, 95% CI: 1.1-3.5) and of diabetes mellitus (adjusted OR: 3.3, 95% CI: 1.7-6.5) for young adults aged 18-44 years. The associations were not statistically significant for age groups 45-64 years and 65 years or older. The prevalence rates of hypertension and diabetes mellitus may be seriously underestimated for young adults not undergoing a routine medical examination in a health household interview survey.

  2. Prevalence and associated features of self-reported freezing of gait in Parkinson disease: The DEEP FOG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amboni, M; Stocchi, F; Abbruzzese, G; Morgante, L; Onofrj, M; Ruggieri, S; Tinazzi, M; Zappia, M; Attar, M; Colombo, D; Simoni, L; Ori, A; Barone, P; Antonini, A

    2015-06-01

    Freezing of Gait (FOG) is a common and disabling symptom in patients with Parkinson disease (PD). The relationship between FOG and dopaminergic medication is complex. The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of self-reported FOG, its associated clinical features, and its relationship with wearing-off in a wide PD population. This is an observational multicenter study of 634 consecutive non-demented PD patients. Patients were identified either as freezers or non-freezers based on item-3 of the Freezing of Gait-Questionnaire. FOG was then classified as on, off and onoff freezing based on its relationship with wearing-off. Patients were assessed with Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, Hoehn and Yahr scale, 8-item Parkinson's disease Questionnaire, Mini-Mental State Examination. Data from 593 patients were analyzed, 325 (54.3%) were freezers of whom 200 (61.6%) experienced FOG only during off state (off-freezers), 6 (1.8%) only during on state and 119 (36.6%) either in on and off states or independently of dopaminergic response-related symptoms (onoff-freezers). Overall, freezers vs non-freezers had longer disease duration, more advanced disease and greater disability. Moreover, freezers more frequently reported wearing-off and experienced worse quality of life. Onoff-freezers vs off-freezers were older, more severely disabled, less likely to experience wearing-off, treated with lower levodopa equivalent daily dose and with poorer cognitive performance. Self-reported FOG is mainly recognizable in advanced PD and is associated with more disability and worse quality of life. Onoff-FOG may represent the result of under-treatment or rather interpretable as a distinct clinical entity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Algorithms for Computerized Fetal Heart Rate Diagnosis with Direct Reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuo Maeda

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Since pattern classification of fetal heart rate (FHR was subjective and enlarged interobserver difference, objective FHR analysis was achieved with computerized FHR diagnosis. Methods: The computer algorithm was composed of an experts’ knowledge system, including FHR analysis and FHR score calculation, and also of an objective artificial neural network system with software. In addition, a FHR frequency spectrum was studied to detect ominous sinusoidal FHR and the loss of baseline variability related to fetal brain damage. The algorithms were installed in a central-computerized automatic FHR monitoring system, which gave the diagnosis rapidly and directly to the attending doctor. Results: Clinically perinatal mortality decreased significantly and no cerebral palsy developed after introduction of the centralized system. Conclusion: The automatic multichannel FHR monitoring system improved the monitoring, increased the objectivity of FHR diagnosis and promoted clinical results.

  4. Public reporting in Germany: the content of physician rating websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmert, M; Sander, U; Esslinger, A S; Maryschok, M; Schöffski, O

    2012-01-01

    Physician rating websites (PRWs) are gaining in popularity among patients seeking quality information about physicians. However, little knowledge is available about the quantity and type of information provided on the websites. To determine and structure the quantity and type of information about physicians in the outpatient sector provided on German-language physician rating websites. In a first step, we identified PRWs through a systematic internet search using German keywords from a patient´s perspective in the two search engines Google and Yahoo. Afterwards, information about physicians available on the websites was collected and categorised according to Donabedian´s structure/process/outcome model. Furthermore, we investigated whether the information was related to the physician himself/ herself or to the practice as a whole. In total, eight PRWs were detected. Our analysis turned up 139 different information items on eight websites; 67 are related to the structural quality, 4 to process quality, 5 to outcomes, and 63 to patient satisfaction/experience. In total, 37% of all items focus specifically on the physician and 63% on the physician's practice. In terms of the total amount of information provided on the PRWs, results range from 61 down to 13.5 items. A broad range of information is available on German PRWs. While structural information can give a detailed overview of the financial, technical and human resources of a practice, other outcome measures have to be interpreted with caution. Specifically, patient satisfaction results are not risk-adjusted, and thus, are not appropriate to represent a provider's quality of care. Consequently, neither patients nor physicians should yet use the information provided to make their final decision for or against an individual physician.

  5. High prevalence of self-reported symptoms of digital ischemia in elite male volleyball players in the Netherlands: a cross-sectional national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Pol, Daan; Kuijer, P Paul F M; Langenhorst, Ton; Maas, Mario

    2012-10-01

    In the past 3 years, 6 volleyball players with ischemic digits and small microemboli in the digital arteries of the dominant hand presented themselves in our hospital. These complaints were caused by an aneurysmatic dilation of the posterior circumflex humeral artery (PCHA) with distal occlusion and digital emboli in the isolateral limb. All were elite male volleyball players active in the national top league. Little is known about the exact symptoms associated with PCHA pathological lesions with digital emboli (PCHAP with DE) and its prevalence in elite volleyball players. If vascular injury can be identified at an early stage, thromboembolic complications and irreversible damage to the digits might be prevented. To assess the prevalence of symptoms that are consistent with digital ischemia and may be caused by PCHAP with DE in elite male volleyball players in the Netherlands. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. A questionnaire survey was performed among elite volleyball players in the Dutch national top league and the Dutch beach volleyball team. The questionnaire was constructed using literature-based data on symptoms associated with PCHAP with DE, together with data retrieved from medical files. A total of 99 of the 107 athletes participated, with a response rate of 93%. The most frequently reported symptoms associated with PCHAP with DE were cold, blue, or pale digits in the dominant hand during or immediately after practice or competition. The prevalence of these symptoms ranged from 11% to 27%. The prevalence of cold digits during practice and competition was 27%. The prevalence of cold, blue, and pale digits during or immediately after practice and competition was 12%. An unexpectedly high percentage of elite volleyball players reported symptoms that are associated with PCHAP with DE in the dominant hand. Because these athletes are considered potentially at risk for developing critical digital ischemia, further analysis of the presence of digital

  6. Prevalence and correlates of DSM-IV-TR major depressive disorder, self-reported diagnosed depression and current depressive symptoms among adults in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maske, Ulrike E; Buttery, Amanda K; Beesdo-Baum, Katja; Riedel-Heller, Steffi; Hapke, Ulfert; Busch, Markus A

    2016-01-15

    While standardized diagnostic interviews using established criteria are the gold standard for assessing depression, less time consuming measures of depression and depressive symptoms are commonly used in large population health surveys. We examine the prevalence and health-related correlates of three depression measures among adults aged 18-79 years in Germany. Using cross-sectional data from the national German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1) (n=7987) and its mental health module (DEGS1-MH) (n=4483), we analysed prevalence and socio-demographic and health-related correlates of (a) major depressive disorder (MDD) established by Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) using DSM-IV-TR criteria (CIDI-MDD) in the last 12 months, (b) self-reported physician or psychotherapist diagnosed depression in the last 12 months, and (c) current depressive symptoms in the last two weeks (PHQ-9, score ≥10). Prevalence of 12-month CIDI-MDD was 4.2% in men and 9.9% in women. Prevalence of 12-month self-reported health professional-diagnosed depression was 3.8% and 8.1% and of current depressive symptoms 6.1% and 10.2% in men and women, respectively. Case-overlap between measures was only moderate (32-45%). In adjusted multivariable analyses, depression according to all three measures was associated with lower self-rated health, lower physical and social functioning, higher somatic comorbidity (except for women with 12-month CIDI-MDD), more sick leave and higher health service utilization. Persons with severe depression may be underrepresented. Associations between CIDI-MDD and correlates and overlap with other measures may be underestimated due to time lag between DEGS1 and DEGS1-MH. Prevalence and identified cases varied between these three depression measures, but all measures were consistently associated with a wide range of adverse health outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Brief Report: Prevalence of Pervasive Developmental Disorder in Brazil--A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Cristiane S.; Ribeiro, Sabrina H.; Fombonne, Eric; Mercadante, Marcos T.

    2011-01-01

    This pilot study presents preliminary results concerning the prevalence of Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) in South America. It was a three-phase study conducted in a typical town in Southeast Brazil. Case definition was based in a combination of standardized instruments and clinical evaluations by experts. The prevalence of PDD was…

  8. Prevalência de Diabetes Mellitus autorreferida entre trabalhadores de enfermagem Self-reported prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus among nursing workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássia Andrade Martins

    2010-10-01

    de riesgo reconocidos fueron: edad, sexo, peso e histórico familiar. Se detectó que el plantón nocturno concentraba más de la mitad de los diabéticos. CONCLUSIÓN: La prevalencia de DM autorreferida en ese hospital fue menor que la esperada para la ciudad de Sao Paulo. Entre los factores de riesgo encontrados, el sobrepeso es el único modificable. El plantón nocturno concentra la mayoría de los funcionarios con diabetes.OBJECTIVES: To verify the self-reported prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus in nursing workers at a university hospital, to identify the main risk factors for diabetes mellitus (DM and, among those who already have the disease, to identify the difficulties related to its control. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional epidemiological study, conducted between August 2007 and January 2008. Of the total (1,287 interviewed, 82% were nurses. It was used a questionnaire containing 22 closed questions. The data analysis was performed with Chi-square test and Fisher exact test. Student t test was used for continuous variables. RESULTS: There was a prevalence of 3% of self-reported DM. The main recognized risk factors were: age, sex, weight and, family history. It was found that the night shift contained more than half of diabetics. CONCLUSION: The self-reported prevalence of DM at the hospital was less than the expected value for the city of Sao Paulo. Among the risk factors found, the overweight was the only modifiable. The night shift concentrated most of the workers with diabetes.

  9. Prevalence of self-reported finger deformations and occupational risk factors among professional cooks: a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagasu, M.; Sakai, K.; Ito, A.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Tomita, S.; Temmyo, Y.; Ueno, M.; Miyagi, S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have pointed out that the school lunch workers in Japan are suffering from work-related disorders including finger deformations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of self-reported finger deformations and the association with job-related risk

  10. Physician reported adherence to immunosuppressants in renal transplant patients: Prevalence, agreement, and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabst, Selma; Bertram, Anna; Zimmermann, Tanja; Schiffer, Mario; de Zwaan, Martina

    2015-11-01

    Adherence to immunosuppressants (IS) is crucial to prevent allograft rejection. Even though there is evidence that non-adherence to IS among kidney transplant recipients is common, it is rarely routinely assessed in clinical practice. Especially, little is known about how physicians estimate patients' adherence to IS medication. In a single center, cross-sectional study adult patients at least 1 year after kidney transplantation were asked to complete measures of adherence (BAASIS©, Transplant Effect Questionnaire) and of general psychopathology (anxiety, depression, perceived social support). Also the physicians were asked to estimate their patients' adherence. Medical data (time since transplantation, treatment for rejection, IS serum trough levels and target levels) were taken from the patients' charts. Physicians rated 22 of 238 (9.2%) patients as non-adherent. Physicians' estimations of non-adherence were lower compared to the results of the self-ratings and biopsy-proven rejections. No association was found between physicians' estimates and the variability of IS through levels. Significantly more women and patients who reported that their native language was not German were rated as non-adherent by the physicians. Also, physician-rated non-adherent patients reported significantly higher depression and anxiety scores as well as less social support compared to adherent patients. Our results suggest that physicians tend to underestimate patient non-adherence to IS medication. They appear to use observable cues such as sex, language skills, and elevated anxiety and depression scores in particular, to make inferences about an individual patient's adherence. Underestimation of medication non-adherence may impede physicians' ability to provide high quality care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Plastic surgeons' self-reported operative infection rates at a Canadian academic hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Wendy Ky; Kaur, Manraj Nirmal; Thoma, Achilleas

    2014-01-01

    Surgical site infection rates are of great interest to patients, surgeons, hospitals and third-party payers. While previous studies have reported hospital-acquired infection rates that are nonspecific to all surgical services, there remain no overall reported infection rates focusing specifically on plastic surgery in the literature. To estimate the reported surgical site infection rate in plastic surgery procedures over a 10-year period at an academic hospital in Canada. A review was conducted on reported plastic surgery surgical site infection rates from 2003 to 2013, based on procedures performed in the main operating room. For comparison, prospective infection surveillance data over an eight-year period (2005 to 2013) for nonplastic surgery procedures were reviewed to estimate the overall operative surgical site infection rates. A total of 12,183 plastic surgery operations were performed from 2003 to 2013, with 96 surgical site infections reported, corresponding to a net operative infection rate of 0.79%. There was a 0.49% surgeon-reported infection rate for implant-based procedures. For non-plastic surgery procedures, surgical site infection rates ranged from 0.04% for cataract surgery to 13.36% for high-risk abdominal hysterectomies. The plastic surgery infection rate at the study institution was found to be site infection rates. However, these results do not report patterns of infection rates germane to procedures, season, age groups or sex. To provide more in-depth knowledge of this topic, multicentre studies should be conducted.

  12. The prevalence of self-reported underuse of medications due to cost for the elderly: results from seven European urban communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankuniene, Aurima; Stankunas, Mindaugas; Avery, Mark; Lindert, Jutta; Mikalauskiene, Rita; Melchiorre, Maria Gabriella; Torres-Gonzalez, Francisco; Ioannidi-Kapolou, Elisabeth; Barros, Henrique; Savickas, Arūnas; Radziunas, Raimondas; Soares, Joaquim J F

    2015-09-26

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of self-reported underuse of medications due to procurement costs amongst older persons from seven European urban communities. The data were collected in a cross-sectional study ("ABUEL, Elder abuse: A multinational prevalence survey") in 2009. Randomly selected people aged 60-84 years (n = 4,467) from seven urban communities: Stuttgart (Germany), Athens (Greece), Ancona (Italy), Kaunas (Lithuania), Porto (Portugal), Granada (Spain) and Stockholm (Sweden) were interviewed. Response rate - 45.2%. Ethical permission was received in each country. The results indicate that 3.6% (n = 162) of the respondents self-reported refraining from buying prescribed medications due to cost. The highest prevalence of this problem was identified in Lithuania (15.7%, n = 99) and Portugal (4.3%, n = 28). Other countries reported lower percentages of refraining from buying medications (Germany - 2.0%, Italy - 1.6%, Sweden - 1.0%, Greece - 0.6%, Spain - 0.3%). Females refrained more often from buying medications than males (2.6% vs. 4.4%, p < 0.0001). The prevalence of this refraining tended to increase with economic hardship. These differences between countries can be only partly described by the financing of health-care systems. In spite of the presence of cost reimbursement mechanisms, patients need to make co-payments (or in some cases to pay the full price) for prescribed medications. This indicates that the purchasing power of people in 10.1186/s12913-015-1089-4 the particular country can play a major role and be related with the economic situation in the country. Lithuania, which has reported the highest refrain rates, had the lowest gross domestic product (at the time of conducting this study) of all participating countries in the study. Refraining from buying the prescribed medications due to cost is a problem for women and men in respect to ageing people in Europe. Prevalence varies by country, sex, and

  13. Self-Reported Prevalence of Symptomatic Adverse Reactions to Gluten and Adherence to Gluten-Free Diet in an Adult Mexican Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ontiveros, Noe; López-Gallardo, Jesús A; Vergara-Jiménez, Marcela J; Cabrera-Chávez, Francisco

    2015-07-21

    The prevalence of symptomatic adverse reactions to gluten and adherence to gluten-free diet in Latin American countries is unknown. These measurements are strongly linked to gluten-related disorders. This work aimed to estimate the prevalence of adverse reactions to oral gluten and the adherence to gluten-free diet in the adult Mexican population. To reach this aim, a self-administered questionnaire was designed and tested for clarity/comprehension and reproducibility. Then, a self-administered questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the Mexican population. The estimated prevalence rates were (95% CI): 11.9% (9.9-13.5) and 7.8 (6.4-9.4) for adverse and recurrent adverse reactions to gluten respectively; adherence to gluten-free diet 3.7% (2.7-4.8), wheat allergy 0.72% (0.38-1.37); celiac disease 0.08% (0.01-0.45), and NCGS 0.97% (0.55-1.68). Estimated pooled prevalence of self-reported physician-diagnosis of gluten-related disorders was 0.88% (0.49-1.5), and 93.3% respondents reported adherence to gluten-free diet without a physician-diagnosis of gluten-related disorders. Symptom comparisons between those who reported recurrent adverse reactions to gluten and other foods showed statistically significant differences for bloating, constipation, and tiredness (p Gluten-related disorders may be underdiagnosed in the Mexican population and most people adhering to a gluten-free diet are doing it without proper diagnostic work-up of these disorders, and probably without medical/dietician advice.

  14. Self-Reported Prevalence of Symptomatic Adverse Reactions to Gluten and Adherence to Gluten-Free Diet in an Adult Mexican Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noe Ontiveros

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of symptomatic adverse reactions to gluten and adherence to gluten-free diet in Latin American countries is unknown. These measurements are strongly linked to gluten-related disorders. This work aimed to estimate the prevalence of adverse reactions to oral gluten and the adherence to gluten-free diet in the adult Mexican population. To reach this aim, a self-administered questionnaire was designed and tested for clarity/comprehension and reproducibility. Then, a self-administered questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the Mexican population. The estimated prevalence rates were (95% CI: 11.9% (9.9–13.5 and 7.8 (6.4–9.4 for adverse and recurrent adverse reactions to gluten respectively; adherence to gluten-free diet 3.7% (2.7–4.8, wheat allergy 0.72% (0.38–1.37; celiac disease 0.08% (0.01–0.45, and NCGS 0.97% (0.55–1.68. Estimated pooled prevalence of self-reported physician-diagnosis of gluten-related disorders was 0.88% (0.49–1.5, and 93.3% respondents reported adherence to gluten-free diet without a physician-diagnosis of gluten-related disorders. Symptom comparisons between those who reported recurrent adverse reactions to gluten and other foods showed statistically significant differences for bloating, constipation, and tiredness (p < 0.05. Gluten-related disorders may be underdiagnosed in the Mexican population and most people adhering to a gluten-free diet are doing it without proper diagnostic work-up of these disorders, and probably without medical/dietician advice.

  15. Higher Prevalence and Awareness, but Lower Control Rate of Hypertension in Patients with Diabetes than General Population: The Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Hyun Ko

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWe investigated the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control rate of hypertension in Korean adults with diabetes using nationally representative data.MethodsUsing data of 5,105 adults from the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2011 (4,389 nondiabetes mellitus [non-DM], 242 newly diagnosed with DM (new-DM, and 474 previously diagnosed with DM (known-DM, we analyzed the prevalence of hypertension (mean systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg, diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg, or use of antihypertensive medication and control rate of hypertension (blood pressure [BP] <130/80 mm Hg.ResultsThe prevalence of hypertension in diabetic adults was 54.6% (44.4% in new-DM and 62.6% in known-DM, P<0.0001 and P<0.0001, respectively compared with non-DM adults (26.2%. Compared to non-DM, awareness (85.7%, P<0.001 and treatment (97.0%, P=0.020 rates were higher in known-DM, whereas no differences were found between new-DM and non-DM. Control rate among all hypertensive subjects was lower in new-DM (14.9%, compared to non-DM (35.1%, P<0.001 and known-DM (33.3%, P=0.004. Control rate among treated subjects was also lower in new-DM (25.2%, compared to non-DM (68.4%, P<0.0001 and known-DM (39.9%, P<0.0001.ConclusionHigher prevalence and low control rate of hypertension in adults with diabetes suggest that stringent efforts are needed to control BP in patients with diabetes, particularly in newly diagnosed diabetic patients.

  16. Prevalence of Self-Reported Food Allergy in Six Regions of Inner Mongolia, Northern China: A Population-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Yan; Zhuang, Yan; Ma, Ting-Ting; Zhang, Biao; Wang, Xue-Yan

    2018-04-01

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of self-reported food allergy in 6 regions of Inner Mongolia, northern China. MATERIAL AND METHODS A random cluster sampling population study using a field questionnaire was distributed to 4714 individuals in 6 regions within Inner Mongolia, northern China; the study included ethnic Mongol minorities and Chinese Han populations. The questionnaire obtained data on ethnicity, age, sex, level of education, income, socioeconomic status, rural versus urban location, medical and family history, and food allergy. RESULTS There were 4441 (73.5%) completed questionnaires. The prevalence of self-reported food allergy was 18.0% (15.2% men; 20.6% women) and was age-related, being significantly greater in children compared with adults (38.7% vs. 11.9%) (P1, P<0.001). There were no significant associations between the prevalence of food allergy and birth history, infant feeding, and duration of breastfeeding. CONCLUSIONS An increase in the prevalence of self-reported food allergy was found in the Inner Mongolia region of northern China, which was greater in urban areas compared with rural areas.

  17. Self-Reported Exercise Prevalence and Determinants in the Long Term After Stroke: The North East Melbourne Stroke Incidence Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Dawn; Callisaya, Michele L; English, Coralie; Thrift, Amanda G; Gall, Seana L

    2017-12-01

    Exercise has established benefits following stroke. We aimed to describe self-reported exercise 5 and 10 years after stroke, change in exercise over time, and to identify factors associated with long-term exercise. Data on exercise (defined as 20 minutes' duration, causing sweating and increased heart rate) were obtained by questionnaire from a population-based stroke incidence study with 10-year follow-up. For change in exercise between 5 and 10 years (n = 276), we created 4 categories of exercise (no exercise, ceased exercising, commenced exercising, continued exercising). Multinomial regression determined associations between exercise categories and exercising before stroke, receiving exercise advice and functional ability and demographic factors. The prevalence of exercise at 5 years (n = 520) was 18.5% (n = 96) (mean age 74.7 [standard deviation {SD} 14] years, 50.6% male) and 24% (n = 78) at 10 years. In those with data at both 5 and 10 years (mean age 69 [standard deviation 14] years, 52.9% male), 15% (n = 42) continued exercising, 10% (n = 27) commenced exercising, 14% (n = 38) ceased exercising, and 61% (n = 169) reported no exercise. Continued exercise was associated with younger age (relative risk [RR] .47 95% confidence interval [CI] .25-0.89), greater Barthel score (RR 2.97 95% CI 1.00-8.86), independent walking (RR 2.32 95% CI 1.16-4.68), better quality of life (RR 10.9 95% CI 2.26-52.8), exercising before stroke (RR 16.0 95%CI 4.98-51.5), and receiving advice to exercise (RR 2.99 95% CI 1.73-5.16). Few people exercise after stroke and fewer commence exercise long term. Innovative interventions to promote and maintain exercise are required after stroke. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. prevalence of self-reported low back pain among patients with type ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PT, Department of Physiotherapy, School of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medical. Sciences, University ... Keywords: Low back pain, Type 2 diabetes mellitus, Prevalence ... case notes of the 143 patients with T2DM receiving treatment ...

  19. Prevalence of non-strabismic anomalies of binocular vision in Tamil Nadu: report 2 of BAND study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussaindeen, Jameel Rizwana; Rakshit, Archayeeta; Singh, Neeraj Kumar; George, Ronnie; Swaminathan, Meenakshi; Kapur, Suman; Scheiman, Mitchell; Ramani, Krishna Kumar

    2017-11-01

    Population-based studies on the prevalence of non-strabismic anomalies of binocular vision in ethnic Indians are more than two decades old. Based on indigenous normative data, the BAND (Binocular Vision Anomalies and Normative Data) study aims to report the prevalence of non-strabismic anomalies of binocular vision among school children in rural and urban Tamil Nadu. This population-based, cross-sectional study was designed to estimate the prevalence of non-strabismic anomalies of binocular vision in the rural and urban population of Tamil Nadu. In four schools, two each in rural and urban arms, 920 children in the age range of seven to 17 years were included in the study. Comprehensive binocular vision assessment was done for all children including evaluation of vergence and accommodative systems. In the first phase of the study, normative data of parameters of binocular vision were assessed followed by prevalence estimates of non-strabismic anomalies of binocular vision. The mean and standard deviation of the age of the sample were 12.7 ± 2.7 years. The prevalence of non-strabismic anomalies of binocular vision in the urban and rural arms was found to be 31.5 and 29.6 per cent, respectively. Convergence insufficiency was the most prevalent (16.5 and 17.6 per cent in the urban and rural arms, respectively) among all the types of non-strabismic anomalies of binocular vision. There was no gender predilection and no statistically significant differences were observed between the rural and urban arms in the prevalence of non-strabismic anomalies of binocular vision (Z-test, p > 0.05). The prevalence of non-strabismic anomalies of binocular vision was found to be higher in the 13 to 17 years age group (36.2 per cent) compared to seven to 12 years (25.1 per cent) (Z-test, p < 0.05). Non-strabismic binocular vision anomalies are highly prevalent among school children and the prevalence increases with age. With increasing near visual demands in the higher

  20. Prevalence of parent-rated attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and associated parent-related factors in primary school children of Navi Mumbai--a school based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajinkya, Shaunak; Kaur, Darpan; Gursale, Akshay; Jadhav, Pradeep

    2013-03-01

    To study the prevalence of parent-rated attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and associated parent-related factors in primary school children of Navi Mumbai. One hundred twenty two children including both boys and girls aged between 6 y and 11 y were selected from a school at Navi Mumbai and their parents were given the National Innovative for Children's Healthcare Quality (NICHQ) Vanderbilt Assessment Scale to be filled and returned, which was subsequently analyzed using SPSS (version 16). The prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder was 12.3 % with boy to girl ratio of 3:2. It was more prevalent in nuclear type of family and in families where a single parent was working especially where the father was the sole breadwinner and doing semi-skilled or unskilled type of work. No significant relation was found between the numbers of work-related hours when parents were away from children and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is prevalent in the primary school-going population of Navi Mumbai, especially in boys. The increased prevalence in nuclear families and families with single working parent should further be explored. Further studies with larger sample size and longer period of follow up may be recommended. The study also recommends screening of school children for symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) for early diagnosis and treatment.

  1. Missed doses of oral antihyperglycemic medications in US adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus: prevalence and self-reported reasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vietri, Jeffrey T; Wlodarczyk, Catherine S; Lorenzo, Rose; Rajpathak, Swapnil

    2016-09-01

    Adherence to antihyperglycemic medication is thought to be suboptimal, but the proportion of patients missing doses, the number of doses missed, and reasons for missing are not well described. This survey was conducted to estimate the prevalence of and reasons for missed doses of oral antihyperglycemic medications among US adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and to explore associations between missed doses and health outcomes. The study was a cross-sectional patient survey. Respondents were contacted via a commercial survey panel and completed an on-line questionnaire via the Internet. Respondents provided information about their use of oral antihyperglycemic medications including doses missed in the prior 4 weeks, personal characteristics, and health outcomes. Weights were calculated to project the prevalence to the US adult population with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Outcomes were compared according to number of doses missed in the past 4 weeks using bivariate statistics and generalized linear models. Approximately 30% of adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus reported missing or reducing ≥1 dose of oral antihyperglycemic medication in the prior 4 weeks. Accidental missing was more commonly reported than purposeful skipping, with forgetting the most commonly reported reason. The timing of missed doses suggested respondents had also forgotten about doses missed, so the prevalence of missed doses is likely higher than reported. Outcomes were poorer among those who reported missing three or more doses in the prior 4 weeks. A substantial number of US adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus miss doses of their oral antihyperglycemic medications.

  2. Trends in the prevalence of self-reported diabetes in Brazilian capital cities and the Federal District, 2006-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iser, Betine Pinto Moehlecke; Vigo, Álvaro; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Schmidt, Maria Inês

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is increasing globally, particularly in low and middle income countries, posing a great challenge to health systems. Brazil is currently ranked 4th in the world in terms of the absolute number of persons with diabetes. Our aim was to analyze the trend in self-reported diabetes prevalence between 2006 and 2014 in Brazilian adults. We used data from the national telephone survey-VIGITEL. Over 40,000 individuals from probabilistic sample of subjects ≥18 years old residing in 26 state capitals and the Federal District were interviewed per year in each location. Estimates were weighted to represent the surveyed population. We analyzed trends with a linear regression model. We adjusted prevalence with a probability predictive margins model, using as reference categories: men, 18-24 years, ≥12 years of schooling and lean/normal weight. From 2006 to 2014, the overall prevalence increased from 5.5 to 8.0 %, a net rise of 0.26 %/year (P = 0.001). After adjustment for sex, age, schooling and BMI categories, the trend decreased only slightly to 0.25 %/year. Relatively greater adjusted increases were present in men (0.28 %/year), in those ≥65 years (0.52 %/year), with ≤8 years of schooling (0.33 %/year) and in those overweight (0.24 %/year). The most consistent upward trends were observed among men (coefficient of determination, R 2 = 0.93), those with educational attainment of 0-8 years (R 2 = 0.81), those > 65 years (R 2 = 0.79) and those who were overweight (R 2  = 0.75). There was no significant trend in diabetes prevalence for the obese. As expected, the prevalence of self-reported diabetes was always higher among those with greater age, less schooling, in women, and in those with obesity. Being obese was associated with having more than twice the prevalence of diabetes of those normal/underweight. Prevalence of self-reported diabetes in Brazilian adults has risen between 2006 and 2014, especially among those 65 years or older, even after

  3. Using the STROBE statement to assess reporting in blindness prevalence surveys in low and middle income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramke, Jacqueline; Palagyi, Anna; Jordan, Vanessa; Petkovic, Jennifer; Gilbert, Clare E

    2017-01-01

    Cross-sectional blindness prevalence surveys are essential to plan and monitor eye care services. Incomplete or inaccurate reporting can prevent effective translation of research findings. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement is a 32 item checklist developed to improve reporting of observational studies. The aim of this study was to assess the completeness of reporting in blindness prevalence surveys in low and middle income countries (LMICs) using STROBE. MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science databases were searched on April 8 2016 to identify cross-sectional blindness prevalence surveys undertaken in LMICs and published after STROBE was published in December 2007. The STROBE tool was applied to all included studies, and each STROBE item was categorized as 'yes' (met criteria), 'no' (did not meet criteria) or 'not applicable'. The 'Completeness of reporting (COR) score' for each manuscript was calculated: COR score = yes / [yes + no]. In journals with included studies the instructions to authors and reviewers were checked for reference to STROBE. The 89 included studies were undertaken in 32 countries and published in 37 journals. The mean COR score was 60.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] 58.1-63.7%; range 30.8-88.9%). The mean COR score did not differ between surveys published in journals with author instructions referring to STROBE (10/37 journals; 61.1%, 95%CI 56.4-65.8%) or in journals where STROBE was not mentioned (60.9%, 95%CI 57.4-64.3%; p = 0.93). While reporting in blindness prevalence surveys is strong in some areas, others need improvement. We recommend that more journals adopt the STROBE checklist and ensure it is used by authors and reviewers.

  4. Prevalence, Employment Rate, and Cost of Schizophrenia in a High-Income Welfare Society: A Population-Based Study Using Comprehensive Health and Welfare Registers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evensen, Stig; Wisløff, Torbjørn; Lystad, June Ullevoldsæter; Bull, Helen; Ueland, Torill; Falkum, Erik

    2016-03-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with recurrent hospitalizations, need for long-term community support, poor social functioning, and low employment rates. Despite the wide- ranging financial and social burdens associated with the illness, there is great uncertainty regarding prevalence, employment rates, and the societal costs of schizophrenia. The current study investigates 12-month prevalence of patients treated for schizophrenia, employment rates, and cost of schizophrenia using a population-based top-down approach. Data were obtained from comprehensive and mandatory health and welfare registers in Norway. We identified a 12-month prevalence of 0.17% for the entire population. The employment rate among working-age individuals was 10.24%. The societal costs for the 12-month period were USD 890 million. The average cost per individual with schizophrenia was USD 106 thousand. Inpatient care and lost productivity due to high unemployment represented 33% and 29%, respectively, of the total costs. The use of mandatory health and welfare registers enabled a unique and informative analysis on true population-based datasets. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Assess the prevalence rate of Campylobacter genus and Campylobacter jejuni species in raw milk collected from the Amol City by Multiplex- Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Dabiri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Campylobacter can be transmitted through the raw milk. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter genus and Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni species in raw milk samples. Materials & Methods: In this study, 72 samples of raw milk were collected of the platforms milk in the Amol city in summer. Phenotypic identification of Campylobacter genus and C. jejuni species using microbiology laboratory methods and molecular identification of this bacterium using Multiplex- Polymerase Chain Reaction (M-PCR were performed. The data was calculated using the SPSS 16.0 software and the Fisher's exact test (p < 0.05. Results: Among the 72 samples, 13.88% of samples were contaminated with C. jejuni and 2.77% were contaminated with Campylobacter genus. The highest prevalence rate for this bacterium was in July (20.83% and the lowest prevalence rate was in September (12.5%. The significant difference between the prevalence of the Campylobacter genus and C. jejuni species in raw milk samples in various months of summer was not observed (p = 0.07. Conclusion: This study showed the raw milk contamination with Campylobacter, and thereby the sanitation in the dairy food production places and the use of fast and accurate method to identify this bacterium is important.

  6. The prevalence of self-reported chronic conditions among Arab, Chaldean, and African Americans in southeast Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Hikmet; Dallo, Florence; Fakhouri, Monty; Templin, Thomas; Khoury, Radwan; Fakhouri, Haifa

    2009-01-01

    While there is a plethora of research on the prevalence of individual chronic conditions, studies that examine the clustering of these conditions are lacking, especially among immigrant, minority groups. Cross-sectional, convenience sample. A self-administered survey was distributed at churches, mosques, and small businesses. Arabs (n = 1383), Chaldeans (n = 868), Blacks (n = 809) and Whites (n = 220) in southeast Michigan. We estimated the prevalence of hypertension, high cholesterol, heart disease, diabetes, asthma, and depression. Using a logistic regression model, we estimated odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association between ethnicity and reporting one or more chronic conditions before and after adjusting for demographic, socioeconomic status, health care, chronic conditions, and health behavior variables. The overall age and sex-adjusted prevalence of having one or more chronic conditions was 44%. Estimates were lower for Chaldeans (32%) compared to Arabs (44%), Whites and Blacks (50% for each group). In the fully adjusted model, Chaldeans were less likely (OR = 0.62; 95% CI = 0.43-0.89) to report having one more chronic conditions compared to Whites. Future studies should employ probability samples, and should collect more detailed sociodemographic and acculturation data, which influence the relationship between race/ethnicity and the prevalence of chronic conditions.

  7. The reporting rate of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide: a study of the trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rurup, Mette L; Buiting, Hilde M; Pasman, H Roeline W; van der Maas, Paul J; van der Heide, Agnes; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D

    2008-12-01

    To study trends in reporting rates of euthanasia from 1990 to 2005 in relation to whether recommended or nonrecommended drugs were used, and the most important differences between reported and unreported cases in 2005. Questionnaires were sent to a sample of 6860 physicians who had reported a death in 2005 (response 78%). Previously, 3 similar studies were done at 5-year intervals. The total number of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide cases was estimated using a "gold standard" definition: death was-according to the physician-the result of the use of drugs at the explicit request of the patient with the explicit goal of hastening death (denominator). The Euthanasia Review Committees provided the number of reported cases (numerator). The reporting rate of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide increased from 18% in 1990, 41% in 1995, and 54% in 2001 to 80% in 2005. The reporting rate in the subgroup of euthanasia with recommended drugs (barbiturates and muscle relaxants) was 73% in 1995, 71% in 2001, and 99% in 2005. The reporting rate of euthanasia with nonrecommended drugs (eg, opioids) was below 3% in 1995, 2001, and 2005. Unreported euthanasia differed also from reported euthanasia in the fact that physicians less often labeled their act as euthanasia. Euthanasia with nonrecommended drugs is almost never reported. The total reporting rate increased because of an increase in the use of recommended drugs for euthanasia between 1995 and 2001, and an increase in the reporting rate for euthanasia with recommended drugs between 2001 and 2005.

  8. NCLB Implementation Report: State Approaches for Calculating High School Graduation Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Christopher B.

    This review investigated the state accountability Workbooks provisionally approved and publicly reported by the U.S. Department of Education (DOE) as of June 2003. These documents were obtained from the DOE Web site. This report examines state definitions of high school graduation rates and strategies for constructing graduation rate indicators. A…

  9. 47 CFR 43.43 - Reports of proposed changes in depreciation rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reports of proposed changes in depreciation... Reports of proposed changes in depreciation rates. (a) Each communication common carrier with annual..., before making any changes in the depreciation rates applicable to its operated plant, file with the...

  10. Brief Report: Prevalence of Co-Occurring Epilepsy and Autism Spectrum Disorder--The U.S. National Survey of Children's Health 2011-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Shiny; Hovinga, Mary E.; Rai, Dheeraj; Lee, Brian K.

    2017-01-01

    Epilepsy is reported to co-occur in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Previous studies across the world have found prevalence estimates ranging from 4 to 38%. We examined parent-reported prevalence of co-occurring epilepsy and ASD in the most recent U.S. National Survey of Children's Health, 2011-2012. All analyses accounted for…

  11. 75 FR 4099 - Maintenance Wage Rate Wage Recommendation and Maintenance Wage Survey; Report of Additional...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5376-N-06] Maintenance Wage Rate Wage Recommendation and Maintenance Wage Survey; Report of Additional Classification and Wage Rate AGENCY: Office of... proposal. The information is used by HUD to determine or adopt prevailing wage rates for maintenance...

  12. 75 FR 37457 - Maintenance Wage Rate Wage Recommendation and Maintenance Wage Survey; Report of Additional...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5376-N-54] Maintenance Wage Rate Wage Recommendation and Maintenance Wage Survey; Report of Additional Classification and Wage Rate AGENCY: Office of... proposal. The information is used by HUD to determine or adopt prevailing wage rates for maintenance...

  13. Report summary Prevalence and monetary costs of dementia in Canada (2016): a report by the Alzheimer Society of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Dementia prevalence estimates vary among population-based studies, depending on the definitions of dementia, methodologies and data sources and types of costs they use. A common approach is needed to avoid confusion and increase public and stakeholder confidence in the estimates. Since 1994, five major studies have yielded widely differing estimates of dementia prevalence and monetary costs of dementia in Canada. These studies variously estimated the prevalence of dementia for the year 2011 as low as 340 170 and as high as 747 000. The main reason for this difference was that mild cognitive impairment (MCI) was not consistently included in the projections. The estimated monetary costs of dementia for the same year also varied, from $910 million to $33 billion. This discrepancy is largely due to three factors: (1) the lack of agreed-upon methods for estimating financial costs; (2) the unavailability of prevalence estimates for the various stages of dementia (mild, moderate and severe), which directly affect the amount of money spent; and (3) the absence of tools to measure direct, indirect and intangible costs more accurately. Given the increasing challenges of dementia in Canada and around the globe, reconciling these differences is critical for developing standards to generate reliable information for public consumption and to shape public policy and service development.

  14. Prevalence rates of six selected infectious diseases among African migrants and refugees: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernet, A; Utzinger, J; Sydow, V; Probst-Hensch, N; Paris, D H; Labhardt, N D; Neumayr, A

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this paper was to systematically review the literature on the prevalence of selected infectious diseases among migrants/refugees of African origin and to provide policy makers and health care professionals with evidence-based information. We pursued a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the prevalence of six selected infectious diseases (i.e., syphilis, helminthiasis, schistosomiasis, intestinal protozoa infections, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C) among migrants/refugees of African origin. Three electronic databases (i.e., PubMed, EMBASE, and ISI Web of Science) were searched without language restrictions. Relevant data were extracted and random-effects meta-analyses conducted. Only adjusted estimates were analyzed to help account for heterogeneity and potential confounding. We assessed the quality of evidence using the GRADE approach. The results were stratified by geographical region. Ninety-six studies were included. The evidence was of low quality due to the small numbers of countries, infectious diseases, and participants included. African migrants/refugees had median (with 95% confidence interval [95% CI]) prevalence for syphilis, helminthiasis, schistosomiasis, intestinal protozoa infection, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C of 6.0% [95% CI: 2.0-7.0%], 13.0% [95% CI: 9.5-14.5%], 14.0% [95% CI: 13.0-17.0%], 15.0% [95% CI: 10.5-21.0%], 10.0% [95% CI: 6.0-14.0%], and 3.0% [95% CI: 1.0-4.0%], respectively. We found high heterogeneity regardless of the disease (I 2 ; minimum 97.5%, maximum 99.7%). The relatively high prevalence of some infectious diseases among African migrants/refugees warrants for systematic screening. The large heterogeneity of the available published data does not allow for stratifying such screening programs according to the geographical origin of African migrants/refugees.

  15. Applicability of the ICD-11 proposal for PTSD: a comparison of prevalence and comorbidity rates with the DSM-IV PTSD classification in two post-conflict samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stammel, Nadine; Abbing, Eva M; Heeke, Carina; Knaevelsrud, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization recently proposed significant changes to the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnostic criteria in the 11th edition of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). The present study investigated the impact of these changes in two different post-conflict samples. Prevalence and rates of concurrent depression and anxiety, socio-demographic characteristics, and indicators of clinical severity according to ICD-11 in 1,075 Cambodian and 453 Colombian civilians exposed to civil war and genocide were compared to those according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV). Results indicated significantly lower prevalence rates under the ICD-11 proposal (8.1% Cambodian sample and 44.4% Colombian sample) compared to the DSM-IV (11.2% Cambodian sample and 55.0% Colombian sample). Participants meeting a PTSD diagnosis only under the ICD-11 proposal had significantly lower rates of concurrent depression and a lower concurrent total score (depression and anxiety) compared to participants meeting only DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. There were no significant differences in socio-demographic characteristics and indicators of clinical severity between these two groups. The lower prevalence of PTSD according to the ICD-11 proposal in our samples of persons exposed to a high number of traumatic events may counter criticism of previous PTSD classifications to overuse the PTSD diagnosis in populations exposed to extreme stressors. Also another goal, to better distinguish PTSD from comorbid disorders could be supported with our data.

  16. Prevalence of Reduced Kidney Function by Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate Using an Equation Based on Creatinine and Cystatin C in Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components in Korean Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Ho Kang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIt is known that metabolic syndrome (MetS is associated with chronic kidney disease. We evaluated and compared the prevalence of reduced kidney function in MetS and its components by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR using an equation based on creatinine (eGFRcr, cystatin C (eGFRcys, and combined creatinine-cystatin C (eGFRcr-cys in Korean adults.MethodsWe analyzed data from 3,649 adults who participated in a comprehensive health examination.ResultsMean values of eGFRcys were higher compared with mean values of eGFRcr (96.1±18.2 mL/min/1.73 m2 vs. 91.2±13.6 mL/min/1.73 m2 in total subjects. The prevalence of reduced kidney function increased with age (9.6% for eGFRcys vs. 5.8% for eGFRcr-cys vs. 4.9% for eGFRcr, in subjects aged ≥60 years, and significantly increased with MetS, abdominal obesity, hypertension, high triglyceride, low high density lipoprotein (HDL, and high insulin resistance. The prevalence of MetS, abdominal obesity, hypertension, high insulin resistance, low HDL, and hepatic steatosis was significantly increased in subjects with reduced kidney function. This increased prevalence and the odds ratio of reduced kidney function for prevalence of MetS was highest for eGFRcys, followed by those of eGFRcr-cys, and eGFRcr.ConclusionThe prevalence of reduced kidney function by eGFR was significantly increased in subjects with MetS and its related components. eGFRcys and eGFRcr-cys were superior to eGFRcr in detecting reduced kidney function.

  17. Prevalence of self-reported hypercholesterolaemia and its relation to dietary habits, in Greek adults; a national nutrition & health survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagopoulos George

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The strong causal role of hypercholesterolaemia on the progression of atherosclerosis and subsequently on the development of cardiovascular disease is well described. Main aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of self-reported hypercholesterolaemia and its relation to nutritional habits, in a representative nationwide sample of adult Greek population. Methods Cross sectional survey. Based on a multistage sampling, 5003 adults (18 – 74 yr were enrolled (men: 48.8%, women: 51.2%. All participants were interviewed by trained personnel who used a standard questionnaire. The questionnaire included demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, medical history, lifestyle habits and nutritional assessment. Results The prevalence of self-reported hypercholesterolaemia was 16.4% in men and 21.8% in women (P Conclusion Hypercholesterolaemia seems to affect a large part of Greek population. It is hopeful that hypercholesterolaemics may have started adopting some more healthy nutritional behaviour compared to normocholesterolaemic ones.

  18. ABCC-JNIH Adult Health Study, Hiroshima 1958-1960. Cardiovascular Project Report 3. Prevalence of cardiovascular diseases related to associated factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, Shoichi; Yano, Katsuhiko

    1962-12-12

    A long-term follow-up investigation of cardiovascular disease was organized primarily as an intensive substudy of the ABCC-JNIH Adult Health Study and secondarily for epidemiologic comparison with data on the Framingham, Massachusetts, population. One of the purposes of the present cardiovascular studies on a Hiroshima population was to obtain data comparable with that of the Framingham Study. An equally important aspect of the Hiroshima study is to explore radiation effects on the cardiovascular system. The sample is the Adult Health Study population and consists of 13,000 males and females in Hiroshima. This report provides the prevalence of cardiovascular disease in the first cross-section examined during 1958-1960 together with certain information on related factors. The overall attrition rate was 25%; 15% was caused by death or migration before the examination and 10% by refusal to participate. No significant difference was found in the blood pressure levels between the nonrespondents and the respondents in comparison with results of prior examinations at ABCC. The prevalence of various cardiovascular diseases was analyzed by sex and age. The analysis also extended to relationship of blood pressure, serum cholesterol, body weight, heart size, and occupation, with the prevalence of coronary heart disease for the sample over 40 years of age. 12 references, 15 tables.

  19. Geographic and temporal differences in band reporting rates for American black ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, M.J.; Blandin, W.W.

    1984-01-01

    Recoveries of reward- and standard-banded American black ducks (Anas rubripes) were used to estimate band reporting rates and to investigate geographic and temporal variability in reporting rate for 1978-80. Reporting rates were higher close ( 20 km) to the parent banding site in 3 of 42 samples and were higher close to the nearest black duck banding site in 3 of 35 samples., Reporting rates were higher P 0.05) in Canada than in the Atlantic Flyway for the pre-huntIng season 1980-banded sample, but were otherwise similar among regions. Temporal differences over the duration of the study occured, but there were no consistent trends over time. The small number of rejections suggests that there is little evidence of differences in band reporting rate by proximity to banding sites, geographic location, or over time. Thus, the best estimate of band reporting rate for black ducks is a constant 0.43. This estimate should be used with caution, because we believe that it overestimates reporting rate due to the unknown proportion of reward bands found that were not reported.

  20. The prevalence of self-reported neck pain in rugby union players in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Rugby is a highly demanding sport that carries a high risk of injury, specifically to the neck region. Repetitive loading of the neck during the scrum or tackle phase may increase neck symptoms and pain. Objectives. The objective of this cross-sectional, descriptive study was to determine the prevalence of ...

  1. Brief Report: Prevalence of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder among Individuals with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Ellen; Cerban, Bettina M.; Slater, Chelsea M.; Caccamo, Laura M.; Bacic, Janine; Chan, Eugenia

    2013-01-01

    Currently, both the DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10 preclude the diagnosis of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in cases that present with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This criterion will be removed in the upcoming DSM-V, but the relationship between ASD and ADHD, and in particular the prevalence of ADHD among the ASD population, remains…

  2. Corrimento vaginal referido entre gestantes em localidade urbana no Sul do Brasil: prevalência e fatores associados Self-reported vaginal discharge among pregnant women in an urban area in Southern Brazil: prevalence and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia M. V. da Fonseca

    2008-03-01

    pregnant women interviewed, 52% reported vaginal discharge. The following variables were significantly associated with the outcome: age (prevalence rate, PR = 1.49, marital status (PR = 1.31, urinary tract infection (PR = 1.56, hyperglycemia (PR = 1.48, use of an intrauterine device (PR = 2.35, and history of preterm delivery (PR = 1.37, with oral contraception showing a protective effect (PR = 0.79. Prevalence of self-reported discharge was high among this group of pregnant women. Several risk factors were also identified for the disease under study. These findings can contribute to the implementation of preventive interventions.

  3. Prevalence of injuries and reporting of accidents among health care workers at the University Hospital of the West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Kurt; McGrowder, Donovan; Crawford, Tazhmoye; Alexander-Lindo, Ruby Lisa; Irving, Rachael

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the knowledge, awareness and practices of health care workers towards universal precautions at the University Hospital of the West Indies. The study also examined the prevalence of injuries experienced by health care workers, as well as incidence of accidents and compliance with post-exposure prophylaxis. A cross sectional survey was conducted in September and October 2007. A 28-item self-administered questionnaire was provided to two hundred health care workers including medical doctors, medical technologists, nurses and porters to assess knowledge and practices regarding universal precautions, prevalence of injuries and incidence of accidents. Almost two-thirds (62.3%) of the respondents were aware of policies and procedures for reporting accidents while one-third (33.2%) were unsure. All nurses were aware of policies and procedures for reporting accidents, followed by medical doctors (88%) and medical technologists (61.2%). The majority (81.5%) of the respondents experienced splashes from bodily fluid. Over three-quarters of medical doctors (78%) and two-thirds of nurses (64%) reported having experienced needle stick injuries, while the incidence among medical technologists was remarkably lower (26%). The majority of the respondents (59%) experienced low accident incidence while just over one-tenth (14%) reported high incidence. Eighty four respondents reported needle stick injuries; just under two-thirds (59.5%) of this group received post-exposure treatment. The study found that majority of health care workers were aware of policies and procedures for reporting accidents. Splashes from body fluids, needle stick injuries and cuts from other objects were quite prevalent among health care workers. There is a need for monitoring systems which would provide accurate information on the magnitude of needle stick injuries and trends over time, potential risk factors, emerging new problems, and the effectiveness of interventions at The

  4. Prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control rate of hypertension in HIV-infected patients: the HIV-HY study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Socio, Giuseppe Vittorio; Ricci, Elena; Maggi, Paolo; Parruti, Giustino; Pucci, Giacomo; Di Biagio, Antonio; Calza, Leonardo; Orofino, Giancarlo; Carenzi, Laura; Cecchini, Enisia; Madeddu, Giordano; Quirino, Tiziana; Schillaci, Giuseppe

    2014-02-01

    We aimed to assess the prevalence of hypertension in an unselected human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected population and to identify factors associated with hypertension prevalence, treatment, and control. We used a multicenter, cross-sectional, nationwide study that sampled 1,182 unselected, consecutive, HIV-infected patients. Office blood pressure was accurately measured with standard procedures. Patients were 71% men and 92% white, with a median age of 47 years (range = 18-78); 6% were antiretroviral treatment naive. The overall prevalence of hypertension was 29.3%; high-normal pressure accounted for an additional 12.3%. Among hypertensive subjects, 64.9% were aware of their hypertensive condition, 52.9% were treated, and 33.0% were controlled (blood pressure < 140/90 mm Hg). Blood pressure-lowering medications were used in monotherapy in 54.3% of the subjects. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers were the most frequently used drugs (76.1%: monotherapy = 39.1%, combination treatment = 37.0%). In multivariable regression models, hypertension was independently predicted by traditional risk factors, including age ≥50 years, male sex, family history of cardiovascular disease, body mass index ≥25 kg/m2, previous cardiovascular events, diabetes, central obesity, and metabolic syndrome, as well as by duration of HIV infection, duration of antiretroviral therapy, and nadir CD4+ T-cell count <200/μl. The choice of protease inhibitors vs. nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors as a third antiretroviral drug was irrelevant. Hypertension affects nearly 30% of HIV adult outpatients in Italy. More than one-third of the hypertensive subjects are unaware of their condition, and more than two-thirds are uncontrolled. A higher level of attention to the diagnosis and treatment of hypertension is mandatory in this setting.

  5. Self-Reported High-Cholesterol Prevalence in the Brazilian Population: Analysis of the 2013 National Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo A. Lotufo

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Data on the prevalence of dyslipidemia in Brazil are scarce, with surveys available only for some towns. Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of the self-reported medical diagnosis of high cholesterol in the Brazilian adult population by use of the 2013 National Health Survey data. Methods: Descriptive study assessing the 2013 National Health Survey data, a household-based epidemiological survey with a nationally representative sample and self-reported information. The sample consisted of 60,202 individuals who reported a medical diagnosis of dyslipidemia. The point prevalence and 95% confidence interval (95%CI for the medical diagnosis of high cholesterol/triglyceride by gender, age, race/ethnicity, geographic region and educational level were calculated. Adjusted odds ratio was calculated. Results: Of the 60,202 participants, 14.3% (95%CI=13.7-14.8 never had their cholesterol or triglyceride levels tested, but a higher frequency of women, white individuals, elderly and those with higher educational level had their cholesterol levels tested within the last year. The prevalence of the medical diagnosis of high cholesterol was 12.5% (9.7% in men and 15.1% in women, and women had 60% higher probability of a diagnosis of high cholesterol than men. The frequency of the medical diagnosis of high cholesterol increased up to the age of 59 years, being higher in white individuals or those of Asian heritage, in those with higher educational level and in residents of the Southern and Southeastern regions. Conclusion: The importance of dyslipidemia awareness in the present Brazilian epidemiological context must be emphasized to guide actions to control and prevent coronary heart disease, the leading cause of death in Brazil and worldwide.

  6. Diastasis recti abdominis during pregnancy and 12 months after childbirth: prevalence, risk factors and report of lumbopelvic pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennfjord, Merete Kolberg; Hilde, Gunvor; Ellström-Engh, Marie; Bø, Kari

    2016-01-01

    Background/aim Diastasis recti abdominis (DRA) is defined as a separation of the 2 muscle bellies of rectus abdominis. To date there is scant knowledge on prevalence, risk factors, and consequences of the condition. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of DRA during pregnancy and post partum, presence of possible risk factors, and the occurrence of lumbopelvic pain among women with and without DRA. Methods This prospective cohort study followed 300 first-time pregnant women from pregnancy till 12 months post partum. Data were collected by electronic questionnaire and clinical examinations. DRA was defined as a palpated separation of ≥2 fingerbreadths either 4.5 cm above, at or 4.5 cm below the umbilicus. Women with and without DRA were compared with independent samples Student's t-test and χ2/Fisher exact test, and OR with significance level >0.05. Results Prevalence of DRA was 33.1%, 60.0%, 45.4%, and 32.6% at gestation week 21, 6 weeks, 6 months and 12 months post partum, respectively. No difference in risk factors was found when comparing women with and without DRA. OR showed a greater likelihood for DRA among women reporting heavy lifting ≥20 times weekly (OR 2.18 95% CI 1.05 to 4.52). There was no difference in reported lumbopelvic pain (p=0.10) in women with and without DRA. Conclusions Prevalence of mild DRA was high both during pregnancy and after childbirth. Women with and without DRA reported the same amount of lumbopelvic pain 12 months post partum. PMID:27324871

  7. Gambling problems in the family – A stratified probability sample study of prevalence and reported consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øren Anita

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prior studies on the impact of problem gambling in the family mainly include help-seeking populations with small numbers of participants. The objective of the present stratified probability sample study was to explore the epidemiology of problem gambling in the family in the general population. Methods Men and women 16–74 years-old randomly selected from the Norwegian national population database received an invitation to participate in this postal questionnaire study. The response rate was 36.1% (3,483/9,638. Given the lack of validated criteria, two survey questions ("Have you ever noticed that a close relative spent more and more money on gambling?" and "Have you ever experienced that a close relative lied to you about how much he/she gambles?" were extrapolated from the Lie/Bet Screen for pathological gambling. Respondents answering "yes" to both questions were defined as Concerned Significant Others (CSOs. Results Overall, 2.0% of the study population was defined as CSOs. Young age, female gender, and divorced marital status were factors positively associated with being a CSO. CSOs often reported to have experienced conflicts in the family related to gambling, worsening of the family's financial situation, and impaired mental and physical health. Conclusion Problematic gambling behaviour not only affects the gambling individual but also has a strong impact on the quality of life of family members.

  8. Reward banding to determine reporting rate of recovered mourning dove bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, R.E.

    1968-01-01

    Reward bands placed on the other leg of certain regularly banded immature mourning doves (Zenaidura macroura) were used to develop information on reporting rates of recovered dove bands. Reports from 15 widely separated sections of the United States showed considerable variation in recovery rate of doves both with and without reward bands. The overall percentages of banded doves that were reported as recovered were 9.69% for those with reward bands and 3.83% for controls. The bandreporting rate for states influenced by publicity was 66%; that for states not influenced was 32%.

  9. Estimating Plasmodium falciparum transmission rates in low-endemic settings using a combination of community prevalence and health facility data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Yukich

    Full Text Available As some malaria control programs shift focus from disease control to transmission reduction, there is a need for transmission data to monitor progress. At lower levels of transmission, it becomes increasingly more difficult to measure precisely, for example through entomological studies. Many programs conduct regular cross sectional parasite prevalence surveys, and have access to malaria treatment data routinely collected by ministries of health, often in health management information systems. However, by themselves, these data are poor measures of transmission. In this paper, we propose an approach for combining annual parasite incidence and treatment data with cross-sectional parasite prevalence and treatment seeking survey data to estimate the incidence of new infections in the human population, also known as the force of infection. The approach is based on extension of a reversible catalytic model. The accuracy of the estimates from this model appears to be highly dependent on levels of detectability and treatment in the community, indicating the importance of information on private sector treatment seeking and access to effective and appropriate treatment.

  10. Prevalence of Self-Reported Lifetime History of Traumatic Brain Injury and Associated Disability: A Statewide Population-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteneck, Gale G; Cuthbert, Jeffrey P; Corrigan, John D; Bogner, Jennifer A

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of all severities of traumatic brain injury (TBI), regardless of treatment setting, and their associated negative outcomes. A total of 2701 adult Coloradoans. A statewide, population-based, random digit-dialed telephone survey. The lifetime history of TBI was assessed by a modification of the Ohio State University TBI Identification Method; activity limitation and life satisfaction were also assessed. The distribution of self-reported lifetime injury was as follows: 19.8%, no injury; 37.7%, injury but no TBI; 36.4%, mild TBI; and 6.0%, moderate-severe TBI. Of those reporting a TBI, 23.1% were hospitalized, 38.5% were treated in an emergency department, 9.8% were treated in a physician's office, and 27.5% did not seek medical care. A clear gradient of activity limitations and low life satisfaction was seen, with the highest proportions of these negative outcomes occurring in people reporting more severe TBI and the lowest proportions in those not reporting a TBI. Approximately twice as many people reported activity limitations and low life satisfaction after nonhospitalized TBI compared with hospitalized TBI. This investigation highlights the seriousness of TBI as a public health problem and the importance of including all severities of TBI, no matter where, or if treated, in estimating the prevalence of disability co-occurring with TBI.

  11. Self-reported diabetes in older people: comparison of prevalences and control measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Rizzato Stopa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to analyze the prevalence of diabetes in older people and the adopted control measures. METHODS Data regarding older diabetic individuals who participated in the Health Surveys conducted in the Municipality of Sao Paulo, SP, ISA-Capital, in 2003 and 2008, which were cross-sectional studies, were analyzed. Prevalences and confidence intervals were compared between 2003 and 2008, according to sociodemographic variables. The combination of the databases was performed when the confidence intervals overlapped. The Chi-square (level of significance of 5% and the Pearson’s Chi-square (Rao-Scott tests were performed. The variables without overlap between the confidence intervals were not tested. RESULTS The age of the older adults was 60-69 years. The majority were women, Caucasian, with an income of between > 0.5 and 2.5 times the minimum salary and low levels of schooling. The prevalence of diabetes was 17.6% (95%CI 14.9;20.6 in 2003 and 20.1% (95%CI 17.3;23.1 in 2008, which indicates a growth over this period (p at the limit of significance. The most prevalent measure adopted by the older adults to control diabetes was hypoglycemic agents, followed by diet. Physical activity was not frequent, despite the significant differences observed between 2003 and 2008 results. The use of public health services to control diabetes was significantly higher in older individuals with lower income and lower levels of education. CONCLUSIONS Diabetes is a complex and challenging disease for patients and the health systems. Measures that encourage health promotion practices are necessary because they presented a smaller proportion than the use of hypoglycemic agents. Public health policies should be implemented, and aimed mainly at older individuals with low income and schooling levels. These changes are essential to improve the health condition of older diabetic patients.

  12. Prevalence of hearing loss and accuracy of self-report among factory workers

    OpenAIRE

    Marjorie C McCullagh; Delbert Raymond; Madeleine J Kerr; Sally L Lusk

    2011-01-01

    Noise represents one of the most common occupational health hazards. A Healthy People 2020 objective aims to reduce hearing loss in the noise-exposed public. The purpose of this study was to describe and compare perceived and measured hearing, and to determine the prevalence of hearing loss among a group of factory workers. Data collected as part of an intervention study promoting hearing protector use among workers at an automotive factory in the Midwest were used. Plant employees (n=2691) p...

  13. Prevalence of problematic internet use in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macur Mirna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Internet use is an integral part of our everyday activities; however, Internet use may become problematic and harmful in a minority of cases. The majority of reported prevalence rates of problematic Internet use refer to adolescent samples, whereas epidemiological studies on representative adult populations are lacking. This study aimed to reveal the prevalence and characteristics of problematic Internet use in Slovenia.

  14. Prevalence and severity of self-reported asthma in young adults, 1976-2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browatzki, A; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Lange, P

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the prevalence and severity of asthma in young Danish adults over three decades. Males and females aged 20-35 yrs were sampled from the population of Copenhagen for the three surveys (1976-1978, 1991-1993 and 2001-2004). A total of 3,285 (46% male) sub...... to increase over the last three decades among young Danish adults, and the observed increase in severity seems, at least partly, to be related to the increase in prevalence of obesity.......The aim of the present study was to describe the prevalence and severity of asthma in young Danish adults over three decades. Males and females aged 20-35 yrs were sampled from the population of Copenhagen for the three surveys (1976-1978, 1991-1993 and 2001-2004). A total of 3,285 (46% male...... index, especially >30 kg.m(-2), was associated with a lower percentage predicted FEV1 (pobesity on FEV1. The proportion of smokers declined from 60 to 38% (p

  15. Prevalence of LD From Parental and Professional Perspectives: A Comparison of the Data From the National Survey of Children's Health and the Office of Special Education Programs' Reports to Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullen, Paige C

    Since the emergence of the field of learning disabilities (LD) in the late 1960s and early 1970s, controversy has surrounded issues regarding methods used for identification. The prevalence of students identified as LD increased steadily from the 1970s until the beginning of the 21st century, at which time it has decreased until at least 2011 (the most current data available from the U.S. Office of Education). In this article, I compare the prevalence rates of children aged 6 to 17 years being served in schools according to the Office of Special Education Programs with the prevalence rates as reported by parents on the National Survey of Children's Health. To date, no such comparison has been made that takes into account parents' knowledge of their children's disabilities. Results of the analyses reveal that parents report that their children have LD at a significantly higher rate than what is reported by schools of students receiving LD services. Most important, the longitudinal trend from 2001 to 2011 indicates that parents are reporting a slight increase whereas the Office of Special Education Programs is reporting a dramatic decrease in LD.

  16. Voice recognition versus transcriptionist: error rates and productivity in MRI reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strahan, Rodney H; Schneider-Kolsky, Michal E

    2010-10-01

    Despite the frequent introduction of voice recognition (VR) into radiology departments, little evidence still exists about its impact on workflow, error rates and costs. We designed a study to compare typographical errors, turnaround times (TAT) from reported to verified and productivity for VR-generated reports versus transcriptionist-generated reports in MRI. Fifty MRI reports generated by VR and 50 finalized MRI reports generated by the transcriptionist, of two radiologists, were sampled retrospectively. Two hundred reports were scrutinised for typographical errors and the average TAT from dictated to final approval. To assess productivity, the average MRI reports per hour for one of the radiologists was calculated using data from extra weekend reporting sessions. Forty-two % and 30% of the finalized VR reports for each of the radiologists investigated contained errors. Only 6% and 8% of the transcriptionist-generated reports contained errors. The average TAT for VR was 0 h, and for the transcriptionist reports TAT was 89 and 38.9 h. Productivity was calculated at 8.6 MRI reports per hour using VR and 13.3 MRI reports using the transcriptionist, representing a 55% increase in productivity. Our results demonstrate that VR is not an effective method of generating reports for MRI. Ideally, we would have the report error rate and productivity of a transcriptionist and the TAT of VR. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology © 2010 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  17. Voice recognition versus transcriptionist: error rated and productivity in MRI reporting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strahan, Rodney H.; Schneider-Kolsky, Michal E.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Purpose: Despite the frequent introduction of voice recognition (VR) into radiology departments, little evidence still exists about its impact on workflow, error rates and costs. We designed a study to compare typographical errors, turnaround times (TAT) from reported to verified and productivity for VR-generated reports versus transcriptionist-generated reports in MRI. Methods: Fifty MRI reports generated by VR and 50 finalised MRI reports generated by the transcriptionist, of two radiologists, were sampled retrospectively. Two hundred reports were scrutinised for typographical errors and the average TAT from dictated to final approval. To assess productivity, the average MRI reports per hour for one of the radiologists was calculated using data from extra weekend reporting sessions. Results: Forty-two % and 30% of the finalised VR reports for each of the radiologists investigated contained errors. Only 6% and 8% of the transcriptionist-generated reports contained errors. The average TAT for VR was 0 h, and for the transcriptionist reports TAT was 89 and 38.9 h. Productivity was calculated at 8.6 MRI reports per hour using VR and 13.3 MRI reports using the transcriptionist, representing a 55% increase in productivity. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that VR is not an effective method of generating reports for MRI. Ideally, we would have the report error rate and productivity of a transcriptionist and the TAT of VR.

  18. Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy and its relationship with glomerular filtration rate and other risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Spain. DM2 HOPE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Maribel; Cos, Francesc Xavier; Álvarez-Guisasola, Fernando; Fuster, Eva

    2017-09-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of blindness in working age population in developed countries. Albuminuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) have been considered biomarkers for DR. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of DR and its relationship with eGFR and other risk factors in type 2 diabetic patients (T2DM) in Spain. A cross-sectional and descriptive study has been performed in 14,266 patients. Clinical records were reviewed. Demographic data, clinical diagnoses, clinical variables, and results from laboratory tests were recorded. Prevalence rates of DR were calculated. Logistic regression analysis was applied to assess predictors of the DR presence/absence. DR prevalence was 14.9%, being more prevalent in women (p = 0.0087) and in older patients (p < 0.0001). Duration of disease (OR = 5.3, IC95% = 3.8-7.4; p < 0.0001), eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m 2 (OR = 2.0, IC95% 1.6-2.4; p < 0.0001), levels of HbA1c ≥ 7% (OR = 1.9, IC95% = 1.5-2.3; p < 0.0001) and high blood pressure (OR = 1.6, IC95% = 1.2-2.1; p = 0.0032) were associated with higher risk of DR. DR was also more frequent in patients taking insulin (32,6% vs. 10,2%; p < 0.0001). Around one in seven patients with T2DM has DR after nine years since diagnosis. Time since diagnosis, insulin therapy, cardiovascular profile, and renal dysfunction are associated with DR in patients with T2DM in Spain.

  19. Women?s and men?s reports of past-year prevalence of intimate partner violence and rape and women?s risk factors for intimate partner violence: A multicountry cross-sectional study in Asia and the Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Jewkes, Rachel; Fulu, Emma; Tabassam Naved, Ruchira; Chirwa, Esnat; Dunkle, Kristin; Haard?rfer, Regine; Garcia-Moreno, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Background Understanding the past-year prevalence of male-perpetrated intimate partner violence (IPV) and risk factors is essential for building evidence-based prevention and monitoring progress to Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 5.2, but so far, population-based research on this remains very limited. The objective of this study is to compare the population prevalence rates of past-year male-perpetrated IPV and nonpartner rape from women?s and men?s reports across 4 countries in Asia and t...

  20. Prevalence of self-reported diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and associated risk factors in a national survey in the US population: SHIELD (Study to Help Improve Early evaluation and management of risk factors Leading to Diabetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bays, Harold E; Bazata, Debbra D; Clark, Nathaniel G; Gavin, James R; Green, Andrew J; Lewis, Sandra J; Reed, Michael L; Stewart, Walter; Chapman, Richard H; Fox, Kathleen M; Grandy, Susan

    2007-10-03

    Studies derived from continuous national surveys have shown that the prevalence of diagnosed diabetes mellitus in the US is increasing. This study estimated the prevalence in 2004 of self-reported diagnosis of diabetes and other conditions in a community-based population, using data from the Study to Help Improve Early evaluation and management of risk factors Leading to Diabetes (SHIELD). The initial screening questionnaire was mailed in 2004 to a stratified random sample of 200,000 households in the US, to identify individuals, age > or = 18 years of age, with diabetes or risk factors associated with diabetes. Follow-up disease impact questionnaires were then mailed to a representative, stratified random sample of individuals (n = 22,001) in each subgroup of interest (those with diabetes or different numbers of risk factors for diabetes). Estimated national prevalence of diabetes and other conditions was calculated, and compared to prevalence estimates from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2002. Response rates were 63.7% for the screening, and 71.8% for the follow-up baseline survey. The SHIELD screening survey found overall prevalence of self-reported diagnosis of diabetes (either type 1 or type 2) was 8.2%, with increased prevalence with increasing age and decreasing income. In logistic regression modeling, individuals were more likely to be diagnosed with type 2 diabetes if they had abdominal obesity (odds ratio [OR] = 3.50; p or =28 kg/m2 (OR = 4.04; p self-report only) to those from NHANES 1999-2002 (self-report, clinical and laboratory evaluations), the prevalence of diabetes was similar. SHIELD allows the identification of respondents with and without a current diagnosis of the illness of interest, and potential longitudinal evaluation of risk factors for future diagnosis of that illness.

  1. Prevalence and risk factors for self-reported non-communicable diseases among older Ugandans: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Ojiambo Wandera

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is limited evidence about the prevalence and risk factors for non-communicable diseases (NCDs among older Ugandans. Therefore, this article is aimed at investigating the prevalence of self-reported NCDs and their associated risk factors using a nationally representative sample. Design: We conducted a secondary analysis of the 2010 Uganda National Household Survey (UNHS using a weighted sample of 2,382 older people. Frequency distributions for descriptive statistics and Pearson chi-square tests to identify the association between self-reported NCDs and selected explanatory variables were done. Finally, multivariable complementary log–log regressions to estimate the risk factors for self-reported NCDs among older people in Uganda were done. Results: About 2 in 10 (23% older persons reported at least one NCD [including hypertension (16%, diabetes (3%, and heart disease (9%]. Among all older people, reporting NCDs was higher among those aged 60–69 and 70–79; Muslims; and Pentecostals and Seventh Day Adventists (SDAs. In addition, the likelihood of reporting NCDs was higher among older persons who depended on remittances and earned wages; owned a bicycle; were sick in the last 30 days; were disabled; and were women. Conversely, the odds of reporting NCDs were lower for those who were relatives of household heads and were poor. Conclusions: In Uganda, self-reported NCDs were associated with advanced age, being a woman, having a disability, ill health in the past 30 days, being rich, depended on remittances and earning wages, being Muslim, Pentecostal and SDAs, and household headship. The Ministry of Health should prevent and manage NCDs by creating awareness in the public and improving the supply of essential drugs for these health conditions. Finally, there is a need for specialised surveillance studies of older people to monitor the trends and patterns of NCDs over time.

  2. Self-rated Health and Internet Addiction in Iranian Medical Sciences Students; Prevalence, Risk Factors and Complications

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadbeigi, Abolfazl; Valizadeh, Farzaneh; Mirshojaee, Seyede Roqaie; Ahmadli, Robabeh; Mokhtari, Mohsen; Ghaderi, Ebrahim; Ahmadi, Ali; Rezaei, Heshmatollah; Ansari, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Self-rated health is a brief measure for general health. It is a comprehensive and sensitive index for prediction of health in future. Due to the high internet usage in medical students, the current study designed to evaluate the self-rated health (SRH) in relationship with internet addiction risk factors in medical students. Methods: This cross sectional study conducted on 254 students of Qom University of Medical Sciences 2014. Participants selected by two stage sampling metho...

  3. Structured Head and Neck CT Angiography Reporting Reduces Resident Revision Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tucker F; Brinjikji, Waleed; Doolittle, Derrick A; Nagelschneider, Alex A; Welch, Brian T; Kotsenas, Amy L

    2018-04-12

    This resident-driven quality improvement project was undertaken to assess the effectiveness of structured reporting to reduce revision rates for afterhours reports dictated by residents. The first part of the study assessed baseline revision rates for head and neck CT angiography (CTA) examinations dictated by residents during afterhours call. A structured report was subsequently created based on templates on the RSNA informatics reporting website and critical findings that should be assessed for on all CTA examinations. The template was made available to residents through the speech recognition software for all head and neck CTA examinations for a duration of 2 months. Report revision rates were then compared with and without use of the structured template. The structured template was found to reduce revision rates by approximately 50% with 10/41 unstructured reports revised and 2/17 structured reports revised. We believe that structured reporting can help reduce reporting errors, particularly in term of typographical errors, train residents to evaluate complex examinations in a systematic fashion, and assist them in recalling critical findings on these examinations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Patient-reported denials, appeals, and complaints: associations with overall plan ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Denise D; Haviland, Amelia M; Dembosky, Jacob W; Klein, David J; Elliott, Marc N

    2018-03-01

    To assess whether Medicare patients' reports of denied care, appeals/complaints, and satisfactory resolution were associated with ratings of their health plan or care. Retrospective analysis of 2010 Medicare Advantage Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS) survey data. Multivariate linear regression of data from 154,766 respondents (61.1% response rate) tested the association of beneficiary ratings of plan and care with beneficiary reports of denied care, appeals, complaints, and complaint resolution, adjusting for beneficiary demographics. Beneficiaries who reported being denied needed care rated their plans and care significantly less positively, by 17.2 points (on a 100-point scale) and 9.1 points, respectively. Filing an appeal was not statistically significantly associated with further lower ratings. Beneficiaries who filed a complaint that was satisfactorily resolved gave slightly lower ratings of plans (-3.4 points) and care (-2.5 points) than those not filing a complaint (P plans. Our results suggest that beneficiaries may attribute the actions that lead to complaints or denials to plans more than to the care they received. Successful complaint resolution and utilization management review might eliminate most deficits associated with complaints and denied care, consistent with the service recovery paradox. High rates of complaints and denied care might identify areas that need improved utilization management review, customer service, and quality improvement. Among those reporting being denied care, filing an appeal was not associated with lower patient ratings of plan or care.

  5. Report to the nation finds continuing declines in cancer death rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Death rates from all cancers combined for men, women, and children continued to decline in the United States between 2004 and 2008, according to the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2008. The overall rate of new cancer diagnoses,

  6. Twelve-month prevalence and predictors of self-reported suicidal ideation and suicide attempt among Korean adolescents in a web-based nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Eun-Ho; Hyun, Min Kyung; Choi, Seong Mi; Kim, Ji-Min; Kim, Gyung-Mee; Woo, Jong-Min

    2015-01-01

    The suicide rate in South Korea was the highest among the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries in 2011. Although the suicide rate in adolescents is lower than that of adults and is reported to be decreasing in young males in some countries, it has consistently increased in recent years in South Korea. We aimed to determine the prevalence, pattern, and predictors of suicidal ideation and attempt in the past 12 months. A total sample of 72,623 adolescents aged 12-18 years who responded to a web-based anonymous self-reported survey between September and October 2010 was used for the analysis. The suicidal ideation and suicide attempt rates were 19.1% and 4.9%, respectively. Being female, having a poor perceived socioeconomic status and a poor perceived academic performance, subjective feelings of depression, cigarette smoking, alcohol use, perceived general medical health, and experiences of any involvement with sexual intercourse were the contributing factors that predicted elevated risks for suicidal ideation and suicide attempt. In contrast to previous reports in other countries, the suicide attempt rate in Korean female adolescents peaked at age 13 years, and there were no differences in suicidal ideation in females by age. There were no differences in both suicidal ideation and attempt rates in males by age. A multidisciplinary approach that takes into consideration the characteristics of Korean adolescents with suicidal ideation or suicide attempt is warranted for developing prevention and treatment programs. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2014.

  7. Low prevalence of hypopituitarism after traumatic brain injury: a multicenter study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kokshoorn, N. E.; Smit, J. W. A.; Nieuwlaat, W. A.; Tiemensma, J.; Bisschop, P. H.; Groote Veldman, R.; Roelfsema, F.; Franken, A. A. M.; Wassenaar, M. J. E.; Biermasz, N. R.; Romijn, J. A.; Pereira, A. M.

    2011-01-01

    Hypopituitarism after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is considered to be a prevalent condition. However, prevalence rates differ considerably among reported studies, due to differences in definitions, endocrine assessments of hypopituitarism, and confounding factors, such as timing of evaluation and

  8. Applicability of the ICD-11 proposal for PTSD: a comparison of prevalence and comorbidity rates with the DSM-IV PTSD classification in two post-conflict samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Stammel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The World Health Organization recently proposed significant changes to the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD diagnostic criteria in the 11th edition of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11. Objective: The present study investigated the impact of these changes in two different post-conflict samples. Method: Prevalence and rates of concurrent depression and anxiety, socio-demographic characteristics, and indicators of clinical severity according to ICD-11 in 1,075 Cambodian and 453 Colombian civilians exposed to civil war and genocide were compared to those according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV. Results: Results indicated significantly lower prevalence rates under the ICD-11 proposal (8.1% Cambodian sample and 44.4% Colombian sample compared to the DSM-IV (11.2% Cambodian sample and 55.0% Colombian sample. Participants meeting a PTSD diagnosis only under the ICD-11 proposal had significantly lower rates of concurrent depression and a lower concurrent total score (depression and anxiety compared to participants meeting only DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. There were no significant differences in socio-demographic characteristics and indicators of clinical severity between these two groups. Conclusions: The lower prevalence of PTSD according to the ICD-11 proposal in our samples of persons exposed to a high number of traumatic events may counter criticism of previous PTSD classifications to overuse the PTSD diagnosis in populations exposed to extreme stressors. Also another goal, to better distinguish PTSD from comorbid disorders could be supported with our data.

  9. Perceptions of Community HIV/ STI Risk Among U.S Women Living in Areas with High Poverty and HIV Prevalence Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Blackstock, Oni J.; Frew, Paula; Bota, Dorothy; Vo-Green, Linda; Parker, Kim; Franks, Julie; Hodder, Sally L.; Justman, Jessica; Golin, Carol E.; Haley, Danielle F.; Kuo, Irene; Adimora, Adaora A.; Rompalo, Anne; Soto-Torres, Lydia; Wang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Although studies have consistently demonstrated that women at high risk for HIV and non-HIV sexually transmitted infections (STIs) tend to underestimate their individual risk, little is known about how women at risk perceive their community’s HIV/STI risk. We explored perceptions of community HIV/ STI risk among U.S. women living in areas with high poverty and HIV prevalence rates as part of a qualitative substudy of the Women’s HIV SeroIncidence Study. Semi-structured focus groups were condu...

  10. Hepatitis B: report of prevalence and access to healthcare among Chinese residents in Sheffield UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedio, Alicia B; Ellam, Helena; Rayner, Frances; Stone, Benjamin; Kudesia, Goura; McKendrick, Michael W; Green, Stephen T

    2013-12-01

    Overall prevalence of hepatitis B (HBV) in the UK is low. However, among migrants from endemic areas, prevalence has been shown to be high. Furthermore, timely diagnosis and/or referral are required prevent serious health consequences through early institution of treatment. We identified locations that would be familiar to Chinese members of the community with the objective of facilitating testing. Dried blood spot samples were collected from 229 Chinese subjects and tested for HBV and also for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection--offering complete chronic viral hepatitis screening. HBsAg was positive in 20/229 (8.7%) participants, (10 F, 10 M). Five women and one man were aware of their condition, but only one man and none of the women were under specialist care. The average length of residence in the UK for positive patients was 15 years (range 2-40). Evidence of HBV past infection, HBcAb(+)/HBsAg(-), was seen in 28/229 participants (12.2%). HCV antibody testing produced negative results in all participants. The methodology of testing was well accepted, 139/144 (95%) responded to a feedback questionnaire declaring no discomfort and 100% finding the information session useful. This model of outreach testing is helpful for addressing health inequalities afflicting the UK's Chinese community. Copyright © 2013 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Report: Prevalence and antibiotic trials against Salmonella enterica isolated from diarrheic lambs and kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Muhammad Kashif; Ijaz, Muhammad; Aslam, Hassaan Bin; Farooqi, Shahid Hussain; Ahmad, Syed Saleem; Akhtar, Raheela

    2017-11-01

    Salmonella enterica (S. enterica) is the major zoonotic threat for small ruminants and humans responsible for huge economic losses and high mortality in Pakistan. Lambs and kids of Lahore district were examined to determine the prevalence, hematology and chemotherapy of S. enterica. A total of 200 diarrheic samples (n=100 lambs; n=100 kids) were collected and examined; 59 (29.50%) were found positive for S. enterica. Lambs had lightly greater prevalence (31%) than kids (29%). The frequency analysis (OR=1.16 [reciprocal =0.87]) showed non-significant difference in both the lambs and kids. The significant decrease (Pℜ0.001) in hemoglobin, pack cell volume and total erythrocyte count was observed in infected lambs and kids. Results of in-vitro antibiotic susceptibility test revealed that S. enteric isolated from both lambs and kids were susceptible to levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, gentamicin, azithromycin, tobramycin, amoxicillin, ampicillin and nalidixic acid. Where as the results of in vivo antibiotic trials showed that isolates from both lambs and the kids with diarrhea were susceptible to levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin.

  12. Changes in Prevalence of Parent-Reported Autism Spectrum Disorder in School-Aged U.S. Children: 2007 to 2011-2012. National Center for Health Statistics Reports. Number 65

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Stephen J.; Bramlett, Matthew D.; Kogan, Michael D.; Schieve, Laura A.; Jones, Jessica R.; Lu, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This report presents data on the prevalence of diagnosed autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as reported by parents of school-aged children (ages 6-17 years) in 2011-2012. Prevalence changes from 2007 to 2011-2012 were evaluated using cohort analyses that examine the consistency in the 2007 and 2011-2012 estimates for children whose…

  13. Test Review: Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function--Self-Report Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Justin M.; D'Amato, Rik Carl

    2006-01-01

    The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Self-Report version (BRIEF-SR) is the first self-report measure of executive functioning for adolescents. With the Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act authorization, there is a greater need for appropriate assessment of severely impaired children. Recent studies have…

  14. Psychometric Properties of the Teacher-Reported Motor Skills Rating Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Helyn; Murrah, William M.; Cameron, Claire E.; Brock, Laura L.; Cottone, Elizabeth A.; Grissmer, David

    2015-01-01

    Children's early motor competence is associated with social development and academic achievement. However, few studies have examined teacher reports of children's motor skills. This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Motor Skills Rating Scale (MSRS), a 19-item measure of children's teacher-reported motor skills in the classroom.…

  15. Chronic Pain Types Differ in Their Reported Prevalence of Post -Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and There Is Consistent Evidence That Chronic Pain Is Associated with PTSD: An Evidence-Based Structured Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishbain, David A; Pulikal, Aditya; Lewis, John E; Gao, Jinrun

    2017-04-01

    The hypotheses of this systematic review were the following: 1) Prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) will differ between various types of chronic pain (CP), and 2) there will be consistent evidence that CP is associated with PTSD. Of 477 studies, 40 fulfilled the inclusion/exclusion criteria of this review and were grouped according to the type of CP. The reported prevalence of PTSD for each grouping was determined by aggregating all the patients in all the studies in that group. Additionally all patients in all groupings were combined. Percentage of studies that had found an association between CP and PTSD was determined. The consistency of the evidence represented by the percentage of studies finding an association was rated according to the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research guidelines. Grouping PTSD prevalence differed ranging from a low of 0.69% for chronic low back pain to a high of 50.1% in veterans. Prevalence in the general population with CP was 9.8%. Of 19 studies, 16 had found an association between CP and PTSD (84.2%) generating an A consistency rating (consistent multiple studies). Three of the groupings had an A or B (generally consistent) rating. The veterans grouping received a C (finding inconsistent) rating. The results of this systematic review confirmed the hypotheses of this review. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. The prevalence of self-reported halitosis and oral hygiene practices among Libyan students and office workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eldarrat, A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims:The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of self-reported halitosis, oral hygiene practices and related diseases among Libyan students and employees.Methods: Six hundred self-administered structured questionnaires were used to investigate self-perception of halitosis and oral hygiene practices among a group of Libyan volunteers. Chi square test was used to detect significant differences between frequencies and to test correlation between self-perception of halitosis and measures of oral hygiene. Results: Forty three percent of the subjects were males and 57% were females. Forty four percent of the males and 54% of the females revealed self-perception malodour. Malodour was reported with the highest frequency (68% during wake up time. Malodour was perceived by 31.7% of the females and 23.4% of the males during the hand-on-mouth test (p=0.04. Significantly more females (89.9% than males (75.7% practiced brushing (p<0.001. Fifty one percent of the males and 49.6% of females had dental caries. Smoking was significantly (p<0.001 more prevalent among males (17% than among females (1%. Brushing was practiced by 85% of non-smokers and 68% of smokers (p=0.004. About 71% of the subjects who practiced brushing reported malodour during wake up time in comparison to subjects who did not practice brushing (p=0.041. Conclusions: The prevalence of self-perceived malodour among the Libyan volunteers in this study is within the range of other studies. There is a great demand to reduce the incidence of dental caries and periodontal diseases.

  17. Renal disease in adult Nigerians with sickle cell anemia: A report of prevalence, clinical features and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R A Bolarinwa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal abnormalities in adult Nigerians with sickle cell anemia (SCA have not been extensively studied. To determine the prevalence, pattern and the associated risk factors of renal disease, 72 subjects with SCA from two centers in the southwestern Nigeria were investigated. Socio-demographic data, body mass index and clinical findings were documented. The urine analysis, serum bio-chemistry, hemogram and renal factors attributable to SCA were determined. Presence of albuminuria of at least 1+ or microalbuminuria in those negative with dipstick; and the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR using the Cockcroft-Gault formula categorized subjects to various stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD. Subjects with and without albuminuria were compared to determine the relative risk associated with renal disease. Four (5.6% subjects had macro-albuminuria, while 32 (44.4% had micro-albuminuria and 30 (41.7% had hemoglobinuria. In the subjects with albuminuria, age, hematocrit, systolic blood pressure, serum creatinine, urea and creatinine clearance were numerically higher while the eGFR was numerically lower. There was no significant difference in the clinical parameters studied in the two groups of subjects. The diastolic blood pressure was significantly higher in the albuminuric group. Based on eGFR, 22 (30.6% subjects had hyperfiltration (GFR > 140 mL/min/1.73 m2, of whom 36.4% had albuminuria, 18 (25.0% had stage 1 CKD, 30 (41.7% had stage 2 CKD and two (2.7% subjects had stage 3 CKD with albuminuria. None had stage 4 and 5 CKD. We conclude that renal abnormalities, importantly albuminuria, is common in adult Nigerians with SCA and the pattern and incidence are similar to those reported from other parts of the world. Regular blood pressure monitoring, early diagnosis and active intervention are advocated to delay progression to end-stage kidney disease in view of poor outcomes of renal replacement therapy in SCA patients with nephropathy.

  18. Distance threshold for the effect of urban agriculture on elevated self-reported malaria prevalence in Accra, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoler, Justin; Weeks, John R; Getis, Arthur; Hill, Allan G

    2009-04-01

    Irrigated urban agriculture (UA), which has helped alleviate poverty and increase food security in rapidly urbanizing sub-Saharan Africa, may inadvertently support malaria vectors. Previous studies have not identified a variable distance effect on malaria prevalence from UA. This study examines the relationships between self-reported malaria information for 3,164 women surveyed in Accra, Ghana, in 2003, and both household characteristics and proximity to sites of UA. Malaria self-reports are associated with age, education, overall health, socioeconomic status, and solid waste disposal method. The odds of self-reported malaria are significantly higher for women living within 1 km of UA compared with all women living near an irrigation source, the association disappearing beyond this critical distance. Malaria prevalence is often elevated in communities within 1 km of UA despite more favorable socio-economic characteristics than communities beyond 1 km. Neighborhoods within 1 km of UA should be reconsidered as a priority for malaria-related care.

  19. Self-reported occupational noise may be associated with prevalent chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the us general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel M Dzhambov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Occupational noise exposure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD are common in the United States, but so far their association has not been explored. Given the neuroimmunological effects of noise, such an association seems plausible. Thus, the present study aimed to explore the association of occupational noise exposure with prevalent COPD in the US general population. Materials and Methods: We used data from the population-based National Health Interview Survey (NHIS 2014. The cross-sectional association of self-reported duration of exposure to very loud noise during participants’ occupational lifetime with self-reported COPD and emphysema was explored using weighted logistic regression. Results and Discussion: The fully adjusted model yielded odds ratio (OR≥15 years = 1.68 [95% confidence interval (CI: 1.28, 2.21] for COPD and OR≥15 years = 1.61 (95% CI: 1.13, 2.30 for emphysema. Race/ethnicity was a significant effect modifier. In sensitivity analysis with cumulative noise exposure based on a job exposure matrix, we found no effect. Conclusion: In conclusion, we found a relationship between self-reported occupational noise exposure and the risk of prevalent COPD in the US general population, but none with objective noise levels. Being the first study on the subject matter, and given the design limitations, these findings are tentative and should be treated with caution.

  20. Changes in Consumer Demand Following Public Reporting of Summary Quality Ratings: An Evaluation in Nursing Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Rachel M; Konetzka, R Tamara; Polsky, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Limited consumer use of health care report cards may be due to the large amount of information presented in report cards, which can be difficult to understand. These limitations may be overcome with summary measures. Our objective was to evaluate consumer response to summary measures in the setting of nursing homes. 2005-2010 nursing home Minimum Data Set and Online Survey, Certification and Reporting (OSCAR) datasets. In December 2008, Medicare converted its nursing home report card to summary or star ratings. We test whether there was a change in consumer demand for nursing homes related to the nursing home's star rating after the information was released. The star rating system was associated with a significant change in consumer demand for low- and high-scoring facilities. After the star-based rating system was released, 1-star facilities typically lost 8 percent of their market share and 5-star facilities gained over 6 percent of their market share. The nursing home star rating system significantly affected consumer demand for high- and low-rated nursing homes. These results support the use of summary measures in report cards. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  1. Depression and anxiety in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: prevalence rates based on a comparison of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) and the hospital, Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)

    OpenAIRE

    Covic Tanya; Cumming Steven R; Pallant Julie F; Manolios Nick; Emery Paul; Conaghan Philip G; Tennant Alan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background While it is recognised that depression is prevalent in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), recent studies have also highlighted significant levels of anxiety in RA patients. This study compared two commonly used scales, the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), in relation to their measurement range and cut points to consider the relative prevalence of both constructs, and if prevalence rates may be due to scale-specific ca...

  2. Reported prevalence and quantitative LC-MS methods for the analysis of veterinary drug residues in honey: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venable, Ryan; Haynes, Carion; Cook, Jo Marie

    2014-04-01

    Insect pollination increases the value and productivity of three-quarters of crop species grown for food. Declining beehive health in commercial apiaries has resulted in numerous reports from government laboratories worldwide of contamination with antimicrobial chemicals in honey. This review includes pertinent discussion of legislation and events leading to increased government oversight in the commercial honey market. A detailed summary of the variety and prevalence of veterinary drug residues being found in honey as well as a selection of robust quantitative and confirmatory LC-MS methods with an emphasis on those adopted by government testing laboratories are presented.

  3. Dengue virus serological prevalence and seroconversion rates in children and adults in Medellin, Colombia: implications for vaccine introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabel Carabali

    2017-05-01

    Conclusions: These laboratory-based findings could inform dengue vaccine decisions, as they provide age-specific seroprevalence and seroconversion data, evidencing permanent and ongoing dengue transmission in the study area. This study provides evidence for the existing rates of secondary and heterotypic responses, presenting a challenge that must be addressed adequately by the new vaccine candidates.

  4. Incidence and prevalence rates of diabetes mellitus in Taiwan: Analysis of the 2000–2009 Nationwide Health Insurance database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Der Jiang

    2012-11-01

    Conclusion: The incidence of diabetes, including type 1, remained stable over this 10-year period in Taiwan. However, the incidence rate in men aged 20–59 years was higher than that in age-matched women. With our nationwide database, subgroup analysis of DM incidence can be performed to refine our health policies for the prevention, screening, and treatment of diabetes mellitus.

  5. Investigations concerning the prevalence of Coxiella burnetii and Chlamydia abortus in sheep in correlation with management systems and abortion rate in Lower Saxony in 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Martin; Binder, Alfred; Schotte, Ulrich; Ganter, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The intracellular bacteria Coxiella (C) burnetii and Chlamydia (Chl) abortus induce abortion in sheep and also affect humans. While Chl. abortus only infrequently infects humans, C burnetii is the aetiological agent of numerous Q fever outbreaks during the last decades. There is only limited knowledge about the prevalence of both pathogens in sheep, although sheep are involved in almost all Q fever outbreaks in Germany. The aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence of both pathogens in flocks located in Lower Saxony, Germany, in correlation to the management form and abortion rate. Serum samples of 1714 sheep from 95 flocks located in Lower Saxony were investigated by ELISA. 2.7% of these samples were positive, 1.3% showed inconclusive results in the C. burnetii-ELISA. Elevated intra-flock seroprevalences were only detected in three migrating flocks. Chlamydia-specific antibodies could be detected in 15.1% serum samples of mainly shepherded and migrating flocks. In one of these flocks with a high intra-flock seroprevalence for C burnetii (27%) and Chlamydia (44.9%), C burnetii was detected in 21.6% of the placenta samples of normal births and in 12.5% of the colostrum samples by PCR. Aborted fetuses and the corresponding placentas were negative in C burnetii-PCR, but in most of them and also in many other placenta samples Chl. abortus could be detected by PCR and DNA microarray. This survey shows a low overall prevalence of C. burnetii in sheep in Lower Saxony in the year 2004. However, three migrating flocks with a high intra-flock prevalence are localized in the southern parts of Lower Saxony. Spreading of C burnetii could occur, because of the large radius of grazing of all three flocks.

  6. Independent review of the SaskPower rate proposal of August 2004 : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, J.D.; Buhr, L.A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents an independent review of SaskPower's request for an increase in rates effective September 1, 2004 and September 1, 2005. With the exception of manufacturing customers, whose rate increase will be phased in over four years, these rate changes will result in a 9 per cent system average increase in 2004 and a 1.8 per cent system average increase in 2005. The report presents an introduction and description of the terms of reference for this review; a financial outlook and comparisons; system operational analysis; an analysis of expenditures; revenue requirement; cost of service issues; and rate design. The report also presents a summary and recommendations on cost of service and rate design issues. The report concluded that the scope of this review does not lend itself to a definitive conclusion on the appropriateness of the cost of service model and its application by SaskPower. Several areas needing further attention include: net fuel and purchased power allocations to different classes; allocation of rate base and in particular distribution rate base to various classes; target ratios for revenue to revenue requirements and the subsequent return on rate base percentages for each class; and demand/energy/customer components of revenue requirements compared to billing revenues. refs., 31 tabs., 1 fig., 6 appendices

  7. A critical review of infant mortality rates reported by the Ministry of Health in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffer Eskiocak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective:The infant mortality rate is an indicator that is calculated by dividing the number of infants who died before their first birthday by the number of live births in a given year. Infant mortality rates are the main determinants of the under-five mortality rate, which is used for the developmental ranking of countries by the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF. It is also an important indicator for assessing the maternal and child health status of a country and for calculating life expectancy at birth. The aim of this review is to reassess the calculations that were made in recent years in Turkey in the light of the criteria mentioned in the text and to guide the steps that need to be taken to make future calculations.Methods: The infant mortality rates of Turkey were collected, and their values and methods of calculating the rates were compared. Results:According to the Annual Reports of Health Statistics by Ministry of Health, the infant mortality rate has dropped from 29,0% in 2003 to 7,4% in 2012 in Turkey; but in these reports, infant mortality rates were taken from various studies and by various methods and presented in the same charts. In the data of the Turkish Statistical Institute (TSI, UNICEF and the Turkey Demographic and Health Survey (TDHS and in references used, this value was reported by different numbers (11,6 and 12% for 2012; 13,6% for 2013, respectively. Conclusions: The infant mortality rate must be calculated by a scientific approach and with definitions according to international standards in terms of comparability. This must be consistent between countries and between years studied so that the report can be compared according to consistent standards.Keywords: Infant mortality rate, calculation of infant mortality rate, life expectancy at birth, Turkey

  8. Good clean fun? A content analysis of profanity in video games and its prevalence across game systems and ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivory, James D; Williams, Dmitri; Martins, Nicole; Consalvo, Mia

    2009-08-01

    Although violent video game content and its effects have been examined extensively by empirical research, verbal aggression in the form of profanity has received less attention. Building on preliminary findings from previous studies, an extensive content analysis of profanity in video games was conducted using a sample of the 150 top-selling video games across all popular game platforms (including home consoles, portable consoles, and personal computers). The frequency of profanity, both in general and across three profanity categories, was measured and compared to games' ratings, sales, and platforms. Generally, profanity was found in about one in five games and appeared primarily in games rated for teenagers or above. Games containing profanity, however, tended to contain it frequently. Profanity was not found to be related to games' sales or platforms.

  9. The prevalence of statistical reporting errors in psychology (1985–2013)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuijten, M.B.; Hartgerink, C.H.J.; van Assen, M.A.L.M.; Epskamp, S.; Wicherts, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    This study documents reporting errors in a sample of over 250,000 p-values reported in eight major psychology journals from 1985 until 2013, using the new R package “statcheck.” statcheck retrieved null-hypothesis significance testing (NHST) results from over half of the articles from this period.

  10. The prevalence of statistical reporting errors in psychology (1985-2013)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuijten, M.B.; Hartgerink, C.H.J.; van Assen, M.A.L.M.; Epskamp, S.; Wicherts, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    This study documents reporting errors in a sample of over 250,000 p-values reported in eight major psychology journals from 1985 until 2013, using the new R package “statcheck.” statcheck retrieved null-hypothesis significance testing (NHST) results from over half of the articles from this period.

  11. Determining the Accuracy of Self-Report Versus Informant-Report Using the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Lisa; Liljequist, Laura

    2016-04-01

    The present research examined the validity of self-report versus informant-report in relation to a performance-based indicator of adult ADHD. Archival data from 118 participants (52 males, 66 females) were used to compare Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scale-Self-Report: Long Format (CAARS-S:L) and Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scale-Observer Report: Long Format (CAARS-O:L) with discrepancy scores calculated between the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III) Verbal Comprehension Index - Working Memory Index (VCI - WMI) and Perceptual-Organizational Index - Processing Speed Index (POI - PSI) scaled scores. Neither the self- nor informant-report formats of the CAARS were better predictors of discrepancies between WAIS-III Index scores. Intercorrelations between the CAARS-S:L and CAARS-O:L revealed generally higher correlations between the same scales of different formats and among scales measuring externally visible symptoms. Furthermore, regression analysis indicated that both the CAARS-S:L and CAARS-O:L clinical scales contributed a significant proportion of variance in WAIS-III VCI - WMI discrepancy scores (14.7% and 16.4%, respectively). Results did not establish greater accuracy of self-report versus informant-report of ADHD symptomatology, rather demonstrate the need for multimodal assessment of ADHD in adults. © The Author(s) 2013.

  12. Prevalence Rates of Work Organization Characteristics Among Workers in the U.S.: Data From the 2010 National Health Interview Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alterman, Toni; Luckhaupt, Sara E.; Dahlhamer, James M.; Ward, Brian W.; Calvert, Geoffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Surveillance is needed to capture work organization characteristics and to identify their trends. Methods Data from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were used to calculate prevalence rates for four work organization characteristics (long work hours, non-standard work arrangements, temporary positions, and alternative shifts) overall, and by demographic characteristics, and industry and occupation of current/recent employment. Results Data were available for 27,157 adults, of which 65% were current/recent workers. Among adults who worked in the past 12 months, 18.7% worked 48 hr or more per week, 7.2% worked 60 hr or more per week, 18.7% had non-standard work arrangements, 7.2% were in temporary positions, and 28.7% worked an alternative shift. Conclusions Prevalence rates of work organization characteristics are provided. These national estimates can be used to help occupational health professionals and employers to identify emerging occupational safety and health risks, allow researchers to examine associations with health, and use the data for benchmarking. PMID:22911666

  13. Combining Environmental and Spatial Discount Rates for Valuation of Assets According to International Financial Reporting Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaunzeme Justine Sophia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Application of discount rate in finance and accounting is founded on the concept of time value of money. Discounted cash flow model is widely used for asset valuation under the International Financial Reporting Standards (in abbreviation, IFRS. The discount rate applied in valuation models normally is the best rate of return that investors would earn alternative investments. With emergence of ecological economics as a separate branch of economics, the concept of ecological (or in other words, environmental discount rate has been elaborated. Muller (2013 in his paper ‘The Discounting Confusion: an Ecological Economics Perspective’, argues that traditional discounting can undermine long-term sustainability of the economy. In his work, Frank G. Muller considered adjusting the traditional discount rate in order to arrive at an environmental discount rate, which would help to ensure the sustainability of the economy. Hannon (2001 and Perrings (2001 in their paper ‘An Introduction to Spatial Discounting’ consider another variation of the discount rate - spatial discount rate. Spatial discount rate represents the rate at which the diffusion of environmental effects of economic activities is discounted over space. By February 2016, neither the application of environmental nor spatial discount rates under IFRS has been considered. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the implications that environmental and spatial discounting would have for the application of discounted cash flow model according to IFRS. The research methods applied are methods of economic analysis and synthesis.

  14. Year-Round Prevalence of Norovirus in the Environment of Catering Companies without a Recently Reported Outbreak of Gastroenteritis▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxman, Ingeborg L. A.; Verhoef, Linda; Dijkman, Remco; Hägele, Geke; te Loeke, Nathalie A. J. M.; Koopmans, Marion

    2011-01-01

    Food handlers play an important role in the transmission of norovirus (NoV) in food-borne outbreaks of gastroenteritis (GE). In a year-round prevalence study, the prevalence of NoV in catering companies without recently reported outbreaks of GE was investigated and compared to the observed prevalence in catering companies with recently reported outbreaks. Swab samples were collected from surfaces in the kitchens and (staff) bathrooms in 832 randomly chosen companies and analyzed for the presence of NoV RNA. In total, 42 (1.7%) out of 2,496 environmental swabs from 35 (4.2%) catering companies tested positive. In contrast, NoV was detected in 147 (39.7%) of the 370 samples for 44 (61.1%) of the 72 establishments associated with outbreaks of gastroenteritis. NoV-positive swabs were more frequently found in winter, in specific types of companies (elderly homes and lunchrooms), and in establishments with separate bathrooms for staff. We found a borderline association with population density but no relation to the number of employees. Sequence analysis showed that environmental strains were interspersed with strains found in outbreaks of illness in humans. Thus, the presence of NoV in catering companies seemed to mirror the presence in the population but was strongly increased when associated with food-borne GE. Swabs may therefore serve as a valuable tool in outbreak investigations for the identification of the causative agent, although results should be interpreted with care, taking into account all other epidemiological data. PMID:21378056

  15. Year-round prevalence of norovirus in the environment of catering companies without a recently reported outbreak of gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxman, Ingeborg L A; Verhoef, Linda; Dijkman, Remco; Hägele, Geke; Te Loeke, Nathalie A J M; Koopmans, Marion

    2011-05-01

    Food handlers play an important role in the transmission of norovirus (NoV) in food-borne outbreaks of gastroenteritis (GE). In a year-round prevalence study, the prevalence of NoV in catering companies without recently reported outbreaks of GE was investigated and compared to the observed prevalence in catering companies with recently reported outbreaks. Swab samples were collected from surfaces in the kitchens and (staff) bathrooms in 832 randomly chosen companies and analyzed for the presence of NoV RNA. In total, 42 (1.7%) out of 2,496 environmental swabs from 35 (4.2%) catering companies tested positive. In contrast, NoV was detected in 147 (39.7%) of the 370 samples for 44 (61.1%) of the 72 establishments associated with outbreaks of gastroenteritis. NoV-positive swabs were more frequently found in winter, in specific types of companies (elderly homes and lunchrooms), and in establishments with separate bathrooms for staff. We found a borderline association with population density but no relation to the number of employees. Sequence analysis showed that environmental strains were interspersed with strains found in outbreaks of illness in humans. Thus, the presence of NoV in catering companies seemed to mirror the presence in the population but was strongly increased when associated with food-borne GE. Swabs may therefore serve as a valuable tool in outbreak investigations for the identification of the causative agent, although results should be interpreted with care, taking into account all other epidemiological data.

  16. Prepopulated radiology report templates: a prospective analysis of error rate and turnaround time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, C M; Hall, S; Hardin, J; Salisbury, S; Towbin, A J

    2012-08-01

    Current speech recognition software allows exam-specific standard reports to be prepopulated into the dictation field based on the radiology information system procedure code. While it is thought that prepopulating reports can decrease the time required to dictate a study and the overall number of errors in the final report, this hypothesis has not been studied in a clinical setting. A prospective study was performed. During the first week, radiologists dictated all studies using prepopulated standard reports. During the second week, all studies were dictated after prepopulated reports had been disabled. Final radiology reports were evaluated for 11 different types of errors. Each error within a report was classified individually. The median time required to dictate an exam was compared between the 2 weeks. There were 12,387 reports dictated during the study, of which, 1,173 randomly distributed reports were analyzed for errors. There was no difference in the number of errors per report between the 2 weeks; however, radiologists overwhelmingly preferred using a standard report both weeks. Grammatical errors were by far the most common error type, followed by missense errors and errors of omission. There was no significant difference in the median dictation time when comparing studies performed each week. The use of prepopulated reports does not alone affect the error rate or dictation time of radiology reports. While it is a useful feature for radiologists, it must be coupled with other strategies in order to decrease errors.

  17. Coronary artery disease prevalence and outcome in patients hospitalized with acute heart failure: an observational report from seven Middle Eastern countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, Amar M; Sulaiman, Kadhim; Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim; Alsheikh-Ali, Alawi; Aljaraallah, Mohammed; Al Faleh, Husam; Elasfar, Abdelfatah; Panduranga, Prasanth; Singh, Rajvir; Abi Khalil, Charbel; Al Suwaidi, Jassim

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to report prevalence, clinical characteristics, precipitating factors, management and outcome of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) among patients hospitalized with heart failure (HF) in seven Middle Eastern countries and compare them to non-CAD patients. Data were derived from Gulf CARE (Gulf aCute heArt failuRe rEgistry), a prospective multicenter study of 5005 consecutive patients hospitalized with acute HF during February-November 2012 in 7 Middle Eastern countries. The prevalence of CAD among Acute Heart Failure (AHF) patients was 60.2% and varied significantly among the 7 countries (Qatar 65.7%, UAE 66.6%, Kuwait 68.0%, Oman 65.9%, Saudi Arabia 62.5%, Bahrain 52.7% and Yemen 49.1%) with lower values in the lower income countries. CAD patients were older and more likely to have diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia and chronic kidney disease. Moreover, CAD patients were more likely to have history of cerebrovascular and peripheral vascular disease when compared to non-CAD patients. In-hospital mortality rates were comparable although CAD patients had more frequent re-hospitalization and worse long-term outcome. However, CAD was not an independent predictor of poor outcome. The prevalence of CAD amongst patients with HF in the Middle East is variable and may be related to healthcare sources. Regional and national studies are needed for assessing further the impact of various etiologies of HF and for developing appropriate strategies to combat this global concern.

  18. Cyberbullying among primary school students in Turkey: self-reported prevalence and associations with home and school life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Sevda; Savaser, Sevim; Hallett, Victoria; Balci, Serap

    2012-10-01

    The current study examined the self-reported prevalence and nature of cyberbullying and victimization among second, third, and fourth grade students (N=372) and explored associated features of home and school life. Of the children in the current sample, 27 percent had been victims of cyberbullying, 18 percent had been aggressors, and 15 percent had been both cyberbullies and victims. Boys were significantly more likely to carry out cyberbullying than girls. Cyberbullying exposure (as both a bully and a victim) was significantly associated with low levels of self-reported school satisfaction (bullies odds ratio [OR]: 2.45; victims OR: 2.10; p<0.05) and achievement (bullies OR: 3.85; victims OR: 3.47, p<0.05). Paternal unemployment was also associated with a three-fold increase in the likelihood of being a cyberbully. Increased awareness and regulation is now required within schools and within the home to tackle this escalating problem.

  19. Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder: a systematic review of prevalence and incidence rates, risk factors, and targeted interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Marta; Galling, Britta; Correll, Christoph U

    2013-01-01

    Objective Pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) is associated with poor outcomes, including suicidal ideation (SI) and suicide attempt (SA). However, frequencies and risk factors of SI/SA and targeted intervention trials for SI/SA in PBD have not been reviewed systematically. Methods We conducted a systematic PubMed review, searching for articles reporting on prevalences/incidences, correlates and intervention studies targeting SI/SA in PBD. Weighted means were calculated, followed by an exploratory meta-regression of SI and SA correlates. Results Fourteen studies (n = 1,595) with 52.1% males aged 14.4 years reported data on SI/SA prevalence (N = 13, n = 1,508) and/or correlates (N = 10, n = 1,348) in PBD. Weighted mean prevalences were: past SI = 57.4%, past SA = 21.3%, current SI = 50.4%, and current SA = 25.5%; incidences (mean: 42 months follow-up were: SI = 14.6% and SA = 14.7%. Regarding significant correlates, SI (N = 3) was associated with a higher percentage of Caucasian race, narrow (as opposed to broad) PBD phenotype, younger age, and higher quality of life than SA. Significant correlates of SA (N = 10) included female gender, older age, earlier illness onset, more severe/episodic PBD, mixed episodes, comorbid disorders, past self-injurious behavior/SI/SA, physical/sexual abuse, parental depression, family history of suicidality, and poor family functioning. Race, socioeconomic status, living situation, and life events were not clearly associated with SA. In a meta-regression analysis, bipolar I disorder and comorbid attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder were significantly associated with SA. Only one open label study targeting the reduction of SI/SA in PBD was identified. Conclusions SI and SA are highly common but under-investigated in PBD. Exploration of predictors and protective factors is imperative for the establishment of effective preventive and intervention strategies, which are urgently needed. PMID:23829436

  20. Prevalence and Incidence of Autism Spectrum Disorder in an Israeli Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidovitch, Michael; Hemo, Beatriz; Manning-Courtney, Patricia; Fombonne, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders has been steadily rising. In most parts of the world, rates as high as 1% are reported, including in the United States. In Israel, previously reported prevalence rates have been in the 0.2% range, and were based on parental reporting of diagnosis. In this study, records from one of the largest Israeli…

  1. Prevalence and causes of visual impairment and rate of wearing spectacles in schools for children of migrant workers in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiangnan; Lu, Lina; Zou, Haidong; He, Xiangui; Li, Qiangqiang; Wang, Weijie; Zhu, Jianfeng

    2014-12-22

    To assess the prevalence of visual impairment and rate of wearing spectacles in schools for children of migrant workers in Shanghai, China. Children from grade 1 to 5 in schools for children of migrant workers were randomly chosen for ocular examinations. All children were screened for uncorrected visual acuity and presenting visual acuity. After screening, the children whose uncorrected visual acuity was 20/40 or less received ocular motility evaluation, cycloplegic refraction/non-cycloplegic refraction, and external eye, anterior segment, media, and fundus examinations. A total of 9673 children were enumerated and 9512 (98.34%) participated in this study. The prevalence of uncorrected, presenting, and best-corrected visual acuity of 20/40 or worse in the better eye were 13.33%, 11.26%, and 0.63%, respectively. The rate of wearing spectacles of the children with visual impairment in one or both eyes was 15.50%. Of these, 26.05% were wearing spectacles with inaccurate prescriptions. Refractive error was a major cause of visual impairment, accounting for 89.48% of all the visual impairment causes. Other causes of visual impairment included amblyopia accounting for 10.12%; congenital cataract, 0.1%; congenital nystagmus, 0.1%; ocular prosthesis, 0.1%; macular degeneration, 0.05%; and opaque cornea, 0.05%. This is the first study of the prevalence and causes of visual impairment in schools for children of migrant workers in Shanghai, China. The visual impairment rate in schools for children of migrant workers in suburbs of Shanghai in the best eye before vision correction was lower than those of urban children in mainstream schools in Guangzhou in 2012, and higher than students in rural of Beijing in 1998 and in suburb of Chongqing in 2007. The refractive error was the principal cause of the visual impairment of the children of migrant workers. The rate of wearing spectacles was low and the percentage of inaccurate prescriptions, among those who wore spectacles, was

  2. Prevalence and determinants of misreporting among European children in proxy-reported 24 h dietary recalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börnhorst, C; Huybrechts, I; Ahrens, W; Eiben, G; Michels, N; Pala, V; Molnár, D; Russo, P; Barba, G; Bel-Serrat, S; Moreno, L A; Papoutsou, S; Veidebaum, T; Loit, H-M; Lissner, L; Pigeot, I

    2013-04-14

    Dietary assessment is strongly affected by misreporting (both under- and over-reporting), which results in measurement error. Knowledge about misreporting is essential to correctly interpret potentially biased associations between diet and health outcomes. In young children, dietary data mainly rely on proxy respondents but little is known about determinants of misreporting here. The present analysis was conducted within the framework of the multi-centre IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants) study and is based on 6101 children aged 2-9 years with 24 h dietary recall (24-HDR) and complete covariate information. Adapted Goldberg cut-offs were applied to classify the 24-HDR as 'over-report', 'plausible report' or 'under-report'. Backward elimination in the course of multi-level logistic regression analyses was conducted to identify factors significantly related to under- and over-reporting. Next to characteristics of the children and parents, social factors and parental concerns/perceptions concerning their child's weight status were considered. Further selective misreporting was addressed, investigating food group intakes commonly perceived as more or less socially desirable. Proportions of under-, plausible and over-reports were 8.0, 88.6 and 3.4 %, respectively. The risk of under-reporting increased with age (OR 1.19, 95 % CI 1.05, 1.83), BMI z-score of the child (OR 1.23, 95 % CI 1.10, 1.37) and household size (OR 1.12, 95 % CI 1.01, 1.25), and was higher in low/medium income groups (OR 1.45, 95 % CI 1.13, 1.86). Over-reporting was negatively associated with BMI z-scores of the child (OR 0.78, 95 % CI 0.69, 0.88) and higher in girls (OR 1.70, 95 % CI 1.27, 2.28). Further social desirability and parental concerns/perceptions seemed to influence the reporting behaviour. Future studies should involve these determinants of misreporting when investigating diet-disease relationships in children

  3. The prevalence of age-related macular degeneration in Italy (PAMDI) study: report 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piermarocchi, Stefano; Segato, Tatiana; Scopa, Pasquale; Masetto, Morena; Ceca, Stela; Cavarzeran, Fabiano; Peto, Tunde

    2011-06-01

    The present study aimed to estimate prevalence and risk factors associated with age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) in an Italian population and to analyze differences between urban and rural communities. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study among elderly residents in Northeast Italy. Participants were divided into urban and rural groups based on whether they lived in the city of Padova or the villages of Teolo and Torreglia, respectively. Fundus photographs were graded according to the International Classification for Age-related Maculopathy. A total of 1162 randomly selected subjects aged 61 years or more were invited to participate in the study. We examined 885 subjects, and 845 were eligible for fundus photograph grading. ARMD was estimated to affect 62.7% of the whole population (drusen 63-124 μm = 48.3%; drusen ≥125 μm = 10.4%; advanced ARMD = 4.1%). Age was confirmed as a risk factor for drusen ≥125 μm and advanced ARMD (Odds Ratio [OR] = 1.47, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.28-1.69 and OR = 1.62, 95% CI 1.28-2.05, respectively, for a 5-year increase in age). The rural group appeared to be at a higher risk of developing large drusen compared to the urban sample (OR = 1.61, 95% CI 1.01-2.63) when adjusting for age and gender. The results confirmed that ARMD affects a high percentage of the elderly population in Italy. This study does not support the hypothesis that living in a rural environment or belonging to a population of the Mediterranean basin may be protective against the intermediate stages of the disease.

  4. Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy in Urban Slums: The Aditya Jyot Diabetic Retinopathy in Urban Mumbai Slums Study-Report 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunita, Mohan; Singh, Arvind Kumar; Rogye, Ashwini; Sonawane, Manish; Gaonkar, Ravina; Srinivasan, Radhika; Natarajan, Sundaram; Stevens, Fred C J; Scherpbier, A J J A; Kumaramanickavel, Govindasamy; McCarty, Catherine

    2017-10-01

    The aims of the study were to estimate the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and enumerate history-based risk factors in the urban slums of Western India. The population-based study was conducted in seven wards of Mumbai urban slums, where we screened 6569 subjects of ≥ 40 years age, with a response rate of 98.4%, for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) based on American Diabetes Association criteria. All subjects with T2DM underwent dilated 30° seven-field stereo-fundus-photography for DR severity grading based on modified Airlie House classification. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess the correlation of DR with the history-based risk factors. The prevalence of DR in the general population of Mumbai urban slums was 1.41% (95% CI 0.59-2.23) and in the T2DM population it was 15.37% (95% CI 8.87-21.87). The positive associations with DR were the longer duration of DM (≥ 11 years: OR, 12.77; 95% CI 2.93-55.61) and male gender (OR, 2.05; 95% CI 1.08-3.89); increasing severity of retinopathy was also significantly associated with longer duration of DM (p Mumbai urban slums. Duration of DM and male gender were significantly associated with DR. The slums in Western India show the trends of urban lifestyle influences similar to the rest of urban India.

  5. Prevalence of streptococcus group B in tracheal tube secretions of neonates with respiratory distress: a brief report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosravi N

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infection with group B streptococcus (GBS can present with respiratory distress, Pneumonia, meningitis and Osteomyelitis in neonates. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of GBS colonization in trachea of intubated neonates.Methods: This observational analytic study was performed upon 33 intubated neonates due to respiratory distress in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU Rasoul Hospital in Tehran, Iran during 2010-2012. Tracheal secretions cultured upon TODD-HEWITT BROTH and sheep blood agar 5%., chi-square test was used for compare the qualitative variables. P<0.05 was considered meaningful.Results: Three cases had positive streptococcal culture (9.1% and four cases had posi-tive culture for non-streptococcal organisms. no meaningful relation observed between positive GBS culture and neonatal gender, kind of delivery, PROM.Conclusion: Prevalence of GBS positive results (9% in present study is very close to GBS colonization in pregnant women; although the higher colonization rate of pregnant women are expected.

  6. Predicting changes in reported notifiable disease rates for New Zealand using a SIR modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Graham; Slaney, David; Tait, Andrew

    2013-04-01

    The New Zealand health system has defined as 'notifiable' over 50 diseases. Of these campylobacteriosis is the most commonly reported comprising 41% of all notifications in 2011 (presently about 150 illness cases per 100,000 population per annum). Furthermore, the incidence of this mild illness, which is potentially waterborne, is under-reported by at least an order-of-magnitude. Increased downstream pathogen loads and/or disease incidence have been found to be associated with increased rainfall, particularly in agricultural landscapes. Therefore, given the predominance of agricultural land uses in New Zealand, transmission and exposure to its agent (thermotolerant Campylobacter bacteria) may be affected by changing rainfall and temperature patterns associated with climate change. Reporting rates for other potentially water-borne zoonoses are also noticeable (for example, the reported rate for cryptosporidiosis for 2011 was 14 per 100,000 population). The distribution of Cryptosporidium oocysts in the environment may be influenced by climate change because it has often been implicated in drinking-water contamination, and heavy rainfall events have been found to be associated with increased pathogen loads in rivers and disease incidence. Given this background, which may also be applicable to other countries with agriculturally-dominated landscapes, a New Zealand study was initiated to develop a decision-support system for the projected effects of climate change on a selected suite of environmentally-transmitted pathogens, including Campylobacter and Cryptosporodium oocysts. Herein we report on the manner in which a linear SIR (Susceptible-Ill-Recovered) model previously developed for campylobacteriosis can be extended to cryptosporidiosis, applied to changes in pathogen contact rate and hence reported illness, and coupled to climate change projections associated with different greenhouse gas emission scenarios. The resulting SIR model outputs provided projected

  7. Prevalence Rates of Self-Care Behaviors and Related Factors in a Rural Hypertension Population: A Questionnaire Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanhuan Hu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the self-care behaviors among hypertensive patients in primary care. A cross-sectional survey, with 318 hypertensive patients, was conducted in a rural area in Beijing, China, in 2012. Participants were mainly recruited from a community health clinic and completed questionnaires assessing their self-care behaviors, including data on adherence to a prescribed medication regimen, low-salt diet intake, smoking habits, alcohol consumption, blood pressure monitoring, and physical exercise. The logistic regression model was used for the analysis of any association between self-care behaviors and age, gender, duration of hypertension, self-rated health, marital status, education level, diabetes status, or body mass index. Subjects that adhered to their medication schedule were more likely to have hypertension for a long duration (OR, 3.44; 95% CI 1.99–5.97. Older participants (OR, 1.80; 95% CI 1.08–2.99 were more likely to monitor their blood pressure. Subjects who did not partake in physical exercise were more likely to be men, although the difference between genders was not significant (OR, 0.60; 95% CI 0.36–1.01. Patients with shorter history of hypertension, younger and being males have lower self-care behaviors. Primary care providers and public health practitioner should pay more attention to patients recently diagnosed with hypertension as well as younger male patients.

  8. Prevalence rate of thyroid diseases among autopsy cases of the atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima, 1951-1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimoto, Yasuhiko; Ezaki, Haruo; Etoh, Ryozo; Hiraoka, Toshio; Akiba, Suminori

    1995-01-01

    To examine the radiogenic risk of latent thyroid cancer, thyroid adenoma, colloid/adenomatous goiter and chronic thyroiditis, the date for 3821 subjects collected in the course of autopsies of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima from 1951 to 1985 by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) were analyzed using a logistic model. About 80% of the autopsies were performed at RERF and the remainder at local hospitals. The frequencies of the above diseases were not associated with whether the underlying cause of death was cancer. However, note that our results may be influenced by potentially biasing factors associated with autopsy selection. The relative frequency of latent thyroid cancer (greatest dimension ≤1.5 cm but detectable on a routine microscopic slide of the thyroid gland) increased as the radiation dose increased and was about 1.4-fold greater at 1 Gy than in the 0-Gy dose group. The relative occurrence of thyroid adenoma also increased as radiation dose increased, and was about 1.5-fold greater at 1 Gy than in the 0-Gy dose group. Sex, age at the time of the bombing or period of observation did not significantly modify the radiogenic risks for thyroid adenoma or latent thyroid cancer. No statistically significant association was found between radiation exposure and the rates of colloid/adenomatous goiter and chronic thyroiditis. The possible late effect of atomic bomb radiation on the frequency of benign thyroid diseases is discussed on the basis of these data. 38 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  9. High prevalence of self-reported shoulder complaints after thyroid carcinoma surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerink, S.H.P.P.; Coolen, L.; Schenning, M.E.; Husson, O.; Smit, J.W.A.; Marres, H.A.; Wilt, J.H.W. de; Netea-Maier, R.T.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Shoulder complaints are frequently reported after surgical treatment for thyroid carcinoma. However, no specific literature on this topic is available for these patients and, hence, its impact on quality of life (QOL) is unknown and there are no known predictors of shoulder complaints in

  10. Reported high salt intake is associated with increased prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysm and larger aortic diameter in older men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Golledge

    Full Text Available Salt intake has been implicated in the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA through studies in rodent models but not previously studied in humans. The aim of this study was to examine the association between reported addition of salt to food and the prevalence of AAA.A risk factor questionnaire which contained a question about salt intake was included as part of a population screening study for AAA in 11742 older men. AAA presence was assessed by abdominal ultrasound imaging using a reproducible protocol.The prevalence of AAA was 6.9, 8.5 and 8.6% in men who reported adding salt to food never, sometimes and always, respectively, p = 0.005. Addition of salt to food sometimes (odds ratio [OR]: 1.22, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03-1.44 or always (OR: 1.23, 95% CI 1.04-1.47 was independently associated with AAA after adjustment for other risk factors including age, waist-hip ratio, blood pressure, history of hypertension, high cholesterol, angina, diabetes, myocardial infarction and stroke. Salt intake was also independently associated with aortic diameter (beta 0.023, p = 0.012. In men with no prior history of hypertension, high cholesterol, angina, myocardial infarction or stroke (n = 4185, the association between addition of salt to food sometimes (OR: 1.41, 95% CI 0.96-2.08 or always (OR: 1.52, 95% CI 1.04-2.22 and AAA remained evident.Reported salt intake is associated with AAA in older men. Additional studies are needed to determine whether reducing salt intake would protect against AAA.

  11. Statistics and analysis of the inspection report´s modification rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing HE

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Accordingto the statistics and regulatory inspection reports modification rate, incorporated in the hospital quality control target,together withthe strictly control and management makethe inspection results change rate up to the hospital quality management requirements. Methods: Counted upevery kind of biochemical items which were monitored by machine 7180 in the biochemical laboratory from April to October 2013, and strengthen the inspector´s sense of responsibility by the modification rate of timely rectification. Results: Every kind of biochemical items which were monitored by the machine 7180 including 62022 persons in the biochemical laboratory from April to October 2013, 896 persons´ inspection results were altered before printing ,which was 1.45 percent ;75 persons´ inspection results were altered by upper administrator after printing, which was 0.12 percent of the total and 8.37 percent of the altered people. Conclusion: Our inspection report modification rate decreased from 27.77 percent in April to 1.88 percent in October ,the percentage decreased obviously. It proved that the PDCA model was successful in inspection report modification rate of Lis in our hospital, which achieved our quality management target.

  12. Standards for reporting chronic periodontitis prevalence and severity in epidemiologic studies: Proposed standards from the Joint EU/USA Periodontal Epidemiology Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtfreter, Birte; Albandar, Jasim M; Dietrich, Thomas; Dye, Bruce A; Eaton, Kenneth A; Eke, Paul I; Papapanou, Panos N; Kocher, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    Periodontal diseases are common and their prevalence varies in different populations. However, prevalence estimates are influenced by the methodology used, including measurement techniques, case definitions, and periodontal examination protocols, as well as differences in oral health status. As a consequence, comparisons between populations are severely hampered and inferences regarding the global variation in prevalence can hardly be drawn. To overcome these limitations, the authors suggest standardized principles for the reporting of the prevalence and severity of periodontal diseases in future epidemiological studies. These principles include the comprehensive reporting of the study design, the recording protocol, and specific subject-related and oral data. Further, a range of periodontal data should be reported in the total population and within specific age groups. Periodontal data include the prevalence and extent of clinical attachment loss (CAL) and probing depth (PD) on site and tooth level according to specific thresholds, mean CAL/PD, the CDC/AAP case definition, and bleeding on probing. Consistent implementation of these standards in future studies will ensure improved reporting quality, permit meaningful comparisons of the prevalence of periodontal diseases across populations, and provide better insights into the determinants of such variation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. 78 FR 71036 - Pipeline Safety: Random Drug Testing Rate; Contractor Management Information System Reporting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ... PHMSA-2013-0248] Pipeline Safety: Random Drug Testing Rate; Contractor Management Information System Reporting; and Obtaining Drug and Alcohol Management Information System Sign-In Information AGENCY: Pipeline... Management Information System (MIS) Data; and New Method for Operators to Obtain User Name and Password for...

  14. 2010 E-Rate Program and Broadband Usage Survey: Report. DA 10-2414

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Communications Commission, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This report presents data from the "2010 E-rate Program and Broadband Usage Survey" commissioned by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) and conducted by Harris Interactive, Inc. (Harris), an independent national marketing research firm, between February and April 2010. The primary goal of the survey was to collect data on the current state…

  15. Perceptions of Community HIV/STI Risk Among U.S Women Living in Areas with High Poverty and HIV Prevalence Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstock, Oni J; Frew, Paula; Bota, Dorothy; Vo-Green, Linda; Parker, Kim; Franks, Julie; Hodder, Sally L; Justman, Jessica; Golin, Carol E; Haley, Danielle F; Kuo, Irene; Adimora, Adaora A; Rompalo, Anne; Soto-Torres, Lydia; Wang, Jing; Mannheimer, Sharon B

    2015-08-01

    Although studies have consistently demonstrated that women at high risk for HIV and non-HIV sexually transmitted infections (STIs) tend to underestimate their individual risk, little is known about how women at risk perceive their community's HIV/STI risk. We explored perceptions of community HIV/STI risk among U.S. women living in areas with high poverty and HIV prevalence rates as part of a qualitative substudy of the Women's HIV SeroIncidence Study. Semi-structured focus groups were conducted. Data were coded and analyzed using the constant comparative method. Participants expressed the perception that their communities were at elevated HIV/STI risk, mostly due to contextual and structural factors such as lack of access to health care and education. Findings suggest that HIV prevention messages that target U.S. women at high risk for HIV may be strengthened by addressing the high perceived community HIV/STI risk driven by structural factors.

  16. Self-reported adherence rates in glaucoma patients in Southwest Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeola Olukorede Onakoya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Nigerian glaucoma patients have an aversion to surgery and often rely on medical therapy to prevent disease progression. For medical therapy to be effective, the drugs have to be used as prescribed. Compliance has been reported to be low in the previous Nigerian studies. Aims: To evaluate the adherence rates of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG patients on medical therapy using patient self-report. Settings and Design: A hospital-based cross-sectional design was used to assess consecutive POAG patients attending a glaucoma clinic in a Tertiary Hospital in Lagos, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: Self-reported adherence was evaluated by trained interviewers. Comprehensive clinical assessment including intraocular pressure, gonioscopy, visual field assessment, and dilated binocular funduscopy using the slit lamp and + 78D fundus lens was done. Statistical Analysis Used: Data analysis was done using MedCalc Statistical Software. Results: One hundred and fourteen patients reported adherence rates ranging from 10% to 100% with a mean adherence rate of 82.33% ± 19.25%. Only 31 respondents (27.2% reported 100% adherence. Duration of the disease was the only significant factor on multiple regression analysis. Conclusions: The development of strategies to improve compliance and persistence in glaucoma patients is crucial for the reduction of disease progression and blindness.

  17. Time trends of period prevalence rates of patients with inhaled long-acting beta-2-agonists-containing prescriptions: a European comparative database study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marietta Rottenkolber

    Full Text Available Inhaled, long-acting beta-2-adrenoceptor agonists (LABA have well-established roles in asthma and/or COPD treatment. Drug utilisation patterns for LABA have been described, but few studies have directly compared LABA use in different countries. We aimed to compare the prevalence of LABA-containing prescriptions in five European countries using a standardised methodology.A common study protocol was applied to seven European healthcare record databases (Denmark, Germany, Spain, the Netherlands (2, and the UK (2 to calculate crude and age- and sex-standardised annual period prevalence rates (PPRs of LABA-containing prescriptions from 2002-2009. Annual PPRs were stratified by sex, age, and indication (asthma, COPD, asthma and COPD.From 2002-2009, age- and sex-standardised PPRs of patients with LABA-containing medications increased in all databases (58.2%-185.1%. Highest PPRs were found in men ≥ 80 years old and women 70-79 years old. Regarding the three indications, the highest age- and sex-standardised PPRs in all databases were found in patients with "asthma and COPD" but with large inter-country variation. In those with asthma or COPD, lower PPRs and smaller inter-country variations were found. For all three indications, PPRs for LABA-containing prescriptions increased with age.Using a standardised protocol that allowed direct inter-country comparisons, we found highest rates of LABA-containing prescriptions in elderly patients and distinct differences in the increased utilisation of LABA-containing prescriptions within the study period throughout the five European countries.

  18. Self-Reported High-Cholesterol Prevalence in the Brazilian Population: Analysis of the 2013 National Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotufo, Paulo A; Santos, Raul D; Sposito, Andrei C; Bertolami, Marcelo; Rocha-Faria, Jose; Izar, M Cristina; Szwarcwald, Celia; Prado, Rogério R; Stoppa, Sheila R; Malta, Deborah C; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2017-05-01

    Data on the prevalence of dyslipidemia in Brazil are scarce, with surveys available only for some towns. To evaluate the prevalence of the self-reported medical diagnosis of high cholesterol in the Brazilian adult population by use of the 2013 National Health Survey data. Descriptive study assessing the 2013 National Health Survey data, a household-based epidemiological survey with a nationally representative sample and self-reported information. The sample consisted of 60,202 individuals who reported a medical diagnosis of dyslipidemia. The point prevalence and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) for the medical diagnosis of high cholesterol/triglyceride by gender, age, race/ethnicity, geographic region and educational level were calculated. Adjusted odds ratio was calculated. Of the 60,202 participants, 14.3% (95%CI=13.7-14.8) never had their cholesterol or triglyceride levels tested, but a higher frequency of women, white individuals, elderly and those with higher educational level had their cholesterol levels tested within the last year. The prevalence of the medical diagnosis of high cholesterol was 12.5% (9.7% in men and 15.1% in women), and women had 60% higher probability of a diagnosis of high cholesterol than men. The frequency of the medical diagnosis of high cholesterol increased up to the age of 59 years, being higher in white individuals or those of Asian heritage, in those with higher educational level and in residents of the Southern and Southeastern regions. The importance of dyslipidemia awareness in the present Brazilian epidemiological context must be emphasized to guide actions to control and prevent coronary heart disease, the leading cause of death in Brazil and worldwide. A prevalência de hipercolesterolemia no Brasil não é conhecida para todo o país, havendo somente inquéritos em algumas cidades. Avaliar a prevalência de diagnóstico médico de colesterol alto autorreferido na população adulta brasileira, utilizando-se dos dados da

  19. The prevalence rate of internet addiction among Japanese college students: two cross-sectional studies and reconsideration of cut-off points of Young's internet addiction test in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateno, Masaru; Teo, Alan R; Shiraishi, Masaki; Tayama, Masaya; Kawanishi, Chiaki; Kato, Takahiro A

    2018-05-30

    Due to variation in estimates of the prevalence of internet addiction (IA) in prior research, we conducted two cross-sectional studies over two years and investigated the prevalence rate of IA in college students in Japan, and reconsidered appropriate cut-off points of self-rating scale to screen possible IA. This study is composed of two parts: survey I in 2014 and survey II in 2016, which were conducted in the same schools with an interval of two years. The study questionnaire included questions about demographics and internet use, and the Young's Internet Addiction Test (IAT). Additionally, the subjects in survey II were asked about self-reported IA. There were 1,005 respondents in total with a mean age of 18.9±1.3. The mean IAT scores remained stable between 2014 and 2016: 45.2±12.6 in survey I and 45.5±13.1 in survey II (overall mean IAT score of 45.4±13.0). With respect to self-reported IA in survey II, a total of 21.6% agreed (score of 5 or 6 on a 6-point Likert scale). We categorized these subjects as IA, and the remainder as non-IA. The mean IAT score showed significant difference between these two groups (57.8±14.3 vs 42.1±10.7, p<0.001). The severity of symptoms of IA among Japanese college students appears stable in recent years, with a mean IAT scores of over 40. Our results suggest that a screening score cut-off of 40 on the IAT could be reconsidered and that of 50 might be proposed for the cut-off. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Can use of an administrative database improve accuracy of hospital-reported readmission rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgerton, James R; Herbert, Morley A; Hamman, Baron L; Ring, W Steves

    2018-05-01

    Readmission rates after cardiac surgery are being used as a quality indicator; they are also being collected by Medicare and are tied to reimbursement. Accurate knowledge of readmission rates may be difficult to achieve because patients may be readmitted to different hospitals. In our area, 81 hospitals share administrative claims data; 28 of these hospitals (from 5 different hospital systems) do cardiac surgery and share Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) clinical data. We used these 2 sources to compare the readmissions data for accuracy. A total of 45,539 STS records from January 2008 to December 2016 were matched with the hospital billing data records. Using the index visit as the start date, the billing records were queried for any subsequent in-patient visits for that patient. The billing records included date of readmission and hospital of readmission data and were compared with the data captured in the STS record. We found 1153 (2.5%) patients who had STS records that were marked "No" or "missing," but there were billing records that showed a readmission. The reported STS readmission rate of 4796 (10.5%) underreported the readmission rate by 2.5 actual percentage points. The true rate should have been 13.0%. Actual readmission rate was 23.8% higher than reported by the clinical database. Approximately 36% of readmissions were to a hospital that was a part of a different hospital system. It is important to know accurate readmission rates for quality improvement processes and institutional financial planning. Matching patient records to an administrative database showed that the clinical database may fail to capture many readmissions. Combining data with an administrative database can enhance accuracy of reporting. Copyright © 2017 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of centralization of pancreatoduodenectomy on reported radical resections rates in a nationwide pathology database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onete, Veronica G; Besselink, Marc G; Salsbach, Chanielle M; Van Eijck, Casper H; Busch, Olivier R; Gouma, Dirk J; de Hingh, Ignace H; Sieders, Egbert; Dejong, Cornelis H; Offerhaus, Johan G; Molenaar, I Quintus

    2015-08-01

    Centralization of a pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) leads to a lower post-operative mortality, but is unclear whether it also leads to improved radical (R0) or overall resection rates. Between 2004 and 2009, pathology reports of 1736 PDs for pancreatic and peri-ampullary neoplasms from a nationwide pathology database were analysed. Pre-malignant lesions were excluded. High-volume hospitals were defined as performing ≥ 20 PDs annually. The relationship between R0 resections, PD-volume trends, quality of pathology reports and hospital volume was analysed. During the study period, the number of hospitals performing PDs decreased from 39 to 23. High-volume hospitals reported more R0 resections in the pancreatic head and distal bile duct tumours than low-volume hospitals (60% versus 54%, P = 0.035) although they operated on more advanced (T3/T4) tumours (72% versus 58%, P < 0.001). The number of PDs increased from 258 in 2004 to 394 in 2009 which was partly explained by increased overall resection rates of pancreatic head and distal bile duct tumours (11.2% in 2004 versus 17.5% in 2009, P < 0.001). The overall reported R0 resection rate of pancreatic head and distal bile duct tumours increased (6% in 2004 versus 11% in 2009, P < 0.001). Pathology reports of low-volume hospitals lacked more data including tumour stage (25% versus 15%, P < 0.001). Centralization of PD was associated with both higher resection rates and more reported R0 resections. The impact of this finding on overall survival should be further assessed. © 2015 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association.

  2. Prevalence and Predictors of Self-Reported Sexual Abuse in Severely Obese Patients in a Population-Based Bariatric Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle L. Gabert

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sexual abuse may be associated with poorer weight loss outcomes following bariatric treatment. Identifying predictors of abuse would enable focused screening and may increase weight management success. Methods. We analyzed data from 500 consecutively recruited obese subjects from a population-based, regional bariatric program. The prevalence of self-reported sexual abuse was ascertained using a single interview question. Health status was measured using a visual analogue scale (VAS. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify sexual abuse predictors. Results. The mean age was 43.7 y (SD 9.6, 441 (88.2% were females, 458 (91.8% were white, and the mean body mass index (BMI was 47.9 kg/m2 (SD 8.1. The self-reported prevalence of past abuse was 21.8% (95% CI 18.4–25.4%. Abused subjects had worse health status (VAS score 53.1 (SD 21.2 versus 58.0 (SD 20.1, P=0.03. BMI was not associated with abuse (P>0.5. Age, sex, BMI, and covariate-adjusted independent predictors of abuse included alcohol addiction (adjusted odds ratio 15.8; 95% CI 4.0–62.8, posttraumatic stress disorder (4.9; 2.5–9.5, borderline personality (3.8; 1.0–13.8, depression (2.4; 1.3–4.3, and lower household income (3.4; 1.6–7.0. Conclusions. Abuse was common amongst obese patients managed in a population-based bariatric program; alcohol addiction, psychiatric comorbidities, and low-income status were highly associated with sexual abuse.

  3. Self-reported creativity in bipolar disorder: prevalence, types and associated outcomes in mania versus hypomania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCraw, Stacey; Parker, Gordon; Fletcher, Kathryn; Friend, Paul

    2013-12-01

    Bipolar (BP) disorder has been linked to creativity following investigation of prominent artists and controlled trials of creativity in BP disorder patients. However, it is unclear whether creativity is differentially expressed across the BP I and BP II subtypes. 219 patients (aged 19-63 years) diagnosed with BP disorder by clinical interview and DSM-IV criteria were asked whether they tended to be more creative during hypo/manic episodes, and answered five questions about personality styles associated with creativity. Qualitative analyses were performed on a smaller subset of 69 BP patients (n=19 BP I, n=50 BP II) who provided written responses of the types of creative activities engaged in when hypo/manic and any perceived advantages or disadvantages of their creative pursuits. 82% of BP patients affirmed being creative when hypo/manic, with comparable results for the BP I and BP II subtypes (84% and 81% respectively). Both BP subtypes engaged mostly in writing, painting, work or business ideas and 'other' forms of art; however BP II patients were more likely to draw and be musical. Both subgroups reported the consequences of feeling good, being productive or quitting their project. BP I patients were more likely to overspend during their creative highs while BP II patients were more likely to experience improved focus and clarity. BP patients affirming creative highs were significantly more likely to report creative personality styles more generally outside of a mood episode. BP patients' self-reported creative activities were not retrospectively judged for quality or originality and so may reflect common creative abilities rather than exceptional quality. The impact of depressive episodes on creativity was not assessed. Uneven sample sizes in the BP I and BP II subgroups may have compromised statistical power. Creativity during hypo/manic episodes was extremely common in both BP subtypes. While some nuances in activity type and outcomes were observed, no

  4. Are Prevalent Self-reported Cardiovascular Disorders Associated with Delayed Recovery From Whiplash-associated Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmlöf, Lina; Côté, Pierre; Holm, Lena W

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES:: The aim of this cohort study was to investigate the association between self-reported cardiovascular disorders (CVD) and recovery from whiplash associated disorder (WAD) after a traffic collision. METHODS:: This study was based on the Saskatchewan Government Insurance cohort, including...... individuals over 18 years of age, who made a traffic- injury claim or received health care after a traffic injury, between 1997 and 1999. Participants completed a baseline questionnaire and were followed up by telephone interviews at 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, 9 months, and 12 months post injury. Our sample....... RESULTS:: We found a crude association between comorbid CVD with moderate or severe effect on health in women. However, the adjusted association was weak and potentially affected by residual confounding. We found no association in men. DISCUSSION:: Our results suggest that CVD does not impact...

  5. The prevalence of unwanted and unlawful sexual experiences reported by Danish adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helweg-Larsen, Karin; Bøving Larsen, Helmer

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To obtain current data about child sexual abuse in Denmark and to assess abused children's own perception of early sexual experiences, which are unlawful according to the Danish Penal Code. METHODS: Multimedia computer-based self-administered questionnaires (CASI) were completed by a national...... representative sample of 15-16-y-olds. Child sexual abuse was defined according to the penal code and measured by questions defining specific sexual activities, the relationship between the older person and the child, and the youth's own perception of the incident. RESULTS: Among 5829 respondents, 11% reported...... unlawful sexual experiences, 7% of boys and 16% of girls. Only 1% of boys and 4% of girls felt that they "definitely" or "maybe" had been sexually abused. CONCLUSION: A relatively high percentage of Danish adolescents have early, unlawful sexual experiences. However, young people's own perception of sexual...

  6. High rate of pneumococcal bacteremia in a prospective cohort of older children and adults in an area of high HIV prevalence in rural western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oundo Joseph

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although causing substantial morbidity, the burden of pneumococcal disease among older children and adults in Africa, particularly in rural settings, is not well-characterized. We evaluated pneumococcal bacteremia among 21,000 persons ≥5 years old in a prospective cohort as part of population-based infectious disease surveillance in rural western Kenya from October 2006-September 2008. Methods Blood cultures were done on patients meeting pre-defined criteria - severe acute respiratory illness (SARI, fever, and admission for any reason at a referral health facility within 5 kilometers of all 33 villages where surveillance took place. Serotyping of Streptococcus pneumoniae was done by latex agglutination and quellung reaction and antibiotic susceptibility testing was done using broth microdilution. We extrapolated incidence rates based on persons with compatible illnesses in the surveillance population who were not cultured. We estimated rates among HIV-infected persons based on community HIV prevalence. We projected the national burden of pneumococcal bacteremia cases based on these rates. Results Among 1,301 blood cultures among persons ≥5 years, 52 (4% yielded pneumococcus, which was the most common bacteria isolated. The yield was higher among those ≥18 years than 5-17 years (6.9% versus 1.6%, p 95%. The crude rate of pneumococcal bacteremia was 129/100,000 person-years, and the adjusted rate was 419/100,000 person-years. Nineteen (61% of 31 patients with HIV results were HIV-positive. The adjusted rate among HIV-infected persons was 2,399/100,000 person-years (Rate ratio versus HIV-negative adults, 19.7, 95% CI 12.4-31.1. We project 58,483 cases of pneumococcal bacteremia will occur in Kenyan adults in 2010. Conclusions Pneumococcal bacteremia rates were high among persons ≥5 years old, particularly among HIV-infected persons. Ongoing surveillance will document if expanded use of highly-active antiretroviral

  7. The relations between personality traits and psychopathy as measured by ratings and self-report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kujačić Daliborka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the relations between psychopathy - as assessed by ratings (PCL-R and by self-report (SRP3 - on one side, and The Five-Factor personality Model - expanded to include the traits Amorality and Disintegration - on the other. Both methods examined four traits of psychopathy: interpersonal, affective, lifestyle and antisocial characteristics. Data were collected on a sample of 112 male convicts. The results show the absence of congruence between the two methods - self-report and rating - in case of interpersonal and affective psychopathic dispositions. This incongruence is also reflected in their relations with personality traits. The self-report measures and the ratings of Lifestyle and Antisocial tendencies are related to amorality, aggressiveness, schizotypy, Neuroticism and impulsivity. However, the ratings of affective and interpersonal style are related to the integrated, organized, and emotionally stable aspects of personality. The results are interpreted in the light of differences between the methods of assessment and in the light of the essential characteristics of the psychopathic phenomena.

  8. Reporting success rates in the treatment of vestibular schwannomas: are we accounting for the natural history?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Timothy; Lau, Tsz; Vasan, Rohit; Danner, Christopher; Youssef, A Samy; van Loveren, Harry; Agazzi, Siviero

    2014-06-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery is generally accepted as one of the best treatment options for vestibular schwannomas. We question whether growth control is an accurate measure of success in vestibular schwannoma treatment. We aim to clarify the success rate of stereotactic radiosurgery and adjust the reported results to the benign natural history of untreated tumors. All articles were taken from a PubMed search of the English literature from the years 2000-2011. Inclusion criteria were articles containing the number of patients treated, radiation technique, average tumor size, follow-up time, and percentage of tumors growing during follow-up. Data were extracted from 19 articles. Success rates were adjusted using published data that 17% to 30% of vestibular schwannomas grow. The average reported success rate for stereotactic radiosurgery across all articles was 95.5%. When considering 17% or 30% natural growth without intervention, the adjusted success rates became 78.2% and 86.9% respectively. These rates were obtained by applying the natural history growth percentages to any tumors not reported to be growing before radiosurgical intervention. Success in the treatment of vestibular schwannomas with stereotactic radiosurgery is often defined as lack of further growth. Recent data on the natural growth history of vestibular schwannomas raise the question of whether this is the best definition of success. We have identified a lack of continuity regarding the reporting of success and emphasize the importance of the clarification of the success of radiosurgery to make informed decisions regarding the best treatment options for vestibular schwannoma. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevalence and clinical impact of anaplasia in childhood rhabdomyosarcoma : a report from the Soft Tissue Sarcoma Committee of the Children's Oncology Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qualman, Stephen; Lynch, James; Bridge, Julia; Parham, David; Teot, Lisa; Meyer, William; Pappo, Alberto

    2008-12-01

    Anapalsia is rare in childhood rhabdomyosarcoma and has not been included in the International Classification of Rhabdomyosarcoma (ICR). A recent review of cases from the Soft Tissue Sarcoma Committee of the Children's Oncology Group (COG) suggests that anaplasia might be more common than previously reported and may impact clinical outcome. The prevalence of anaplasia (focal or diffuse) was prospectively assessed in 546 eligible cases who were registered in an Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group (IRSG) or COG therapeutic trial from 1995 through 1998. The incidence of anaplasia in tumor samples and its impact in predicting clinical outcome was assessed. Overall, 71 (13%) of all samples analyzed had anaplasia. Anaplasia was more common in patients with tumors in favorable sites and was less commonly observed in younger patients and in those with stage II, III, or clinical group III disease. Regardless of its distribution (focal or diffuse), on univariate analysis the presence of anaplasia negatively influenced the failure-free survival rate (63% vs 77% at 5 years) and overall survival (68% vs 82% at 5 years) rates in patients with embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma. This effect was most pronounced in children with intermediate-risk tumors. Anaplasia did not affect outcome in patients with alveolar tumors. The incidence of anaplasia in patients with rhabdomyosarcoma is higher than previously described and may be of prognostic significance in children with intermediate-risk embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma. (c) 2008 American Cancer Society

  10. Protocol for a national prevalence study of advance care planning documentation and self-reported uptake in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruseckaite, Rasa; Detering, Karen M; Evans, Sue M; Perera, Veronica; Walker, Lynne; Sinclair, Craig; Clayton, Josephine M; Nolte, Linda

    2017-11-03

    Advance care planning (ACP) is a process between a person, their family/carer(s) and healthcare providers that supports adults at any age or stage of health in understanding and sharing their personal values, life goals and preferences regarding future medical care. The Australian government funds a number of national initiatives aimed at increasing ACP uptake; however, there is currently no standardised Australian data on formal ACP documentation or self-reported uptake. This makes it difficult to evaluate the impact of ACP initiatives. This study aims to determine the Australian national prevalence of ACP and completion of Advance Care Directives (ACDs) in hospitals, aged care facilities and general practices. It will also explore people's self-reported use of ACP and views about the process. Researchers will conduct a national multicentre cross-sectional prevalence study, consisting of a record audit and surveys of people aged 65 years or more in three sectors. From 49 participating Australian organisations, 50 records will be audited (total of 2450 records). People whose records were audited, who speak English and have a decision-making capacity will also be invited to complete a survey. The primary outcome measure will be the number of people who have formal or informal ACP documentation that can be located in records within 15 min. Other outcomes will include demographics, measure of illness and functional capacity, details of ACP documentation (including type of document), location of documentation in the person's records and whether current clinical care plans are consistent with ACP documentation. People will be surveyed, to measure self-reported interest, uptake and use of ACP/ACDs, and self-reported quality of life. This protocol has been approved by the Austin Health Human Research Ethics Committee (reference HREC/17/Austin/83). Results will be submitted to international peer-reviewed journals and presented at international conferences. ACTRN

  11. Pilot States Program report: Home energy ratings systems and energy-efficient mortgages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhar, B.

    2000-04-04

    This report covers the accomplishments of the home energy ratings systems/energy-efficient mortgages (HERS/EEMs) pilot states from 1993 through 1998, including such indicators as funding, ratings and EEMs achieved, active raters, and training and marketing activities. A brief description of each HERS program's evolution is included, as well as their directors' views of the programs' future prospects. Finally, an analysis is provided of successful HERS program characteristics and factors that appear to contribute to HERS program success.

  12. Evaluation of the Prevalence Rate and the Prognostic Effect of Human Papilloma Virus Infection in a Group of Patients With Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghravanian, Nasrollah; Zamanzadeh, Maryam; Meshkat, Zahra; Afzal Aghaee, Monavar; Salek, Roham

    2016-06-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common malignancy of the oral cavity. A relationship between the human papilloma virus (HPV) infection and the prognosis of oral cavity SCC (OCSCC) has been discussed before. We investigated the prevalence rate of HPV status in patients with OCSCC, and its effects on clinicopathological characteristics of tumors and patients' prognosis. Sections of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue blocks from 114 histopathologically confirmed OCSCC cases were investigated in this study. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was applied to evaluate the HPV status in the samples. Fifteen (13.16%) cases were identified as HPV positive. The detected viral subtypes in this study were the subtypes 6 and 11. The stage and especially lymph node stage was significantly higher in the HPV positive group compared to the HPV negative group (P = 0.04). Disease free survival (DFS) was remarkably lower in the HPV positive group compared to the HPV negative group (13.9 vs. 49.9 months, P = 0.02). Overall survival (OS) was also significantly inferior in the HPV positive group (15.7 vs. 49.6 months, P = 0.01). In the current study, no significant differences were observed between two groups in relation to the variables of age, gender, tumors site, tumor size, tumor grading and also the recurrence rate. The observed higher mortality rate among the HPV positive group indicates the poorer prognosis of this group in comparison with the HPV negative patients. The incidence rate of HPV infection was low in the studied samples; however, interaction of subtypes 6 and 11 of HPV in poorer prognosis of the patients and a carcinogenic role of HPV in OCSCC cannot be ruled out.

  13. Reduction in Surgical Wound Infection Rates Associated with Reporting Data to Surgeons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GD Taylor

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown that wound infection (surgical site infection [ ssi ] rates fall when surgeons are provided with data on their performance. Since 1987, the authors have been performing concurrent surveillance of surgical patients and confidentially reporting surgeon-specific ssi rates to individual surgeons and their clinical directors, and providing surgeons with the mean rates of their peers. The program has been gradually refined and expanded. Data are now collected on wound infection risk and report risk adjusted rates compared with the mean for hospitals in the United States National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (nnis data bank. Since inception through to December 1993, ssi rates have fallen 68% in clean contaminated general surgery cases (relative risk [rr] 0.36, 95% ci 0.2 to 0.6, P=0.0001, 64% in clean plastic surgery cases (rr 0.35, 95% ci 0.06 to 1.8, 72% in caesarean section cases (rr 0.23, 95% ci 0.03 to 1.96 and 42% in clean cardiovascular surgery cases (rr 0.59, 95% ci 0.34 to 1.0. In clean orthopedic surgery the ssi rate remained stable from 1987 through 1992. In 1993 a marked increase was experienced. Reasons for this are being explored. Overall there was a 32% decrease in ssi rate between the index year and 1993 or, in percentage terms, 2.8% to 1.9% (rr 0.65, 95% ci 0.51 to 0.86, P=0.002. ssi surveillance should become standard in Canadian hospitals interested in improving the quality of surgical care and reducing the clinical impact and cost associated with nosocomial infection.

  14. Sex-specific differences in hemodialysis prevalence and practices and the male-to-female mortality rate: the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Hecking

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A comprehensive analysis of sex-specific differences in the characteristics, treatment, and outcomes of individuals with end-stage renal disease undergoing dialysis might reveal treatment inequalities and targets to improve sex-specific patient care. Here we describe hemodialysis prevalence and patient characteristics by sex, compare the adult male-to-female mortality rate with data from the general population, and evaluate sex interactions with mortality. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We assessed the Human Mortality Database and 206,374 patients receiving hemodialysis from 12 countries (Australia, Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, New Zealand, Spain, Sweden, the UK, and the US participating in the international, prospective Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS between June 1996 and March 2012. Among 35,964 sampled DOPPS patients with full data collection, we studied patient characteristics (descriptively and mortality (via Cox regression by sex. In all age groups, more men than women were on hemodialysis (59% versus 41% overall, with large differences observed between countries. The average estimated glomerular filtration rate at hemodialysis initiation was higher in men than women. The male-to-female mortality rate ratio in the general population varied from 1.5 to 2.6 for age groups <75 y, but in hemodialysis patients was close to one. Compared to women, men were younger (mean = 61.9 ± standard deviation 14.6 versus 63.1 ± 14.5 y, were less frequently obese, were more frequently married and recipients of a kidney transplant, more frequently had coronary artery disease, and were less frequently depressed. Interaction analyses showed that the mortality risk associated with several comorbidities and hemodialysis catheter use was lower for men (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.11 than women (HR = 1.33, interaction p<0.001. This study is limited by its inability to establish causality for the observed sex

  15. Replication of High Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Prevalence Rates, Child Characteristics, and Maternal Risk Factors in a Second Sample of Rural Communities in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Philip A; De Vries, Marlene M; Marais, Anna-Susan; Kalberg, Wendy O; Buckley, David; Adnams, Colleen M; Hasken, Julie M; Tabachnick, Barbara; Robinson, Luther K; Manning, Melanie A; Bezuidenhout, Heidre; Adam, Margaret P; Jones, Kenneth L; Seedat, Soraya; Parry, Charles D H; Hoyme, H Eugene

    2017-05-12

    Background : Prevalence and characteristics of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and total fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) were studied in a second sample of three South African rural communities to assess change. Methods : Active case ascertainment focused on children with height, weight and/or head circumference ≤25th centile and randomly-selected children. Final diagnoses were based on dysmorphology, neurobehavioral scores, and maternal risk interviews. Results : Cardinal facial features, head circumference, and total dysmorphology scores differentiated specific FASD diagnostic categories in a somewhat linear fashion but all FASD traits were significantly worse than those of randomly-selected controls. Neurodevelopmental delays were significantly worse for children with FASD than controls. Binge alcohol use was clearly documented as the proximal maternal risk factor for FASD, and significant distal risk factors were: low body mass, education, and income; high gravidity, parity, and age at birth of the index child. FAS rates continue to extremely high in these communities at 9-129 per 1000 children. Total FASD affect 196-276 per 1000 or 20-28% of the children in these communities. Conclusions : Very high rates of FASD persist in these general populations where regular, heavy drinking, often in a binge fashion, co-occurs with low socioeconomic conditions.

  16. Energy Policy Act transportation rate study: Interim report on coal transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The primary purpose of this report is to examine changes in domestic coal distribution and railroad coal transportation rates since enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90). From 1988 through 1993, the demand for low-sulfur coal increased, as a the 1995 deadline for compliance with Phase 1 of CAAA90 approached. The shift toward low-sulfur coal came sooner than had been generally expected because many electric utilities switched early from high-sulfur coal to ``compliance`` (very low-sulfur) coal. They did so to accumulate emissions allowances that could be used to meet the stricter Phase 2 requirements. Thus, the demand for compliance coal increased the most. The report describes coal distribution and sulfur content, railroad coal transportation and transportation rates, and electric utility contract coal transportation trends from 1979 to 1993 including national trends, regional comparisons, distribution patterns and regional profiles. 14 figs., 76 tabs.

  17. No further increase in the parent reported prevalence of allergies in Bavarian preschool children: Results from three cross-sectional studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Alisa; Herr, Caroline; Hendrowarsito, Lana; Meyer, Nicole; Nennstiel-Ratzel, Uta; von Mutius, Erika; Bolte, Gabriele; Colon, Diana; Kolb, Stefanie

    2016-07-01

    After three decades of an increase in the prevalence of asthma and allergies, new findings show a plateau in the prevalence of industrialized nations. The objective of this study was to determine whether there was a change in the parent reported prevalence of asthma and allergies among Bavarian preschool children since 2004. A parent questionnaire was administered as part of the Bavarian school entrance examination in three cross-sectional studies from 2004/2005, 2006/2007 and 2012/2013. The questionnaire included items on allergy testing history, identified allergens, symptoms (e.g. wheezing, itchy eyes, rash), medically diagnosed asthma, hay fever and atopic dermatitis. Logistic regression was performed to observe time patterns and adjust for risk factors. Data were available for 6350 (2004/2005), 6483 (2006/2007) and 5052 (2012/2013) individuals. Symptoms and diseases were more frequent in boys, except for allergies which affect the skin. From 2004 to 2012 the parent reported prevalence of asthma (2.6% to 2.8%), hay fever (4.7% to 4.0%) and atopic dermatitis (12.4% to 11.1%) either remained quite stable or decreased not significantly. Results from these three cross-sectional surveys of parent reports suggest that the parent reported prevalences of asthma and allergies are quite stable with small fluctuations since 2004 for Bavarian preschool children. Future research is needed to determine if this trend will continue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevalence of sleep breathing complaints reported by treatment-seeking chronic insomnia disorder patients on presentation to a sleep medical center: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakow, Barry; Ulibarri, Victor A

    2013-03-01

    Few studies have examined the co-morbidity between insomnia and sleep-disordered breathing in the clinical setting. This study evaluated treatment-seeking insomnia patients and their self-report of sleep breathing complaints. A retrospective chart review was conducted on 1,035 consecutive treatment-seeking, chronic insomnia patients who reported insomnia as their primary problem upon seeking care at a private, community-based sleep medical center. Measurements included the insomnia severity index, standard subjective sleep measures as well as rankings, attributions, and self-reports about sleep breathing disorders, problems, and symptoms. A total of 1,035 adult, treatment-seeking insomnia patients indicated insomnia interfered with daytime functioning, and their average insomnia severity was in the range of a clinically relevant problem: total sleep time (5.50 h, SD = 1.60), sleep efficiency (71.05 %, SD = 18.26), wake time after sleep onset (120.70 min, SD = 92.56), and an insomnia severity index (18.81, SD = 5.09). Of these 1,035 insomnia patients, 42 % also ranked a sleep breathing disorder among their list of reasons for seeking treatment, another 13 % revealed a concern about a sleep breathing problem, and another 26 % reported awareness of sleep breathing symptoms. Only 19 % of this clinical insomnia sample reported no awareness or concerns about sleep breathing disorders, problems, or symptoms. A greater proportion of men than women reported significantly more sleep breathing disorders, problems, or symptoms. Sleep breathing complaints were extremely common among a large sample of treatment-seeking, self-identified, adult chronic insomnia patients. Prospective prevalence research is needed to corroborate or revise these findings, and polysomnography should be considered in appropriate cohorts to determine the clinical relevance of treatment-seeking chronic insomnia patients' sleep breathing complaints.

  19. Self-reported "worth it" rating of aesthetic surgery in social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domanski, Mark C; Cavale, Naveen

    2012-12-01

    A wide variety of surveys have been used to validate the satisfaction of patients who underwent aesthetic surgery. However, such studies are often limited by patient number and number of surgeons. Social media now allows patients, on a large scale, to discuss and rate their satisfaction with procedures. The views of aesthetic procedures patients expressed in social media provide unique insight into patient satisfaction. The "worth it" percentage, average cost, and number of respondents were recorded on October 16, 2011, for all topics evaluated on the aesthetic procedure social media site www.realself.com . Procedures were divided into categories: surgical, liposuction, nonsurgical, and dental. For each group, procedures with the most respondents were chosen and ordered by "worth it" score. A literature search was performed for the most commonly rated surgical procedures and the satisfaction rates were compared. A total of 16,949 evaluations of 159 aesthetic surgery topics were recorded. A correlation between cost of the procedure and percentage of respondents indicating that the procedure was "worth it" was not found. The highest-rated surgical procedure was abdominoplasty, with 93 % of the 1,589 self-selected respondents expressing that abdominoplasty was "worth it." The average self-reported cost was $8,400. The highest-rated nonsurgical product was Latisse, with 85 % of 231 respondents reporting it was "worth it" for an average cost of $200. The satisfaction scores in the literature for commonly rated surgical procedures ranged from 62 to 97.6 %. No statistically significant correlations between literature satisfaction scores and realself.com "worth it" scores were found. Abdominoplasty had the highest "worth it" rating among aesthetic surgical procedures. Aesthetic surgeons should be wary that satisfaction scores reported in the literature might not correlate with commonly achieved results. Social media has opened a new door into how procedures are

  20. Prevalence and Analysis of Factors Related to Occurrence of Pulp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uche

    between pulp stone and pristine posterior teeth, chronic periodontitis and posterior teeth ... Conclusion: It is recommended that researchers should pay special care in case selections, and ... (1982) reported a PS prevalence rate of 20.7 % in.

  1. Self-Reported Sleep Duration and Self-Rated Health in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štefan, Lovro; Juranko, Dora; Prosoli, Rebeka; Barić, Renata; Sporiš, Goran

    2017-07-15

    This study aimed to determine the associations between the self-reported sleep duration and self-rated health in young adults. In this cross-sectional study, participants were 689 young adults (mean age 20 ± 1.35 years, 49.8% female). Sleep duration and self-rated health, as the main outcome of interest, were measured as self-reported. As potential covariates, we included sex, age, smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity, sedentary behavior, psychological distress, and body mass index. Approximately 30% of participants slept 7-8 hours, 17.4% were short sleepers (categories 10 hours of sleep). In an unadjusted model, compared with the reference category (7-8 hours of sleep), those who slept health. In an adjusted model, short (sleep (> 10 hours) were both associated with poor self-rated health. Our results suggest that both short ( 10 hours) sleepers have lower odds of having good self-rated health after adjusting for potential covariates. Health professionals should pay more attention to young adults, who have both short and long period of sleep, in order to prevent health problems and potential acute or chronic diseases. © 2017 American Academy of Sleep Medicine

  2. Pharmacy Malpractice: The rate and prevalence of dispensing high-risk prescription-only medications at community pharmacies in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshammari, Thamir M; Alhindi, Salman A; Alrashdi, Ahmed M; Benmerzouga, Imaan; Aljofan, Mohamad

    2017-07-01

    To assess the compliance of community pharmacies with the regulations that prohibit the dispensing of prescription-only medications in the absence of a physician prescription in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the period between October 2014 and January 2015. A list of 10 prescription-only medications were selected to be studied. 150 community pharmacies were visited across 6 major regions in Saudi Arabia to assess the prevalence of non-compliance among community pharmacies. Pharmacies were selected in random and researchers (disguised as patients) requested to purchase prescription-only medications in the absence of a prescription. Not all medications were purchased at once. Data were recorded per pharmacy, where pharmacies that approved dispense of the selected drug were scored as non-compliant and the pharmacies that rejected dispense of the selected drug were scored as compliant. Compliance rate was calculated per region per drug. Pharmacies based in governmental hospitals were visited in parallel. A total of 20 were visited. Data and statistical analysis were performed using Statistical Analyses Software (SAS 9.3). A total of 150 pharmacies were visited over a period of 3 months. On average, the percent approved dispense of prescription-only drugs across 6 regions in Saudi Arabia is 63% and the percent rejected dispense is 37% representing a significant non-compliance rate regarding the selected list of medications in this study. The frequency of dispense per medication across 6 major regions in Saudi Arabia is as follows: Isosorbide dinitrate (86%), Enoxaparin (82%), nitroglycerin (74%), Propranolol (73%), Verapamil (70%), Warfarin (65%), Methyldopa (64%), Ciprofloxacin (57%) and Codeine (4%). Non-compliance of community pharmacies with the law of pharmaceutical practice is at an alarming rate in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and authoritative figures must intervene to impede and combat such activities .

  3. Prevalence of HIV among MSM in Europe: comparison of self-reported diagnoses from a large scale internet survey and existing national estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Ulrich

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Country level comparisons of HIV prevalence among men having sex with men (MSM is challenging for a variety of reasons, including differences in the definition and measurement of the denominator group, recruitment strategies and the HIV detection methods. To assess their comparability, self-reported data on HIV diagnoses in a 2010 pan-European MSM internet survey (EMIS were compared with pre-existing estimates of HIV prevalence in MSM from a variety of European countries. Methods The first pan-European survey of MSM recruited more than 180,000 men from 38 countries across Europe and included questions on the year and result of last HIV test. HIV prevalence as measured in EMIS was compared with national estimates of HIV prevalence based on studies using biological measurements or modelling approaches to explore the degree of agreement between different methods. Existing estimates were taken from Dublin Declaration Monitoring Reports or UNAIDS country fact sheets, and were verified by contacting the nominated contact points for HIV surveillance in EU/EEA countries. Results The EMIS self-reported measurements of HIV prevalence were strongly correlated with existing estimates based on biological measurement and modelling studies using surveillance data (R2=0.70 resp. 0.72. In most countries HIV positive MSM appeared disproportionately likely to participate in EMIS, and prevalences as measured in EMIS are approximately twice the estimates based on existing estimates. Conclusions Comparison of diagnosed HIV prevalence as measured in EMIS with pre-existing estimates based on biological measurements using varied sampling frames (e.g. Respondent Driven Sampling, Time and Location Sampling demonstrates a high correlation and suggests similar selection biases from both types of studies. For comparison with modelled estimates the self-selection bias of the Internet survey with increased participation of men diagnosed with HIV has to be

  4. Recovery Act: Energy Efficiency of Data Networks through Rate Adaptation (EEDNRA) - Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthew Andrews; Spyridon Antonakopoulos; Steve Fortune; Andrea Francini; Lisa Zhang

    2011-07-12

    This Concept Definition Study focused on developing a scientific understanding of methods to reduce energy consumption in data networks using rate adaptation. Rate adaptation is a collection of techniques that reduce energy consumption when traffic is light, and only require full energy when traffic is at full provisioned capacity. Rate adaptation is a very promising technique for saving energy: modern data networks are typically operated at average rates well below capacity, but network equipment has not yet been designed to incorporate rate adaptation. The Study concerns packet-switching equipment, routers and switches; such equipment forms the backbone of the modern Internet. The focus of the study is on algorithms and protocols that can be implemented in software or firmware to exploit hardware power-control mechanisms. Hardware power-control mechanisms are widely used in the computer industry, and are beginning to be available for networking equipment as well. Network equipment has different performance requirements than computer equipment because of the very fast rate of packet arrival; hence novel power-control algorithms are required for networking. This study resulted in five published papers, one internal report, and two patent applications, documented below. The specific technical accomplishments are the following: • A model for the power consumption of switching equipment used in service-provider telecommunication networks as a function of operating state, and measured power-consumption values for typical current equipment. • An algorithm for use in a router that adapts packet processing rate and hence power consumption to traffic load while maintaining performance guarantees on delay and throughput. • An algorithm that performs network-wide traffic routing with the objective of minimizing energy consumption, assuming that routers have less-than-ideal rate adaptivity. • An estimate of the potential energy savings in service-provider networks

  5. Self-reported lactose intolerance in clinic patients with functional gastrointestinal symptoms: prevalence, risk factors, and impact on food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, X; Chu, H; Cong, Y; Deng, Y; Long, Y; Zhu, Y; Pohl, D; Fried, M; Dai, N; Fox, M

    2015-08-01

    Many patients complain of abdominal symptoms with dairy products; however, clinical and psychosocial factors associated with self-reported lactose intolerance (SLI) have not been assessed in large studies. In particular, data are lacking from lactase deficient populations. This prospective cohort study assessed the prevalence of, and risk factors for, SLI in Chinese patients attending a gastroenterology clinic. Consecutive patients completed questionnaires to assess digestive health (Rome III), psychological state (HADS), life event stress (LES), food intake, and quality-of-life (SF-8). A representative sample completed genetic studies and hydrogen breath testing (HBT) at the clinically relevant dose of 20 g lactose. SLI was present in 411/910 (45%) clinic patients with functional abdominal symptoms. The genotype in all subjects was C/C-13910. A small number of novel SNPs in lactase promoter region were identified, including C/T-13908 which appeared to confer lactase persistence. Over half of the patients (54%) completed the 20 g lactose HBT with 58% (285/492) reporting typical symptoms. Positive and negative predictive values of SLI for abdominal symptoms during HBT were 60% and 44%, respectively. Psychological state and stress were not associated with SLI in clinic patients. SLI impacted on physical quality-of-life and was associated with reduced ingestion of dairy products, legumes, and dried fruit (p ≤ 0.05). In a lactase deficient population, approximately half of patients attending clinic with functional gastrointestinal symptoms reported intolerance to dairy products; however, SLI did not predict findings on 20 g lactose HBT. Independent of psychosocial factors, SLI impacted on quality-of-life and impacted on food choices with restrictions not limited to dairy products. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Prevalence of mood and anxiety disorder in self reported irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). An epidemiological population based study of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mykletun, Arnstein; Jacka, Felice; Williams, Lana; Pasco, Julie; Henry, Margaret; Nicholson, Geoffrey C; Kotowicz, Mark A; Berk, Michael

    2010-08-05

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is commonly regarded as a functional disorder, and is hypothesized to be associated with anxiety and depression. This evidence mainly rests on population-based studies utilising self-report screening instruments for psychopathology. Other studies applying structured clinical interviews are generally based on small clinical samples, which are vulnerable to biases. The extant evidence base for an association between IBS and psychopathology is hence not conclusive. The aim of this study was therefore to re-examine the hypothesis using population-based data and psychiatric morbidity established with a structured clinical interview. Data were derived from a population-based epidemiological study (n = 1077). Anxiety and mood disorders were established using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR (SCID-I/NP) and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Current and lifetime IBS was self-reported. Hypertension and diabetes were employed as comparison groups as they are expected to be unrelated to mental health. Current IBS (n = 69, 6.4%) was associated with an increased likelihood of current mood and/or anxiety disorders (OR = 2.62, 95%CI 1.49 - 4.60). Half the population reporting a lifetime IBS diagnosis also had a lifetime mood or anxiety disorder. Exploratory analyses demonstrated an increased prevalence of IBS across most common anxiety and mood disorders, the exception being bipolar disorder. The association with IBS and symptoms load (GHQ-12) followed a curved dose response pattern. In contrast, hypertension and diabetes were consistently unrelated to psychiatric morbidity. IBS is significantly associated with anxiety and mood disorders. This study provides indicative evidence for IBS as a disorder with a psychosomatic aspect.

  7. Prevalence of mood and anxiety disorder in self reported irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. An epidemiological population based study of women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykletun Arnstein

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is commonly regarded as a functional disorder, and is hypothesized to be associated with anxiety and depression. This evidence mainly rests on population-based studies utilising self-report screening instruments for psychopathology. Other studies applying structured clinical interviews are generally based on small clinical samples, which are vulnerable to biases. The extant evidence base for an association between IBS and psychopathology is hence not conclusive. The aim of this study was therefore to re-examine the hypothesis using population-based data and psychiatric morbidity established with a structured clinical interview. Methods Data were derived from a population-based epidemiological study (n = 1077. Anxiety and mood disorders were established using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR (SCID-I/NP and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12. Current and lifetime IBS was self-reported. Hypertension and diabetes were employed as comparison groups as they are expected to be unrelated to mental health. Results Current IBS (n = 69, 6.4% was associated with an increased likelihood of current mood and/or anxiety disorders (OR = 2.62, 95%CI 1.49 - 4.60. Half the population reporting a lifetime IBS diagnosis also had a lifetime mood or anxiety disorder. Exploratory analyses demonstrated an increased prevalence of IBS across most common anxiety and mood disorders, the exception being bipolar disorder. The association with IBS and symptoms load (GHQ-12 followed a curved dose response pattern. In contrast, hypertension and diabetes were consistently unrelated to psychiatric morbidity. Conclusions IBS is significantly associated with anxiety and mood disorders. This study provides indicative evidence for IBS as a disorder with a psychosomatic aspect.

  8. [Prevalence and Comorbidity of Self-Reported Diagnosis of Burnout Syndrome in the General Population - Results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maske, Ulrike E; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G; Seiffert, Ingeburg; Jacobi, Frank; Hapke, Ulfert

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence and comorbid mental disorders of self-reported diagnosis of burnout syndrome in the general population of Germany. Methods: In the German Health Interview and Examination Survey (DEGS1) self-reported diagnosis of a burnout syndrome made by a physician or psychotherapist was assessed in a standardized interview (N = 7987). For N = 4483 mental disorders were determined with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Weighted lifetime and 12-month prevalences were calculated. Results: Lifetime prevalence of diagnosed burnout syndrome was 4.2 % (women 5.2 %, men 3.3 %), 12-month prevalence was 1.5 % (women 1.9 %, men 1.1 %). Highest prevalences were found in 40 - 59 year olds, in people with middle and high socio-economic status and in women with low and men with high social support. Among the 12-month cases, 70.9 % had at least one DSM-IV disorder. Associations were found for the diagnosis of burnout syndrome with somatoform, affective and anxiety disorders. Conclusion: The diagnosis of burnout syndrome is less frequently given and reported than expected. People with a burnout diagnosis often have a manifest mental disorder. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Prevalence of problematic internet use in Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Macur, Mirna; Kir?ly, Orsolya; Maraz, Aniko; Nagygy?rgy, Katalin; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Internet use is an integral part of our everyday activities; however, Internet use may become problematic and harmful in a minority of cases. The majority of reported prevalence rates of problematic Internet use refer to adolescent samples, whereas epidemiological studies on representative adult populations are lacking. This study aimed to reveal the prevalence and characteristics of problematic Internet use in Slovenia. Methods Problematic Internet Use Questionnaire (PIUQ...

  10. Source of parental reports of child height and weight during phone interviews and influence on obesity prevalence estimates among children aged 3-17 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Asheley Cockrell; Miles, Donna; Perrin, Eliana M; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; Ford, Carol

    2013-01-01

    We compared parental reports of children's height and weight when the values were estimated vs. parent-measured to determine how these reports influence the estimated prevalence of childhood obesity. In the 2007 and 2008 North Carolina Child Health Assessment and Monitoring Program surveys, parents reported height and weight for children aged 3-17 years. When parents reported the values were not measured (by doctor, school, or home), they were asked to measure their child and were later called back. We categorized body mass index status using standard CDC definitions, and we used Chi-square tests and the Stuart-Maxwell test of marginal homogeneity to examine reporting differences. About 80% (n=509) of the 638 parents who reported an unmeasured height and/or weight participated in a callback and provided updated measures. Children originally classified as obese were subsequently classified as obese (67%), overweight (13%), and healthy weight (19%). An estimated 28% of younger children (children (aged ≥10 years) were reclassified on callback. Having parents who guessed the height and weight of their children and then reported updated values did not significantly change the overall population estimates of obesity. Our findings demonstrate that using parent-reported height and weight values may be sufficient to provide reasonable estimates of obesity prevalence. Systematically asking the source of height and weight information may help improve how it is applied to research of the prevalence of childhood obesity when gold-standard measurements are not available.

  11. Prevalence and association of self-reported anxiety, pain, and oral parafunctional habits with temporomandibular disorders in Japanese children and adolescents: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karibe, Hiroyuki; Shimazu, Kisaki; Okamoto, Ayuko; Kawakami, Tomomi; Kato, Yuichi; Warita-Naoi, Sachie

    2015-01-21

    Associations between temporomandibular disorder (TMD) and psychological variables, pain conditions, and daily activities have been reported more commonly in middle-aged individuals than in children. However, to determine factor-specific preventive programs for TMD, it is important to evaluate the associations between multiple factors and TMD symptoms during childhood. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between TMD symptoms and other orofacial pain conditions, daily activities, and trait anxiety in a population-based cross-sectional survey of Japanese children and adolescents. A total of 1,415 subjects (11-15 years old) self-reported their TMD symptoms, headache, neck pain, and toothache, and completed questionnaire scales that assessed 15 daily activities. Trait anxiety was assessed using the State Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children-Trait (STAIC-T) scale. Subjects were dichotomized into a TMD group or control group, based on whether they reported at least 1 TMD symptom: the TMD group (≥1 TMD symptom, n = 182) and the control group (no TMD symptoms, n = 1,233). Data were analyzed using the chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression analysis. The prevalence rates for headache and neck pain were significantly higher in the TMD group than in the control group (44.0% vs. 24.7% and 54.4% vs. 30.0%, respectively; both P anxiety. Diurnal clenching was strongly associated with TMD symptoms. Health professionals should carefully consider these factors when developing appropriate management strategies for TMD in children and adolescents.

  12. Self-reported prevalence and severity of xerostomia and its related conditions in individuals attending hospital for general health examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E; Lee, Y-H; Kim, W; Kho, H-S

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, severity, and relationships between xerostomia and its related symptoms in individuals who attended hospital for general health examinations. Participants included 883 men and 618 women aged between 30 and 60 years. History of symptoms during the previous 6 months, current symptoms, and severity of current symptoms were evaluated using a questionnaire that included questions about xerostomia, burning mouth, taste disturbance, and oral malodor. The prevalence of xerostomia and its related symptoms was 60.2%; the prevalence of oral malodor was 52.3%, xerostomia 33.0%, burning mouth 13.6%, and taste disturbance 12.5%. Men in their 30s and women in their 60s showed significantly higher prevalence and greater severity of xerostomia, burning mouth, and taste disturbance compared with their counterparts. The prevalence of xerostomia, burning mouth, and taste disturbance, and the severity of xerostomia increased significantly with age in women. The prevalence and severity of these four symptoms were significantly related and the association was the highest between burning mouth and taste disturbance. In conclusion, xerostomia and its related symptoms were highly prevalent at all ages. The prevalence and severity of these symptoms were closely related. Copyright © 2013 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence of Autism in Children of Somali Origin Living in Stockholm: Brief Report of an At-Risk Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnevik-Olsson, Martina; Gillberg, Christopher; Fernell, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    This work was a follow-up study (birth years 1999-2003) of the prevalence of autism in children of Somali background living in the county of Stockholm, Sweden. In a previous study (birth years 1988-98), the prevalence of autism associated with learning disability was found to be three to four times higher among Somali children compared with other…

  14. prevalence and age distribution of peripheral hamartomas in adult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-07-24

    Jul 24, 1990 ... distribution of peripheral pulmonary hamartomas in 47635 southern African miners ... The prevalence rate for white miners was 7,5/1000 and for ..... in childhood and are never seen at birth.14 The peak prevalence is reported ...

  15. Final Report: "Collaborative Project. Understanding the Chemical Processes That Affect Growth Rates of Freshly Nucleated Particles"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, James N. [NCAR, Boulder, CO (United States); McMurry, Peter H. [NCAR, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-11-12

    This final technical report describes our research activities that have, as the ultimate goal, the development of a model that explains growth rates of freshly nucleated particles. The research activities, which combine field observations with laboratory experiments, explore the relationship between concentrations of gas-phase species that contribute to growth and the rates at which those species are taken up. We also describe measurements of the chemical composition of freshly nucleated particles in a variety of locales, as well as properties (especially hygroscopicity) that influence their effects on climate. Our measurements include a self-organized, DOE-ARM funded project at the Southern Great Plains site, the New Particle Formation Study (NPFS), which took place during spring 2013. NPFS data are available to the research community on the ARM data archive, providing a unique suite observations of trace gas and aerosols that are associated with the formation and growth of atmospheric aerosol particles.

  16. Urban-Rural Differences in the Prevalence of Self-Reported Diabetes and its Risk Factors: The WHO STEPS Iranian Noncommunicable Disease Risk Factor Surveillance in 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Khorrami

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The high prevalence of diabetes in Iran and other developing countries is chiefly attributed to urbanization. The objectives of the present study were to assess the prevalence of self-reported diabetes and to determine its associated risk factors. This study is a part of the national noncommunicable disease risk factor surveillance, conducted in 31 provinces of Iran in 2011. First, 10069 individuals, between 20 and 70 years old (3036 individuals from rural and 7033 from urban areas, were recruited. The major risk factors were studied using a modified WHO STEPS approach. Diabetes was considered based on self-reported diabetes. The prevalence of self-reported diabetes was 10% overall. The prevalence in the rural and urban settings was 7.4% and 11.1%, respectively. Moderate physical activity (OR=0.45, 95% CI=0.29–0.71 and family history of diabetesOR=6.53, 95% CI=4.29–9.93 were the most important risk factors among the rural residents and systolic blood pressure (OR=1.01, 95% CI=1–1.02, waist circumference (OR=1.02, 95% CI=1.01–1.03, and overweight (OR=1.36, 95% CI= 1–1.84 were significantly associated with self-reported diabetes in the urban residents. The prevalence of self-reported diabetes in the urban setting was higher than that in the rural setting. Physical inactivity, abdominal obesity, and high blood pressure were the most important risk factors associated with self-reported diabetes in Iran.

  17. The prevalence of common mental disorders among hospital physicians and their association with self-reported work ability: a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruitenburg, Martijn M.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.; Sluiter, Judith K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: We studied the prevalence of common mental disorders among Dutch hospital physicians and investigated whether the presence of a mental disorder was associated with insufficient self-reported work ability. Methods: A questionnaire was sent to all (n = 958) hospital physicians of one

  18. Prevalence of and interventions for sarcopenia in ageing adults - a systematic review report of the international sarcopenia initiative (EWGSOP and IWGS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: to examine the clinical evidence reporting the prevalence of sarcopenia and the effect of nutrition and exercise interventions from studies using the consensus definition of sarcopenia proposed by the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP). Methods: PubMed and Dial...

  19. Collection of radiation resistant characteristics reports for instruments and materials in high dose rate environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusano, Joichi

    2008-03-01

    This document presents the collected official reports of radiation irradiation study for the candidate materials to be used in high dose rate environment as J-PARC facility. The effect of radiation damage by loss-beam or secondary particle beam of the accelerators influences the performance and the reliability of various instruments. The knowledge on the radiation resistivity of the materials is important to estimate the life of the equipments, the maintenance interval and dose evaluation for the personnel at the maintenance period. The radiation damage consists with mechanical property, electrical property and gas-evolution property. (author)

  20. Bullying and sexual harassment of junior doctors in New South Wales, Australia: rate and reporting outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn, Anthony; Karageorge, Aspasia; Nash, Louise; Li, Wenlong; Neuen, Dennis

    2018-02-16

    Objective The aim of this study was to describe rates of exposure to bullying and sexual harassment in junior doctors in first- or second-year prevocational medical training (PGY1 or PGY2 respectively) positions in New South Wales (NSW) and the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), and to explore the types of actions taken in response. Methods A cross-sectional survey of junior doctors in PGY1 or PGY2 positions was undertaken in 2015 and 2016 (n=374 and 440 respectively). Thematic analysis was undertaken on free-text responses to describe the reporting process and outcomes in more depth. Results The estimated response rate was 17-20%. Results from both surveys followed almost identical trends. Most respondents in 2015 and 2016 reported being bullied (n=203 (54.3%) and 253 (57.5%) respectively), 16-19% reported sexual harassment (n=58 and 82 respectively) and 29% of females reported sexual harassment. Qualitative analysis elucidated reasons for not taking action in response to bullying and harassment, including workplace normalisation of these behaviours, fear of reprisal and lack of knowledge or confidence in the reporting process. For respondents who did take action, most reported ineffective or personally harmful outcomes when reporting to senior colleagues, including being dismissed or blamed, and an intention not to trust the process in the future. Conclusions The findings suggest that interventions targeted at the level of junior doctors to improve the culture of bullying and harassment in medicine are unlikely to be helpful. Different approaches that address the problem in a more systemic way are needed, as is further research about the effectiveness of such interventions. What is known about the topic? Bullying and sexual harassment are common workplace experiences in the medical profession. What does this paper add? Over half the junior doctors in the present study experienced bullying and nearly one-fifth experienced sexual harassment. Junior doctors are

  1. CDC-reported assisted reproductive technology live-birth rates may mislead the public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnir, Vitaly A; Choi, Jennifer; Darmon, Sarah K; Albertini, David F; Barad, David H; Gleicher, Norbert

    2017-08-01

    The Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) publicly reports assisted reproductive technology live-birth rates (LBR) for each US fertility clinic under legal mandate. The 2014 CDC report excluded 35,406 of 184,527 (19.2%) autologous assisted reproductive technology cycles that involved embryo or oocyte banking from LBR calculations. This study calculated 2014 total clinic LBR for all patients utilizing autologous oocytes two ways: including all initiated assisted reproductive technology cycles or excluding banking cycles, as done by the CDC. The main limitation of this analysis is the CDC report did not differentiate between cycles involving long-term banking of embryos or oocytes for fertility preservation from cycles involving short-term embryo banking. Twenty-seven of 458 (6%) clinics reported over 40% of autologous cycles involved banking, collectively performing 12% of all US assisted reproductive technology cycles. LBR in these outlier clinics calculated by the CDC method, was higher than the other 94% of clinics (33.1% versus 31.1%). However, recalculated LBR including banking cycles in the outlier clinics was lower than the other 94% of clinics (15.5% versus 26.6%). LBR calculated by the two methods increasingly diverged based on proportion of banking cycles performed by each clinic reaching 4.5-fold, thereby, potentially misleading the public. Copyright © 2017 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Depth perception: the need to report ocean biogeochemical rates as functions of temperature, not depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Peter G; Peltzer, Edward T

    2017-09-13

    For over 50 years, ocean scientists have oddly represented ocean oxygen consumption rates as a function of depth but not temperature in most biogeochemical models. This unique tradition or tactic inhibits useful discussion of climate change impacts, where specific and fundamental temperature-dependent terms are required. Tracer-based determinations of oxygen consumption rates in the deep sea are nearly universally reported as a function of depth in spite of their well-known microbial basis. In recent work, we have shown that a carefully determined profile of oxygen consumption rates in the Sargasso Sea can be well represented by a classical Arrhenius function with an activation energy of 86.5 kJ mol -1 , leading to a Q 10 of 3.63. This indicates that for 2°C warming, we will have a 29% increase in ocean oxygen consumption rates, and for 3°C warming, a 47% increase, potentially leading to large-scale ocean hypoxia should a sufficient amount of organic matter be available to microbes. Here, we show that the same principles apply to a worldwide collation of tracer-based oxygen consumption rate data and that some 95% of ocean oxygen consumption is driven by temperature, not depth, and thus will have a strong climate dependence. The Arrhenius/Eyring equations are no simple panacea and they require a non-equilibrium steady state to exist. Where transient events are in progress, this stricture is not obeyed and we show one such possible example.This article is part of the themed issue 'Ocean ventilation and deoxygenation in a warming world'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  3. Depth perception: the need to report ocean biogeochemical rates as functions of temperature, not depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Peter G.; Peltzer, Edward T.

    2017-08-01

    For over 50 years, ocean scientists have oddly represented ocean oxygen consumption rates as a function of depth but not temperature in most biogeochemical models. This unique tradition or tactic inhibits useful discussion of climate change impacts, where specific and fundamental temperature-dependent terms are required. Tracer-based determinations of oxygen consumption rates in the deep sea are nearly universally reported as a function of depth in spite of their well-known microbial basis. In recent work, we have shown that a carefully determined profile of oxygen consumption rates in the Sargasso Sea can be well represented by a classical Arrhenius function with an activation energy of 86.5 kJ mol-1, leading to a Q10 of 3.63. This indicates that for 2°C warming, we will have a 29% increase in ocean oxygen consumption rates, and for 3°C warming, a 47% increase, potentially leading to large-scale ocean hypoxia should a sufficient amount of organic matter be available to microbes. Here, we show that the same principles apply to a worldwide collation of tracer-based oxygen consumption rate data and that some 95% of ocean oxygen consumption is driven by temperature, not depth, and thus will have a strong climate dependence. The Arrhenius/Eyring equations are no simple panacea and they require a non-equilibrium steady state to exist. Where transient events are in progress, this stricture is not obeyed and we show one such possible example. This article is part of the themed issue 'Ocean ventilation and deoxygenation in a warming world'.

  4. Convergence of prevalence rates of diabetes and cardiometabolic risk factors in middle and low income groups in urban India: 10-year follow-up of the Chennai Urban Population Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepa, Mohan; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Manjula, Datta; Narayan, K M Venkat; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to look for temporal changes in the prevalence of diabetes and cardiometabolic risk factors in two residential colonies in Chennai. Chennai Urban Population Study (CUPS) was carried out between 1996-1998 in Chennai in two residential colonies representing the middle income group (MIG) and lower income group (LIG), respectively. The MIG had twice the prevalence rate of diabetes as the LIG and higher prevalence rates of hypertension, obesity, and dyslipidemia. They were motivated to increase their physical activity, which led to the building of a park. The LIG was given standard lifestyle advice. Follow-up surveys of both colonies were performed after a period of 10 years. In the MIG, the prevalence of diabetes increased from 12.4 to 15.4% (24% increase), while in the LIG, it increased from 6.5 to 15.3% (135% increase, p India with a convergence of prevalence rates among people in the MIG and LIG. This could have a serious economic impact on poor people in developing countries such as India. © 2011 Diabetes Technology Society.

  5. Higher self-reported prevalence of hypertension among Moluccan-Dutch than among the general population of The Netherlands: results from a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wal, Junus M; Bodewes, Adee J; Agyemang, Charles O; Kunst, Anton E

    2014-12-15

    Several studies in The Netherlands revealed ethnic disparities in hypertension prevalence, but none have focused on the Moluccan-Dutch, a migrant group from Indonesia that settled in The Netherlands in 1951. The Moluccan-Dutch are considered to be fairly well integrated in Dutch society. The aim of this study was to compare hypertension prevalence among the Moluccan-Dutch to the native Dutch and to explore the contribution of known risk factors. A health interview survey was conducted from August 2012 till March 2013 among nineteen Moluccan neighborhoods, resulting in the inclusion of 708 participants. The primary outcome variable was self-reported prevalence of hypertension. Explanatory variables were BMI, exercise, smoking, alcohol intake and mental health status. Data on the control group was extracted from the Dutch National Health Survey 2011, using a similar questionnaire. Differences in risk factor exposure were explored using Chi-square tests and the contribution of risk factors, separately and combined, was explored using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Moluccan-Dutch showed higher odds for reporting hypertension when compared to native Dutch, after adjusting for age and level of education (OR = 1.38; 95% CI = 1.13-1.69) and additional risk factors (OR = 1.49; 95% CI = 1.19-1.88). A higher prevalence of hypertension was found in both Moluccan-Dutch men (26.4% vs. 16.7%; p Dutch men showed higher prevalence of hypertension. The Moluccan-Dutch may be at increased risk for reporting hypertension. These results suggest that long-term stay over several generations does not necessarily result in similar levels of hypertension prevalence as the host population.

  6. Attitudes of Mashhad Public Hospital's Nurses and Midwives toward the Causes and Rates of Medical Errors Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobarakabadi, Sedigheh Sedigh; Ebrahimipour, Hosein; Najar, Ali Vafaie; Janghorban, Roksana; Azarkish, Fatemeh

    2017-03-01

    Patient's safety is one of the main objective in healthcare services; however medical errors are a prevalent potential occurrence for the patients in treatment systems. Medical errors lead to an increase in mortality rate of the patients and challenges such as prolonging of the inpatient period in the hospitals and increased cost. Controlling the medical errors is very important, because these errors besides being costly, threaten the patient's safety. To evaluate the attitudes of nurses and midwives toward the causes and rates of medical errors reporting. It was a cross-sectional observational study. The study population was 140 midwives and nurses employed in Mashhad Public Hospitals. The data collection was done through Goldstone 2001 revised questionnaire. SPSS 11.5 software was used for data analysis. To analyze data, descriptive and inferential analytic statistics were used. Standard deviation and relative frequency distribution, descriptive statistics were used for calculation of the mean and the results were adjusted as tables and charts. Chi-square test was used for the inferential analysis of the data. Most of midwives and nurses (39.4%) were in age range of 25 to 34 years and the lowest percentage (2.2%) were in age range of 55-59 years. The highest average of medical errors was related to employees with three-four years of work experience, while the lowest average was related to those with one-two years of work experience. The highest average of medical errors was during the evening shift, while the lowest were during the night shift. Three main causes of medical errors were considered: illegibile physician prescription orders, similarity of names in different drugs and nurse fatigueness. The most important causes for medical errors from the viewpoints of nurses and midwives are illegible physician's order, drug name similarity with other drugs, nurse's fatigueness and damaged label or packaging of the drug, respectively. Head nurse feedback, peer

  7. National status report: Home energy rating systems and energy-efficient mortgages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plympton, P.

    2000-04-27

    The Energy Policy Act of 1992 included several provisions promoting the use of HERS and EEMs, which strengthened efforts to develop a national infrastructure for HERS and to promote the use of EEMs. This report documents HERS and EEMs activities since 1992 by the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, mortgage lenders, and other organizations. Though the process of establishing HERS has faced some barriers, this report shows that, as of November 1999, home energy ratings were available in 47 states and the District of Columbia, which represents a significant increase from 1993 when home energy ratings were available in 17 states. Both national and state organizations have developed HERS and related residential energy-efficiency programs. The availability and use of EEMs has also increased significantly. The number of EEMs supported by the Federal Housing Administration has increased more than eight times in the last three years. More than $2.5 billion in federally supported EEMs have been issued to date. Several national lenders offer EEMs, and six states have state-specific EEM or loan programs. EEMs have been used to finance energy-efficient homes in every state.

  8. Automatic Reporting of Creatinine-Based Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate in Children: Is this Feasible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Lunn

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Creatinine, although widely used as a biomarker to measure renal function, has long been known as an insensitive marker of renal impairment. Patients with reduced renal function can have a creatinine level within the normal range, with a rapid rise when renal function is significantly reduced. As of 1976, the correlation between height, the reciprocal of creatinine, and measured glomerular filtration rate (GFR in children has been described. It has been used to derive a simple formula for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR that could be used at the bedside as a more sensitive method of identifying children with renal impairment. Formulae based on this association, with modifications over time as creatinine assay methods have changed, are still widely used clinically at the bedside and in research studies to assess the degree of renal impairment in children. Adult practice has moved in many countries to computer-generated results that report eGFR alongside creatinine results using more complex, but potentially more accurate estimates of GFR, which are independent of height. This permits early identification of patients with chronic kidney disease. This review assesses the feasibility of automated reporting of eGFR and the advantages and disadvantages of this in children.

  9. Revising the IDEA Student Ratings of Instruction System 2002-2011 Data. IDEA Technical Report No. 18

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Stephen L.; Li, Dan; Brown, Ron; Guo, Meixi; Sullivan, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the processes undertaken to revise the IDEA Student Ratings of Instruction (SRI) system. The previous revision occurred in 1999, as described in IDEA Technical Report No. 11, "Revising the IDEA System for Obtaining Student Ratings of Instructors and Courses" (Hoyt, Chen, Pallett, & Gross, 1999). The procedures…

  10. Prevalence of self-reported tuberculosis, knowledge about tuberculosis transmission and its determinants among adults in India: results from a nation-wide cross-sectional household survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreeramareddy Chandrashekhar T

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge about symptoms and transmission of tuberculosis determines health seeking behavior and helps in prevention of tuberculosis transmission in the community. Such data is useful for policy makers to formulate information, education and communication strategies for tuberculosis control. Methods A secondary data analysis of India demographic and health survey, 2005/6 was carried out. Questions about self-reported tuberculosis, transmission and curability of tuberculosis were analysed. Correct knowledge (without misconceptions about tuberculosis transmission was used as a dependant variable and the explanatory variables tested were: demographic data, education, wealth quintiles, frequency of exposure to media and the curability of tuberculosis. Determinants of correct knowledge without misconceptions were tested by univariate and multivariate analyses using national weighting factor to adjust for complex sampling design. Results A total of 109,070 households (response rate of 93.5% and 198,718 participants (response rate of 91.6% completed the survey. The samples of men and women interviewed were 74,360 and 124,358 respectively. Prevalence rate of self-reported tuberculosis was 445 per 100,000 usual household residents and 4.60 per 1,000 participants. The number of respondents who had “heard of an illness called tuberculosis” was 177,423 (89.3%. Of these 47,487 (26.8% participants did not know and 55.5% knew about the correct mode of tuberculosis transmission i.e. “Through the air when coughing or sneezing”. The common misconceptions about transmission were “Through food” (32.4%, “Sharing utensils” (18.2%, and “Touching a person with tuberculosis” (12.3%. Only 52,617 (29.7% participants had correct knowledge without misconceptions. Being male (aOR 1.17, 95% CIs 1.14, 1.21, being a Hindu (aOR 1.20, 95% CIs 1.14, 1.26 or Muslim (aOR 1.26, 95% CIs 1.18, 1.34, listening to radio (aOR 1.08, 95% CIs 1.04, 1

  11. Parasitoses intestinais em região semi-árida do Nordeste do Brasil: resultados preliminares distintos das prevalências esperadas Intestinal parasite infections in a semiarid area of Northeast Brazil: preliminary findings differ from expected prevalence rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair Rodrigues Alves

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho procurou-se conhecer o perfil das enteroparasitoses na cidade de São Raimundo Nonato, sudeste do Piauí, e confirmar ou não os resultados obtidos em estudos anteriores em relação à infecção por Ascaris lumbricoidese Trichuris trichiura. No período de setembro de 2000 a fevereiro de 2001, por meio de amostragem domiciliar por conveniência, foram examinadas 265 amostras fecais da população pelo método de sedimentação espontânea, das quais 57% foram positivas para enteroparasitos. Entamoeba coli (35,8%, Endolimax nana (13,6%, Hymenolepis nana (9,4% e os ancilostomídeos (9,4% foram os parasitos mais freqüentes. Foram observados dois casos de A. lumbricoides, possivelmente adquiridos fora do município. Nenhuma amostra foi positiva para T. trichiura. Esses resultados mostram um padrão diferente do restante do país. Traça-se um paralelo entre os resultados deste estudo com os achados paleoparasitológicos na população pré-histórica, habitante da região há pelo menos sete mil anos.We report on intestinal parasite infection prevalence in a population sample from São Raimundo Nonato, Southeast Piauí State, Brazil, aimed at comparison with previous studies on Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides infection. A total of 265 stool specimens were collected and examined by spontaneous sedimentation. Approximately 57% of specimens were infected with at least one parasite species. Entamoeba coli (35.8%, Endolimax nana (13.6%, Hymenolepis nana (9.4%, and hookworm (9.4% were the most frequently observed parasites. Two cases of roundworm infection were detected, probably acquired outside the region. T. trichiura eggs were not found. Interestingly, neither A. lumbricoides nor T. trichiura has been found in local prehistoric human coprolites. Nevertheless, hookworm infection has been present in the region for at least 7,000 years.

  12. Studying the Prevalence Rate of Hearing Loss in Children of Primary Schools in Bebehan During the Year Between 1996 and1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Niaparast

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The current study was performed to establish the prevalence rate of hearing disorders in school age children. Method: This study has been performed in a randomized manner among 1000 school-age children (500 girls and 500 boys in the years between1976-1997 in Behbehan. All subjects underwent Audiometric evaluations, Otoscopy, and impedance audiometry. Additionally, parents, children and teachers were interviewed or asked by questionnaires regarding the familial status of parents, familial history of any hearing loss and the awareness of suffering hearing loss. The findings have been prepared in the charts and tables and the relationship between age and gender of the subjects with the incidence of hearing loss has been evaluated via the statistical test X² and hearing loss in left and right ear was compared by T-test. Results: the findings demonstrated that 6.6% of the subjects suffered hearing loss in one ear (2.2% or both ears (4.3%. 4.8% of the patients suffered conductive hearing loss while 1.6% suffered sensory-neural hearing loss. In .2% patients complained different types of hearing loss in the ears. Hearing loss was mostly slight and the relationship between age and gender with the incidence of hearing loss was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Based on the findings we have concluded that in18.4% of the subjects, medical treatment was required and 0.7% of them were in need of rehabilitation. The percentage of the awareness of the hearing disorders among children, parents and teachers was 21.2%, 22.7% and 15.2% respectively.

  13. Prevalence and determinants of differences in cystatin C and creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate in community-dwelling older adults: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrand, Helen; Werner, Karin; Christensson, Anders; Pihlsgård, Mats; Elmståhl, Sölve

    2017-12-04

    Differences in cystatin C and creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) can lead to clinical uncertainty. Existing eGFR equations perform poorly in a subset of individuals. This study aims to describe the prevalence of differences between cystatin C-based (eGFR cys ) and creatinine-based (eGFR creat ) eGFR in older adults and to explore which subsets of individuals may be most affected by differing estimations. In this cross-sectional study, participants from a cohort of community-dwelling older adults were examined at a baseline visit in 2001-2004 as part of the larger "Good Aging in Skåne" study. Exposure variables were obtained from questionnaires, interviews, examinations, and medical records. Blood samples were taken during the baseline visit, cryopreserved, and analyzed at a later time for biomarkers. The CKD-EPI equations were used to estimate GFR. Initial descriptive analyses were performed on 2931 individuals. A total of 2532 participants were included in the final multiple linear regression. Nearly two-thirds of participants had eGFR differences exceeding 10%, with nearly 20 % of participants having eGFR differences exceeding 30%. Smoking, age, body mass index (BMI), C-reactive protein (CRP), glucocorticoid use, and mean eGFR were correlated with differences between eGFR creat and eGFR cys . Differences between eGFR creat and eGFR cys are common and often of large magnitude in this community-dwelling population of older adults. The finding of multiple non-GFR determinants correlated to differences in GFR estimations can help direct future research to improve eGFR equations for subgroups prone to conflicting GFR estimations or to guide choice of biomarker for GFR estimation in these subgroups.

  14. High prevalence of unhealthy alcohol use and comparison of self-reported alcohol consumption to phosphatidylethanol among women engaged in sex work and their male clients in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couture, Marie-Claude; Page, Kimberly; Sansothy, Neth; Stein, Ellen; Vun, Mean Chhi; Hahn, Judith A

    2016-08-01

    In Cambodia, most of the female sex workers (FSW) work in venues where unhealthy alcohol use is ubiquitous and potentially contributing to the HIV epidemic. However, no accurate data exists. We compare self-reported unhealthy alcohol consumption to a biomarker of alcohol intake in Cambodian FSW and male clients, and determine factors associated with unhealthy alcohol use. A cross-sectional study was conducted among FSW (n=100) and male clients (n=100) in entertainment and sex work venues in Cambodia. Self-reported unhealthy alcohol use (AUDIT-C) was compared to phosphatidylethanol (PEth) positive (≥50ng/ml), a biomarker of alcohol intake. Sociodemographics data was collected. Correlates of self-reported unhealthy alcohol use and PEth positive were determined. The prevalence of PEth positive in FSW was 60.0%. Self-reported unhealthy alcohol consumption was reported by 85.0% of the women. Almost all women (95.0%) testing PEth positive also reported unhealthy alcohol use. Prevalence of unhealthy alcohol consumption (self-report and PEth positive) was higher in FSW working in entertainment establishments compared to other sex work venues (psex work settings. Self-reported unhealthy alcohol use is well reported by FSW, but less by male clients. These findings highlight the urgency of using accurate measures of unhealthy alcohol consumption and integrating this health issue into HIV prevention interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Constancy and Change in the Prevalence and Frequency of Offending When Based on Longitudinal Self-reports or Official Records: Comparisons by Gender, Race, and Crime Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrington, David P.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Pardini, Dustin; Ahonen, Lia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The study examines age-crime prevalence and age-crime frequency curves based on longitudinal data from boys in the Pittsburgh Youth Study and girls in the Pittsburgh Girls Study. Results Results show that the prevalence of the age-crime curve for theft and violence (based on self-reports or police charges) followed the typical age-crime curve for males and slightly less distinctly for females, with the peak of offending occurring earlier for self-reports than for police charges. The decrease in police charges for violence and theft took place at an earlier age for females than males, but this was not distinct when self-reported delinquency was the criterion. The mean frequency of self-reported theft and violence followed the age-crime curve for males but not for females, who showed a mean frequency of offending which was more constant. In contrast, the mean frequency of police charges increased with age for males and females. Comparing African-American and Caucasian males and females shows a higher prevalence but not a higher mean frequency of self-reported offending. Conclusions The results are reviewed in the light of other studies, and the policy implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:27610337

  16. Prevalence of diabetes and impaired fasting glucose in Peru: report from PERUDIAB, a national urban population-based longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seclen, Segundo N; Rosas, Moises E; Arias, Arturo J; Huayta, Ernesto; Medina, Cecilia A

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to estimate the prevalences of diabetes and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) in a national sample in Peru and assess the relationships with selected sociodemographic variables. We estimated prevalence in PERUDIAB study participants, a nationwide, stratified urban and suburban population selected by random cluster sampling. Between 2010 and 2012, questionnaires were completed and blood tests obtained from 1677 adults ≥25 years of age. Known diabetes was defined as participants having been told so by a doctor or nurse and/or receiving insulin or oral antidiabetic agents. Newly diagnosed diabetes was defined as fasting plasma glucose ≥126 mg/dL determined during the study and without a previous diabetes diagnosis. IFG was defined as fasting plasma glucose of 100-125 mg/dL. The estimated national prevalence of diabetes was 7.0% (95% CI 5.3% to 8.7%) and it was 8.4% (95% CI 5.6% to 11.3%) in metropolitan Lima. No gender differences were detected. Known and newly diagnosed diabetes prevalences were estimated as 4.2% and 2.8%, respectively. A logistic regression response surface model showed a complex trend for an increased prevalence of diabetes in middle-aged individuals and in those with no formal education. Diabetes prevalence was higher in coastal (8.2%) than in highlands (4.5%; p=0.03), and jungle (3.5%; pdiabetes as an important public health problem, especially for middle-aged individuals and those with no formal education. 40% of the affected individuals were undiagnosed. The elevated prevalence of IFG shows that nearly a quarter of the adult population of Peru has an increased risk of diabetes.

  17. Transport and transfer rates in the waters of the continental shelf. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biscaye, P.E.; Broecker, W.S.; Feely, H.W.; Gerard, R.D.

    1976-04-01

    The report is to the Energy Research and Development Administration on accomplishments of the Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory geochemistry and physical oceanography groups during the 1975-1976 funding period on grant E(11-1)2185. Goals are to obtain detailed, quantitative knowledge of the rates of mixing within coastal waters of the New York Bight and across the continental slope and the exchange of water masses and species transported within them between shelf and Atlantic Ocean waters. The research is aimed at understanding the chemical, physical, and biological processes which control the origin, dispersal, and fate of particulate matter and trace metals, and to ultimately model the impact of energy related pollutants on the continental shelf

  18. Differences in prevalence of self-reported musculoskeletal symptoms among computer and non-computer users in a Nigerian population: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayanniyi O

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Literature abounds on the prevalent nature of Self Reported Musculoskeletal Symptoms (SRMS among computer users, but studies that actually compared this with non computer users are meagre thereby reducing the strength of the evidence. This study compared the prevalence of SRMS between computer and non computer users and assessed the risk factors associated with SRMS. Methods A total of 472 participants comprising equal numbers of age and sex matched computer and non computer users were assessed for the presence of SRMS. Information concerning musculoskeletal symptoms and discomforts from the neck, shoulders, upper back, elbows, wrists/hands, low back, hips/thighs, knees and ankles/feet were obtained using the Standardized Nordic questionnaire. Results The prevalence of SRMS was significantly higher in the computer users than the non computer users both over the past 7 days (χ2 = 39.11, p = 0.001 and during the past 12 month durations (χ2 = 53.56, p = 0.001. The odds of reporting musculoskeletal symptoms was least for participants above the age of 40 years (OR = 0.42, 95% CI = 0.31-0.64 over the past 7 days and OR = 0.61; 95% CI = 0.47-0.77 during the past 12 months and also reduced in female participants. Increasing daily hours and accumulated years of computer use and tasks of data processing and designs/graphics significantly (p Conclusion The prevalence of SRMS was significantly higher in the computer users than the non computer users and younger age, being male, working longer hours daily, increasing years of computer use, data entry tasks and computer designs/graphics were the significant risk factors for reporting musculoskeletal symptoms among the computer users. Computer use may explain the increase in prevalence of SRMS among the computer users.

  19. The use of equipment and training practices and the prevalence of owner-reported ridden behaviour problems in UK leisure horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockenhull, J; Creighton, E

    2013-01-01

    UK leisure horses are owned primarily for riding. Ridden behaviour problems may compromise the use of the horse in this role and lead to harsh redress or relinquishment of the horse. Despite the consequences of these problems little is known about their prevalence or the working lives of UK leisure horses. To generate data on the work undertaken by leisure horses, the equipment and training practices used with them and prevalence of ridden behaviour problems. An internet survey was used to generate horse-level data from a convenience sample of leisure horse carers. Respondents were asked to report on their practices in the week prior to the survey's completion to minimise recall bias. The survey was online for one year to allow for seasonal variation in practices. Data were collected on the tack and equipment used on the horse, the regularity that professional services (e.g. farriers) were used, type of training employed and frequency the owner reported that horse displayed 15 ridden behaviour problems. The survey generated data on 1326 individual horses. Data describing practices relating to the horse's working life are presented. Ridden behaviour problems were reported in 91% of horses in the week preceding data collection. Descriptive data on the working lives of UK leisure horses provides valuable baseline statistics for this largest section of the UK horse population. High prevalence of owner-reported ridden behaviour problems represents a concern in such leisure horses and may indicate significant rider safety and horse welfare concerns. © 2012 EVJ Ltd.

  20. Prevalance rate of low-dose CT lung cancer screening. Results of a questionnaire survey of member facilities of Japan society of ningen dock with special concerns regarding the actual status and disincentives for implementing such screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takizawa, Hirotaka

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a survey of member facilities of the Japan Society of Ningen Dock to elucidate the actual status of chest computed tomography (CT) screening and the reasons for not being able to change to low-dose CT. We sent a questionnaire consisting of 9 items to 531 member facilities in July 2010, response by facsimile to obtain an analysis. The prevalence rate of low-dose CT lung cancer screening slightly increased to 35% in comparison with the former survey done in November 2008. Some facilities indicated some shift in tube current to a lower range even though this was insufficient to meet the definition of low-dose CT. This reflects their thinking of ''Even with knowledge, there is strong hesitation to change to low-dose CT''. Among the reasons why they did not change to low-dose CT, a priority for high quality images was the top reason among problems of devices and performance. Informed consent was not yet adequate. It is necessary for manufactures to develop better technology to improve the image quality of low-dose CT and to report enough information to clinicians. On the medical side, perception of the necessity for appropriate reduction of radiation dose and the decision to move to low-dose CT would be of crucial significance for facility heads as well as radiologists and technicians. (author)

  1. Age/race differences in HER2 testing and in incidence rates for breast cancer triple subtypes: a population-based study and first report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Mary Jo; Butler, Ebonee N; Hair, Brionna Y; Ward, Kevin C; Andrews, Judy H; Oprea-Ilies, Gabriella; Bayakly, A Rana; O'Regan, Ruth M; Vertino, Paula M; Eley, J William

    2010-06-01

    Although US year 2000 guidelines recommended characterizing breast cancers by human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), national cancer registries do not collect HER2, rendering a population-based understanding of HER2 and clinical "triple subtypes" (estrogen receptor [ER] / progesterone receptor [PR] / HER2) largely unknown. We document the population-based prevalence of HER2 testing / status, triple subtypes and present the first report of subtype incidence rates. Medical records were searched for HER2 on 1842 metropolitan Atlanta females diagnosed with breast cancer during 2003-2004. HER2 testing/status and triple subtypes were analyzed by age, race/ethnicity, tumor factors, socioeconomic status, and treatment. Age-adjusted incidence rates were calculated. Over 90% of cases received HER2 testing: 12.6% were positive, 71.7% negative, and 15.7% unknown. HER2 testing compliance was significantly better for women who were younger, of Caucasian or African-American descent, or diagnosed with early stage disease. Incidence rates (per 100,000) were 21.1 for HER2+ tumors and 27.8 for triple-negative tumors, the latter differing by race (36.3 and 19.4 for black and white women, respectively). HER2 recommendations are not uniformly adhered to. Incidence rates for breast cancer triple subtypes differ by age/race. As biologic knowledge is translated into the clinical setting eg, HER2 as a biomarker, it will be incumbent upon national cancer registries to report this information. Incidence rates cautiously extrapolate to an annual burden of 3000 and 17,000 HER2+ tumors for black and white women, respectively, and triple-negative tumors among 5000 and 16,000 respectively. Testing, rate, and burden variations warrant population-based in-depth exploration and clinical translation. (c) 2010 American Cancer Society.

  2. Prevalence of self-reported stomach symptoms after consuming milk among indigenous Sami and non-Sami in Northern- and Mid-Norway – the SAMINOR study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketil Lenert Hansen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The main purpose of this work was to identify the prevalence of self-reported stomach symptoms after consuming milk among Sami and non-Sami adults. Study design: A cross-sectional population-based study (the SAMINOR study. Data were collected by self-administrated questionnaires. Method: SAMINOR is a population-based study of health and living conditions conducted in 24 municipalities in Northern Norway during 2003 and 2004. The present study included 15,546 individuals aged between 36 and 79, whose ethnicity was categorized as Sami (33.4%, Kven (7.3% and Norwegian majority population (57.2%. Results: Sami respondents had a higher prevalence of self-reported stomach symptoms after consuming milk than the Norwegian majority population. The reporting was highest among Sami females (27.1%. Consumption of milk and dairy products (yoghurt and cheese was high among all the ethnic groups. However, significantly more Sami than non-Sami never (or rarely consume milk or cheese, and individuals who reported stomach symptoms after consuming milk had an significant lower intake of dairy products than those not reporting stomach symptoms after consuming dairy products. Sami reported general abdominal pain more often than the majority population. The adjusted models show a significant effect of Sami ethnicity in both men and women on self-reported stomach symptoms after consuming milk. In females, the odds ratio (OR=1.77 (p=0.001 and in males OR=1.64 (p=0.001. Conclusion: Our study shows that the Sami population reported more stomach symptoms after consuming milk, suggesting a higher prevalence of milk intolerance among the Sami population than the Norwegian majority population.

  3. Prevalence of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Phenotypes Using Updated Criteria for Polycystic Ovarian Morphology: An Assessment of Over 100 Consecutive Women Self-reporting Features of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Nina M.; Podolski, Amanda J.; Brooks, Eric D.; Chizen, Donna R.; Pierson, Roger A.; Lehotay, Denis C.; Lujan, Marla E.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and its distinct clinical phenotypes were assessed using 3 sets of international diagnostic criteria in women self-reporting concerns over outward features of PCOS. Revised ultrasonographic criteria for polycystic ovaries (PCO) based on modern ultrasound technology were used. Of the participants, 53%, 62%, and 70% were diagnosed with PCOS using National Institutes of Health, Androgen Excess and PCOS Society, and Rotterdam criteria, respective...

  4. Patient-reported prevalence and symptomatic burden of uterine fibroids among women in the United States: findings from a cross-sectional survey analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuldeore MJ

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mahesh J Fuldeore, Ahmed M Soliman Health Economics and Outcomes Research, AbbVie Inc., North Chicago, IL, US Purpose: To estimate the prevalence of women diagnosed with uterine fibroids and the associated symptom burden in the US.Patients and methods: Responses of women aged 18–54 years, who completed an online survey, were analyzed. Data were weighted based on age, education, race, geographic region, income, and propensity score to derive national estimates of the prevalence of women diagnosed with uterine fibroids and associated symptom burden. Weighted means and percentages were reported. Prevalence across age and ethnic groups was examined. Symptom burden among women with and without uterine fibroids was compared using weighted logistic regressions.Results: Of 59,411 respondents who met study inclusion criteria, 7.7% reported receiving a diagnosis of uterine fibroids. Of these, 5,670 women (1,402 in the uterine fibroid group and 4,268 in the control group were excluded from analysis because they had a hysterectomy. Among the non-hysterectomized study participants, 3,031 self-reported a diagnosis of uterine fibroids (prevalence: 5.8%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.5%–6.1%; prevalence increased as women aged and was greatest in the 50–54 age group (11.4%; 95% CI: 10.4%–12.4%. In addition, prevalence was greater in black vs white women (9.8%; 95% CI: 8.7%–11.0% vs 5.4%; 95% CI: 5.1%–5.7%. A greater percentage of women with uterine fibroids (vs those without experienced severe heavy menstrual bleeding (16.7% vs 7.7%, severe constipation/bloating/diarrhea (7.7% vs 4.7%, severe passage of clots (6.7% vs 2.4%, severe spotting/bleeding between periods (1.7% vs 1.0%, and severe pelvic pressure (1.6% vs 0.6%. Among uterine fibroid patients with these typical uterine fibroid-related symptoms, 56.4%, 32.3%, 26.4%, 25.8%, and 20.4% reported heavy menstrual bleeding, passage of clots, spotting/bleeding between periods, constipation

  5. High Prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni in Six Health Areas of - Kasansa Health Zone, Democratic Republic of the Congo: Short Report.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linsuke, S.; Nundu, S.; Mupoyi, R.; Mukele, R.; Mukunda, F.; Kabongo, M.M.; Inocencio da Luz, R.; Van Geertruyden, J.P.; Van Sprundel, M.; Boelaert, M.; Polman, K.; Lutumba, P.

    2014-01-01

    School-aged children suffer the most from schistosomiasis infection in sub Saharan Africa due to poverty and limited sanitary conditions. Mapping of disease burden is recommended and there is a need of updating prevalence data which is as old as 20 years in the Democratic Republic of Congo. An

  6. Estimating trematode prevalence in snail hosts using a single-step duplex PCR: how badly does cercarial shedding underestimate infection rates?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Born-Torrijos, A.; Poulin, R.; Raga, J. A.; Holzer, Astrid S.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 7, MAY 2014 (2014), s. 243 ISSN 1756-3305 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : prevalence * detection * snail host * double infection * single-steo duplex PCR Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.430, year: 2014

  7. Prevalence, distribution and risk of sessile serrated adenomas/polyps at a center with a high adenoma detection rate and experienced pathologists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJspeert, Joep E. G.; de Wit, Koos; van der Vlugt, Manon; Bastiaansen, Barbara A. J.; Fockens, Paul; Dekker, Evelien

    2016-01-01

    Sessile serrated adenomas/polyps (SSA/Ps) are the precursors of 15 % - 30 % of colorectal cancers (CRC). We aimed to determine the prevalence and distribution of SSA/Ps and to evaluate the association between SSA/Ps and the risk of synchronous advanced neoplasia at a high quality colonoscopy center.

  8. Completing College: A National View of Student Attainment Rates--Fall 2010 Cohort (Signature Report No. 12)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Doug; Dundar, Afet; Wakhungu, Phoebe Khasiala; Yuan, Xin; Nathan, Angel; Hwang, Youngsik

    2016-01-01

    This fifth annual report on national college completion rates offers a look at the six-year outcomes for students who began postsecondary education in fall 2010, toward the end of the Great Recession. It looks at the various pathways students took toward degree completion, as well as the completion rates through May 2016 for the different student…

  9. Revisiting the concept of ‘chronic disease’ from the perspective of the episode of care model. Does the ratio of incidence to prevalence rate help us to define a problem as chronic?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean K Soler

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background This is a study of the epidemiology of acute and chronic episodes of care (EoCs in the Transition Project in three countries. We studied the duration of EoCs for acute and chronic health problems and the relationship of incidence to prevalence rates for these EoCs.Method The Transition Project databases collect data on all elements of the doctor–patient encounter in family medicine. Family doctors code these elements using the International Classification of Primary Care.We used the data from three practice populations to study the duration of EoCs and the ratio of incidence to prevalence for common health problems.Results We found that chronic health problems tended to have proportionately longer duration EoCs, as expected, but also a lower incidence to prevalence rate ratio than acute health problems. Thus, the incidence to prevalence index could be used to define a chronic condition as one with a low ratio, below a defined threshold.Conclusions Chronic health problems tend to have longer duration EoCs, proportionately, across populations. This result is expected, but we found important similarities and differences which make defining a problem as chronic on the basis of time rather difficult. The ratio of incidence to prevalence rates has potential to categorise health problems into acute or chronic categories, at different ratio thresholds (such as 20, 30 or 50%. It seems to perform well in this study of three family practice populations, and is proposed to the scientific community for further evaluation.

  10. Children's Quality of Life Based on the KIDSCREEN-27: Child Self-Report, Parent Ratings and Child-Parent Agreement in a Swedish Random Population Sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne H Berman

    Full Text Available The KIDSCREEN-27 is a measure of child and adolescent quality of life (QoL, with excellent psychometric properties, available in child-report and parent-rating versions in 38 languages. This study provides child-reported and parent-rated norms for the KIDSCREEN-27 among Swedish 11-16 year-olds, as well as child-parent agreement. Sociodemographic correlates of self-reported wellbeing and parent-rated wellbeing were also measured.A random population sample consisting of 600 children aged 11-16, 100 per age group and one of their parents (N = 1200, were approached for response to self-reported and parent-rated versions of the KIDSCREEN-27. Parents were also asked about their education, employment status and their own QoL based on the 26-item WHOQOL-Bref. Based on the final sampling pool of 1158 persons, a 34.8% response rate of 403 individuals was obtained, including 175 child-parent pairs, 27 child singleton responders and 26 parent singletons. Gender and age differences for parent ratings and child-reported data were analyzed using t-tests and the Mann-Whitney U-test. Post-hoc Dunn tests were conducted for pairwise comparisons when the p-value for specific subscales was 0.05 or lower. Child-parent agreement was tested item-by-item, using the Prevalence- and Bias-Adjusted Kappa (PABAK coefficient for ordinal data (PABAK-OS; dimensional and total score agreement was evaluated based on dichotomous cut-offs for lower well-being, using the PABAK and total, continuous scores were evaluated using Bland-Altman plots.Compared to European norms, Swedish children in this sample scored lower on Physical wellbeing (48.8 SE/49.94 EU but higher on the other KIDSCREEN-27 dimensions: Psychological wellbeing (53.4/49.77, Parent relations and autonomy (55.1/49.99, Social Support and peers (54.1/49.94 and School (55.8/50.01. Older children self-reported lower wellbeing than younger children. No significant self-reported gender differences occurred and parent ratings

  11. Does the patient's inherent rating tendency influence reported satisfaction scores and affect division ranking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Patricia; Agoritsas, Thomas; Chopard, Pierre; Perneger, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    To determine the impact of adjusting for rating tendency (RT) on patient satisfaction scores in a large teaching hospital and to assess the impact of adjustment on the ranking of divisions. Cross-sectional survey. Large 2200-bed university teaching hospital. All adult patients hospitalized during a 1-month period in one of 20 medical divisions. None. Patient experience of care measured by the Picker Patient Experience questionnaire and RT scores. Problem scores were weakly but significantly associated with RT. Division ranking was slightly modified in RT adjusted models. Division ranking changed substantially in case-mix adjusted models. Adjusting patient self-reported problem scores for RT did impact ranking of divisions, although marginally. Further studies are needed to determine the impact of RT when comparing different institutions, particularly across inter-cultural settings, where the difference in RT may be more substantial. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.

  12. Absence of dry season Plasmodium parasitaemia, but high rates of reported acute respiratory infection and diarrhoea in preschool-aged children in Kaédi, southern Mauritania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touray, Sunkaru; Bâ, Hampâté; Bâ, Ousmane; Koïta, Mohamedou; Salem, Cheikh B Ould Ahmed; Keïta, Moussa; Traoré, Doulo; Sy, Ibrahima; Winkler, Mirko S; Utzinger, Jürg; Cissé, Guéladio

    2012-09-07

    The epidemiology of malaria in the Senegal River Gorgol valley, southern Mauritania, requires particular attention in the face of ongoing and predicted environmental and climate changes. While "malaria cases" are reported in health facilities throughout the year, past and current climatic and ecological conditions do not favour transmission in the dry season (lack of rainfall and very high temperatures). Moreover, entomological investigations in neighbouring regions point to an absence of malaria transmission in mosquito vectors in the dry season. Because the clinical signs of malaria are non-specific and overlap with those of other diseases (e.g. acute respiratory infections and diarrhoea), new research is needed to better understand malaria transmission patterns in this region to improve adaptive, preventive and curative measures. We conducted a multipurpose cross-sectional survey in the city of Kaédi in April 2011 (dry season), assessing three major disease patterns, including malaria. Plasmodium spp. parasite rates were tested among children aged 6-59 months who were recruited from a random selection of households using a rapid diagnostic test and microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained thick and thin blood films. Acute respiratory infection and diarrhoea were the two other diseases investigated, administering a parental questionnaire to determine the reported prevalence among participating children. No Plasmodium infection was found in any of the 371 surveyed preschool-aged children using two different diagnostic methods. Acute respiratory infections and diarrhoea were reported in 43.4% and 35.0% of the participants, respectively. About two thirds of the children with acute respiratory infections and diarrhoea required medical follow-up by a health worker. Malaria was absent in the present dry season survey in the capital of the Gorgol valley of Mauritania, while acute respiratory infections and diarrhea were highly prevalent. Surveys should be repeated

  13. Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy among self-reported adult diabetics in districts of Eastern Nepal in a community based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Lalit T; Agarwal, Nisha

    2017-07-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of blindness among working age adults around the world. Each year more and more people live with this condition, which can result in life-changing complications. To determine the prevalence and risk factors of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in a large community based screening programme, in order to estimate the future burden of the disease. A cross sectional community based study was conducted between 1st January and 31st December 2014 in a purposive sample of adults with selfreported diabetes mellitus (DM) from Morang and Sunsari district of Nepal. A structured questionnaire was used to collect patient data. Ophthalmological evaluation was done and fundus was examined for grading DR using direct and indirect ophthalmoscope. Among the 698 diabetic patients, mean age was 55.02±11.8 years (ranging from 24 to 91 years). 12.3% of diabetic were not under any treatment. Only 69.3% of patients had visited eye specialist for diabetic retinopathy screening. Prevalence of DR was found to be 15.3%; 13.9% had non-proliferative DR and 1.4% had proliferative DR. Prevalence of diabetic macular edema was 2.1%. In Morang district prevalence of DR was 14.2% and in Sunsari district it was 16.2%. In the binary-logistic regression analysis, duration of diabetes was associated with significantly increased risk of DR (OR: 1.13; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09 to 1.17; p<0.001). History of absence of arterial hypertension decreased the risk of DR (OR: 0.56; 95% CI, 0.36 to 0.87; p=0.01). One sixth of the patients with diabetes in the Eastern region of Nepal have retinopathy. Diabetic retinopathy risk increased with duration of diabetes and decreased with history of no co-existing arterial hypertension. © NEPjOPH.

  14. Prevalence of extended-spectrum-β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae: first systematic meta-analysis report from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samyyia Abrar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background South-Asia is known as a hub for multidrug-resistant (MDR bacteria. Unfortunately, proper surveillance and documentation of MDR pathogens is lacking in Pakistan. The alarming increase in the prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae is a serious problem. From this perspective, we analysed published data regarding ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in different regions of Pakistan. Methods A meta-analysis was performed to determine the prevalence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Pakistan. A Web-based search was conducted in electronic databases, including PubMed, Scopus and PakMedi Net (for non-indexed Pakistani journals. Articles published (in either indexed or non-indexed journals between January 2002 and July 2016 were included in the study. Relevant data were extracted, and statistical analysis was performed using the Metaprop command of STATA version 14.1. Results A total of 68 studies were identified from the electronic data base search, and 55 of these studies met our inclusion criteria. Pakistan’s overall pooled proportion of ESBL-producers was 0.40 (95% CI: 0.34–0.47. The overall heterogeneity was significant (I2 = 99.75%, p < 0.001, and significant ES = 0 (Z = 18.41, p < 0.001 was found. OXA, SHV, TEM and CTX-M were the most commonly found gene variants for ESBLs in these studies. Conclusion The prevalence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae is high in Pakistan. Little is known about the annual frequency of ESBLs and their prevalence in different provinces of Pakistan. No data are available regarding ESBL frequency in Baluchistan. This underscores an urgent demand for regular surveillance to address this antimicrobial resistance problem. Surveillance to better understand the annual ESBL burden is crucial to improve national and regional guidelines.

  15. Sex differences in the prevalence and detection of depressive and anxiety disorders in general health care settings - Report from the World Health Organization collaborative study on Psychological Problems in General Health Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gater, R; Tansella, M; Korten, A; Tiemens, BG; Mavreas, VG; Olatawura, MO

    Background: Understanding the relevance of biological and social factors to sex differences in the prevalence and detection of depressive and anxiety disorders has been impaired by the lack of standardized research methods across cultures. Method: Prevalence rates of depressive and anxiety disorders

  16. Medication errors among nurses in teaching hospitals in the west of Iran: what we need to know about prevalence, types, and barriers to reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Fathi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES This study aimed to examine the prevalence and types of medication errors (MEs, as well as barriers to reporting MEs, among nurses working in 7 teaching hospitals affiliated with Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in 2016. METHODS A convenience sampling method was used to select the study participants (n=500 nurses. A self-constructed questionnaire was employed to collect information on participants’ socio-demographic characteristics (10 items, their perceptions about the main causes of MEs (31 items, and barriers to reporting MEs to nurse managers (11 items. Data were collected from September 1 to November 30, 2016. Negative binomial regression was used to identify the main predictors of the frequency of MEs among nurses. RESULTS The prevalence of MEs was 17.0% (95% confidence interval, 13.7 to 20.3%. The most common types of MEs were administering medications at the wrong time (24.0%, dosage errors (16.8%, and administering medications to the wrong patient (13.8%. A heavy workload and the type of shift work were considered to be the main causes of MEs by nursing staff. Our findings showed that 45.0% of nurses did not report MEs. A heavy workload due to a high number of patients was the most important reason for not reporting MEs (mean score, 3.57±1.03 among nurses. Being male, having a second unrelated job, and fixed shift work significantly increased MEs among nurses (p=0.001. CONCLUSIONS Our study documented a high prevalence of MEs among nurses in the west of Iran. A heavy workload was considered to be the most important barrier to reporting MEs among nurses. Thus, appropriate strategies (e.g., reducing the nursing staff workload should be developed to address MEs and improve patient safety in hospital settings in Iran.

  17. High prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni in six health areas of - Kasansa health zone, Democratic Republic of the Congo: short report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Linsuke

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available School-aged children suffer the most from schistosomiasis infection in sub Saharan Africa due to poverty and limited sanitary conditions. Mapping of disease burden is recommended and there is a need of updating prevalence data which is as old as 20 years in the Democratic Republic of Congo. An epidemiological and parasitological study was carried out in 2011 in the health zone of Kasansa. Six health areas (HA were included in the study. In each health area, one primary school was selected. School-aged children were screened for S. mansoni infection using parallel Kato-Katz and direct microscopy techniques. A total of 335 school-aged children were screened. The average prevalence was 82.7% and ranged between 59.5-94.9%. Four of the six HAs had a prevalence level over 91%. Of all infected children, about half 112 (43.2% had light parasite density. These results demonstrate that Schistosoma mansoni infection is a bigger problem than anticipated and there is an urgent need to implement effective control measures.

  18. Gestational diabetes mellitus prevalence in Maela refugee camp on the Thai–Myanmar Border: a clinical report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Ellen Gilder

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Individuals in conflict-affected areas rarely get appropriate care for chronic or non-infectious diseases. The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is increasing worldwide, and new evidence shows conclusively that the negative effects of hyperglycemia occur even at mild glucose elevations and that these negative effects can be attenuated by treatment. Scientific literature on gestational diabetes in refugee camp settings is critically limited. Methods: A 75 g 2-hour glucose tolerance test was administered to 228 women attending the antenatal care (ANC clinic in Maela refugee camp on the Thai–Myanmar border. Prevalence of GDM was determined using the HAPO trial cut-offs [≥92 mg/dL (fasting,≥180 (1 hour, and≥153 (2 hour] and the WHO criteria [≥126 mg/dL (fasting, and 140 mg/dL (2 hour]. Results: From July 2011 to March 2012, the prevalence of GDM was 10.1% [95% confidence interval (CI: 6.2–14.0] when the cut-off determined by the HAPO trial was applied. Applying the older WHO criteria yielded a prevalence of 6.6% (95% CI 3.3–9.8. Age, parity, and BMI emerged as characteristics that may be significantly associated with GDM in this population. Other risk factors that are commonly used in screening guidelines were not applicable in this diabetes-naïve population. Discussion: The prevalence of GDM is lower in this population compared with other populations, but still complicates 10% of pregnancies. New evidence regarding gestational diabetes raises new dilemmas for healthcare providers in resource-poor settings. Efforts to identify and treat patients at risk for adverse outcomes need to be balanced with awareness of the risks and burdens associated with over diagnosis and unnecessary interventions. Screening approaches based on risk factors or using higher cut-off values may help minimize this burden and identify those most likely to benefit from intervention.

  19. Estimating the incidence reporting rates of new influenza pandemics at an early stage using travel data from the source country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, K C; Fong, H F; Zee, C Y

    2014-05-01

    During the surveillance of influenza pandemics, underreported data are a public health challenge that complicates the understanding of pandemic threats and can undermine mitigation efforts. We propose a method to estimate incidence reporting rates at early stages of new influenza pandemics using 2009 pandemic H1N1 as an example. Routine surveillance data and statistics of travellers arriving from Mexico were used. Our method incorporates changes in reporting rates such as linearly increasing trends due to the enhanced surveillance. From our results, the reporting rate was estimated at 0·46% during early stages of the pandemic in Mexico. We estimated cumulative incidence in the Mexican population to be 0·7% compared to 0·003% reported by officials in Mexico at the end of April. This method could be useful in estimation of actual cases during new influenza pandemics for policy makers to better determine appropriate control measures.

  20. Gender differences in brain activity and the relationship between brain activity and differences in prevalence rates between male and female major depressive disorder patients: a resting-state fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhijian; Yan, Rui; Wei, Maobin; Tang, Hao; Qin, Jiaolong; Lu, Qing

    2014-11-01

    We examined the gender-difference effect on abnormal spontaneous neuronal activity of male and female major depressive disorder (MDD) patients using the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and the further clarified the relationship between the abnormal ALFF and differences in MDD prevalence rates between male and female patients. Fourteen male MDD patients, 13 female MDD patients and 15 male and 15 female well matched healthy controls (HCs) completed this study. The ALFF approach was used, and Pearson correlation was conducted to observe a possible clinical relevance. There were widespread differences in ALFF values between female and male MDD patients, including some important parts of the frontoparietal network, auditory network, attention network and cerebellum network. In female MDD patients, there was a positive correlation between average ALFF values of the left postcentral gyrus and the severity of weight loss symptom. The gender-difference effect leading to abnormal brain activity is an important underlying pathomechanism for different somatic symptoms in MDD patients of different genders and is likely suggestive of higher MDD prevalence rates in females. The abnormal ALFF resulting from the gender-difference effect might improve our understanding of the differences in prevalence rates between male and female MDD patients from another perspective. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparing the prevalence rates of social phobia in a community according to ICD-10 and DSM-III-R Comparando estimativas de prevalência da fobia social na comunidade empregando-se a CID-10 e a DSM-III-R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Lopes Rocha

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This population-based study aimed to compare the prevalence rates of social phobia using DSM-III-R and CID-10, based on the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI, in a Brazilian community. METHODS: This survey was carried out in a representative sample of 1,041 residents from Bambuí, Minas Gerais, Brazil (attrition rate = 14.7%. The Brazilian version of the CIDI was used. One-month, one-year and lifetime social phobia prevalence rates were estimated, employing the DSM-III-R and ICD-10 classifications, using the CIDI computer program. RESULTS: One-month, one-year, and life prevalence rates of social phobia, based on the DSM-III-R (7.9, 9.0 and 11.7% respectively were higher than those based on the ICD-10 (4.7, 5.2 and 6.7% respectively; p OBJETIVO: Este estudo populacional visa comparar estimativas de prevalência de fobia social empregando-se a CID-10 e a DSM-III-R em uma comunidade brasileira. MÉTODOS: O levantamento foi realizado em uma amostra representativa de 1.041 residentes de Bambuí, Minas Gerais, Brasil (perda = 14,7%. Foi utilizada a versão brasileira da Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI. As prevalências de 1 mês, 1 ano e vida foram estimadas empregando-se as classificações CID-10 e DSM-III-R, utilizando-se o programa de computador da CIDI. RESULTADOS: As prevalências de 1 mês, 1 ano e vida da fobia social, baseadas na DSM-III-R (7,9, 9,0 e 11,7% respectivamente foram mais elevadas que aquelas baseadas na CID-10 (4,7, 5,2 e 6,7%, respectivamente; p < 0,01 para todos. CONCLUSÃO: Nossos resultados reforçam a hipótese de que as taxas de prevalência de fobia social são mais elevadas quando baseadas na DSM-III-R em comparação com a CID-10.

  2. Depression and anxiety in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: prevalence rates based on a comparison of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) and the hospital, Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background While it is recognised that depression is prevalent in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), recent studies have also highlighted significant levels of anxiety in RA patients. This study compared two commonly used scales, the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), in relation to their measurement range and cut points to consider the relative prevalence of both constructs, and if prevalence rates may be due to scale-specific case definition. Methods Patients meeting the criteria for RA were recruited in Leeds, UK and Sydney, Australia and asked to complete a survey that included both scales. The data was analysed using the Rasch measurement model. Results A total of 169 RA patients were assessed, with a repeat subsample, resulting in 323 cases for analysis. Both scales met Rasch model expectations. Using the 'possible+probable' cut point from the HADS, 58.3% had neither anxiety nor depression; 13.5% had anxiety only; 6.4% depression only and 21.8% had both 'possible+probable' anxiety and depression. Cut points for depression were comparable across the two scales while a lower cut point for anxiety in the DASS was required to equate prevalence. Conclusions This study provides further support for high prevalence of depression and anxiety in RA. It also shows that while these two scales provide a good indication of possible depression and anxiety, the estimates of prevalence so derived could vary, particularly for anxiety. These findings are discussed in terms of comparisons across studies and selection of scales for clinical use. PMID:22269280

  3. Depression and anxiety in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: prevalence rates based on a comparison of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) and the hospital, Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covic, Tanya; Cumming, Steven R; Pallant, Julie F; Manolios, Nick; Emery, Paul; Conaghan, Philip G; Tennant, Alan

    2012-01-24

    While it is recognised that depression is prevalent in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), recent studies have also highlighted significant levels of anxiety in RA patients. This study compared two commonly used scales, the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), in relation to their measurement range and cut points to consider the relative prevalence of both constructs, and if prevalence rates may be due to scale-specific case definition. Patients meeting the criteria for RA were recruited in Leeds, UK and Sydney, Australia and asked to complete a survey that included both scales. The data was analysed using the Rasch measurement model. A total of 169 RA patients were assessed, with a repeat subsample, resulting in 323 cases for analysis. Both scales met Rasch model expectations. Using the 'possible+probable' cut point from the HADS, 58.3% had neither anxiety nor depression; 13.5% had anxiety only; 6.4% depression only and 21.8% had both 'possible+probable' anxiety and depression. Cut points for depression were comparable across the two scales while a lower cut point for anxiety in the DASS was required to equate prevalence. This study provides further support for high prevalence of depression and anxiety in RA. It also shows that while these two scales provide a good indication of possible depression and anxiety, the estimates of prevalence so derived could vary, particularly for anxiety. These findings are discussed in terms of comparisons across studies and selection of scales for clinical use.

  4. Depression and anxiety in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: prevalence rates based on a comparison of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS and the hospital, Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Covic Tanya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While it is recognised that depression is prevalent in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA, recent studies have also highlighted significant levels of anxiety in RA patients. This study compared two commonly used scales, the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, in relation to their measurement range and cut points to consider the relative prevalence of both constructs, and if prevalence rates may be due to scale-specific case definition. Methods Patients meeting the criteria for RA were recruited in Leeds, UK and Sydney, Australia and asked to complete a survey that included both scales. The data was analysed using the Rasch measurement model. Results A total of 169 RA patients were assessed, with a repeat subsample, resulting in 323 cases for analysis. Both scales met Rasch model expectations. Using the 'possible+probable' cut point from the HADS, 58.3% had neither anxiety nor depression; 13.5% had anxiety only; 6.4% depression only and 21.8% had both 'possible+probable' anxiety and depression. Cut points for depression were comparable across the two scales while a lower cut point for anxiety in the DASS was required to equate prevalence. Conclusions This study provides further support for high prevalence of depression and anxiety in RA. It also shows that while these two scales provide a good indication of possible depression and anxiety, the estimates of prevalence so derived could vary, particularly for anxiety. These findings are discussed in terms of comparisons across studies and selection of scales for clinical use.

  5. Effect of the Prevalence of HIV/AIDS and the Life Expectancy Rate on Economic Growth in SSA Countries: Difference GMM Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waziri, Salisu Ibrahim; Mohamed Nor, Norashidah; Raja Abdullah, Nik Mustapha; Adamu, Peter

    2015-09-01

    The productivity of countries around the globe is adversely affected by the health-related problems of their labour force. This study examined the effect of the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) and life expectancy on the economic growth of 33 Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries over a period of 11 years (2002-2012). The study employed a dynamic panel approach as opposed to the static traditional approach utilised in the literature. The dynamic approach became eminent because of the fact that HIV/AIDS is a dynamic variable as its prevalence today depends on the previous years. The result revealed that HIV/AIDS is negatively correlated with economic growth in the region, with a coefficient of 0.014, and significant at the 1% level. That is, a 10% increase in HIV/AIDS prevalence leads to a 0.14% decrease in the GDP of the region. Tackling HIV/AIDS is therefore imperative to the developing Sub-Saharan African region and all hands must be on deck to end the menace globally.

  6. Prevalência e fatores associados à percepção de ocorrência de corrimento vaginal patológico entre gestantes Prevalence of self-reported vaginal discharge and associated factors in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraci A. Cesar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve por objetivo medir a prevalência e identificar fatores associados à percepção de corrimento vaginal patológico por gestantes residentes em Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Aplicou-se questionário padronizado a todas as parturientes nas maternidades do município em 2007. Utilizou-se teste do qui-quadrado para comparar proporções e análise multivariável por regressão de Poisson. A prevalência de corrimento vaginal foi de 40%. Análise ajustada mostrou as seguintes razões de prevalência: 1,6 (1,4-1,8 para adolescentes; 1,3 (1,1-1,6 para aquelas com até oito anos de escolaridade; 1,3 (1,1-1,5 para aquelas que ingeriram álcool; 2,0 (1,8-2,2 para aquelas que referiram corrimento vaginal em gestação anterior; 1,4 (1,3-1,6 para infecção urinária na gestação atual; prematuridade em gestação anterior mostrou-se protetor com RP = 0,8 (0,7-0,9. Os serviços de saúde deveriam priorizar diagnóstico e tratamento de corrimento vaginal entre gestantes adolescentes, de baixa renda familiar e escolaridade, com história prévia de corrimento em gravidez anterior e infecção urinária na gravidez atual.This study aims to determine the prevalence self-reported abnormal vaginal discharge and to identify associated risk factors in pregnant women in the municipality of Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. A standardized questionnaire was applied to all pregnant women admitted for delivery in local maternity hospitals. The chi-square test was used to compare proportions, and Poisson regression was applied using multivariate analysis. Prevalence of vaginal discharge was 40%. Adjusted analysis showed the following prevalence ratios for vaginal discharge: 1.6 (1.4-1.8 for adolescents; 1.3 (1.1-1.6 for 8 years of schooling or less; 1.3 (1.1-1.5 for alcohol consumption; 2.0 (1.8-2.2 for vaginal discharge in the previous pregnancy; 1.4 (1.3-1.6 for urinary tract infection in the current pregnancy; and 0.8 (0

  7. N Basin deactivation high exposure rate hardware container offgassing final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, R.S.; Palmer, D.L.; Pisarcik, D.J.; Vail, S.W.

    1996-11-01

    The N Reactor's 105-N Basin (N Basin) and the methods of packaging high-exposure rate hardware (HERH) were inspected, and gas bubbles were observed rising from the top surface of the third monolith prepared, Monolith No. 3. The HERH packaging was discontinued until the gas and the source could be explained and the safety of continued operation was verified. This report documents the investigation and the conclusions that support decisions regarding N Basin water removal, future storage, shipping, and Monolith No. 3 burial. Samples indicate that the gas emitted from Monolith No. 3 is almost exclusively hydrogen, containing some air and trace quantities of stable xenon. Gamma-energy analysis indicated trace amounts of 85 Kr in the samples. The literature review and the laboratory test results support the conclusion that aluminum is the only potentially grouted metal capable of corroding rapidly enough to generate the quantities of hydrogen gas that are observed. Based on aluminum components known to be found in the N Basin, the likely source of the aluminum is a used aluminum rupture can. All gas pockets in Monolith No. 3 caused by offgassing should be vented to the surface of the monolith. The peak offgas pressure within Monolith No. 3 (after it is removed from the N Basin water) should be approximately 0.62 psi above atmospheric pressure. Sufficient testing and analysis has been completed to remove Monolith No. 3 from the N Basin water and place the monolith in temporary storage until arrangements have been made for its shipment and disposition

  8. First report of wild boar susceptibility to Porcine circovirus type 3: High prevalence in the Colli Euganei Regional Park (Italy) in the absence of clinical signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzo, Giovanni; Tucciarone, Claudia Maria; Drigo, Michele; Cecchinato, Mattia; Martini, Marco; Mondin, Alessandra; Menandro, Maria Luisa

    2018-05-18

    The genus Circovirus includes one of the most relevant infectious agents affecting domestic pigs, Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2). The wild boar susceptibility to this pathogen has also been demonstrated although the actual epidemiological role of wild populations is still debated. In recent times, a new circovirus, Porcine circovirus type 3 (PCV-3), has been discovered and reported in the presence of several clinical conditions. However, no information is currently available about PCV-3 circulation and prevalence in wild boar. To fill this gap, 187 wild boar serum samples were collected in the Colli Euganei Regional Park (Northern Italy) and screened for PCV-3, demonstrating a high viral prevalence (approximately 30%). No gender differences were demonstrated while a lower infection prevalence was observed in animals younger than 12 months compared to older ones, differently from what described in commercial pigs. Almost all sampled animals were in good health conditions and no association was proven between PCV-3 status and clinical syndromes in wild animals. The genetic characterization of selected strains enlightened a relevant variability and the absence of closely related strains originating from domestic pigs. Therefore, the observed scenario is suggestive of multiple introductions from other wild or domestic swine populations followed by prolonged circulation and independent evolution. Worldwide, this study reports for the first time the high susceptibility of the wild boar to PCV-3 infection. The high prevalence and the absence of association with clinical signs support the marginal role of this virus in the wild boar population ecology. However, its epidemiological role as reservoir endangering commercial swine cannot be excluded and will require further investigations. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Comparison of brand versus generic antiepileptic drug adverse event reporting rates in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Motiur; Alatawi, Yasser; Cheng, Ning; Qian, Jingjing; Plotkina, Annya V; Peissig, Peggy L; Berg, Richard L; Page, David; Hansen, Richard A

    2017-09-01

    Despite the cost saving role of generic anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs), debate exists as to whether generic substitution of branded AEDs may lead to therapeutic failure and increased toxicity. This study compared adverse event (AE) reporting rates for brand vs. authorized generic (AG) vs. generic AEDs. Since AGs are pharmaceutically identical to brand but perceived as generics, the generic vs. AG comparison minimized potential bias against generics. Events reported to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System between January 2004 to March 2015 with lamotrigine, carbamazepine, and oxcarbazepine listed as primary or secondary suspect were classified as brand, generic, or AG based on the manufacturer. Disproportionality analyses using the reporting odds ratio (ROR) assessed the relative rate of reporting of labeled AEs compared to reporting these events with all other drugs. The Breslow-Day statistic compared RORs across brand, AG, and other generics using a Bonferroni-corrected Pbrand and generics for all three drugs of interest (Breslow-Day Pbrands and generics have similar reporting rates after accounting for generic perception biases. Disproportional suicide reporting was observed for generics compared with AGs and brand, although this finding needs further study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Prevalence of Congenital Malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhavan Karbasi Sedighah

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Congenital malformation (CM will begin to emerge as one of the major childhood health problems .Treatment and rehabilitation of children with congenital malformations are costly and complete recovery is usually impossible. The aim of this study was to determine frequency of CM in Yazd central city of the Islamic Republic of Iran to find out if there has been any difference in the rate and types of CM in this area. This descriptive-observational study carried on 4800 births delivered at all maternity hospitals in Yazd from October 2003 to June 2004. Prevalence of CM was 2.83% (2.86 % in male and 2.68 % in female out of the 136 cases 69(51.88% were males and 64 (48.12% were females and 3 with ambiguous genitalia. Positive family history of CM in sibling was in only 6 cases (4.41%.Overall, musculoskeletal (0.83%, central nerv-ous system (0.47% and genital system (0.37% were accounted as the most common. Frequency of CM was more seen in still birth (12.5% as in comparison to live birth (2.71%. There was not statistical difference be-tween prevalence of CM and neonatal's gender, gestational age, birth order and mother's age, drug ingestion, illness and parental consanguinity. In this study the overall prevalence of congenital malformation among the newborn was higher than those previous reported in Iran and determining the causes of this difference needs more extensive studies.

  11. Does the prevalence of latent toxoplasmosis and frequency of Rhesus-negative subjects correlate with the nationwide rate of traffic accidents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegr, Jaroslav; Dama, Madhukar

    2014-12-01

    Latent toxoplasmosis is probably the most common protistan parasitic disease with many indirect negative impacts on human health. One of the important impacts is impaired psychomotor function leading to reduced driving efficiency in Toxoplasma-seropositive subjects. Numerous case-control studies have established a positive relation between the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii (Nicolle et Manceaux, 1908) and probability of traffic accidents in study populations. The prevalence of toxoplasmosis varies between populations according to local geographical conditions, hygienic practices and kitchen habits. Similarly, we see a striking variation in the incidence of traffic accidents across countries. Hence, we compiled the largest ever data set on the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis and tried to understand its role in traffic accident-related deaths and disabilities across 87 countries. Simple non-parametric analysis showed a positive and strong relation of T. gondii seroprevalence and traffic accident related disabilities. Further, we conducted multivariate analysis to control for confounding factors. After controlling for wealth, geographical latitude, health of population, length of roads and number of vehicles, the correlation disappeared. When the frequency of RhD negativity and its interaction with toxoplasmosis were included into the model, the effects of toxoplasmosis seemingly returned. However, the analysed data suffered from the problem of multicollinearity. When a proper method of analysis, ridge regression, was applied, the effects of toxoplasmosis prevalence and RhD negativity frequency disappeared again. The existence of a strong correlation between the prevalence of toxoplasmosis and health of population in particular countries, which was the probable cause of multicollinearity and possible reason for the negative result of the present study, suggests that 'asymptomatic' latent toxoplasmosis could have a large impact on public health.

  12. Prevalence of self-reported arterial hypertension in Brazilian capitals in 2011 and analysis of its trends in the period between 2006 and 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvania Suely Caribé de Araújo Andrade

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of self-reported arterial hypertension in the adult population in the Brazilian state capitals and Federal District in 2011, and analyze the trend from 2006 to 2011. METHODS: A time series study was conducted with data from the monitoring system by telephone survey (Vigitel in the period between 2006 and 2011. Approximately 54,000 individuals were assessed per year in the locations studied. A polynomial regression model was used for trend analysis according to gender, age, education and region of the country. RESULTS: The prevalence of hypertension was 22.7% in 2011, higher in women (25.4%; 95%CI 24.2 - 26.5 than in men (19.5%; 95%CI 18.4 - 20.7. In the period between 2006 and 2011, the lower frequency of hypertension was observed in 2006 (21.5%, and the higher in 2009 (24.4%, with no statistically significant difference in the period. CONCLUSION: There was no significant sex-specific trend, maintaining the higher frequency among women. The prevalence of hypertension increased progressively with age and was higher among adults with lower education (0 - 8 years of study. The South was the only region that showed a statistically significant increasing trend for the years between 2006 and 2011 (15% per year.

  13. Prevalence of self-reported arterial hypertension in Brazilian capitals in 2011 and analysis of its trends in the period between 2006 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Silvania Suely Caribé de Araújo; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Iser, Betine Moehlecke; Sampaio, Patricia Chueri; de Moura, Lenildo

    2014-01-01

    To describe the prevalence of self-reported arterial hypertension in the adult population in the Brazilian state capitals and Federal District in 2011, and analyze the trend from 2006 to 2011. A time series study was conducted with data from the monitoring system by telephone survey (Vigitel) in the period between 2006 and 2011. Approximately 54,000 individuals were assessed per year in the locations studied. A polynomial regression model was used for trend analysis according to gender, age, education and region of the country. The prevalence of hypertension was 22.7% in 2011, higher in women (25.4%; 95%CI 24.2 - 26.5) than in men (19.5%; 95%CI 18.4 - 20.7). In the period between 2006 and 2011, the lower frequency of hypertension was observed in 2006 (21.5%), and the higher in 2009 (24.4%), with no statistically significant difference in the period. There was no significant sex-specific trend, maintaining the higher frequency among women. The prevalence of hypertension increased progressively with age and was higher among adults with lower education (0 - 8 years of study). The South was the only region that showed a statistically significant increasing trend for the years between 2006 and 2011 (15% per year).

  14. A Summary of Fault Recurrence and Strain Rates in the Vicinity of the Hanford Site--Topical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Winsor, Kelsey; Unwin, Stephen D.

    2012-08-01

    This document is one in a series of topical reports compiled by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to summarize technical information on selected topics important to the performance of a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis of the Hanford Site. The purpose of this report is to summarize available data and analyses relevant to fault recurrence and strain rates within the Yakima Fold Belt. Strain rates have met with contention in the expert community and may have a significant potential for impact on the seismic hazard estimate at the Hanford Site. This report identifies the alternative conceptual models relevant to this technical issue and the arguments and data that support those models. It provides a brief description of the technical issue and principal uncertainties; a general overview on the nature of the technical issue, along with alternative conceptual models, supporting arguments and information, and uncertainties; and finally, suggests some prospective approaches to reducing uncertainties about earthquake recurrence rates for the Yakima Fold Belt.