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Sample records for prevalence incidence density

  1. Prevalence Incidence Mixture Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    The R package and webtool fits Prevalence Incidence Mixture models to left-censored and irregularly interval-censored time to event data that is commonly found in screening cohorts assembled from electronic health records. Absolute and relative risk can be estimated for simple random sampling, and stratified sampling (the two approaches of superpopulation and a finite population are supported for target populations). Non-parametric (absolute risks only), semi-parametric, weakly-parametric (using B-splines), and some fully parametric (such as the logistic-Weibull) models are supported.

  2. Measures of Disease Frequency: Prevalence and Incidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, Marlies; Dekker, Friedo W.; Zoccali, Carmine; Jager, Kitty J.

    2010-01-01

    To describe how often a disease or another health event occurs in a population, different measures of disease frequency can be used. The prevalence reflects the number of existing cases of a disease. In contrast to the prevalence, the incidence reflects the number of new cases of disease and can be

  3. Phalangeal bone mineral density predicts incident fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Holmberg, Teresa; Brixen, Kim; Rubin, Katrine Hass

    2012-01-01

    This prospective study investigates the use of phalangeal bone mineral density (BMD) in predicting fractures in a cohort (15,542) who underwent a BMD scan. In both women and men, a decrease in BMD was associated with an increased risk of fracture when adjusted for age and prevalent fractures...

  4. Incidence and prevalence of psoriasis in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, Alexander; Skov, Lone; Gislason, Gunnar H.

    2017-01-01

    The incidence and temporal trends of psoriasis in Denmark between 2003 and 2012 were examined. There was a female predominance ranging between 50.0% (2007) and 55.4% (2009), and the mean age at time of diagnosis was 47.7-58.7 years. A total of 126,055 patients with psoriasis (prevalence 2.2%) were...... identified. Incidence rates of psoriasis (per 100,000 person years) ranged from 107.5 in 2005 to a peak incidence of 199.5 in 2010. Incidence rates were higher for women, and patients aged 60-69 years, respectively. Use of systemic non-biologic agents, i.e. methotrexate, cyclosporine, retinoids, or psoralen...... plus ultraviolet A (PUVA) increased over the study course, and were used in 15.0% of all patients. Biologic agents (efalizumab, etanercept, infliximab, adalimumab, or ustekinumab) were utilized in 2.7% of patients. On a national level, incidence of psoriasis fluctuated during the 10- year study course...

  5. Incidence and Prevalence of Psoriasis in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, Alexander; Skov, Lone; Gislason, Gunnar H

    2017-01-01

    The incidence and temporal trends of psoriasis in Denmark between 2003 and 2012 were examined. There was a female predominance ranging between 50.0% (2007) and 55.4% (2009), and the mean age at time of diagnosis was 47.7-58.7 years. A total of 126,055 patients with psoriasis (prevalence 2.2%) were...... identified. Incidence rates of psoriasis (per 100,000 person years) ranged from 107.5 in 2005 to a peak incidence of 199.5 in 2010. Incidence rates were higher for women, and patients aged 60-69 years, respectively. Use of systemic non-biologic agents, i.e. methotrexate, cyclosporine, retinoids, or psoralen...... plus ultraviolet A (PUVA) increased over the study course, and were used in 15.0% of all patients. Biologic agents (efalizumab, etanercept, infliximab, adalimumab, or ustekinumab) were utilized in 2.7% of patients. On a national level, incidence of psoriasis fluctuated during the 10-year study course...

  6. Parkinson's disease in Russia: prevalence and incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razdorskaya V.V.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of the regional studies on the frequency of Parkinson's disease (PD and the incidence of it in Russia have been generalized, the main factors that determine the quality of the estimates of this disease epidemiological indicators have been identifyd. The article summarizes data from 19 original studies on the epidemiology of parkinsonism and Parkinson's disease in Russia published between 2005-2015. Due to the statistical heterogeneity of the primary results computational analytics was not applied to the data; however, data consolidation allowed to perform a trend analysis of epidemiological indicators. The methodological basis of the majority of studies was medical aid appealabil-ity; two of the studies used door-to-door surveys. One of the studies returned questionably low epidemiological indicators obtained from the medical records, and the rest showed the standardized prevalence of 30.0-139.9/100,000 and incidence of 7.63-21.8/100,000 per year. Contribution of Parkinson's disease to the nosological structure of parkinsonism was >61.3%. Estimate of the number of patients with PD in Russia is approximately 210,000 people. Conclusions are made regarding the prevalence of PD in Russia according to the cross-cutting research on the level of indicators in the Western countries. The prevalence of PD by appealability is 2-3 times less than the prevalence in continuous research, both national and foreign. The incidence of PD, demonstrated in half of the studies, is stable from region to region and is comparable with the universally recognized values.

  7. Estimating cardiovascular disease incidence from prevalence: a spreadsheet based model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Feng Hu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disease incidence and prevalence are both core indicators of population health. Incidence is generally not as readily accessible as prevalence. Cohort studies and electronic health record systems are two major way to estimate disease incidence. The former is time-consuming and expensive; the latter is not available in most developing countries. Alternatively, mathematical models could be used to estimate disease incidence from prevalence. Methods We proposed and validated a method to estimate the age-standardized incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD, with prevalence data from successive surveys and mortality data from empirical studies. Hallett’s method designed for estimating HIV infections in Africa was modified to estimate the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI in the U.S. population and incidence of heart disease in the Canadian population. Results Model-derived estimates were in close agreement with observed incidence from cohort studies and population surveillance systems. This method correctly captured the trend in incidence given sufficient waves of cross-sectional surveys. The estimated MI declining rate in the U.S. population was in accordance with the literature. This method was superior to closed cohort, in terms of the estimating trend of population cardiovascular disease incidence. Conclusion It is possible to estimate CVD incidence accurately at the population level from cross-sectional prevalence data. This method has the potential to be used for age- and sex- specific incidence estimates, or to be expanded to other chronic conditions.

  8. Hepatitis B prevalence and incidence in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børresen, Malene Landbo; Andersson, Mikael; Wohlfahrt, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Greenland remains a highly endemic area for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. This is in sharp contrast to other modern societies, such as Denmark. To address this discrepancy, we investigated the natural history of HBV infection in Greenland by estimating the age-specific incidence of HBV...... from all available HBV registries in Greenland to determine changes in HBV status over time. Incidence rates of HBV infection and hepatitis B surface antigen seroclearance were estimated after taking into account interval censoring. The incidence of HBV infection in 5-14-year-old subjects was less than...

  9. Incidence and prevalence of epilepsy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jakob; Vestergaard, Mogens; Pedersen, Marianne G

    2007-01-01

    registered with epilepsy between 1977 and 2002. RESULTS: Between 1977 and 2002 the average incidence of epilepsy was 68.8 new epilepsy patients per 100,000 person-years at risk. However, the incidence changed with calendar time and increased steeply from 1990 to 1995, probably due to changes in diagnostic...... system and inclusion of outpatients. From 1995 to 2002 the incidence rate was reasonable constant with an average of 83.3 new cases per 100,000 person-years at risk, except for patients over 60 years of age where we observed an increase in incidence with calendar time. The age-specific incidence rates...... declined from a high level in children to a low level between 20 and 40 years of age, and thereafter a gradual increase was seen. The incidence rate was slightly higher in men than in women except for the age range 10-20 years. About 2% of the population was diagnosed with epilepsy at some point during...

  10. Dental erosion: prevalence, incidence, and distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, D.H.J.; Amaechi, B.T.

    2015-01-01

    Dental erosion is one of the most common dental diseases and it is a growing problem. Numerous epidemiological studies have investigated the prevalence of dental erosion. For these studies different cross sections of the population are investigated. Large differences were found between countries,

  11. Diabetes incidence and projections from prevalence surveys in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Stephen; Lin, Sophia; Tukana, Isimeli; Linhart, Christine; Taylor, Richard; Vatucawaqa, Penina; Magliano, Dianna J; Zimmet, Paul

    2016-11-25

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) incidence is traditionally derived from cohort studies that are not always feasible, representative, or available. The present study estimates T2DM incidence in Fijian adults from T2DM prevalence estimates assembled from surveys of 25-64 year old adults conducted over 30 years (n = 14,288). T2DM prevalence by five-year age group from five population-based risk factor surveys conducted over 1980-2011 were variously adjusted for urban-rural residency, ethnicity, and sex to previous censuses (1976, 1986, 1996, 2009) to improve representativeness. Prevalence estimates were then used to calculate T2DM incidence based on birth cohorts from the age-period (Lexis) matrix following the Styblo technique, first used to estimate annual risk of tuberculosis infection (incidence) from sequential Mantoux population surveys. Poisson regression of year, age, sex, and ethnicity strata (n = 160) was used to develop projections of T2DM prevalence and incidence to 2020 based on various scenarios of population weight measured by body mass index (BMI) change. T2DM prevalence and annual incidence increased in Fiji over 1980-2011. Prevalence was higher in Indians and men than i-Taukei and women. Incidence was higher in Indians and women. From regression analyses, absolute reductions of 2.6 to 5.1% in T2DM prevalence (13-26% lower), and 0.5-0.9 per 1000 person-years in incidence (8-14% lower), could be expected in 2020 in adults if mean population weight could be reduced by 1-4 kg, compared to the current period trend in weight gain. This is the first application of the Styblo technique to calculate T2DM incidence from population-based prevalence surveys over time. Reductions in population BMI are predicted to reduce T2DM incidence and prevalence in Fiji among adults aged 25-64 years.

  12. Density of calcium in the ascending thoracic aorta and risk of incident cardiovascular disease events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Isac C; McClelland, Robyn L; Michos, Erin D; Allison, Matthew A; Forbang, Nketi I; Longstreth, W T; Post, Wendy S; Wong, Nathan D; Budoff, Matthew J; Criqui, Michael H

    2017-10-01

    The volume and density of coronary artery calcium (CAC) both independently predict cardiovascular disease (CVD) beyond standard risk factors, with CAC density inversely associated with incident CVD after accounting for CAC volume. We tested the hypothesis that ascending thoracic aorta calcium (ATAC) volume and density predict incident CVD events independently of CAC. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) is a prospective cohort study of participants without clinical CVD at baseline. ATAC and CAC were measured from baseline cardiac computed tomography (CT). Cox regression models were used to estimate the associations of ATAC volume and density with incident coronary heart disease (CHD) events and CVD events, after adjustment for standard CVD risk factors and CAC volume and density. Among 6811 participants, 234 (3.4%) had prevalent ATAC and 3395 (49.8%) had prevalent CAC. Over 10.3 years, 355 CHD and 562 CVD events occurred. One-standard deviation higher ATAC density was associated with a lower risk of CHD (HR 0.48 [95% CI 0.29-0.79], pdensity was inversely associated with incident CHD and CVD after adjustment for CVD risk factors and CAC volume and density. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Using HPV prevalence to predict cervical cancer incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Monisha; Bruni, Laia; Diaz, Mireia; Castellsagué, Xavier; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Bosch, F Xavier; Kim, Jane J

    2013-04-15

    Knowledge of a country's cervical cancer (CC) burden is critical to informing decisions about resource allocation to combat the disease; however, many countries lack cancer registries to provide such data. We developed a prognostic model to estimate CC incidence rates in countries without cancer registries, leveraging information on human papilloma virus (HPV) prevalence, screening, and other country-level factors. We used multivariate linear regression models to identify predictors of CC incidence in 40 countries. We extracted age-specific HPV prevalence (10-year age groups) by country from a meta-analysis in women with normal cytology (N = 40) and matched to most recent CC incidence rates from Cancer Incidence in Five Continents when available (N = 36), or Globocan 2008 (N = 4). We evaluated country-level behavioral, economic, and public health indicators. CC incidence was significantly associated with age-specific HPV prevalence in women aged 35-64 (adjusted R-squared 0.41) ("base model"). Adding geographic region to the base model increased the adjusted R-squared to 0.77, but the further addition of screening was not statistically significant. Similarly, country-level macro-indicators did not improve predictive validity. Age-specific HPV prevalence at older ages was found to be a better predictor of CC incidence than prevalence in women under 35. However, HPV prevalence could not explain the entire CC burden as many factors modify women's risk of progression to cancer. Geographic region seemed to serve as a proxy for these country-level indicators. Our analysis supports the assertion that conducting a population-based HPV survey targeting women over age 35 can be valuable in approximating the CC risk in a given country. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  14. The Prevalence of Painful Incidents among Young Recreational Gymnasts

    OpenAIRE

    Coates, Chrystal; McMurtry, C Meghan; Lingley-Pottie, Patricia; McGrath, Patrick J

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although children experience pain during their daily life, research has generally focused on medical pain. Sport-related pain has not been widely studied in children and research has not examined the occurrence of painful incidents in gymnastics. The prevalence of painful incidents among children in recreational gymnastics classes and accompanying coach responses were recorded.METHODS: Sixty-one children between five and 10 years of age were observed at a gymnastics club. A checkl...

  15. Cardiovascular Risks Associated with Incident and Prevalent Periodontal Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yau-Hua; Chasman, Daniel I; Buring, Julie E; Rose, Lynda; Ridker, Paul M

    2014-01-01

    Aim While prevalent periodontal disease associates with cardiovascular risk, little is known about how incident periodontal disease influences future vascular risk. We compared effects of incident versus prevalent periodontal disease in developing major cardiovascular diseases (CVD), myocardial infarction (MI), ischemic stroke and total CVD. Material and Methods In a prospective cohort of 39863 predominantly white women, age ≥ 45 years and free of cardiovascular disease at baseline were followed for an average of 15.7 years. Cox proportional hazard models with time-varying periodontal status (prevalent [18%], incident [7.3%] vs. never [74.7%]) were used to assess future cardiovascular risks. Results Incidence rates of all CVD outcomes were higher in women with prevalent or incident periodontal disease. For women with incident periodontal disease, risk factor adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were 1.42 (95% CI, 1.14–1.77) for major CVD, 1.72 (1.25–2.38) for MI, 1.41(1.02–1.95) for ischemic stroke, and 1.27(1.06–1.52) for total CVD. For women with prevalent periodontal disease, adjusted HRs were 1.14 (1.00–1.31) for major CVD, 1.27 (1.04–1.56) for MI, 1.12(0.91–1.37) for ischemic stroke, and 1.15(1.03–1.28) for total CVD. Conclusion New cases of periodontal disease, not just those that are pre-existing, place women at significantly elevated risks for future cardiovascular events. PMID:25385537

  16. Prevalence, incidence, and autoimmune comorbidities of celiac disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grode, Louise; Bech, Bodil H; Jensen, Thomas Møller

    2018-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to describe and identify potential trends with respect to prevalence, incidence, age, sex, and autoimmune comorbidity of celiac disease (CD). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A Danish nationwide cohort study of CD using data from The National Patient Register. Patients...

  17. Epidemiology of Eating Disorders : Incidence, Prevalence and Mortality Rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smink, Frederique R. E.; van Hoeken, Daphne; Hoek, Hans W.

    Eating disorders are relatively rare among the general population. This review discusses the literature on the incidence, prevalence and mortality rates of eating disorders. We searched online Medline/Pubmed, Embase and PsycINFO databases for articles published in English using several keyterms

  18. Review of the prevalence and incidence of eating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, HW; van Hoeken, D

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To review the literature on the incidence and prevalence of eating disorders. Methods: We searched Medline using several key terms relating to epidemiology and eating disorders and we checked the reference lists of the articles that we found. Special attention has been paid to

  19. "Dealing" with Incidence, Prevalence, and Odds Concepts in Undergraduate Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senchina, David S.; Laurson, Kelly R.

    2009-01-01

    Concepts and associated statistical formulae of incidence, prevalence, and odds/odds ratios are core knowledge in epidemiology yet can be confusing for students. The purpose of this project was to develop, validate, and share one possible pedagogical technique using playing cards that could be employed to improve undergraduate understanding of…

  20. Prevalence, incidence and molecular identification of root-knot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tomato is a widely grown vegetable in Pakistan. However, its production is severely constrained by root knot nematodes (RKNs). Accurate identification of RKNs is essential for an appropriate control program. The current study evaluated the prevalence, incidence and diversity of RKNs of tomato crops grown in the Khyber ...

  1. Prevalence, incidence, and age at diagnosis in Marfan Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Kristian A; Hove, Hanne; Kyhl, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    Background: Marfan syndrome is a genetic disorder with considerable morbidity and mortality. Presently, clinicians use the 2010 revised Ghent nosology, which includes optional genetic sequencing of the FBN1 gene, to diagnose patients. So far, only a few studies based on older diagnostic criteria...... have reported a wide range of prevalence and incidence. Our aim was to study prevalence, incidence, and age at diagnosis in patients with Marfan syndrome. Method: Using unique Danish patient-registries, we identified all possible Marfan syndrome patients recorded by the Danish healthcare system (1977......-2014). Following, we confirmed or rejected the diagnosis according to the 2010 revised Ghent nosology. Results: We identified a total of 1628 persons with possible Marfan syndrome. We confirmed the diagnosis in 412, whereof 46 were deceased, yielding a maximum prevalence of 6.5/100,000 at the end of 2014...

  2. Diagnosed hypertension in Canada: incidence, prevalence and associated mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robitaille, Cynthia; Dai, Sulan; Waters, Chris; Loukine, Lidia; Bancej, Christina; Quach, Susan; Ellison, Joellyn; Campbell, Norman; Tu, Karen; Reimer, Kim; Walker, Robin; Smith, Mark; Blais, Claudia; Quan, Hude

    2012-01-01

    Background: Hypertension is a leading risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Our objectives were to examine the prevalence and incidence of diagnosed hypertension in Canada and compare mortality among people with and without diagnosed hypertension. Methods: We obtained data from linked health administrative databases from each province and territory for adults aged 20 years and older. We used a validated case definition to identify people with hypertension diagnosed between 1998/99 and 2007/08. We excluded pregnant women from the analysis. Results: This retrospective population-based study included more than 26 million people. In 2007/08, about 6 million adults (23.0%) were living with diagnosed hypertension and about 418 000 had a new diagnosis. The age-standardized prevalence increased significantly from 12.5% in 1998/99 to 19.6% in 2007/08, and the incidence decreased from 2.7 to 2.4 per 100. Among people aged 60 years and older, the prevalence was higher among women than among men, as was the incidence among people aged 75 years and older. The prevalence and incidence were highest in the Atlantic region. For all age groups, all-cause mortality was higher among adults with diagnosed hypertension than among those without diagnosed hypertension. Interpretation: The overall prevalence of diagnosed hypertension in Canada from 1998 to 2008 was high and increasing, whereas the incidence declined during the same period. These findings highlight the need to continue monitoring the effectiveness of efforts for managing hypertension and to enhance public health programs aimed at preventing hypertension. PMID:22105752

  3. Incidence and Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Injury in Ballet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Preston J.; Gerrie, Brayden J.; Varner, Kevin E.; McCulloch, Patrick C.; Lintner, David M.; Harris, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Most published studies on injuries in the ballet dancer focus on the lower extremity. The rigors of this activity require special training and care. By understanding prevalence and injury pattern to the musculoskeletal system, targeted prevention and treatment for this population can be developed. Purpose To determine the incidence and prevalence of musculoskeletal injuries in ballet. Study Design Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4. Methods A systematic review registered with PROSPERO was performed using PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. Level 1 through 4 evidence studies reporting incidence of musculoskeletal injuries in male and female ballet dancers were included, with the numbers and types of injuries extracted from each. Injury rates were recorded and calculated based on professional status, sex, and nature of injury. Incidence was defined as number of injuries sustained over a specific time. Prevalence was defined as proportion of subjects with an injury at a given point in time. Results The studies analyzed reported injury incidence or prevalence in more than 1365 amateur and 900 professional dancers. The mean age was 16.2 years among amateur and 27.0 years among professional dancers. The incidence of injury among amateur dancers was 0.99 and 1.09 injuries per 1000 dance hours in males and females, respectively; 75% of injuries were overuse, with similar rates among males and females. In professional dancers, the incidence of injury was 1.06 and 1.46 injuries per 1000 dance hours in males and females, respectively, and 64% of female injuries were overuse, compared with 50% in males (P ballet dancers is 0.97 and 1.24 injuries per 1000 dance hours, respectively. The majority are overuse in both amateur and professional dancers, with amateur ballet dancers showing a higher proportion of overuse injuries than professionals (P < .001). Male professional dancers show a higher proportion of

  4. Incidence and prevalence of psoriatic arthritis in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, Alexander; Kristensen, Lars Erik; Thyssen, Jacob P.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the incidence and temporal trends of psoriatic arthritis (PsA) in the general population in Denmark. Methods: Using nationwide registry data, we estimated the number of patients with incident PsA within each 1-year period between 1997 and 2011 and calculated the rate of PsA...... cases within gender and age subgroups. Incidence rates were presented per 100 000 person-years. Results: There was a female predominance ranging from 50.3% (1998) to 59.2% (2010), and the mean age at time of diagnosis was 47-50 years. We identified a total of 12 719 patients with PsA (prevalence=0.......22%), including 9034 patients where the PsA diagnosis was made by a rheumatologist (prevalence=0.16%). Incidence rates of PsA (per 100 000 person-years) increased from 7.3 in 1997 to a peak incidence of 27.3 in 2010. Incidence rates were highest for women and patients aged 50-59 years, respectively. The use...

  5. Prevalence, incidence, and age at diagnosis in Marfan Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, Kristian A; Hove, Hanne; Kyhl, Kasper; Folkestad, Lars; Gaustadnes, Mette; Vejlstrup, Niels; Stochholm, Kirstine; Østergaard, John R; Andersen, Niels H; Gravholt, Claus H

    2015-12-02

    Marfan syndrome is a genetic disorder with considerable morbidity and mortality. Presently, clinicians use the 2010 revised Ghent nosology, which includes optional genetic sequencing of the FBN1 gene, to diagnose patients. So far, only a few studies based on older diagnostic criteria have reported a wide range of prevalence and incidence. Our aim was to study prevalence, incidence, and age at diagnosis in patients with Marfan syndrome. Using unique Danish patient-registries, we identified all possible Marfan syndrome patients recorded by the Danish healthcare system (1977-2014). Following, we confirmed or rejected the diagnosis according to the 2010 revised Ghent nosology. We identified a total of 1628 persons with possible Marfan syndrome. We confirmed the diagnosis in 412, whereof 46 were deceased, yielding a maximum prevalence of 6.5/100,000 at the end of 2014. The annual median incidence was 0.19/100,000 (range: 0.0-0.7) which increased significantly with an incidence rate ratio of 1.03 (95% CI: 1.02-1.04, p Marfan syndrome during the study period is possibly due to build-up of a registry. Since early diagnosis is essential in preventing aortic events, diagnosing Marfan syndrome remains a task for both pediatricians and physicians caring for adults.

  6. Global prevalence and incidence of traumatic spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh A

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Anoushka Singh*, Lindsay Tetreault*, Suhkvinder Kalsi-Ryan, Aria Nouri, Michael G FehlingsToronto Western Research Institute, Toronto Western Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada  *These authors contributed equally to this paper Background: Spinal cord injury (SCI is a traumatic event that impacts a patient's physical, psychological, and social well-being and places substantial financial burden on health care systems. To determine the true impact of SCI, this systematic review aims to summarize literature reporting on either the incidence or prevalence of SCI. Methods: A systematic search was conducted using PubMed, MEDLINE, MEDLINE in process, EMBASE, Cochrane Controlled Trial Register, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews to identify relevant literature published through June 2013. We sought studies that provided regional, provincial/state, or national data on the incidence of SCI or reported estimates of disease prevalence. The level of evidence of each study was rated using a scale that evaluated study design, methodology, sampling bias, and precision of estimates. Results: The initial search yielded 5,874 articles, 48 of which met the inclusion criteria. Forty-four studies estimated the incidence of SCI and nine reported the prevalence, with five discussing both. Of the incidence studies, 14 provided figures at a regional, ten at a state or provincial level and 21 at a national level. The prevalence of SCI was highest in the United States of America (906 per million and lowest in the Rhone-Alpes region, France (250 per million and Helsinki, Finland (280 per million. With respect to states and provinces in North America, the crude annual incidence of SCI was highest in Alaska (83 per million and Mississippi (77 per million and lowest in Alabama (29.4 per million, despite a large percentage of violence injuries (21.2%. Annual incidences were above 50 per million in the Hualien County in Taiwan (56.1 per million, the central Portugal

  7. Incidence and Prevalence of Tuberculosis in Iran and Neighboring Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo Tavakoli

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Tuberculosis is one of the major public health concerns in many countries, however the available and effective treatment is known. Tuberculosis typically determined with socio-economic problems such as war, malnutrition and HIV prevalence. In Iran, many progresses are carried to control tuberculosis but, different factors such as immigration from neighboring countries are affective to tuberculosis infection. Objectives In this paper, the incidence and prevalence of tuberculosis is evaluated in different regions of Iran and neighboring countries. Methods The data are collected from different and valid sources such as Scopus, Pubmed and also many reports from world health organization (WHO and center of disease control and prevention (CDC for a period of 25 years (1990 - 2015 evaluated for Iran and neighboring countries. Results This study as a descriptive- analytical research is conducted cross- sectional among Iran and neighboring countries since 1990. The information is obtained from exact and valid informative data from web of sciences. The east and west border countries of Iran which are faced with war and immigration in Afghanistan, Pakistan and Iraq are source of tuberculosis infection that effect on tuberculosis prevalence in Iran. The data were analyzed by SPSS 22 and Excel 2013. Conclusions The incidence of tuberculosis in Iran has been decreased because of many controlling actions such as BCG vaccination, electronic reporting system for tuberculosis and free access to tuberculosis medication. Some of Iran neighboring countries such as Tajikistan and Pakistan have the highest incidence of tuberculosis which known as a challenge for tuberculosis control in Iran while Saudi Arabia and Turkey have the lowest incidence.

  8. Incidence & prevalence of stroke in India: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sureshkumar Kamalakannan

    2017-01-01

    Methods: All population-based, cross-sectional studies and cohort studies from India which reported the stroke incidence rate or cumulative stroke incidence and/or the prevalence of stroke in participants from any age group were included. Electronic databases (Ovid, PubMed, Medline, Embase and IndMED were searched and studies published during 1960 to 2015 were included. A total of 3079 independent titles were identified for screening, of which 10 population-based cross-sectional studies were considered eligible for inclusion. Given the heterogeneity of the studies, meta-analysis was not carried out. Results: The cumulative incidence of stroke ranged from 105 to 152/100,000 persons per year, and the crude prevalence of stroke ranged from 44.29 to 559/100,000 persons in different parts of the country during the past decade. These values were higher than those of high-income countries. Interpretation & conclusions: A paucity of good-quality epidemiological studies on stroke in India emphasizes the need for a coordinated effort at both the State and national level to study the burden of stroke in India. Future investment in the population-based epidemiological studies on stroke would lead to better preventive measures against stroke and better rehabilitation measures for stroke-related disabilities in the country.

  9. Constipation - prevalence and incidence among medical patients acutely admitted to hospital with a medical condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noiesen, Eline; Trosborg, Ingelise; Bager, Louise

    2014-01-01

    To examine the prevalence and incidence of patient-reported symptoms of constipation in acutely hospitalised medical patients.......To examine the prevalence and incidence of patient-reported symptoms of constipation in acutely hospitalised medical patients....

  10. Worldwide prevalence and incidence of osteoporotic vertebral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballane, G; Cauley, J A; Luckey, M M; El-Hajj Fuleihan, G

    2017-05-01

    We investigated the prevalence and incidence of vertebral fractures worldwide. We used a systematic Medline search current to 2015 and updated as per authors' libraries. A total of 62 articles of fair to good quality and comparable methods for vertebral fracture identification were considered. The prevalence of morphometric vertebral fractures in European women is highest in Scandinavia (26%) and lowest in Eastern Europe (18%). Prevalence rates in North America (NA) for White women ≥50 are 20-24%, with a White/Black ratio of 1.6. Rates in women ≥50 years in Latin America are overall lower than Europe and NA (11-19%). In Asia, rates in women above ≥65 are highest in Japan (24%), lowest in Indonesia (9%), and in the Middle East, Lebanon, rates are 20%. The highest-lowest ratio between countries, within and across continents, varied from 1.4-2.6. Incidence data is less abundant and more heterogeneous. Age-standardized rates in studies combining hospitalized and ambulatory vertebral fractures are highest in South Korea, USA, and Hong Kong and lowest in the UK. Neither a North-South gradient nor a relation to urbanization is evident. Conversely, the incidence of hospitalized vertebral fractures in European patients ≥50 shows a North-South gradient with 3-3.7-fold variability. In the USA, rates in Whites are approximately 4-fold higher than in Blacks. Vertebral fractures variation worldwide is lower than observed with hip fractures, and some of highest rates are unexpectedly from Asia. Better quality representative studies are needed. We investigate the occurrence of vertebral fractures, worldwide, using published data current until the present. Worldwide, the variation in vertebral fractures is lower than observed for hip fractures. Some of the highest rates are from North America and unexpectedly Asia. The highest-lowest ratio between countries, within and across continents, varied from 1.4-2.6. Better quality representative data is needed.

  11. Drinking water fluoridation: bone mineral density and hip fracture incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, R; Wapniarz, M; Hofmann, B; Pieper, B; Haubitz, I; Allolio, B

    1998-03-01

    The role of drinking water fluoride content for prevention of osteoporosis remains controversial. Therefore, we analyzed the influence of drinking water fluoridation on the incidence of osteoporotic hip fractures and bone mineral density (BMD) in two different communities in eastern Germany: in Chemnitz, drinking water was fluoridated (1 mg/L) over a period of 30 years; in Halle, the water was not fluoridated. BMD was measured in healthy hospital employees aged 20-60 years (Halle: 214 women, 98 men; Chemnitz: 201 women, 43 men, respectively) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Hip fractures in patients > or = 35 years admitted to the local hospitals in the years 1987-1989 were collected from the clinic registers. There was no difference in age, anthropometric, hormonal, or lifestyle variables between the two groups. Mean fluoride exposure in Chemnitz was 25.2 +/- 7.3 years. No correlation was found between fluoride exposure and age-adjusted BMD. We found no significant difference in spinal or femoral BMD between subjects living in Halle and Chemnitz [lumbar spine: 0.997 +/- 0.129 (g/cm2) vs. 1.045 + 0.171 (g/cm2), p = 0.08, for men; 1.055 +/- 0.112 (g/cm2) vs. 1.046 +/- 0.117 (g/cm2), p = 0.47, for women]. The fracture incidence showed an exponential increase with aging in men and women with an incidence about 3.5 times higher for women. In Chemnitz, we calculated an age-adjusted annual incidence of 142.2 per 100,000 for women and 72.5 per 100,000 for men, respectively. In Halle, the incidences were 178.5 per 100,000 for women and 89.2 per 100,000 for men. There was a lower hip fracture incidence after the age of 85 in women in Chemnitz (1391 per 100,000 in Chemnitz vs. 1957 per 100,000) in Halle, p = 0.006). Using the age-adjusted incidences, significantly fewer hip fractures occurred in Chemnitz in both men and women. In conclusion, our study suggests that optimal drinking water fluoridation (1 mg/L), which is advocated for prevention of dental caries, does

  12. The incidence and prevalence of psychiatric disorders in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marrie, Ruth Ann; Reingold, Stephen; Cohen, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    -based studies, the prevalence of anxiety was 21.9% (95% CI: 8.76%-35.0%), while it was 14.8% for alcohol abuse, 5.83% for bipolar disorder, 23.7% (95% CI: 17.4%-30.0%) for depression, 2.5% for substance abuse, and 4.3% (95% CI: 0%-10.3%) for psychosis. CONCLUSION: This review confirms that psychiatric......BACKGROUND: Psychiatric comorbidity is associated with lower quality of life, more fatigue, and reduced adherence to disease-modifying therapy in multiple sclerosis (MS). OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this review are to estimate the incidence and prevalence of selected comorbid psychiatric...... disorders in MS and evaluate the quality of included studies. METHODS: We searched the PubMed, PsychInfo, SCOPUS, and Web of Knowledge databases and reference lists of retrieved articles. Abstracts were screened for relevance by two independent reviewers, followed by full-text review. Data were abstracted...

  13. Prevalence of osteoporosis and incidence of hip fracture in women - secular trends over 30 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sernbo Ingemar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of hip fractures during recent decades has been reported to be increasing, partly because of an increasing proportion of elderly women in the society. However, whether changes in hip fracture annual incidence in women are attributable to secular changes in the prevalence of osteoporosis is unclear. Methods Bone mineral density was evaluated by single-photon absorptiometry at the distal radius in 456 women aged 50 years or above and living in the same city. The measurements were obtained by the same densitometer during three separate time periods: 1970-74 (n = 106, 1987-93 (n = 175 and 1998-1999 (n = 178, and the age-adjusted prevalence of osteoporosis in these three cohorts was calculated. Additionally, all hip fractures sustained in the target population of women aged 50 years or above between 1967 and 2001 were registered, whereupon the crude and the age-adjusted annual incidence of hip fractures were calculated. Results There was no significant difference in the age-adjusted prevalence of osteoporosis when the three cohorts were compared (P = 1.00. The crude annual incidence (per 10,000 women of hip fracture in the target population increased by 110% from 40 in 1967 to 84 in 2001. The overall trend in the crude incidence between 1967 and 2001 was increasing (1.58 per 10,000 women per year; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.17 to 1.99, whereas the age-adjusted incidence was stable over the same period (0.22 per 10,000 women per year; 95 percent confidence interval, -0.16 to 0.60. Conclusions The increased number of hip fracture in elderly women is more likely to be attributable to demographic changes in the population than to secular increase in the prevalence of osteoporosis.

  14. Prevalence, Incidence and stability of premenstrual dysphoric disorder in the community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittchen, H.U.; Becker, E.S.; Lieb, R.; Krause, P.

    2002-01-01

    Background. Despite an abundance of clinical research on premenstrual and menstrual symptoms. few epidemiological data provide estimates of the prevalence, incidence, co-morbidity, stability and correlates of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) in the community. Aims. To describe the prevalence,

  15. Incidence and prevalence of pregnancy-related heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwa, Karen; Böhm, Michael

    2014-03-15

    Worldwide, the numbers of women who have a pre-existing cardiovascular disease or develop cardiac problems during pregnancy are increasing and, due to the lack of evidenced-based data, this provides challenges for the treating physician. Cardiovascular disease in pregnancy is a complex topic as women can present either pre- or post-partum, due to a pre-existing heart disease such as operated on or unoperated on congenital heart disease, valvular heart disease, chronic hypertension, or familial dilated cardiomyopathy. Women often present with symptoms and signs of acute heart failure. On the other hand, there are diseases which are directly related to pregnancy, such as hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and peripartum cardiomyopathy, or where pregnancy increases risk of a disease as, for example, the risk of myocardial infarction. These diseases can have long-term implications to the life of the affected women and their families. There is, in particular, a paucity of data from developing countries of this unique disease pattern and its presentations. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the incidence and prevalence of pregnancy-related cardiovascular disease in women presenting pre- or post-partum.

  16. The worldwide incidence and prevalence of systemic lupus erythematosus: a systematic review of epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Frances; Doherty, Michael; Grainge, Matthew J; Lanyon, Peter; Zhang, Weiya

    2017-11-01

    The aim was to review the worldwide incidence and prevalence of SLE and variation with age, sex, ethnicity and time. A systematic search of MEDLINE and EMBASE search engines was carried out using Medical Subject Headings and keyword search terms for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus combined with incidence, prevalence and epidemiology in August 2013 and updated in September 2016. Author, journal, year of publication, country, region, case-finding method, study period, number of incident or prevalent cases, incidence (per 100 000 person-years) or prevalence (per 100 000 persons) and age, sex or ethnic group-specific incidence or prevalence were collected. The highest estimates of incidence and prevalence of SLE were in North America [23.2/100 000 person-years (95% CI: 23.4, 24.0) and 241/100 000 people (95% CI: 130, 352), respectively]. The lowest incidences of SLE were reported in Africa and Ukraine (0.3/100 000 person-years), and the lowest prevalence was in Northern Australia (0 cases in a sample of 847 people). Women were more frequently affected than men for every age and ethnic group. Incidence peaked in middle adulthood and occurred later for men. People of Black ethnicity had the highest incidence and prevalence of SLE, whereas those with White ethnicity had the lowest incidence and prevalence. There appeared to be an increasing trend of SLE prevalence with time. There are worldwide differences in the incidence and prevalence of SLE that vary with sex, age, ethnicity and time. Further study of genetic and environmental risk factors may explain the reasons for these differences. More epidemiological studies in Africa are warranted. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  17. A systematic review of the incidence and prevalence of cancer in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marrie, Ruth Ann; Reider, Nadia; Cohen, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies of cancer incidence and prevalence in multiple sclerosis (MS) have produced conflicting results. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence and prevalence of cancer in persons with MS and review the quality of included studies. METHODS: We searched the PUBMED, SCOPUS, Web of Knowledge...

  18. Increasing prevalence despite decreasing incidence of ischeamic heart disease and myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Mette Bjerrum; Davidsen, Michael; Andersen, Lisbeth V.

    2015-01-01

    of these changes on the prevalence of IHD is not known. METHODS AND RESULTS: Changes in incidence and prevalence in 2000-2009 are presented, using nationwide data from public registers. An incident case is defined as a subject registered with a diagnosis of IHD/AMI and without a prior diagnosis for the past 20...... years (beginning in 1980). A prevalent case is defined as a subject surviving the first year after the incident diagnosis. Regarding IHD, age-standardised incidence rates declined significantly from 2000 to 2009 for both sexes (females 445 to 340/100,000, males 822 to 678/100,000), reflecting...

  19. Prevalence and incidence of epilepsy: A systematic review and meta-analysis of international studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiest, Kirsten M; Sauro, Khara M; Wiebe, Samuel; Patten, Scott B; Kwon, Churl-Su; Dykeman, Jonathan; Pringsheim, Tamara; Lorenzetti, Diane L; Jetté, Nathalie

    2017-01-17

    To review population-based studies of the prevalence and incidence of epilepsy worldwide and use meta-analytic techniques to explore factors that may explain heterogeneity between estimates. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses standards were followed. We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for articles published on the prevalence or incidence of epilepsy since 1985. Abstract, full-text review, and data abstraction were conducted in duplicate. Meta-analyses and meta-regressions were used to explore the association between prevalence or incidence, age group, sex, country level income, and study quality. A total of 222 studies were included (197 on prevalence, 48 on incidence). The point prevalence of active epilepsy was 6.38 per 1,000 persons (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 5.57-7.30), while the lifetime prevalence was 7.60 per 1,000 persons (95% CI 6.17-9.38). The annual cumulative incidence of epilepsy was 67.77 per 100,000 persons (95% CI 56.69-81.03) while the incidence rate was 61.44 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI 50.75-74.38). The prevalence of epilepsy did not differ by age group, sex, or study quality. The active annual period prevalence, lifetime prevalence, and incidence rate of epilepsy were higher in low to middle income countries. Epilepsies of unknown etiology and those with generalized seizures had the highest prevalence. This study provides a comprehensive synthesis of the prevalence and incidence of epilepsy from published international studies and offers insight into factors that contribute to heterogeneity between estimates. Significant gaps (e.g., lack of incidence studies, stratification by age groups) were identified. Standardized reporting of future epidemiologic studies of epilepsy is needed. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  20. Prevalence of Weight Problems among Youth with High-Incidence Disabilities in Residential Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trout, Alexandra L.; Lambert, Matthew C.; Nelson, Timothy D.; Thompson, Ronald W.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of weight problems among youth in general and youth in out-of-home care has been well documented; however, the prevalence of obesity/overweight among youth with high-incidence disabilities in more restrictive settings, such as residential care, has not been assessed. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of…

  1. Augmented Cross-Sectional Prevalence Testing for Estimating HIV Incidence

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, R.; Lagakos, S. W.

    2010-01-01

    Estimation of an HIV incidence rate based on a cross-sectional sample of individuals evaluated with both a sensitive and less-sensitive diagnostic test offers important advantages to incidence estimation based on a longitudinal cohort study. However, the reliability of the cross-sectional approach has been called into question because of two major concerns. One is the difficulty in obtaining a reliable external approximation for the mean “window period” between detectability of HIV infection ...

  2. Review article: the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori and the incidence of gastric cancer across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, S E; Morrison-Rees, S; Samuel, D G; Thorne, K; Akbari, A; Williams, J G

    2016-02-01

    There is little up-to-date review evidence on the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori across Europe. To establish regional and national patterns in H. pylori prevalence across Europe. Secondly, to establish trends over time in H. pylori prevalence and gastric cancer incidence and, thirdly, to report on the relationship between H. pylori prevalence and age group across Europe. A review of H. pylori prevalence from unselected surveys of adult or general populations across 35 European countries and four European regions since 1990. Secondly, an analysis of trends over time in H. pylori prevalence and in gastric cancer incidence from cancer registry data. Helicobacter pylori prevalence was lower in northern and western Europe than in eastern and southern Europe (P Europe from 1993 to 2007 was 2.1% with little variation regionally across Europe (north 2.2%, west 2.3%, east 1.9% and south 2.0%). Sharp increases in age-related prevalence of H. pylori often levelled off for middle age groups of about 50 years onwards, especially in areas with high prevalence. This review shows that H. pylori prevalence is much higher in less affluent regions of Europe and that age-related increases in prevalence are confined to younger age groups in some areas. There were sharp reductions in both H. pylori prevalence and gastric cancer incidence throughout Europe. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Prevalence and incidence of Parkinson's disease in The Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wermuth, Lene; Bech, Sara Brynhild Winther; Petersen, Maria Skaalum

    2008-01-01

    A study in The Faroe Islands in 1995 suggested a high prevalence of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) and total parkinsonism of 187.6 and 233.4 per 100,000 inhabitants respectively.......A study in The Faroe Islands in 1995 suggested a high prevalence of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) and total parkinsonism of 187.6 and 233.4 per 100,000 inhabitants respectively....

  4. Ethnic density of neighborhoods and incidence of psychotic disorders among immigrants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veling, Wim; Susser, Ezra; van Os, Jim; Mackenbach, Johan P; Selten, Jean-Paul; Hoek, Hans W

    OBJECTIVE: A high incidence of psychotic disorders has been reported in immigrant ethnic groups in Western Europe. Some studies suggest that ethnic density may influence the incidence of schizophrenia. The authors investigated whether this increased incidence among immigrants depends on the ethnic

  5. Contributions of incidence and persistence to the prevalence of childhood obesity during the emerging epidemic in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lise Geisler; Baker, Jennifer L; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2012-01-01

    Prevalence of obesity is the result of preceding incidence of newly developed obesity and persistence of obesity. We investigated whether increasing incidence and/or persistence during childhood drove the prevalence of childhood obesity during the emerging epidemic....

  6. Low bone mineral density and risk of incident fracture in HIV-infected adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battalora, Linda; Buchacz, Kate; Armon, Carl; Overton, Edgar T; Hammer, John; Patel, Pragna; Chmiel, Joan S; Wood, Kathy; Bush, Timothy J; Spear, John R; Brooks, John T; Young, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Prevalence rates of low bone mineral density (BMD) and bone fractures are higher among HIV-infected adults compared with the general United States (US) population, but the relationship between BMD and incident fractures in HIV-infected persons has not been well described. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) results of the femoral neck of the hip and clinical data were obtained prospectively during 2004-2012 from participants in two HIV cohort studies. Low BMD was defined by a T-score in the interval >-2.5 to fractures, adjusted for sociodemographics, other risk factors and covariables, using multivariable proportional hazards regression. Among 1,006 participants analysed (median age 43 years [IQR 36-49], 83% male, 67% non-Hispanic white, median CD4(+) T-cell count 461 cells/mm(3) [IQR 311-658]), 36% (n=358) had osteopenia and 4% (n=37) osteoporosis; 67 had a prior fracture documented. During 4,068 person-years of observation after DXA scanning, 85 incident fractures occurred, predominantly rib/sternum (n=18), hand (n=14), foot (n=13) and wrist (n=11). In multivariable analyses, osteoporosis (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 4.02, 95% CI 2.02, 8.01) and current/prior tobacco use (aHR 1.59, 95% CI 1.02, 2.50) were associated with incident fracture. In this large sample of HIV-infected adults in the US, low baseline BMD was significantly associated with elevated risk of incident fracture. There is potential value of DXA screening in this population.

  7. Incidence of HIV-1 infection and changes in prevalence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sexual risk behaviours and RTIs may have contributed to HIV-1 transmission in this community. The data collected may help to inform the future design and evaluation of various intervention measures. Keywords: Africa, bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis, chlamydia, epidemiological synergy, gonorrhoea, incidence, sequelae

  8. Distribution, incidence, prevalence and default of patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results. The study showed that the majority (38.7%) of patients with diabetes on the public sector register were from the district of eThekwini. Positive correlations were found between the prevalence of diabetes, the mortality rate and the number of defaulters (patients with diabetes who did not return for regular treatment).

  9. Incidence, prevalence and mortality of anorexia nervosa and other eating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, Hans Wijbrand

    Purpose of review The purpose of this review is to evaluate the recent literature on the incidence and prevalence of and mortality associated with eating disorders. Recent findings General-practice studies shove that the overall incidence rates of anorexia nervosa remained stable during the 1990s,

  10. Female Overweight and Obesity in Adolescence: Developmental Trends and Ethnic Differences in Prevalence, Incidence, and Remission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, David; Stice, Eric; Shaw, Heather; Boutelle, Kerri

    2012-01-01

    Despite substantial increases in the prevalence of adolescent overweight and obesity documented in recent decades, few studies have prospectively tracked their development during the entire adolescent period. The aims of this study were to characterize developmental trends in prevalence, incidence, and remission of overweight and obesity using…

  11. Correlation between malaria incidence and prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths in Colombia: an ecologic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, Carlos Andrés; Fernández, Julián Alfredo; Cucunubá, Zulma Milena; Reyes, Patricia; López, Myriam Consuelo; Duque, Sofía

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested an association between the soil-transmitted helminth infections and malaria incidence. However, published evidence is still insufficient and diverging. Since 1977, new ecologic studies have not been carried out to explore this association. Ecologic studies could explore this correlation on a population level, assessing its potential importance on public health. The aim of this evaluation is to explore the association between soil-transmitted helminths prevalence and malaria incidence, at an ecologic level in Colombia. Using data from the National Health Survey, which was carried out in 1980 in Colombia, we calculated Spearman correlation coefficients between the prevalence of: Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm, with the 1980 malaria incidence data of the same year provided from the Colombian Malaria National Eradication Service. A robust regression analysis with least trimmed squares was performed. Falciparum malaria incidence and Ascaris lumbricoides prevalence had a low correlation (R²= 0.086) but this correlation was stronger into the clusters of towns with prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides infection above 30% were only included (R²= 0.916). This work showed an ecologic correlation in Colombia between malaria incidence and soil-transmitted helminths prevalence. This could suggest that either there is an association between these two groups of parasites, or could be explained by the presence of common structural determinants for both diseases.

  12. Prevalence and incidence rate of injuries in runners at a local athletic club in Cape Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Hendricks

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available People across the world are running on a daily basis to improvetheir health status. However, running can predispose an individual to injuryto the back and lower limb. Baseline data on prevalence, incidence rate ofinjury and aetiological factors associated with running injuries are neededby physiotherapists to develop and implement effective prevention programmesto allow optimal performance in runners. Thus, the purpose of this study wasto determine the prevalence and incidence of injuries in runners at a localathletic club.Methods: A prospective, non-experimental cohort study was conductedover a 16 week period. A sample of 50 runners completed a self-administeredquestionnaire and an injury report form recording injuries sustained during the 16 week study period. Injury prevalence andcumulative incidence was calculated as a proportion rate along with 95% confidence interval.Results: The prevalence rate of injuries was 32%. The incidence rate of injuries was 0.67 per 1000km run (95% CI: 0.41- 1.08.The most common anatomical sites for new injuries were the calf (20% and the knee (18%.Conclusions: The study found a moderate prevalence and incidence rate of injury in runners, thus the need for physiotherapyledinjury surveillance and prevention programmes have been highlighted.

  13. Burden of type 2 diabetes in Mexico: past, current and future prevalence and incidence rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza, Rafael; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Tonatiuh; Rojas-Martinez, Rosalba; Reynoso-Noverón, Nancy; Palacio-Mejia, Lina Sofia; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio

    2015-12-01

    Mexico diabetes prevalence has increased dramatically in recent years. However, no national incidence estimates exist, hampering the assessment of diabetes trends and precluding the development of burden of disease analyses to inform public health policy decision-making. Here we provide evidence regarding current magnitude of diabetes in Mexico and its future trends. We used data from the Mexico National Health and Nutrition Survey, and age-period-cohort models to estimate prevalence and incidence of self-reported diagnosed diabetes by age, sex, calendar-year (1960-2012), and birth-cohort (1920-1980). We project future rates under three alternative incidence scenarios using demographic projections of the Mexican population from 2010-2050 and a Multi-cohort Diabetes Markov Model. Adult (ages 20+) diagnosed diabetes prevalence in Mexico increased from 7% to 8.9% from 2006 to 2012. Diabetes prevalence increases with age, peaking around ages 65-68 to then decrease. Age-specific incidence follows similar patterns, but peaks around ages 57-59. We estimate that diagnosed diabetes incidence increased exponentially during 1960-2012, roughly doubling every 10 years. Projected rates under three age-specific incidence scenarios suggest diabetes prevalence among adults (ages 20+) may reach 13.7-22.5% by 2050, affecting 15-25 million individuals, with a lifetime risk of 1 in 3 to 1 in 2. Diabetes prevalence in Mexico will continue to increase even if current incidence rates remain unchanged. Continued implementation of policies to reduce obesity rates, increase physical activity, and improve population diet, in tandem with diabetes surveillance and other risk control measures is paramount to substantially reduce the burden of diabetes in Mexico. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Prevalence and incidence of peptic ulcer disease in a Danish County--a prospective cohort study.

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenstock, S J; Jørgensen, T

    1995-01-01

    Peptic ulcer prevalence and five year incidence were assessed in a sex and age stratified population sample of 3608 Danish subjects aged 30-60 years. Statements of peptic ulcer disease obtained from questionnaires were scrutinised by reviewing medical records. Life time ulcer prevalence (95% confidence intervals) was 5.6 (4.9-6.4) per cent. Male to female prevalence ratio was 2.2:1, and duodenal to gastric ulcer prevalence ratio was 3.8:1. Thirty two participants with no previous history of p...

  15. Prevalence, incidence and progression of lumbar spondylosis by gender and age strata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraki, Shigeyuki; Yoshimura, Noriko; Akune, Toru; Tanaka, Sakae; Takahashi, Ikuno; Fujiwara, Saeko

    2014-07-01

    To identify the prevalence, incidence and progression of radiographic lumbar spondylosis (LS). From the Adult Health Study conducted by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, 1,204 participants aged 44-85 years who had lumbar spine radiographs in 1990-1992 were reexamined in 1998-2000 (mean 7.9-year interval). The radiographic severity of LS was determined by Kellgren/Lawrence (KL) grading. In the overall population, the prevalence of radiographic KL ≥ 2 and ≥ 3 LS was 52.9% and 23.6%, respectively. KL ≥ 2 LS was more prevalent in men, whereas KL ≥ 3 LS was more prevalent in women. During the 8-year follow-up, the incidence of KL ≥ 2 LS in men and women was 65.5% and 46.6%, that of KL ≥ 3 LS was 27.3% and 29.5%, that of progressive LS was 31.3% and 34.0%, and multilevel LS was 44.9% and 33.4%, respectively. Body-mass index was a risk factor for both KL ≥ 2 and KL ≥ 3 LS, after adjusting for age and sex. The present longitudinal study revealed the prevalence, incidence and progression of radiographic LS. Prevalence and incidence of KL ≥ 2 LS was higher in men than women, while, those of KL ≥ 3 were similar between men and women.

  16. Schistosomiasis mansoni incidence data in Rwanda can improve prevalence assessments, by providing high-resolution hotspot and risk factors identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyandwi, E; Veldkamp, A; Amer, S; Karema, C; Umulisa, I

    2017-10-25

    Schistosomiasis mansoni constitutes a significant public health problem in Rwanda. The nationwide prevalence mapping conducted in 2007-2008 revealed that prevalence per district ranges from 0 to 69.5% among school children. In response, mass drug administration campaigns were initiated. However, a few years later some additional small-scale studies revealed the existence of areas of high transmission in districts formerly classified as low endemic suggesting the need for a more accurate methodology for identification of hotspots. This study investigated if confirmed cases of schistosomiasis recorded at health facility level can be used to, next to existing prevalence data, detect geographically more accurate hotspots of the disease and its associated risk factors. A GIS-based spatial and statistical analysis was carried out. Confirmed cases, recorded at primary health facilities level, were combined with demographic data to calculate incidence rates for each of 367 health facility service area. Empirical Bayesian smoothing was used to deal with rate instability. Incidence rates were compared with prevalence data to identify their level of agreement. Spatial autocorrelation of the incidence rates was analyzed using Moran's Index, to check if spatial clustering occurs. Finally, the spatial relationship between schistosomiasis distribution and potential risk factors was assessed using multiple regression. Incidence rates for 2007-2008 were highly correlated with prevalence values (R 2  = 0.79), indicating that in the case of Rwanda incidence data can be used as a proxy for prevalence data. We observed a focal distribution of schistosomiasis with a significant spatial autocorrelation (Moran's I > 0: 0,05-0.20 and p ≤ 0,05), indicating the occurrence of hotspots. Regarding risk factors, it was identified that the spatial pattern of schistosomiasis is significantly associated with wetland conditions and rice cultivation. In Rwanda the high density of health

  17. The prevalence and incidence of glaucoma in Denmark in a fifteen year period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolko, Miriam; Horwitz, Anna; Thygesen, John

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study was to describe the prevalence, incidence and geographic variation of glaucoma in Denmark in the period from 1996 to 2011. Moreover, the aim was to identify the treatment patterns of glaucoma within the studied period. METHODS: All Danish citizens were...... included throughout the study period. The National Prescription Registry was used to identify all claimed prescriptions for glaucoma medication. RESULTS: A total of 116,592 incident glaucoma patients were identified. Average age at onset was 66 years (range: 0-105 years), 55% were women. The prevalence...... of glaucoma increased from 0.79% to 1.72% during the investigated period. In 2011 glaucoma affected 3.76% of the population above 50 years and 10% in patients above 80 years. The age-specific incidence rate of glaucoma seemed to be constant and the increasing prevalence was primarily attributed to an aging...

  18. [Chronic renal disease in Puerto Rico: incidence, prevalence, and mortality in 2000-2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Ortiz, Ylene D; Miranda, Glenda; Burgos Calderón, Rafael; Depine, Santos; Ojo, Otegbola

    2011-01-01

    End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) is a global public health problem. Although there are strategies for its prevention, the number of cases has increased. In order to understand current situation in Puerto Rico (PR) we review available data, which is presented in a descriptive report of the incidence, prevalence and mortality of ESRD during the period 2000-2008. In addition, we compare the incidence and prevalence rates with regard to other countries. We used 2000-2008 USRDS statistics and the QIRN3 for patients on dialysis. Transplanted patients were excluded. Crude rates of incidence and prevalence in PR were calculated for comparison with the United States and other countries. Percentages were calculated to describe the demographic characteristics and primary diagnosis in 2008. During the period 2000-2008 the incidence rate increased by 21.6 percent; from 286.8 to 348.7 pmp. The prevalence rate increased by 27.3 percent; from 861.2 to 1096.2 pmp. The average annual growth in the incidence and prevalence was 2.4 percent and 3.0 percent respectively. During the same period, diabetes mellitus was the leading cause of ESRD reaching 67.4 percent of total new cases in 2008, while in the U.S. was 44.4 percent. Unadjusted mortality decreased slightly in 2008 to 18.5 percent. PR is the fifth country with the highest incidence of patient on dialysis and the first with ESRD due to diabetes mellitus. ESRD is becoming more common and prevalent in PR. We should be more aggressive in establishing public health strategies to reduce ESRD.

  19. Incidence and prevalence of head lice in a district health authority area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J; Crawshaw, J G; Millership, S

    2003-09-01

    There are very few recent studies of the incidence and prevalence of head lice in the UK. A population-based questionnaire survey was carried out in a district health authority area. Two hundred and four of 235 primary schools (87%) agreed to participate. A total of 21,556 of 43,889 (49%) questionnaires were returned by parents. Overall 438 children had head lice at the time of the survey, giving a prevalence of 2.03%; 8,059 had had lice at some time in the last year giving an annual incidence of 37.4%.

  20. Global and Regional Estimates of Prevalent and Incident Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Infections in 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine J Looker

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 commonly causes orolabial ulcers, while HSV-2 commonly causes genital ulcers. However, HSV-1 is an increasing cause of genital infection. Previously, the World Health Organization estimated the global burden of HSV-2 for 2003 and for 2012. The global burden of HSV-1 has not been estimated.We fitted a constant-incidence model to pooled HSV-1 prevalence data from literature searches for 6 World Health Organization regions and used 2012 population data to derive global numbers of 0-49-year-olds with prevalent and incident HSV-1 infection. To estimate genital HSV-1, we applied values for the proportion of incident infections that are genital.We estimated that 3709 million people (range: 3440-3878 million aged 0-49 years had prevalent HSV-1 infection in 2012 (67%, with highest prevalence in Africa, South-East Asia and Western Pacific. Assuming 50% of incident infections among 15-49-year-olds are genital, an estimated 140 million (range: 67-212 million people had prevalent genital HSV-1 infection, most of which occurred in the Americas, Europe and Western Pacific.The global burden of HSV-1 infection is huge. Genital HSV-1 burden can be substantial but varies widely by region. Future control efforts, including development of HSV vaccines, should consider the epidemiology of HSV-1 in addition to HSV-2, and especially the relative contribution of HSV-1 to genital infection.

  1. Reasons for discrepancy between incidence and prevalence of epilepsy in lower income countries: Epilepsia's survey results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathern, Gary W; Beninsig, Laurie; Nehlig, Astrid

    2015-02-01

    From July to August 2014, Epilepsia conducted an online survey seeking opinions that explained the discrepancy between the incidence and prevalence of epilepsy in lower income countries. Data on cumulative incidence suggest a higher rate of active epilepsy than reported in lifetime prevalence surveys. This study reports the findings of that poll addressing the proposal in our Controversy in Epilepsy series that it could be from increased death rates. The survey consisted of a question addressing possible reasons to explain the discrepancy between the incidence and prevalence of epilepsy. Another four questions addressed demographic information. There were 34 responders who completed the survey. Half (50%) of the responders felt that the discrepancy between cumulative incidence and lifetime prevalence was due to lack of uniform definitions and misclassification of patients in study design, 23.5% said the discrepancy was due to a higher mortality from diseases and conditions such as trauma and infections associated with epilepsy, 23.5% indicated that the stigma of epilepsy prevented people from acknowledging their disease in prevalence surveys, and 2.9% felt it was from poor access to qualified medical personal and utilization of medical treatments that increased death rates directly related to epilepsy. Within the limitations of sample size, the results of this survey support that the discrepancy between the incidence and prevalence of epilepsy in lower income regions of the world is due to problems in acquiring the data and stigma rather than higher mortality from diseases associated with epilepsy and repeated seizures. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 International League Against Epilepsy.

  2. Estimates of global HIV/AIDS mortality, prevalence and incidence rates, and their association with the Human Development Index

    OpenAIRE

    Kamyar Mansori; Erfan Ayubi; Fatemeh Khosravi Shadmani; Shiva Mansouri Hanis; Somayeh Khazaei; Mohadeseh Sani; Yousef Moradi; Salman Khazaei; Abolfazl Mohammadbeigi

    2017-01-01

    Background: HIV/AIDS is one of greatest global public health concerns today due to the high incidence, prevalence and mortality rates. The aim of this research was investigate and estimate the global HIV/AIDS mortality, prevalence and incidence rates, and explore their associations with the Human Development Index. Methods: The global age-standardized rates of mortality, prevalence and incidence of HIV/AIDS were obtained from the UNAIDS for different countries in 2015. The human developm...

  3. Estimating incidence from prevalence in generalised HIV epidemics: methods and validation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy B Hallett

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available HIV surveillance of generalised epidemics in Africa primarily relies on prevalence at antenatal clinics, but estimates of incidence in the general population would be more useful. Repeated cross-sectional measures of HIV prevalence are now becoming available for general populations in many countries, and we aim to develop and validate methods that use these data to estimate HIV incidence.Two methods were developed that decompose observed changes in prevalence between two serosurveys into the contributions of new infections and mortality. Method 1 uses cohort mortality rates, and method 2 uses information on survival after infection. The performance of these two methods was assessed using simulated data from a mathematical model and actual data from three community-based cohort studies in Africa. Comparison with simulated data indicated that these methods can accurately estimates incidence rates and changes in incidence in a variety of epidemic conditions. Method 1 is simple to implement but relies on locally appropriate mortality data, whilst method 2 can make use of the same survival distribution in a wide range of scenarios. The estimates from both methods are within the 95% confidence intervals of almost all actual measurements of HIV incidence in adults and young people, and the patterns of incidence over age are correctly captured.It is possible to estimate incidence from cross-sectional prevalence data with sufficient accuracy to monitor the HIV epidemic. Although these methods will theoretically work in any context, we have able to test them only in southern and eastern Africa, where HIV epidemics are mature and generalised. The choice of method will depend on the local availability of HIV mortality data.

  4. Prevalence and incidence of multiple sclerosis in central Poland, 2010-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brola, Waldemar; Sobolewski, Piotr; Flaga, Stanisław; Fudala, Małgorzata; Szczuchniak, Wiktor; Stoiński, Jan; Rosołowska, Anita; Wójcik, Jacek; Kapica-Topczewska, Katarzyna; Ryglewicz, Danuta

    2016-08-11

    Comprehensive epidemiologic data for multiple sclerosis (MS) in Poland are limited. The aim of this cross-sectional population-based study was to determine the incidence and prevalence of MS in the Swietokrzyskie Region (central Poland). This study identified MS cases every year between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2014. The study area population on the prevalence day (December 31, 2014) was 1,263,176 (646,506 women and 616,670 men). A total of 1462 patients with a clinically definite diagnosis of MS according to McDonald's criteria (2005), recorded in the Polish Multiple Sclerosis Registry, were considered for estimation of crude, age- and sex-specific prevalence, and incidence. The overall crude prevalence rate of confirmed MS patients was 115.7/100,000 (95 % confidence interval (CI), 111.2-121.4). A significantly higher prevalence was recorded in females (159.6/100,000; 95 % CI, 151.1-165.3) than in males (69.7/100,000; 95 % CI, 62.4-77.3) (P < 0.001). Age-adjusted rates for the Polish and European Standard Population were 109.8/100,000 (95 % CI, 105.4-114.8) and 106.6/100,000 (95 % CI, 101.1-111.2), respectively. The female/male ratio was 2.4. The mean annual incidence was 4.2/100,000 (95 % CI. 3.7-4.4). The incidence and prevalence of MS in the Swietokrzyskie region confirm that central Poland is a high risk area for MS. Compared with previous epidemiologic studies from Poland, the prevalence of MS has increased during recent years.

  5. A systematic review of the incidence and prevalence of comorbidity in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marrie, Ruth Ann; Cohen, Jeffrey; Stuve, Olaf

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Comorbidity is an area of increasing interest in multiple sclerosis (MS). OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review is to estimate the incidence and prevalence of comorbidity in people with MS and assess the quality of included studies. METHODS: We searched the PubMed, SCOPUS, EMBASE...

  6. 77 FR 2072 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Prevalence, Incidence, Epidemiology and Molecular Variants...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Prevalence, Incidence, Epidemiology and Molecular Variants of HIV in Blood Donors in Brazil... 1995, for opportunity for public comment on proposed data collection projects, the National Heart, Lung...

  7. Incidence and prevalence of cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis in a Norwegian community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Plessen, C; Grinde, O; Gulsvik, A

    2003-01-01

    This study assesses the incidence and prevalence of cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis (CFA) in a well-defined and stable Norwegian population of 250,000 inhabitants during a period of 15 years. We conducted a file survey of all patients (n = 376) aged 16 years or older with a clinician's diagnosis...

  8. Prevalence, 20-month incidence and outcome of unipolar depressive disorders in a community sample of adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldehinkel, AJ; Wittchen, HU; Schuster, P

    Background. This article presents prospective longitudinal findings on prevalence, incidence, patterns of change and stability of depressive disorders in a community sample of 1228 adolescents. Methods. Data were collected at baseline and follow-up (20 months later) in a representative population

  9. Prevalence and Incidence of Myocardial Infarction and Cerebrovascular Accident in Ageing Persons with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, J.; Rozeboom, W.; Penning, C.; Evenhuis, H. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological information on age-related cardiovascular disease in people with intellectual disability (ID) is scarce and inconclusive. We compared prevalence and incidence of cerebrovascular accident and myocardial infarction over age 50 in a residential population with ID to that in a general practice population. Method: Lifetime…

  10. Incidence and prevalence of patellofemoral pain: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin E Smith

    Full Text Available Patellofemoral pain is considered one of the most common forms of knee pain, affecting adults, adolescents, and physically active populations. Inconsistencies in reported incidence and prevalence exist and in relation to the allocation of healthcare and research funding, there is a clear need to accurately understand the epidemiology of patellofemoral pain.An electronic database search was conducted, as well as grey literature databases, from inception to June 2017. Two authors independently selected studies, extracted data and appraised methodological quality. If heterogeneous, data were analysed descriptively. Where studies were homogeneous, data were pooled through a meta-analysis.23 studies were included. Annual prevalence for patellofemoral pain in the general population was reported as 22.7%, and adolescents as 28.9%. Incidence rates in military recruits ranged from 9.7-571.4/1,000 person-years, amateur runners in the general population at 1080.5/1,000 person-years and adolescents amateur athletes 5.1%-14.9% over 1 season. One study reported point prevalence within military populations as 13.5%. The pooled estimate for point prevalence in adolescents was 7.2% (95% Confidence Interval: 6.3%-8.3%, and in female only adolescent athletes was 22.7% (95% Confidence Interval 17.4%-28.0%.This review demonstrates high incidence and prevalence levels for patellofemoral pain. Within the context of this, and poor long term prognosis and high disability levels, PFP should be an urgent research priority.CRD42016038870.

  11. Prevalence and incidence of COPD in smokers and non-smokers: the Rotterdam Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzikhan, Natalie; Verhamme, Katia M C; Hofman, Albert; Stricker, Bruno H; Brusselle, Guy G; Lahousse, Lies

    2016-08-01

    COPD is the third leading cause of death in the world and its global burden is predicted to increase further. Even though the prevalence of COPD is well studied, only few studies examined the incidence of COPD in a prospective and standardized manner. In a prospective population-based cohort study (Rotterdam Study) enrolling subjects aged ≥45, COPD was diagnosed based on a pre-bronchodilator obstructive spirometry (FEV1/FVC smokers. The proportion of female COPD participants without a history of smoking was 27.2 %, while this proportion was 7.3 % in males. The prevalence of COPD in the Rotterdam Study is 4.7 % and the overall incidence is approximately 9/1000 PY, with a higher incidence in males and in smokers. The proportion of never-smokers among female COPD cases is substantial.

  12. Incidence and Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Injury in Ballet: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Preston J; Gerrie, Brayden J; Varner, Kevin E; McCulloch, Patrick C; Lintner, David M; Harris, Joshua D

    2015-07-01

    Most published studies on injuries in the ballet dancer focus on the lower extremity. The rigors of this activity require special training and care. By understanding prevalence and injury pattern to the musculoskeletal system, targeted prevention and treatment for this population can be developed. To determine the incidence and prevalence of musculoskeletal injuries in ballet. Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4. A systematic review registered with PROSPERO was performed using PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. Level 1 through 4 evidence studies reporting incidence of musculoskeletal injuries in male and female ballet dancers were included, with the numbers and types of injuries extracted from each. Injury rates were recorded and calculated based on professional status, sex, and nature of injury. Incidence was defined as number of injuries sustained over a specific time. Prevalence was defined as proportion of subjects with an injury at a given point in time. The studies analyzed reported injury incidence or prevalence in more than 1365 amateur and 900 professional dancers. The mean age was 16.2 years among amateur and 27.0 years among professional dancers. The incidence of injury among amateur dancers was 0.99 and 1.09 injuries per 1000 dance hours in males and females, respectively; 75% of injuries were overuse, with similar rates among males and females. In professional dancers, the incidence of injury was 1.06 and 1.46 injuries per 1000 dance hours in males and females, respectively, and 64% of female injuries were overuse, compared with 50% in males (P ballet dancers is 0.97 and 1.24 injuries per 1000 dance hours, respectively. The majority are overuse in both amateur and professional dancers, with amateur ballet dancers showing a higher proportion of overuse injuries than professionals (P < .001). Male professional dancers show a higher proportion of traumatic injuries, accounting for half of their

  13. A Spanish multicenter study to estimate the prevalence and incidence of chronic pancreatitis and its complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Enrique Domínguez-Muñoz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: No nation-wide epidemiological study on the incidence and prevalence of chronic pancreatitis (CP had been thus far carried out in Spain. Our goal is to estimate the prevalence and incidence of CP, as well as to determine the diagnostic and therapeutic criteria used in Spanish pancreas units. Methods: An observarional, descriptive study of hospital pancreas units in Spain. CP-related epidemiology, etiology, manifestations, diagnostic tests, functional complications, and treatments were all assessed using a structured questionnaire. Overall results were estimated by weighting cases in each site. Results: Information was collected from six pancreas units with a sample frame of 1,900,751 inhabitants. Overall prevalence was 49.3 cases per 10(5 population (95 % CI, 46 to 52 and incidence was 5.5 cases per 10(5 inhabitant-years (95 % CI, 5.4 to 5.6. Most common etiologies included tobacco and alcoholism, which were associated with three in every four cases. The most prevalent symptoms were recurring pain (48.8 % and chronic abdominal pain (30.6 %. The most widely used diagnostic method was echoendoscopy (79.8 %, CT (computerized tomography (58.7 %, and MRI (magnetic resonance imaging/MRCP (magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (55.9 %. Most prevalent morphologic findings included calcifications (35 % and pseudocysts (27 %. Exocrine (38.8 % and endocrine (35.2 % pancreatic insufficiency had both a similar frequency. Treatments used were rather heterogeneous among sites, with enzyme replacement therapy (40.7 % and insulin (30.9 % being most commonly used. Conclusions: Pancreas units amass a significant number of both prevalent and incident CP cases. Patients seen in these units share a similar typology, and differences between units are greater regarding diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

  14. Prevalence and strength of density-dependent tree recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai Zhu; Christopher W. Woodall; Joao V.D. Monteiro; James S. Clark

    2015-01-01

    Density dependence could maintain diversity in forests, but studies continue to disagree on its role. Part of the disagreement results from the fact that different studies have evaluated different responses (survival, recruitment, or growth) of different stages (seeds, seedlings, or adults) to different inputs (density of seedlings, density or distance to adults). Most...

  15. Incidence and prevalence of nutritional and hereditary rickets in southern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck-Nielsen, Signe; Jacobsen, Bendt; Gram, Jeppe

    2009-01-01

    Objective To estimate the incidence of nutritional rickets and the incidence and prevalence of hereditary rickets. Design Population-based retrospective cohort study based on a review of medical records. Methods Patients aged 0-14.9 years referred to or discharged from hospitals in Southern Denmark...... from 1985 to 2005 with a diagnosis of rickets were identified by register search and their medical records were retrieved. Patients fulfilling the diagnostic criteria of primary rickets were included. Results We identified 112 patients with nutritional rickets of whom 74% were immigrants. From 1995......-2005 the average incidence of nutritional rickets in children aged 0-14.9 years and 0-2.9 years was 2.9 and 5.8 per 100,000 per year, respectively. Among immigrant children born in Denmark the average incidence was 60 (0-14.9 years) per 100,000 per year. Ethnic Danish children were only diagnosed in early...

  16. Incidence and prevalence of Crohn's disease in the county of Copenhagen, 1962-87

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, P; Langholz, E; Nielsen, O H

    1992-01-01

    The incidence of Crohn's disease increased sixfold from 1962 to 1987 in the county of Copenhagen. The mean annual incidence for 1979-87 was 4.1 per 10(5) inhabitants. The increase was found equally in both sexes, with an approximately 40% higher incidence in women. The maximal incidence was found...... in the 15- to 24-year age group, being 12.8 per 10(5) per year for women and 6.0 per 10(5) per year for men, as mean of the period 1979-87. The prevalence at the end of the study was 54 per 10(5) inhabitants, 46 per 10(5) in men and 63 per 10(5) in women. The clinical appearance of the disease at the time...

  17. Increasing prevalence and high incidence of celiac disease in elderly people: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilppula, Anitta; Kaukinen, Katri; Luostarinen, Liisa; Krekelä, Ilkka; Patrikainen, Heikki; Valve, Raisa; Mäki, Markku; Collin, Pekka

    2009-06-29

    Celiac disease may emerge at any age, but little is known of its appearance in elderly people. We evaluated the prevalence of the condition in individuals over 55 years of age, and determined the incidence of biopsy-proven celiac disease (CDb) and celiac disease including seropositive subjects for anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies (CDb+s). The study based on prevalence figures in 2815 randomly selected subjects who had undergone a clinical examination and serologic screening for celiac disease in 2002. A second screening in the same population was carried out in 2005, comprising now 2216 individuals. Positive tissue transglutaminase antibodies were confirmed with small bowel biopsy. Within three years the prevalence of CDb increased from 2.13 to 2.34%, and that of CDb+s from 2.45 to 2.70%. Five new cases were found among patients previously seronegative; two had minor abdominal symptoms and three were asymptomatic. The incidence of celiac disease in 2002-2005 was 0.23%, giving an annual incidence of 0.08% in this population. The prevalence of celiac disease was high in elderly people, but the symptoms were subtle. Repeated screening detected five biopsy-proven cases in three years, indicating that the disorder may develop even in the elderly. Increased alertness to the disorder is therefore warranted.

  18. Increasing prevalence and high incidence of celiac disease in elderly people: A population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilppula Anitta

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Celiac disease may emerge at any age, but little is known of its appearance in elderly people. We evaluated the prevalence of the condition in individuals over 55 years of age, and determined the incidence of biopsy-proven celiac disease (CDb and celiac disease including seropositive subjects for anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies (CDb+s. Methods The study based on prevalence figures in 2815 randomly selected subjects who had undergone a clinical examination and serologic screening for celiac disease in 2002. A second screening in the same population was carried out in 2005, comprising now 2216 individuals. Positive tissue transglutaminase antibodies were confirmed with small bowel biopsy. Results Within three years the prevalence of CDb increased from 2.13 to 2.34%, and that of CDb+s from 2.45 to 2.70%. Five new cases were found among patients previously seronegative; two had minor abdominal symptoms and three were asymptomatic. The incidence of celiac disease in 2002–2005 was 0.23%, giving an annual incidence of 0.08% in this population. Conclusion The prevalence of celiac disease was high in elderly people, but the symptoms were subtle. Repeated screening detected five biopsy-proven cases in three years, indicating that the disorder may develop even in the elderly. Increased alertness to the disorder is therefore warranted.

  19. Prevalence, incidence, and risk factors for shoulder and neck dysfunction after neck dissection: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gane, E M; Michaleff, Z A; Cottrell, M A; McPhail, S M; Hatton, A L; Panizza, B J; O'Leary, S P

    2017-07-01

    Shoulder pain and dysfunction may occur following neck dissection among people being treated for head and neck cancer. This systematic review aims to examine the prevalence and incidence of shoulder and neck dysfunction after neck dissection and identify risk factors for these post-operative complications. Electronic databases (Pubmed, CINAHL, EMBASE, Cochrane) were searched for articles including adults undergoing neck dissection for head and neck cancer. Studies that reported prevalence, incidence or risk factors for an outcome of the shoulder or neck were eligible and assessed using the Critical Review Form - Quantitative Studies. Seventy-five articles were included in the final review. Prevalence rates for shoulder pain were slightly higher after RND (range, 10-100%) compared with MRND (range, 0-100%) and SND (range, 9-25%). The incidence of reduced shoulder active range of motion depended on surgery type (range, 5-20%). The prevalence of reduced neck active range of motion after neck dissection was 1-13%. Type of neck dissection was a risk factor for shoulder pain, reduced function and health-related quality of life. The prevalence and incidence of shoulder and neck dysfunction after neck dissection varies by type of surgery performed and measure of dysfunction used. Pre-operative education for patients undergoing neck dissection should acknowledge the potential for post-operative shoulder and neck problems to occur and inform patients that accessory nerve preservation lowers, but does not eliminate, the risk of developing musculoskeletal complications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  20. Breast Density and Breast Cancer Incidence in the Lebanese Population: Results from a Retrospective Multicenter Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Salem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To study the distribution of breast mammogram density in Lebanese women and correlate it with breast cancer (BC incidence. Methods. Data from 1,049 women who had screening or diagnostic mammography were retrospectively reviewed. Age, menopausal status, contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy (HRT, parity, breastfeeding, history of BC, breast mammogram density, and final BI-RADS assessment were collected. Breast density was analyzed in each age category and compared according to factors that could influence breast density and BC incidence. Results. 120 (11.4% patients had BC personal history with radiation and/or chemotherapy; 66 patients were postmenopausal under HRT. Mean age was 52.58±11.90 years. 76.4% of the patients (30–39 years had dense breasts. Parity, age, and menopausal status were correlated to breast density whereas breastfeeding and personal/family history of BC and HRT were not. In multivariate analysis, it was shown that the risk of breast cancer significantly increases 3.3% with age (P=0.005, 2.5 times in case of menopause (P=0.004, and 1.4 times when breast density increases (P=0.014. Conclusion. Breast density distribution in Lebanon is similar to the western society. Similarly to other studies, it was shown that high breast density was statistically related to breast cancer, especially in older and menopausal women.

  1. Incidence, prevalence, and mortality of insulin-dependent (type 1) diabetes mellitus in Lithuanian children during 1983-98

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urbonaite, Brone; Zalinkevicius, Rimas; Green, Anders

    2002-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Our purpose is to analyze interrelations of the incidence, prevalence and mortality of childhood-onset insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (type 1) in Lithuania. METHODS: Incidence and prevalence rates were based on the national type 1 diabetes register during 1983-98. The cohort...

  2. Epidemiology of stroke in the elderly in the Nordic countries. Incidence, survival, prevalence and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torgeir Engstad

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To review what is known at present with respect to incidence, survival, risk factors and prevalence among the elderly stroke patients in the Nordic countries.Method: This article is based mainly on literature identified through search engines (Mc Master Plus, Cochrane Library, Medline and PubMed, restricted to first-ever stroke in Nordic population-based studies and having applied to the standard WHO definition, a prospective study design and no upper age limit.Results: Data from the Nordic countries show an incidence rate of 1250 to 1796/100 000 in the age group 75-84, and 1628 to 2234 in those above 85 years. The incidence rates are higher among men, but women are expected to contribute more to incident cases due to their higher life expectancy. If the age-specific incidence of stroke remains stable, the proportion of stroke patients aged 80 years and older may reach 50% in a few decades. The elderly stroke patients have a higher 30-days case fatality, and a higher risk of dependency. Better treatment of stroke patients has improved the survival over the last two decades. The prevalence is expected to increase due to the decrease in lethality, a slower fall in incidence and a higher proportion of elderly. Cardiovascular risk factors increase with age. Hypertension is a major risk factor for stroke mortality in the elderly. Cardioembolic stroke due to atrial fibrillation is the most common stroke subtype in the elderly. Lifestyle risk factors are less prevalent in the older stroke patients.Conclusion: The growing proportion of elderly stroke patients is a major challenge for future stroke care. The elderly stroke patients have a different risk factor profile compared to younger stroke patients. Treatment should focus on regaining independency. The age-specific epidemiology of stroke needs to be studied further in large studies in order to plan for future health care.

  3. Acromegaly incidence, prevalence, complications and long-term prognosis: a nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal, Jakob; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Andersen, Marianne; Kristensen, Lars Ø; Laurberg, Peter; Pedersen, Lars; Dekkers, Olaf M; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Jørgensen, Jens Otto L

    2016-09-01

    Valid data on acromegaly incidence, complications and mortality are scarce. The Danish Health Care System enables nationwide studies with complete follow-up and linkage among health-related databases to assess acromegaly incidence, prevalence, complications and mortality in a population-based cohort study. All incident cases of acromegaly in Denmark (1991-2010) were identified from health registries and validated by chart review. We estimated the annual incidence rate of acromegaly per 10(6) person-years (py) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). For every patient, 10 persons were sampled from the general population as a comparison cohort. Cox regression and hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were used. Mean age at diagnosis (48.7 years (CI: 95%: 47.2-50.1)) and annual incidence rate (3.8 cases/10(6) persons (95% CI: 3.6-4.1)) among the 405 cases remained stable. The prevalence in 2010 was 85 cases/10(6) persons. The patients were at increased risk of diabetes mellitus (HR: 4.0 (95% CI: 2.7-5.8)), heart failure (HR: 2.5 (95% CI: 1.4-4.5)), venous thromboembolism (HR: 2.3 (95% CI: 1.1-5.0)), sleep apnoea (HR: 11.7 (95% CI: 7.0-19.4)) and arthropathy (HR: 2.1 (95% CI: 1.6-2.6)). The complication risk was also increased before the diagnosis of acromegaly. Overall mortality risk was elevated (HR: 1.3 (95% CI: 1.0-1.7)) but uninfluenced by treatment modality. (i) The incidence rate and age at diagnosis of acromegaly have been stable over decades, and the prevalence is higher than previously reported. (ii) The risk of complications is very high even before the diagnosis. (iii) Mortality risk remains elevated but uninfluenced by mode of treatment. © 2016 European Society of Endocrinology.

  4. Incidence and prevalence of elite male cricket injuries using updated consensus definitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orchard JW

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available John W Orchard, Alex Kountouris, Kevin Sims National Cricket Centre, Cricket Australia, Brisbane, Australia Background: T20 (Twenty20 or 20 over cricket has emerged in the last decade as the most popular form of cricket (in terms of spectator attendances. International consensus cricket definitions, first published in 2005, were updated in 2016 to better reflect the rise to prominence of T20 cricket.  Methods: Injury incidence and prevalence rates were calculated using the new international methods and units for elite senior male Australian cricketers over the past decade (season 2006–2007 to season 2015–2016 inclusive.  Results: Over the past 10 seasons, average match injury incidence, for match time-loss injuries, was 155 injuries/1,000 days of play, with the highest daily rates in 50-over cricket, followed by 20-over cricket and First-Class matches. Annual injury incidence was 64 injuries/100 players per season, and average annual injury prevalence was 12.5% (although fast bowlers averaged 20.6%, much higher than other positions. The most common injury was the hamstring strain (seasonal incidence 8.7 injuries/100 players per season. The most prevalent injury was lumbar stress fractures (1.9% of players unavailable at all times owing to these injuries, which represents 15% of all missed playing time.  Discussion: The hamstring strain has emerged from being one of the many common injuries in elite cricket a decade ago to being clearly the most common injury in the sport at the elite level. This is presumably in association with increased T20 cricket. Lumbar stress fractures in fast bowlers are still the most prevalent injury in the sport of cricket at the elite level, although these injuries are more associated with high workloads arising from the longer forms of the game. Domestic and international matches have very similar match injury incidence rates across the formats, but injury prevalence is higher in international players as

  5. Sex Differences in Stroke Incidence, Prevalence, Mortality and Disability-Adjusted Life Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barker-Collo, Suzanne; Bennett, Derrick A; Krishnamurthi, Rita V

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Accurate information on stroke burden in men and women are important for evidence-based healthcare planning and resource allocation. Previously, limited research suggested that the absolute number of deaths from stroke in women was greater than in men, but the incidence and mortality...... incidence, prevalence, mortality, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and healthy years lost due to disability were estimated as part of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2013 Study. Data inputs included all available information on stroke incidence, prevalence and death and case fatality rates...... ischemic stroke (IS) and hemorrhagic stroke (HS) incidence (per 100,000) in men (IS 132.77 (95% UI 125.34-142.77); HS 64.89 (95% UI 59.82-68.85)) exceeded those of women (IS 98.85 (95% UI 92.11-106.62); HS 45.48 (95% UI 42.43-48.53)). IS incidence rates were lower in 2013 compared with 1990 rates for both...

  6. Estimates of Incidence and Prevalence of Visual Impairment, Low Vision, and Blindness in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Tiffany; Friedman, David S; Bradley, Chris; Massof, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Updated estimates of the prevalence and incidence rates of low vision and blindness are needed to inform policy makers and develop plans to meet the future demands for low vision rehabilitation services. To provide updated estimates of the incidence and prevalence of low vision and blindness in the United States. Visual acuity measurements as a function of age from the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, with representation of racial and ethnic groups, were used to estimate the prevalence and incidence of visual impairments. Data from 6016 survey participants, ranging in age from younger than 18 years to older than 45 years, were obtained to estimate prevalence rates for different age groups. Incidence and prevalence rates of low vision (best-corrected visual acuity [BCVA] in the better-seeing eye of United States were estimated, using the 2010 US census data by age, from the rate models applied to the census projections for 2017, 2030, and 2050. Data were collected from November 1, 2007, to October 31, 2008. Data analysis took place from March 31, 2016, to March 19, 2017. Prevalence and incidence rates of low vision and blindness in the United States. Of the 6016 people in the study, 1714 (28.4%) were younger than 18 years of age, 2358 (39.1%) were 18 to 44 years of age, and 1944 (32.3%) were 45 years of age or older. There were 2888 male (48%) and 3128 female (52%) participants. The prevalence of low vision and blindness for older adults (≥45 years) in the United States in 2017 is estimated to be 3 894 406 persons (95% CI, 3 034 442-4 862 549 persons) with a BCVA less than 20/40, 1 483 703 persons (95% CI, 968 656-2 370 513 persons) with a BCVA less than 20/60, and 1 082 790 persons (95% CI, 637 771-1 741 864 persons) with a BCVA of 20/200 or less. The estimated 2017 annual incidence (projected from 2010 census data) of low vision and blindness among older adults (≥45 years) in the United States is 481

  7. Impact of incident and prevalent herpes simplex virus-2 infection on the incidence of HIV-1 infection among commercial sex workers in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramjee, G

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the impact of prevalent and incident HSV-2 infection on the incidence of HIV-1 infection in a cohort of female commercial sex workers in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Prior to a vaginal microbicide trial, 416 women were...

  8. Prevalence and 25 year incidence of proliferative retinopathy among Danish type 1 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grauslund, J; Green, A; Sjølie, A K

    2009-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of retinopathy in long-surviving type 1 diabetic patients. It also investigated the 25 year incidence of proliferative retinopathy and associated risk factors in a Danish population-based cohort. METHODS: A population-based cohort of 727...... type 1 diabetic patients from Fyn County, Denmark, was identified in 1973. In 1981-1982, baseline retinopathy was graded and other risk factors were assessed in 573 patients. Twenty-five years later, 308 patients were still alive. Of these, 201 (65.3%) were re-examined at follow-up in 2007......-2008. RESULTS: The median age and duration of diabetes at follow-up were 58.8 and 43 years, respectively. At follow-up, the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was 97.0%. Non-proliferative retinopathy was found in 45.8%, and 51.2% had proliferative retinopathy. The 25 year incidence of proliferative retinopathy...

  9. Cumulative incidence and prevalence of childhood autism in children in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, H; Shimizu, Y; Misumi, K; Niimi, M; Ohashi, Y

    1996-08-01

    An epidemiological survey of childhood autism as defined in ICD-10 Research Criteria was conducted in the northern part of Yokohama, Japan. The routine health checkup for 18-month-old children served as the initial mass-screening, and all facilities which provide child care services function to detect all cases with childhood autism and refer them to the Yokohama Rehabilitation Centre. Cumulative incidence of childhood autism up to 5 years of age among the birth cohort of 1988, and prevalence on 1 January 1994, among residents born in 1988 were estimated Cumulative incidence and prevalence were 16.2 per 10,000 and 21.1 per 10,000, respectively. Children with high-functioning autism who had IQs of 70 and over constituted approximately half of all the children with childhood autism. CONCLUSION. It was confirmed through better detection of high-functioning cases that childhood autism in Japan is more common than formerly estimated.

  10. Incidence and prevalence of systemic sclerosis in Campo Grande, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horimoto, Alex Magno Coelho; Matos, Erica Naomi Naka; Costa, Márcio Reis da; Takahashi, Fernanda; Rezende, Marcelo Cruz; Kanomata, Letícia Barrios; Locatelli, Elisangela Possebon Pradebon; Finotti, Leandro Tavares; Maegawa, Flávia Kamy Maciel; Rondon, Rosa Maria Ribeiro; Machado, Natália Pereira; Couto, Flávia Midori Arakaki Ayres Tavares do; Figueiredo, Túlia Peixoto Alves de; Ovidio, Raphael Antonio; Costa, Izaias Pereira da

    Systemic sclerosis is an autoimmune disease which shows extreme heterogeneity in its clinical presentation and that follows a variable and unpredictable course. Although some discrepancies in the incidence and prevalence rates between geographical regions may reflect methodological differences in the definition and verification of cases, they may also reflect true local differences. To determine the prevalence and incidence of systemic sclerosis in the city of Campo Grande, state capital of Mato Grosso do Sul (MS), Brazil, during the period from January to December 2014. All health care services of the city of Campo Grande - MS with attending in the specialty of Rheumatology were invited to participate in the study through a standardized form of clinical and socio-demographic assessment. Physicians of any specialty could report a suspected case of systemic sclerosis, but necessarily the definitive diagnosis should be established by a rheumatologist, in order to warrant the standardization of diagnostic criteria and exclusion of other diseases resembling systemic sclerosis. At the end of the study, 15 rheumatologists reported that they attended patients with systemic sclerosis and sent the completed forms containing epidemiological data of patients. The incidence rate of systemic sclerosis in Campo Grande for the year 2014 was 11.9 per million inhabitants and the prevalence rate was 105.6 per million inhabitants. Systemic sclerosis patients were mostly women, white, with a mean age of 50.58 years, showing the limited form of the disease with a mean duration of the disease of 8.19 years. Regarding laboratory tests, 94.4% were positive for antinuclear antibody, 41.6% for anti-centromere antibody and 19.1% for anti-Scl70; anti-RNA Polymerase III was performed in 37 patients, with 16.2% positive. The city of Campo Grande, the state capital of MS, presented a lower incidence/prevalence of systemic sclerosis in comparison with those numbers found in US studies and close

  11. Prevalence and incidence of workplace bullying among Spanish employees working with people with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretero, Noelia; Luciano, Juan V

    2013-10-01

    Although workplace bullying is a severe psychosocial risk with a high prevalence, there is a lack of studies addressing its incidence, particularly among staff working with people with intellectual disability. We examined the prevalence and incidence of workplace bullying in a sample of Spanish employees working with people with intellectual disability. The socio-demographic characteristics of victims and non-victims of workplace bullying were also analyzed. Multicenter study with two phases (T1 and T2) carried out in Valencia (Spain). The sample consisted of 696 employees from 66 centers in T1. One year later (T2), 422 employees from 61 centers agreed to participate in the study again. Workplace bullying was assessed by means of the instrument "Mobbing-UNIPSICO". The prevalence of workplace bullying was 18.9% and 20.4% in T1 and T2, respectively. Of the 335 employees who were not victims of workplace bullying at T1 who were followed up at T2, 36 reported that they suffered workplace bullying a year later, that is, the accumulated incidence was 11%. In contrast, 81 workers who had been victims of workplace bullying at T1 and who were followed up at T2, 32 reported that they did not suffered from workplace bullying a year later. The victims had more stable contracts and more seniority in the organization/job than the non-victims in T1, but this result was not replicated in T2. Workplace bullying is a phenomenon with substantial prevalence, but also with considerable incidence (11%) among staff working with people with an intellectual disability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevalence and incidence of dengue virus and antibody placental transfer during late pregnancy in central Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Argolo, Angela FLT; F?res, Val?ria CR; Silveira, Lucimeire A; Oliveira, Anna Carolina M; Pereira, Luiz A; J?nior, Jo?o Bosco Siqueira; Braga, Cynthia; Martelli, Celina MT

    2013-01-01

    Background Maternal dengue antibodies are considered to play a significant role in dengue pathogenesis among infants. Determining the transplacental specific antibody transfer is invaluable for establishing the optimal vaccination age among infants in endemic regions. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study among pairs of maternal and corresponding umbilical cord blood samples in public hospitals. The prevalence and incidence of dengue infection were determined in 505 pairs of pregnant w...

  13. National HIV/AIDS mortality, prevalence, and incidence rates are associated with the Human Development Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Li-Xia; Chen, Yi; Yu, Chao-Hui; Li, You-Ming; Ye, Juan

    2014-10-01

    HIV/AIDS is a worldwide threat to human health with mortality, prevalence, and incidence rates varying widely. We evaluated the association between the global HIV/AIDS epidemic and national socioeconomic development. We obtained global age-standardized HIV/AIDS mortality, prevalence, and incidence rates from World Health Statistics Report of the World Health Organization. The human development indexes (HDIs) of 141 countries were obtained from a Human Development Report. Countries were divided into 4 groups according to the HDI distribution. We explored the association between HIV/AIDS epidemic and HDI information using Spearman correlation analysis, regression analysis, and the Kruskal-Wallis test. HIV/AIDS mortality, prevalence, and incidence rates were inversely correlated with national HDI (r = -0.675, -0.519, and -0.398, respectively; P birth, mean years of schooling, expected years of schooling, and gross national income per capita). Low HDI countries had higher HIV/AIDS mortality, prevalence, and incidence rates than that of medium, high, and very high HDI countries. Quantile regression results indicated that HDI had a greater negative effect on the HIV/AIDS epidemic in countries with more severe HIV/AIDS epidemic. Less-developed countries are likely to have more severe HIV/AIDS epidemic. There is a need to pay more attention to HIV/AIDS control in less-developed countries, where lower socioeconomic status might have accelerated the HIV/AIDS epidemic more rapidly. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Incidence and prevalence of uveitis in South Korea: a nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, Tyler Hyungtaek; Kim, Sung Soo; Ham, Don-Il; Yu, Seung-Young; Chung, Eun Jee; Lee, Sung Chul

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence and prevalence of uveitis and associated risk factors in South Korea. For this retrospective national cohort study, approximately 1 000 000 Korean residents were randomly selected from the Korean National Health Insurance Service database. Uveitis was defined according to the Korean Classification of Diseases. The uveitis incidence and prevalence were calculated. Sociodemographic factors and comorbidities associated with uveitis were evaluated via Cox proportional regression models. A total of 1 094 440 subjects were evaluated over 7 051 346 person-years (mean follow-up: 6.44 years). Overall, 7447 newly developed uveitis cases were identified during the period of 2007-2013; the average incidence of uveitis was 10.6 per 10 000 person-years (95% CI 10.3 to 10.8). The average incidences of anterior and non-anterior uveitis were 9.0 and 1.5 per 10 000 person-years, respectively. The prevalence rates of uveitis, anterior uveitis and non-anterior uveitis were 17.3, 15.0 and 2.3 per 10 000 persons, respectively, during the period of 2007-2013. Increasing age, male sex, residing in a relatively rural area and high income were associated with uveitis, along with Behçet's disease, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, systemic lupus erythematous, ulcerative colitis and tuberculosis. The overall incidence of uveitis in Korea was similar to those reported in Taiwan and the USA. Despite a potentially inaccurate disease definition, claims data may be useful for monitoring the substantial uveitis burden in South Korea. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Prevalence, incidence and risk factors of carpal tunnel syndrome in a large footwear factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roquelaure, Y; Mariel, J; Dano, C; Fanello, S; Penneau-Fontbonne, D

    2001-01-01

    The study was conducted to assess the prevalence and incidence of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in a large modern footwear factory and to identify factors predictive of CTS. To this end, 199 workers were examined in 1996, and 162 of them were re-examined in 1997. Ergonomic and psychosocial risk factors of CTS were assessed by workpost analysis and self-administered questionnaire. The prevalence of CTS at baseline in 1996 and in 1997 was 16.6% (95%CI: 11.4-21.7) and 11.7% (95%CI: 6.7-16.8), respectively. The incidence rate of CTS in 1997 was 11.7% (95%CI: 6.7-7.8). No specific type of job performance was associated with CTS. Obesity (OR = 4.4; 95%CI: 1.1-17.1) and psychological distress at baseline (OR = 4.3; 95%CI: 1.0-18.6) were strongly predictive of CTS. Rapid trigger movements of the fingers were also predictive of CTS (OR = 3.8; 95%CI: 1.0-17.2). A strict control of thework by superiors was negatively associatedwith CTS (OR = 0.5; 95%CI: 0.2-1.3). The prevalence and incidence of CTS in this workforce were largely higher than in the general population and numerous industries. The study highlights the role of psychological distress in workers exposed to a high level of physical exposure and psychological demand.

  16. Prevalence and incidence of overweight and obesity among Vietnamese preschool children: a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Loan Minh; Tran, Toan Khanh; Eriksson, Bo; Petzold, Max; Ascher, Henry

    2017-06-19

    A plateau in childhood overweight and obesity has been reported in some developed countries while in almost all developing countries this problem is on the rise. The aim of this paper is to describe the changes in prevalence of overweight and obesity within a cohort of preschool children followed for 3 years, and to estimate and compare the incidences in urban and rural children of Hanoi, Vietnam. A longitudinal study of a cohort of 2677 children aged 3 to 6 years old at the beginning of the study was conducted in urban DodaLab and rural FilaBavi, Hanoi, Vietnam. Overall, 2602 children, 1311 urban and 1291 rural, were followed for 3 years with identical measurements of weight and height in 2013, 2014 and 2016. Standard methods were used to estimate prevalence and incidence as well as confidence intervals. During the three-year follow-up, the overall estimated prevalence of overweight increased from 9.1% to 16.7%. For the urban children, the increase was considerably higher. The overall prevalence of obesity decreased from 6.4% to 4.5% with less decrease in the urban children. In the group of children who were overweight and obese at the start of the study, 41.4% and 30.7%, respectively, remained in the same state three years later. The incidence of overweight and obesity during the three years were 12.4% and 2.7%, respectively. Boys were more likely to develop obesity than girls. Already in preschool age, the prevalence of overweight is high and it continues to increase with age, especially in the urban area. Prevention and intervention programs need to start at early preschool age and actions in urban areas deserve priority.

  17. Incidence, prevalence, diagnostic delay, and clinical presentation of female 46,XY disorders of sex development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berglund, Agnethe; Johannsen, Trine H; Krag, Kirstine Stochholm

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: The prevalence of phenotypic females with a 46,XY karyotype is low, thus current knowledge about age and clinical presentation at diagnosis is sparse even for the most frequent conditions, androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS), and gonadal dysgenesis. OBJECTIVE: To estimate incidence......, prevalence, age at diagnosis, and clinical presentation at diagnosis in 46,XY females. DESIGN AND SETTING: A nationwide study covering all known females with a 46,XY karyotype in Denmark since 1960. The diagnosis of 46,XY disorder of sex development (DSD) was determined by medical record evaluation, data.......0-13.5; range, 0-34 y) in AIS and 17.0 years (95% confidence interval, 15.5-19.0; range, 0-28 y) in gonadal dysgenesis (P = .001). Clinical presentation was dependent on cause of DSD. CONCLUSIONS: The first estimate on prevalence of 46,XY females is 6.4 per 100 000 live born females. The presentation of AIS...

  18. Comparative analysis of bone mineral density and incidence of osteoporosis in vegetarians and omnivores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Qingfu; Yang Shuyu; Yan Bing; Liu Changqin; Shi Xiulin; Zhang Hujie; Yu Yaxin; Wang Liying; Li Xuejun

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of bone mineral density and incidence of osteoporosis in vegetarians. Methods: Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure the bone mineral densities of spine, neck of femur and greater trochanter in 62 vegetarians (vegetarian group) and 60 normal age-matched men(control group). Results: Compared with control group, the bone mineral densities(tms · cm -2 ) of spine, neck of femur and greater trochanter in vegetarians were evidently decreased (0.752 ± 0.075 vs 1.014 ± 0.096, 0.697 ± 0.071 vs 1.003 ± 0.111, 0.713 ± 0.083 vs 1.011 ± 0.097, P<0.001) and the incidences of osteoporosis and osteopenia were increased (40.3% υs 13.3%, 19.3% υs 5.0%, P<0.001). Conclusion: Vegetarians have lower bone mineral density and higher incidences of osteoporosis and osteopenia than omnivores. (authors)

  19. Incidence and prevalence of hospital-acquired infections in a cohort of patients admitted to medical departments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Martin Haubro; Holm, Morten Olskjær; Pedersen, Svend Stenvang

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Hospital-acquired infections (HAI) are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Only point prevalence analyses of HAI have been recorded in Denmark. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and prevalence of HAI in patients admitted to departments of internal.......7-10.6). Exposure to bladder catheter was associated with an increased risk of urinary tract infection, incidence rate ratio 4.9; (95% CI 1.8-11.5). For the initial 14 days of hospitalization, the incidence of HAI was independent, while the prevalence increased linearly with duration of admittance. CONCLUSION......: The incidence of HAI was relatively constant during the initial 14-day-period of hospitalization, suggesting that shortening the period will have no major impact on the incidence of HAI. The prevalence was 9.7%, which is in line with results from prior studies....

  20. INCIDENCE AND PREVALENCE OF ACROMEGALY IN THE UNITED STATES: A CLAIMS-BASED ANALYSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broder, Michael S; Chang, Eunice; Cherepanov, Dasha; Neary, Maureen P; Ludlam, William H

    2016-11-01

    Acromegaly, a rare endocrine disorder, results from excessive growth hormone secretion, leading to multisystem-associated morbidities. Using 2 large nationwide databases, we estimated the annual incidence and prevalence of acromegaly in the U.S. We used 2008 to 2013 data from the Truven Health MarketScan ® Commercial Claims and Encounters Database and IMS Health PharMetrics healthcare insurance claims databases, with health plan enrollees acromegaly (International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification Code [ICD-9CM] 253.0), or 1 claim with acromegaly and 1 claim for pituitary tumor, pituitary surgery, or cranial stereotactic radiosurgery. Annual incidence was calculated for each year from 2009 to 2013, and prevalence in 2013. Estimates were stratified by age and sex. Incidence was up to 11.7 cases per million person-years (PMPY) in MarketScan and 9.6 cases PMPY in PharMetrics. Rates were similar by sex but typically lowest in ≤17 year olds and higher in >24 year olds. The prevalence estimates were 87.8 and 71.0 per million per year in MarketScan and PharMetrics, respectively. Prevalence consistently increased with age but was similar by sex in each database. The current U.S. incidence of acromegaly may be up to 4 times higher and prevalence may be up to 50% higher than previously reported in European studies. Our findings correspond with the estimates reported by a recent U.S. study that used a single managed care database, supporting the robustness of these estimates in this population. Our study indicates there are approximately 3,000 new cases of acromegaly per year, with a prevalence of about 25,000 acromegaly patients in the U.S. CT = computed tomography GH = growth hormone IGF-1 = insulin-like growth factor 1 ICD-9-CM Code = International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification Codes MRI = magnetic resonance imaging PMPY = per million person-years.

  1. Post-Cataract Surgery Optic Neuropathy: Prevalence, Incidence, Temporal Relationship, and Fellow Eye Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Ahmadreza; Kanagalingam, Sivashakthi; Diener-West, Marie; Miller, Neil R

    2017-03-01

    To reassess the prevalence and incidence of post-cataract surgery optic neuropathy (PCSON) in the modern era. Retrospective cohort study. Setting: Single-center tertiary care practice. All patients with a diagnosis of nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) seen in the Wilmer Eye Network system between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2014 were included. Inclusion was based on the following: (1) a history of an acute unilateral decrease in vision, (2) a visual field defect consistent with NAION, (3) a relative afferent pupillary defect, (4) observed optic disc swelling, and (5) no other etiology being found. The prevalence and incidence of PCSON and the temporal association between surgery and onset of PCSON. The secondary outcome was the risk of PCSON in the fellow eye of patients with prior unilateral spontaneous NAION. One hundred eighty-eight patients had developed NAION during the study period. Of these, 18 (9.6%) had undergone cataract surgery (CS) during the year prior to developing NAION. There was no significant temporal pattern associated with the distribution of NAION cases (P = .28). The incidence of PCSON in patients who had noncomplex CS was 10.9 cases per 100 000 (95% CI, 1.3, 39.4). Our data indicate that both the prevalence and incidence of NAION after modern CS are comparable to those of the general population and that there is no significant temporal relationship between modern CS and the subsequent development of NAION in the operated eye. Thus, although this study has inherent biases owing to its retrospective nature, concern regarding an increased risk of PCSON in the fellow eye in patients who have experienced it or spontaneous NAION in 1 eye may be unwarranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Incidence and prevalence of mental disorders among immigrants and native Finns: a register-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markkula, Niina; Lehti, Venla; Gissler, Mika; Suvisaari, Jaana

    2017-12-01

    Migrants appear to have a higher risk of mental disorders, but findings vary across country settings and migrant groups. We aimed to assess incidence and prevalence of mental disorders among immigrants and Finnish-born controls in a register-based cohort study. A register-based cohort study of 184.806 immigrants and 185.184 Finnish-born controls (1.412.117 person-years) was conducted. Information on mental disorders according to ICD-10 was retrieved from the Hospital Discharge Register, which covers all public health care use. The incidence of any mental disorder was lower among male (adjusted HR 0.82, 95% CI 0.77-0.87) and female (aHR 0.76, 95% CI 0.72-0.81) immigrants, being lowest among Asian and highest among North African and Middle Eastern immigrants. The incidence of bipolar, depressive and alcohol use disorders was lower among immigrants. Incidence of psychotic disorders was lower among female and not higher among male immigrants, compared with native Finns. Incidence of PTSD was higher among male immigrants (aHR 4.88, 95% CI 3.38-7.05). The risk of mental disorders varies significantly across migrant groups and disorders and is generally lower among immigrants than native Finns.

  3. Prevalence and incidence of Alzheimer's disease in Europe: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, H; Álvarez-Álvarez, I; Guillén-Grima, F; Aguinaga-Ontoso, I

    2017-10-01

    A disease of unknown aetiology, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia. As the elderly population grows worldwide, the number of patients with AD also increases rapidly. The aim of this meta-analysis is to evaluate the prevalence and incidence of AD in Europe. We conducted a literature search on Medline, Scopus, and CINAHL Complete using the keywords «Alzheimer», «Alzheimer's disease», and «AD» combined with «prevalence», «incidence», and «epidemiology». A Bayesian random effects model with 95% credible intervals was used. The I 2 statistic was applied to assess heterogeneity. The prevalence of Alzheimer's disease in Europe was estimated at 5.05% (95% CI, 4.73-5.39). The prevalence in men was 3.31% (95% CI, 2.85-3.80) and in women, 7.13% (95% CI, 6.56-7.72), and increased with age. The incidence of Alzheimer's disease in Europe was 11.08 per 1000 person-years (95% CI, 10.30-11.89). Broken down by sex, it was 7.02 per 1000 person-years (95% CI, 6.06-8.05) in men and 13.25 per 1000 person-years (95% CI, 12.05-14.51) in women; again these rates increased with age. The results of our meta-analysis allow a better grasp of the impact of this disease in Europe. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Relationship of cancer incidence to terrestrial radiation and population density in Connecticut, 1935-1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, S.D.; Meigs, J.W.; Heston, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    The relationship of cancer incidence to terrestrial radiation and population density was investigated. Cancer incidence was obtained using 40 years of age-standardized data from the Connecticut Tumor Registry, and environmental radiation was estimated using data from an airborne gamma radiation survey of the entire state. These variables were examined ecologically, using the 169 towns of the state as the analytic units in a weighted regression analysis. The study design involves a large population base in a state having relatively high terrestrial radiation exposure levels overall and reasonable variation in exposure between towns. For all cancer combined, only one of the eight sex-specific analyses by decade yielded a significant radiation regression coefficient, and this was negative. In the sex- and site-specific analyses, almost all the coefficients for radiation were not significantly different from zero. In contrast, significant positive relationships of cancer incidence with population density were found for all cancer, for cancer of the lung for both sexes, for stomach, colonic, and prostatic cancer for males, and for lymphomas, thyroid, breast, and ovarian cancer for females. Both the radiation and population density relationships were adjusted for socioeconomic status. Socioeconomic status was significantly negatively associated with stomach and lung cancer in males and with cervical cancer in females; it was also positively associated with lymphomas and breast cancer in females. A power calculation revealed that, despite the relatively large size of this study, there was only a small probability of detecting a radiation effect of the strength anticipated from previous estimates

  5. Incidence and prevalence of hypercholesterolemia in Portugal: a systemic review. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, João; Borges, Margarida; Oliveira, Eduardo; Gouveia, Miguel; Carneiro, António Vaz

    2003-05-01

    Over 50% of the mortality and disability caused by ischemic heart disease and stroke could be avoided by controlling individual risk factors (hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, smoking and obesity). The ignorance of the extent and impact of hypercholesterolemia (HC) in Portugal prompted us to undertake this systematic review of the prevalence and incidence of hyperlipidemia in Portugal, based exclusively on work published nationally. We included every study published in the country that could provide data on the prevalence or incidence of hypercholesterolemia. The search strategy included an electronic search of national and international biomedical databases (Medline, Index Revistas Médicas Portuguesas, the Portuguese Directorate-General for Health and the Portuguese National School of Public Health), screening of reference lists from the individual studies, and personal contacts with institutions, groups and authors (such as the Portuguese Foundation of Cardiology). The data--recorded in electronic format--was collected independently by two of the authors (JC and MB), with consensus achieved with a third (AVC) when there were differences in the study coding. We could only identify one paper on the incidence of HC in Portugal, which gave an incidence of 559 new cases per 100,000 inhabitants, increasing with age up to 54 years for men and 64 years for women. There was a higher incidence in men than in women up to the age of 54, but at more advanced ages this relationship was reversed. Prevalence studies on HC included 53,445 individuals overall, with sample size lower than 1000 in most of the individual studies. The most frequently used criterion for HC was > 200 mg/dL, with the mean level being higher in most studies. We calculated the mean prevalence for several cut-off points (190 mg/dL: 63.8%; 200 mg/dL: 56.7%; 240 mg/dL: 31.7%; 250 mg/dL: 21%). Due to the heterogeneity of the data, these results are to be interpreted with caution, even though they are

  6. Incidence and prevalence of hypercholesterolemia in Portugal: a systematic review. Part III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, João; Borges, Margarida; Oliveira, Eduardo; Gouveia, Miguel; Carneiro, António Vaz

    2003-06-01

    Over 50% of the mortality and disability caused by ischemic heart disease and stroke could be avoided by controlling individual risk factors (hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, smoking and obesity). The ignorance of the extent and impact of hypercholesterolemia (HC) in Portugal prompted us to undertake this systematic review of the prevalence and incidence of hyperlipidemia in Portugal, based exclusively on work published nationally. We included every study published in the country that could provide data on the prevalence or incidence of hypercholesterolemia. The search strategy included an electronic search of national and international biomedical databases (Medline, Index Revistas Médicas Portuguesas, the Portuguese Directorate-General for Health and the Portuguese National School of Public Health), screening of reference lists from the individual studies, and personal contacts with institutions, groups and authors (such as the Portuguese Foundation of Cardiology). The data--recorded in electronic format--was collected independently by two of the authors (JC and MB), with consensus achieved with a third (AVC) when there were differences in the study coding. We could only identify one paper on the incidence of HC in Portugal, which gave an incidence of 559 new cases per 100,000 inhabitants, increasing with age up to 54 years for men and 64 years for women. There was a higher incidence in men than in women up to the age of 54, but at more advanced ages this relationship was reversed. Prevalence studies on HC included 53,445 individuals overall, with sample size lower than 1000 in most of the individual studies. The most frequently used criterion for HC was > 200 mg/dL, with the mean level being higher in most studies. We calculated the mean prevalence for several cut-off points (> or = 190 mg/dL: 63.8%; > or = 200 mg/dL: 56.7%; > or = 240 mg/dL; 31.7%; > or 250 mg/d; 21%). Due to the heterogeneity of the data, these results are to be interpreted with caution

  7. Incidence and prevalence of hypercholesterolemia in Portugal: a systematic review. Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, João; Borges, Margarida; Oliveira, Eduardo; Gouveia, Miguel; Carneiro, António Vaz

    2003-04-01

    Over 50% of the mortality and disability caused by ischemic heart disease and stroke could be avoided by controlling individual risk factors (hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, smoking and obesity). The ignorance of the extent and impact of hypercholesterolemia (HC) in Portugal prompted us to undertake this systematic review of the prevalence and incidence of hyperlipidemia in Portugal, based exclusively on work published nationally. We included every study published in the country that could provide data on the prevalence or incidence of hypercholesterolemia. The search strategy included an electronic search of national and international biomedical databases (Medline, Index Revistas Médicas Portuguesas, the Portuguese Directorate-General for Health and the Portuguese National School of Public Health), screening of reference lists from the individual studies, and personal contacts with institutions, groups and authors (such as the Portuguese Foundation of Cardiology). The data--recorded in electronic format--was collected independently by two of the authors (JC and MB), with consensus achieved with a third (AVC) when there were differences in the study coding. We could only identify one paper on the incidence of HC in Portugal, which gave an incidence of 559 new cases per 100,000 inhabitants, increasing with age up to 54 years for men and 64 years for women. There was a higher incidence in men than in women up to the age of 54, but at more advanced ages this relationship was reversed. Prevalence studies on HC included 53,445 individuals overall, with sample size lower than 1000 in most of the individual studies. The most frequently used criterion for HC was > 200 mg/dL, with the mean level being higher in most studies. We calculated the mean prevalence for several cut-off points (190 mg/dL: 63.8%; 200 mg/dL: 56.7%; 240 mg/dL: 31.7%; 250 mg/dL: 21%). Due to the heterogeneity of the data, these results are to be interpreted with caution, even though they are

  8. Incidence, prevalence, and mortality of insulin-dependent (type 1) diabetes mellitus in Lithuanian children during 1983-98

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urbonaite, Brone; Zalinkevicius, Rimas; Green, Anders

    2002-01-01

    -based linear trends of the increase in incidence in various age groups and the annual percentage change for both genders was 2.05 (p = 0.0039) and the greatest regression slope is observed for both genders in the 10-14 yr age group. Regression-based linear trends in type 1 diabetes prevalence indicate an even......AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Our purpose is to analyze interrelations of the incidence, prevalence and mortality of childhood-onset insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (type 1) in Lithuania. METHODS: Incidence and prevalence rates were based on the national type 1 diabetes register during 1983-98. The cohort...... study was performed to evaluate the standardized mortality ratios. RESULTS: The average incidence of type 1 diabetes during the 16-yr study period was 7.36 per 100,000/yr. For both males and females the highest incidence of type 1 diabetes was recorded in the 10-14 yr age group. The regression...

  9. Incidence and prevalence of inflammatory bowel diseases in gastroenterology primary care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tursi, Antonio; Elisei, Walter; Picchio, Marcello

    2013-12-01

    The incidence of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) has markedly increased over the last years, but no epidemiological study has been performed in gastroenterology primary care setting. We describe the epidemiology of IBD in a gastroenterology primary care unit using its records as the primary data source. Case finding used predefined read codes to systematically search computer diagnostic and prescribing records from January 2009 to December 2012. A specialist diagnosis of Ulcerative colitis (UC), Crohn's disease (CD), inflammatory bowel disease unclassified (IBDU) or segmental colitis associated with diverticulosis (SCAD), based on clinical, histological or radiological findings, was a prerequisite for the inclusion in the study. Secondary, infective and apparent acute self-limiting colitis were excluded. We identified 176 patients with IBD in a population of 94,000 with a prevalence 187.2/100,000 (95% CI: 160.6-217.0). Between 2009 and 2012 there were 61 new cases. In particular, there were 23 new cases of UC, 19 new cases of CD, 15 new cases of SCAD, and 4 new cases of IBDU. The incidence of IBD was 16.2/100,000 (95% CI 12.5-20.7) per year. The incidence per year was 6/100,000 (95% CI 3.8 to 8.9) for UC, 5/100,000 (95% CI 3.0-7.7) for CD, 4/100,000 (95% CI 2.3-6.5) for SCAD, and 1/100,000 (95% CI 0.3-2.6) for IBDU. We assessed for the first time which is the prevalence and incidence of IBD in a gastroenterology primary care unit. This confirms that specialist primary care unit is a key factor in providing early diagnosis of chronic diseases. Copyright © 2013 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Incidence and prevalence of diabetes in children aged Fiji, 2001-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogle, Graham D; Morrison, Melinda K; Silink, Martin; Taito, Rigamoto S

    2016-05-01

    Determine the incidence and prevalence of diabetes in children Fiji. Data on all new cases from 2001 to 2012 was collected from the three paediatric diabetes services through the International Diabetes Federation Life for a Child Program. There was no formal secondary ascertainment source, however the medical community is small and all known cases are believed to be included. Forty-two children aged Fiji is very low. Furthermore, its occurrence is markedly more frequent in Indo-Fijians than in native Fijians. Type 2 and neonatal diabetes also occur. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Monitoring Clostridium difficile infection in an acute hospital: prevalence or incidence studies?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lavan, A H

    2012-02-15

    BACKGROUND: Surveillance of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is an essential component of a CDI preventative programme. AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate two methods of CDI surveillance. METHODS: Prevalence of CDI, antibiotic use and associated co-morbidity was assessed weekly on two wards over 6 weeks. In addition, CDI incidence surveillance was performed on all new CDI cases over a 13-week period. Cases were assessed for CDI risk factors, disease severity, response to treatment and outcome at 6 months. RESULTS: Clostridium difficile infection prevalence was 3.5% (range 2.9-6.1%) on the medical ward and 1.1% (range 0-3.5%) on the surgical ward. Patients on the medical ward were older and more likely to be colonised with MRSA; however, recent antibiotic use was more prevalent among surgical patients. Sixty-one new CDI cases were audited. Patients were elderly (mean age 71 years) with significant co-morbidity (median age adjusted Charlson co-morbidity score 5). CDI ribotypes included 027 (29 cases) 078 (5) and 106 (4). Eight patients developed severe CDI, seven due to 027. Antibiotic use was common with 56% receiving three or more antibiotics in the preceding 8 weeks. Twenty-four patients had died at 6 months, five due to CDI. CONCLUSION: Clostridium difficile infection prevalence gives a broad overview of CDI and points to areas that require more detailed surveillance and requires little time. However, patient-based CDI incidence surveillance provides a more useful analysis of CDI risk factors, disease and outcome for planning preventative programmes and focusing antibiotic stewardship efforts.

  12. Epidemiology of glaucoma in sub-saharan Africa: prevalence, incidence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyari, Fatima; Abdull, Mohammed M; Bastawrous, Andrew; Gilbert, Clare E; Faal, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to review the epidemiology of different types of glaucoma relevant to Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and to discuss the evidence regarding the risk factors for onset and progression of glaucoma, including risk factors for glaucoma blindness. Electronic databases (PubMed, MedLine, African Journals Online- AJOL) were searched using the full text, Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms, author(s) and title to identify publications since 1982 in the following areas: population-based glaucoma prevalence and incidence studies in SSA and in African-derived black populations outside Africa; population-based prevalence and incidence of blindness and visual impairment studies in SSA including rapid assessment methods, which elucidate the glaucoma-specific blindness prevalence; studies of risk factors for glaucoma; and publications that discussed public health approaches for the control of glaucoma in Africa. Studies highlighted that glaucoma in SSA is a public health problem and predominantly open-angle glaucoma. It is the second-leading cause of blindness, has a high prevalence, an early onset and progresses more rapidly than in Caucasians. These factors are further compounded by poor awareness and low knowledge about glaucoma even by persons affected by the condition. Glaucoma care needs to be given high priority in Vision 2020 programs in Africa. Many questions remain unanswered and there is a need for further research in glaucoma in SSA in all aspects especially epidemiology and clinical care and outcomes involving randomized controlled trials. Genetic and genome-wide association studies may aid identification of high-risk groups. Social sciences and qualitative studies, health economics and health systems research will also enhance public health approaches for the prevention of blindness due to glaucoma.

  13. Epidemiology of Glaucoma in Sub-Saharan Africa: Prevalence, Incidence and Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyari, Fatima; Abdull, Mohammed M.; Bastawrous, Andrew; Gilbert, Clare E.; Faal, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to review the epidemiology of different types of glaucoma relevant to Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and to discuss the evidence regarding the risk factors for onset and progression of glaucoma, including risk factors for glaucoma blindness. Methods: Electronic databases (PubMed, MedLine, African Journals Online- AJOL) were searched using the full text, Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms, author(s) and title to identify publications since 1982 in the following areas: population-based glaucoma prevalence and incidence studies in SSA and in African-derived black populations outside Africa; population-based prevalence and incidence of blindness and visual impairment studies in SSA including rapid assessment methods, which elucidate the glaucoma-specific blindness prevalence; studies of risk factors for glaucoma; and publications that discussed public health approaches for the control of glaucoma in Africa. Results: Studies highlighted that glaucoma in SSA is a public health problem and predominantly open-angle glaucoma. It is the second-leading cause of blindness, has a high prevalence, an early onset and progresses more rapidly than in Caucasians. These factors are further compounded by poor awareness and low knowledge about glaucoma even by persons affected by the condition. Conclusion: Glaucoma care needs to be given high priority in Vision 2020 programs in Africa. Many questions remain unanswered and there is a need for further research in glaucoma in SSA in all aspects especially epidemiology and clinical care and outcomes involving randomized controlled trials. Genetic and genome-wide association studies may aid identification of high-risk groups. Social sciences and qualitative studies, health economics and health systems research will also enhance public health approaches for the prevention of blindness due to glaucoma. PMID:23741130

  14. Comparison of the prevalence and incidence of infection with bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) in Denmark and Michigan and association with possible risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houe, H.; Baker, J.C.; Maes, R.K.

    1995-01-01

    Based on 2 previous surveys on the occurrence of infection with bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) in Danish and Michigan dairy herds, the prevalence and incidence of the infection were compared. The presence of certain possible risk factors for the occurrence of infection in the 2 areas were...... summarized and it was investigated if any of these risk factors had significant effect on the presence of animals persistently infected (PI) with BVDV in the dairy herds. Information on the cattle population density in the 2 areas was obtained from statistical yearbooks. Further information...... for the individual farms on age distribution, housing of animals, herd size, pasturing and purchasing policy was gathered. The prevalence of PI animals was more than 10 times higher in Denmark as compared to Michigan. In herds without PI animals, the annual incidence of seroconversion as calculated from the age...

  15. Epidemiology of systemic sclerosis: incidence, prevalence, survival, risk factors, malignancy, and environmental triggers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Jammie; Mayes, Maureen D

    2012-03-01

    To identify the recent data regarding prevalence, incidence, survival, and risk factors for systemic sclerosis (SSc) and to compare these data to previously published findings. SSc disease occurrence data are now available for Argentina, Taiwan, and India and continue to show wide variation across geographic regions. The survival rate is negatively impacted by older age of onset, male sex, scleroderma renal crisis, pulmonary fibrosis, pulmonary arterial hypertension, cancer, and antitopoisomerase and anti-U1 antibodies. It appears that silica exposure confers an increased risk for developing scleroderma, but this exposure accounts for a very small proportion of male patients. Smoking is not associated with increased SSc susceptibility. Malignancies are reported in scleroderma at an increased rate, but the magnitude of this risk and the type of cancer vary among reports. Prevalence and incidence of SSc appears to be greater in populations of European ancestry and lower in Asian groups. Exposure to silica dust appears to be an environmental trigger, but this only accounts for a small proportion of male cases. Evidence for increased risk of neoplasia is suggestive, but the magnitude of the risk and the types of malignancies vary among reports.

  16. Epidemiological studies in incidence, prevalence, mortality, and comorbidity of the rheumatic diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Sherine E; Michaud, Kaleb

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of disease in human populations. Over the past decade there has been considerable progress in our understanding of the fundamental descriptive epidemiology (levels of disease frequency: incidence and prevalence, comorbidity, mortality, trends over time, geographic distributions, and clinical characteristics) of the rheumatic diseases. This progress is reviewed for the following major rheumatic diseases: rheumatoid arthritis (RA), juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, osteoarthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, giant cell arteritis, polymyalgia rheumatica, gout, Sjögren's syndrome, and ankylosing spondylitis. These findings demonstrate the dynamic nature of the incidence and prevalence of these conditions – a reflection of the impact of genetic and environmental factors. The past decade has also brought new insights regarding the comorbidity associated with rheumatic diseases. Strong evidence now shows that persons with RA are at a high risk for developing several comorbid disorders, that these conditions may have atypical features and thus may be difficult to diagnose, and that persons with RA experience poorer outcomes after comorbidity compared with the general population. Taken together, these findings underscore the complexity of the rheumatic diseases and highlight the key role of epidemiological research in understanding these intriguing conditions. PMID:19519924

  17. Annual incidence, prevalence and transmission characteristics of Streptococcus agalactiae in Danish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mweu, Marshal M.; Nielsen, Søren S.; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq

    2012-01-01

    -level incidence rates and apparent prevalences of Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae) in the population of Danish dairy cattle herds over a 10-year period from 2000 to 2009 inclusive and (2) to estimate the herd-level entry and exit rates (demographic parameters), the transmission parameter, β, and recovery...... rate for S. agalactiae infection. Data covering the specified period, on bacteriological culture of all bulk tank milk samples collected annually as part of the mandatory Danish S. agalactiae surveillance scheme, were extracted from the Danish Cattle Database and subsequently analysed....... There was an increasing trend in both the incidence and prevalence of S. agalactiae over the study period. Per 100 herd-years the value of β was 54.1 (95% confidence interval [CI] 46.0–63.7); entry rate 0.3 (95% CI 0.2–0.4); infection-related exit rate 7.1 (95% CI 5.6–8.9); non-infection related exit rate 9.2 (95% CI 7...

  18. Incidence and prevalence rates of diabetes mellitus in Saudi Arabia: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alotaibi, Abdulellah; Perry, Lin; Gholizadeh, Leila; Al-Ganmi, Ali

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to report on the trends in incidence and prevalence rates of diabetes mellitus in Saudi Arabia over the last 25 years (1990-2015). A descriptive review. A systematic search was conducted for English-language, peer reviewed publications of any research design via Medline, EBSCO, PubMed and Scopus from 1990 to 2015. Of 106 articles retrieved, after removal of duplicates and quality appraisal, 8 studies were included in the review and synthesised based on study characteristics, design and findings. Studies originated from Saudi Arabia and applied a variety of research designs and tools to diagnosis diabetes. Of the 8 included studies; three reported type 1 diabetes and five on type 2 diabetes. Overall, findings indicated that the incidence and prevalence rate of diabetes is rising particularly among females, older children/adolescent and in urban areas. Further development are required to assess the health intervention, polices, guidelines, self-management programs in Saudi Arabia. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Small area mapping of domestic radon, smoking prevalence and lung cancer incidence – A case study in Northamptonshire, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denman, Antony R.; Rogers, Stephen; Ali, Akeem; Sinclair, John; Phillips, Paul S.; Crockett, Robin G.M.; Groves-Kirkby, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Smoking and radon both cause lung cancer, and together the risk is significantly higher. UK public health campaigns continue to reduce smoking prevalence, and other initiatives identify houses with raised radon (radon-222) levels and encourage remedial action. Smoking prevalence and radon levels in the UK have been mapped at Primary Care Trust level. This paper extends that work, using a commercial socio-demographic database to estimate smoking prevalence at the postcode sector level, and to predict the population characteristics at postcode sector level for 87 postcode sectors in Northamptonshire. Likely smoking prevalence in each postcode sector is then modelled from estimates of the smoking prevalence in the different socio-economic groups used by the database. Mapping estimated smoking prevalence, radon potential and average lung cancer incidence for each postcode sector suggested that there was little correlation between smoking prevalence and radon levels, as radon potential was generally lower in urban areas in Northamptonshire, where the estimates of smoking prevalence were highest. However, the analysis demonstrated some sectors where both radon potential and smoking prevalence were moderately raised. This study showed the potential of this methodology to map estimated smoking prevalence and radon levels to inform locally targeted public health campaigns to reduce lung cancer incidence. - Highlights: • We use a commercial socio-demographic database to estimate smoking prevalence in small areas in Northamptonshire, UK. • We map the estimated smoking prevalence and average domestic radon levels in these small areas. • We estimate annual average lung cancer incidence in these small areas. • The methodology is useful to evaluate and plan localised public health campaigns to reduce lung cancer incidence.

  20. Incidence and Prevalence of Celiac Disease and Dermatitis Herpetiformis in the UK Over Two Decades: Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Joe; Fleming, Kate M; Tata, Laila J; Card, Timothy R; Crooks, Colin J

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Few studies have quantified the incidence and prevalence of celiac disease (CD) and dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) nationally and regionally by time and age groups. Understanding this epidemiology is crucial for hypothesizing about causes and quantifying the burden of disease. METHODS: Patients with CD or DH were identified in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink between 1990 and 2011. Incidence rates and prevalence were calculated by age, sex, year, and region of residence. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) adjusted for age, sex, and region were calculated with Poisson regression. RESULTS: A total of 9,087 incident cases of CD and 809 incident cases of DH were identified. Between 1990 and 2011, the incidence rate of CD increased from 5.2 per 100,000 (95% confidence interval (CI), 3.8–6.8) to 19.1 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI, 17.8–20.5; IRR, 3.6; 95% CI, 2.7–4.8). The incidence of DH decreased over the same time period from 1.8 per 100,000 to 0.8 per 100,000 person-years (average annual IRR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.94–0.97). The absolute incidence of CD per 100,000 person-years ranged from 22.3 in Northern Ireland to 10 in London. There were large regional variations in prevalence for CD but not DH. CONCLUSIONS: We found a fourfold increase in the incidence of CD in the United Kingdom over 22 years, with large regional variations in prevalence. This contrasted with a 4% annual decrease in the incidence of DH, with minimal regional variations in prevalence. These contrasts could reflect differences in diagnosis between CD (serological diagnosis and case finding) and DH (symptomatic presentation) or the possibility that diagnosing and treating CD prevents the development of DH. PMID:24667576

  1. Constipation--prevalence and incidence among medical patients acutely admitted to hospital with a medical condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noiesen, Eline; Trosborg, Ingelise; Bager, Louise; Herning, Margrethe; Lyngby, Christel; Konradsen, Hanne

    2014-08-01

    To examine the prevalence and incidence of patient-reported symptoms of constipation in acutely hospitalised medical patients. Constipation is a common medical problem with severe consequences, and most people suffer from constipation at some point in their lives. In the general population, constipation is one of the most common complaints and is a significant personal and public health burden. Alteration in patients' patterns of elimination while in hospital has long been identified as either a potential or an actual problem that requires attention. Knowledge of the prevalence and incidence of constipation during hospitalisation is only sporadic. The study was descriptive and a prospective cohort design was chosen. The Constipation Assessment Scale was translated into Danish and was used for the assessment of patient-reported bowel function. Five nurses made the assessments at admission to the acute medical ward and three days after admission. Three hundred and seventy-three patients participated in this study. Thirty-nine percent of the patients showed symptoms of constipation at admission. Of the patients who did not have the symptoms at admission, 43% developed the symptoms during the first three days of their stay in hospital. Significantly more of the older patients developed symptoms of moderate constipation. The incidence rate was 143 new cases per 1000 patient days. In this study, symptoms of constipation were common among patients acutely admitted to hospital due to different medical conditions. Symptoms of constipation were also developed during the first three days of the stay in hospital. The study highlights the need to develop both clinical guidelines towards treating constipation, and preventive measures to ensure that patients do not become constipated while staying in hospital. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. The prevalence and incidence of medicinal cannabis on prescription in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazekamp, Arno; Heerdink, Eibert R

    2013-08-01

    A growing number of countries are providing pharmaceutical grade cannabis to chronically ill patients. However, little published data is known about the extent of medicinal cannabis use and the characteristics of patients using cannabis on doctor's prescription. This study describes a retrospective database study of The Netherlands. Complete dispensing histories were obtained of all patients with at least one medicinal cannabis prescription gathered at pharmacies in The Netherlands in the period 2003-2010. Data revealed prevalence and incidence of use of prescription cannabis as well as characteristics of patients using different cannabis varieties. Five thousand five hundred forty patients were identified. After an initial incidence of about 6/100,000 inhabitants/year in 2003 and 2004, the incidence remained stable at 3/100,000/year in 2005-2010. The prevalence rate ranged from 5 to 8 per 100,000 inhabitants. Virtually all patients used some form of prescription medication in the 6 months preceding start of cannabis use, most particularly psycholeptics (45.5 %), analgesics (44.3 %), anti-ulcer agents (35.9 %) and NSAIDs (30.7 %). We found no significant association between use of medication of common indications for cannabis (pain, HIV/AIDS, cancer, nausea, glaucoma) and variety of cannabis used. This is the first nationwide study into the extent of prescription of medicinal cannabis. Although the cannabis varieties studied are believed to possess different therapeutic effects based on their different content of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), no differences in choice of variety was found associated with indication.

  3. Cuban Ocular Toxoplasmosis Epidemiology Study (COTES): incidence and prevalence of ocular toxoplasmosis in Central Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustillo, Jorge L; Diaz, Jose D; Pacheco, Idarmes C; Gritz, David C

    2015-03-01

    Serological studies indicate that rates of ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) vary geographically, with higher rates in tropical regions. Little is known about population-based rates of active OT. We aimed to describe the epidemiology of OT in Central Cuba. This large-population, cross-sectional cohort study used a prospective database at a large regional referral centre in Central Cuba. The patient database was searched for all patients who presented with OT during the 12-month study period from 1 April 2011 to 31 March 2012. Inclusion criteria were the clinical diagnosis of OT, characterised by focal retinochoroidal inflammation and a response to therapy as expected. Gender-stratified and age-stratified study population data from the 2012 Cuban Census were used to calculate incidence rates and prevalence ratios. Among 279 identified patients with OT, 158 presented with active OT. Of these, 122 new-onset and 36 prior-onset cases were confirmed. Based on the total population in the Sancti Spiritus province (466,106 persons), the overall incidence of active OT was 26.2 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI 21.7 to 31.3) with an annual prevalence ratio of 33.9 per 100,000 persons (95% CI 28.8 to 39.6). The incidence of active OT was lowest in the oldest age group and highest in patients aged 25-44 years (4.5 and 42.1 per 100,000 person-years, respectively). This first report describing population-based rates of OT in the Cuban population highlights the importance of patient age as a likely risk factor for OT. Disease rates were found to be highest in females and young to middle-aged adults. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Prevalence, incidence, and natural course of anorexia and bulimia nervosa among adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagl, Michaela; Jacobi, Corinna; Paul, Martin; Beesdo-Baum, Katja; Höfler, Michael; Lieb, Roselind; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2016-08-01

    We aimed to assess the prevalence, incidence, age-of-onset and diagnostic stability of threshold and subthreshold anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) in the community. Data come from a prospective-longitudinal community study of 3021 subjects aged 14-24 at baseline, who were followed up at three assessment waves over 10 years. Eating disorder (ED) symptomatology was assessed with the DSM-IV/M-CIDI at each wave. Diagnostic stability was defined as the proportion of individuals still affected with at least symptomatic eating disorders (EDs) at follow-ups. Baseline lifetime prevalence for any threshold ED were 2.9 % among females and 0.1 % among males. For any subthreshold ED lifetime prevalence were 2.2 % for females and 0.7 % for males. Symptomatic expressions of EDs (including core symptoms of the respective disorder) were most common with a lifetime prevalence of 11.5 % among females and 1.8 % among males. Symptomatic AN showed the earliest onset with a considerable proportion of cases emerging in childhood. 47 % of initial threshold AN cases and 42 % of initial threshold BN cases showed at least symptomatic expressions of any ED at any follow-up assessment. Stability for subthreshold EDs and symptomatic expressions was 14-36 %. While threshold EDs are rare, ED symptomatology is common particularly in female adolescents and young women. Especially threshold EDs are associated with a substantial risk for stability. A considerable degree of symptom fluctuation is characteristic especially for subthreshold EDs.

  5. Incidence, Prevalence, Diagnostic Delay, and Clinical Presentation of Female 46,XY Disorders of Sex Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, Agnethe; Johannsen, Trine H; Stochholm, Kirstine; Viuff, Mette H; Fedder, Jens; Main, Katharina M; Gravholt, Claus H

    2016-12-01

    The prevalence of phenotypic females with a 46,XY karyotype is low, thus current knowledge about age and clinical presentation at diagnosis is sparse even for the most frequent conditions, androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS), and gonadal dysgenesis. To estimate incidence, prevalence, age at diagnosis, and clinical presentation at diagnosis in 46,XY females. A nationwide study covering all known females with a 46,XY karyotype in Denmark since 1960. The diagnosis of 46,XY disorder of sex development (DSD) was determined by medical record evaluation, data from the Danish National Patient Registry, and genetic testing, if available. A total of 166 females registered as 46,XY females in the Danish Cytogenetic Central Registry were identified. A total of 124 females were classified as having 46,XY DSD, 78 with AIS and 25 with gonadal dysgenesis, whereas the remaining subjects had a variety of different diagnoses. The prevalence of 46,XY females was 6.4 per 100 000 live born females, and for AIS and gonadal dysgenesis, it was 4.1 and 1.5 per 100 000, respectively. Median age at diagnosis was 7.5 years (95% confidence interval, 4.0-13.5; range, 0-34 y) in AIS and 17.0 years (95% confidence interval, 15.5-19.0; range, 0-28 y) in gonadal dysgenesis (P = .001). Clinical presentation was dependent on cause of DSD. The first estimate on prevalence of 46,XY females is 6.4 per 100 000 live born females. The presentation of AIS and gonadal dysgenesis is distinctly different, with AIS being diagnosed during childhood and gonadal dysgenesis during pubertal years. The presenting phenotype is dependent on the cause of 46,XY DSD.

  6. Napier grass stunt disease prevalence, incidence, severity and genetic variability of the associated phytoplasma in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawube, Geofrey; Talwana, Herbert; Nicolaisen, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence, incidence and severity of Napier grass stunt disease (NGSD) caused by phytoplasma on Pennisetum purpureum, the main fodder for livestock under intensive and semi-intensive management systems in Uganda were determined following a field survey carried out in 17 districts. A total...... of 298 Napier grass fields were visited and NGSD status visually assessed and 1192 samples collected for identification and confirmation of the phytoplasma by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays using universal primers P1/P6 nested with R16F2n/R16R2n and, tuf primers 890/340 nested with 835 and 400....... From these, 221 PCR products were sequenced and sequences aligned. Napier grass stunt disease is widely spread at an epidemic proportion, with the districts at different risk levels. The most affected districts are in central, East and North parts of the country while those in the west are least...

  7. Prevalence and Incidence of HCV Infection among Prisoners in Central Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Moreira Puga

    Full Text Available The aim of this multicenter, cross sectional study was to assess the prevalence, incidence and associated risk factors among incarcerated populations from twelve Brazilian prisons. The total of 3,368 individuals from twelve prisons was randomly recruited between March 2013 and March 2014. Participants were interviewed, and provided blood samples which were tested for antibodies to Hepatitis C (HCV ab. One year after the first investigation, a cohort study was conducted with 1,656 inmates who participated the cross sectional study. Positive samples were tested for the presence of HCV RNA. Out of 3,368 inmates, 520 (15.4% were females, and 2,848 (84.6% were males. The overall prevalence of HCV was 2.4% (95% CI: 1.9 to 2.9, with 0.6% (95% CI: 0.4 to 0.8 in females, and 2.7% (95% CI: 2.1 to 3.3 in males (p<0.01. HCV RNA was detected in 51/80 (63.7% samples. Among men prisoners, multivariate analysis of associated factors showed independent associations between HCV exposure and increasing age, inject drug use, length of incarceration, smoking hashish, sharing needle and syringe and HIV positivity. During the cohort study, 7/1,656 new cases of HCV infection were detected, and the incidence rate was 0.4/100 person-year. Once high frequency rates of specific HCV risk behaviors and new HCV infections have been identified inside prisons, effective interventions strategies such as screening, clinical evaluation and treatment to reduce the spread of HCV infection are essential.

  8. Prevalence and patterns of depression and anxiety in hemodialysis patients: a 12-month prospective study on incident and prevalent populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Hui Juan; Tan, Wei Jie; Mooppil, Nandakumar; Newman, Stanton; Griva, Konstadina

    2015-05-01

    Depression is common in dialysis patients and has been shown to be associated with higher morbidity and mortality, but little is known about the course of symptoms over time. The current study set up to explore group and individual patterns of change in symptoms of anxiety and depression within the hemodialysis population and to identify socio-demographic, clinical, and psychological factors that may be associated with different trajectories of emotional distress. A total of 159 hemodialysis patients (n = 42 incident and n = 117 prevalent) completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and social support and symptoms subscales from the Kidney Disease Quality of Life (Short Form) on two occasions 12 months apart. Clinical cut-offs were used to identify individual patterns of change in anxiety and depression symptoms across time, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedures were employed to establish potential correlates of these trajectories. Mean levels of anxiety and depression symptoms remained unchanged over 1 year with 44.7-54.1% of patients above cut-off at both baseline and follow-up. Individual-level analyses showed that the course of symptoms does not follow a single trajectory. While most patients had either persistent symptoms of distress (39.6% and 31.8% for depression and anxiety, respectively) or no/low symptoms of distress (32.1% and 36.9% for depression and anxiety, respectively), a total of 12.7-18.5% patients either had new-onset symptoms of depression/anxiety or symptoms diminishing over time. Patients with persisting or new-onset symptoms of depression or anxiety reported reduced perceived social support and quality of social interaction compared to the subgroups with low depressive/anxious symptoms. Different patterns of symptoms reflect heterogeneity in patients' emotional reactions and adjustment. More research is needed to identify patients at risk for emotional distress and to explore social support in the context of dialysis. Statement

  9. The incidence and prevalence of acromegaly, a nationwide study from 1955 through 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskuldsdottir, Gudrun Thuridur; Fjalldal, Sigridur Bara; Sigurjonsdottir, Helga Agusta

    2015-12-01

    Acromegaly is a rare disease with complications and increased mortality. The incidence and prevalence of acromegaly worldwide is not well known. To gather information on patients diagnosed with acromegly in Iceland over 59 years. Information was retrospectively gathered about patients diagnosed with acromegaly from 1955 through 2013. Incidence was calculated from the total Icelandic population. Information was gathered from medical records at Landspitali National University Hospital, Iceland, housing the only endocrine department in the country, at the largest hospital outside of Reykjavik (Sjúkrahúsið á Akureyri, Akureyri Hospital) and the largest private outpatient clinic in Reykjavik, where some of the patients received follow-up care. Further, information on patients were sought from all endocrinologists treating adult patients in Iceland. All patients diagnosed with acromegaly during the study period were included. Fifty-two patients (32 men) were diagnosed during the study period. The average age at diagnosis was 44.5 years. Nine patients had died. Symptoms had been present for more than 3 years in most cases. Twenty-five patients had hypertension (48 %). Follow up information was available for 48 patients, 63 % were considered cured after treatment. The incidence of acromegaly in Iceland during the study period was much higher than earlier reports have indicated. During the last 9 years of the study 7.7 patients were diagnosed per million per year. At diagnosis, 38 % had developed hypertension and 10 % were diagnosed during follow up. This indicates the importance of endocrine disorders in the aetiology of hypertension.

  10. Medial epicondylitis in occupational settings: prevalence, incidence and associated risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descatha, Alexis; Leclerc, Annette; Chastang, Jean-François; Roquelaure, Yves

    2003-01-01

    As medial epicondylitis has not been studied alone, we investigated its links between personal and occupational factors in repetitive work, and its course. 1757 workers were examined by an occupational health physician in 1993–94. 598 of them were re-examined three years later. Prevalence was between 4 and 5%, with annual incidence estimated at 1.5%. Forceful work was a risk factor for medial epicondylitis (OR 1.95 CI [1.15–3.32]), but not exposure to repetitive work (OR 1.11, CI [0.59–2.10]). Workers with medial epicondylitis had a significantly higher prevalence of other work-related upper-limb musculoskeletal disorders (WRMD). Risk factors differed for medial and lateral epicondylitis. The prognosis for medial epicondylitis in this population was good with a three-year recovery rate at 81%. Medial epicondylitis was clearly associated with forceful work and other upper-limb WRMD, and its prognosis was good. PMID:14506342

  11. Low bone mineral density in noncholestatic liver cirrhosis: prevalence, severity and prediction

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    Figueiredo Fátima Aparecida Ferreira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Metabolic bone disease has long been associated with cholestatic disorders. However, data in noncholestatic cirrhosis are relatively scant. AIMS: To determine prevalence and severity of low bone mineral density in noncholestatic cirrhosis and to investigate whether age, gender, etiology, severity of underlying liver disease, and/or laboratory tests are predictive of the diagnosis. PATIENTS/METHODS: Between March and September/1998, 89 patients with noncholestatic cirrhosis and 20 healthy controls were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. All subjects underwent standard laboratory tests and bone densitometry at lumbar spine and femoral neck by dual X-ray absorptiometry. RESULTS: Bone mass was significantly reduced at both sites in patients compared to controls. The prevalence of low bone mineral density in noncholestatic cirrhosis, defined by the World Health Organization criteria, was 78% at lumbar spine and 71% at femoral neck. Bone density significantly decreased with age at both sites, especially in patients older than 50 years. Bone density was significantly lower in post-menopausal women patients compared to pre-menopausal and men at both sites. There was no significant difference in bone mineral density among noncholestatic etiologies. Lumbar spine bone density significantly decreased with the progression of liver dysfunction. No biochemical variable was significantly associated with low bone mineral density. CONCLUSIONS: Low bone mineral density is highly prevalent in patients with noncholestatic cirrhosis. Older patients, post-menopausal women and patients with severe hepatic dysfunction experienced more advanced bone disease. The laboratory tests routinely determined in patients with liver disease did not reliably predict low bone mineral density.

  12. Prevalence of Candida spp. in Healthy Oral Mucosa Surfaces with Higher Incidence of Chronic Hyperplastic Candidosis.

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    Arruda, Claúdia; Artico, Gabriela; Freitas, Roseli; Filho, Antônio; Migliari, Dante

    2016-08-01

    Predisposing factors in chronic hyperplastic candidosis (CHC) have been poorly recognized. This study aimed at assessing the prevalence of Candida spp. in areas of the oral mucosa showing greater prevalent rate of CHC, such as the retrocomissural area, the lateral borders of the tongue, and the hard-palate mucosa in four groups of individuals presenting predisposing factors as follows: Smoking habits (group I); patients with low salivary flow rate (SFR) (hyposalivation - group II); patients with loss of vertical dimension of occlusion (LVDO -group III); and control subjects (group IV). A total of 44 individuals (age 4090 years, mean: 55.8 years) were divided into four groups: Group I (11 smokers); group II (10 hyposalivation patients); group III (10 LVDO patients); and group IV (control, 13 healthy subjects). All individuals were tested for Candida-pseudohyphae form by direct examination and for Candida spp. culture growth in samples obtained from the retrocomissural, tongue's lateral border, and hard-soft palatal mucosa. Direct examination showed a statistically significant prevalence rate for pseudohyphae (p < 0.05) on the retrocomissural and on tongue's lateral borders of individuals with LVDO. A statistically significant (p < 0.05) culture growth for Candida spp. was found on the retrocomissural areas of those with hyposalivation and with LVDO, and on the palate mucosa and on the tongue's lateral borders in the smokers and in the individuals with LVDO when compared with those of the control group. While direct examination is effective for detecting pseudohyphae, LVDO and tobacco smoking seem to be factors of relevance to the development of CHC. Since CHC has been linked to a high rate of malignant transformation, this study analyzes some clinical (and exogenous) factors that may contribute to the development of CHC and addresses some preventive measures to reduce its incidence.

  13. Clandestine induced abortion: prevalence, incidence and risk factors among women in a Latin American country.

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    Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; White, Peter J; Carcamo, Cesar P; Hughes, James P; Gonzales, Marco A; Garcia, Patricia J; Garnett, Geoff P; Holmes, King K

    2009-02-03

    Clandestine induced abortions are a public health problem in many developing countries where access to abortion services is legally restricted. We estimated the prevalence and incidence of, and risk factors for, clandestine induced abortions in a Latin American country. We conducted a large population-based survey of women aged 18-29 years in 20 cities in Peru. We asked questions about their history of spontaneous and induced abortions, using techniques to encourage disclosure. Of 8242 eligible women, 7992 (97.0%) agreed to participate. The prevalence of reported induced abortions was 11.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 10.9%-12.4%) among the 7962 women who participated in the survey. It was 13.6% (95% CI 12.8%-14.5%) among the 6559 women who reported having been sexually active. The annual incidence of induced abortion was 3.1% (95% CI 2.9%-3.3%) among the women who had ever been sexually active. In the multivariable analysis, risk factors for induced abortion were higher age at the time of the survey (odds ratio [OR] 1.11, 95% CI 1.07-1.15), lower age at first sexual intercourse (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.84-0.91), geographic region (highlands: OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.23-1.97; jungle: OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.41-2.31 [v. coastal region]), having children (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.68-0.98), having more than 1 sexual partner in lifetime (2 partners: OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.23-2.09; > or = 3 partners: OR 2.79, 95% CI 2.12-3.67), and having 1 or more sexual partners in the year before the survey (1 partner: OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.01-1.72; > or = 2 partners: OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.14-2.02). Overall, 49.0% (95% CI 47.6%-50.3%) of the women who reported being currently sexually active were not using contraception. The incidence of clandestine, potentially unsafe induced abortion in Peru is as high as or higher than the rates in many countries where induced abortion is legal and safe. The provision of contraception and safer-sex education to those who require it needs to be greatly improved and could potentially

  14. Prevalence of Оsteoporosis and Low Bone Mineral Density in Ukrainian Women with Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome

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    V.V. Povoroznyuk

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the incidence of osteoporosis and low bone mineral density (BMD in Ukrainian women with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Materials and methods. The study involved 1,605 persons, whose mean age was 62.31 ± 9.52 years, the average body mass — 76.48 ± 14.65 kg. All women were in postmenopausal period. Patients were divided into three groups. First group (800 people included women without obesity, second one (572 persons — with obesity. Third group (233 people consisted of patients with metabolic syndrome. BMD of lumbar spine and femoral neck was measured by dual-energy X-ray absortiometer (Prodigy, 2005. Conclusion about normal BMD, osteoporosis and low BMD was made according to the ISCD (2007 criteria for official position (updated in 2015. Results. The incidence of osteoporosis and low BMD in women from the second and third groups were compared with those in the first group. We have found no significant differences in performance of BMD between patients of second and third groups unlike the first group. Conclusions. In patients with obesity and metabolic syndrome, the prevalence of osteoporosis and low BMD is significantly lower as compared with the group of women without obesity, and metabolic syndrome and obesity have equally positive effect on bone mineral density.

  15. The Incidence and Prevalence of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in San Francisco County, California: The California Lupus Surveillance Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Era, Maria; Cisternas, Miriam G; Snipes, Kurt; Herrinton, Lisa J; Gordon, Caroline; Helmick, Charles G

    2017-10-01

    Estimates of the incidence and prevalence of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in the US have varied widely. The purpose of this study was to conduct the California Lupus Surveillance Project (CLSP) to determine credible estimates of SLE incidence and prevalence, with a special focus on Hispanics and Asians. The CLSP, which is funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, is a population-based registry of individuals with SLE residing in San Francisco County, CA, from January 1, 2007 through December 31, 2009. Data sources included hospitals, rheumatologists, nephrologists, commercial laboratories, and a state hospital discharge database. We abstracted medical records to ascertain SLE cases, which we defined as patients who met ≥4 of the 11 American College of Rheumatology classification criteria for SLE. We estimated crude and age-standardized incidence and prevalence, which were stratified by sex and race/ethnicity. The overall age-standardized annual incidence rate was 4.6 per 100,000 person-years. The average annual period prevalence was 84.8 per 100,000 persons. The age-standardized incidence rate in women and men was 8.6 and 0.7 per 100,000 person-years, respectively. This rate was highest among black women (30.5), followed by Hispanic women (8.9), Asian women (7.2), and white women (5.3). The age-standardized prevalence in women per 100,000 persons was 458.1 in blacks, 177.9 in Hispanics, 149.7 in Asians, and 109.8 in whites. Capture-recapture modeling estimated 33 additional incident cases and 147 additional prevalent cases. Comprehensive methods that include intensive case-finding provide more credible estimates of SLE in Hispanics and Asians, and confirm racial and ethnic disparities in SLE. The disease burden of SLE is highest in black women, followed by Hispanic women, Asian women, and white women. © 2017, American College of Rheumatology.

  16. The incidence and prevalence of pterygium in South Korea: A 10-year population-based Korean cohort study.

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    Tyler Hyungtaek Rim

    Full Text Available Although numerous population-based studies have reported the prevalences and risk factors for pterygium, information regarding the incidence of pterygium is scarce. This population-based cohort study aimed to evaluate the South Korean incidence and prevalence of pterygium. We retrospectively obtained data from a nationally representative sample of 1,116,364 South Koreans in the Korea National Health Insurance Service National Sample Cohort (NHIS-NSC. The associated sociodemographic factors were evaluated using multivariable Cox regression analysis, and the hazard ratios and confidence intervals were calculated. Pterygium was defined based on the Korean Classification of Diseases code, and surgically removed pterygium was defined as cases that required surgical removal. We identified 21,465 pterygium cases and 8,338 surgically removed pterygium cases during the study period. The overall incidences were 2.1 per 1,000 person-years for pterygium and 0.8 per 1,000 person-years for surgically removed pterygium. Among subjects who were ≥40 years old, the incidences were 4.3 per 1,000 person-years for pterygium and 1.7 per 1,000 person-years for surgically removed pterygium. The overall prevalences were 1.9% for pterygium and 0.6% for surgically removed pterygium, and the prevalences increased to 3.8% for pterygium and 1.4% for surgically removed pterygium among subjects who were ≥40 years old. The incidences of pterygium decreased according to year. The incidence and prevalence of pterygium were highest among 60-79-year-old individuals. Increasing age, female sex, and living in a relatively rural area were associated with increased risks of pterygium and surgically removed pterygium in the multivariable Cox regression analysis. Our analyses of South Korean national insurance claims data revealed a decreasing trend in the incidence of pterygium during the study period.

  17. Prevalence, Course, Incidence, and 1-Year Prediction of Deliberate Self-Harm and Suicide Attempts in Early Norwegian School Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Bo; Sund, Anne Mari

    2008-01-01

    In this survey of early Norwegian school adolescents, the prevalence, course, and incidence of self-harm behavior with or without suicide intent were examined, in addition to predictors of self-harm for a 1-year follow-up period. Lifetime prevalence rates of self-harm without suicide intent and suicide attempts were 2.9% and 3.0%, respectively,…

  18. The Rising Prevalence and Incidence of Gout in British Columbia, Canada: Population-Based Trends from 2000-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Sharan K.; Aviña-Zubieta, J. Antonio; McCormick, Natalie; De Vera, Mary A.; Shojania, Kam; Sayre, Eric C.; Choi, Hyon K.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Gout is increasingly recognized as the most common form of inflammatory arthritis worldwide; however, no Canadian data on the disease burden of gout are available. We estimated the prevalence, incidence, prescription patterns, and comorbidity burden of gout in an entire Canadian province (British Columbia [BC]) over the last decade. Methods We utilized PopulationData BC, a province-wide database, to estimate temporal trends in the prevalence and incidence of gout from 2000-2012, as well as according to age category. Annual estimates were age-sex-standardized using 2012 as the reference. We also examined annual trends in prescription patterns of common gout medications and assessed the comorbidity burden among gout patients in 2012. Results The 2012 prevalence of gout was 3.8% among the overall population, and the incidence rate was 2.9 per 1,000 person-years. Both gout prevalence and incidence increased substantially over the study period. This burden additionally increased according to age category, affecting over 8% of those ages 60-69 years in 2012. Approximately 22% of gout patients received a prescription for urate-lowering therapy (ULT), which remained stable over the study period, while colchicine and oral glucocorticoid use both increased modestly. By 2012, 72%, 52%, and 18% of prevalent gout patients had been diagnosed with hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes, respectively. Conclusions The burden of gout in BC, Canada, is substantial, and both the prevalence and incidence have increased over the past decade, while prescription of ULT remains low. These data support the need to improve gout prevention and care. PMID:28040245

  19. Psychosis of Alzheimer disease: prevalence, incidence, persistence, risk factors, and mortality.

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    Vilalta-Franch, Joan; López-Pousa, Secundino; Calvó-Perxas, Laia; Garre-Olmo, Josep

    2013-11-01

    To establish the prevalence, incidence, persistence, risk factors, and mortality risk increase of psychosis of Alzheimer disease (PoAD) in a clinical sample. Cross-sectional, observational study of 491 patients with probable AD who, at baseline visit, were evaluated with the Cambridge Examination for Mental Disorders of the Elderly, the Neuropsychiatric Inventory-10, the Rapid Disability Rating Scale-2, and the Zarit Burden Interview. All participants were reevaluated at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. PoAD diagnoses were made using specific criteria. PoAD prevalence was 7.3%, and the cumulative incidence at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months was 5.8%, 10.6%, 13.5%, and 15.1%, respectively. After 1 year, psychotic symptoms persisted in 68.7% of the patients with initial PoAD. At baseline, patients with PoAD scored lower in the Cambridge Cognitive Examination and Mini-Mental State Examination and higher in the Rapid Disability Rating Scale-2 and Zarit Burden Interview tests. Both low scores in the Cambridge Cognitive Examination subscale of learning memory (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.874; 95% CI: 0.788-0.969; Wald χ2 = 6.515; df = 1) and perception (HR = 0.743; 95% CI: 0.610-0.904; Wald χ2 = 8.778; df = 1), and high scores in expressive language (HR = 1.179; 95% CI: 1.024-1.358; Wald χ2 = 5.261; df = 1) and calculation skills (HR = 1.763; 95% CI: 1.067-2.913; Wald χ2 = 4.905; df = 1) were found to be associated with PoAD. PoAD leads to a faster functional impairment, and it increases mortality risk (HR = 2.191; 95% CI: 1.136-4.228; Wald χ2 = 5.471; df = 1) after controlling for age, gender, cognitive and functional disability, general health status, and antipsychotic treatment. PoAD seems to define a phenotype of AD of greater severity, with worsened functional progression and increased mortality risk. Copyright © 2013 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Sexual assault incidents among college undergraduates: Prevalence and factors associated with risk.

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    Claude A Mellins

    Full Text Available Sexual assault on college campuses is a public health issue. However varying research methodologies (e.g., different sexual assault definitions, measures, assessment timeframes and low response rates hamper efforts to define the scope of the problem. To illuminate the complexity of campus sexual assault, we collected survey data from a large population-based random sample of undergraduate students from Columbia University and Barnard College in New York City, using evidence based methods to maximize response rates and sample representativeness, and behaviorally specific measures of sexual assault to accurately capture victimization rates. This paper focuses on student experiences of different types of sexual assault victimization, as well as sociodemographic, social, and risk environment correlates. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, and logistic regression were used to estimate prevalences and test associations. Since college entry, 22% of students reported experiencing at least one incident of sexual assault (defined as sexualized touching, attempted penetration [oral, anal, vaginal, other], or completed penetration. Women and gender nonconforming students reported the highest rates (28% and 38%, respectively, although men also reported sexual assault (12.5%. Across types of assault and gender groups, incapacitation due to alcohol and drug use and/or other factors was the perpetration method reported most frequently (> 50%; physical force (particularly for completed penetration in women and verbal coercion were also commonly reported. Factors associated with increased risk for sexual assault included non-heterosexual identity, difficulty paying for basic necessities, fraternity/sorority membership, participation in more casual sexual encounters ("hook ups" vs. exclusive/monogamous or no sexual relationships, binge drinking, and experiencing sexual assault before college. High rates of re-victimization during college were reported across

  1. Prevalence and incidence of frailty in Aboriginal Australians, and associations with mortality and disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Zoë; Flicker, Leon; Smith, Kate; Atkinson, David; Fenner, Stephen; Skeaf, Linda; Malay, Roslyn; Lo Giudice, Dina

    2016-05-01

    Frailty represents a loss of homeostasis, markedly increasing the risk of death and disability. Frailty has been measured in several ethnic groups, but not, to our knowledge, in Aboriginal Australians. We aimed to determine the prevalence and incidence of frailty, and associations with mortality and disability, in remote-living Aboriginal people. Between 2004 and 2006, we recruited 363 Aboriginal people aged ≥ 45 years from 6 remote communities and one town in the Kimberley region of Western Australia (wave 1). Between 2011 and 2013, 182 surviving participants were followed-up (wave 2). We assessed frailty with an index, comprising 20 health-related items. Participants with ≥ 4 deficits (frailty index ≥ 0.2) were considered frail. Disability was assessed by family/carer report. Those unable to do ≥ 2 of 6 key or instrumental activities of daily living were considered disabled. We investigated associations between frailty, and disability and mortality, with logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards models. At wave 1 (W1), 188 participants (65.3%) were frail, and of robust people at W1 who participated in wave 2, 38 (51.4%) had become frail. Frailty emerged at a younger age than expected. A total of 109 people died (30.0%), of whom 80 (73.4%) were frail at W1. Frailty at W1 was not associated with becoming disabled, but was associated with mortality (HR = 1.9; 95% CI 1.2, 3.0). Frailty in remote-living Aboriginal Australians is highly prevalent; substantially higher than in other populations. Research to understand the underlying causes of frailty in this population, and if possible, reverse frailty, is urgently needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Improving incidence estimation in practice-based sentinel surveillance networks using spatial variation in general practitioner density

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    Cécile Souty

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In surveillance networks based on voluntary participation of health-care professionals, there is little choice regarding the selection of participants’ characteristics. External information about participants, for example local physician density, can help reduce bias in incidence estimates reported by the surveillance network. Methods There is an inverse association between the number of reported influenza-like illness (ILI cases and local general practitioners (GP density. We formulated and compared estimates of ILI incidence using this relationship. To compare estimates, we simulated epidemics using a spatially explicit disease model and their observation by surveillance networks with different characteristics: random, maximum coverage, largest cities, etc. Results In the French practice-based surveillance network – the “Sentinelles” network – GPs reported 3.6% (95% CI [3;4] less ILI cases as local GP density increased by 1 GP per 10,000 inhabitants. Incidence estimates varied markedly depending on scenarios for participant selection in surveillance. Yet accounting for change in GP density for participants allowed reducing bias. Applied on data from the Sentinelles network, changes in overall incidence ranged between 1.6 and 9.9%. Conclusions Local GP density is a simple measure that provides a way to reduce bias in estimating disease incidence in general practice. It can contribute to improving disease monitoring when it is not possible to choose the characteristics of participants.

  3. Multiple sclerosis in the far north--incidence and prevalence in Nordland County, Norway, 1970-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjaminsen, Espen; Olavsen, Johnny; Karlberg, Merethe; Alstadhaug, Karl B

    2014-12-04

    The risk of multiple sclerosis (MS) increases with increasing latitude. Taking into consideration that Norway has a large latitude range, a south-to-north gradient would be expected. However, previous studies have reported an uneven distribution of the disease in Norway, with a relatively low prevalence in the most northern parts of the country. We describe the incidence and prevalence of MS in a county in the north of Norway over a period of 40 years. All patients with MS living in Nordland County in the period 1970-2010 were identified by reviewing hospital charts. The patients were included if they met the criteria of definitive or probable MS according to Poser [Ann Neurol 13:227-231, 1983] or MS according to McDonalds [Ann Neurol 50:121-127, 2001]. Point prevalence at the beginning of the decades was calculated. The average annual incidence was calculated for 5-year periods. The total crude prevalence on January 1, 2010 was 182.4 per 100 000. The annual incidence continuously increased from 0.7 per 100 000 in 1970 - 1974 to 10.1 per 100,000 in 2005 - 2009. The time delay from the first symptom to diagnosis was stable from 1975 to 2010. The proportion of primary progressive MS in the prevalence numbers was 38.2% in 1980, and decreases continuously, to 18.6% in 2010. The female to male prevalence ratio has been stable since 1990 at 2.2 to 1. The prevalence and the incidence of MS have steadily increased over a 40 year period. Nordland County is a high-risk area for MS.

  4. The incidence and prevalence of diabetes mellitus and related atherosclerotic complications in Korea: a National Health Insurance Database Study.

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    Bo Kyung Koo

    Full Text Available The incidence and prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and related macrovascular complications in Korea were estimated using the Health Insurance Review and Assessment (HIRA database from 2007-2011, which covers the claim data of 97.0% of the Korean population.T2DM, coronary artery disease (CAD, cerebrovascular disease (CVD, and peripheral artery disease (PAD were defined according to ICD-10 codes. We used the Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System codes provided by HIRA to identify associated procedures or surgeries. When calculating incidence, we excluded cases with preexisting T2DM within two years before the index year. A Poisson distribution was assumed when calculating 95% confidence intervals for prevalence and incidence rates.The prevalence of T2DM in Korean adults aged 20-89 years was 6.1-6.9% and the annual incidence rates of T2DM ranged from 9.5-9.8/1,000 person-year (PY during the study period. The incidence rates of T2DM in men and women aged 20-49 years showed decreasing patterns from 2009 to 2011 (P<0.001; by contrast, the incidence in subjects aged 70-79 years showed increased patterns from 2009 to 2011 (P<0.001. The incidence rates of CAD and CVD in patients newly diagnosed with T2DM were 18.84/1,000 PY and 11.32/1,000 PY, respectively, in the year of diagnosis. Among newly diagnosed individuals with T2DM who were undergoing treatment for PAD, 14.6% underwent angioplasty for CAD during the same period.Our study measured the national incidences of T2DM, CAD, CVD, and PAD, which are of great concern for public health. We also confirmed the relatively higher risk of CAD and CVD newly detected T2DM patients compared to the general population in Korea.

  5. Deer density and disease prevalence influence transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease in White-tailed Deer

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    Samuel, Michael D.; Richards, Bryan J.; Storm, Daniel J.; Rolley, Robert E.; Shelton, Paul; Nicholas S. Keuler,; Timothy R. Van Deelen,

    2013-01-01

    Host-parasite dynamics and strategies for managing infectious diseases of wildlife depend on the functional relationship between disease transmission rates and host density. However, the disease transmission function is rarely known for free-living wildlife, leading to uncertainty regarding the impacts of diseases on host populations and effective control actions. We evaluated the influence of deer density, landscape features, and soil clay content on transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) in young (disease prevalence and density of infected deer, performed better than simple density- and frequency-dependent models. Our results indicate a combination of social structure, non-linear relationships between infectious contact and deer density, and distribution of disease among groups are important factors driving CWD infection in young deer. The landscape covariates % deciduous forest cover and forest edge density also were positively associated with infection rates, but soil clay content had no measurable influences on CWD transmission. Lack of strong density-dependent transmission rates indicates that controlling CWD by reducing deer density will be difficult. The consequences of non-linear disease transmission and aggregation of disease on cervid populations deserves further consideration.

  6. Epidemiological research on the incidence and prevalence of arterial hypertension in the Portuguese population: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa Uva, Mafalda; Victorino, Paulo; Roquette, Rita; Machado, Ausenda; Matias Dias, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The Portuguese population is reported to have among the highest levels of mean blood pressure. The aim of the present study is to conduct a structured literature review describing the scope (quantity, focus and nature) of published epidemiological research on the prevalence and incidence of hypertension in the Portuguese population. The scoping review was conducted during June 2013, using two information sources, B-on and PubMed, to search for published studies on the prevalence and incidence of hypertension with data collected between 2005-2013 and 1995-2013, respectively. We identified 527 publications: 14 on the prevalence and two on the incidence of hypertension. The results show more studies on populations in the North region of Portugal; an apparent lack of published studies specifically targeting the Alentejo and Algarve populations; long delays between data collection and publication of results (up to nine years); considerable variability in measurement methods; and infrequent data stratification by gender and age. Differences in blood pressure measurement methods, not specified in most studies, the infrequency of stratification of results by gender and age, and the geographic asymmetry in coverage of the Portuguese population, hinder monitoring of the incidence and prevalence of hypertension in Portugal. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevalence, incidence and associated factors of pressure ulcers in home palliative care patients: A retrospective chart review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artico, Marco; Dante, Angelo; D'Angelo, Daniela; Lamarca, Luciano; Mastroianni, Chiara; Petitti, Tommasangelo; Piredda, Michela; De Marinis, Maria Grazia

    2018-01-01

    Terminally ill patients are at high risk of pressure ulcers, which have a negative impact on quality of life. Data about pressure ulcers' prevalence, incidence and associated factors are largely insufficient. To document the point prevalence at admission and the cumulative incidence of pressure ulcers in terminally ill patients admitted to an Italian home palliative care unit, and to analyse the patients' and caregivers' characteristics associated with their occurrence. Retrospective chart review. Patients ( n = 574) with a life expectancy ⩽6 months admitted to a palliative home care service were included in this study. The prevalence and incidence rates were 13.1% and 13.0%, respectively. The logistic regression models showed body mass index ( p 70 and >1 caregiver at home as the dichotomous variables predictors of presenting with a pressure ulcer at time of admission and during home palliative care. The notable pressure ulcers' incidence and prevalence rates suggest the need to include this issue among the main outcomes to pursue during home palliative care. The accuracy of body mass index, Braden Scale and Karnofsky Performance Scale in predicting the pressure ulcers risk is confirmed. Therefore, they appear as essential tools, in combination with nurses' clinical judgment, for a structured approach to pressure ulcers prevention. Further research is needed to explore the home caregivers' characteristics and attitudes associated with the occurrence of pressure ulcers and the relations between their strategies for pressure ulcer prevention and gender-related patient's needs.

  8. Radiating low back pain in general practice : Incidence, prevalence, diagnosis, and long-term clinical course of illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijker-Huiges, Antje; Groenhof, Feikje; Winters, Jan C.; van Wijhe, Marten; Groenier, Klaas H.; van der Meer, Klaas

    Objective. The aim of this study was to calculate the incidence and prevalence of radiating low back pain, to explore the long-term clinical course of radiating low back pain including the influence of radiculopathy (in a subsample of the study population) and non-radiating low back pain thereon,

  9. Prevalence, Incidence, and Resolution of Nocturnal Polyuria in a Longitudinal Community-based Study in Older Men : The Krimpen Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, Boris; Blanker, Marco H.; Kok, Esther T.; Westers, Paul; Bosch, J. L. H. Ruud

    Background: Nocturnal polyuria (NP) is common in older men and can lead to nocturia. However, no longitudinal data are available on the natural history of NP. Objective: To determine prevalence, incidence, and resolution rates of NP. Design, setting, and participants: A longitudinal, community-based

  10. Measuring the Prevalence and Incidence of Low Back Pain Disorders Among American Workers in the Aerospace and Defense Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetzel, Ron Z; D'Arco, Malinda; Thomas, Jordana; Wang, Degang; Tabrizi, Maryam J; Roemer, Enid Chung; Prasad, Aishwarya; Yarborough, Charles M

    2015-09-01

    To determine the prevalence and incidence of low back pain (LBP) among workers in the aerospace and defense industry and in a specific company. Claims and demographic data from the Truven Health MarketScan normative database representing more than 1 million workers were drawn from a group of 18 US benchmark companies and compared with one particular company, Lockheed Martin Corporation. The prevalence of LBP in the MarketScan normative group was 15.6% in the final study year (2012), whereas the incidence of new cases was 7.2% and 7.3% in years 2011 and 2012, respectively. Compared with the normative group, the company's prevalence and incidence rates were lower. Women and older workers were more likely to experience LBP compared with men and younger workers. The analysis was used to inform the company's leadership about the health burden of the condition and evaluate alternative treatment options to prevent the incidences and reduce the prevalence of clinical back pain among workers.

  11. Prevalence, incidence and course of lower extremity injuries in runners during a 12-month follow-up period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppel van, D.; Scholten-Peeters, G G M; van Middelkoop, M.; Verhagen, Arianne P

    2014-01-01

    To describe the incidence, 12-month prevalence, and course of lower extremity injuries that occurred during and after the Amgen Singelloop Breda in 2009. The design was based on a prospective cohort study with a population-based setting. In total, 3605 registered runners received a web-based

  12. Urinary incontinence in nulliparous women before and during pregnancy: prevalence, incidence, and associated risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Stephanie J; Donath, Susan; MacArthur, Christine; McDonald, Ellie A; Krastev, Ann H

    2010-02-01

    Few studies have examined associations of prepregnancy urinary incontinence (UI). Multicentre prospective pregnancy cohort study (n = 1,507) using standardised measures to assess frequency and severity of UI. Prevalence of UI increased from 10.8% in the 12 months before the index pregnancy to 55.9% in the third trimester. Stress incontinence (36.9%) and mixed incontinence (13.1%) were more common during pregnancy than urge incontinence alone (5.9%). UI before pregnancy was associated with childhood enuresis (adjusted odds ratio (AdjOR) = 2.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6-3.4), higher maternal body mass index (AdjOR = 2.3, 95% CI 1.4-3.8), and previous miscarriages or terminations (AdjOR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.3). The strongest predictor of incident UI in pregnancy was occasional leakage (less than once a month) before pregnancy (AdjOR = 3.6, 95% CI 2.8-4.7). Further research is needed to elucidate the complex interplay of prepregnancy and pregnancy-related factors in the aetiology of UI in nulliparous women.

  13. Prevalence and Incidence of Epilepsy Associated with Convulsive Seizures in Rural Bolivia. A Global Campaign against Epilepsy Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Elisa; Quattrocchi, Graziella; Crespo Gómes, Elizabeth Blanca; Sofia, Vito; Padilla, Sandra; Camargo, Mario; Zappia, Mario; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Nicoletti, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    we performed a three-stages door-to-door survey to estimate incidence and prevalence of epilepsy associated with convulsive seizures (EACS) in a rural area of Bolivia. the study was carried out in the Cordillera Province, southern-eastern Bolivia. One hundred fourteen rural communities with a total population of 18,907 inhabitants were included in the survey. In order to identify subjects with EACS, trained fieldworkers administered a validated single screening question to the householders (stage I). A second face-to-face questionnaire was administered to each positive subject (stage II) that, in case of positive answer, underwent a complete neurological examination to confirm the diagnosis (stage III). We estimated age and sex specific life-time and active EACS prevalence at the prevalence day (30th June 2010). Incidence risk was evaluated for the 10-year period between January 2000 and December 2010. on prevalence day we identified 136 subjects with EACS, 124 of whom had active epilepsy. The life-time prevalence of EACS was 7.2/1,000 (7.6/1,000 age-adjusted to the world standard population) while the prevalence of active EACS was 6.6/1,000 (6.7/1,000 age-adjusted to the world standard population). Both life-time and active prevalence showed a peak (10.3/1,000) in the 15-24 years age group and, overall, were higher among women. During the incidence study period, 105 patients living in the study area had the onset of EACS. The crude incidence risk was 55.4/100,000 (49.5/100,000 age-adjusted to the world standard population). Incidence was slightly but not significantly higher among women (58.9/100,000 versus 51.9/100,000). the present study demonstrated a considerable burden of EACS in the Bolivian Chaco, showing prevalence and incidence estimates close to those reported for low and middle- income countries and underlying the need of treatment programs.

  14. Prevalence and Incidence of Epilepsy Associated with Convulsive Seizures in Rural Bolivia. A Global Campaign against Epilepsy Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo Gómes, Elizabeth Blanca; Sofia, Vito; Padilla, Sandra; Camargo, Mario; Zappia, Mario; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Nicoletti, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Objective we performed a three-stages door-to-door survey to estimate incidence and prevalence of epilepsy associated with convulsive seizures (EACS) in a rural area of Bolivia. Methods the study was carried out in the Cordillera Province, southern-eastern Bolivia. One hundred fourteen rural communities with a total population of 18,907 inhabitants were included in the survey. In order to identify subjects with EACS, trained fieldworkers administered a validated single screening question to the householders (stage I). A second face-to-face questionnaire was administered to each positive subject (stage II) that, in case of positive answer, underwent a complete neurological examination to confirm the diagnosis (stage III). We estimated age and sex specific life-time and active EACS prevalence at the prevalence day (30th June 2010). Incidence risk was evaluated for the 10-year period between January 2000 and December 2010. Results on prevalence day we identified 136 subjects with EACS, 124 of whom had active epilepsy. The life-time prevalence of EACS was 7.2/1,000 (7.6/1,000 age-adjusted to the world standard population) while the prevalence of active EACS was 6.6/1,000 (6.7/1,000 age-adjusted to the world standard population). Both life-time and active prevalence showed a peak (10.3/1,000) in the 15–24 years age group and, overall, were higher among women. During the incidence study period, 105 patients living in the study area had the onset of EACS. The crude incidence risk was 55.4/100,000 (49.5/100,000 age-adjusted to the world standard population). Incidence was slightly but not significantly higher among women (58.9/100,000 versus 51.9/100,000). Conclusions the present study demonstrated a considerable burden of EACS in the Bolivian Chaco, showing prevalence and incidence estimates close to those reported for low and middle- income countries and underlying the need of treatment programs. PMID:26427017

  15. Dietary Energy Density and Postmenopausal Breast Cancer Incidence in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Terryl J; Gapstur, Susan M; Gaudet, Mia M; Shah, Roma; Flanders, W Dana; Wang, Ying; McCullough, Marjorie L

    2016-10-01

    Dietary energy density (ED) is a measure of diet quality that estimates the amount of energy per unit of food (kilocalories per gram) consumed. Low-ED diets are generally high in fiber and fruits and vegetables and low in fat. Dietary ED has been positively associated with body mass index (BMI) and other risk factors for postmenopausal breast cancer. We evaluated the associations of total dietary ED and energy-dense (high-ED) foods with postmenopausal breast cancer incidence. Analyses included 56,795 postmenopausal women from the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort with no previous history of breast or other cancers and who provided information on diet, lifestyle, and medical history in 1999. Multivariable-adjusted breast cancer incidence rate ratios (RRs and 95% CIs) were estimated for quintiles of total dietary ED and for the consumption of high-ED foods in Cox proportional hazards regression models. During a median follow-up of 11.7 y, 2509 invasive breast cancer cases were identified, including 1857 estrogen receptor-positive and 277 estrogen receptor-negative tumors. Median dietary ED was 1.5 kcal/g (IQR: 1.3-1.7 kcal/g). After adjusting for age, race, education, reproductive characteristics, and family history, high compared with low dietary ED was associated with a statistically significantly higher risk of breast cancer (RR for fifth quintile compared with first quintile: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.36; P-trend = 0.03). The association between the amount of high-ED foods consumed and breast cancer risk was not statistically significant. We observed no differences by estrogen receptor status or effect modification by BMI, age, or physical activity. These results suggest a modest positive association between total dietary ED and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Incident energy and target dependence of interaction cross sections and density distribution of neutron drip-line nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimoura, S.

    1992-01-01

    The relation between nuclear density distribution and interaction cross section is discussed in terms of Glauber model. Based on the model, density distribution of neutron drip-line nucleus 11 Be and 11 Li is determined experimentally from incident energy dependence of interaction cross sections of 11 Be and 11 Li on light targets. The obtained distributions have long tails corresponding to neutron halos of loosely bound neutrons. (Author)

  17. Geographic Variation of Chronic Kidney Disease Prevalence: Correlation with the Incidence of Renal Cell Carcinoma or Urothelial Carcinoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Yit-Sheung; Chuang, Kai-Wen; Chiang, Chun-Ju; Chuang, Hung-Yi; Lu, Sheng-Nan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate whether geographic variations in the prevalence of late-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD) exist and are associated with incidence rates of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC), or lower tract urothelial carcinoma (LTUC). Prevalence rates of late-stage CKD for 366 townships (n > 30) in Taiwan were calculated for 1,518,241 and 1,645,151 subjects aged 40 years or older in years 2010 and 2009, respectively. Late-stage CKD prevalence in year 2010 was used as a training set and its age-adjusted standardized morbidity rates (ASMR) were divided into three groups as defined ASMR ASMR of late-stage CKD in years 2010 and 2009 were 1.76%, and 2.09%, respectively. Geographic variations were observed, with notably higher rates of disease in areas of the central, southwestern mountainside, and southeastern seaboard. There were no significant differences among different combined risk groups of RCC, UTUC, and LTUC incidence. The substantial geographic variations in the prevalence of late-stage CKD exist, but are not correlated with RCC, UTUC, or LTUC incidence.

  18. Geographic Variation of Chronic Kidney Disease Prevalence: Correlation with the Incidence of Renal Cell Carcinoma or Urothelial Carcinoma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yit-Sheung Yap

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether geographic variations in the prevalence of late-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD exist and are associated with incidence rates of renal cell carcinoma (RCC, upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC, or lower tract urothelial carcinoma (LTUC. Methods. Prevalence rates of late-stage CKD for 366 townships (n>30 in Taiwan were calculated for 1,518,241 and 1,645,151 subjects aged 40 years or older in years 2010 and 2009, respectively. Late-stage CKD prevalence in year 2010 was used as a training set and its age-adjusted standardized morbidity rates (ASMR were divided into three groups as defined <1.76%, 1.76% ≤ ASMR < 2.64%, and ≥2.64%, respectively. Year 2009, defined as the validation set, was used to validate the results. Results. The ASMR of late-stage CKD in years 2010 and 2009 were 1.76%, and 2.09%, respectively. Geographic variations were observed, with notably higher rates of disease in areas of the central, southwestern mountainside, and southeastern seaboard. There were no significant differences among different combined risk groups of RCC, UTUC, and LTUC incidence. Conclusion. The substantial geographic variations in the prevalence of late-stage CKD exist, but are not correlated with RCC, UTUC, or LTUC incidence.

  19. The Incidence and Prevalence of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in New York County (Manhattan), New York: The Manhattan Lupus Surveillance Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izmirly, Peter M; Wan, Isabella; Sahl, Sara; Buyon, Jill P; Belmont, H Michael; Salmon, Jane E; Askanase, Anca; Bathon, Joan M; Geraldino-Pardilla, Laura; Ali, Yousaf; Ginzler, Ellen M; Putterman, Chaim; Gordon, Caroline; Helmick, Charles G; Parton, Hilary

    2017-10-01

    The Manhattan Lupus Surveillance Program (MLSP) is a population-based registry designed to determine the prevalence of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in 2007 and the incidence from 2007 to 2009 among residents of New York County (Manhattan), New York, and to characterize cases by race/ethnicity, including Asians and Hispanics, for whom data are lacking. We identified possible SLE cases from hospital records, rheumatologist records, and administrative databases. Cases were defined according to the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) classification criteria, the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) classification criteria, or the treating rheumatologist's diagnosis. Rates among Manhattan residents were age-standardized, and capture-recapture analyses were conducted to assess case underascertainment. By the ACR definition, the age-standardized prevalence and incidence rates of SLE were 62.2 and 4.6 per 100,000 person-years, respectively. Rates were ∼9 times higher in women than in men for prevalence (107.4 versus 12.5) and incidence (7.9 versus 1.0). Compared with non-Hispanic white women (64.3), prevalence was higher among non-Hispanic black (210.9), Hispanic (138.3), and non-Hispanic Asian (91.2) women. Incidence rates were higher among non-Hispanic black women (15.7) compared with non-Hispanic Asian (6.6), Hispanic (6.5), and non-Hispanic white (6.5) women. Capture-recapture adjustment increased the prevalence and incidence rates (75.9 and 6.0, respectively). Alternate SLE definitions without capture-recapture adjustment revealed higher age-standardized prevalence and incidence rates (73.8 and 6.2, respectively, by the SLICC definition and 72.6 and 5.0 by the rheumatologist definition) than the ACR definition, with similar patterns by sex and race/ethnicity. The MLSP confirms findings from other registries on disparities by sex and race/ethnicity, provides new estimates among Asians and Hispanics, and provides estimates using the

  20. ORGANIZATIONAL AND LEGAL RESEARCH OF INDICATORS OF INCIDENCE AND PREVALENCE OF DIABETES MELLITUS IN COUNTRYSIDE AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbrozhek SI

    2017-03-01

    legal framework for the organization of pharmacy of the healthcare system in countryside areas; forensic and pharmaceutical practice concerning the complaints on countryside accessibility for their antidiabetic drugs; regional statistics of incidence and prevalence of diabetes mellitus. In conducting the research used the following methods: legal, documentary, bibliography, comparative, forensic and pharmaceutical, graphical analysis. Results and discussion. In the limited funding of the healthcare system and low pharmaceutical ensuring of patients with diabetes mellitus in countryside areas, the question of the optimal use of funds to avoid negative consequences, as evidenced presented in the article on an example of forensic and pharmaceutical practice. Among the possible reasons for such organizations to ensure pharmaceutical provision for privileged categories of citizens can point to the constant rise in prices for antidiabetic drugs and delay in timely registration of wholesale prices for these drugs. Also during the study was a comparative analysis of incidence and prevalence of diabetes at the regional level by the example of Kharkov region. The increase in the prevalence of diabetes is due to various factors, including stress, obesity, aging population, quality of food and life. The increase in the prevalence of the disease may indicate a lack of financing health systems, insufficient qualifications and training of medical personnel, the remoteness of rural health facilities and inadequate organization providing pharmaceutical rural antidiabetic drugs passivity farmers regarding preventive examinations, treatment their health, compliance with recommendations and a low level in the chain of relations "doctor - patient with diabetes mellitus - pharmacist." Conclusions. Diabetes mellitus treatment should be based on the principles of pharmaceutical law provided in Art. 4 of the Law of Ukraine "On the basis of legislation of Ukraine on healthcare" from the state

  1. Incidence and prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus with HIV infection in Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prioreschi, A; Munthali, R J; Soepnel, L; Goldstein, J A; Micklesfield, L K; Aronoff, D M; Norris, S A

    2017-03-29

    This systematic review aims to investigate the incidence and prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in patients with HIV infection in African populations. Only studies reporting data from Africa were included. A systematic search was conducted using four databases for articles referring to HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy, and T2DM in Africa. Articles were excluded if they reported data on children, animals or type 1 diabetes exclusively. Incidence of T2DM and prevalence of T2DM. Risk ratios were generated for pooled data using random effects models. Bias was assessed using an adapted Cochrane Collaboration bias assessment tool. Of 1056 references that were screened, only 20 were selected for inclusion. Seven reported the incidence of T2DM in patients with HIV infection, eight reported the prevalence of T2DM in HIV-infected versus uninfected individuals and five reported prevalence of T2DM in HIV-treated versus untreated patients. Incidence rates ranged from 4 to 59 per 1000 person years. Meta-analysis showed no significant differences between T2DM prevalence in HIV-infected individuals versus uninfected individuals (risk ratio (RR) =1.61, 95% CI 0.62 to 4.21, p=0.33), or between HIV-treated patients versus untreated patients (RR=1.38, 95% CI 0.66 to 2.87, p=0.39), and heterogeneity was high in both meta-analyses (I 2 =87% and 52%, respectively). Meta-analysis showed no association between T2DM prevalence and HIV infection or antiretroviral therapy; however, these results are limited by the high heterogeneity of the included studies and moderate-to-high risk of bias, as well as, the small number of studies included. There is a need for well-designed prospective longitudinal studies with larger population sizes to better assess incidence and prevalence of T2DM in African patients with HIV. Furthermore, screening for T2DM using gold standard methods in this population is necessary. PROSPERO42016038689. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For

  2. Prevalence of low bone mineral density in children and adolescents with celiac disease under treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eugênia Farias Almeida Motta

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Low bone mineral density may be a finding among children and adolescents with celiac disease, including those undergoing treatment with a gluten-free diet, but the data are contradictory. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of bone mineral density abnormalities in patients on a gluten-free diet, considering age at diagnosis and duration of dietary treatment. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional prevalence study at the Pediatric Gastroenterology Outpatient Clinic of Instituto Materno Infantil Professor Fernando Figueira. METHODS: Thirty-one patients over five years of age with celiac disease and on a gluten-free diet were enrolled. Bone mineral density (in g/cm² was measured in the lumbar spine and whole body using bone densitometry and categorized using the criteria of the International Society for Clinical Densitometry, i.e. low bone mineral density for chronological age < -2.0 Z-scores. Age at diagnosis and duration of dietary treatment were confirmed according to the date of starting the gluten-free diet. RESULTS: Low bone density for chronological age was present in 3/31 patients in the lumbar spine and 1/31 in the whole body (also with lumbar spine abnormality. At diagnosis, three patients with low bone mineral density for the chronological age were more than 7.6 years old. These patients had been on a gluten-free diet for six and seven months and 3.4 years. CONCLUSION: Pediatric patients with celiac disease on long-term treatment are at risk of low bone mineral density. Early diagnosis and long periods of gluten-free diet are directly implicated in bone density normalization.

  3. Prevalence, incidence, and resolution of nocturnal polyuria in a longitudinal community-based study in older men: the Krimpen study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Doorn, Boris; Blanker, Marco H; Kok, Esther T; Westers, Paul; Bosch, J L H Ruud

    2013-03-01

    Nocturnal polyuria (NP) is common in older men and can lead to nocturia. However, no longitudinal data are available on the natural history of NP. To determine prevalence, incidence, and resolution rates of NP. A longitudinal, community-based study was conducted among 1688 men aged 50-78 yr in Krimpen aan den IJssel, The Netherlands (reference date: 1995), with planned follow-up rounds at 2, 4, and 6 yr. NP was determined with frequency-volume charts. Two definitions of NP were used: (1) a nocturnal urine production (NUP) of >90 ml/h (NUP90) and (2) the nocturnal voided volume plus first morning void being >33% of the 24-h voided volume (NUV33). Nocturia was defined as two or more voids per night. We determined the prevalence of NP at each study round. At first follow-up, we determined the incidence in men without baseline NP and the resolution in men with baseline NP. Prevalence of NP in men with or without nocturia was also determined. At baseline, the prevalence of NUP90 was 15.0% and increased to 21.7% after 6.5 yr, whereas the prevalence of NUV33 was 77.8% at baseline and 80.5% after 6.5 yr. At 2.1 yr of follow-up, the incidences of NUP90 and NUV33 were 13.6% and 60.3%, respectively, and the resolution rates were 57.0% and 17.8%, respectively. Because of this fluctuation in NP, no reliable long-term incidences could be calculated. At baseline, NUP90 was prevalent in 27.7% of men with nocturia and in 8.0% of those without nocturia. At baseline, NUV33 was prevalent in 91.9% of men with nocturia and in 70.1% of men without nocturia. Due to the fluctuation of NP, it is advisable to first determine its chronicity and cause before starting treatment. Because of the high prevalence of NP in men without nocturia, NUV33 should be reconsidered as a discriminative definition of NP. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 310 diseases and injuries, 1990-2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Truelsen, Thomas Clement

    2016-01-01

    common in adults. For the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015), we estimated the incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for diseases and injuries at the global, regional, and national scale over the period of 1990 to 2015. METHODS: We estimated...... incidence and prevalence by age, sex, cause, year, and geography with a wide range of updated and standardised analytical procedures. Improvements from GBD 2013 included the addition of new data sources, updates to literature reviews for 85 causes, and the identification and inclusion of additional studies...... causes of years lived with disability (YLDs) on a global basis. NCDs accounted for 18 of the leading 20 causes of age-standardised YLDs on a global scale. Where rates were decreasing, the rate of decrease for YLDs was slower than that of years of life lost (YLLs) for nearly every cause included in our...

  5. Prevalent and incident tuberculosis are independent risk factors for mortality among patients accessing antiretroviral therapy in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Gupta

    Full Text Available Patients with prevalent or incident tuberculosis (TB in antiretroviral treatment (ART programmes in sub-Saharan Africa have high mortality risk. However, published data are contradictory as to whether TB is a risk factor for mortality that is independent of CD4 cell counts and other patient characteristics.This observational ART cohort study was based in Cape Town, South Africa. Deaths from all causes were ascertained among patients receiving ART for up to 8 years. TB diagnoses and 4-monthly CD4 cell counts were recorded. Mortality rates were calculated and Poisson regression models were used to calculate incidence rate ratios (IRR and identify risk factors for mortality. Of 1544 patients starting ART, 464 patients had prevalent TB at baseline and 424 developed incident TB during a median of 5.0 years follow-up. Most TB diagnoses (73.6% were culture-confirmed. A total of 208 (13.5% patients died during ART and mortality rates were 8.84 deaths/100 person-years during the first year of ART and decreased to 1.14 deaths/100 person-years after 5 years. In multivariate analyses adjusted for baseline and time-updated risk factors, both prevalent and incident TB were independent risk factors for mortality (IRR 1.7 [95% CI, 1.2-2.3] and 2.7 [95% CI, 1.9-3.8], respectively. Adjusted mortality risks were higher in the first 6 months of ART for those with prevalent TB at baseline (IRR 2.33; 95% CI, 1.5-3.5 and within the 6 months following diagnoses of incident TB (IRR 3.8; 95% CI, 2.6-5.7.Prevalent TB at baseline and incident TB during ART were strongly associated with increased mortality risk. This effect was time-dependent, suggesting that TB and mortality are likely to be causally related and that TB is not simply an epiphenomenon among highly immunocompromised patients. Strategies to rapidly diagnose, treat and prevent TB prior to and during ART urgently need to be implemented.

  6. The prevalence, incidence, and gender and age-specific incidence of problem gambling: results of the Swedish longitudinal gambling study (Swelogs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Max; Romild, Ulla; Volberg, Rachel

    2018-04-01

    To estimate the prevalence, incidence and gender and age-specific incidence of problem gambling in the Swedish adult population. Longitudinal cohort study with linkage to register data. Sweden. Stratified random sample aged 16-84 years at baseline (n = 8165) re-assessed a year later (n = 6021). Problem gambling (life-time and past 12 months) was measured by the South Oaks Gambling Screen-Revised (SOGS-R). Past 12-month (current) problem gambling was also measured by the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI). The SOGS-R combined current pathological and problem gambling prevalence rate (PR) was 2.1 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.8-2.4] at baseline and 1.7 (1.4-2.0) at follow-up, approximately half the corresponding life-time estimates.[Correction added on 22 Dec 2017, after first online publication: In the preceding sentence, the SOGS-R combined current pathological and problem gambling prevalence rate (PR) was incorrectly reported as being double the corresponding life-time rate. It has been corrected in this version.] PGSI combined current problem and moderate-risk gambling PRs were 2.2 (1.9-2.5) at baseline and 1.9 (1.6-2.2) at follow-up. Combined incidence rates (IRs) were 1.0 (0.8-1.3) (SOGS-R) and 1.4 (1.1-1.7) (PGSI), with more than three-quarters being new cases. While first-time IRs did not vary by gender, males had a higher relapse IR and proportionately more females were new cases. The young adult IR was more than double the older adult IR; similar proportions were new cases. The actual incidence of problem gambling relapse in Sweden is likely to be higher than estimated. The profile of problem gambling in Sweden is likely to change over time, with increased proportions of women and older adults. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  7. Critical evaluation of incidence and prevalence of white spot lesions during fixed orthodontic appliance treatment: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundararaj, Dhinahar; Venkatachalapathy, Sudhakar; Tandon, Akshay; Pereira, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Development of dental caries, specifically, white spot lesions (WSLs), continues to be a well-recognized and troubling side effect of orthodontic fixed appliance therapy, despite vast improvement in preventive dental techniques and procedures. The aim of this meta-analysis is to evaluate, determine, and summarize the incidence and prevalence rates of WSLs during orthodontic treatment that have been published in the literature. According to predetermined criteria, databases were searched for appropriate studies. References of the selected articles and relevant reviews were searched for any missed publications. In the 14 studies evaluated for WSLs, the incidence of new carious lesions formed during orthodontic treatment in patients was 45.8% and the prevalence of lesions in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment was 68.4%. The incidence and prevalence rates of WSLs in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment are quite high and significant. This widespread problem of WSL development is an alarming challenge and warrants significant attention from both patients and providers, which should result in greatly increased emphasis on effective caries prevention.

  8. Effect of montanide adjuvanted staphylococcus aureus bacterin-toxiod on prevalence and incidence of mastitis in cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousif, A.; Muhmmad, G.; Masood, M.Z.; Rahman, S.U.; Siddique, M.

    2009-01-01

    The current study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and incidence of mastitis associated with Montanide adjuvanted Staphylococcus aureus bacterin toxiod in dairy cows in Faisalabad (Punjab, Pakistan). A total of 60 mastitis free dairy cows, in first and second month of lactation, were selected on the basis of results determined by California mastitis test and Surf field mastitis test. The animals were randomly divided into three groups (C1, C2, and C3) each containing twenty cows. The vaccine was administered twice with four weeks interval at the rate of 5 ml intramuscularly in the neck region in all the animals of group C1 and C2. Levamisole HCl (Nilverm at the rate, ICI, Pakistan) at the rate 2.5 mg per kg weight was given orally to animals of group C2 after first and second injections of vaccine, while the animals in group C3 were kept as control (non-vaccinated and non-medicated with levamisole HCl). Prevalence and incidence rates were determined at 1st, 30th , 60th , 120th and 180th days post-vaccination. The results showed that maximum numbers of quarters were found positive in group C3 with maximum cumulative prevalence (27.5%) while minimum (11.25%) was recorded in group C2 followed by vaccinated group (13.75 %). There was no significant variation in cumulative incidence between the vaccinated and vaccinated plus levamisole HCl group. (author)

  9. Observational and ecological studies of dietary advanced glycation end products in national diets and Alzheimer's disease incidence and prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, Lorena; Grant, William B

    2015-01-01

    Considerable evidence indicates that diet is an important risk-modifying factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Evidence is also mounting that dietary advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are important risk factors for AD. This study strives to determine whether estimated dietary AGEs estimated from national diets and epidemiological studies are associated with increased AD incidence. We estimated values of dietary AGEs using values in a published paper. We estimated intake of dietary AGEs from the Washington Heights-Inwood Community Aging Project (WHICAP) 1992 and 1999 cohort studies, which investigated how the Mediterranean diet (MeDi) affected AD incidence. Further, AD prevalence data came from three ecological studies and included data from 11 countries for 1977-1993, seven developing countries for 1995-2005, and Japan for 1985-2008. The analysis used dietary AGE values from 20 years before the AD prevalence data. Meat was always the food with the largest amount of AGEs. Other foods with significant AGEs included fish, cheese, vegetables, and vegetable oil. High MeDi adherence results in lower meat and dairy intake, which possess high AGE content. By using two different models to extrapolate dietary AGE intake in the WHICAP 1992 and 1999 cohort studies, we showed that reduced dietary AGE significantly correlates with reduced AD incidence. For the ecological studies, estimates of dietary AGEs in the national diets corresponded well with AD prevalence data even though the cooking methods were not well known. Dietary AGEs appear to be important risk factors for AD.

  10. A scoping review of prevalence, incidence and risk factors for HIV infection amongst young people in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffier, Igor Pedrosa; Kawa, Hélia; Harling, Guy

    2017-10-11

    Despite young people being a key population for HIV prevention, the HIV epidemic amongst young Brazilians is perceived to be growing. We therefore reviewed all published literature on HIV prevalence and risk factors for HIV infection amongst 10-25 year olds in Brazil. We searched Embase, LILACS, Proquest, PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science for studies published up to March 2017 and analyzed reference lists of relevant studies. We included published studies from any time in the HIV epidemic which provided estimates specific to ages 10-25 (or some subset of this age range) for Brazilians on either: (a) HIV prevalence or incidence; or (b) the association between HIV and socio-demographic or behavioral risk factors. Forty eight publications met the inclusion criteria: 44 cross-sectional, two case-control, two cohort. Four studies analysed national data. Forty seven studies provided HIV prevalence estimates, largely for six population subgroups: Counselling and Testing Center attendees; blood donors; pregnant women; institutional individuals; men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM) and female sex workers (FSW); four provided HIV incidence estimates. Twelve studies showed HIV status to be associated with a wide range of risk factors, including age, sexual and reproductive history, infection history, substance use, geography, marital status, mental health and socioeconomic status. Few published studies have examined HIV amongst young people in Brazil, and those published have been largely cross-sectional and focused on traditional risk groups and the south of the country. Despite these limitations, the literature shows raised HIV prevalence amongst MSM and FSW, as well as amongst those using drugs. Time trends are harder to identify, although rates appear to be falling for pregnant women, possibly reversing an earlier de-masculinization of the epidemic. Improved surveillance of HIV incidence, prevalence and risk factors is a key component of efforts to eliminate HIV in

  11. Malaria prevalence and incidence in an isolated, meso-endemic area of Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charlwood, Jaques Derek; Tomás, Erzelia V E; Bragança, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    . Incidence peaked nine weeks after rainfall (r (2) = 0.34, p = 0.0002). From 2009 incidence was measured at a centrally based project clinic. The proportion of under nine-year-old resident attendees diagnosed with malaria decreased significantly from 48% in 2009, to 35% in 2010 and 25% in 2011. At the same...

  12. Prevalence, incidence, and associated factors of avascular necrosis in Korean patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: a nationwide epidemiologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Young Bin; Sung, Yoon-Kyoung; Shim, Jee-Seon; Kim, Jae-Hoon; Lee, Eui-Kyung; Lee, Hye-Soon; Bae, Sang-Cheol

    2015-05-01

    Avascular necrosis (AVN) is one of the most frequent types of organ damage in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, little is currently known about the epidemiology of AVN in SLE patients. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and incidence of AVN in Korean patients with SLE based on National Health Insurance (NHI) claims data and to determine the risk factors for AVN among SLE patients. This study was conducted using the 2006-2010 data of 25,358 SLE patients from the NHI program. AVN cases were defined as those with at least one diagnosis of AVN. The prevalence was calculated by dividing the number of AVN cases by the number of SLE cases in the same year. The annual incidence was calculated by dividing the number of incident AVN cases by the number of SLE-prevalent cases not previously diagnosed with AVN. Patients who developed AVN in 2008-2010 were compared with SLE patients who did not develop AVN to identify any risk factors. The prevalence of AVN among SLE patients (2006-2010) was 31.5-34.2 per 1,000 persons and was similar in all the years studied. The incidence per 1,000 persons of AVN among SLE patients was 8.6 [95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) 6.9-10.3] in 2008, 9.8 (95 % CI 8.0-11.6) in 2009, and 8.4 (95 % CI 6.8-10.0) in 2010. Regression analysis indicated that taking an oral corticosteroid [odds ratio (OR) 2.12, 95 % CI 1.39-3.23] or an intravenous corticosteroid (OR 1.5, 95 % CI 1.2-1.89) was significantly associated with AVN. In addition, AVN was associated with use of immunosuppressive agents (OR 2.12, 95 % CI 1.66-2.72), hydroxychloroquine (OR 1.4, 95 % CI 1.09-1.81), and lipid-lowering agents (OR 1.78, 95 % CI 1.24-2.57) among the prescribed medications, and with hypertension (OR 1.39, 95 % CI 1.08-1.79) among the comorbidities. The prevalence and incidence of AVN among SLE patients, which were 31.5-34.2 and 8.4-9.8 per 1,000 persons, respectively, may be representative of the entire population of symptomatic AVN patients

  13. Prediction model for prevalence and incidence of advanced age-related macular degeneration based on genetic, demographic, and environmental variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, Johanna M; Reynolds, Robyn; Maller, Julian; Fagerness, Jesen A; Daly, Mark J; Rosner, Bernard

    2009-05-01

    The joint effects of genetic, ocular, and environmental variables were evaluated and predictive models for prevalence and incidence of AMD were assessed. Participants in the multicenter Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) were included in a prospective evaluation of 1446 individuals, of which 279 progressed to advanced AMD (geographic atrophy or neovascular disease) and 1167 did not progress during 6.3 years of follow-up. For prevalent AMD, 509 advanced cases were compared with 222 controls. Covariates for the incidence analysis included age, sex, education, smoking, body mass index (BMI), baseline AMD grade, and the AREDS vitamin-mineral treatment assignment. DNA specimens were evaluated for six variants in five genes related to AMD. Unconditional logistic regression analyses were performed for prevalent and incident advanced AMD. An algorithm was developed and receiver operating characteristic curves and C statistics were calculated to assess the predictive ability of risk scores to discriminate progressors from nonprogressors. All genetic polymorphisms were independently related to prevalence of advanced AMD, controlling for genetic factors, smoking, BMI, and AREDS treatment. Multivariate odds ratios (ORs) were 3.5 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7-7.1) for CFH Y402H; 3.7 (95% CI, 1.6-8.4) for CFH rs1410996; 25.4 (95% CI, 8.6-75.1) for LOC387715 A69S (ARMS2); 0.3 (95% CI, 0.1-0.7) for C2 E318D; 0.3 (95% CI, 0.1-0.5) for CFB; and 3.6 (95% CI, 1.4-9.4) for C3 R102G, comparing the homozygous risk/protective genotypes to the referent genotypes. For incident AMD, all these variants except CFB were significantly related to progression to advanced AMD, after controlling for baseline AMD grade and other factors, with ORs from 1.8 to 4.0 for presence of two risk alleles and 0.4 for the protective allele. An interaction was seen between CFH402H and treatment, after controlling for all genotypes. Smoking was independently related to AMD, with a multiplicative joint

  14. Prevalence and Incidence of Autism Spectrum Disorder in an Israeli Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidovitch, Michael; Hemo, Beatriz; Manning-Courtney, Patricia; Fombonne, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders has been steadily rising. In most parts of the world, rates as high as 1% are reported, including in the United States. In Israel, previously reported prevalence rates have been in the 0.2% range, and were based on parental reporting of diagnosis. In this study, records from one of the largest Israeli…

  15. The impact of urbanization and population density on childhood Plasmodium falciparum parasite prevalence rates in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabaria, Caroline W; Gilbert, Marius; Noor, Abdisalan M; Snow, Robert W; Linard, Catherine

    2017-01-26

    Although malaria has been traditionally regarded as less of a problem in urban areas compared to neighbouring rural areas, the risk of malaria infection continues to exist in densely populated, urban areas of Africa. Despite the recognition that urbanization influences the epidemiology of malaria, there is little consensus on urbanization relevant for malaria parasite mapping. Previous studies examining the relationship between urbanization and malaria transmission have used products defining urbanization at global/continental scales developed in the early 2000s, that overestimate actual urban extents while the population estimates are over 15 years old and estimated at administrative unit level. This study sought to discriminate an urbanization definition that is most relevant for malaria parasite mapping using individual level malaria infection data obtained from nationally representative household-based surveys. Boosted regression tree (BRT) modelling was used to determine the effect of urbanization on malaria transmission and if this effect varied with urbanization definition. In addition, the most recent high resolution population distribution data was used to determine whether population density had significant effect on malaria parasite prevalence and if so, could population density replace urban classifications in modelling malaria transmission patterns. The risk of malaria infection was shown to decline from rural areas through peri-urban settlements to urban central areas. Population density was found to be an important predictor of malaria risk. The final boosted regression trees (BRT) model with urbanization and population density gave the best model fit (Tukey test p value <0.05) compared to the models with urbanization only. Given the challenges in uniformly classifying urban areas across different countries, population density provides a reliable metric to adjust for the patterns of malaria risk in densely populated urban areas. Future malaria risk

  16. Criminal victimisation in people with severe mental illness: a multi-site prevalence and incidence survey in the Netherlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid M Kamperman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although crime victimisation is as prevalent in psychiatric patients as crime perpetration (and possibly more so, few European figures for it are available. We therefore assessed its one-year prevalence and incident rates in Dutch severely mentally ill outpatients, and compared the results with victimisation rates in the general population. METHOD: This multisite epidemiological survey included a random sample of 956 adult severely mentally ill outpatients. Data on victimisation were obtained using the victimisation scale of the Dutch Crime and Victimisation Survey, which assesses crime victimisation over the preceding 12 months. Comparison data were derived from the nationwide survey on safety and victimisation in the Netherlands. Prevalence and incident rates were weighted for sex, age, ethnicity and socioeconomic status, and compared with a general population sample matched by region (N = 38,227. RESULTS: In the past year, almost half of the severely mentally ill outpatients (47% had been victim of a crime. After control for demographic differences, prevalence rates of overall and specific victimisation measures were significantly higher in severely mentally ill outpatients than in the general population. The relative rates were especially high for personal crimes such as violent threats (RR = 2.12, 95% CI: 1.72-2.61, physical assaults (RR = 4.85, 95% CI: 3.69-6.39 and sexual harassment and assaults (RR = 3.94, 95% CI: 3.05-5.09. In concordance, severely mentally ill outpatients reported almost 14 times more personal crime incidents than persons from the general population (IRR = 13.68, 95% CI: 12.85-14.56. CONCLUSION: Crime victimisation is a serious problem in Dutch severely mentally ill outpatients. Mental-healthcare institutions and clinicians should become aware of their patients' victimisation risk, and should implement structural measures to detect and prevent (re-victimisation.

  17. Prevalence and incidence of neurological disorders among adult Ugandans in rural and urban Mukono district; a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaddumukasa, Mark; Mugenyi, Leviticus; Kaddumukasa, Martin N; Ddumba, Edward; Devereaux, Michael; Furlan, Anthony; Sajatovic, Martha; Katabira, Elly

    2016-11-17

    The burden of neurological diseases is increasing in developing countries. However, there is a prominent scarcity of literature on the incidence of neurological diseases in sub-Saharan Africa. This study was therefore undertaken to determine the prevalence and incidence of neurological diseases in this setting to serve as a baseline for planning and care for neurological disorders in Uganda. The study was conducted within rural and urban Mukono district, east of Kampala city of Uganda, central region. Over a period of six months, a cross sectional survey was conducted and screening was performed using a standardized questionnaire. All subjects with neurological symptoms and signs were reviewed by a team of neurologists and neurological diagnoses made. Of the 3000 study subjects, 50.3% (1510/3000) were from the rural setting. Out of the participants screened, 67.4% were female, with a median age of 33 years. Among the 98 subjects with confirmed neurological disorders, the frequency of diseases was as follows; peripheral neuropathy (46.2%), chronic headaches (26.4%), and epilepsy (8.5%), followed by pain syndromes (7.5%), stroke (6.6%) and tremors/Parkinson disease (3.8%). The crude prevalence rates of these disorders (95% CI) were 14.3% (8.5-24.1); 13.3% (7.7-22.8); 33.7% (23.9-47.4) for stroke, epilepsy and peripheral neuropathy respectively. Peripheral neuropathy followed by chronic headaches had the highest estimated incidence/1000 years. Stroke had an estimated incidence of 3.6 new cases with 95% CI of (2.1-6.1)/1000 years. Peripheral neuropathy, chronic headaches and epilepsy disorders are major causes of morbidity in Sub-Saharan settings. There is an urgent need of more robust and powered studies to determine the incidence of these diseases.

  18. [Low bone mineral density in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: Prevalence and related factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo Zavala, Rocío; Núñez Cuadros, Esmeralda; Martín Pedraz, Laura; Díaz-Cordovés Rego, Gisela; Sierra Salinas, Carlos; Urda Cardona, Antonio

    2017-10-01

    Height adjustment is currently recommended for Z-score bone mineral density (BMD) assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. At present there are no studies that evaluate the prevalence of low BMD in paediatric patients with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) in Spain following current recommendations. To evaluate low BMD in JIA in paediatric patients with JIA in Spain following the latest recommendations, as well as to assess associated factors. Observational cross-sectional study of Spanish JIA patients from 5 to 16 years-old, followed-up in a Paediatric Rheumatology Unit between July 2014 and July 2015. Anthropometric, clinical and treatment data were recorded. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and bone metabolism parameters were collected, and a completed diet and exercise questionnaire was obtained. A total of 92 children participated. The population prevalence estimation of low BMD was less than 5% (95% CI). A significant positive correlation was found in the multiple linear regression analysis between the body mass index percentile (B: 0.021; P<.001) and lean mass index (B: 0.0002; P=.012), and BMD Z-score adjusted for height (Z-SAH). A significant negative correlation was found between fat mass index (B: -0.0001; P=.018) and serum type I collagen N-propeptide (B: -0,0006; P=.036) and Z-SAH. Low BMD prevalence in JIA patients in our population is low. An adequate nutritional status and the prevalence of lean over fat mass seem to promote the acquisition of bone mass. Those JIA patients with lower BMD could be subjected to an increase of bone turnover. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. The Prevalence and Incidence of Latent Tuberculosis Infection and Its Associated Factors among Village Doctors in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangxue He

    Full Text Available China is a high tuberculosis (TB burden country. More than half of acute TB cases first seek medical care in village doctors' clinics or community health centers. Despite being responsible for patient referral and management, village doctors are not systematically evaluated for TB infection or disease. We assessed prevalence and incidence of latent TB infection (LTBI among village doctors in China.A longitudinal study was conducted in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. We administered a questionnaire on demographics and risk factors for TB exposure and disease; Tuberculin skin testing (TST and QuantiFERON-TB Gold in-tube assay (QFT-GIT was conducted at baseline and repeated 12 months later. We used a logistic regression model to calculate adjusted odds ratios (ORs for risk factors for TST and QFT-GIT prevalence and incidence. At the time of follow up, 19.5% of the 880 participating village doctors had a positive TST and 46.0% had a positive QFT-GIT result. Factors associated with TST prevalence included having a BCG scar (OR = 1.45, 95%CI 1.03-2.04 and smoking (OR = 1.69, 95%CI 1.17-2.44. Risk factors associated with QFT-GIT prevalence included being male (OR = 2.17, 95%CI 1.63-2.89, below college education (OR=1.42, 95%CI 1.01-1.97, and working for ≥25 years as a village doctor (OR = 1.64, 95%CI 1.12-2.39. The annual incidence of LTBI was 11.4% by TST and 19.1% by QFT-GIT. QFT-GIT conversion was associated with spending 15 minutes or more per patient on average (OR = 2.62, 95%CI 1.39-4.97 and having BCG scar (OR = 0.53, 95%CI 0.28-1.00.Prevalence and incidence of LTBI among Chinese village doctors is high. TB infection control measures should be strengthened among village doctors and at village healthcare settings.

  20. The Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori Virulence Factors in Bhutan, Vietnam, and Myanmar Is Related to Gastric Cancer Incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Thi Huyen Trang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer is a significant health problem in Asia. Although the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection is similar in Bhutan, Vietnam, and Myanmar, the incidence of gastric cancer is highest in Bhutan, followed by Vietnam and Myanmar. We hypothesized that H. pylori virulence factors contribute to the differences. The status of cagA, vacA, jhp0562, and β-(1,3galT(jhp0563 was examined in 371 H. pylori-infected patients from Bhutan, Vietnam, and Myanmar. Each virulence factor could not explain the difference of the incidence of gastric cancer. However, the prevalence of quadruple-positive for cagA, vacA s1, vacA m1, and jhp0562-positive/β-(1,3galT-negative was significantly higher in Bhutan than in Vietnam and Myanmar and correlated with gastric cancer incidence. Moreover, gastritis-staging scores measured by histology of gastric mucosa were significantly higher in quadruple-positive strains. We suggest that the cagA, vacA s1, vacA m1, and jhp0562-positive/β-(1,3galT-negative genotype may play a role in the development of gastric cancer.

  1. The incidence and prevalence of ankle sprain injury: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Cailbhe; Delahunt, Eamonn; Caulfield, Brian; Hertel, Jay; Ryan, John; Bleakley, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Ankle sprain is one of the most common musculoskeletal injuries, yet a contemporary review and meta-analysis of prospective epidemiological studies investigating ankle sprain does not exist. Our aim is to provide an up-to-date account of the incidence rate and prevalence period of ankle sprain injury unlimited by timeframe or context activity. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analyses of English articles using relevant computerised databases. Search terms included Medical Search Headings for the ankle joint, injury and epidemiology. The following inclusion criteria were used: the study must report epidemiology findings of injuries sustained in an observed sample; the study must report ankle sprain injury with either incidence rate or prevalence period among the surveyed sample, or provide sufficient data from which these figures could be calculated; the study design must be prospective. Independent extraction of articles was performed by two authors using pre-determined data fields. One-hundred and eighty-one prospective epidemiology studies from 144 separate papers were included. The average rating of all the included studies was 6.67/11, based on an adapted version of the STROBE (STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology) guidelines for rating observational studies. 116 studies were considered high quality and 65 were considered low quality. The main findings of the meta-analysis demonstrated a higher incidence of ankle sprain in females compared with males (13.6 vs 6.94 per 1,000 exposures), in children compared with adolescents (2.85 vs 1.94 per 1,000 exposures) and adolescents compared with adults (1.94 vs 0.72 per 1,000 exposures). The sport category with the highest incidence of ankle sprain was indoor/court sports, with a cumulative incidence rate of 7 per 1,000 exposures or 1.37 per 1,000 athlete exposures and 4.9 per 1,000 h. Low-quality studies tended to underestimate the incidence of ankle sprain when compared with

  2. Incidence, prevalence and seasonal onset variation of Addison's disease among persons with type 1 diabetes mellitus: nationwide, matched cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantzichristos, Dimitrios; Persson, Anders; Eliasson, Björn; Miftaraj, Mervete; Franzén, Stefan; Svensson, Ann-Marie; Johannsson, Gudmundur

    2018-01-01

    We determined the incidence and prevalence of Addison's disease (AD) among persons with or without type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in nationwide, matched cohort studies. Persons with T1DM were identified from the Swedish National Diabetes Register and each was matched for age, sex, year and county to five controls randomly selected from the general population. Persons with AD were identified from the Swedish National Inpatient Register. Baseline demographics and seasonal onset variation of AD were presented by descriptive statistics. Prevalence and incidence were estimated by proportions and incidence rates, respectively. Times to AD were analyzed using the Cox proportional hazard model. Between 1998 and 2013, 66 persons with T1DM were diagnosed with AD at a mean age (s.d.) of 36.4 (13.0) years among 36 514 persons with T1DM, while 32 were diagnosed with AD at a mean age of 42.7 (15.2) years among 182 570 controls. The difference in mean age at diagnosis of AD between the groups was 6.3 years ( P value = 0.036). The incidence of AD for a person with or without T1DM was therefore 193 and 18 per million person-years, respectively. The adjusted relative risk increase of developing AD in T1DM was 10.8 (95% CI: 7.1-16.5). The highest incidence of AD was observed during February-March and September-October. The prevalence of AD in persons with or without T1DM in December 2012 was 3410 and 208 per million, respectively. The odds ratio for AD in persons with T1DM vs controls was 16.5 (95% CI: 11.1-24.5). The risk to develop AD among persons with T1DM is more than 10 times higher than in persons without T1DM. Persons with T1DM develop AD at a younger age. The incidence of AD may have a seasonal pattern. © 2018 European Society of Endocrinology.

  3. High rates of incident and prevalent anal human papillomavirus infection among young men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Sara Nelson; Feng, Qinghua; Popov, Viorica; Koutsky, Laura A; Golden, Matthew R

    2014-02-01

    There are few published estimates of anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection rates among young men who have sex with men (YMSM). We estimated incidence and prevalence of type-specific anal HPV infection using clinician-collected anal swabs for HPV DNA testing obtained during a 1-year prospective study of 94 YMSM (mean age, 21 years) in Seattle. Seventy percent of YMSM had any HPV infection detected during the study, and HPV-16 and/or -18 were detected in 37%. The incidence rate for any new HPV infection was 38.5 per 1000 person-months and 15.3 per 1000 person-months for HPV-16/18; 19% had persistent HPV-16/18 infection. No participant tested positive for all 4 HPV types in the quadrivalent vaccine. The number of lifetime male receptive anal sex partners was significantly associated with HPV infection. The prevalence of HPV-16/18 was 6% among YMSM with a history of 1 receptive anal sex partner and 31% among YMSM with ≥ 2 partners. Although the high prevalence of HPV among YMSM highlights the desirability of vaccinating all boys as a strategy to avert the morbidity of HPV infection, most YMSM appear to remain naive to either HPV-16 or -18 well into their sexual lives and would benefit from HPV immunization.

  4. Prevalence, incidence burden, and clinical impact of healthcare-associated infections and antimicrobial resistance: a national prevalent cohort study in acute care hospitals in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kritsotakis EI

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Evangelos I Kritsotakis,1 Flora Kontopidou,2 Eirini Astrinaki,3 Maria Roumbelaki,4 Eleni Ioannidou,5 Achilles Gikas6 1School of Health and Related Research, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK; 2Healthcare Associated Infections and Antimicrobial Resistance Office, Hellenic Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Athens, 3Infection Control Committee, University Hospital of Heraklion, 4Department of Nursing, Technological Educational Institute of Crete, Heraklion, 5Department of Internal Medicine, Rethymnon General Hospital, Rethymnon, 6Department of Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, University Hospital of Heraklion, Heraklion, Greece Background: Assessing the overall burden of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs is challenging, but imperative in evaluating the cost-effectiveness of infection control programs. This study aimed to estimate the point prevalence and annual incidence of HAIs in Greece and assess the excess length of stay (LOS and mortality attributable to HAIs, overall and for main infection sites and tracer antimicrobial resistance (AMR phenotypes and pathogens.Patients and methods: This prevalent cohort study used a nationally representative cross-section of 8,247 inpatients in 37 acute care hospitals to record active HAIs of all types at baseline and overall LOS and in-hospital mortality up to 90 days following hospital admission. HAI incidence was estimated using prevalence-to-incidence conversion methods. Excess mortality and LOS were assessed by Cox regression and multistate models correcting for confounding and time-dependent biases.Results: HAIs were encountered with daily prevalence of 9.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 7.8%–10.6%. The estimated annual HAI incidence was 5.2% (95% CI 4.4%–5.3%, corresponding to approximately 121,000 (95% CI 103,500–123,700 affected patients each year in the country. Ninety-day mortality risk was increased by 80% in patients

  5. Creating an African HIV clinical research and prevention trials network: HIV prevalence, incidence and transmission.

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    Anatoli Kamali

    Full Text Available HIV epidemiology informs prevention trial design and program planning. Nine clinical research centers (CRC in sub-Saharan Africa conducted HIV observational epidemiology studies in populations at risk for HIV infection as part of an HIV prevention and vaccine trial network. Annual HIV incidence ranged from below 2% to above 10% and varied by CRC and risk group, with rates above 5% observed in Zambian men in an HIV-discordant relationship, Ugandan men from Lake Victoria fishing communities, men who have sex with men, and several cohorts of women. HIV incidence tended to fall after the first three months in the study and over calendar time. Among suspected transmission pairs, 28% of HIV infections were not from the reported partner. Volunteers with high incidence were successfully identified and enrolled into large scale cohort studies. Over a quarter of new cases in couples acquired infection from persons other than the suspected transmitting partner.

  6. Creating an African HIV Clinical Research and Prevention Trials Network: HIV Prevalence, Incidence and Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamali, Anatoli; Price, Matt A.; Lakhi, Shabir; Karita, Etienne; Inambao, Mubiana; Sanders, Eduard J.; Anzala, Omu; Latka, Mary H.; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Asiki, Gershim; Ssetaala, Ali; Ruzagira, Eugene; Allen, Susan; Farmer, Paul; Hunter, Eric; Mutua, Gaudensia; Makkan, Heeran; Tichacek, Amanda; Brill, Ilene K.; Fast, Pat; Stevens, Gwynn; Chetty, Paramesh; Amornkul, Pauli N.; Gilmour, Jill

    2015-01-01

    HIV epidemiology informs prevention trial design and program planning. Nine clinical research centers (CRC) in sub-Saharan Africa conducted HIV observational epidemiology studies in populations at risk for HIV infection as part of an HIV prevention and vaccine trial network. Annual HIV incidence ranged from below 2% to above 10% and varied by CRC and risk group, with rates above 5% observed in Zambian men in an HIV-discordant relationship, Ugandan men from Lake Victoria fishing communities, men who have sex with men, and several cohorts of women. HIV incidence tended to fall after the first three months in the study and over calendar time. Among suspected transmission pairs, 28% of HIV infections were not from the reported partner. Volunteers with high incidence were successfully identified and enrolled into large scale cohort studies. Over a quarter of new cases in couples acquired infection from persons other than the suspected transmitting partner. PMID:25602351

  7. Cachexia research in Japan: facts and numbers on prevalence, incidence and clinical impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Masaaki; Ishida, Junichi; Springer, Jochen; Anker, Stefan D; von Haehling, Stephan

    2016-12-01

    Even though most clinical data on cachexia have been reported from Western countries, cachexia may be a growing problem in Asia as well, as the population in this area of the world is considerably larger. Considering the current definitions of obesity and sarcopenia in Japan, which are different from the ones in Western countries, the lack of a distinct cachexia definition in Japan is strinking. Only one epidemiological study has reported the prevalence of cachexia using weight loss as part of the definition in patients with stage III or IV non-small cell lung cancer. Although the reported prevalence of 45.6% is within the range of that in Western countries (28-57% in advanced cancer), we cannot compare the prevalence of cachexia in other types of cancer, heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and kidney disease (CKD) between Japan and Western countries. In patients with heart failure, one third of Japanese patients has a body mass index cachexia in Japan. The rate of underweight patients in COPD has been reported as 31-41% in COPD and seems to be high in comparison to the prevalence of cachexia in Western countries (27-35%). The reported lowest quartile value of BMI (19.6 kg/m 2 ) in CKD may match with the prevalence of cachexia in Western countries (30-60%). The number of clinical trials targeting cachexia is very limited in Japan so far.

  8. Serum periostin is associated with prevalent knee osteoarthritis and disease incidence/progression in women: the OFELY study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, J C; Sornay-Rendu, E; Bertholon, C; Garnero, P; Chapurlat, R

    2015-10-01

    Our aim was to investigate the relationships between serum periostin (POSTN) and both prevalence and incidence/progression of knee osteoarthritis (OA) in women. We investigated 594 women (62.7 ± 11.2 yr) from the OFELY cohort. Knee radiographs were scored according to the Kellgren & Lawrence (KL) grading system at baseline and 4 years later. Spine, hip and hand OA were assessed at baseline. Prevalent knee OA was defined by a KL score higher or equal in 2. Progression of KL was defined as an increase of the KL score ≥1 during the 4 years follow-up. Serum POSTN was measured at baseline by ELISA. By non-parametric tests, POSTN was significantly lower in 83 women with a KL score ≥2 at baseline, compared to those with a KL score women. Copyright © 2015 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A systematic review of the incidence and prevalence of sleep disorders and seizure disorders in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marrie, Ruth Ann; Reider, Nadia; Cohen, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    was 3.09% (95% CI: 2.01-4.16%). For sleep disorders we evaluated 18 studies; none were population-based. The prevalence ranged from 0-1.6% for narcolepsy, 14.4-57.5% for restless legs syndrome, 2.22-3.2% for REM behavior disorder, and 7.14-58.1% for obstructive sleep apnea. CONCLUSION: This review......BACKGROUND: Several studies have suggested that comorbid neurologic disorders are more common than expected in multiple sclerosis (MS). OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence and prevalence of comorbid seizure disorders and sleep disorders in persons with MS and to evaluate the quality of studies...... suggests that seizure disorders and sleep disorders are common in MS, but highlights gaps in the epidemiological knowledge of these conditions in MS worldwide. Other than central-western Europe and North America, most regions are understudied....

  10. Prevalence and clinical determinants of low bone mineral density in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofman, Marielle; Landewé-Cleuren, Sabine; Wojciechowski, Franz; Kruseman, Arie Nieuwenhuijzen

    2009-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of low bone mass in anorexia nervosa (AN) and the association with clinical parameters. A cross-sectional study on 286 Caucasian women with AN. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured with DXA. Low BMD was defined as a Z-score ever (pyear between highest BMI ever and BMI at time of DXA was more rapid in subjects with a normal BMD (p=0.016) as compared to patients with low BMD. Low BMD was found to be independently associated with 'lowest BMI ever' (OR: 0.78; 95%CI=0.66-0.93), and with 'BMI decline per year' (OR: 0.83; 95%CI=0.71-0.97). We conclude that low BMD is frequent in AN. The best indicator of low BMD appeared to be the lowest reported BMI ever.

  11. Prevalence, Incidence, and Residual Risks for Transfusion Transmitted HIV-1/2 Infection among Chinese Blood Donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingxing; Liu, Jing; Yao, Fuzhu; Wen, Guoxin; Li, Julin; Huang, Yi; Lv, Yunlai; Wen, Xiuqiong; Wright, David; Yu, Qilu; Guo, Nan; Ness, Paul; Shan, Hua

    2012-01-01

    Background There is little data on HIV prevalence, incidence or residual risks for transfusion transmitted HIV infection among Chinese blood donors. Methods Donations from five Chinese blood centers in 2008–2010 were screened using two rounds of ELISA testing for anti-HIV-1/2. A reactive result in either or both rounds led to Western Blot confirmatory testing. HIV prevalence and demographic correlates among first time donors, incidence rate and demographic correlates among repeat donors were examined. Weighted multivariable logistic regression analysis examined correlates of HIV confirmatory status among first time donors. Residual risks for transfusion transmitted HIV infection were evaluated based on incidence among repeat donors. Results Among 821,320 donations, 40% came from repeat donors.1,837 (0.34%) first time and 577 (0.17%) repeat donations screened reactive for anti-HIV-1/2, among which 1,310 and 419 were tested by Western Blot. 233 (17.7%) first time and 44 (10.5%) repeat donations were confirmed positive. Estimated prevalence was 66 infections per 100,000 (95% CI: 59–74) first time donors. Estimated incidence was 9/100,000 (95% CI: 7–12) person-years among repeat donors. Weighted multivariable logistic regression analysis indicate that first time donors 26–45 years old were 1.6–1.8 times likely to be HIV positive than those 25 years and younger. Donors with some college or above education were less likely to be HIV positive than those with middle school education, ORs ranging from 0.35 to 0.60. Minority were 1.6 times likely to be HIV positive than Han majority donors (OR: 1.6; CI: 1.2–2.1). No difference in prevalence was found between gender. Current HIV TTI residual risk was 5.4 (1.2–12.5) infections per million whole blood donations. Conclusion Despite the declining HIV epidemic China, estimated residual risks for transfusion transmitted HIV infection are still high, highlighting the potential blood safety yield of NAT implementation

  12. Low incidence of lymphoproliferative disease post kidney transplantation with prevalent use of alemtuzumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Fredy Nieto-Ríos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is well known that the incidence of malignancy is significantly higher in transplanted patients than in general population. The incidence of lymphoproliferative disease post-transplantation (PTLD is approximately of 1% to 2% in kidney transplantation recipients. Objective: The main objective of this study was to evaluate the PTLD incidence when monitoring kidney transplanted patients between the years 2005 and 2010. Methods: Kidney transplanted patients’ data was retrospectively taken between the years 2005 to 2010 in order to determine the number of PTLD cases according to the inductor scheme used. Results: 425 patients were transplanted between 2005 and 2010. They received alemtuzumab 76.2%, daclizumab 10.7%, basiliximab 3.6% and thymoglobulin 2.4%. The 7% did not receive antibody induction. During this period 2 cases of PTLD ocurred: One with multiple myeloma and the other with lymphoma. One of them had been treated with alemtuzumab and the other with thymoglobulin. Conclusions: The PTLD incidence in our group, where alemtuzumab was used predominantly as inductor, was very low; this might suggest that alemtuzumab is a medication that does not increase the risk of this kind of neoplasia.

  13. Low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations and risk of incident diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Charlotte; Lyass, Asya; Larson, Martin G

    2015-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Statins and niacin (nicotinic acid) reduce circulating LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels by different mechanisms. Yet, both increase the risk of diabetes mellitus. Our objective was to relate blood LDL-C concentrations and a genetic risk score (GRS) for LDL-C to the risk of incident...

  14. THE INCIDENCE AND PREVALENCE OF RHEUMATIC DISEASES IN RUSSIA IN 2012–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Balabanova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of major rheumatic diseases was analyzed inRussia's adult population  in 2012–2013 on the basis of the statistical reports of the Ministry of Health ofRussia(Form No. 12.Among the adult population  ofRussia, the overall incidence of acute rheumatic fever (ARF decreased by 11.6% (from 1666 to 1474 cases. No case of ARF was registered in 11 of the 83 subjects of the Federation in 2013. The inci- dence rates per 100,000 adult population  compared toRussia's ones were higher in theRepublicofIngushetia(21.0%, theChechen Republic(13.2%, and the Chukotka Autonomous District (26.2%. All cases of ARF were first notified. The overall incidence rates of chronic rheumatic heart diseases amongRussia's adult population  tend to reduce slightly [by 5.3% (from 182,286 to 172,687 cases].In the period in question, the total number of patients with musculoskeletal diseases (MSD  slightly rose. The bulk of rheumatic  patients from the MSD group are more than 4 million patients with osteoarthritis  (OA, half of them (2,454,563 being those who are older than able-bodied  age. The incidence of OA tends to increase in all Federal Districts (FD.  The most common  joint inflammatory diseases are rheumatoid  arthritis (RA (286,000 cases, spondylopathies  (90,000 cases, and osteoporosis (152,000 cases. The incidence rates of MSD per 100,000 adult population  are higher in the North-Western (19,397.7, Volga (16,552.6, and Siberian (16,133.4 FD thanRussia's mean rate (14,205.5. There were somewhat higher incidence rates of RA per 100,000 population  in 2013 than in 2012 (241.4 and 245.6, respectively. The rates in the North-Western, Ural, Far Eastern, and Volga FDs are higher than the mean Russian ones.In 2011, the rubric of «Ankylosing spondylitis» (AS was replaced by that of «Spondylopathies» that, besides AS (ICD-10 M45, encompasses other inflammatory spondylopathies  (M46, including infectious one, which does not allow single out the

  15. Critical incident exposure in South African emergency services personnel: prevalence and associated mental health issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, C L; Lombard, C J; Gwebushe, N

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To assess critical incident exposure among prehospital emergency services personnel in the developing world context of South Africa; and to assess associated mental health consequences. Methods We recruited a representative sample from emergency services in the Western Cape Province, South Africa, to participate in this cross sectional epidemiological study. Questionnaires covered critical incident exposure, general psychopathology, risky alcohol use, symptoms of post‐traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and psychological and physical aggression between co‐workers. Open ended questions addressed additional stressors. Results Critical incident exposure and rates of general psychopathology were higher than in studies in the developed world. Exposure to critical incidents was associated with general psychopathology, symptoms of PTSD, and with aggression between co‐workers, but not with alcohol use. Ambulance, fire, and sea rescue services had lower general psychopathology scores than traffic police. The sea rescue service also scored lower than traffic police on PTSD and psychological aggression. The defence force had higher rates of exposure to physical assault, and in ambulance services, younger staff were more vulnerable to assault. Women had higher rates of general psychopathology and of exposure to psychological aggression. Other stressors identified included death notification, working conditions, and organisational problems. Conclusions Service organisations should be alert to the possibility that their personnel are experiencing work ‐related mental health and behavioural problems, and should provide appropriate support. Attention should also be given to organisational issues that may add to the stress of incidents. Workplace programmes should support vulnerable groups, and address death notification and appropriate expression of anger. PMID:16498167

  16. Diagnosis of Helicobacter Pylori Infection is Associated with Lower Prevalence and Subsequent Incidence of Crohn's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, Lars E; Jepsen, Peter; Christensen, Lisbet A

    2016-01-01

    care centres after a urea breath test [UBT] for H. pylori and were then followed for a median of 6 years. The patient's diseases, country of birth, and gender were acquired from nationwide administrative registries. We used logistic regression to compare the prevalences of CD, UC, and CeD and Cox...

  17. Prevalence and Incidence of Toxoplasmosis in HIV-Positive Patients in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kodym, P.; Hrdá, Š.; Machala, L.; Rozsypal, H.; Staňková, M.; Malý, Marek

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 53, Suppl. 1 (2006), s. 160-161 ISSN 1066-5234 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : toxoplasmosis * HIV infection * prevalence Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 2.288, year: 2006

  18. Incident and prevalence of HIV/AIDS among patients attending a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Young people, ages 15–24, account for approximately 40% of new HIV infections (among those 15 and over). Globally, young women are twice as likely to become infected with HIV than their male counterparts. As at 2012, UNAIDS revealed that the HIV/AIDS prevalence rate among adults of ages 15-49 in Nigeria was ...

  19. High HIV prevalence and incidence among women in Southern Mozambique: Evidence from the MDP microbicide feasibility study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibone Mocumbi

    Full Text Available The study aimed to assess the feasibility of conducting large scale HIV prevention clinical trials in Mozambique by measuring HIV prevalence and incidence among women of reproductive age. This paper describes the baseline socio-demographic characteristics of the Mozambique Microbicides Development Programme (MDP feasibility cohort, baseline prevalence of HIV and other STIs, and HIV incidence.The Mozambique MDP feasibility study was conducted from September 2007 to August 2009 in urban Mavalane and rural Manhiça, in Southern Mozambique. Sexually active, HIV negative women aged 18 years and above were recruited to attend the study clinic every 4 weeks for a total of 40 weeks. At baseline, we collected demographic and sexual behaviour data, samples to test for sexually transmitted infections (STI and conducted HIV rapid testing. STI and HIV testing were repeated at clinical follow-up visits. We describe HIV prevalence of women at screening, the demographic, behavioural and clinical characteristics of women at enrolment, and HIV incidence during follow-up.We screened 793 women (369 at Mavalane and 424 at Manhiça and enrolled 505 eligible women (254 at Mavalane and 251 at Manhiça. Overall HIV prevalence at screening was 17%; 10% at Mavalane and 22% at Manhiça. Women screened at Manhiça were twice as likely as women screened at Mavalane to be HIV positive and HIV positive status was associated with younger age (18-34, lower educational level, not using a reliable method of contraception and being Zionist compared to other Christian religions. At enrolment contraceptive use was low in both clinics at 19% in Mavalane and 21% in Manhiça, as was reported condom use at last sex act at 48% in Mavalane and 25% in Manhiça. At enrolment, 8% of women tested positive for Trichomonas vaginalis, 2% for Neisseria gonorrhoeae, 4% for Chlamydia trachomatis and 46% for bacterial vaginosis. In Manhiça, 8% of women had active syphilis at screening. HIV incidence

  20. Acromegaly incidence, prevalence, complications and long-term prognosis: a nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dal, Jakob; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Andersen, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    sampled from the general population as a comparison cohort. Cox regression and hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were used. RESULTS: Mean age at diagnosis (48.7 years (CI: 95%: 47.2-50.1)) and annual incidence rate (3.8 cases/10(6) persons (95% CI: 3.6-4.1)) among the 405 cases...... (HR: 2.1 (95% CI: 1.6-2.6)). The complication risk was also increased before the diagnosis of acromegaly. Overall mortality risk was elevated (HR: 1.3 (95% CI: 1.0-1.7)) but uninfluenced by treatment modality. CONCLUSION: (i) The incidence rate and age at diagnosis of acromegaly have been stable over...

  1. On the incidence and prevalence of child maltreatment: a research agenda

    OpenAIRE

    Jud, Andreas; Fegert, J?rg M.; Finkelhor, David

    2016-01-01

    Research on child maltreatment epidemiology has primarily been focused on population surveys with adult respondents. Far less attention has been paid to analyzing reported incidents of alleged child maltreatment and corresponding agency responses. This type of research is however indispensable to know how well a child protection system works and if the most vulnerable are identified and served. Notable findings of child maltreatment epidemiological research are summarized and directions for f...

  2. Risk of tuberculosis during pregnancy in Mongolia, a high incidence setting with low HIV prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendell, N L; Batjargal, N; Jadambaa, N; Dobler, C C

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the epidemiology and the relative risk of tuberculosis (TB) in pregnant women in Mongolia, a high TB incidence setting with a low rate of human immunodeficiency virus co-infection, where active case finding for TB in pregnancy is implemented. We retrospectively collected data on pregnant women diagnosed with TB during 2013. Data were collected through doctors at central TB dispensaries who extracted the relevant information from patients' clinical records. The overall incidence of TB among pregnant women was 228 (95%CI 187276) per 100000 person-years, resulting in an incidence rate ratio of 1.31 (95%CI 1.081.59) in pregnant women compared to the general population. Twelve per cent of the pregnant women with TB chose to have an abortion. In this study, pregnant women had a 1.3-fold higher risk of developing TB than the general population. Based on a moderately increased risk of TB during pregnancy in our study and the potential for adverse health outcomes, TB screening among pregnant women can currently be justified, but the cost-effectiveness of this intervention remains unclear. Patients and doctors need to be educated about the safety of standard TB treatment in pregnancy to reduce the rate of abortions.

  3. Prevalence and incidence of mental health problems among Dutch medical students and the study-related and personal risk factors: a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borst, Jorien M.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.; Sluiter, Judith K.

    2016-01-01

    A high prevalence of mental health problems (i.e. depression and/or anxiety) has been found in medical students in comparison with the general population. Therefore, the objective was first to study the prevalence and 1-year incidence of symptoms of depression, anxiety and any mental health problems

  4. Striking elevation in incidence and prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease in a province of western Hungary between 1977-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, Laszlo; Mester, Gabor; Erdelyi, Zsuzsanna; Balogh, Mihaly; Szipocs, Istvan; Kamaras, Gyorgy; Lakatos, Peter Laszlo

    2004-01-01

    AIM: An investigation into inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer in Veszprem Province was conducted from 1977 to 2001. METHODS: Both hospital and outpatient records were collected and reviewed comprehensively. The majority of patients were followed up regularly. RESULTS: The population of the province was decreased from 386000 to 376000 during the period. Five hundred sixty new cases of ulcerative colitis (UC), 212 of Crohn’s disease (CD), and 40 of indeterminate colitis (IC) were diagnosed. The incidence rates increased from 1.66 to 11.01 cases per 100000 persons for UC, from 0.41 to 4.68 for CD and from 0.26 to 0.74 for IC. The prevalence rate at the end of 2001 was 142.6 for UC and 52.9 cases per 100000 persons for CD. The peak onset age in UC patients was between 30 and 40 years, in CD between 20 and 30 years. A family history of IBD was present in 3.4 % in UC and 9.9 % in CD patients. Smoking increased the risk for CD (OR = 1.94) while it decreased the risk for UC (OR = 0.25). Twelve colorectal carcinomas were observed in this cohort, the cumulative colorectal cancer risk after 10 years in UC was 2%, after 20 years 8.8%, after 30 years 13.3%. CONCLUSION: The incidence and prevalence rates of IBD have increased steadily in Veszprem Province, now equivalent to that in Western European countries. Rapid increase in incidence rates supports a probable role for environmental factors. The rate of colorectal cancers in IBD is similar to that observed in Western countries. PMID:14760767

  5. Review article: the incidence and prevalence of colorectal cancer in inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, P

    2003-01-01

    Although colorectal cancer (CRC), complicating ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, only accounts for 1-2% of all cases of CRC in the general population, it is considered a serious complication of the disease and accounts for approximately 15% of all deaths in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD...... of symptoms, and extent of the disease, with pancolitis having a more severe inflammation burden and risk of the dysplasia-carcinoma cascade. Considering the chronic nature of the disease, it is remarkable that there is such a low incidence of CRC in some of the population-based studies, and possible...... in Crohn's disease, the number was significantly increased in relation to the expected number....

  6. Prevalence, Recurrence, and Incidence of Current Depressive Symptoms among People Living with HIV in Ontario, Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Stephanie K Y; Boyle, E.; Cairney, John

    2016-01-01

    ) was 14%. During the five-year follow-up, our multivariable models showed that participants with greater risk of recurrent cases were more likely to feel worried about their housing situation. Participants at risk of developing incident cases were also likely to be younger, gay or bisexual, and unable...... of health in order to enhance the overall well-being of people living with or at risk of HIV. Our findings reinforce the importance of providing effective mental health care and demonstrate the need for long-term support and routine management of depression, particularly for individuals at high risk. © 2016...

  7. The Duchenne muscular dystrophy population in Denmark, 1977-2001: prevalence, incidence and survival in relation to the introduction of ventilator use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, J; Green, A; Steffensen, B.F.

    2003-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy continues to be a subject of study. The purpose was to estimate prevalence, incidence, mortality and use of mechanical ventilation in the total Duchenne muscular dystrophy population in Denmark between 1977 and 2001 and further....... While overall incidence remained stable at 2.0 per 105, prevalence rose from 3.1 to 5.5 per 105, mortality fell from 4.7 to 2.6 per 100 years at risk and prevalence of Duchenne muscular dystrophy ventilator users rose from 0.9 to 43.4 per 100. We conclude that survival of Duchenne muscular dystrophy...

  8. Variable effects of prevalence correction of population denominators on differentials in myocardial infarction incidence: a record linkage study in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Western Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzenellenbogen, Judith M; Sanfilippo, Frank M; Hobbs, Michael S T; Briffa, Tom G; Ridout, Steve C; Knuiman, Matthew W; Dimer, Lyn; Taylor, Kate P; Thompson, Peter L; Thompson, Sandra C

    2011-06-01

    To investigate the impact of prevalence correction of population denominators on myocardial infarction (MI) incidence rates, rate ratios, and rate differences in Aboriginal vs. non-Aboriginal Western Australians aged 25-74 years during the study period 2000-2004. Person-based linked hospital and mortality data sets were used to estimate the number of prevalent and first-ever MI cases each year from 2000 to 2004 using a 15-year look-back period. Age-specific and -standardized MI incidence rates were calculated using both prevalence-corrected and -uncorrected population denominators, by sex and Aboriginality. The impact of prevalence correction on rates increased with age, was higher for men than women, and substantially greater for Aboriginal than non-Aboriginal people. Despite the systematic underestimation of incidence, prevalence correction had little impact on the Aboriginal to non-Aboriginal age-standardized rate ratios (6% and 4% underestimate in men and women, respectively), although the impact on rate differences was more marked (12% and 6%, respectively). The percentage underestimate of differentials was greater at older ages. Prevalence correction of denominators, while more accurate, is difficult to apply and may add modestly to the quantification of relative disparities in MI incidence between populations. Absolute incidence disparities using uncorrected denominators may have an error >10%. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevalence, incidence and clinical impact of cachexia: facts and numbers—update 2014

    OpenAIRE

    von Haehling, Stephan; Anker, Stefan D.

    2014-01-01

    Cachexia is a serious but underrecognised consequence of many chronic diseases. Its prevalence ranges from 5-15 % in end-stage chronic heart failure to 50-80 % in advanced cancer. Cachexia is also part of the terminal course of many patients with chronic kidney disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and rheumatoid arthritis. Mortality rates of patients with cachexia range from 10-15 % per year in COPD through 20-30 % per year in chronic heart failure and chronic kidney disease ...

  10. [Incidence and prevalence of disabled rheumatic patients. A socio-epidemiological study on the services of the disability insurance system in the canton of Berne].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatter, L A; Cloetta, B

    1985-06-01

    The incidence and prevalence of patients with musculoskeletal disorders benefiting from the Swiss invalidity insurance system in the Canton of Berne, Switzerland, are studied. During a 5-year period 1252 such patients (393 women) first received either payments or were supported by rehabilitation measures (incidence). The correlation of this incidence with sociodemographic factors such as sex, age, disease pattern, place of residence and occupation, as well as the type of service delivered, are analyzed and discussed. At a given date (March 1982) 2754 patients with musculoskeletal disorders were receiving insurance pension (prevalence). By relating these figures to census data (total population), a 1.37% 5-year benefit incidence and a 3.02% pension prevalence can be calculated.

  11. Prevalence, incidence and clinical impact of cachexia: facts and numbers-update 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Haehling, Stephan; Anker, Stefan D

    2014-12-01

    Cachexia is a serious but underrecognised consequence of many chronic diseases. Its prevalence ranges from 5-15 % in end-stage chronic heart failure to 50-80 % in advanced cancer. Cachexia is also part of the terminal course of many patients with chronic kidney disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and rheumatoid arthritis. Mortality rates of patients with cachexia range from 10-15 % per year in COPD through 20-30 % per year in chronic heart failure and chronic kidney disease to 80 % in cancer. The condition is also associated with poor quality of life. In the industrialised world, the overall prevalence of cachexia (due to any disease and not necessarily associated with hospital admission) is growing and it currently affects around 1 % of the patient population, i.e. around 9 million people. It is also a significant health problem in other parts of the globe. Recently there have been advances in our understanding of the multifactorial nature of the condition, and particularly of the role of inflammatory mediators and the imbalance of anabolism and catabolism. Several promising approaches to treatment have failed to live up to the challenge of phase III clinical trials, but the ghrelin receptor agonist anamorelin seems to have fulfilled at least some early promise. Further advances are urgently needed.

  12. Delirium in elderly individuals with hip fracture: causes, incidence, prevalence, and risk factors Delirium em idosos com fratura de fêmur: causas, incidência, prevalência e fatores de risco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elizabet Furlaneto

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence, prevalence, risk factors, and causes of delirium in elderly individuals with hip fractures, as well as the impact of delrium on mortality and length of hospital stay. PATIENTS: One hundred and three patients aged 65 and older with hip fractures were included consecutively between January 2001 and June 2002. METHOD: Delirium was diagnosed using the Confusion Assessment Method, applied within the first 24 hours after admission, and then daily. All patients underwent a global geriatric evaluation including clinical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, surgical risk evaluation, and functional and mental evaluations. Patients with delirium (cases were compared with patients without delirium (controls. RESULTS: Thirty (29.1% patients in this sample met the criteria for delirium, with a prevalence of 16.5% (17/103 and an incidence of 12.6% (13/103. Cognitive and functional deficits had a significant association with delirium, although only cognitive deficit was revealed to be an independent risk factor after analysis with the logistic regression model. The most frequent causes of delirium were drugs and infections. The hospital stay was significantly longer for patients with delirium compared with patients in the control group (26.27 versus 14.38 days, respectively. Mortality showed a tendency to higher levels in patients with delirium during their hospital stay, although with no statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: Delirium is a frequent complication among hospitalized elderly individuals with hip fractures. It is associated with cognitive and functional deficits, and it is associated with increases the length of hospital stay and mortality.OBJETIVOS: Deteminar a incidência, prevalência, fatores de risco e causas de delirium em idosos com fratura de fêmur, e seu impacto sobre mortalidade e permanência hospitalar. MÉTODOS: Cento e três pacientes com 65 anos e mais com fratura de fêmur foram

  13. The incidence and prevalence of systemic lupus erythematosus in Thrace, 2003-2014: A 12-year epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamuk, O N; Balci, M A; Donmez, S; Tsokos, G C

    2016-01-01

    We estimated the prevalence and incidence, clinical features, treatment, and prognosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients in the Thrace region of Turkey. We retrospectively evaluated 331 patients (307 female, 24 male, mean age 38.5 years) diagnosed with SLE between 2003 and 2014. Clinical features, treatments, and response to various treatment modalities were recorded. Our hospital has been the only tertiary referral center for rheumatological diseases for a mixed rural and urban population of 620,477 people (306,036 females, 314,411 males) for more than 16 years. The mean annual incidence of SLE was 4.44/100,000 (females, 8.4/100,000; males, 0.6/100,000). The overall prevalence of SLE was 51.7/100,000 (females, 97.7/100,000; males, 7/100,000). Major organ involvement was present in the following percentages: neurologic involvement: 20.1%; renal involvement: 28.2%; autoimmune hemolytic anemia: 9.6%; thrombocytopenia: 14.7%. Seventeen SLE patients (13 females, four males) died at a median follow-up of 48 months. The five-year survival was 94.5%, and the ten-year survival was 89.9%. According to Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, poor prognostic factors were: male gender (p = 0.015); smoking (p = 0.02); pleural involvement (p = 0.011); thrombocytopenia (p = 0.021); myocarditis (p = 0.028); renal involvement (p = 0.037); treatment with cyclophosphamide (p = 0.011); and an initial high SLEDAI score (>4) (p = 0.02). Lymphopenia at the time of diagnosis appeared as a favorable prognostic factor (p = 0.008). Cox regression analysis revealed myocarditis (OR: 20.4, p = 0.018) and age at diagnosis (OR: 1.11, p = 0.035) to be poor, and lymphopenia at the time of diagnosis to be good prognostic factors (OR:0.13, p = 0.031). The annual incidence and prevalence of SLE in the Thrace region of Turkey is lower than those reported in North America, however they are similar to those reported for European countries. Clinical manifestations appear to be milder, whereas

  14. Musculoskeletal disorders of the neck and shoulders in female sewing machine operators: prevalence, incidence, and prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaergaard, A.; Andersen, JH

    2000-01-01

    for two main neck-shoulder disorders were defined: rotator cuff tendinitis and myofascial pain syndrome. A baseline control group consisted of 357 women with varied non-repetitive work. RESULTS: At baseline the overall prevalence of myofascial pain syndrome and rotator cuff tendinitis was 15.2% and 5...... ratio (PR)=2.54; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.28 to 5.05) when adjusted for age, body mass index, smoking, living alone with children, job strain, and social support from colleagues and supervisors. Only one of 13 participants with rotator cuff tendinitis at baseline recovered during follow up...... with children. CONCLUSION: Rotator cuff tendinitis showed a higher degree of persistence than myofascial pain syndrome. Both disorders highly influenced the perception of general health. Women who lived alone with children, were smokers, or experienced low support from colleagues and supervisors had a higher...

  15. Urinary incontinence in nulliparous women before and during pregnancy: prevalence, incidence, type, and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Deirdre; Clarke, Mike; Begley, Cecily

    2018-03-01

    While many women report urinary incontinence (UI) during pregnancy, associations with pre-pregnancy urinary leakage remain under-explained. We performed a multi-strand prospective cohort study with 860 nulliparous women recruited during pregnancy. Prevalence of any urinary leakage was 34.8% before and 38.7% during pregnancy. Prevalence of UI, leaking urine at least once per month, was 7.2% and 17.7% respectively. Mixed urinary incontinence (MUI) was reported by 59.7% of women before and 58.8% during pregnancy, stress urinary incontinence (SUI) by 22.6% and 37.2%, and urge urinary incontinence (UUI) by 17.7% and 4.0%, respectively. SUI accounted for half (50.0%), MUI for less than half (44.2%), and UUI for 5.8% of new-onset UI in pregnancy. Pre-pregnancy UI was significantly associated with childhood enuresis [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5-5.6, p = 0.001) and a body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m 2 (AOR 4.2, 95% CI 1.9-9.4, p pregnancy BMI was 25-29.99 kg/m 2 (AOR 2.0, 95% CI 1.2-3.5, p = 0.01), and women who leaked urine less than once per month (AOR 2.6, 95% CI 1.6-4.1, p  pregnancy. Considerable proportions of nulliparous women leak urine before and during pregnancy, and most ignore symptoms. Healthcare professionals have several opportunities for promoting continence in all pregnant women, particularly in women with identifiable risk factors. If enquiry about UI, and offering advice on effective preventative and curative treatments, became routine in clinical practice, it is likely that some of these women could become or stay continent.

  16. Prevalence and incidence of depressive and anxious symptoms in couples undergoing assisted reproductive treatment in an Italian infertility department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaffarino, Francesca; Baldini, Maria P; Scarduelli, Claudia; Bommarito, Francesca; Ambrosio, Stefania; D'Orsi, Cristiana; Torretta, Rossella; Bonizzoni, Micol; Ragni, Guido

    2011-10-01

    We have conducted a longitudinal observational study in order to evaluate the prevalence and the incidence of depressive and anxious symptoms in women and men seeking infertility treatment and to analyze associated factors or risk factors for these kinds of disorders. A total of 1000 consecutive couples that visited our center for the first time were asked to join this study. Depressive and anxious symptoms were assessed with self-rating Zung Depression Scale (ZDS) and Zung Anxiety Scale (ZAS) questionnaires. A second assessment was planned at the time of β HCG dosage (or at the moment of cycle suspension). A standard questionnaire was used to investigate socio-demographic information and the psychological aspects of couples undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment. The fertility history and outcome of IVF treatment were collected from patients' medical records. 14.7% of women had anxious symptoms and 17.9% depressive symptoms, whereas 4.5% of men had anxious symptoms and 6.9% depressive symptoms. Women with depressive and anxious symptoms were younger, more often had an anxious partner and had a longer history of infertility. Men with depressive and anxious symptoms more frequently had a temporary job, they had an anxious partner and they were more frequently at the first in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycle. The incidence of depressive and/or anxious symptoms was 18.5% in women and 7.4% in men. Age and previous IVF treatments seem not to be associated with incidence of depressive or anxious symptoms. Both the prevalence and incidence of depressive and/or anxious symptoms in couples undergoing IVF treatment were worthy of note and should not be underestimated. More attention must be paid to psychological aspects in young women and in couples with a long history of infertility or previous failure treatments. Having an anxious partner was associated with anxious and depressive symptoms. For this reason, both males and females might benefit from psychological

  17. Incidence, prevalence and clinical correlates of antidepressant-emergent mania in bipolar depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaro, Michele; Anastasia, Annalisa; Novello, Stefano; Fusco, Andrea; Solmi, Marco; Monaco, Francesco; Veronese, Nicola; De Berardis, Domenico; de Bartolomeis, Andrea

    2018-05-01

    Treatment-emergent mania (TEM) represents a common phenomenon inconsistently reported across primary studies, warranting further assessment. A systematic review and meta-analysis following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines were conducted. Major electronic databases were searched from inception to May 2017 to assess the incidence and prevalence rates and clinical features associated with manic switch among bipolar depressed patients receiving antidepressants, using meta-regression and subgroup analysis. Overall, 10 098 depressed patients with bipolar disorder (BD) across 51 studies/arms were included in the quantitative analysis. The cumulative incidence of cases (TEM + ) among 4767 patients with BD over 15 retrospective studies was 30.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] 19.6-45.0%, I 2  = 97.9%). The cumulative incidence of TEM + among 1929 patients with BD over 12 prospective open studies was 14.4% (95% CI 7.4-26.1%, I 2  = 93.7%). The cumulative incidence of TEM + among 1316 patients with BD over 20 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was 11.8% (95% CI 8.4-16.34%, I 2  = 73.46%). The pooled prevalence of TEM + among 2086 patients with BD over four cross-sectional studies was 30.9% (95% CI 18.1-47.4%, I 2  = 95.6%). Overall, concurrent lithium therapy predicted the lowest TEM rates. Inconsistent operational definitions of TEM were recorded, and the lack of information about age, sex, co-occurring anxiety, and other clinically relevant moderators precluded further stratification of the results. Rates of TEM vary primarily depending on study setting, which is concordant with the high degree of heterogeneity of the included records. Forthcoming RCT studies should adopt consistent operational definitions of TEM and broaden the number of moderators, in order to contribute most effectively to the identification of clear-cut sub-phenotypes of

  18. Incidence and prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the Americas Incidencia y prevalencia de la diabetes en América

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Barceló

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To present the incidence and prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the Americas as found through a thorough review of published information on the subject. Methods. Data were obtained through a comprehensive review using the MEDLINE and BIREME bibliographical databases. In addition, government publications, conference reports, and meeting documents were identified by contacting government and nongovernmental organizations and other institutions. Incidence and prevalence rates were adjusted by age and sex, when possible, by the direct method using the world Segi population as the standard. The 95% confidence intervals were calculated using the Poisson distribution or the normal distribution. Results. Diabetes mellitus represents a major public health problem in the Americas, and there is evidence that its prevalence is increasing in some countries. Conclusions. Given that most Latin American and Caribbean nations are experiencing a demographic transition, it is expected that the prevalence of diabetes will continue to increase rapidly in the near future. Despite the economic constraints faced by the countries of the Americas, there is a clear need for more efforts in the area of diabetes prevention and control.Objetivo. Describir la incidencia y prevalencia de la diabetes sacarina en el continente americano, de acuerdo con los resultados de una revisión exhaustiva de la literatura publicada acerca de este tema. Métodos. Los datos se obtuvieron mediante una completa revisión de las bases de datos MEDLINE y BIREME. Además se contactaron las organizaciones gubernamentales y no gubernamentales y otras instituciones para identificar las publicaciones gubernamentales y los informes de conferencias y reuniones. Las tasas de incidencia y prevalencia se ajustaron por edad y sexo, utilizando, siempre que fuera posible, el método directo, con la población de Segi como estándar. Los intervalos de confianza del 95% se calcularon utilizando la

  19. Higher prevalence of risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus and subsequent higher incidence in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almdal, T.; Scharling, H.; Jensen, J.S.

    2008-01-01

    Background: This study investigates risk factors and the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 DM) in both sexes of a northern European population. Methods: A total of 14,223 randomly selected men and women were studied from 1976 to 1978. Patients with diabetes (self-reported type 2 DM......, non-fasting blood glucose and triglycerides. Significantly more men (242, 5.4%) than women (152, 2.5%) developed type 2 DM. The odds ratio (OR) for developing diabetes with a BMI above 30 kg/m(2) compared to a BMI of 20-25 kg/m(2) was 8.1 in women and 6.3 in men; for a non-fasting plasma glucose of 8.......4-11.0 mmol/l compared to a plasma glucose of 5.5-6.4, the ORs were 7.8 in women and 4.7 in men. The OR for developing diabetes in persons with a non-fasting triglyceride level above 2.0 mmol/l compared to 1.0-2.0 mmol/l was 1.8 in both sexes; women with non -fasting triglycerides below 1.0 mmol/l had...

  20. The role of environmental and lifestyle factors in the incidence and prevalence of cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Amereh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available  Background and purpose: Cancer is a noteworthy cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in developing countries. It is more often caused by the environment of a person lives in, rather than his or her innate biology. The highly significant and rapid changes in cancer incidence in the last decades are generally attributed to equally dramatic changes in population exposure to environmental factors. Methods: The available evidence on the role of environmental factors and their relevant effects in cancer rates has been studied. Results: Major of cancer risk factors are include tobacco, overweight and obesity, physical activity, diet and body composition, food, air and water contamination, and viral chronic infections. Exposure assessment and research methodology has been the Achilles heel for studies on environmental contaminants and cancer. Thus, it should not be looked at cancer merely as a disease, since cancer is beyond a disease and must be considered through different aspects. Conclusion: The scientific community effort to increase public awareness, winning the support of policy makers as well as intersectoral coordination in order to lifestyle modifications, reducing high-risk behaviors and confronting food, air and water contamination have strategic importance in cancer prevention. Basic and clinical studies as well as interdisciplinary research thence are necessary for a better understanding of the pathophysiology and finding more effective and cheaper ways to prevent, early diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Accordingly, this requires the investment of governmental and non-governmental democrats. 

  1. A gene-environment interaction analysis of plasma selenium with prevalent and incident diabetes: The Hortega study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galan-Chilet, Inmaculada; Grau-Perez, Maria; De Marco, Griselda; Guallar, Eliseo; Martin-Escudero, Juan Carlos; Dominguez-Lucas, Alejandro; Gonzalez-Manzano, Isabel; Lopez-Izquierdo, Raul; Briongos-Figuero, Laisa Socorro; Redon, Josep; Chaves, Felipe Javier; Tellez-Plaza, Maria

    2017-08-01

    Selenium and single-nucleotide-polymorphisms in selenoprotein genes have been associated to diabetes. However, the interaction of selenium with genetic variation in diabetes and oxidative stress-related genes has not been evaluated as a potential determinant of diabetes risk. We evaluated the cross-sectional and prospective associations of plasma selenium concentrations with type 2 diabetes, and the interaction of selenium concentrations with genetic variation in candidate polymorphisms, in a representative sample of 1452 men and women aged 18-85 years from Spain. The geometric mean of plasma selenium levels in the study sample was 84.2µg/L. 120 participants had diabetes at baseline. Among diabetes-free participants who were not lost during the follow-up (N=1234), 75 developed diabetes over time. The multivariable adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for diabetes prevalence comparing the second and third to the first tertiles of plasma selenium levels were 1.80 (1.03, 3.14) and 1.97 (1.14, 3.41), respectively. The corresponding hazard ratios (95% CI) for diabetes incidence were 1.76 (0.96, 3.22) and 1.80 (0.98, 3.31), respectively. In addition, we observed significant interactions between selenium and polymorphisms in PPARGC1A, and in genes encoding mitochondrial proteins, such as BCS1L and SDHA, and suggestive interactions of selenium with other genes related to selenoproteins and redox metabolism. Plasma selenium was positively associated with prevalent and incident diabetes. While the statistical interactions of selenium with polymorphisms involved in regulation of redox and insulin signaling pathways provide biological plausibility to the positive associations of selenium with diabetes, further research is needed to elucidate the causal pathways underlying these associations. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Development of spatial density maps based on geoprocessing web services: application to tuberculosis incidence in Barcelona, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Health professionals and authorities strive to cope with heterogeneous data, services, and statistical models to support decision making on public health. Sophisticated analysis and distributed processing capabilities over geocoded epidemiological data are seen as driving factors to speed up control and decision making in these health risk situations. In this context, recent Web technologies and standards-based web services deployed on geospatial information infrastructures have rapidly become an efficient way to access, share, process, and visualize geocoded health-related information. Methods Data used on this study is based on Tuberculosis (TB) cases registered in Barcelona city during 2009. Residential addresses are geocoded and loaded into a spatial database that acts as a backend database. The web-based application architecture and geoprocessing web services are designed according to the Representational State Transfer (REST) principles. These web processing services produce spatial density maps against the backend database. Results The results are focused on the use of the proposed web-based application to the analysis of TB cases in Barcelona. The application produces spatial density maps to ease the monitoring and decision making process by health professionals. We also include a discussion of how spatial density maps may be useful for health practitioners in such contexts. Conclusions In this paper, we developed web-based client application and a set of geoprocessing web services to support specific health-spatial requirements. Spatial density maps of TB incidence were generated to help health professionals in analysis and decision-making tasks. The combined use of geographic information tools, map viewers, and geoprocessing services leads to interesting possibilities in handling health data in a spatial manner. In particular, the use of spatial density maps has been effective to identify the most affected areas and its spatial impact. This

  3. Development of spatial density maps based on geoprocessing web services: application to tuberculosis incidence in Barcelona, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominkovics, Pau; Granell, Carlos; Pérez-Navarro, Antoni; Casals, Martí; Orcau, Angels; Caylà, Joan A

    2011-11-29

    Health professionals and authorities strive to cope with heterogeneous data, services, and statistical models to support decision making on public health. Sophisticated analysis and distributed processing capabilities over geocoded epidemiological data are seen as driving factors to speed up control and decision making in these health risk situations. In this context, recent Web technologies and standards-based web services deployed on geospatial information infrastructures have rapidly become an efficient way to access, share, process, and visualize geocoded health-related information. Data used on this study is based on Tuberculosis (TB) cases registered in Barcelona city during 2009. Residential addresses are geocoded and loaded into a spatial database that acts as a backend database. The web-based application architecture and geoprocessing web services are designed according to the Representational State Transfer (REST) principles. These web processing services produce spatial density maps against the backend database. The results are focused on the use of the proposed web-based application to the analysis of TB cases in Barcelona. The application produces spatial density maps to ease the monitoring and decision making process by health professionals. We also include a discussion of how spatial density maps may be useful for health practitioners in such contexts. In this paper, we developed web-based client application and a set of geoprocessing web services to support specific health-spatial requirements. Spatial density maps of TB incidence were generated to help health professionals in analysis and decision-making tasks. The combined use of geographic information tools, map viewers, and geoprocessing services leads to interesting possibilities in handling health data in a spatial manner. In particular, the use of spatial density maps has been effective to identify the most affected areas and its spatial impact. This study is an attempt to demonstrate how web

  4. Prevalence of Vitamin D insufficiency and low bone mineral density in elderly Thai nursing home residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruavit Anuk

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous emerging data from research on osteoporosis among Asians found differences from Caucasians. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and osteoporosis in elderly participants from two nursing homes in Thailand, a country located near the equator. Methods The subjects of this cross-sectional study comprised 93 elderly Thai women who were living in institutional long-term nursing homes for the aged. Demographic data, daily food and calcium intake, physical activity, and sunlight exposure were measured. Lumbar spine and femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD and biochemical levels including serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] and bone turnover markers were assessed. Vitamin D insufficiency was defined as 25(OHD level  Results The mean age of subjects was 75.2 ± 6.0 (SD years. Dietary calcium intake was low (322 ± 158 mg/day The mean 25(OHD level was 64.3 ± 14.9 nmol/L and the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency was 38.7% (95% CI: 28.8%, 49.4%. There was no correlation between serum 25(OHD concentrations and age (r = −.11, p = 0.3. The mean BMD of lumbar spine and femoral neck were 0.92 ± 0.19 and 0.65 ± 0.10 g/cm2, respectively. Nearly a half of the subjects had osteopenia (44.1%, 95% CI: 33.8%, 54.8% and osteoporosis (47.3%, 95% CI: 36.9%, 57.9%. Circulating C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTx level correlated significantly with both lumbar spine (r = −0.26, p = 0.01 and femoral neck BMD (r = −0.25, p = 0.02. Conclusions More than one-third of Thai elderly women residing in nursing homes had vitamin D insufficiency. Almost all nursing home residents had osteoporosis and/or osteopenia.

  5. Worldwide incidence and prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease in the 21st century: a systematic review of population-based studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Siew C; Shi, Hai Yun; Hamidi, Nima; Underwood, Fox E; Tang, Whitney; Benchimol, Eric I; Panaccione, Remo; Ghosh, Subrata; Wu, Justin C Y; Chan, Francis K L; Sung, Joseph J Y; Kaplan, Gilaad G

    2018-12-23

    Inflammatory bowel disease is a global disease in the 21st century. We aimed to assess the changing incidence and prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease around the world. We searched MEDLINE and Embase up to and including Dec 31, 2016, to identify observational, population-based studies reporting the incidence or prevalence of Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis from 1990 or later. A study was regarded as population-based if it involved all residents within a specific area and the patients were representative of that area. To be included in the systematic review, ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease needed to be reported separately. Studies that did not report original data and studies that reported only the incidence or prevalence of paediatric-onset inflammatory bowel disease (diagnosis at age incidence (119 studies) and prevalence (69 studies) of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. We used temporal trend analyses to report changes as an annual percentage change (APC) with 95% CI. We identified 147 studies that were eligible for final inclusion in the systematic review, including 119 studies of incidence and 69 studies of prevalence. The highest reported prevalence values were in Europe (ulcerative colitis 505 per 100 000 in Norway; Crohn's disease 322 per 100 000 in Germany) and North America (ulcerative colitis 286 per 100 000 in the USA; Crohn's disease 319 per 100 000 in Canada). The prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease exceeded 0·3% in North America, Oceania, and many countries in Europe. Overall, 16 (72·7%) of 22 studies on Crohn's disease and 15 (83·3%) of 18 studies on ulcerative colitis reported stable or decreasing incidence of inflammatory bowel disease in North America and Europe. Since 1990, incidence has been rising in newly industrialised countries in Africa, Asia, and South America, including Brazil (APC for Crohn's disease +11·1% [95% CI 4·8-17·8] and APC for ulcerative colitis +14·9% [10·4-19·6]) and Taiwan (APC

  6. The prevalence and incidence of active syphilis in women in Morocco, 1995-2016: Model-based estimation and implications for STI surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennani, Aziza; El-Kettani, Amina; Hançali, Amina; El-Rhilani, Houssine; Alami, Kamal; Youbi, Mohamed; Rowley, Jane; Abu-Raddad, Laith; Smolak, Alex; Taylor, Melanie; Mahiané, Guy; Stover, John

    2017-01-01

    Background Evolving health priorities and resource constraints mean that countries require data on trends in sexually transmitted infections (STI) burden, to inform program planning and resource allocation. We applied the Spectrum STI estimation tool to estimate the prevalence and incidence of active syphilis in adult women in Morocco over 1995 to 2016. The results from the analysis are being used to inform Morocco’s national HIV/STI strategy, target setting and program evaluation. Methods Syphilis prevalence levels and trends were fitted through logistic regression to data from surveys in antenatal clinics, women attending family planning clinics and other general adult populations, as available post-1995. Prevalence data were adjusted for diagnostic test performance, and for the contribution of higher-risk populations not sampled in surveys. Incidence was inferred from prevalence by adjusting for the average duration of infection with active syphilis. Results In 2016, active syphilis prevalence was estimated to be 0.56% in women 15 to 49 years of age (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.3%-1.0%), and around 21,675 (10,612–37,198) new syphilis infections have occurred. The analysis shows a steady decline in prevalence from 1995, when the prevalence was estimated to be 1.8% (1.0–3.5%). The decline was consistent with decreasing prevalences observed in TB patients, fishermen and prisoners followed over 2000–2012 through sentinel surveillance, and with a decline since 2003 in national HIV incidence estimated earlier through independent modelling. Conclusions Periodic population-based surveys allowed Morocco to estimate syphilis prevalence and incidence trends. This first-ever undertaking engaged and focused national stakeholders, and confirmed the still considerable syphilis burden. The latest survey was done in 2012 and so the trends are relatively uncertain after 2012. From 2017 Morocco plans to implement a system to record data from routine antenatal

  7. The prevalence and incidence of active syphilis in women in Morocco, 1995-2016: Model-based estimation and implications for STI surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennani, Aziza; El-Kettani, Amina; Hançali, Amina; El-Rhilani, Houssine; Alami, Kamal; Youbi, Mohamed; Rowley, Jane; Abu-Raddad, Laith; Smolak, Alex; Taylor, Melanie; Mahiané, Guy; Stover, John; Korenromp, Eline L

    2017-01-01

    Evolving health priorities and resource constraints mean that countries require data on trends in sexually transmitted infections (STI) burden, to inform program planning and resource allocation. We applied the Spectrum STI estimation tool to estimate the prevalence and incidence of active syphilis in adult women in Morocco over 1995 to 2016. The results from the analysis are being used to inform Morocco's national HIV/STI strategy, target setting and program evaluation. Syphilis prevalence levels and trends were fitted through logistic regression to data from surveys in antenatal clinics, women attending family planning clinics and other general adult populations, as available post-1995. Prevalence data were adjusted for diagnostic test performance, and for the contribution of higher-risk populations not sampled in surveys. Incidence was inferred from prevalence by adjusting for the average duration of infection with active syphilis. In 2016, active syphilis prevalence was estimated to be 0.56% in women 15 to 49 years of age (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.3%-1.0%), and around 21,675 (10,612-37,198) new syphilis infections have occurred. The analysis shows a steady decline in prevalence from 1995, when the prevalence was estimated to be 1.8% (1.0-3.5%). The decline was consistent with decreasing prevalences observed in TB patients, fishermen and prisoners followed over 2000-2012 through sentinel surveillance, and with a decline since 2003 in national HIV incidence estimated earlier through independent modelling. Periodic population-based surveys allowed Morocco to estimate syphilis prevalence and incidence trends. This first-ever undertaking engaged and focused national stakeholders, and confirmed the still considerable syphilis burden. The latest survey was done in 2012 and so the trends are relatively uncertain after 2012. From 2017 Morocco plans to implement a system to record data from routine antenatal programmatic screening, which should help update and re

  8. Prevalence and seasonal incidence of nematode parasites and fluke infections of sheep and goats in eastern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sissay, Menkir M; Uggla, Arvid; Waller, Peter J

    2007-10-01

    A 2-year abattoir survey was carried out to determine the prevalence, abundance and seasonal incidence of gastro-intestinal (GI) nematodes and trematodes (flukes) of sheep and goats in the semi-arid zone of eastern Ethiopia. During May 2003 to April 2005, viscera including liver, lungs and GI tracts were collected from 655 sheep and 632 goats slaughtered at 4 abattoirs located in the towns of Haramaya, Harar, Dire Dawa and Jijiga in eastern Ethiopia. All animals were raised in the farming areas located within the community boundaries for each town. Collected materials were transported within 24 h to the parasitology laboratory of Haramaya University for immediate processing. Thirteen species belonging to 9 genera of GI nematodes (Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus axei, T. colubriformis, T. vitrinus, Nematodirus filicollis, N. spathiger Oesopha-gostomum columbianum, O. venulosum, Strongyloides papillosus, Bunostomum trigonocephalum, Trichuris ovis, Cooperia curticei and Chabertia ovina), and 4 species belonging to 3 genera of trematodes (Fasciola hepatica, F. gigantica, Paramphistomum {Calicohoron} microbothrium and Dicrocoelium dendriticum) were recorded in both sheep and goats. All animals in this investigation were infected with multiple species to varying degrees. The mean burdens of adult nematodes were generally moderate in both sheep and goats and showed patterns of seasonal abundance that corresponded with the bi-modal annual rainfall pattern, with highest burdens around the middle of the rainy season. In both sheep and goats there were significant differences in the mean worm burdens and abundance of the different nematode species between the four geographic locations, with worm burdens in the Haramaya and Harar areas greater than those observed in the Dire Dawa and Jijiga locations. Similar seasonal variations were also observed in the prevalence of flukes. But there were no significant differences in the prevalence of each fluke species between the

  9. Estimates of global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and mortality of HIV, 1980–2015: the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesgaard Iburg, Kim

    2016-01-01

    and sex on initial CD4 distribution at infection, CD4 progression rates (probability of progression from higher to lower CD4 cell-count category), on and off antiretroviral therapy (ART) mortality, and mortality from all other causes. Our estimation strategy links the GBD 2015 assessment of all......Summary Background Timely assessment of the burden of HIV/AIDS is essential for policy setting and programme evaluation. In this report from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015 (GBD 2015), we provide national estimates of levels and trends of HIV/AIDS incidence, prevalence, coverage......-cause mortality and estimation of incidence and prevalence so that for each draw from the uncertainty distribution all assumptions used in each step are internally consistent. We estimated incidence, prevalence, and death with GBD versions of the Estimation and Projection Package (EPP) and Spectrum software...

  10. Increase in specific density of levobupivacaine and fentanyl solution ensures lower incidence of inadequate block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djeno, Ivana Tudorić; Duzel, Viktor; Ajduk, Marko; Oremus, Zrinka Safarić; Zupcić, Miroslav; Dusper, Silva; Jukić, Dubravko; Husedzinović, Ino

    2012-06-01

    The clinical presentation of a subarachnoid block (SAB) is dependent upon the intrathecal spread of local anesthetic (LA). Intrathecal distribution depends on the chemical and physical characteristics of LA, puncture site, technique used, patient anatomical characteristics and hydrodynamic properties of cerebrospinal fluid. We tried to determine whether a combined glucose/LA solution can render a clinically significant difference in sensory block distribution and motor block intensity.This was a controlled, randomized and double blinded study. The surgical procedures were stripping of the great or small saphenous vein and extirpation of remaining varicose veins. The study included 110 patients distributed into two groups: Hyperbaric (7.5 mg levobupivacaine (1.5 ml 0.5% Chirocaine) + 50 microg Fentanyl (0.5 ml Fentanil) and 1 ml 10% glucose (Pliva)) vs. Hypobaric (7.5 mg levobupivacaine (1.5 ml 0.5% Chirocaine) + 50 microg Fentanyl (0.5 ml Fentanil) and 1 ml 0.9% NaCl (Pliva, Zagreb)) adding to a total volume of 3.5 ml per solution. Spinal puncture was at L3-L4 level. Spinal block distribution was assessed in five minute intervals and intensity of motor block was assessed according to the modified Bromage scale. Pain was assessed with the Visual Analogue Scale. A statistically significant difference in sensory block distribution, motor block intensity and recovery time was established between hyperbaric and hypobaric solutions. By increasing the specific density of anesthetic solution, a higher sensory block, with lesser variability, a diminished influence of Body Mass Index, decreased motor block intensity and faster recovery time may be achieved.

  11. Bone Mineral Density in Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis: Incidence and Correlation with Demographic and Clinical Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura MUNTEAN

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate bone mineral density (BMD in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS and determine its correlation with the demographic and clinical characteristics of AS. Patients and Methods: Demographic, clinical and osteodensitometric data were evaluated in a cross-sectional study that included 136 patients with AS. Spine and hip BMD were measured by means of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Using the modified Schober’s test we assessed spine mobility. We examined the sacroiliac, anteroposterior and lateral dorso-lumbar spine radiographs in order to grade sacroiliitis and assess syndesmophytes. Disease activity was evaluated using C-reactive protein (CRP levels and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR. Demographic data and BMD measurements were compared with those of 167 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Results: Patients with AS had a significantly lower BMD at the spine, femoral neck, trochanter and total hip as compared to age-matched controls (all p<0.01. According to the WHO classification, osteoporosis was present in 20.6% of the AS patients at the lumbar spine and in 14.6% at the femoral neck. There were no significant differences in BMD when comparing men and women with AS, except for trochanter BMD that was lower in female patients. No correlations were found between disease activity markers (ESR, CRP and BMD. Femoral neck BMD was correlated with disease duration, Schober’s test and sacroiliitis grade. Conclusion: Patients with AS have a lower spine and hip BMD as compared to age- and sex-matched controls. Bone loss at the femoral neck is associated with disease duration and more severe AS.

  12. Incidence and Prevalence of Sexual Dysfunction in Women and Men: A Consensus Statement from the Fourth International Consultation on Sexual Medicine 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Marita P; Sharlip, Ira D; Lewis, Ron; Atalla, Elham; Balon, Richard; Fisher, Alessandra D; Laumann, Edward; Lee, Sun Won; Segraves, Robert T

    2016-02-01

    The incidence and prevalence of various sexual dysfunctions in women and men are important to understand to designate priorities for epidemiologic and clinical research. This manuscript was designed to conduct a review of the literature to determine the incidence and prevalence of sexual dysfunction in women and men. Members of Committee 1 of the Fourth International Consultation on Sexual Medicine (2015) searched and reviewed epidemiologic literature on the incidence and prevalence of sexual dysfunctions. Key older studies and most studies published after 2009 were included in the text of this article. The outcome measures were the reports in the various studies of the incidence and prevalence of sexual dysfunction among women and men. There are more studies on incidence and prevalence for men than for women and many more studies on prevalence than incidence for women and men. The data indicate that the most frequent sexual dysfunctions for women are desire and arousal dysfunctions. In addition, there is a large proportion of women who experience multiple sexual dysfunctions. For men, premature ejaculation and erectile dysfunction are the most common sexual dysfunctions, with less comorbidity across sexual dysfunctions for men compared with women. These data need to be treated with caution, because there is a high level of variability across studies caused by methodologic differences in the instruments used to assess presence of sexual dysfunction, ages of samples, nature of samples, methodology used to gather the data, and cultural differences. Future research needs to use well-validated tools to gather data and ensure that the data collection strategy is clearly described. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A first study on the incidence and prevalence of IBD in Malaysia--results from the Kinta Valley IBD Epidemiology Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilmi, Ida; Jaya, Fauziah; Chua, Andrew; Heng, Wong Choon; Singh, Harjinder; Goh, Khean-Lee

    2015-05-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] is known to be rare in the Asia Pacific region but epidemiological studies are scarce. Kinta Valley [Ipoh] was chosen as the sample population. Malaysia has a multiethnic population consisting of Malays, Chinese, and Indians. New cases over 2 years were prospectively captured as well as all known existing cases. Total numbers of the population as a whole and of each ethnic group were obtained. Incidence, prevalence, and mean incidence over two decades were then calculated. There were 10 new cases of IBD diagnosed from April 2011 to April 2013. The crude incidence rates of IBD, ulcerative colitis [UC], and Crohn's disease[CD], respectively, were 0.68, 0.46, and 0.20 per 100,000 persons. The highest incidence was among the Indians, 1.91 compared with 0.35 and 0.63 per 100,000 persons among the Malays and the Chinese, respectively. The mean incidence of IBD has increased steadily from 0.07 to 0.69 per 100,000 person-years over the past two decades. The UC:CD ratio was 8:1 from 1990 to 2000 and 3.6:1 from 2000 to 2010. The prevalence rates of IBD, UC, and CD, respectively, were 9.24, 6.67, and 2.17 per 100,000 persons. The highest prevalence also was among the Indians: 24.91 compared with 7.00 and 6.90 per 100,000 persons among the Malay and Chinese races, respectively. The incidence and prevalence rates of IBD are low in Malaysia but the incidence appears to be increasing and marked racial differences exist. As in other Asian countries, the incidence of CD is increasing at a more rapid rate relative to UC. Copyright © 2015 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Mixture models for undiagnosed prevalent disease and interval-censored incident disease: applications to a cohort assembled from electronic health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Li C; Pan, Qing; Hyun, Noorie; Schiffman, Mark; Fetterman, Barbara; Castle, Philip E; Lorey, Thomas; Katki, Hormuzd A

    2017-09-30

    For cost-effectiveness and efficiency, many large-scale general-purpose cohort studies are being assembled within large health-care providers who use electronic health records. Two key features of such data are that incident disease is interval-censored between irregular visits and there can be pre-existing (prevalent) disease. Because prevalent disease is not always immediately diagnosed, some disease diagnosed at later visits are actually undiagnosed prevalent disease. We consider prevalent disease as a point mass at time zero for clinical applications where there is no interest in time of prevalent disease onset. We demonstrate that the naive Kaplan-Meier cumulative risk estimator underestimates risks at early time points and overestimates later risks. We propose a general family of mixture models for undiagnosed prevalent disease and interval-censored incident disease that we call prevalence-incidence models. Parameters for parametric prevalence-incidence models, such as the logistic regression and Weibull survival (logistic-Weibull) model, are estimated by direct likelihood maximization or by EM algorithm. Non-parametric methods are proposed to calculate cumulative risks for cases without covariates. We compare naive Kaplan-Meier, logistic-Weibull, and non-parametric estimates of cumulative risk in the cervical cancer screening program at Kaiser Permanente Northern California. Kaplan-Meier provided poor estimates while the logistic-Weibull model was a close fit to the non-parametric. Our findings support our use of logistic-Weibull models to develop the risk estimates that underlie current US risk-based cervical cancer screening guidelines. Published 2017. This article has been contributed to by US Government employees and their work is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2017. This article has been contributed to by US Government employees and their work is in the public domain in the USA.

  15. Higher densities of fast-food and full-service restaurants are not associated with obesity prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazidi, Mohsen; Speakman, John R

    2017-08-01

    Background: The obesity epidemic in the United States has been mirrored by an increase in calories consumed outside of the home and by expansions in the numbers of, and portion sizes at, both fast-food restaurants (FFRs) and full-service restaurants (FSRs), leading some to blame the epidemic on the restaurant industry. If this were indeed true, one would predict that greater per capita densities of FFRs and FSRs would lead to greater obesity prevalence. Objective: We evaluated the population-level association between both FSRs and FFRs and the prevalence of obesity and calculated the proportion of calories consumed in these establishments. Design: In this ecological cross-sectional study, we used county-level data (aggregate-level data) for obesity prevalence across the mainland United States in 2012 and matched these data to county-level per capita densities of FFRs and FSRs in the same year. Multiple linear regression was used to determine the relation between the prevalence of obesity and the densities of FFRs and FSRs after adjustment for confounding factors. Results: Contrary to expectations, obesity prevalence was highly significantly negatively related to the densities of both FFRs and FSRs (combined-effect R 2 = 0.195). This was principally because greater numbers of both FFRs and FSRs were located in areas in which individuals were on average wealthier and more educated. When we normalized for these factors (and additional socioeconomic variables), the associations between restaurant densities and obesity effectively disappeared (pooled R 2 = 0.008). Our calculations showed that the percentage of total calories consumed in FFRs and FSRs is a mean of only 15.9% of the total intake (maximum: 22.6%). Conclusions: Variations in the densities of FFRs and FSRs are not linked to the prevalence of obesity in the United States, and food consumed in these establishments is responsible for <20% of total energy intake. This finding has implications for policy

  16. Prevalence of Low High-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Among Adults, by Physical Activity: United States, 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwald, Marissa L; Akinbami, Lara J; Fakhouri, Tala H I; Fryar, Chryl D

    2017-03-01

    Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey •The prevalence of low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol was significantly higher among adults who did not meet recommended physical activity guidelines (21.0%) than adults who met the guidelines (17.7%). •Low HDL cholesterol prevalence differed significantly for both men and women by adherence to physical activity guidelines. •Prevalence of low HDL cholesterol declined as age increased for both those who did and did not meet the physical activity guidelines. •Non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black adults who did not meet the physical activity guidelines had a higher prevalence than those who met the guidelines. •Low HDL cholesterol prevalence declined with increasing education level regardless of adherence to physical activity guidelines. Regular physical activity can improve cholesterol levels among adults, including increasing high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (1). HDL cholesterol is known as "good" cholesterol because high levels can reduce cardiovascular disease risk (2). The 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans recommend that adults engage in 150 minutes or more of moderate-intensity aerobic activity per week, 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity aerobic activity per week, or an equivalent combination (3). Adherence to these guidelines is expected to decrease the prevalence of low HDL cholesterol levels (4-8). This report presents national data for 2011-2014 on low HDL cholesterol prevalence among U.S. adults aged 20 and over, by whether they met these guidelines. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  17. Prevalence and incidence rates of autism in the UK: time trend from 2004–2010 in children aged 8 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Brent; Jick, Hershel; MacLaughlin, Dean

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To update UK studies begun in the early 1990s on the annual prevalence and incidence rates of autism in children; undertaken in response to a March 2012 press release, widely covered by the media, from the US Centre for Disease Control (CDC) reporting that the autism prevalence rate in 2008 in 8-year-old US children was 1 in 88, a 78% increase from a CDC estimate in 2004. This finding suggested a continuation of the dramatic increase in children diagnosed as autistic, which occurred in the 1990s. Design Population study using the UK General Practice Research Database (GPRD). Methods Annual autism prevalence rates were estimated for children aged 8 years in 2004–2010 by dividing the number diagnosed as autistic in each or any previous year by the number of children active in the study population that year. We also calculated annual incidence rates for children aged 2–8 years, by dividing the number newly diagnosed in 2004–2010 by the same denominators. Results Annual prevalence rates for each year were steady at approximately 3.8/1000 boys and 0.8/1000 girls. Annual incidence rates each year were also steady at about 1.2/1000 boys and 0.2/1000 girls. Conclusions Following a fivefold increase in the annual incidence rates of autism during the 1990s in the UK, the incidence and prevalence rates in 8-year-old children reached a plateau in the early 2000s and remained steady through 2010. Whether prevalence rates have increased from the early 2000s in the USA remains uncertain. PMID:24131525

  18. Estimates of global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and mortality of HIV, 1980-2015 : the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Haidong; Wolock, Tim M.; Carter, Austin; Nguyen, Grant; Kyu, Hmwe Hmwe; Gakidou, Emmanuela; Hay, Simon I.; Mills, Edward J.; Trickey, Adam; Msemburi, William; Coates, Matthew M.; Mooney, Meghan D.; Fraser, Maya S.; Sligar, Amber; Salomon, Joshua; Larson, Heidi J.; Friedman, Joseph; Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Abate, Kalkidan Hassen; Abbas, Kaja M.; Abd El Razek, Mohamed Magdy; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abdulle, Abdishakur M.; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Abu-Raddad, Laith J.; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M. E.; Abyu, Gebre Yitayih; Adebiyi, Akindele Olupelumi; Adedeji, Isaac Akinkunmi; Adelekan, Ademola Lukman; Adofo, Koranteng; Adou, Arsene Kouablan; Ajala, Oluremi N.; Akinyemiju, Tomi F.; Akseer, Nadia; Al Lami, Faris Hasan; Al-Aly, Ziyad; Alam, Khurshid; Alam, Noore K. M.; Alasfoor, Deena; Aldhahri, Saleh Fahed S.; Aldridge, Robert William; Alegretti, Miguel Angel; Aleman, Alicia V.; Alemu, Zewdie Aderaw; Alfonso-Cristancho, Rafael; Ali, Raghib; Amare, Azmeraw T.; Hoek, Hans W.

    Background Timely assessment of the burden of HIV/AIDS is essential for policy setting and programme evaluation. In this report from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015 (GBD 2015), we provide national estimates of levels and trends of HIV/AIDS incidence, prevalence, coverage of antiretroviral

  19. Global trends in the incidence and prevalence of type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents : a systematic review and evaluation of methodological approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fazeli Farsani, S; van der Aa, M P; van der Vorst, M M J; Knibbe, C A J; de Boer, A

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: This study aimed to systematically review what has been reported on the incidence and prevalence of type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents, to scrutinise the methodological issues observed in the included studies and to prepare recommendations for future research and

  20. Prevalence, incidence and mortality of type 2 diabetes mellitus revisited : A prospective population-based study in The Netherlands (ZODIAC-1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ubink-Veltmaat, LJ; Bilo, HJG; Groenier, KH; Houweling, ST; Rischen, RO; Meyboom-de Jong, B

    2003-01-01

    Background: To present actual data to estimate prevalence, incidence and mortality of known type 2 diabetes mellitus in all age categories in The Netherlands. Methods: Prospective population-based study between 1998 and 2000 in The Netherlands. Baseline population of 155,774 patients, registered

  1. Calendar time trends in the incidence and prevalence of triple-class virologic failure in antiretroviral drug-experienced people with HIV in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakagawa, Fumiyo; Lodwick, Rebecca; Costagliola, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Despite the increasing success of antiretroviral therapy (ART), virologic failure of the 3 original classes [triple-class virologic failure, (TCVF)] still develops in a small minority of patients who started therapy in the triple combination ART era. Trends in the incidence and prevalence of TCVF...

  2. Donor testing and risk: current prevalence, incidence, and residual risk of transfusion-transmissible agents in US allogeneic donations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Shimian; Stramer, Susan L; Dodd, Roger Y

    2012-04-01

    Over the past 20 years, there has been a major increase in the safety of the blood supply, as demonstrated by declining rates of posttransfusion infection and reductions in estimated residual risk for such infections. Reliable estimates of residual risk have been possible within the American Red Cross system because of the availability of a large amount of reliable and consistent data on donations and infectious disease testing results. Among allogeneic blood donations, the prevalence rates of infection markers for hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus have decreased over time, although rates for markers of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and human T-cell lymphotropic virus did not. The incidence (/100 000 person-years) of HIV and HCV among repeat donors showed apparent increases from 1.55 and 1.89 in 2000 through 2001 to 2.16 and 2.98 in 2007 through 2008. These observed fluctuations confirm the need for continuous monitoring and evaluation. The residual risk of HIV, HCV, and human T-cell lymphotropic virus among all allogeneic donations is currently below 1 per 1 million donations, and that of hepatitis B surface antigen is close to 1 per 300 000 donations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Prevalence, incidence, and demographics of systemic lupus erythematosus and lupus nephritis from 2000 to 2004 among children in the US Medicaid beneficiary population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraki, Linda T; Feldman, Candace H; Liu, Jun; Alarcón, Graciela S; Fischer, Michael A; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C; Costenbader, Karen H

    2012-08-01

    To investigate the nationwide prevalence, incidence, and sociodemographics of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and lupus nephritis among children in the US Medicaid beneficiary population. Children ages 3 years to Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision [ICD-9] code of 710.0 for SLE, each >30 days apart) were identified from the US Medicaid Analytic eXtract database from 2000 to 2004. This database contains all inpatient and outpatient Medicaid claims for 47 US states and the District of Columbia. Lupus nephritis was identified from ≥2 ICD-9 billing codes for glomerulonephritis, proteinuria, or renal failure, each recorded >30 days apart. The prevalence and incidence of SLE and lupus nephritis were calculated among Medicaid-enrolled children overall and within sociodemographic groups. Of the 30,420,597 Medicaid-enrolled children during these years, 2,959 were identified as having SLE. The prevalence of SLE was 9.73 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 9.38-10.08) per 100,000 Medicaid-enrolled children. Among the children with SLE, 84% were female, 40% were African American, 25% were Hispanic, 21% were White, and 42% resided in the South region of the US. Moreover, of the children with SLE, 1,106 (37%) had lupus nephritis, representing a prevalence of 3.64 (95% CI 3.43-3.86) per 100,000 children. The average annual incidence of SLE was 2.22 cases (95% CI 2.05-2.40) and that of lupus nephritis was 0.72 cases (95% CI 0.63-0.83) per 100,000 Medicaid enrollees per year. The prevalence and incidence rates of SLE and lupus nephritis increased with age, were higher in girls than in boys, and were higher in all non-White racial/ethnic groups. In the current study, the prevalence and incidence rates of SLE among Medicaid-enrolled children in the US are high compared to studies in other populations. In addition, these data represent the first population-based estimates of the prevalence and incidence of lupus nephritis in the US to date. Copyright © 2012 by the American

  4. Modelling the Impact of Condom Distribution on the Incidence and Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Infections in an Adult Male Prison System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Scott

    Full Text Available To determine the effects of 1 a condom distribution program and 2 a condom distribution program combined with opt-out sexually transmitted infection (STI screening on the transmission and prevalence of STIs in a prison system.Using data from an implementation evaluation of a state-wide prison condom program and parameter estimates from available literature, a deterministic model was developed to quantify the incidence and prevalence of sexually transmitted HIV, hepatitis B, chlamydia, syphilis and gonorrhoea across 14 Victorian prisons. The model included individual prison populations (by longer (>2 years or shorter sentence lengths and monthly prisoner transfers. For each STI, simulations were compared: without any intervention; with a condom distribution program; and with a combined condom and opt-out STI screening at prison reception intervention program.Condoms reduced the annual incidence of syphilis by 99% (N = 66 averted cases; gonorrhoea by 98% (N = 113 cases; hepatitis B by 71% (N = 5 cases; chlamydia by 27% (N = 196 cases; and HIV by 50% (N = 2 cases every 10 years. Condom availability changed the in-prison epidemiology of gonorrhoea and syphilis from self-sustaining to levels unlikely to result in infection outbreaks; however, condoms did not reduce chlamydia prevalence below a self-sustaining level due to its high infectiousness, high prevalence and low detection rate. When combined with a screening intervention program, condoms reduced chlamydia prevalence further, but not below a self-sustaining level. The low prevalence of HIV and hepatitis B in Australian prisons meant the effects of condoms were predicted to be small.Condoms are predicted to effectively reduce the incidence of STIs in prison and are predicted to control syphilis and gonorrhoea transmission, however even combined with a screening on arrival program may be insufficient to reduce chlamydia prevalence below self-sustaining levels. To control chlamydia transmission

  5. Modelling the Impact of Condom Distribution on the Incidence and Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Infections in an Adult Male Prison System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Nick; McBryde, Emma; Kirwan, Amy; Stoové, Mark

    2015-01-01

    To determine the effects of 1) a condom distribution program and 2) a condom distribution program combined with opt-out sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening on the transmission and prevalence of STIs in a prison system. Using data from an implementation evaluation of a state-wide prison condom program and parameter estimates from available literature, a deterministic model was developed to quantify the incidence and prevalence of sexually transmitted HIV, hepatitis B, chlamydia, syphilis and gonorrhoea across 14 Victorian prisons. The model included individual prison populations (by longer (>2 years) or shorter sentence lengths) and monthly prisoner transfers. For each STI, simulations were compared: without any intervention; with a condom distribution program; and with a combined condom and opt-out STI screening at prison reception intervention program. Condoms reduced the annual incidence of syphilis by 99% (N = 66 averted cases); gonorrhoea by 98% (N = 113 cases); hepatitis B by 71% (N = 5 cases); chlamydia by 27% (N = 196 cases); and HIV by 50% (N = 2 cases every 10 years). Condom availability changed the in-prison epidemiology of gonorrhoea and syphilis from self-sustaining to levels unlikely to result in infection outbreaks; however, condoms did not reduce chlamydia prevalence below a self-sustaining level due to its high infectiousness, high prevalence and low detection rate. When combined with a screening intervention program, condoms reduced chlamydia prevalence further, but not below a self-sustaining level. The low prevalence of HIV and hepatitis B in Australian prisons meant the effects of condoms were predicted to be small. Condoms are predicted to effectively reduce the incidence of STIs in prison and are predicted to control syphilis and gonorrhoea transmission, however even combined with a screening on arrival program may be insufficient to reduce chlamydia prevalence below self-sustaining levels. To control chlamydia transmission

  6. Fusarium head blight incidence and mycotoxin accumulation in three durum wheat cultivars in relation to sowing date and density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorczyca, Anna; Oleksy, Andrzej; Gala-Czekaj, Dorota; Urbaniak, Monika; Laskowska, Magdalena; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Stępień, Łukasz

    2018-02-01

    Durum wheat ( Triticum turgidum var. durum) is an important crop in Europe, particularly in the Mediterranean countries. Fusarium head blight (FHB) is considered as one of the most damaging diseases, resulting in yield and quality reduction as well as contamination of grain with mycotoxins. Three winter durum wheat cultivars originating from Austria, Slovakia, and Poland were analyzed during 2012-2014 seasons for FHB incidence and Fusarium mycotoxin accumulation in harvested grain. Moreover, the effects of sowing density and delayed sowing date were evaluated in the climatic conditions of Southern Poland. Low disease severity was observed in 2011/2012 in all durum wheat cultivars analyzed, and high FHB occurrence was recorded in 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 seasons. Fusarium graminearum was the most abundant pathogen, followed by Fusarium avenaceum. Through all three seasons, cultivar Komnata was the most susceptible to FHB and to mycotoxin accumulation, while cultivars Auradur and IS Pentadur showed less symptoms. High susceptibility of cv. Komnata was reflected by the number of Fusarium isolates and elevated mycotoxin (deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and moniliformin) content in the grain of this cultivar across all three seasons. Nivalenol was identified in the samples of cv. Komnata only. Genotype-dependent differences in FHB susceptibility were observed for the plants sown at optimal date but not at delayed sowing date. It can be hypothesized that cultivars bred in Austria and Slovakia show less susceptibility towards FHB than the cultivar from Poland because of the environmental conditions allowing for more efficient selection of breeding materials.

  7. Incidence and prevalence rates of diabetes mellitus in Taiwan: Analysis of the 2000–2009 Nationwide Health Insurance database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Der Jiang

    2012-11-01

    Conclusion: The incidence of diabetes, including type 1, remained stable over this 10-year period in Taiwan. However, the incidence rate in men aged 20–59 years was higher than that in age-matched women. With our nationwide database, subgroup analysis of DM incidence can be performed to refine our health policies for the prevention, screening, and treatment of diabetes mellitus.

  8. Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Al-Darwish

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Results indicated that dental caries prevalence among school children in Qatar has reached critical levels, and is influenced by socio-demographic factors. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth values obtained in this study were the second highest detected in the Eastern Mediterranean region.

  9. Incidence and prevalence of systemic lupus erythematosus among Arab and Chaldean Americans in southeastern Michigan: the Michigan Lupus Epidemiology and Surveillance Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housey, Michelle; DeGuire, Peter; Lyon-Callo, Sarah; Wang, Lu; Marder, Wendy; McCune, W Joseph; Helmick, Charles G; Gordon, Caroline; Dhar, J Patricia; Leisen, James; Somers, Emily C

    2015-05-01

    We assessed the burden of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) among Arab and Chaldean Americans residing in southeast Michigan. For those meeting SLE criteria from the Michigan Lupus Epidemiology and Surveillance Registry, we determined Arab or Chaldean ethnicity by links with demographic data from birth certificates and with a database of Arab and Chaldean names. We compared prevalence and incidence of SLE for Arab and Chaldean Americans with estimates for non-Arab and non-Chaldean American Whites and Blacks. We classified 54 individuals with SLE as Arab and Chaldean Americans. The age-adjusted incidence and prevalence estimates for Arab and Chaldean Americans were 7.6 and 62.6 per 100 000, respectively. Arab and Chaldean Americans had a 2.1-fold excess SLE incidence compared with non-Arab and non-Chaldean American Whites. Arab and Chaldean American women had both significantly higher incidence rates (5.0-fold increase) and prevalence estimates (7.4-fold increase) than did Arab and Chaldean American men. Recognizing that Arab and Chaldean Americans experience different disease burdens from Whites is a first step toward earlier diagnosis and designing targeted interventions. Better methods of assigning ethnicity would improve research in this population.

  10. Self-Reported Exercise Prevalence and Determinants in the Long Term After Stroke: The North East Melbourne Stroke Incidence Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Dawn; Callisaya, Michele L; English, Coralie; Thrift, Amanda G; Gall, Seana L

    2017-12-01

    Exercise has established benefits following stroke. We aimed to describe self-reported exercise 5 and 10 years after stroke, change in exercise over time, and to identify factors associated with long-term exercise. Data on exercise (defined as 20 minutes' duration, causing sweating and increased heart rate) were obtained by questionnaire from a population-based stroke incidence study with 10-year follow-up. For change in exercise between 5 and 10 years (n = 276), we created 4 categories of exercise (no exercise, ceased exercising, commenced exercising, continued exercising). Multinomial regression determined associations between exercise categories and exercising before stroke, receiving exercise advice and functional ability and demographic factors. The prevalence of exercise at 5 years (n = 520) was 18.5% (n = 96) (mean age 74.7 [standard deviation {SD} 14] years, 50.6% male) and 24% (n = 78) at 10 years. In those with data at both 5 and 10 years (mean age 69 [standard deviation 14] years, 52.9% male), 15% (n = 42) continued exercising, 10% (n = 27) commenced exercising, 14% (n = 38) ceased exercising, and 61% (n = 169) reported no exercise. Continued exercise was associated with younger age (relative risk [RR] .47 95% confidence interval [CI] .25-0.89), greater Barthel score (RR 2.97 95% CI 1.00-8.86), independent walking (RR 2.32 95% CI 1.16-4.68), better quality of life (RR 10.9 95% CI 2.26-52.8), exercising before stroke (RR 16.0 95%CI 4.98-51.5), and receiving advice to exercise (RR 2.99 95% CI 1.73-5.16). Few people exercise after stroke and fewer commence exercise long term. Innovative interventions to promote and maintain exercise are required after stroke. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Vertebral fracture prevalence among Greek healthy middle-aged postmenopausal women: association with demographics, anthropometric parameters, and bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrinoudaki, Irene; Flokatoula, Maria; Armeni, Eleni; Pliatsika, Paraskevi; Augoulea, Areti; Antoniou, Aris; Alexandrou, Andreas; Creatsa, Maria; Panoulis, Constantinos; Dendrinos, Spyridon; Papacharalambous, Xenofon

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of skeletal fractures shows a marked geographic variability; however, data regarding the Greek population remain limited. To evaluate the frequency of asymptomatic vertebral fractures (VFs), and potential risk factors, in a large sample of Greek postmenopausal women. A cross-sectional study at the University Menopause Clinic. Four hundred fifty-four postmenopausal women aged 35 to 80 years, with an average menopausal age of 9.2±7.1 years. They included medical history, anthropometric and biochemical parameters, bone mineral density (BMD) at lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN), and LS lateral radiographs. Lumbar spine lateral radiographs were evaluated according to quantitative procedures, aiming to identify VFs. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters and values of BMD were compared according to the presence of VFs. A total of 37 (8.15%) women had at least one VF. Lumbar spine and FN-osteoporosis was identified in up to 23.1% and 40.9% subjects with prevalent VFs, respectively. The prevalence of VFs was largely associated with age, with women aged 60 years or more presenting an up to fourfold risk compared with younger women. Moreover, the presence of VFs was associated with higher menopausal age, advanced age at menarche, a history of early menopause, and prolonged lactation. Lower LS-BMD and, especially, FN-BMD were negatively associated with VF prevalence (prevalent VF vs. no VF: LS-BMD, 0.89±0.16 g/cm(2) vs. 0.98±0.16 g/cm(2), p=.010; FN-BMD, 0.72±0.10 g/cm(2) vs. 0.81±0.12 g/cm(2), p=.008). Asymptomatic VFs are common among Greek healthy middle-aged postmenopausal women. More than 50% subjects with prevalent VFs present with normal BMD or osteopenia. Age and bone density classification at the FN presented the strongest association with the prevalence of VFs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Contribution of human papilloma virus to the incidence of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck in a European population with high smoking prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinhofer, I; Jöhrens, K; Keilholz, U; Kaufmann, A; Lehmann, A; Weichert, W; Stenzinger, A; Stromberger, C; Klinghammer, K; Becker, E-T; Dommerich, S; Stölzel, K; Hofmann, V M; Hildebrandt, B; Moser, L; Ervens, J; Böttcher, A; Albers, A; Stabenow, R; Reinecke, A; Budach, V; Hoffmeister, B; Raguse, J D

    2015-03-01

    Increases in incidence of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) in countries with falling tobacco use have been attributed to a growing role of human papilloma virus (HPV) in the carcinogenesis. Trends of HPV prevalence in populations with persistently high portions of smokers are poorly characterised. Registry data from East Germany were used to determine incidence trends between 1998 and 2011. Data from patients treated at the Charité University Medicine Berlin between 2004 and 2013 (cohort 1, N=436) were used for estimation of trends in HPV prevalence, smoking and survival. HPV prevalence was prospectively confirmed in cohort 2 (N=213) comprising all primary HNSCC cases at the Charité in 2013. Between 1998 and 2011 incidence of both OPSCC and non-OPSCC increased. An increase in HPV prevalence (% of HPV+ cases in 2004-2006 versus 2012-2013: 27% versus 59%, P=0.0004) accompanied by a moderate decrease in the portion of current smokers was observed in OPSCC but not in non-OPSCC. The change in disease epidemiology in OPSCC was associated with significant improvement in overall survival. Increased HPV prevalence in OPSCC (48%) compared to non-OPSCC (11%) was confirmed in cohort 2. Despite clear differences to the United States in terms of tobacco use, the increase in OPSCC incidence in a European population was also mainly attributed to HPV, and the HPV status significantly affected prognosis. For clinical trial design it is important to consider the large group of smokers within HPV-induced OPSCC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Twenty-Year Evolution of Hepatitis B Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevalence and Incidence in Voluntary Blood Donors in Côte d'Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seri, Benjamin; Minga, Albert; Gabillard, Delphine; Dembele, Bamori; Konate, Seidou; Le Carrou, Jérôme; Dohoun, Lambert; Abo, Yao; Karcher, Sophie; Coffie, Patrick; N'Dri-Yoman, Thérèse; Attia, Alain; Eholié, Serge P; Danel, Christine; Lacombe, Karine; Anglaret, Xavier; Boyd, Anders

    2018-04-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) share common risk factors. The parallel description of their frequency over time may help capture their similarities and differences. Using data from the National Transfusion Center of Abidjan, we estimated the following over a 20-year period: (1) the prevalence of HIV and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positivity at first contact; and (2) the incidence of HIV and HBsAg seroconversion in negative first-time blood donors. Between 1992 and 2012, 422319 donors (men [M] = 74%) provided 1063825 blood donations. For first-time donors, HIV prevalence decreased from 7.1% (M = 5.9%, women [W] =11.0%) in 1992-1994 to 1.1% (M = 0.8%, W = 2.0%) in 2010-2012. Prevalence of HBsAg positivity remained stable at 10.8% (M = 11.7%, W = 7.3%) in 1992-1994 to 11.1% (M = 12.5%, W = 7.1%) in 2010-2012. Among regular donors (N = 129256), the incidence of becoming HIV or HBsAg positive, respectively, decreased from 4.9 per 100 (M = 4.5, W = 8.6) and 7.3 per 100 person-years (M = 7.8, W = 2.3) in 1992-1994 to 0.07 (M = 0.06, W = 0.11) and 0.2 per 100 person-years (M = 0.2, W = 0.2) in 2010-2012. Human immunodeficiency virus prevalence and incidence decreased dramatically over time, whereas HBV prevalence remained stable. Incidence of HBsAg seroconversion, although decreasing, still reached unexpected levels, suggesting that the risk of HBV infection in adults may be higher than expected. Hepatitis B surface antigen-negative blood-donors should be offered HBV vaccination.

  14. Twenty-Year Evolution of Hepatitis B Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevalence and Incidence in Voluntary Blood Donors in Côte d’Ivoire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seri, Benjamin; Minga, Albert; Gabillard, Delphine; Dembele, Bamori; Konate, Seidou; Le Carrou, Jérôme; Dohoun, Lambert; Abo, Yao; Karcher, Sophie; Coffie, Patrick; N’Dri-Yoman, Thérèse; Attia, Alain; Eholié, Serge P; Danel, Christine; Lacombe, Karine; Anglaret, Xavier; Boyd, Anders

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) share common risk factors. The parallel description of their frequency over time may help capture their similarities and differences. Methods Using data from the National Transfusion Center of Abidjan, we estimated the following over a 20-year period: (1) the prevalence of HIV and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positivity at first contact; and (2) the incidence of HIV and HBsAg seroconversion in negative first-time blood donors. Results Between 1992 and 2012, 422319 donors (men [M] = 74%) provided 1063825 blood donations. For first-time donors, HIV prevalence decreased from 7.1% (M = 5.9%, women [W] =11.0%) in 1992–1994 to 1.1% (M = 0.8%, W = 2.0%) in 2010–2012. Prevalence of HBsAg positivity remained stable at 10.8% (M = 11.7%, W = 7.3%) in 1992–1994 to 11.1% (M = 12.5%, W = 7.1%) in 2010–2012. Among regular donors (N = 129256), the incidence of becoming HIV or HBsAg positive, respectively, decreased from 4.9 per 100 (M = 4.5, W = 8.6) and 7.3 per 100 person-years (M = 7.8, W = 2.3) in 1992–1994 to 0.07 (M = 0.06, W = 0.11) and 0.2 per 100 person-years (M = 0.2, W = 0.2) in 2010–2012. Conclusions Human immunodeficiency virus prevalence and incidence decreased dramatically over time, whereas HBV prevalence remained stable. Incidence of HBsAg seroconversion, although decreasing, still reached unexpected levels, suggesting that the risk of HBV infection in adults may be higher than expected. Hepatitis B surface antigen-negative blood-donors should be offered HBV vaccination. PMID:29644251

  15. Herd-level prevalence and incidence of porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) and porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) in swine herds in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, T; Dara, R; Misener, M; Pasma, T; Moser, L; Poljak, Z

    2018-04-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) and porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) were first identified in Canada in 2014. Surveillance efforts have been instrumental in controlling both diseases. In this study, we provide an overview of surveillance components for the two diseases in Ontario (Canada), as well as PEDV and PDCoV incidence and prevalence measures. Swine herds located in the Province of Ontario, of any type, whose owners agreed to participate in a voluntary industry-led disease control programme (DCP) and with associated diagnostic or epidemiological information about the two swine coronaviruses, were eligible to be included for calculation of disease frequency at the provincial level. PEDV and PDCoV data stored in the industry DCP database were imported into the R statistical software and analysed to produce weekly frequency of incidence counts and prevalence counts, in addition to yearly herd-level incidence risk and prevalence between 2014 and 2016. The yearly herd-level incidence risk of PEDV, based on industry data, was 13.5%, 3.0% and 1.4% (95% CI: 11.1-16.2, 2.0-4.2, 0.8-2.3), while the yearly herd-level incidence risk of PDCoV was 1.1%, 0.3%, and 0.1% (95% CI: 0.5-2.2, 0.1-0.9, 0.0-0.5), for 2014, 2015 and 2016, respectively. Herd-level prevalence estimates for PEDV in the last week of 2014, 2015 and 2016 were 4.4%, 2.3% and 1.4%, respectively (95% CI: 3.1-6.0, 1.5-3.3, 0.8-2.2), while herd-level prevalence estimates for PDCoV in the last week of 2014, 2015 and 2016 were 0.5%, 0.2% and 0.2%, respectively (95% CI: 0.1-1.2, 0.0-0.6, 0.0-0.6). Collectively, our results point to low and decreasing incidence risk and prevalence for PEDV and PDCoV in Ontario, making both diseases possible candidates for disease elimination at the provincial level. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Incidence of malignant lymphoma in adolescents and young adults in the 58 counties of California with varying synthetic turf field density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleyer, Archie; Keegan, Theresa

    2018-04-01

    Case reports of cancer among soccer players raised concerns that the crumb rubber infill in synthetic turf fields may cause malignant lymphoma. One prior epidemiologic study on the topic found no association. An ecologic evaluation of county-level incidence of lymphomas by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status for the state of California with data obtained from the National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program. Synthetic turf field density by county was obtained from the Synthetic Turf Council. During 2000-2013, 7214 14- to 30-year-old Californians were diagnosed with malignant lymphoma. Annual lymphoma county incidence trends were not associated with the county-level synthetic turf field density. None of 20 sub-analyses by race/ethnicity, sex and county median household income indicated a correlation of lymphoma incidence with synthetic turf field density. In California, there was no evidence at the county-level that synthetic turf fields are associated with an increased incidence of lymphoma in adolescents and young adults. Our findings in the state with the greatest number of such fields and a large, diverse patient population are consistent with those of a prior study observing no association between individual-level exposures to turf fields and cancer incidence. Avoidance of synthetic turf fields for fear of increased cancer risk is not warranted. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The association of bone mineral density measures with incident cardiovascular disease in older men and women: the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farhat, G.N.; Newman, A.B.; Sutton-Tyrell, K.; Matthews, K.A.; Boudreau, R.; Schwartz, A.; Harris, T.B.; Tylavsky, F.A.; Visser, M.; Cauley, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Summary: The associations of volumetric and areal bone mineral density (BMD) measures with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) were studied in a biracial cohort of 2,310 older adults. BMD measures were inversely related to CVD in women and white men, independent of age and shared risk factors for

  18. Prevalence of anemia and deficiencies of iron, folic acid and vitamin B12 in an indigenous community from the Venezuelan Amazon with a high incidence of malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Casal, Maria Nieves; Leets, Irene; Bracho, Carmen; Hidalgo, Mariana; Bastidas, Gilberto; Gomez, Ana; Peña, Ana; Pérez, Hilda

    2008-03-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the prevalence of anemia and deficiencies of iron, folic acid and vitamin B12 in Betania del Topocho, a Piaroa community from Estado Amazonas, Venezuela, a zone with a high incidence of malaria. The group studied included 184 subjects of all ages that assisted to the local health center for malaria diagnosis. Analysis performed included hematology by coulter counter, ferritin quantification by ELISA with monoclonal antibodies and folic acid and vitamin B12 determinations by an immunoradiometric assay. It was found that the prevalence of anemia was 89.6% and deficiencies of iron, folic acid and vitamin B12 affected 37.1,70.3 and 12.4% of the population studied, respectively. Plasmodium infection was detected by molecular diagnosis in 53.2% of the cases, and 86% of them were anemic. The highest incidence of anemia was found in children, with a prevalence of 100% in infants of both sexes. The high prevalence of anemia, iron and folic acid deficiencies found, indicates an important health and nutrition problem that should be immediately and properly addressed. The number of cases of anemia due to iron deficiency could be underestimated, since ferritin concentration increased as a acute phase protein, although prevalence data was also analyzed with a cutoff point of 30 microg/L for ferritin concentration.

  19. Tree spatial structure, host composition and resource availability influence mirid density or black pod prevalence in cacao agroforests in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidoin, Cynthia; Babin, Régis; Bagny Beilhe, Leïla; Cilas, Christian; ten Hoopen, Gerben Martijn; Bieng, Marie Ange Ngo

    2014-01-01

    Combining crop plants with other plant species in agro-ecosystems is one way to enhance ecological pest and disease regulation mechanisms. Resource availability and microclimatic variation mechanisms affect processes related to pest and pathogen life cycles. These mechanisms are supported both by empirical research and by epidemiological models, yet their relative importance in a real complex agro-ecosystem is still not known. Our aim was thus to assess the independent effects and the relative importance of different variables related to resource availability and microclimatic variation that explain pest and disease occurrence at the plot scale in real complex agro-ecosystems. The study was conducted in cacao (Theobroma cacao) agroforests in Cameroon, where cocoa production is mainly impacted by the mirid bug, Sahlbergella singularis, and black pod disease, caused by Phytophthora megakarya. Vegetation composition and spatial structure, resource availability and pest and disease occurrence were characterized in 20 real agroforest plots. Hierarchical partitioning was used to identify the causal variables that explain mirid density and black pod prevalence. The results of this study show that cacao agroforests can be differentiated on the basis of vegetation composition and spatial structure. This original approach revealed that mirid density decreased when a minimum number of randomly distributed forest trees were present compared with the aggregated distribution of forest trees, or when forest tree density was low. Moreover, a decrease in mirid density was also related to decreased availability of sensitive tissue, independently of the effect of forest tree structure. Contrary to expectations, black pod prevalence decreased with increasing cacao tree abundance. By revealing the effects of vegetation composition and spatial structure on mirids and black pod, this study opens new perspectives for the joint agro-ecological management of cacao pests and diseases at the

  20. Prevalence and Density of Digenetic Trematode Metacercariae in Clams and Oysters from Western Coastal Regions of the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Woon-Mok; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Lee, Won-Ja

    2017-08-01

    A survey was performed to know the recent infection status of digenetic trematode metacercariae in clams and oysters from 4 sites in western coastal regions of the Republic of Korea (=Korea). Four species of clams (Mactra veneriformis, Ruditapes philippinarum, Cyclina sinensis, and Saxidomus purpuratus) were collected from Taean-gun, Chungcheongnam-do (Province), Buan-gun (County) and Gochang-gun, Jeollabuk-do, and oysters, Crassostrea gigas, from Shinan-gun, Jeollanam-do were transferred to our laboratory on ice and examined by the artificial digestion method. The metacercariae of Himasthla alincia were detected in 3 species of clams, M. veneriformis, R. philippinarum, and C. sinensis from the 3 surveyed areas. The positive rate and the mean density per clam infected were 98.9% (30.8 metacercariae) in M. veneriformis, 60.0% (5.0) in R. philippinarum, and 96.0% (28.4) in C. sinensis. The positive rate (mean density) of Acanthoparyphium tyosenense metacercariae in M. veneriformis was 50.0% (2.1) from Taean-gun and 70.0% (2.8) from Gochang-gun. The metacercariae of Parvatrema spp. were detected in M. veneriformis and R. philippinarum from Taean-gun and Gochang-gun; the positive rate (mean density) was 63.3% (4,123) and 50.0% (19) in M. veneriformis, and 6.7% (126) and 100% (238) in R. philippinarum from the 2 regions, respectively. The metacercariae of Gymnophalloides seoi were detected in all 30 oysters from Shinan-gun, and their average density per oyster was 646. From the above results, it has been confirmed that more than 3 species of metacercariae are prevalent in clams from the western coastal regions, and G. seoi metacercariae are still prevalent in oysters from Shinan-gun, Jeollanam-do, Korea.

  1. Age-specific incidence of A/H1N1 2009 influenza infection in England from sequential antibody prevalence data using likelihood-based estimation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Baguelin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Estimating the age-specific incidence of an emerging pathogen is essential for understanding its severity and transmission dynamics. This paper describes a statistical method that uses likelihoods to estimate incidence from sequential serological data. The method requires information on seroconversion intervals and allows integration of information on the temporal distribution of cases from clinical surveillance. Among a family of candidate incidences, a likelihood function is derived by reconstructing the change in seroprevalence from seroconversion following infection and comparing it with the observed sequence of positivity among the samples. This method is applied to derive the cumulative and weekly incidence of A/H1N1 pandemic influenza in England during the second wave using sera taken between September 2009 and February 2010 in four age groups (1-4, 5-14, 15-24, 25-44 years. The highest cumulative incidence was in 5-14 year olds (59%, 95% credible interval (CI: 52%, 68% followed by 1-4 year olds (49%, 95% CI: 38%, 61%, rates 20 and 40 times higher respectively than estimated from clinical surveillance. The method provides a more accurate and continuous measure of incidence than achieved by comparing prevalence in samples grouped by time period.

  2. Association of Baseline Depressive Symptoms with Prevalent and Incident Pre-Hypertension and Hypertension in Postmenopausal Hispanic Women: Results from the Women's Health Initiative.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth E Zambrana

    Full Text Available Depression and depressive symptoms are risk factors for hypertension (HTN and cardiovascular disease (CVD. Hispanic women have higher rates of depressive symptoms compared to other racial/ethnic groups yet few studies have investigated its association with incident prehypertension and hypertension among postmenopausal Hispanic women. This study aims to assess if an association exists between baseline depression and incident hypertension at 3 years follow-up among postmenopausal Hispanic women.Prospective cohort study, Women's Health Initiative (WHI, included 4,680 Hispanic women who participated in the observational and clinical trial studies at baseline and at third-year follow-up. Baseline current depressive symptoms and past depression history were measured as well as important correlates of depression-social support, optimism, life events and caregiving. Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate prevalent and incident prehypertension and hypertension in relation to depressive symptoms.Prevalence of current baseline depression ranged from 26% to 28% by hypertension category and education moderated these rates. In age-adjusted models, women with depression were more likely to be hypertensive (OR = 1.25; 95% CI 1.04-1.51, although results were attenuated when adjusting for covariates. Depression at baseline in normotensive Hispanic women was associated with incident hypertension at year 3 follow-up (OR = 1.74; 95% CI 1.10-2.74 after adjustment for insurance and behavioral factors. However, further adjustment for clinical covariates attenuated the association. Analyses of psychosocial variables correlated with depression but did not alter findings. Low rates of antidepressant medication usage were also reported.In the largest longitudinal study to date of older Hispanic women which included physiologic, behavioral and psychosocial moderators of depression, there was no association between baseline depressive symptoms and prevalent nor

  3. Prevalence and incidence of memory complaints in employed compared to non-employed aged 55-64 years and the role of employment characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly J Rijs

    Full Text Available To examine the association of employment status and characteristics with prevalent and incident memory complaints (MC in 55-64-year-olds.Subjects were participants of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA. Respondents with baseline data were selected to examine the association of employment status (n = 1525 and employment characteristics (n = 1071 with prevalent MC (i.e., MC at baseline. Respondents without MC at baseline were selected to examine the association of employment (n = 526 and employment characteristics (n = 379; working hours, job prestige, job level, psychological job demands, iso-strain with incident MC (i.e., no MC at baseline and MC at three-year follow-up. Associations were adjusted for relevant covariates (demographics, memory performance, physical health, mental health, personality traits. Logistic regression was applied. Data were weighed according to gender and age of the Dutch population.At baseline 20.5% reported MC. At three-year follow-up, 15.4% had incident MC. No associations were found between employment status and MC. Adjusted analysis revealed that individuals with high occupational cognitive demands were more likely to have prevalent MC.Middle-aged workers are equally as likely to experience MC as non-working age-peers. Among workers, those with cognitively demanding work were more likely to experience MC, independent of memory performance. Memory decline due to ageing may be noticed sooner in 55-64-year-olds performing cognitively demanding work.

  4. Effects of Climate on Incidence of Campylobacter spp. in Humans and Prevalence in Broiler Flocks in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patrick, Mary Evans; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Wainø, Michael

    2004-01-01

    humidity predicted the incidence in humans equally well. For broiler flock incidence these factors explained considerably less. Future research should focus on elements within the broiler environment that may be affected by climate, as well as the interaction of microclimatic factors on and around broiler...... and poultry sales that may vary by season....

  5. Osteoporosis and Prevalent Fractures among Adult Filipino Men Screened for Bone Mineral Density in a Tertiary Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick S. Mendoza

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundOsteoporosis in men is markedly underdiagnosed and undertreated despite higher morbidity and mortality associated with fractures. This study aimed to characterize adult Filipino men with osteopenia, osteoporosis and prevalent fractures.MethodsA cross-sectional study of 184 Filipino men ≥50 years screened for bone mineral density was performed. Age, weight, body mass index (BMI, Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool for Asians (OSTA score, smoking status, family history of fracture, diabetes mellitus, physical inactivity, and T-score were considered.ResultsOf the 184 patients, 40.2% and 29.9% have osteopenia and osteoporosis. Sixteen (21.6% and 18 (32.1% osteopenic and osteoporotic men have fragility hip, spine, or forearm fractures. Men aged 50 to 69 years have the same risk of osteoporosis and fractures as those ≥70 years. While hip fractures are higher in osteoporotic men, vertebral fractures are increased in both osteopenic and osteoporotic men. Mere osteopenia predicts the presence of prevalent fractures. A high risk OSTA score can predict fracture. A BMI <21 kg/m2 (P<0.05 and current smoking are associated with osteoporosis.ConclusionA significant fraction of Filipino men with osteopenia and osteoporosis have prevalent fractures. Our data suggest that fractures occur in men <70 years even before osteoporosis sets in. Low BMI, high OSTA score, and smoking are significant risk factors of osteoporosis.

  6. Latin American Dialysis and Transplant Registry: 2008 prevalence and incidence of end-stage renal disease and correlation with socioeconomic indexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusumano, Ana M; Garcia-Garcia, Guillermo; Gonzalez-Bedat, Maria C; Marinovich, Sergio; Lugon, Jocemir; Poblete-Badal, Hugo; Elgueta, Susana; Gomez, Rafael; Hernandez-Fonseca, Fabio; Almaguer, Miguel; Rodriguez-Manzano, Sandra; Freire, Nelly; Luna-Guerra, Jorge; Rodriguez, Gaspar; Bochicchio, Tommaso; Cuero, Cesar; Cuevas, Dario; Pereda, Carlos; Carlini, Raul

    2013-05-01

    In 2008, 563,294,000 people were living in Latin America (LA), of which 6.6% were older than 65. The region is going through a fast demographic and epidemiologic transition process, in the context of an improvement in socio-economic indices. The Latin American Dialysis and Renal Transplant Registry has collected data since 1991, through an annual survey completed by 20 affiliated National Societies. Renal replacement treatment (RRT) prevalence and incidence showed an increase year by year. The prevalence rate (in all modalities) correlated with the World Bank country classification by income and the epidemiologic transition stage the countries were experiencing. RRT prevalence and kidney transplantation rates correlated significantly with gross national income (GNI), health expenditure in constant dollars (HeExp), % older than 65, life expectancy at birth, and % of the population living in urban settings. Kidney transplantation increased also, year by year, with more than 50% of transplants performed using kidneys from deceased donors. Double transplants were performed in six countries. RRT prevalence and incidence increased in LA, and are associated with indexes reflecting higher and more evenly distributed national wealth (GNI and HeExp), and the stage of demographic and epidemiological transition.

  7. Frequency, prevalence, incidence and risk factors associated with visual hallucinations in a sample of patients with Parkinson's disease: a longitudinal 4-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, G; Mottram, P G; Burn, D J; Hindle, J V; Landau, S; Samuel, M; Hurt, C S; Brown, R G; M Wilson, K C

    2013-06-01

    To examine the prevalence, incidence and risk factors associated with visual hallucinations (VHs) amongst people suffering from Parkinson's disease (PD). We recruited 513 patients with PD from movement disorder and PD clinics within three sites in the UK. Patients were interviewed using a series of standardised clinical rating scales at baseline, 12, 24 and 36 months. Data relating to VHs were collected using the North-East Visual Hallucinations Interview. Prevalence rates for VHs at each assessment were recorded. Associations were determined using multiple regression analysis. Cross-sectional prevalence rates for VHs at baseline, 12, 24 and 36 months indicated VHs in approximately 50% of patients. A cumulative frequency of 82.7% of cases at the end of the study period exhibited VHs. The incidence rate for VHs was 457 cases per 1000 population. Longer disease duration, greater impairment in activities of daily living and higher rates of anxiety were most commonly associated with VHs. No factors predictive of VHs could be ascertained. When examined longitudinally, VHs affect more patients than is commonly assumed in cross-sectional prevalence studies. Clinicians should routinely screen for VHs throughout the disease course. Disease duration, impairment in activities of daily living and anxiety presented as co-morbidities associated with VHs in PD, and therefore those presenting with VHs should be screened for anxiety disorder and vice versa. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Incidence and prevalence of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) among adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D): a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazeli Farsani, Soulmaz; Brodovicz, Kimberly; Soleymanlou, Nima; Marquard, Jan; Wissinger, Erika; Maiese, Brett A

    2017-08-01

    To summarise incidence and prevalence of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D) for the overall patient population and different subgroups (age, sex, geographical region, ethnicity and type of insulin administration). Systematic literature review (SLR). Medline (via PubMed) and Embase (1 January 2000 to 23 June 2016). Peer-reviewed observational studies with reported data on the incidence or prevalence of DKA in T1D adults were included. A single reviewer completed the study screening and selection process and a second reviewer performed an additional screening of approximately 20% of the publications; two reviewers independently conducted the quality assessment; the results were narratively synthesised. Out of 1082 articles, 19 met the inclusion and exclusion criteria, with two additional studies identified that did not specify the patient age range and are therefore not included in the SLR. Overall, eight studies reported incidence with a range of 0-56 per 1000 person-years (PYs), with one outlying study reporting an incidence of 263 per 1000 PYs. Eleven studies reported prevalence with a range of 0-128 per 1000 people. Prevalence of DKA decreased with increasing age. Subgroup analyses were performed using data from no more than two studies per subgroup. There was a higher prevalence of DKA reported in women, non-whites and patients treated with insulin injections compared with men, whites and patients using continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion pumps, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first SLR on the epidemiology of DKA in T1D adults. Despite an increasing prevalence of T1D in recent years, DKA in adults has been poorly characterised. In an era when the benefit-risk profiles of new antidiabetic therapies are being evaluated, including the potential risk of DKA, there is a clear need to better elucidate the expected rate of DKA among T1D adults. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text

  9. Geographic variation in the age- and gender-specific prevalence and incidence of epilepsy: analysis of Taiwanese National Health Insurance-based data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Chuan; Chen, Li-Sheng; Yen, Ming-Fang; Chen, Hsiu-Hsi; Liou, Horng-Huei

    2012-02-01

    We studied geographic variation in age- and gender-specific prevalence and incidence of epilepsy in four different areas of Taiwan. By using large-scale, National Health Insurance (NHI)-based data from 2000-2003 in Taiwan, we identified 131,287 patients diagnosed with epilepsy (ICD code 345) receiving at least of one of 11 antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Information on age, gender, and location were also collected. The multivariable Poisson regression analysis was used to assess the heterogeneity of the morbidity of epilepsy in different regions. External data validation was also performed to assess the accuracy of capturing epilepsy cases through our NHI data set. The age-adjusted prevalence and incidence of epilepsy were 5.85 (per 1,000) between 2000 and 2003 and 97 (per 100,000 person-years) during the follow-up time from 2001 to 2003 in Taiwan. The sensitivity and specificity of ICD-9 coding for epilepsy in the NHI data set were 83.91% and 99.83%, respectively, resulting in a slight overestimation. Male patients had a higher probability of having epilepsy than did females. East Taiwan had significantly higher prevalence and incidence than did other areas. The age-specific incidence pattern in east Taiwan was atypical in that it revealed clustering in young and middle-aged groups. Our study demonstrated geographic variation in epidemiologic patterns of epilepsy within Taiwan. The findings are informative and provide insight into the clinical management of epilepsy based on consideration of different target groups in different areas. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2011 International League Against Epilepsy.

  10. Does marital status matter in an HIV hyperendemic country? Findings from the 2012 South African National HIV Prevalence, Incidence and Behaviour Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shisana, Olive; Risher, Kathryn; Celentano, David D; Zungu, Nompumelelo; Rehle, Thomas; Ngcaweni, Busani; Evans, Meredith G B

    2016-01-01

    South Africa has experienced declining marriage rates and the increasing practice of cohabitation without marriage. This study aims to improve the understanding of the relationship between marital status and HIV in South Africa, an HIV hyperendemic country, through an analysis of findings from the 2012 South African National HIV Prevalence, Incidence and Behaviour Survey. The nationally representative population-based cross-sectional survey collected data on HIV and socio-demographic and behavioural determinants in South Africa. This analysis considered respondents aged 16 years and older who consented to participate in the survey and provided dried blood spot specimens for HIV testing (N = 17,356). After controlling for age, race, having multiple sexual partners, condom use at last sex, urban/rural dwelling and level of household income, those who were married living with their spouse had significantly reduced odds of being HIV-positive compared to all other marital spouses groups. HIV incidence was 0.27% among respondents who were married living with their spouses; the highest HIV incidence was found in the cohabiting group (2.91%). Later marriage (after age 24) was associated with increased odds of HIV prevalence. Our analysis suggests an association between marital status and HIV prevalence and incidence in contemporary South Africa, where odds of being HIV-positive were found to be lower among married individuals who lived with their spouses compared to all other marital status groups. HIV prevention messages therefore need to be targeted to unmarried populations, especially cohabitating populations. As low socio-economic status, low social cohesion and the resulting destabilization of sexual relationships may explain the increased risk of HIV among unmarried populations, it is necessary to address structural issues including poverty that create an environment unfavourable to stable sexual relationships.

  11. Prevalence, Recurrence, and Incidence of Current Depressive Symptoms among People Living with HIV in Ontario, Canada: Results from the Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Stephanie K. Y.; Boyle, Eleanor; Cairney, John; Collins, Evan J.; Gardner, Sandra; Bacon, Jean; Rourke, Sean B.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Current studies of depression among people living with HIV focus on describing its point prevalence. Given the fluctuating nature of depression and its profound impacts on clinical and quality-of-life outcomes, this study aimed to examine the prevalence, recurrence and incidence of current depressive symptoms and its underlying catalysts longitudinally and systematically among these individuals. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study between October 1, 2007 and December 31, 2012 using longitudinal linked data sources. Current depressive symptoms was identified using the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale or the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, first at baseline and again during follow-up interviews. Multivariable regressions were used to characterize the three outcomes. Results Of the 3,816 HIV-positive participants, the point prevalence of depressive symptoms was estimated at 28%. Of the 957 participants who were identified with depressive symptoms at baseline and who had at least two years of follow-up, 43% had a recurrent episode. The cumulative incidence among 1,745 previously depressive symptoms free participants (at or prior to baseline) was 14%. During the five-year follow-up, our multivariable models showed that participants with greater risk of recurrent cases were more likely to feel worried about their housing situation. Participants at risk of developing incident cases were also likely to be younger, gay or bisexual, and unable to afford housing-related expenses. Conclusions Depressive symptoms are prevalent and likely to recur among people living with HIV. Our results support the direction of Ontario’s HIV/AIDS Strategy to 2026, which addresses medical concerns associated with HIV (such as depression) and the social drivers of health in order to enhance the overall well-being of people living with or at risk of HIV. Our findings reinforce the importance of providing effective mental health care and

  12. Prevalence, Recurrence, and Incidence of Current Depressive Symptoms among People Living with HIV in Ontario, Canada: Results from the Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Stephanie K Y; Boyle, Eleanor; Cairney, John; Collins, Evan J; Gardner, Sandra; Bacon, Jean; Rourke, Sean B

    2016-01-01

    Current studies of depression among people living with HIV focus on describing its point prevalence. Given the fluctuating nature of depression and its profound impacts on clinical and quality-of-life outcomes, this study aimed to examine the prevalence, recurrence and incidence of current depressive symptoms and its underlying catalysts longitudinally and systematically among these individuals. We conducted a prospective cohort study between October 1, 2007 and December 31, 2012 using longitudinal linked data sources. Current depressive symptoms was identified using the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale or the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, first at baseline and again during follow-up interviews. Multivariable regressions were used to characterize the three outcomes. Of the 3,816 HIV-positive participants, the point prevalence of depressive symptoms was estimated at 28%. Of the 957 participants who were identified with depressive symptoms at baseline and who had at least two years of follow-up, 43% had a recurrent episode. The cumulative incidence among 1,745 previously depressive symptoms free participants (at or prior to baseline) was 14%. During the five-year follow-up, our multivariable models showed that participants with greater risk of recurrent cases were more likely to feel worried about their housing situation. Participants at risk of developing incident cases were also likely to be younger, gay or bisexual, and unable to afford housing-related expenses. Depressive symptoms are prevalent and likely to recur among people living with HIV. Our results support the direction of Ontario's HIV/AIDS Strategy to 2026, which addresses medical concerns associated with HIV (such as depression) and the social drivers of health in order to enhance the overall well-being of people living with or at risk of HIV. Our findings reinforce the importance of providing effective mental health care and demonstrate the need for long-term support and

  13. From the third month of pregnancy to 1 year postpartum. Prevalence, incidence, recurrence, and new onset of depression. Results from the perinatal depression-research & screening unit study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banti, Susanna; Mauri, Mauro; Oppo, Annalisa; Borri, Chiara; Rambelli, Cristina; Ramacciotti, Daniele; Montagnani, Maria S; Camilleri, Valeria; Cortopassi, Sonia; Rucci, Paola; Cassano, Giovanni B

    2011-01-01

    Perinatal depression is a particular challenge to clinicians, and its prevalence estimates are difficult to compare across studies. Furthermore, to our knowledge, there are no studies that systematically assessed the incidence of perinatal depression. The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence, incidence, recurrence, and new onset of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, minor and major depression (mMD) in an unselected population of women recruited at the third month of pregnancy and followed up until the 12th month postpartum. One thousand sixty-six pregnant women were recruited. Minor and major depression was assessed in a naturalistic, longitudinal study. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Disorders were administered at different time points during pregnancy and in the postpartum period. The period prevalence of mMD was 12.4% in pregnancy and 9.6% in the postpartum period. The cumulative incidence of mMD in pregnancy and in the postpartum period was 2.2% and 6.8%, respectively. Thirty-two (7.3%) women had their first episode in the perinatal period: 1.6% had a new onset of depression during pregnancy, 5.7% in the postpartum period. Our postpartum prevalence figures, which are lower than those reported in the literature, may reflect treatment during the study, suggesting that casting a multiprofessional network around women in need of support may be potentially useful for reducing the effects of this disorder on the mother and the newborn child. Furthermore, our results indicate that women with a history of depression have a 2-fold risk of developing mMD in the perinatal period. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Prevalence, Recurrence, and Incidence of Current Depressive Symptoms among People Living with HIV in Ontario, Canada: Results from the Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie K Y Choi

    Full Text Available Current studies of depression among people living with HIV focus on describing its point prevalence. Given the fluctuating nature of depression and its profound impacts on clinical and quality-of-life outcomes, this study aimed to examine the prevalence, recurrence and incidence of current depressive symptoms and its underlying catalysts longitudinally and systematically among these individuals.We conducted a prospective cohort study between October 1, 2007 and December 31, 2012 using longitudinal linked data sources. Current depressive symptoms was identified using the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale or the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, first at baseline and again during follow-up interviews. Multivariable regressions were used to characterize the three outcomes.Of the 3,816 HIV-positive participants, the point prevalence of depressive symptoms was estimated at 28%. Of the 957 participants who were identified with depressive symptoms at baseline and who had at least two years of follow-up, 43% had a recurrent episode. The cumulative incidence among 1,745 previously depressive symptoms free participants (at or prior to baseline was 14%. During the five-year follow-up, our multivariable models showed that participants with greater risk of recurrent cases were more likely to feel worried about their housing situation. Participants at risk of developing incident cases were also likely to be younger, gay or bisexual, and unable to afford housing-related expenses.Depressive symptoms are prevalent and likely to recur among people living with HIV. Our results support the direction of Ontario's HIV/AIDS Strategy to 2026, which addresses medical concerns associated with HIV (such as depression and the social drivers of health in order to enhance the overall well-being of people living with or at risk of HIV. Our findings reinforce the importance of providing effective mental health care and demonstrate the need for long

  15. Bone mineral density deficits in childhood cancer survivors: Pathophysiology, prevalence, screening, and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jae Kang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available As chemotherapy and other sophisticated treatment strategies evolve and the number of survivors of long-term childhood cancer grows, the long-term complications of treatment and the cancer itself are becoming ever more important. One of the most important but often neglected complications is osteoporosis and increased risk of fracture during and after cancer treatment. Acquisition of optimal peak bone mass and strength during childhood and adolescence is critical to preventing osteoporosis later in life. However, most childhood cancer patients have multiple risk factors for bone mineral loss. Cancer itself, malnutrition, decreased physical activity during treatment, chemotherapeutic agents such as steroids, and radiotherapy cause bone mineral deficit. Furthermore, complications such as growth hormone deficiency and musculoskeletal deformity have negative effects on bone metabolism. Low bone mineral density is associated with fractures, skeletal deformity, pain, and substantial financial burden not only for childhood cancer survivors but also for public health care systems. Thus, it is important to monitor bone health in these patients and minimize their risk of developing osteoporosis and fragility fractures later in life.

  16. Prevalence, incidence and correlates of low risk HPV infection and anogenital warts in a cohort of women living with HIV in Burkina Faso and South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikandiwa, Admire; Kelly, Helen; Sawadogo, Bernard; Ngou, Jean; Pisa, Pedro T; Gibson, Lorna; Didelot, Marie-Noelle; Meda, Nicolas; Weiss, Helen A; Segondy, Michel; Mayaud, Philippe; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead

    2018-01-01

    To report the prevalence and incidence of low-risk human papillomavirus infection (LR-HPV) and anogenital warts (AGW) among women living with HIV (WLHIV) in Burkina Faso (BF) and South Africa (SA), and to explore HIV-related factors associated with these outcomes. We enrolled 1238 WLHIV (BF = 615; SA = 623) aged 25-50 years and followed them at three time points (6, 12 and 16 months) after enrolment. Presence of AGW was assessed during gynaecological examination. Cervico-vaginal swabs for enrolment and month 16 follow-up visits were tested for HPV infection by Inno-LiPA® genotyping. Logistic regression was used to assess risk factors for prevalent infection or AGW. Cox regression was used to assess risk factors for incident AGW. Women in SA were more likely than those in BF to have prevalent LR-HPV infection (BF: 27.1% vs. SA: 40.9%; p500 cells/μL). Duration of ART and HIV plasma viral load were not associated with any LR-HPV infection or AGW outcomes. LR-HPV infection and AGW are common in WLHIV in sub-Saharan Africa. Type-specific HPV vaccines and effective ART with immunological reconstitution could reduce the burden of AGW in this population.

  17. Prevalence, incidence and correlates of low risk HPV infection and anogenital warts in a cohort of women living with HIV in Burkina Faso and South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Admire Chikandiwa

    Full Text Available To report the prevalence and incidence of low-risk human papillomavirus infection (LR-HPV and anogenital warts (AGW among women living with HIV (WLHIV in Burkina Faso (BF and South Africa (SA, and to explore HIV-related factors associated with these outcomes.We enrolled 1238 WLHIV (BF = 615; SA = 623 aged 25-50 years and followed them at three time points (6, 12 and 16 months after enrolment. Presence of AGW was assessed during gynaecological examination. Cervico-vaginal swabs for enrolment and month 16 follow-up visits were tested for HPV infection by Inno-LiPA® genotyping. Logistic regression was used to assess risk factors for prevalent infection or AGW. Cox regression was used to assess risk factors for incident AGW.Women in SA were more likely than those in BF to have prevalent LR-HPV infection (BF: 27.1% vs. SA: 40.9%; p500 cells/μL. Duration of ART and HIV plasma viral load were not associated with any LR-HPV infection or AGW outcomes.LR-HPV infection and AGW are common in WLHIV in sub-Saharan Africa. Type-specific HPV vaccines and effective ART with immunological reconstitution could reduce the burden of AGW in this population.

  18. The prevalence and correlates of subclinical atherosclerosis among adults with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Rifai, Mahmoud; Martin, Seth S; McEvoy, John W; Nasir, Khurram; Blankstein, Ron; Yeboah, Joseph; Miedema, Michael; Shea, Steven J; Polak, Joseph F; Ouyang, Pamela; Blumenthal, Roger S; Bittencourt, Marcio; Bensenor, Isabela; Santos, Raul D; Duncan, Bruce B; Santos, Itamar S; Lotufo, Paulo A; Blaha, Michael J

    2018-07-01

    The prevalence and correlates of subclinical atherosclerosis when low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels are low remain unclear. Therefore, we examined the association of cardiovascular risk factors and subclinical atherosclerosis among individuals with untreated LDL-C ELSA-Brasil) cohorts. To optimize accuracy, LDL-C was calculated by the validated Martin/Hopkins equation that uses an adjustable factor for the ratio of triglycerides to very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. We defined subclinical atherosclerosis as a coronary artery calcium (CAC) score >0 in the combined cohort or common carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) in the 4 th quartile, using cohort-specific cIMT distributions at baseline. Logistic regression models examined the cross-sectional associations of cardiovascular risk factors and subclinical atherosclerosis. Among 9411 participants not on lipid lowering therapy, 263 (3%) had LDL-C ELSA: 57). Mean age in this population was 58 (SD 12) years, with 43% men, and 41% Black. The prevalence of CAC >0 in those with untreated LDL-C<70 mg/dL was 30%, and 18% were in 4th quartile of cIMT. In demographically adjusted models, only ever smoking was significantly associated with both CAC and cIMT. Similar results were obtained in risk factor-adjusted models (smoking: OR, 2.29; 95% CI, 1.10-4.80 and OR, 3.44; 95% CI, 1.41-8.37 for CAC and cIMT, respectively). Among middle-aged to older individuals with untreated LDL-C <70 mg/dL, subclinical atherosclerosis remains moderately common and is associated with cigarette smoking. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Prevalence of Skin Tears in Elderly Patients: A Retrospective Chart Review of Incidence Reports in 6 Long-term Care Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, Joyce; Shannon, Mary

    2018-04-01

    The incidence and prevalence of skin tears in long-term care (LTC) facilities has not been well established. To ascertain the point prevalence of reported skin tears, a retrospective review of incident reports was performed in 6 LTC facilities in western Pennsylvania from November 1, 2016 through December 31, 2016. Report data, including resident age; gender; mobility limitations; skin tear location, number, and cause (if known); occurrence time (7 am to 3 pm, 3 pm to 11 pm, or 11 pm to 7 am nursing shift); and history of previous skin tears, were abstracted. All data were entered into a statistical analysis program and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Period prevalence was used to determine prevalence rate; an independent t test was used to compare the presence of skin tears between genders. Differences between location and cause of skin tears were evaluated using a multinomial test of related proportions. A test of proportions was used to evaluate skin tear occurrence time (nursing shift) differences. The overall point prevalence rate was 9% (N = 1253 residents) ranging from 6 to 28 skin tears per facility. The average age of residents with a skin tear (n = 119) was 83.5 years. The majority (111, 93%) had mobility limitations. Falls accounted for 38 skin tears (31.9%), followed by propelling in a wheelchair (18, 15.1%; X2 =7.14; P = .008). Forearm skin tears (37, 31.1%) occurred significantly more frequently than lower leg skin tears (19, 16%; P = .016). Significantly more skin tears occurred during the 7 am to 3 pm shift (47, 39.5%) and 3 pm to 11 pm shift (49, 41.2%) than during the 11 pm to 7 am shift (23, 19.3%; X2 = 5.78; P skin tears are a significant problem among elderly residents in LTC, especially because the reported rate is likely lower than the actual rate. Research to further elucidate the incidence and prevalence of skin tears and associated risk factors is needed to help develop evidence-based risk assessment, classification systems

  20. Prevalence and incidence of urinary tract and genital infections among patients with and without type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Gregory A; Brodovicz, Kimberly G; Kimes, Teresa M; Déruaz-Luyet, Anouk; Bartels, Dorothee B

    2017-11-01

    Epidemiological data on genitourinary infections (GUIs) comparing patients with and without type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is scant. We aimed to estimate the incidence of urinary tract infections (UTIs), genital infections (GIs), or any GUI in total and stratified by history of GUI and sex. We identified 39,295 patients in the Kaiser Permanente Northwest health plan with T2DM and an equal number of age and sex matched patients without diabetes. The cohort was followed for up to 9years (2006-2014). We calculated incidence rates and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) of any GUI, UTIs and GIs adjusting for age, sex, race, BMI, presence of chronic kidney disease, annual number of outpatient visits, and diuretic use. Adjusted incidence of any GUI was 97.2/1000person-years (p-y) (95% CI 95.5-98.8) among the T2DM cohort vs. 79.7/1000 p-y (78.3-81.2) among those without diabetes. T2DM was associated with an adjusted 25% increased risk of UTI (rate ratio 1.25, 95% CI 1.22-1.29), a 26% increased risk of GI (1.26, 1.22-1.31) and a 22% increased risk of any GUI (1.22, 1.19-1.25). Incidence rates were lower among those with no GUI history, but the relative risks were similar. Women in both groups had higher incidence rates of GUIs than men. T2DM was associated with increased risks of any GUI, UTIs and GIs. Incidence rates of UTIs were higher than rates of GIs, but the relative risk of GIs was essentially identical. A similar pattern was observed when stratifying by sex. RESEARCH QUESTIONS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Prevalence and Possible Risk Factors of Low Bone Mineral Density in Untreated Female Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ning Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is an autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation. Different studies have shown decreased bone mineral density (BMD in patients with SLE. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and possible risk factors of low BMD in untreated female patients with SLE in Chinese population. A total of 119 untreated female patients with SLE were included. BMD was measured at lumbar spine and at total hip by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The associations between decreased BMD and demographic variables, clinical variables, and bone metabolism variables were analyzed. These SLE patients had the following characteristics: mean age was 32.6±11.9 years, mean disease duration was 22.1±34.5 months, and mean SLEDAI was 11.4±5.4. Osteopenia was present in 31.1% of the patients and osteoporosis in 8.5%. A significant negative association between low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c and BMD at the lumbar spine (correlation coefficient = −0.242; P=0.023 and total hip (correlation coefficient = −0.259; P=0.019 was shown. These results seem to indicate that increased LDL-c may be an important risk factor for low BMD at lumbar spine and total hip in untreated female SLE patients.

  2. Prevalence and incidence of dementia among 75-80-year-old community-dwelling elderly in different districts of Antwerp, Belgium: the Antwerp Cognition (ANCOG) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Deyn, P P; Goeman, J; Vervaet, A; Dourcy-Belle-Rose, B; Van Dam, D; Geerts, E

    2011-11-01

    To analyse the prevalence and incidence of dementia in a population of community-dwelling elderly (aged 75-80), living in socio-economically differing districts of Antwerp (Belgium), taking into account possible gender and educational differences. A longitudinal cohort study (N=825) with a 3-year follow-up period (N=363). The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) was used as a primary screen of cognitive functioning. Scoring 21 or below led to a second phase examination by a neurologist, including the CAMDEX-R-N and a neurological examination, to provide a tentative aetiological diagnosis of dementia. These procedures were conducted annually during a 3-year follow-up period. In accordance with international literature, the overall prevalence rate of dementia was 8.7%. The cumulative incidence rate (IR) of dementia was 36.60 per 1000Py with annual IRs ranging from 34.39 over 35.16 to 49.04 per 1000Py. Dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT) was the most occurring prevalent and incident cause. Women appeared to be at higher risk and the occurrence of cognitive deterioration was more prominent in districts with lower socio-economic status, possibly related to a lower education level. We demonstrate dementia is a considerable health problem in an urban Belgian population of community-dwelling elderly aged between 75 and 80 years old. In order to prepare health care and social security systems for the future management of dementia, proper epidemiological insight into the current and future magnitude of the burden of dementia, taking into account socio-economic differences, to which this study contributes, are required. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Prevalence and cumulative incidence of abnormal cervical cytology among HIV-infected Thai women: a 5.5-year retrospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is one of the most common AIDS-related malignancies in Thailand. To prevent cervical cancer, The US Public Health Service and The Infectious Disease Society of America have recommended that all HIV-infected women should obtain 2 Pap smears 6 months apart after the initial HIV diagnosis and, if results of both are normal, should undergo annual cytological screening. However, there has been no evidence in supporting whether this guideline is appropriate in all settings - especially in areas where HIV-infected women are living in resource-constrained condition. Methods To determine the appropriate interval of Pap smear screenings for HIV-infected Thai women and risk factors for subsequent abnormal cervical cytology, we assessed the prevalence, cumulative incidence and associated factors of cervical cell abnormalities (atypical squamous cell of undetermined significance or higher grades, ASCUS+) among this group of patients. Results The prevalence of ASCUS+ was 15.4% at the first visit, and the cumulative incidence of ASCUS+ gradually increased to 37% in the first 3.5 years of follow-up appointments (first 7 times), and tended to plateau in the last 2 years. For multivariate correlation analysis, women with a CD4 count ASCUS+ (P = 0.043). There were no associations of subsequent ASCUS+ with age, pregnancy, contraceptive method, highly active anti-retroviral treatment, assumed duration of infection, or the CD4 count nadir level. Conclusion There are high prevalence and cumulative incidence of ASCUS+ in HIV-infected Thai women. With a high lost-to-follow-up rate, an appropriate interval of Pap smear screening cannot be concluded from the present study. Nevertheless, the HIV-infected Thai women may require more than two normal semi-annual Pap smears before shifting to routinely annual cytologic screening. PMID:21211065

  4. Prevalence and cumulative incidence of abnormal cervical cytology among HIV-infected Thai women: a 5.5-year retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamkhantho Manopchai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical cancer is one of the most common AIDS-related malignancies in Thailand. To prevent cervical cancer, The US Public Health Service and The Infectious Disease Society of America have recommended that all HIV-infected women should obtain 2 Pap smears 6 months apart after the initial HIV diagnosis and, if results of both are normal, should undergo annual cytological screening. However, there has been no evidence in supporting whether this guideline is appropriate in all settings - especially in areas where HIV-infected women are living in resource-constrained condition. Methods To determine the appropriate interval of Pap smear screenings for HIV-infected Thai women and risk factors for subsequent abnormal cervical cytology, we assessed the prevalence, cumulative incidence and associated factors of cervical cell abnormalities (atypical squamous cell of undetermined significance or higher grades, ASCUS+ among this group of patients. Results The prevalence of ASCUS+ was 15.4% at the first visit, and the cumulative incidence of ASCUS+ gradually increased to 37% in the first 3.5 years of follow-up appointments (first 7 times, and tended to plateau in the last 2 years. For multivariate correlation analysis, women with a CD4 count P = 0.043. There were no associations of subsequent ASCUS+ with age, pregnancy, contraceptive method, highly active anti-retroviral treatment, assumed duration of infection, or the CD4 count nadir level. Conclusion There are high prevalence and cumulative incidence of ASCUS+ in HIV-infected Thai women. With a high lost-to-follow-up rate, an appropriate interval of Pap smear screening cannot be concluded from the present study. Nevertheless, the HIV-infected Thai women may require more than two normal semi-annual Pap smears before shifting to routinely annual cytologic screening.

  5. Oncohematological diseases in the Vale do Paraíba, State of São Paulo: demographic aspects, prevalences and incidences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Callera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Based on the necessity of detailed information that supports effective strategies to improve cancer outcomes in the different regions of Brazil, the aims of this study were to report demographic aspects and to calculate the prevalence and incidence rates of oncohematological diseases in the region of Vale do Paraíba. METHODS: This is a multicentric prospective study carried out from October 2009 to March 2010. A total of 500 over 19-year-old patients were enrolled. Data such as type of healthcare insurance, gender, age, ethnic classification, place of residence, schooling, income, body mass index, new cases and the period between the first symptoms and a definite diagnosis were collected. The prevalence and incidence rates were calculated according to an estimated number of 1,319,800 inhabitants. RESULTS: The prevalence and incidence rates per 100,000 inhabitants in the period of six months were, respectively: acute myeloid leukemia 1.5 and 0.7; acute lymphoblastic leukemia 0.5 and 0.1; chronic lymphocytic leukemia 2.4 and 0.4; chronic myeloid leukemia 6.2 and 0.8; Hodgkin's lymphoma 2.9 and 0.9; non-Hodgkin lymphoma 9.8 and 4.3; multiple myeloma 5.7 and 0.7; myelodysplastic syndromes 2.1 and 0.2 and myeloproliferative syndromes 5.1 and 0.3. CONCLUSION: Giving the paucity of data in this field of investigation, our data may be useful for comparisons with those of other regions of Brazil and will assist in the implementation of treatment programs of oncohematological diseases in this region.

  6. The relationship between prevalent medial meniscal intrasubstance signal changes and incident medial meniscal tears in women over a 1-year period assessed with 3.0 T MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crema, Michel D.; Hunter, David J.; Roemer, Frank W.; Li, Ling; Marra, Monica D.; Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello H.; Hellio Le Graverand, Marie-Pierre; Wyman, Bradley T.; Guermazi, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Intrasubstance meniscal signal changes not reaching the articular surface on fast spin echo (FSE) sequences are considered to represent mucoid degeneration on MRI. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of prevalent intrasubstance signal changes with incident tears of the medial meniscus detected on 3.0 T MRI over a 1-year period. A total of 161 women aged ≥40 years participated in a longitudinal 1-year observational study of knee osteoarthritis. MRI (3.0 T) was performed at baseline and 12-month follow-up. The anterior horn, body, and posterior horn of the medial meniscus were scored by two experienced musculoskeletal radiologists using the Boston-Leeds Osteoarthritis Knee Score (BLOKS) system. Four grades were used to describe the meniscal morphology: grade 0 (normal), grade 1 (intrasubstance signal changes not reaching the articular surface), grade 2 (single tears), and grade 3 (complex tears and maceration). Fisher's exact test and the Cochran-Armitage trend test were performed to evaluate whether baseline intrasubstance signal changes (grade 1) predict incident meniscal tears/maceration (grades 2 and/or 3) in the same subregion of the medial meniscus, when compared to subregions without pathology as the reference group (grade 0). Medial meniscal intrasubstance signal changes at baseline did not predict tears at follow-up when evaluating the anterior and posterior horns (left-sided p-values 0.06 and 0.59, respectively). No incident tears were detected in the body. We could not demonstrate an association between prevalent medial meniscal intrasubstance signal changes with incident tears over a 1-year period. (orig.)

  7. The relationship between prevalent medial meniscal intrasubstance signal changes and incident medial meniscal tears in women over a 1-year period assessed with 3.0 T MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crema, Michel D. [Boston University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Quantitative Imaging Center, Boston, MA (United States); Ribeirao Preto School of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo (USP), Department of Biomechanics, Medicine and Rehabilitation of the Locomotor Apparatus, and Department of Internal Medicine, Radiology Division, Ribeirao Preto (Brazil); Institute of Diagnostic Imaging (IDI), Ribeirao Preto (Brazil); Hunter, David J. [The University of Sydney, Sydney School of Medicine, Sydney (Australia); Roemer, Frank W. [Boston University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Quantitative Imaging Center, Boston, MA (United States); Klinikum Augsburg, Department of Radiology, Augsburg (Germany); Li, Ling [New England Baptist Hospital, Division of Research, Boston, MA (United States); Marra, Monica D. [Boston University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Quantitative Imaging Center, Boston, MA (United States); Institute of Diagnostic Imaging (IDI), Ribeirao Preto (Brazil); Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello H. [Ribeirao Preto School of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo (USP), Department of Biomechanics, Medicine and Rehabilitation of the Locomotor Apparatus, and Department of Internal Medicine, Radiology Division, Ribeirao Preto (Brazil); Hellio Le Graverand, Marie-Pierre; Wyman, Bradley T. [Pfizer Global Research and Development, New London, CT (United States); Guermazi, Ali [Boston University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Quantitative Imaging Center, Boston, MA (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Intrasubstance meniscal signal changes not reaching the articular surface on fast spin echo (FSE) sequences are considered to represent mucoid degeneration on MRI. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of prevalent intrasubstance signal changes with incident tears of the medial meniscus detected on 3.0 T MRI over a 1-year period. A total of 161 women aged {>=}40 years participated in a longitudinal 1-year observational study of knee osteoarthritis. MRI (3.0 T) was performed at baseline and 12-month follow-up. The anterior horn, body, and posterior horn of the medial meniscus were scored by two experienced musculoskeletal radiologists using the Boston-Leeds Osteoarthritis Knee Score (BLOKS) system. Four grades were used to describe the meniscal morphology: grade 0 (normal), grade 1 (intrasubstance signal changes not reaching the articular surface), grade 2 (single tears), and grade 3 (complex tears and maceration). Fisher's exact test and the Cochran-Armitage trend test were performed to evaluate whether baseline intrasubstance signal changes (grade 1) predict incident meniscal tears/maceration (grades 2 and/or 3) in the same subregion of the medial meniscus, when compared to subregions without pathology as the reference group (grade 0). Medial meniscal intrasubstance signal changes at baseline did not predict tears at follow-up when evaluating the anterior and posterior horns (left-sided p-values 0.06 and 0.59, respectively). No incident tears were detected in the body. We could not demonstrate an association between prevalent medial meniscal intrasubstance signal changes with incident tears over a 1-year period. (orig.)

  8. Trends in HIV testing, prevalence among first-time testers, and incidence in most-at-risk populations in Spain: the EPI-VIH Study, 2000 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, M; Bleda, M J; Varela, J R; Ordonana, J; Azpiri, M A; Vall, M; Santos, C; Viloria, L; de Armas, C; Urena, J M; Trullen, J; Pueyo, I; Martinez, B; Puerta, T; Vera, M; Sanz, I; Junquera, M L; Landa, M C; Martinez, E; Camara, M M; Belda, J; Bru, F J; Diaz, A

    2014-11-27

    During 2000 to 2009, data on people undergoing HIV testing and on those newly diagnosed with HIV were collected in a network of 20 Spanish clinics specialising in sexually transmitted infections and/or HIV testing and counselling. The number of tests performed, overall and disaggregated by different variables, was obtained. HIV prevalence among first-time testers and HIV incidence among repeat testers were calculated. To evaluate trends, joinpoint regression models were fitted. In total, 236,939 HIV tests were performed for 165,745 individuals. Overall HIV prevalence among persons seeking HIV testing was 2.5% (95% CI: 2.4 to 2.6). Prevalence was highest in male sex workers who had sex with other men (19.0% (95% CI: 16.7 to 21.4)) and was lowest in female sex workers (0.8% (95% CI: 0.7 to 0.9)). Significant trends in prevalence were observed in men who have sex with men (MSM) (increasing) and heterosexual individuals (decreasing). The incidence analysis included 30,679 persons, 64,104 person-years (py) of follow-up and 642 seroconversions. The overall incidence rate (IR) was 1.0/100 py (95% CI: 0.9/100 to 1.1/100). Incidence was significantly higher in men and transgender females than in women (1.8/100 py (95% CI: 1.6 to 1.9), 1.2/100 py (95% CI: 0.5 to 2.8) and 0.1/100 py (95% CI: 0.09 to 0.2) respectively) and increased with age until 35–39 years. IRs in MSM and people who inject drugs were significantly greater than in heterosexual individuals (2.5/100 py (95% CI: 2.3 to 2.7), 1.6/100 py (95% CI: 1.1 to 2.2) and 0.1/100 py (95% CI: 0.09 to 0.2) respectively), and an upward trend was observed in MSM. Our results call for HIV prevention to be reinforced in MSM and transgender women in Spain.

  9. Urinary incontinence 4 and 12 years after first delivery: Risk factors associated with prevalence, incidence, remission, and persistence in a cohort of 236 women

    OpenAIRE

    Pizzoferrato, Anne-Cécile; Fauconnier, Arnaud; Quiboeuf, Emeline; Morel, Karine; Schaal, Jean-Patrick; Fritel, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    International audience; AIMS: Our aim was to study risk factors associated with prevalence, incidence, and remission of UI 4 and 12 years after first delivery. METHODS: Seven hundred seventy-four nulliparous women who gave birth in 1996 in two French maternity units at term received a questionnaire about their urinary symptoms in 2000 and again in 2008. Two hundred thirty-six women returned a questionnaire about UI 4 and 12 years after first delivery. Four groups of women were built: (A) wome...

  10. Low back pain among industrial workers : Occupational health studies on prevalence, incidence, and associations with work and lifestyle in I.R. Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Ghaffari, Mostafa

    2007-01-01

    This thesis presents the results from a prospective industrial population cohort study on epidemiology and risk factors for low back pain (LBP) in Iran. The four papers in the thesis were based on a cross-sectional survey and one-year follow-up of 18,000 employees in the car industry. The main goals of this thesis were: 1) to identify prevalence and incidence of LBP, and 2) to identify work-related exposures and lifestyle factors related to LBP. In paper I, the study gro...

  11. Incidence of tuberculosis meningitis in a high HIV prevalence setting: time-series analysis from 2006 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaya, S; Dangor, Z; Solomon, F; Nzenze, S A; Izu, A; Madhi, S A

    2016-11-01

    This study was undertaken at a tertiary hospital in Soweto, a peri-urban low-middle income setting. Mycobacterium tuberculosis meningitis (TBM) is a severe manifestation of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis. To describe the incidence, mortality and clinical features of TBM in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected and non-infected children in South Africa from 2006 to 2011. A retrospective, cross-sectional descriptive study. Electronic databases and individual patient records of all children with a discharge diagnosis of TBM were reviewed to yield incidence rate ratios (IRR) in HIV-infected and non-infected children. Clinical, laboratory and radiological characteristics were compared between HIV-infected and non-infected children with TBM. Overall TBM incidence per 100 000 population in 2006 was 6.9 (95%CI 4.4-10.3) and 9.8 (95%CI 6.9-13.6) in 2009, but had subsequently declined to 3.1 (95%CI 1.6-5.5) by 2011. There was a significant reduction in the IRR of TBM among HIV-infected children (IRR 0.916, P = 0.036). The overall case fatality ratio was 6.7%. Clinical features, cerebrospinal fluid and computed tomography brain findings were similar in HIV-infected and non-infected children. TBM incidence decreased over the study period from 2006 to 2011, and was temporally associated with an increase in the uptake of antiretroviral treatment in HIV-infected individuals.

  12. The MentDis_ICF65+study protocol: prevalence, 1-year incidence and symptom severity of mental disorders in the elderly and their relationship to impairment, functioning (ICF) and service utilisation

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas, Sylke; Haerter, Martin; Volkert, Jana; Hausberg, Maria; Sehner, Susanne; Wegscheider, Karl; Rabung, Sven; Ausin, Berta; Canuto, Alessandra; Da Ronch, Chiara; Grassi, Luigi; Hershkovitz, Yael; Lelliott, Paul; Munoz, Manuel; Quirk, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Background The EU currently lacks reliable data on the prevalence and incidence of mental disorders in older people. Despite the availability of several national and international epidemiological studies, the size and burden of mental disorders in the elderly remain unclear due to various reasons. Therefore, the aims of the MentDis_ICF65+ study are (1) to adapt existing assessment instruments, and (2) to collect data on the prevalence, the incidence, and the natural course and prognosis of me...

  13. Evidence for the benefits of food chain interventions on E. coli 0157:H7/NM prevalence in retail ground beef and human disease incidence: A success story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollari, Frank; Christidis, Tanya; Pintar, Katarina D M; Nesbitt, Andrea; Farber, Jeff; Lavoie, Marie-Claude; Gill, Alex; Kirsch, Penelope; Johnson, Roger P

    2017-04-20

    Human infection with Escherichia coli O157:H7/NM has historically been associated with consumption of undercooked ground beef. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the correlation of the decline in E. coli O157:H7/NM infections in Canada with the introduction of control efforts in ground beef by industry. The human incidence of E. coli O157:H7/NM, prevalence in ground beef and interventions from 1996 to 2014 were analyzed. Pathogen prevalence data were obtained from federal government and industry surveillance and inspection/compliance programs. A survey of the largest ground beef producers in Canada was conducted to identify when interventions were implemented. The incidence of E. coli O157:H7/NM infections in Canada declined from ∼4 cases/100 000 to ∼1 case/100 000 from 2000 to 2010. Verotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) prevalence in ground beef sold at retail declined from about 30% around the year 2000 to <2% since 2012. Other measures of the prevalence of E. coli, VTEC, and E. coli O157:H7/NM in beef and ground beef also declined. The number and types of interventions implemented in the major beef processing establishments in Canada increased from 1996 to 2016. The observed decline in human illnesses and pathogen levels in relation to retail meats was associated with the introduction of control efforts by industry, federal and provincial/territorial governments, and the general population. Industry-led changes in beef processing along with the introduction of food safety policies, regulations, and public education have led to improved food safety in Canada.

  14. Estimated prevalence and incidence of diagnosed ADHD and health care utilization in adults in Sweden – a longitudinal population-based register study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyzoi M

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Maria Polyzoi,1 Ewa Ahnemark,2 Emma Medin,1,3 Ylva Ginsberg4,5 1PAREXEL International, Stockholm, Sweden; 2Medical Affairs Department, Shire Sweden AB, Stockholm, Sweden; 3Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 4Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 5Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Centre for Psychiatric Research, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden Background: Although the worldwide prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in adults is estimated to be between 2% and 5%, it is considered to be underdiagnosed. This register study explored the prevalence of diagnosed ADHD and incidence of newly diagnosed ADHD in Swedish adults over time, and assessed comorbidities and pharmacologic treatment. Methods: National Patient Register data were used to estimate the overall prevalence of adults (≥18 years with a registered ADHD diagnosis from 2006 to 2011, and the incidence of newly registered diagnoses from 2007 to 2011. Data from the Prescribed Drug Register were used to estimate the mean dose of the most frequently prescribed ADHD medication. Results: The estimated annual prevalence (N=44,364 of diagnosed ADHD increased from 0.58 per 1,000 persons in 2006 to 3.54 per 1,000 persons in 2011. The estimated annual incidence of newly diagnosed ADHD (N=24,921 increased from 0.39 per 1,000 persons to 0.90 per 1,000 persons between 2007 and 2011. At least one comorbidity was diagnosed in 52.6% of adults with ADHD (54.0% of newly diagnosed adults, with anxiety, substance use disorders, and depression being the most common. Among all adults with ADHD, 78.9% (65.7% of newly diagnosed adults were prescribed ADHD medication and one-third were prescribed more than one add-on medication. Osmotic release oral system methylphenidate was the most commonly used medication. The mean daily dose was 51.5 mg, and was

  15. The effect of urban street gang densities on small area homicide incidence in a large metropolitan county, 1994-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Paul L; Boscardin, W John; George, Sheba M; Teklehaimanot, Senait; Heslin, Kevin C; Bluthenthal, Ricky N

    2009-07-01

    The presence of street gangs has been hypothesized as influencing overall levels of violence in urban communities through a process of gun-drug diffusion and cross-type homicide. This effect is said to act independently of other known correlates of violence, i.e., neighborhood poverty. To test this hypothesis, we independently assessed the impact of population exposure to local street gang densities on 8-year homicide rates in small areas of Los Angeles County, California. Homicide data from the Los Angeles County Coroners Office were analyzed with original field survey data on street gang locations, while controlling for the established covariates of community homicide rates. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses explicated strong relationships between homicide rates, gang density, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic structure. Street gang densities alone had cumulative effects on small area homicide rates. Local gang densities, along with high school dropout rates, high unemployment rates, racial and ethnic concentration, and higher population densities, together explained 90% of the variation in local 8-year homicide rates. Several other commonly considered covariates were insignificant in the model. Urban environments with higher densities of street gangs exhibited higher overall homicide rates, independent of other community covariates of homicide. The unique nature of street gang killings and their greater potential to influence future local rates of violence suggests that more direct public health interventions are needed alongside traditional criminal justice mechanisms to combat urban violence and homicides.

  16. Prevalence, incidence and determinants of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection among HIV-seronegative women at high-risk of HIV infection: a prospective study in Beira, Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meque, Ivete; Dubé, Karine; Feldblum, Paul J.; Clements, Archie C. A.; Zango, Arlinda; Cumbe, Fidelina; Chen, Pai Lien; Ferro, Josefo J.; van de Wijgert, Janneke H.

    2014-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence, incidence and determinants of herpes simplex type 2 (HSV-2) infection, and associations between HSV-2 and incident HIV infection, among women at higher risk for HIV infection in Beira, Mozambique. Between 2009 and 2012, 411 women aged 18-35 years at higher risk of HIV

  17. Prevalence and incidence of toxoplasmosis: a retrospective analysis of mother-child examinations, Styria, Austria, 1995 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghold, Christian; Herzog, Sereina Annik; Jakse, Heidelinde; Berghold, Andrea

    2016-08-18

    In Austria, mandatory screening for the prevention of congenital toxoplasmosis stipulates a serological test for antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii as early as possible in pregnancy. In the case of a seronegative result, subsequent tests at intervals of 8 weeks are requested. We analysed serological data from Styria, an Austrian federal state, to determine the seroprevalence and incidence of Toxoplasma infections. The study included 353,599 tests from 103,316 women during 158,571 pregnancies from 1995 to 2012. The age-adjusted seroprevalence decreased from 43.3% in 1995 to 31.5% in 2012, with a yearly decline of 0.84% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0. 79 -0.88). The intergravid incidence showed an annual decrease of 4.2%. The average yearly incidence of intragravid and intergravid seroconversions was 0.52% (95% CI 0.45-0.61) and 0.72% (95% CI 0.67-0.77), respectively. If the difference between these rates (p < 0.001) can be explained by the effect of primary prevention such as avoiding raw meat and taking hygiene precautions when encountering cats or preparing vegetables, only ca two of seven (28%) infections were avoided by hygiene measures taken by pregnant women. Primary prevention may therefore have its limits. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2016.

  18. The Global Contribution of Outdoor Air Pollution to the Incidence, Prevalence, Mortality and Hospital Admission for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qingkun; Christiani, David C.; Wang, Xiaorong; Ren, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to investigate the quantitative effects of outdoor air pollution, represented by 10 µg/m3 increment of PM10, on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in China, United States and European Union through systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods: Publications in English and Chinese from PubMed and EMBASE were selected. The Cochrane Review Handbook of Generic Inverse Variance was used to synthesize the pooled effects on incidence, prevalence, mortality and hospital admission. Results: Outdoor air pollution contributed to higher incidence and prevalence of COPD. Short-term exposure was associated with COPD mortality increased by 6%, 1% and 1% in the European Union, the United States and China, respectively (p < 0.05). Chronic PM exposure produced a 10% increase in mortality. In a short-term exposure to 10 µg/m3 PM10 increment COPD mortality was elevated by 1% in China (p < 0.05) and hospital admission enrollment was increased by 1% in China, 2% in United States and 1% in European Union (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Outdoor air pollution contributes to the increasing burdens of COPD.10 µg/m3 increase of PM10 produced significant condition of COPD death and exacerbation in China, United States and European Union. Controlling air pollution will have substantial benefit to COPD morbidity and mortality. PMID:25405599

  19. A scoping review of prevalence, incidence and risk factors for HIV infection amongst young people in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Saffier, I. P.; Kawa, H.; Harling, G.

    2017-01-01

    Background Despite young people being a key population for HIV prevention, the HIV epidemic amongst young Brazilians is perceived to be growing. We therefore reviewed all published literature on HIV prevalence and risk factors for HIV infection amongst 10-25 year olds in Brazil. Methods We searched Embase, LILACS, Proquest, PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science for studies published up to March 2017 and analyzed reference lists of relevant studies. We included published stud...

  20. Urinary incontinence 4 and 12 years after first delivery: risk factors associated with prevalence, incidence, remission, and persistence in a cohort of 236 women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzoferrato, Anne-Cécile; Fauconnier, Arnaud; Quiboeuf, Emeline; Morel, Karine; Schaal, Jean-Patrick; Fritel, Xavier

    2014-11-01

    Our aim was to study risk factors associated with prevalence, incidence, and remission of UI 4 and 12 years after first delivery. Seven hundred seventy-four nulliparous women who gave birth in 1996 in two French maternity units at term received a questionnaire about their urinary symptoms in 2000 and again in 2008. Two hundred thirty-six women returned a questionnaire about UI 4 and 12 years after first delivery. Four groups of women were built: (A) women continent 4 and 12 years after first delivery; (B) women continent at 4 and incontinent at 12 years; (C) women incontinent at 4 and continent at 12 years; and (D) women incontinent at 4 and 12 years. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to determine risk factors of UI prevalence (groups B + D vs. A + C), incidence (B vs. A), remission (C vs. D), and onset of UI (D vs. Factors associated with UI 12 years after first pregnancy were: BMI (OR = 1.17 [95%CI: 1.04-1.32], by 1 kg/m(2) ) and increasing BMI (1.43 [1.19-1.73]), first child's weight (1.08 [1.001-1.16], by 100 g) and UI during first pregnancy (3.77 [1.83-7.76]). Factors associated with UI incidence were age at first delivery (0.86 [0.75-0.98]) and high BMI (1.24 [1.05-1.45]). Increasing BMI, UI during first pregnancy, and heavy first child reduce the likelihood of UI remission (0.37 [0.20-0.68], 0.11 [0.02-0.63], and 0.73[0.59-0.91], respectively). UI during first pregnancy could be indicative of individual susceptibility to UI. Obesity appears to be a modifiable factor for remission of UI in women. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Seasonality and shift in age-specific malaria prevalence and incidence in Binko and Carrière villages close to the lake in Selingué, Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touré, Mahamoudou; Sanogo, Daouda; Dembele, Soumaila; Diawara, Sory Ibrahima; Oppfeldt, Karen; Schiøler, Karin L; Haidara, Dade Ben; Traoré, Sékou F; Alifrangis, Michael; Konradsen, Flemming; Doumbia, Seydou

    2016-04-18

    Malaria transmission in Mali is seasonal and peaks at the end of the rainy season in October. This study assessed the seasonal variations in the epidemiology of malaria among children under 10 years of age living in two villages in Selingué: Carrière, located along the Sankarani River but distant from the hydroelectric dam, and Binko, near irrigated rice fields, close to the dam. The aim of this study was to provide baseline data, seasonal pattern and age distribution of malaria incidence in two sites situated close to a lake in Selingué. Geographically, Selingué area is located in the basin of Sakanrani and belongs to the district of Yanfolila in the third administrative region of Mali, Sikasso. Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted in October 2010 (end of transmission season) and in July 2011 (beginning of transmission season) to determine the point prevalence of asymptomatic parasitaemia, and anaemia among the children. Cumulative incidence of malaria per month was determined in a cohort of 549 children through active and passive case detection from November 2010 through October 2011. The number of clinical episodes per year was determined among the children in the cohort. Logistic regression was used to determine risk factors for malaria. The prevalence of malaria parasitaemia varied significantly between villages with a strong seasonality in Carrière (52.0-18.9 % in October 2010 and July 2011, respectively) compared with Binko (29.8-23.8 % in October 2010 and July 2011, respectively). Children 6-9 years old were at least twice more likely to carry parasites than children up to 5 years old. For malaria incidence, 64.8-71.9 % of all children experienced at least one episode of clinical malaria in Binko and Carrière, respectively. The peak incidence was observed between August and October (end of the rainy season), but the incidence remained high until December. Surprisingly, the risk of clinical malaria was two- to nine-fold higher among

  2. Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder: a systematic review of prevalence and incidence rates, risk factors, and targeted interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Marta; Galling, Britta; Correll, Christoph U

    2013-01-01

    Objective Pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) is associated with poor outcomes, including suicidal ideation (SI) and suicide attempt (SA). However, frequencies and risk factors of SI/SA and targeted intervention trials for SI/SA in PBD have not been reviewed systematically. Methods We conducted a systematic PubMed review, searching for articles reporting on prevalences/incidences, correlates and intervention studies targeting SI/SA in PBD. Weighted means were calculated, followed by an exploratory meta-regression of SI and SA correlates. Results Fourteen studies (n = 1,595) with 52.1% males aged 14.4 years reported data on SI/SA prevalence (N = 13, n = 1,508) and/or correlates (N = 10, n = 1,348) in PBD. Weighted mean prevalences were: past SI = 57.4%, past SA = 21.3%, current SI = 50.4%, and current SA = 25.5%; incidences (mean: 42 months follow-up were: SI = 14.6% and SA = 14.7%. Regarding significant correlates, SI (N = 3) was associated with a higher percentage of Caucasian race, narrow (as opposed to broad) PBD phenotype, younger age, and higher quality of life than SA. Significant correlates of SA (N = 10) included female gender, older age, earlier illness onset, more severe/episodic PBD, mixed episodes, comorbid disorders, past self-injurious behavior/SI/SA, physical/sexual abuse, parental depression, family history of suicidality, and poor family functioning. Race, socioeconomic status, living situation, and life events were not clearly associated with SA. In a meta-regression analysis, bipolar I disorder and comorbid attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder were significantly associated with SA. Only one open label study targeting the reduction of SI/SA in PBD was identified. Conclusions SI and SA are highly common but under-investigated in PBD. Exploration of predictors and protective factors is imperative for the establishment of effective preventive and intervention strategies, which are urgently needed. PMID:23829436

  3. Prevalence of syphilis and HIV infection during pregnancy in incarcerated women and the incidence of congenital syphilis in births in prison in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Rosa Maria Soares Madeira; Leal, Maria do Carmo; Pereira, Ana Paula Esteves; Ayres, Barbara; Sánchez, Alexandra Roma; Larouzé, Bernard

    2017-11-21

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of syphilis and HIV infection during pregnancy, the mother to child transmission of syphilis and the incidence of congenital syphilis in incarcerated women in Brazil; to compare these rates to those observed in pregnant women outside of jail; and to verify the maternal factors associated with syphilis infection during pregnancy in free and incarcerated women. We used data from two nationwide studies conducted during the period 2011-2014. The Birth in Brazil study included 23,894 free women cared for in 266 hospitals. The Maternal and Infant Health in Prisons study included 495 incarcerated pregnant women or mothers living with their children, according to a census conducted in 33 female prisons. The same case definitions and data collection methods were used in both studies. The chi-square test was used to compare the characteristics of incarcerated and free women with a significance of 0.05. For incarcerated women, the estimated prevalence of syphilis during pregnancy was 8.7% (95%CI: 5.7-13.1) and for HIV infection 3.3% (95%CI: 1.7-6.6); the estimated mother to child transmission of syphilis was 66.7% (95%CI: 44.7-83.2) and the incidence of congenital syphilis was 58.1 per 1,000 living newborns (95%CI: 40.4-82.8). Incarcerated women had a greater prevalence of syphilis and HIV infection during pregnancy, lower quality of antenatal care and higher levels of social vulnerability. Syphilis infection showed to be an indicator of social vulnerability in free women, but not in incarcerated women. Health initiatives in prison are necessary to reduce healthcare inequalities and should include adequate antenatal and birth care.

  4. Prevalence of syphilis and HIV infection during pregnancy in incarcerated women and the incidence of congenital syphilis in births in prison in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Maria Soares Madeira Domingues

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of syphilis and HIV infection during pregnancy, the mother to child transmission of syphilis and the incidence of congenital syphilis in incarcerated women in Brazil; to compare these rates to those observed in pregnant women outside of jail; and to verify the maternal factors associated with syphilis infection during pregnancy in free and incarcerated women. We used data from two nationwide studies conducted during the period 2011-2014. The Birth in Brazil study included 23,894 free women cared for in 266 hospitals. The Maternal and Infant Health in Prisons study included 495 incarcerated pregnant women or mothers living with their children, according to a census conducted in 33 female prisons. The same case definitions and data collection methods were used in both studies. The chi-square test was used to compare the characteristics of incarcerated and free women with a significance of 0.05. For incarcerated women, the estimated prevalence of syphilis during pregnancy was 8.7% (95%CI: 5.7-13.1 and for HIV infection 3.3% (95%CI: 1.7-6.6; the estimated mother to child transmission of syphilis was 66.7% (95%CI: 44.7-83.2 and the incidence of congenital syphilis was 58.1 per 1,000 living newborns (95%CI: 40.4-82.8. Incarcerated women had a greater prevalence of syphilis and HIV infection during pregnancy, lower quality of antenatal care and higher levels of social vulnerability. Syphilis infection showed to be an indicator of social vulnerability in free women, but not in incarcerated women. Health initiatives in prison are necessary to reduce healthcare inequalities and should include adequate antenatal and birth care.

  5. Effect of house type on growth performance, litter quality and incidence of foot lesions in broiler chickens reared in varying stocking density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danial Farhadi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of different stocking density on broiler performance two repeated experiments were conducted in a conventional and an environmentally controlled house using a total of 10,232 broiler chickens. In each experiment, a total of 5,116 one-day old Ross 308 broiler chickens were randomly distributed to 16 floor pens arranged within each house at density of 16, 18, 20 or 22 birds/m2. Results showed that the broiler chickens grown in environmentally controlled house had greater (p<0.05 weight gain, kg body weight (BW/m2, production efficiency index (PEI and spleen relative weight at day 42 and also had lower (p<0.05 feed conversion ratio and mortality rate during 21 to 42 and 1 to 42 days of age than those reared in conventional house. Weight gain, feed intake and PEI decreased (p<0.05 and kg BW/m2 and carcass yield increased (p<0.05, when broiler density increased more than 20 birds/m2. House type and stocking density had no effect on relative weights of liver, abdominal fat, bursa of Fabricius, and litter pH and ammonia emission. However, higher litter moisture in conventional house led to a greater (p<0.05 incidence of foot pad lesions and hock burns, which intensified with increased density. In conclusion, broiler chickens reared in environmentally controlled house had superior performance, higher liability, and lower litter moisture content and foot lesions. Moreover, broiler rearing at the density of 22 birds/m2 adversely affected growth performance and foot quality, despite the greater kg BW/m2 compared to broilers grown at lower densities.

  6. A scoping review of prevalence, incidence and risk factors for HIV infection amongst young people in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Saffier, Igor Pedrosa; Kawa, Hélia; Harling, Guy

    2017-01-01

    Background Despite young people being a key population for HIV prevention, the HIV epidemic amongst young Brazilians is perceived to be growing. We therefore reviewed all published literature on HIV prevalence and risk factors for HIV infection amongst 10-25 year olds in Brazil. Methods We searched Embase, LILACS, Proquest, PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science for studies published up to March 2017 and analyzed reference lists of relevant studies. We included published studies from any...

  7. Triglyceride-to-high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol ratio is an index of heart disease mortality and of incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Gloria Lena; Barlow, Carolyn E; Grundy, Scott M; Leonard, David; DeFina, Laura F

    2014-02-01

    High triglyceride (TG) and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) impart risk for heart disease. This study examines the relationships of TG/HDL-C ratio to mortality from all causes, coronary heart disease (CHD), or cardiovascular disease (CVD). Survival analysis was done in 39,447 men grouped by TG/HDL-C ratio cut point of 3.5 and for metabolic syndrome. National Death Index International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9 and ICD-10) codes were used for CVD and CHD deaths occurring from 1970 to 2008. Incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) according to ratio was estimated in 22,215 men. Triglyceride/HDL-C ratio and cross-product of TG and fasting blood glucose (TyG index) were used in analysis. Men were followed up for 581,194 person-years. Triglyceride/HDL-C ratio predicted CHD, CVD, and all-cause mortality after adjustment for established risk factors and non-HDL-C. Mortality rates were higher in individuals with a high ratio than in those with a low ratio. Fifty-five percent of men had metabolic syndrome that was also predictive of CHD, CVD, and all-cause mortality. Annual incidence of DM was 2 times higher in men with high TG/HDL-C ratio than in those with a low ratio. Individuals with high TG/HDL-C ratio had a higher incidence of DM than those with a low ratio. The TyG index was not equally predictive of causes of mortality to TG/HDL-C, but both were equally predictive of diabetes incidence. Triglyceride/HDL-C ratio predicts CHD and CVD mortality as well as or better than do metabolic syndrome in men. Also, a high ratio predisposes to DM. The TyG index does not predict CHD, CVD, or all-cause mortality equally well, but like TG/HDL-C ratio, it predicts DM incidence.

  8. Normal incidence spectrophotometer using high density transmission grating technology and highly efficiency silicon photodiodes for absolute solar EUV irradiance measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, H. S.; Mcmullin, D.; Judge, D. L.; Korde, R.

    1992-01-01

    New developments in transmission grating and photodiode technology now make it possible to realize spectrometers in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral region (wavelengths less than 1000 A) which are expected to be virtually constant in their diffraction and detector properties. Time dependent effects associated with reflection gratings are eliminated through the use of free standing transmission gratings. These gratings together with recently developed and highly stable EUV photodiodes have been utilized to construct a highly stable normal incidence spectrophotometer to monitor the variability and absolute intensity of the solar 304 A line. Owing to its low weight and compactness, such a spectrometer will be a valuable tool for providing absolute solar irradiance throughout the EUV. This novel instrument will also be useful for cross-calibrating other EUV flight instruments and will be flown on a series of Hitchhiker Shuttle Flights and on SOHO. A preliminary version of this instrument has been fabricated and characterized, and the results are described.

  9. Human immunodeficiency virus prevalence, incidence, and residual transmission risk in first-time and repeat blood donations in Zimbabwe: implications on blood safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapako, Tonderai; Mvere, David A; Chitiyo, McLeod E; Rusakaniko, Simbarashe; Postma, Maarten J; van Hulst, Marinus

    2013-10-01

    National Blood Service Zimbabwe human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk management strategy includes screening and discarding of first-time donations, which are collected in blood packs without an anticoagulant (dry pack). To evaluate the impact of discarding first-time donations on blood safety the HIV prevalence, incidence, and residual risk in first-time and repeat donations (wet packs) were compared. Donor data from 2002 to 2010 were retrieved from a centralized national electronic donor database and retrospectively analyzed. Chi-square test was used to compare HIV prevalence with relative risk (RR), and the RR point estimates and 95% confidence interval (CI) are reported. Trend analysis was done using Cochran-Armitage trend test. HIV residual risk estimates were determined using published residual risk estimation models. Over the 9 years the overall HIV prevalence estimates are 1.29% (n = 116,058) and 0.42% (n = 434,695) for first-time and repeat donations, respectively. The overall RR was 3.1 (95% CI, 2.9-3.3; p donations in first-time was 1:7384 (range, 1:11,308-1:5356) and in repeat donors it was 1:5496 (range, 1:9943-1:3347). The significantly high HIV prevalence estimates recorded in first-time over repeat donations is indicative of the effectiveness of the HIV risk management strategy. However, comparable residual transmission risk estimates in first-time and repeat donors point to the need to further review the risk management strategies. Given the potential wastage of valuable resources, future studies should focus on the cost-effectiveness and utility of screening and discarding first-time donations. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  10. Mapping Prevalence and Incidence of Coral Disease in reef-building corals at two Natural Reserves of the Southwest Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez Viruet, I.; Irizarry-Soto, E.; Ruiz-Valentín, I.

    2016-02-01

    Coral diseases seems to be the main cause of coral reef decline in the Caribbean. Before the bleaching event of 2005, coral reefs in Puerto Rico were dominated by the reef-building taxa: Orbicella annularis, Porites astreoides, Montastrea cavernosa, Agaricia agaracites and Colpophyllia natans. After the event, live-coral cover significantly declined and more than 90% of the scleractinian corals in the U.S. Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico showed signals of thermal stressors. The prevalence of coral diseases in five reef-building coral (Orbicella annularis, Orbicella franksi, Orbicella faveolata, Porites porites and Pseudiploria strigosa) species was assessed by tagging, photographing, and mapping all diseased and healthy colonies within 10 permanent 40m2 band transects at each inshore and mid-shelf reefs of Belvedere and Punta Guaniquilla Natural Reserves using a random stratified sampling method. Maximum and perpendicular diameter was used to assess coral size using Coral Point Count with Excel Extension. Corals were classified into three size class populations (class I: 0-50cm, class II: 50-100cm and class III: >100 cm). Data was used to develop a GIS-based map containing coral species, size and disease presence. Preliminary results of the inshore area showed a higher disease prevalence in Belvedere natural reserve and for P. strigosa (17.1%) and O. annularis (9.3%). Frequency distribution analysis showed a dominance of O. faveolata at Punta Guaniquilla and Belvedere (127 and 88 individuals respectively). Size class I dominates the distribution of each species within the natural reserves with a higher disease prevalence. Future work include continue prevalence surveys of the outer reef shelf on both natural reserves, monitoring and GIS-based mapping of incidence and resilience through time. This study will help in the assessment of the status of the coral reef of the southwest insular platform.

  11. Increasing Incidence and Prevalence of World Health Organization Groups 1 to 4 Pulmonary Hypertension: A Population-Based Cohort Study in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijeratne, D Thiwanka; Lajkosz, Katherine; Brogly, Susan B; Lougheed, M Diane; Jiang, Li; Housin, Ahmad; Barber, David; Johnson, Ana; Doliszny, Katharine M; Archer, Stephen L

    2018-02-01

    The World Health Organization recognizes 5 groups of pulmonary hypertension (PH), categorized by pathogenesis or comorbidity: 1-pulmonary arterial hypertension 2-left-heart disease, 3-lung disease and hypoxia 4-chronic thromboembolic disease, and 5-miscellaneous. The epidemiology of PH, apart from group 1, is largely unknown. We describe incidence, prevalence, comorbidities, mortality and prescribing patterns for groups 1 to 4 PH from 1993 to 2012. Case definitions are based on hospitalizations and emergency department visits, using the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences data, which comprises linked databases of universal coverage health service records for Ontario residents. This cohort included 50 529 patients with PH. The annual incidence of adult PH increased from 2003 to 2012 from 24.1 to 28.7 cases/100 000 population and the annual prevalence from 1993 to 2012 from 99.8 to 127.3 cases/100 000 population, respectively. The most common form of adult PH was group 2, alone (34.2%) or combined with group 3 PH (29.3%). A diagnosis of PH increased the 1-year standardized mortality ratio 7.2-fold. Mortality in adults with PH was 13.0%, 36.4%, and 62.4%, at 30 days, 1 year, and 5 years, respectively. Mortality was highest in groups 2 and 3 and lowest in group 1. PH was present in only 3.6% of people with left heart disease, 0.7% with lung disease, and 1.4% with thromboembolic disease, suggesting that PH is a relatively rare complication of these common diseases. Children (age<16 years) accounted for 3.6% of the cohort. In children group 1 PH was most common (65.2%), and 5-year mortality was lower (21.4%) than in adults. Group 1-specific PH therapies were increasingly prescribed over time and paradoxically were often used in patients who seemed to have group 2, PH based on diagnostic codes indicating left heart disease. The incidence and prevalence of adult PH are increasing. Groups 2 and 3 are the most common and lethal forms of PH. This study identifies an

  12. Implant planning on NobelClinician software‎ : incidence of bone density on the implants orientation for completely edentulous maxillae

    OpenAIRE

    Vankelst, Maëva

    2016-01-01

    The Purpose of this study wasto compare bone density in straight and tilted implants using the software NobelClinician on fifteen maxillary edentulous. For each patient, two schedules were created on NobelClinician: a first plan of 6 implants placed axially and a second plan where the last implant of each sector was tilted of 30 ° from the occlusal plane. The laying of the first four implants being common to both plans.The study was performed on DICOM files coming from the CBCT’s of 15 patien...

  13. Prevalence of lactose intolerance and its relation with bone mineral density among Malay students of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahya, Noor Fairuzi Suhana; Daud, Norlida Mat; Makbul, Ika Aida Aprilini; Aziz, Qurratul Aini Salma Abdul

    2016-11-01

    Lactose intolerance (LI), a risk factor for low bone mineral density (BMD), is the most common type of carbohydrate intolerance, which predominantly affects Southeast Asian populations. However, data on the prevalence of LI and its association with BMD among Malaysian adults are still lacking as not much research has been done on this matter. Thus, the aims of this study are to determine the prevalence of LI and to evaluate its association with BMD among students of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. A total of 100 Malay students (50 males and 50 females) with mean age of 23.9 ± 4.7 years old and body mass index of 24.5 ± 5.8 kg/m2 were selected to involve in this preliminary study. After an overnight fast, subjects were asked to perform hydrogen breath test (HBT) and lactose tolerance test (LTT) after an intake of 300 ml lactose drink (50g lactose). HBT measurements were recorded at every 30 minutes intervals while LTT results were recorded at fasting and 30 minutes after lactose consumption. Visual analogue scales were used to measure gastrointestinal symptoms. BMD was measured at calcaneus bone using quantitative ultrasound and expressed as T-score. A consistent rise by >20 ppm for HBT and failure of blood sugar to rise by >1.10 mmol/L above basal level were considered as abnormal HBT and LTT. Lactose malabsorption (LM) is defined by abnormal HBT and LTT whilst LI is characterized by having abnormal HBT, LTT and gastrointestinal symptoms. The result showed that 86% male and 90% female subjects exhaled breath hydrogen >20 ppm but there was no significant difference (p>0.05) between them. LTT results showed that 86% male subjects failed to rise their blood sugar level >1.10 mmol/L compared to 60% in female subjects. Both male and female subjects had high percentage occurrence of gastrointestinal symptom (82 % and 80% respectively) although no significant difference (p>0.05) was demonstrated. The prevalence of LI and LM among all subjects was 77% and 18

  14. Mastitis in dairy buffalo and cattle in Egypt due to Clostridium perfringens: prevalence, incidence, risk factors and costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, K M; El-Enbaawy, M I; Ezzeldeen, N A; Hussein, H M G

    2009-12-01

    Although Clostridium perfringens is recognised as an important cause of clostridial enteric diseases, there is only limited knowledge about the association of particular C. perfringens toxinotypes (types A to E) with mastitis in domestic animals. In this study, mastitis was detected in 213/623 (34.12%) and 8/83 (9.64%) of the quarter milk samples collected from cases of clinical mastitis in cows and buffalo, respectively. The micro-organism was isolated in an incidence of 16/357 (4.48%) of milk samples from cows and 1/25 (4.0%) of samples from buffalo. Infection in one quarter was the most typical situation found (83% in cows and 87% in buffalo). Clostridium perfringens infection was also correlated to the season, with the highest proportion of isolates being found during spring (10.71%) and winter (7.07%). Using the classical toxin neutralisation typing method, 17 strains, isolated from cow and buffalo milk, were identified as C. perfringens type A, and selected for molecular analysis. Polymerase chain reaction detected the oecpa gene while the P/cpb and e/etx genes went undetected. The authors believe that C. perfringens has the potential to produce disease on its own or to predispose the udder to disease caused by major mastitis and environmental pathogens.

  15. Prevalence and incidence of mental health problems among Dutch medical students and the study-related and personal risk factors: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borst, Jorien M; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W; Sluiter, Judith K

    2016-11-01

    A high prevalence of mental health problems (i.e. depression and/or anxiety) has been found in medical students in comparison with the general population. Therefore, the objective was first to study the prevalence and 1-year incidence of symptoms of depression, anxiety and any mental health problems among Dutch medical students and, second, to study which study-related and personal factors present a risk of these mental health problems. A 1-year prospective longitudinal study was performed among medical students of two medical faculties in the Netherlands (n=951). Health problems and study-related and personal factors were measured with an online questionnaire. Mental health problems were assessed by depression and/or anxiety symptoms (BSI-DEP and BSI-ANG). Univariate and multivariate hierarchical logistic regression analyses were performed to examine which of the study-related and personal factors predict mental health problems. At follow-up, 36%, 28% and 48% of the medical students reported symptoms of depression, anxiety and mental health problems, respectively. The incidence between 2010 and 2011 for depression was 20%, 17% for anxiety and 25% for mental health problems. Students who are worried about their own health during medical education are at an increased risk of future mental health problems (OR 2.0 [1.3-2.9], p=0.00). Excessive drinking behavior is a protective factor in this study (OR 0.7 [0.5-0.9], p=0.02). This study shows that only two out of nine factors are significantly associated with mental health problems among Dutch medical students, one risk factor and one protective factor.

  16. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: Prevalence, incidence, risk factors, and effects on survival of patients in a specialist palliative care unit: A prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, Aoife; Larkin, Philip; Walsh, Cathal; O'Sullivan, Niamh

    2016-04-01

    Little is known about the impact of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in palliative care settings. To date, the clinical impact of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in palliative care is unknown. To determine prevalence and incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonisation in a specialist palliative care setting, to identify risk factors for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonisation, to determine the eradication success rate and to determine the impact of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus on survival. Prospective cohort study. Data were collected for consecutive admissions to an inpatient palliative care service. Patients were screened for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonisation on admission and 1 week post admission. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus eradication was attempted in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus positive patients. Data were collected from 609 admissions for 466 individual patients. Admission screening data were available in 95.5%. Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonisation was 11.59% (54 patients). One week incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonisation was 1.2%. Risk factors for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonisation were determined using Chi-Squared test and included high Waterlow score (p resistant Staphylococcus aureus status prior to admission (p resistant Staphylococcus aureus was eradicated in 8.1% of admissions, while 46 patients commenced on the protocol (62.2%) died before completing it. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus did not significantly impact survival but was significantly associated with having infection episodes and longer length of stay. This study identified risk factors for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonisation in palliative care patients. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was eradicated in 8.1% of patients. Hence

  17. Renal function, cardiovascular disease risk factors' prevalence and 5-year disease incidence; the role of diet, exercise, lipids and inflammation markers: the ATTICA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysohoou, C; Panagiotakos, D B; Pitsavos, C; Skoumas, J; Toutouza, M; Papaioannou, I; Stefanadis, C

    2010-06-01

    We aimed to evaluate the association between renal function and various cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, as well as 5-year incidence of CVD, in a sample of CVD free adults. (i) Cross-sectional information from n = 1975. Greek men and women (>18 years) without CVD and hypertension at baseline examination and (ii) 5-year (2001-06) survival data from n = 2101 individuals without CVD at baseline, all participants in the ATTICA study, were analysed in this work. Kidney function was quantified by the baseline estimated creatinine clearance rate (C(cr)), using the Cockcroft-Gault formula and the National Kidney Foundation recommendations. Outcome of interest was the development of CVD that was defined according to WHO-ICD-10 criteria. At baseline, the prevalence of moderate-to-severe renal dysfunction (i.e. C(cr) smoking, hypercholesterolemia and homocysteine levels and greater adherence to the Mediterranean diet were inversely associated with C(cr) rate (P smoking habits (0.89, 0.60-1.32) and physical activity status (0.86, 0.56-1.21). Renal function seems to be associated with the levels of lifestyle and bio-clinical CVD risk factors and contribute to the long-term incidence of cardiac events. Public health care practitioners should take into account renal function in better preventing the burden of CVD at individual, and population level, as well.

  18. Seasonal prevalence and incidence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis and associated diarrhoea in children attending pre-schools in Kafue, Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwila, J.; Phiri, I.G.K.; Enemark, Heidi L.

    2011-01-01

    Prevalence, incidence and seasonal variation of Cryptosporidium and Giardia duodenalis were studied over a 12-month period in 100 children from four pre-schools in Kafue, Zambia. Questionnaire data and a single stool sample were collected monthly from each child. Samples were processed using...... a commercial kit (Meridian Diagnostics Inc., USA) and oo(cysts) visualised by immunofluorescence microscopy. Cryptosporidium was detected in 30.7% (241/786; 95% CI = 27.5-33.9) while G. duodenalis was detected in 29.0% (228/786; 95% CI = 25.8-32.2). A total of 86% experienced one or more episodes...... of cryptosporidiosis while 75% had giardiasis. Cumulative incidence per 100 children was 75.4 for Cryptosporidium and 49.0 for G. duodenalis. Both infections were significantly more common in the wet compared to the dry season (34.8%, 162/466 vs. 24.7%, 79/320, P = 0.003 and 35.2%, 164/466 vs. 20.0%, 64/320, P

  19. High prevalence and incidence of HPV-related anal cancer precursor lesions in HIV-positive women in the late HAART era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo-Tenorio, Carmen; de Jesus, Samantha E; Esquivias, Javier; Pasquau, Juan

    2017-12-02

    Anal cancer is one of the most common non-AIDS defining malignancies, especially in men who have sex with men and women living with HIV (WLHIV). To evaluate the prevalence and incidence of precursor lesions (high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions [HSIL]) and anal cancer in our cohort of women and to compare them to cervical lesions; to calculate the percentage of patients that acquire and clear oncogenic genotypes (HR-HPV) in the anal canal; and to determine predictive factors for anal HPV infection. Prospective-longitudinal study (May 2012-December 2016). At baseline (V1) and follow up visits, anal mucosa samples were taken in liquid medium for cytology and HPV PCR. In cases of abnormal anal cytology and/or positive HR-HPV PCR results, a high resolution anoscopy was performed. Patients were also referred to the gynaecologist. Ninety five women with an average age of 43.7years were included. At baseline, 11.6% had cervical abnormalities (4.1% CIN1, 2.2% CIN2/3, 1.1% cervical cancer), 64.3% anal abnormalities (50% LSIL/AIN1, 9.5% HSIL/AIN2/3 and 2.4% anal cancer) and 49.4% had HR-HPV genotypes. During 36months of follow up, the incidence of anal HSIL was 16×1,000 person-years; 14.8% acquired HR-HPV genotypes and 51.2% cleared them, P=.007. No patients presented CIN1/2/3/ or cervical cancer. In the multivariate analysis we found the following predictive factors for HR-HPV infection: smoking (RR: 1.55, 95%CI: 0.99-2.42), number of sexual partners >3 (RR: 1.69; 95%CI: 1.09-2.62), cervical and anal dysplasia (RR: 1.83; 95%CI: 1.26-2.67) and (RR: 1.55; 95%CI: 1.021-2.35), respectively. Despite clearance rates of anal oncogenic genotypes being higher than acquisition rates, prevalence and incidence of HSIL were still high and greater than cervical HSIL. Therefore, screening for these lesions should perhaps be offered to all WLHIV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights

  20. Si Nanoribbons on Ag(110) Studied by Grazing-Incidence X-Ray Diffraction, Scanning Tunneling Microscopy, and Density-Functional Theory: Evidence of a Pentamer Chain Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prévot, Geoffroy; Hogan, Conor; Leoni, Thomas; Bernard, Romain; Moyen, Eric; Masson, Laurence

    2016-12-30

    We report a combined grazing incidence x-ray diffraction (GIXD), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), and density-functional theory (DFT) study which clearly elucidates the atomic structure of the Si nanoribbons grown on the missing-row reconstructed Ag(110) surface. Our study allows us to discriminate between the theoretical models published in the literature, including the most stable atomic configurations and those based on a missing-row reconstructed Ag(110) surface. GIXD measurements unambiguously validate the pentamer model grown on the reconstructed surface, obtained from DFT. This pentamer atomistic model accurately matches the high-resolution STM images of the Si nanoribbons adsorbed on Ag(110). Our study closes the long-debated atomic structure of the Si nanoribbons grown on Ag(110) and definitively excludes a honeycomb structure similar to that of freestanding silicene.

  1. Association of Fast-Food and Full-Service Restaurant Densities With Mortality From Cardiovascular Disease and Stroke, and the Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazidi, Mohsen; Speakman, John R

    2018-05-25

    We explored whether higher densities of fast-food restaurants (FFRs) and full-service restaurants are associated with mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD) and stroke and the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) across the mainland United States. In this cross-sectional study county-level data for CVD and stroke mortality, and prevalence of T2D, were combined with per capita densities of FFRs and full-service restaurants and analyzed using regression. Mortality and diabetes mellitus prevalence were corrected for poverty, ethnicity, education, physical inactivity, and smoking. After adjustment, FFR density was positively associated with CVD (β=1.104, R 2 =2.3%), stroke (β=0.841, R 2 =1.4%), and T2D (β=0.578, R 2 =0.6%) and full-service restaurant density was positively associated with CVD mortality (β=0.19, R 2 =0.1%) and negatively related to T2D prevalence (β=-0.25, R 2 =0.3%). In a multiple regression analysis (FFRs and full-service restaurants together in same model), only the densities of FFRs were significant (and positive). If we assume these relationships are causal, an impact analysis suggested that opening 10 new FFRs in a county would lead to 1 extra death from CVD every 42 years and 1 extra death from stroke every 55 years. Repeated nationally across all counties, that would be an extra 748 CVD deaths and 567 stroke deaths (and 390 new cases of T2D) over the next 10 years. These results suggest that an increased density of FFRs is associated with increased risk of death from CVD and stroke and increased T2D prevalence, but the maximal impact (assuming the correlations reflect causality) of each individual FFR is small. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT03243253. © 2018 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  2. Burden of Six Healthcare-Associated Infections on European Population Health: Estimating Incidence-Based Disability-Adjusted Life Years through a Population Prevalence-Based Modelling Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Cassini

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Estimating the burden of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs compared to other communicable diseases is an ongoing challenge given the need for good quality data on the incidence of these infections and the involved comorbidities. Based on the methodology of the Burden of Communicable Diseases in Europe (BCoDE project and 2011-2012 data from the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC point prevalence survey (PPS of HAIs and antimicrobial use in European acute care hospitals, we estimated the burden of six common HAIs.The included HAIs were healthcare-associated pneumonia (HAP, healthcare-associated urinary tract infection (HA UTI, surgical site infection (SSI, healthcare-associated Clostridium difficile infection (HA CDI, healthcare-associated neonatal sepsis, and healthcare-associated primary bloodstream infection (HA primary BSI. The burden of these HAIs was measured in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs. Evidence relating to the disease progression pathway of each type of HAI was collected through systematic literature reviews, in order to estimate the risks attributable to HAIs. For each of the six HAIs, gender and age group prevalence from the ECDC PPS was converted into incidence rates by applying the Rhame and Sudderth formula. We adjusted for reduced life expectancy within the hospital population using three severity groups based on McCabe score data from the ECDC PPS. We estimated that 2,609,911 new cases of HAI occur every year in the European Union and European Economic Area (EU/EEA. The cumulative burden of the six HAIs was estimated at 501 DALYs per 100,000 general population each year in EU/EEA. HAP and HA primary BSI were associated with the highest burden and represented more than 60% of the total burden, with 169 and 145 DALYs per 100,000 total population, respectively. HA UTI, SSI, HA CDI, and HA primary BSI ranked as the third to sixth syndromes in terms of burden of disease. HAP and HA primary BSI were

  3. Burden of Six Healthcare-Associated Infections on European Population Health: Estimating Incidence-Based Disability-Adjusted Life Years through a Population Prevalence-Based Modelling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckmanns, Tim; Abu Sin, Muna; Ducomble, Tanja; Harder, Thomas; Sixtensson, Madlen; Velasco, Edward; Weiß, Bettina; Kramarz, Piotr; Monnet, Dominique L.; Kretzschmar, Mirjam E.; Suetens, Carl

    2016-01-01

    Background Estimating the burden of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) compared to other communicable diseases is an ongoing challenge given the need for good quality data on the incidence of these infections and the involved comorbidities. Based on the methodology of the Burden of Communicable Diseases in Europe (BCoDE) project and 2011–2012 data from the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) point prevalence survey (PPS) of HAIs and antimicrobial use in European acute care hospitals, we estimated the burden of six common HAIs. Methods and Findings The included HAIs were healthcare-associated pneumonia (HAP), healthcare-associated urinary tract infection (HA UTI), surgical site infection (SSI), healthcare-associated Clostridium difficile infection (HA CDI), healthcare-associated neonatal sepsis, and healthcare-associated primary bloodstream infection (HA primary BSI). The burden of these HAIs was measured in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Evidence relating to the disease progression pathway of each type of HAI was collected through systematic literature reviews, in order to estimate the risks attributable to HAIs. For each of the six HAIs, gender and age group prevalence from the ECDC PPS was converted into incidence rates by applying the Rhame and Sudderth formula. We adjusted for reduced life expectancy within the hospital population using three severity groups based on McCabe score data from the ECDC PPS. We estimated that 2,609,911 new cases of HAI occur every year in the European Union and European Economic Area (EU/EEA). The cumulative burden of the six HAIs was estimated at 501 DALYs per 100,000 general population each year in EU/EEA. HAP and HA primary BSI were associated with the highest burden and represented more than 60% of the total burden, with 169 and 145 DALYs per 100,000 total population, respectively. HA UTI, SSI, HA CDI, and HA primary BSI ranked as the third to sixth syndromes in terms of burden of disease

  4. Survey on aedes mosquito density and pattern distribution of aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus in high and low incidence districts in north sumatera province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, Fazidah A.; Makmur, Tri

    2018-03-01

    Transmission and control of dengue hemorrhagic fever are related to its vectors. This study investigated vector density and distribution patterns of Aedes aegypty and Aedes albopictus in Medan and Langkat as high and low incidence district, respectively. An entomological survey was carried out in 304 households both in Medan and Langkat. The results showed that adult Ae. aegypti were predominantly in Medan, while adult Ae. albopictus was only in Langkat. Larvae indices (HI, CI, BI) for Aedes in Medan ( 35,13 and 43) were higher than langkat ( 22,8 and 30). Adult indices (AHI, AD, RR) for Ae. aegypti in Medan and for Ae. albopictus in Langkat were 20,38,24 and 3,5, and 5, respectively. Pattern distribution of Aedes larvae and adult mosquitoes in both district had similar pattern. Aedes larval indices and adult indices both in HIDs and LIDs were above the critical level, indicating potential high risk for DHF transmission. By multiple regression analysis, HI is predictor for DHF transmission in North Sumatera. Thus, in designing an effective control measures for dengue hemorrhagic fever, monitoring distribution and vector density is crucial.

  5. Prevalence and incidence of blindness and other degrees of sight impairment in patients treated for neovascular age-related macular degeneration in a well-defined region of the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckle, M; Lee, A; Mohamed, Q; Fletcher, E; Sallam, A; Healy, R; Stratton, I; Tufail, A; Johnston, R L

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the incidence and prevalence of blindness, sight impairment, and other visual acuity (VA) states in patients receiving ranibizumab for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) in Gloucestershire. Serial VA and injection data for all treatment-naive patients receiving their first intravitreal injections of ranibizumab for nAMD in the Gloucestershire National Health Service Ophthalmology department between 2008 and 2010 were extracted from an electronic medical record system. The prevalence of blindness (VA in the better-seeing eye ≤25 Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) letters) at the time of first intravitreal injection was 0.8%, increasing to 3.5% after 3 years. The prevalence of sight impairment (VA in the better-seeing eye 26-39 ETDRS letters) increased from 4.1% at baseline to 5.5% after 3 years. The incidence of initiating ranibizumab treatment for nAMD in people aged ≥50 years in Gloucestershire was 111 people per 100 000 population in 2009, and 97 people in 2010. The incidence of patients meeting the visual criteria for blindness and sight impairment registration from treated nAMD in people aged ≥50 years in Gloucestershire was 3.5 and 9.7 people, respectively per 100 000 population in 2010. This is the first real-world study on the incidence and prevalence of eligibility for blindness and sight impairment registration in treated nAMD in the UK based on VA data. The incidence and prevalence of eligibility for certification of blindness or sight impairment in patients treated with ranibizumab for nAMD is low in Gloucestershire, with only 3.6% of the incident population progressing to blindness in 2010.

  6. Resolution of anaemia in a cohort of HIV-infected patients with a high prevalence and incidence of tuberculosis receiving antiretroviral therapy in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkhoff, Andrew D; Wood, Robin; Cobelens, Frank G; Gupta-Wright, Ankur; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Lawn, Stephen D

    2014-12-21

    Anaemia is frequently associated with both HIV-infection and HIV-related tuberculosis (TB) in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve patients in sub-Saharan Africa and is strongly associated with poor prognosis. However, the effect of ART on the resolution of anaemia in patient cohorts with a high prevalence and incidence of tuberculosis is incompletely defined and the impact of TB episodes on haemoglobin recovery has not previously been reported. We therefore examined these issues using data from a well-characterised cohort of patients initiating ART in South Africa. Prospectively collected clinical and haematological data were retrospectively analysed from patients receiving ART in a South African township ART service. TB diagnoses and time-updated haemoglobin concentrations, CD4 counts and HIV viral loads were recorded. Anaemia severity was classified according to WHO criteria. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to determine factors independently associated with anaemia after 12 months of ART. Of 1,140 patients with baseline haemoglobin levels, 814 were alive in care and had repeat values available after 12 months of ART. The majority of patients were female (73%), the median CD4 count was 104 cells/uL and 30.5% had a TB diagnosis in the first year of ART. At baseline, anaemia (any severity) was present in 574 (70.5%) patients and was moderate/severe in 346 (42.5%). After 12 months of ART, 218 (26.8%) patients had anaemia of any severity and just 67 (8.2%) patients had moderate/severe anaemia. Independent predictors of anaemia after 12 months of ART included greater severity of anaemia at baseline, time-updated erythrocyte microcytosis and receipt of an AZT-containing regimen. In contrast, prevalent and/or incident TB, gender and baseline and time-updated CD4 cell count and viral load measurements were not independent predictors. Although anaemia was very common among ART-naive patients, the anaemia resolved during the first year of ART in a

  7. How many people have been bitten by dogs? A cross-sectional survey of prevalence, incidence and factors associated with dog bites in a UK community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgarth, Carri; Brooke, Megan; Christley, Robert M

    2018-04-01

    Dog bite studies are typically based on hospital records and may be biased towards bites requiring significant medical treatment. This study investigated true dog bite prevalence and incidence at a community-level and victim-related risk factors, in order to inform policy and prevention. A cross-sectional study of a community of 1280 households in Cheshire, UK, surveyed 694 respondents in 385 households. Data included dog ownership and bite history, demographics, health and personality (Ten Item Personality Inventory (TIPI) brief measure). Multivariable logistic regression modelled risk factors for having ever been bitten by a dog, accounting for clustering of individuals within households. A quarter of participants (24.78%, 95% CI 21.72 to 28.13) reported having ever been bitten by a dog during their lifetime, with only a third of bites described requiring further medical treatment and 0.6% hospital admission. Incidence of dog bites was 18.7 (11.0-31.8) per 1000 population per year. Males were 1.81 times more likely to have been bitten in their lifetime than females (95% CI 1.20 to 2.72, P=0.005). Current owners of multiple dogs were 3.3 times more likely (95% CI 1.13 to 9.69, P=0.03) to report having been bitten than people not currently owning a dog. Regarding all bites described, most commonly people were bitten by a dog that they had never met before the incident (54.7%). Individuals scoring higher in emotional stability had a lower risk of having ever been bitten (OR=0.77 for 1 point change in scale between 1 and 7, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.9, P=0.001). This study suggests that the real burden of dog bites is considerably larger than those estimated from hospital records. Further, many bites do not require medical treatment and hospital-based bite data are not representative of bites within the wider population. Victim personality requires further investigation and potential consideration in the design of bite prevention schemes. © Article author(s) (or

  8. Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 301 acute and chronic diseases and injuries in 188 countries, 1990-2013 : a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Theo; Barber, Ryan M.; Bell, Brad; Bertozzi-Villa, Amelia; Biryukov, Stan; Bolliger, Ian; Charlson, Fiona; Davis, Adrian; Degenhardt, Louisa; Dicker, Daniel; Duan, Leilei; Erskine, Holly; Feigin, Valery L.; Ferrari, Alize J.; Fitzmaurice, Christina; Fleming, Thomas; Graetz, Nicholas; Guinovart, Caterina; Haagsma, Juanita; Hansen, Gillian M.; Hanson, Sarah Wulf; Heuton, Kyle R.; Higashi, Hideki; Kassebaum, Nicholas; Kyu, Hmwe; Laurie, Evan; Liang, Xiofeng; Lofgren, Katherine; Lozano, Rafael; MacIntyre, Michael F.; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Naghavi, Mohsen; Nguyen, Grant; Odell, Shaun; Ortblad, Katrina; Roberts, David Allen; Roth, Gregory A.; Sandar, Logan; Serina, Peter T.; Stanaway, Jeffrey D.; Steiner, Caitlyn; Thomas, Bernadette; Vollset, Stein Emil; Whiteford, Harvey; Wolock, Timothy M.; Ye, Pengpeng; Zhou, Maigeng; Avila, Marco A.; Aasvang, Gunn Marit; Hoek, Hans W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Up-to-date evidence about levels and trends in disease and injury incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability (YLDs) is an essential input into global, regional, and national health policies. In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013), we estimated these quantities

  9. Incidence, prevalence, diagnostic delay, morbidity, mortality and socioeconomic status in males with 46,XX disorders of sex development: a nationwide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, A; Johannsen, T H; Stochholm, K; Aksglaede, L; Fedder, J; Viuff, M H; Main, K M; Gravholt, C H

    2017-08-01

    What is the epidemiology and trajectory of health and socioeconomic status in males with 46,XX disorders of sex development (DSD)? 46,XX DSD males had an increased overall morbidity compared to male background population controls, and the socioeconomic status was inferior on outcome parameters such as education and long-term income. 46,XX DSD males are rare and estimates of prevalence and incidence are limited. An increased morbidity and mortality as well as a negatively affected socioeconomic status are described in males with Klinefelter Syndrome. However, this has never been systematically studied in 46,XX DSD males. In this nationwide registry study including 44 males with a verified diagnosis of 46,XX DSD we aimed to estimate incidence, prevalence and diagnostic delay. Further, we aimed to study morbidity, mortality and socioeconomic outcome parameters using the Danish registries. The socioeconomic outcome parameters were education, income, retirement, parenthood and cohabitation. 46,XX DSD males were born during 1908-2012 and follow-up started at birth or at start of registration and ended in 2014. Potential cases (n = 69) were identified in the Danish Cytogenetic Central Registry and the diagnosis was verified by medical record evaluation (n = 44). A randomly selected age-matched control group of 100 males and 100 females per case was identified by Statistics Denmark. Among newborn males the prevalence of diagnosed 46,XX DSD males was 3.5-4.7 per 100 000. Median age at diagnosis was 17.0 years (range: 0.0-62.8). Overall morbidity was increased compared to male controls (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.8-3.3) but not when excluding endocrine and urogenital diseases as well as congenital malformations (HR = 1.2, 95% CI: 0.8-1.6). Mortality was not increased (HR = 0.6, 95% CI: 0.2-2.5) compared to male controls. 46,XX DSD males had poorer education (HR = 0.1, 95% CI: 0.0-0.9) and fewer fatherhoods (HR = 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2-0.7) than male controls

  10. Revisiting the concept of ‘chronic disease’ from the perspective of the episode of care model. Does the ratio of incidence to prevalence rate help us to define a problem as chronic?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean K Soler

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background This is a study of the epidemiology of acute and chronic episodes of care (EoCs in the Transition Project in three countries. We studied the duration of EoCs for acute and chronic health problems and the relationship of incidence to prevalence rates for these EoCs.Method The Transition Project databases collect data on all elements of the doctor–patient encounter in family medicine. Family doctors code these elements using the International Classification of Primary Care.We used the data from three practice populations to study the duration of EoCs and the ratio of incidence to prevalence for common health problems.Results We found that chronic health problems tended to have proportionately longer duration EoCs, as expected, but also a lower incidence to prevalence rate ratio than acute health problems. Thus, the incidence to prevalence index could be used to define a chronic condition as one with a low ratio, below a defined threshold.Conclusions Chronic health problems tend to have longer duration EoCs, proportionately, across populations. This result is expected, but we found important similarities and differences which make defining a problem as chronic on the basis of time rather difficult. The ratio of incidence to prevalence rates has potential to categorise health problems into acute or chronic categories, at different ratio thresholds (such as 20, 30 or 50%. It seems to perform well in this study of three family practice populations, and is proposed to the scientific community for further evaluation.

  11. High prevalence of low bone mineral density in patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease in the setting of a peripheral Dutch hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Schaik, Fiona D M; Verhagen, Marc A M T; Siersema, Peter D; Oldenburg, Bas

    2008-09-01

    Osteopenia and osteoporosis are frequently encountered in patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). Our aims were to evaluate the actual practice of screening for low bone mineral density (BMD) by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), to determine the prevalence of low BMD and to investigate the risk factors associated with a low BMD in the IBD population of a regional Dutch hospital. A retrospective chart review was performed in 474 patients (259 with ulcerative colitis, 210 with Crohn's disease and 5 with indeterminate colitis). DEXA results and potential predictive factors of low BMD were documented. Predictive factors of low BMD were assessed by logistic regression. DEXA was performed in 168 IBD patients (35.4%). A low BMD (T-score<-1) was present in 64.3%. Osteoporosis (T-score<-2.5) was found in 23.8%. Low BMI, older age at the moment of diagnosis and male gender were found to be predictive factors of low BMD. For patients with osteoporosis, disease duration was an additional predictive factor. After subgroup analysis predictive factors were found to be the same in patients with Crohn's disease. The prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis in IBD patients in a regional centre is as high as the prevalence rates reported from tertiary referral centres. A low BMI, an older age at the moment of diagnosis and male gender were predictive factors of low BMD. Prediction of osteoporosis and osteopenia using risk factors identified in this and previous studies is presently not feasible.

  12. Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 310 diseases and injuries, 1990–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesgaard Iburg, Kim

    2016-01-01

    in adults. For the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015), we estimated the incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for diseases and injuries at the global, regional, and national scale over the period of 1990 to 2015. Methods We estimated incidence...... and prevalence by age, sex, cause, year, and geography with a wide range of updated and standardised analytical procedures. Improvements from GBD 2013 included the addition of new data sources, updates to literature reviews for 85 causes, and the identification and inclusion of additional studies published up...... of years lived with disability (YLDs) on a global basis. NCDs accounted for 18 of the leading 20 causes of age-standardised YLDs on a global scale. Where rates were decreasing, the rate of decrease for YLDs was slower than that of years of life lost (YLLs) for nearly every cause included in our analysis...

  13. Prevalence and Incidence of Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Other Respiratory Viral Infections in Children Aged 6 Months to 10 Years With Influenza-like Illness Enrolled in a Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Terry; Borja-Tabora, Charissa; Lopez, Pio; Weckx, Lily; Ulloa-Gutierrez, Rolando; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Kerdpanich, Angkool; Weber, Miguel Angel Rodriguez; Mascareñas de Los Santos, Abiel; Tinoco, Juan-Carlos; Safadi, Marco Aurelio P.; Seng, Lim Fong; Hernandez-de Mezerville, Marcela; Faingezicht, Idis; Cruz-Valdez, Aurelio; Feng, Yang; Li, Ping; Durviaux, Serge; Haars, Gerco; Roy-Ghanta, Sumita; Vaughn, David W.; Taylor, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    Background. The high burden of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-associated morbidity and mortality makes vaccine development a priority. Methods. As part of an efficacy trial of pandemic influenza vaccines (NCT01051661), RSV epidemiology in healthy children aged 6 months to <10 years at first vaccination with influenza-like illness (ILI) was evaluated in Australia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Mexico, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand between February 2010 and August 2011. Active surveillance for ILI was conducted for approximately 1 year, with nasal and throat swabs analyzed by polymerase chain reaction. The prevalence and incidence of RSV among ILI episodes were calculated. Results. A total of 6266 children were included, of whom 2421 experienced 3717 ILI episodes with a respiratory sample available. RSV was detected for 359 ILI episodes, a prevalence of 9.7% (95% confidence interval: 8.7–10.7). The highest prevalence was in children aged 12–23 or 24–35 months in all countries except the Philippines, where it was in children aged 6–11 months. The incidence of RSV-associated ILI was 7.0 (6.3–7.7) per 100 person-years (PY). Eighty-eight ILI episodes resulted in hospitalization, of which 8 were associated with RSV (prevalence 9.1% [4.0–17.1]; incidence 0.2 [0.1–0.3] per 100 PY). The incidence of RSV-associated ILI resulting in medical attendance was 6.0 (5.4–6.7) per 100 PY. RSV B subtypes were observed more frequently than A subtypes. Conclusions. Active surveillance demonstrated the considerable burden of RSV-associated illness that would not be identified through hospital-based surveillance, with a substantial part of the burden occurring in older infants and children. PMID:25673560

  14. Late gastrointestinal and urogenital side-effects after radiotherapy – Incidence and prevalence. Subgroup-analysis within the prospective Austrian–German phase II multicenter trial for localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, Maximilian P.; Pötter, Richard; Bombosch, Valentin; Sljivic, Samir; Kirisits, Christian; Dörr, Wolfgang; Goldner, Gregor

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In general late side-effects after prostate cancer radiotherapy are presented by the use of actuarial incidence rates. The aim of this analysis was to describe additional relevant aspects of late side effects after prostate cancer radiotherapy. Materials and methods: All 178 primary prostate-cancer patients were treated within the Austrian–German multicenter trial by three-dimensional radiotherapy up to a local dose of 70 Gy (low/intermediate-risk) or 74 Gy (high-risk), respectively. Late gastrointestinal/urogenital (GI/GU) side-effects were prospectively assessed by the use of EORTC/RTOG score. Maximum side-effects, actuarial incidence rate and prevalence rates, initial appearance and duration of ⩾grade 2 toxicity were evaluated. Results: Median follow-up was 74 months. Late GI/GU side-effects ⩾grade 2 were detected in 15% (27/178) and 22% (40/178). The corresponding 5-year actuarial incidence rates for GI/GU side-effects were 19% and 23%, whereas the prevalence was 1–2% and 2–7% after 5 years, respectively. Late side effects ⩾grade 2 appeared within 5 years after radiotherapy in all patients with GI side-effects (27/27) and in 85% (34/40) of the patients with GU side-effects, respectively and lasted for less than 3 years in 90% (GI) and 98% (GU). Conclusions: This study demonstrates that the majority of late GI and GU side effects after primary external beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer are transient. Using only actuarial incidence rates for reporting side effects may lead to misinterpretation or overestimation. The combination of incidence and prevalence rates provides a more comprehensive view on the complex issue of late side effects.

  15. MRSA Carriage in Community Outpatients: A Cross-Sectional Prevalence Study in a High-Density Livestock Farming Area along the Dutch-German Border.

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    John Paget

    Full Text Available MRSA poses a considerable public health threat to the community. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of MRSA carriage and determine factors that were associated with MRSA carriage among outpatients who had used antibiotics in the previous three months and who lived in a high-density livestock farming area along the Dutch-German border.Cross-sectional prevalence study carried out between November 2011 and June 2012. Nasal swabs and questionnaires were collected in patients (>4 years who had used antibiotics in the previous three months from twelve Dutch General Practitioners (GPs, seven German GPs and two German outpatient urologists. To assess nasal carriage, swabs were analyzed using selective MRSA agars after broth enrichment. MRSA positive samples were spa typed.Data were collected from 513 GP outpatients in the Netherlands, 261 GP outpatients in Germany and 200 urologist outpatients in Germany. The overall prevalence of MRSA carriage was 0.8%, 1.1% and 2.0%, respectively. In the GP outpatient populations, the prevalence was similar in both countries (0.8% and 1.1%, respectively, p = 0.879, all spa types were indicative for livestock-associated MRSA (4xt011 in the Netherlands; 2xt034 and t011 in Germany and being a farmer, living on or near (<5km to a farm were associated with MRSA carriage. In the urologist outpatient population, the prevalence was higher (2.0%, all spa types were indicative for healthcare-associated MRSA (t068, t032, t003, t10231 and being a farmer, living on or near to a farm were factors not associated with MRSA carriage.The prevalence of MRSA carriage in these community outpatient populations along the Dutch-German border was low. There were striking similarities in livestock-associated MRSA carriage and clonal spread in the outpatient populations seeing their GP in both countries. In contrast, urologist outpatients in Germany were colonized with spa types indicative of healthcare-associated MRSA.

  16. Prevalence, Incidence, Prognosis, Early Stroke Risk, and Stroke-Related Prognostic Factors of Definite or Probable Transient Ischemic Attacks in China, 2013

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    Bin Jiang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiological characteristics of transient ischemic attacks (TIAs in China are unclear. In 2013, we conducted a nationally representative, door-to-door epidemiological survey on TIA in China using a complex, multistage, probability sampling design. Results showed that the weighted prevalence of TIA in China was 103.3 [95% confidence interval (CI: 83.9–127.2] per 100,000 in the population, 92.4 (75.0–113.8 per 100,000 among men, and 114.7 (87.2–151.0 per 100,000 among women. The weighted incidence of TIA was 23.9 (17.8–32.0 per 100,000 in the population, 21.3 (14.3–31.5 per 100,000 among men, and 26.6 (17.0–41.7 per 100,000 among women. No difference in average prognosis was found between TIA and stroke in the population. Weighted risk of stroke among TIA patients was 9.7% (6.5–14.3%, 11.1% (7.5–16.1%, and 12.3% (8.4–17.7% at 2, 30, and 90 days, respectively. The risk of stroke was higher among male patients with a history of TIA than among female patients with a history of TIA (OR: 2.469; 95% CI: 1.172–5.201; P = 0.018, and higher among TIA patients with hypertension than among TIA patients without hypertension (OR: 2.671; 1.547–4.613; P < 0.001. It can be concluded that there are an estimated 1.35 million TIA patients nationwide, with 0.31 million new cases of TIA annually in China. TIA patients were not better managed prior to a stroke event. Early risk of stroke among TIA patients is high. Sex and hypertension may be stroke-associated prognostic factors among TIA patients. TIA clinics and surveillance should be integrated into the national health-care system.

  17. Prevalence, incidence and mortality from cardiovascular disease in patients with pooled and specific severe mental illness: a large-scale meta-analysis of 3,211,768 patients and 113,383,368 controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correll, Christoph U; Solmi, Marco; Veronese, Nicola; Bortolato, Beatrice; Rosson, Stella; Santonastaso, Paolo; Thapa-Chhetri, Nita; Fornaro, Michele; Gallicchio, Davide; Collantoni, Enrico; Pigato, Giorgio; Favaro, Angela; Monaco, Francesco; Kohler, Cristiano; Vancampfort, Davy; Ward, Philip B; Gaughran, Fiona; Carvalho, André F; Stubbs, Brendon

    2017-06-01

    People with severe mental illness (SMI) - schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder - appear at risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), but a comprehensive meta-analysis is lacking. We conducted a large-scale meta-analysis assessing the prevalence and incidence of CVD; coronary heart disease; stroke, transient ischemic attack or cerebrovascular disease; congestive heart failure; peripheral vascular disease; and CVD-related death in SMI patients (N=3,211,768) versus controls (N=113,383,368) (92 studies). The pooled CVD prevalence in SMI patients (mean age 50 years) was 9.9% (95% CI: 7.4-13.3). Adjusting for a median of seven confounders, patients had significantly higher odds of CVD versus controls in cross-sectional studies (odds ratio, OR=1.53, 95% CI: 1.27-1.83; 11 studies), and higher odds of coronary heart disease (OR=1.51, 95% CI: 1.47-1.55) and cerebrovascular disease (OR=1.42, 95% CI: 1.21-1.66). People with major depressive disorder were at increased risk for coronary heart disease, while those with schizophrenia were at increased risk for coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease and congestive heart failure. Cumulative CVD incidence in SMI patients was 3.6% (95% CI: 2.7-5.3) during a median follow-up of 8.4 years (range 1.8-30.0). Adjusting for a median of six confounders, SMI patients had significantly higher CVD incidence than controls in longitudinal studies (hazard ratio, HR=1.78, 95% CI: 1.60-1.98; 31 studies). The incidence was also higher for coronary heart disease (HR=1.54, 95% CI: 1.30-1.82), cerebrovascular disease (HR=1.64, 95% CI: 1.26-2.14), congestive heart failure (HR=2.10, 95% CI: 1.64-2.70), and CVD-related death (HR=1.85, 95% CI: 1.53-2.24). People with major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia were all at increased risk of CVD-related death versus controls. CVD incidence increased with antipsychotic use (p=0.008), higher body mass index (p=0.008) and higher baseline CVD prevalence (p=0.03) in

  18. Portrait of an Epidemic: Extremely High Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevalence and Incidence Among Young Black Men Having Sex With Men and Residing in a Southern City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, Leandro; Crosby, Richard A

    2017-07-01

    A 12-month prospective cohort study of 609 young black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) assessed human immunodeficiency virus seroconversion. One-hundred-seventy men (27.9%) were either human immunodeficiency virus-infected before enrollment or tested positive within 30 days afterward. Thirty (4.9%) were classified as incident infections occurring in a 12-month period. Subtracting the 170 from the denominator, incidence was 6.8%.

  19. Incidência e prevalência de perda auditiva induzida por ruído em trabalhadores de uma indústria metalúrgica, Manaus - AM, Brasil

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    Ana Cristina Furtado de Carvalho Régis

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: estimar a incidência e a prevalência de déficit auditivo sugestivo de Perda Auditiva Induzida por Ruído e sua associação com idade e tempo de serviço em trabalhadores de uma indústria metalúrgica do pólo industrial de Manaus.MÉTODOS: estudo transversal descritivo em trabalhadores que se submeteram a exame audiométrico periódico no ano de 2012, totalizando 1499 sujeitos. Para estimativa da incidência foram selecionadas audiometrias de 763 trabalhadores com audição dentro da normalidade no exame de referência e comparados com exame atual. Realizou-se análise estatística por meio de medidas de tendência central, dispersão e distribuições de frequência. Para verificação de diferenças estatisticamente significantes utilizou-se o teste qui-quadrado, com nível de significância (p≤0,05.RESULTADOS: a prevalência de perda auditiva foi de 44,23% sendo 28,89% sugestivo de PAIR. Houve maior prevalência de perda auditiva nos trabalhadores com faixa etária acima de 45 anos e com tempo de serviço superior a 21 anos. Apenas 11,1% dos trabalhadores acima dos 21 anos de serviço apresentaram audição normal, e 61,9% perda auditiva sugestiva de Perda Auditiva Induzida por Ruído. A classificação de Não Sugestivo de Perda Auditiva Induzida por Ruído permanece estável nos indivíduos abaixo de 20 anos de exposição laboral (14,9% e nas pessoas expostas com mais de 20 anos aumenta para 27%. A incidência de perda auditiva foi de 28% e desse total 19,7% sugestiva de Perda Auditiva Induzida por Ruído. Houve maior prevalência de perda auditiva grau leve.Conclusão:a prevalência e a incidência de perda auditiva aumentaram com a idade e tempo de serviço. As empresas devem se empenhar na implementação do Programa de Conservação Auditiva a fim de minimizar essas perdas.

  20. Trends in Adult Chlamydia and Gonorrhea Prevalence, Incidence and Urethral Discharge Case Reporting in Morocco over 1995–2015—Estimates Using the Spectrum-Sexually Transmitted Infection Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kettani, Amina; Mahiané, Guy; Bennani, Aziza; Abu-Raddad, Laith; Smolak, Alex; Rowley, Jane; Nagelkerke, Nico; El-Rhilani, Houssine; Alami, Kamal; Hançali, Amina; Korenromp, Eline

    2017-01-01

    Background Evolving health priorities and resource constraints mean that countries require data on sexually transmitted infections (STI) trends to inform program planning and resource allocation. Methods The Spectrum modeling tool estimated prevalence and incidence of gonorrhea and chlamydia in Morocco's 15- to 49-year-old population, based on prevalence surveys. Incident cases, broken down between symptomatic and asymptomatic, and treated versus untreated, were compared with urethral discharge (UD) case reports, to estimate reporting completeness among treated UD cases. Results Gonorrhea prevalence was estimated at 0.37% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.14–1.0%) in women and 0.32% (0.12–0.87%) in men in 2015; chlamydia prevalences were 3.8% (95% CI, 2.1–6.4%) and 3.0% (95% CI, 1.7–5.1%). Corresponding estimated numbers of new cases in women and men in 2015 were 79,598 (95% CI, 23,918–256,206) and 112,013 (95% CI, 28,700–307,433) for gonorrhea, and 291,908 (95% CI, 161,064–524,270) and 314,032 (95% CI, 186,076–559,133) for chlamydia. Gonorrhea and chlamydia prevalence had declined by an estimated 41% and 27%, respectively, over 1995 to 2015. Prevalence declines probably related to improved STI treatment coverage, and decreasing risk behaviors. Reporting completeness among treated UD cases was estimated at 46% to 77% in 2015. Reported UD cases corresponded to 13% of all estimated (symptomatic and asymptomatic) gonorrhea and chlamydia cases. Conclusions STI declines and improvements in treatment coverage are consistent with Morocco’s introduction of syndromic management in 2000, scale-up of prevention, and declining human immunodeficiency virus incidence. While gonorrhea is four-fold more common as cause of clinical UD cases than chlamydia, Morocco continues to suffer a large, untreated burden of chlamydia. Reliable monitoring of both STIs requires new periodic surveys and/or novel forms of affordable surveillance beyond high-risk populations. PMID

  1. Incidence and Prevalence of Opportunistic and Other Infections and the Impact of Antiretroviral Therapy Among HIV-infected Children in Low- and Middle-income Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    B-Lajoie, Marie-Renée; Drouin, Olivier; Bartlett, Gillian; Nguyen, Quynh; Low, Andrea; Gavriilidis, Georgios; Easterbrook, Philippa; Muhe, Lulu

    2016-01-01

    Background. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the incidence and prevalence of 14 opportunistic infections (OIs) and other infections as well as the impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected children (aged Literatura Latino Americana em Ciências da Saúde databases. Summary incident risk (IR) and prevalent risk for each OI in ART-naive and ART-exposed children were calculated, and unadjusted odds ratios calculated for impact of ART. The number of OI cases and associated costs averted were estimated using the AIDS impact model. Results. We identified 4542 citations, and 88 studies were included, comprising 55 679 HIV-infected children. Bacterial pneumonia and tuberculosis were the most common incident and prevalent infections in both ART-naive and ART-exposed children. There was a significant reduction in IR with ART for the majority of OIs. There was a smaller impact on bacterial sepsis and pneumonia, and an increase observed for varicella zoster. ART initiation based on 2010 World Health Organization guidelines criteria for ART initiation in children was estimated to potentially avert >161 000 OIs (2013 UNAIDS data) with estimated cost savings of at least US$17 million per year. Conclusions. There is a decrease in the risk of most OIs with ART use in HIV-infected children in LMICs, and estimated large potential cost savings in OIs averted with ART use, although there are greater uncertainties in pediatric data compared with that of adults. PMID:27001796

  2. Sensitivity of the halo nuclei-12C elastic scattering at incident nucleon energy 800 MeV to the halo density distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, M. A. M.; Nour El-Din, M. S. M.; Ellithi, A.; Hosny, H.; Salama, T. N. E.

    2017-10-01

    In the framework of Glauber optical limit approximation where Coulomb effect is taken into account, the elastic scattering differential cross section for halo nuclei with {}^{12}{C} at 800 MeV/N has been calculated. Its sensitivity to the halo densities and the root mean square of the core and halo is the main goal of the current study. The projectile nuclei are taken to be one-neutron and two-neutron halo. The calculations are carried out for Gaussian-Gaussian, Gaussian-Oscillator and Gaussian-2 s phenomenological densities for each considered projectile in the mass number range 6-29. Also included a comparison between the obtained results of phenomenological densities and the results within the microscopic densities LSSM of {}6{He} and {}^{11}{Li} and microscopic densities GCM of {}^{11}{Be} where the density of the target nucleus {}^{12}{C} obtained from electron-{}^{12}{C} scattering is used. The zero range approximation is considered in the calculations. We found that the sensitivity of elastic scattering differential cross section to the halo density is clear if the nucleus appears as two clear different clusters, core and halo.

  3. High Prevalence and Incidence of Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy in Children and Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: Results From a Five-Year Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter-Höliner, Isabella; Barbarini, Daniela Seick; Lütschg, Jürg; Blassnig-Ezeh, Anya; Zanier, Ulrike; Saely, Christoph H; Simma, Burkhard

    2018-03-01

    In this prospective cohort study, we investigated the prevalence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy at baseline and after five years of follow-up in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus using both measurements of nerve conduction velocity and clinical neurological examination. A total of 38 patients who underwent insulin pump or intensive insulin therapy were included. The subjects averaged 12.6 ± 2.4 years of age and their diabetes duration averaged 5.6 ± 3.2 years. All patients underwent a detailed physical, neurological, and electrophysiological examination, as well as laboratory testing at their annual checkup. At baseline, the prevalence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy diagnosed using neurological examination was 13.2%, whereas nerve conduction velocity testing revealed diabetic peripheral neuropathy in 31.6%, highlighting a high prevalence of subclinical diabetic peripheral neuropathy. During follow-up, there was a strong increase in the prevalence of clinically diagnosed diabetic peripheral neuropathy, which reached 34.2% (P = 0.039) after five years; the proportion of patients with subclinical diabetic peripheral neuropathy even reached 63.2% (P = 0.002). The most significant changes in electrophysiological parameters were observed in the tibial sensory nerve (P = 0.001). The prevalence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus was high, and there was a rapid increase in the prevalence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy during a five-year follow-up interval. Importantly, our data show that a mere clinical evaluation is not sensitive enough to diagnose diabetic peripheral neuropathy in these patients. Nerve conduction velocity measurement, which is regarded as the gold standard for the assessment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy, should be applied more broadly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevalence, incidence and determinants of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection among HIV-seronegative women at high-risk of HIV infection: a prospective study in Beira, Mozambique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivete Meque

    Full Text Available To estimate the prevalence, incidence and determinants of herpes simplex type 2 (HSV-2 infection, and associations between HSV-2 and incident HIV infection, among women at higher risk for HIV infection in Beira, Mozambique.Between 2009 and 2012, 411 women aged 18-35 years at higher risk of HIV acquisition (defined as having had two or more sexual partners in the month prior to study enrollment were enrolled and followed monthly for one year. At each study visit, they were counseled, interviewed, and tested for HSV-2 and HIV antibodies.The HSV-2 prevalence at baseline was 60.6% (95% CI: 55.7% -65.4%. Increasing age (aOR = 2.94, 95% CI: 1.74-4.97, P<0.001 and aOR = 3.39, 95% CI: 1.58-7.29, P = 0.002 for age groups of 21-24 and 25-35 years old respectively, lower educational level (aOR = 1.81, 95% CI: 1.09-3.02, P = 0.022, working full time (aOR = 8.56, 95% CI: 1.01-72.53, P = 0.049 and having practiced oral sex (aOR = 3.02, 95% CI: 1.16-7.89, P = 0.024 were strongly associated with prevalent HSV-2 infection. Thirty one participants seroconverted for HSV-2 (20.5%; 95% CI: 14.4% -27.9% and 22 for HIV during the study period. The frequency of vaginal sex with a casual partner using a condom in the last 7 days was independently associated with incident HSV-2 infection (aOR = 1.91, 95% CI: 1.05-3.47, P = 0.034. Positive HSV-2 serology at baseline was not significantly associated with risk of subsequent HIV seroconversion.Young women engaging in risky sexual behaviors in Beira had high prevalence and incidence of HSV-2 infection. Improved primary HSV-2 control strategies are urgently needed in Beira.

  5. Seasonality and shift in age-specific malaria prevalence and incidence in Binko and Carrière villages close to the lake in Selingué, Mali

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Touré, Mahamoudou; Sanogo, Daouda; Dembele, Soumaila

    2016-01-01

    but distant from the hydroelectric dam, and Binko, near irrigated rice fields, close to the dam. The aim of this study was to provide baseline data, seasonal pattern and age distribution of malaria incidence in two sites situated close to a lake in Selingué. METHODS: Geographically, Selingué area is located...

  6. Sex Differences in Stroke Incidence, Prevalence, Mortality and Disability-Adjusted Life Years: Results from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barker-Collo, S.; Bennett, D.; Krishnamurthi, R.V.; Parmar, P.; Feigin, V.L.; Naghavi, M.R.; Forouzanfar, M.H.; Johnson, C.; Nguyen, G.; Mensah, G.A.; Vos, T.; Murray, C.J.; Roth, G.A.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Accurate information on stroke burden in men and women are important for evidence-based healthcare planning and resource allocation. Previously, limited research suggested that the absolute number of deaths from stroke in women was greater than in men, but the incidence and mortality

  7. Prevalence and predictors of 6-month fatigue in patients with ischemic stroke: a population-based stroke incidence study in Auckland, New Zealand, 2002-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigin, Valery L; Barker-Collo, Suzanne; Parag, Varsha; Hackett, Maree L; Kerse, Ngaire; Barber, P Alan; Theadom, Alice; Krishnamurthi, Rita

    2012-10-01

    Although persistent and significant fatigue affects the daily life of stroke survivors, there are no population-based studies examining the prevalence of fatigue in 6-month survivors of ischemic stroke and few studies of predictors of poststroke fatigue. This article examined data from the Auckland Regional Community Stroke study conducted in Auckland, New Zealand, in 2002 to 2003. Presence of fatigue was evaluated at 6 months in 613 patients with ischemic stroke using a Short Form 36 Vitality Score (energy and fatigue) of ≤ 47. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine predictors of fatigue development 6 months poststroke. The prevalence of fatigue was 30% (28% in men and 33% in women). There was a clear association between increased prevalence of fatigue and advancing age. The only baseline variables independently associated with an increased risk of developing fatigue at 6 months poststroke were prestroke incontinence and being of New Zealand European ethnicity. Being independent and living alone at baseline were associated with significant reduction in the risk of being fatigued at 6 months poststroke. Severe depression at 6 months was significantly and independently associated with being fatigued. The prevalence of fatigue found in our study is at the lower level of range reported in other studies. The prevalence of fatigue increased with advancing age, as found in most previous studies. Because fatigue can have a negative impact on stroke recovery, particular attention needs to be paid to those who are older, incontinent before stroke, and those who report severe symptoms of depression at 6 months after stroke.

  8. Prevalence, incidence rates and persistence of contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis in The Odense Adolescence Cohort Study: a 15-year follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortz, C. G.; Bindslev-Jensen, C.; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A cohort of 1501 unselected 8th grade schoolchildren was established 15 years ago with the aim to follow the course of contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) from school age into adult life. To date no studies have evaluated incidence rates and persistence of contact al...... the most common contact allergen, and new sensitizations occurred despite the European Union nickel regulation. Fragrance mix I was a poor marker for history of eczematous skin reaction to perfumed products....

  9. Prevalence of cutaneous viral infections in incident cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma detected among chronic lymphocytic leukemia and hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampras, Shalaka S; Locke, Frederick L; Chavez, Julio C; Patel, Nishit S; Giuliano, Anna R; Miller, Kyle; Gheit, Tarik; Tommasino, Massimo; Rollison, Dana E

    2018-04-01

    The role of cutaneous viral infections in the development of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), including cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), among chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and blood and marrow transplant (BMT) patients is not established. CLL (n = 977) and BMT (n = 3587) patients treated at the Moffitt Cancer Center were included in a retrospective cohort study. Human papillomavirus (HPV) and human polyomavirus (HPyV) DNA were examined in a subset of incident SCC tumors. Five-year cumulative incidence of NMSC was 1.42% in both BMT (n = 31 NMSCs) and CLL (n = 18 NMSCs) cohorts. Of the nine SCC tumors examined from each cohort, 22.2% and 33.3% were positive for viral DNA in the transplant (HPV 65, MCV) and CLL (HPV 38, HPV 15, HPyV6) cohort, respectively. Enhanced skin cancer screening of BMT/CLL patients should be conducted to better capture incident NMSCs and examine the role of viral infections in these tumors.

  10. Level density parameter dependence of the fission cross sections of some subactinide nuclei induced by protons with the incident energy up to 250 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydin, A.; Yalim, H.A.; Tel, E.; Sarer, B.; Unal, R.; Sarpuen, I.H.; Kaplan, A.; Dag, M.

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to show the dependence on the choice of the ratio of the level density parameters a f and a n corresponding to the saddle point of fission and equilibrium deformation of nucleus, respectively, of the proton induced fission cross sections of some subactinide targets. The method was employed using different level density parameter ratios for each fission cross section calculation in ALICE/ASH computer code. The ALICE/ASH code calculations were compared both with the available experimental data and with the Prokofiev systematics data. It is found that the fission cross sections dependent heavily on the choice of level density parameter ratio in the fission and neutron emission channels, a f /a n , for some subactinide nuclei. To get a good description of the measured fission cross sections for subactinide nuclei, we used a ratio of the level density parameters in the fission and neutron emission channels, a f /a n , depending both on the target-nucleus and on the energy of the projectile, in agreement with results published in literature.

  11. A Common Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (C677T) Polymorphism Is Associated With Low Bone Mineral Density and Increased Fracture Incidence After Menopause

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Madsen, Jonna Skov; Tofteng, Charlotte Landbo

    2003-01-01

    A polymorphism in the gene encoding methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) has recently been associated with bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal Japanese women. It is not known whether this effect is also present in European populations and whether it is caused by lower peak bone ma...

  12. Cholesterol Efflux Capacity, High-Density Lipoprotein Particle Number, and Incident Cardiovascular Events: An Analysis From the JUPITER Trial (Justification for the Use of Statins in Prevention: An Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khera, Amit V; Demler, Olga V; Adelman, Steven J; Collins, Heidi L; Glynn, Robert J; Ridker, Paul M; Rader, Daniel J; Mora, Samia

    2017-06-20

    Recent failures of drugs that raised high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels to reduce cardiovascular events in clinical trials have led to increased interest in alternative indices of HDL quality, such as cholesterol efflux capacity, and HDL quantity, such as HDL particle number. However, no studies have directly compared these metrics in a contemporary population that includes potent statin therapy and low low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. HDL cholesterol levels, apolipoprotein A-I, cholesterol efflux capacity, and HDL particle number were assessed at baseline and 12 months in a nested case-control study of the JUPITER trial (Justification for the Use of Statins in Prevention: An Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin), a randomized primary prevention trial that compared rosuvastatin treatment to placebo in individuals with normal low-density lipoprotein cholesterol but increased C-reactive protein levels. In total, 314 cases of incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) (myocardial infarction, unstable angina, arterial revascularization, stroke, or cardiovascular death) were compared to age- and gender-matched controls. Conditional logistic regression models adjusting for risk factors evaluated associations between HDL-related biomarkers and incident CVD. Cholesterol efflux capacity was moderately correlated with HDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein A-I, and HDL particle number (Spearman r = 0.39, 0.48, and 0.39 respectively; P capacity (OR/SD, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.72-1.10; P =0.28), HDL cholesterol (OR/SD, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.66-1.02; P =0.08), or apolipoprotein A-I (OR/SD, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.67-1.03; P =0.08). Twelve months of rosuvastatin (20 mg/day) did not change cholesterol efflux capacity (average percentage change -1.5%, 95% CI, -13.3 to +10.2; P =0.80), but increased HDL cholesterol (+7.7%), apolipoprotein A-I (+4.3%), and HDL particle number (+5.2%). On-statin cholesterol efflux capacity was inversely associated with incident CVD (OR/SD, 0.62; 95% CI, 0

  13. The MentDis_ICF65+ study protocol: prevalence, 1-year incidence and symptom severity of mental disorders in the elderly and their relationship to impairment, functioning (ICF) and service utilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreas, Sylke; Härter, Martin; Volkert, Jana; Hausberg, Maria; Sehner, Susanne; Wegscheider, Karl; Rabung, Sven; Ausín, Berta; Canuto, Alessandra; Da Ronch, Chiara; Grassi, Luigi; Hershkovitz, Yael; Lelliott, Paul; Muñoz, Manuel; Quirk, Alan; Rotenstein, Ora; Santos-Olmo, Ana Belén; Shalev, Arieh; Siegert, Jens; Weber, Kerstin; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Koch, Uwe; Schulz, Holger

    2013-02-18

    The EU currently lacks reliable data on the prevalence and incidence of mental disorders in older people. Despite the availability of several national and international epidemiological studies, the size and burden of mental disorders in the elderly remain unclear due to various reasons. Therefore, the aims of the MentDis_ICF65+ study are (1) to adapt existing assessment instruments, and (2) to collect data on the prevalence, the incidence, and the natural course and prognosis of mental disorders in the elderly. Using a cross-sectional and prospective longitudinal design, this multi-centre study from six European countries and associated states (Germany, Great Britain, Israel, Italy, Spain, and Switzerland) is based on age-stratified, random samples of elderly people living in the community. The study program consists of three phases: (1) a methodological phase devoted primarily to the adaptation of age- and gender-specific assessment tools for older people (e.g., the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, CIDI) as well as psychometric evaluations including translation, back translation; (2) a baseline community study in all participating countries to assess the lifetime, 12 month and 1 month prevalence and comorbidity of mental disorders, including prior course, quality of life, health care utilization and helpseeking, impairments and participation and, (3) a 12 month follow-up of all baseline participants to monitor course and outcome as well as examine predictors. The study is an essential step forward towards the further development and improvement of harmonised instruments for the assessment of mental disorders as well as the evaluation of activity impairment and participation in older adults. This study will also facilitate the comparison of cross-cultural results. These results will have bearing on mental health care in the EU and will offer a starting point for necessary structural changes to be initiated for mental health care policy at the level of

  14. Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 328 diseases and injuries for 195 countries, 1990–2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesgaard Iburg, Kim

    2017-01-01

    , major depressive disorder, anxiety, and all musculoskeletal disorders apart from gout were the main conditions contributing to higher YLD rates in women. Men had higher age-standardised rates of substance use disorders, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancers, and all injuries apart from sexual......, such as diabetes. As populations are ageing, and the prevalence of disabling disease generally increases steeply with age, health systems will face increasing demand for services that are generally costlier than the interventions that have led to declines in mortality in childhood or for the major causes...

  15. Cancer incidence among waiters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reijula, Jere; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: To study cancer risk patterns among waiters in the Nordic countries. METHODS: We identified a cohort of 16,134 male and 81,838 female waiters from Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. During the follow-up period from 1961 to 2005, we found that 19,388 incident cancer cases were...... diagnosed. Standardised incidence ratio (SIR) was defined as the observed number of cancer cases divided by the expected number, based on national age, time period and gender-specific cancer incidence rates in the general population. RESULTS: The SIR of all cancers in waiters, in the five countries combined...... INCIDENCE IN SOME CANCER SITES CAN LIKELY BE EXPLAINED BY HIGHER ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION, THE PREVALENCE OF SMOKING AND OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO TOBACCO SMOKE HOPEFULLY, THE INCIDENCE OF CANCER AMONG WAITERS WILL DECREASE IN THE FUTURE, DUE TO THE BANNING OF TOBACCO SMOKING IN RESTAURANTS AND BARS IN THE NORDIC...

  16. Effectiveness of a community-based educational programme in reducing the cumulative incidence and prevalence of human Taenia solium cysticercosis in Burkina Faso in 2011–14 (EFECAB: a cluster-randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Carabin, PhD

    2018-04-01

    cysticercosis prevalence from baseline to after randomisation (adjusted prevalence proportion ratio 0·84; 95% CrI 0·59–1·18. The intervention was shown to be effective in Nayala and Sanguié but not in Boulkiemdé. Interpretation: Community-engaged participatory interventions can be effective at reducing the incidence and prevalence of cysticercosis in some low-resource settings. Funding: US National Institutes of Health (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Fogarty International Center, and National Institute of General Medical Sciences.

  17. Recalibration of blood analytes over 25 years in the atherosclerosis risk in communities study: impact of recalibration on chronic kidney disease prevalence and incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrinello, Christina M; Grams, Morgan E; Couper, David; Ballantyne, Christie M; Hoogeveen, Ron C; Eckfeldt, John H; Selvin, Elizabeth; Coresh, Josef

    2015-07-01

    Equivalence of laboratory tests over time is important for longitudinal studies. Even a small systematic difference (bias) can result in substantial misclassification. We selected 200 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study participants attending all 5 study visits over 25 years. Eight analytes were remeasured in 2011-2013 from stored blood samples from multiple visits: creatinine, uric acid, glucose, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. Original values were recalibrated to remeasured values with Deming regression. Differences >10% were considered to reflect substantial bias, and correction equations were applied to affected analytes in the total study population. We examined trends in chronic kidney disease (CKD) pre- and postrecalibration. Repeat measures were highly correlated with original values [Pearson r > 0.85 after removing outliers (median 4.5% of paired measurements)], but 2 of 8 analytes (creatinine and uric acid) had differences >10%. Original values of creatinine and uric acid were recalibrated to current values with correction equations. CKD prevalence differed substantially after recalibration of creatinine (visits 1, 2, 4, and 5 prerecalibration: 21.7%, 36.1%, 3.5%, and 29.4%, respectively; postrecalibration: 1.3%, 2.2%, 6.4%, and 29.4%). For HDL cholesterol, the current direct enzymatic method differed substantially from magnesium dextran precipitation used during visits 1-4. Analytes remeasured in samples stored for approximately 25 years were highly correlated with original values, but 2 of the 8 analytes showed substantial bias at multiple visits. Laboratory recalibration improved reproducibility of test results across visits and resulted in substantial differences in CKD prevalence. We demonstrate the importance of consistent recalibration of laboratory assays in a cohort study. © 2015 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  18. Recalibration of blood analytes over 25 years in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study: The impact of recalibration on chronic kidney disease prevalence and incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrinello, Christina M.; Grams, Morgan E.; Couper, David; Ballantyne, Christie M.; Hoogeveen, Ron C.; Eckfeldt, John H.; Selvin, Elizabeth; Coresh, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Background Equivalence of laboratory tests over time is important for longitudinal studies. Even a small systematic difference (bias) can result in substantial misclassification. Methods We selected 200 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study participants attending all 5 study visits over 25 years. Eight analytes were re-measured in 2011–13 from stored blood samples from multiple visits: creatinine, uric acid, glucose, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. Original values were recalibrated to re-measured values using Deming regression. Differences >10% were considered to reflect substantial bias, and correction equations were applied to affected analytes in the total study population. We examined trends in chronic kidney disease (CKD) pre- and post-recalibration. Results Repeat measures were highly correlated with original values (Pearson’s r>0.85 after removing outliers [median 4.5% of paired measurements]), but 2 of 8 analytes (creatinine and uric acid) had differences >10%. Original values of creatinine and uric acid were recalibrated to current values using correction equations. CKD prevalence differed substantially after recalibration of creatinine (visits 1, 2, 4 and 5 pre-recalibration: 21.7%, 36.1%, 3.5%, 29.4%; post-recalibration: 1.3%, 2.2%, 6.4%, 29.4%). For HDL-cholesterol, the current direct enzymatic method differed substantially from magnesium dextran precipitation used during visits 1–4. Conclusions Analytes re-measured in samples stored for ~25 years were highly correlated with original values, but two of the 8 analytes showed substantial bias at multiple visits. Laboratory recalibration improved reproducibility of test results across visits and resulted in substantial differences in CKD prevalence. We demonstrate the importance of consistent recalibration of laboratory assays in a cohort study. PMID:25952043

  19. Prevalence of Cancers of Female Organs among Patients with Diabetes Type 2 in Kelantan, Malaysia: Observations over an 11 Year Period and Strategies to Reduce the Incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalil, Nur Asyilla Che; Zin, Anani Aila Mat; Othman, Nor Hayati

    2015-01-01

    Kelantan is one of the states in Malaysia which has a high prevalence of type 2 diabetes (DM2). Other than with endometrial carcinoma, the association of DM2 with particular female cancers is not known. To determine the proportion of breast, cervical, ovarian and endometrial cancers among females with DM2 diagnosed in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM) over an 11 year period. All histologically confirmed cases of breast, endometrial, cervical and ovarian carcinomas admitted to the Hospital were included in the study. The patient diabetic status was traced from the hospital medical records. There was a total of 860 cases of breast, cervical, ovarian and endometrial carcinomas over this period. Breast carcinoma was the commonest, accounting for 437/860 (50.8%) followed by cervix, 159/860 (18.5%), ovarian, 143/860 (16.6%) and endometrial carcinomas, 121/860 (14.1%). Out of these, 228/860 (26.5%) were confirmed diabetics. Endometrial carcinoma patients showed the highest proportion being diabetics, 42.1% (51/121), followed by ovarian cancer, 25.9% (37/143), breast carcinoma, 23.6% (103/437) and cervical cancer 23.3% (37/159). There is a significant proportion of DM2 among women with these four cancers, endometrial carcinoma being the highest followed by ovarian, breast and cervical carcinoma. The rising trend of these four cancers is in tandem with an increasing trend of DM2 in the community. In populations where diabetes is prevalent, screening for epithelial cancers should be rigourous. Diabetic clinics should include screening for these cancers among their female patients and gynecology clinics should screen the women they treat for their diabetes status.

  20. Calcium intake and osteoporosis: the influence of calcium intake from dairy products on hip bone mineral density and fracture incidence - a population-based study in women over 55 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Włodarek, Dariusz; Głąbska, Dominika; Kołota, Aleksandra; Adamczyk, Piotr; Czekajło, Aleksandra; Grzeszczak, Władysław; Drozdzowska, Bogna; Pluskiewicz, Wojciech

    2014-02-01

    The incidence of osteoporosis increases with age and is most frequently observed in postmenopausal women. The objective of the present population-based cohort study was to assess the influence of Ca intake from dairy sources on hip bone mineral density and hip fracture incidence in a group of Polish women over 55 years of age. The main outcome measures included: bone mineral density, the number of previous fractures and the reported Ca intake from dairy sources, assessed by a diet questionnaire. The RAC-OST-POL Study was conducted in the District of Raciborz in the south of Poland. The study was carried out in a group of 625 women, randomly recruited from the general population of women aged >55 years. Median Ca intake from dairy products was lower in the group of women with femoral neck T-score ≤-2·5 than in the group with T-score >-2·5 (275 v. 383 mg/d; P = 0·0019). For total hip score, the difference was close to borderline significance (P = 0·0698). Median Ca intake from dairy products was lower in the group of women with previous fractures than in those without fracture history (336 v. 395 mg/d; P = 0·0254). The main dairy source of Ca in the analysed group included milk drinks, rennet cheese and milk. Higher dairy Ca intake is recommended, since a number of the women analysed were unable to satisfy their Ca requirement exclusively from their diet.

  1. Prevalência de toxoplasmose aguda em gestantes, incidência de toxoplasmose congênita e desempenho de testes diagnósticos em toxoplasmose congênita

    OpenAIRE

    Ivana Rosângela dos Santos Varella

    2007-01-01

    Introdução: A infecção aguda pelo Toxoplasma gondii em gestantes pode determinar infecção fetal através de passagem transplacentária. As crianças afetadas podem desenvolver coriorretinite e déficit neurológico, na ausência de tratamento adequado. Objetivos: Estimar a prevalência de toxoplasmose aguda em gestantes atendidas na maternidade do Hospital Nossa Senhora da Conceição, avaliando possíveis diferenças nas freqüências ao longo do período estudado; medir a incidência de toxoplasmose congê...

  2. Lung cancer incidence and mortality in National Lung Screening Trial participants who underwent low-dose CT prevalence screening: a retrospective cohort analysis of a randomised, multicentre, diagnostic screening trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patz, Edward F; Greco, Erin; Gatsonis, Constantine; Pinsky, Paul; Kramer, Barnett S; Aberle, Denise R

    2016-05-01

    Annual low-dose CT screening for lung cancer has been recommended for high-risk individuals, but the necessity of yearly low-dose CT in all eligible individuals is uncertain. This study examined rates of lung cancer in National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) participants who had a negative prevalence (initial) low-dose CT screen to explore whether less frequent screening could be justified in some lower-risk subpopulations. We did a retrospective cohort analysis of data from the NLST, a randomised, multicentre screening trial comparing three annual low-dose CT assessments with three annual chest radiographs for the early detection of lung cancer in high-risk, eligible individuals (aged 55-74 years with at least a 30 pack-year history of cigarette smoking, and, if a former smoker, had quit within the past 15 years), recruited from US medical centres between Aug 5, 2002, and April 26, 2004. Participants were followed up for up to 5 years after their last annual screen. For the purposes of this analysis, our cohort consisted of all NLST participants who had received a low-dose CT prevalence (T0) screen. We determined the frequency, stage, histology, study year of diagnosis, and incidence of lung cancer, as well as overall and lung cancer-specific mortality, and whether lung cancers were detected as a result of screening or within 1 year of a negative screen. We also estimated the effect on mortality if the first annual (T1) screen in participants with a negative T0 screen had not been done. The NLST is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00047385. Our cohort consisted of 26 231 participants assigned to the low-dose CT screening group who had undergone their T0 screen. The 19 066 participants with a negative T0 screen had a lower incidence of lung cancer than did all 26 231 T0-screened participants (371·88 [95% CI 337·97-408·26] per 100 000 person-years vs 661·23 [622·07-702·21]) and had lower lung cancer-related mortality (185·82 [95% CI 162·17

  3. Prevalence, stability, 1-year incidence and predictors of depressive symptoms among Norwegian adolescents in the general population as measured by the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Bo; Ingul, JoMagne; Jozefiak, Thomas; Leikanger, Einar; Sund, Anne Mari

    2016-01-01

    Background In numerous surveys the prevalence of depressive symptoms in adolescents has been examined in single sites and at one time point. Aims We examined depressive symptoms among adolescents aged 10-19 years in four different large school samples including two cohorts over a 10-year period in different locations in the same health region in central Norway including a total of 5804 adolescents. Two cohorts were retested within a 1-year time period to predict high versus low depressive symptom scores. Changes over a 6-year period in depressive symptom levels were examined in two of the samples of 12-14-year olds. Methods Depressive symptoms were estimated by the 13-item Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ). Covariates were student age, sex, school size and location. Results "Miserable or unhappy", "Tired", "Restlessness" and "Poor concentration" were the most commonly reported depressive symptoms. Depressive symptom levels and proportions of high scoring students were consistently higher among girls, in particular in mid and late adolescence. Poisson regression analysis showed that all SMFQ items significantly predicted total scores for the whole sample, while sex (girls having a higher risk) emerged as a consistent 1-year predictor of high depressive symptom levels. Conclusions The SMFQ constitutes a short, practical and feasible measure. We recommend that this standardized measure should be used in the assessment of depressive symptoms among adolescents in school, primary care and clinical settings but also to evaluate treatment outcome. High scorers should be evaluated in subsequent clinical interviews for the presence of a depressive disorder.

  4. Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 310 diseases and injuries, 1990-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-08

    Non-fatal outcomes of disease and injury increasingly detract from the ability of the world's population to live in full health, a trend largely attributable to an epidemiological transition in many countries from causes affecting children, to non-communicable diseases (NCDs) more common in adults. For the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015), we estimated the incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for diseases and injuries at the global, regional, and national scale over the period of 1990 to 2015. We estimated incidence and prevalence by age, sex, cause, year, and geography with a wide range of updated and standardised analytical procedures. Improvements from GBD 2013 included the addition of new data sources, updates to literature reviews for 85 causes, and the identification and inclusion of additional studies published up to November, 2015, to expand the database used for estimation of non-fatal outcomes to 60 900 unique data sources. Prevalence and incidence by cause and sequelae were determined with DisMod-MR 2.1, an improved version of the DisMod-MR Bayesian meta-regression tool first developed for GBD 2010 and GBD 2013. For some causes, we used alternative modelling strategies where the complexity of the disease was not suited to DisMod-MR 2.1 or where incidence and prevalence needed to be determined from other data. For GBD 2015 we created a summary indicator that combines measures of income per capita, educational attainment, and fertility (the Socio-demographic Index [SDI]) and used it to compare observed patterns of health loss to the expected pattern for countries or locations with similar SDI scores. We generated 9·3 billion estimates from the various combinations of prevalence, incidence, and YLDs for causes, sequelae, and impairments by age, sex, geography, and year. In 2015, two causes had acute incidences in excess of 1 billion: upper respiratory infections (17·2 billion, 95% uncertainty

  5. The effects of extreme low frequency pulsed electromagnetic field on bone mineral density and incidence of fractures in patients with end - stage renal disease on dialysis - three year follow up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakočević-Hrnjak Aleksandra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. A variety of physical therapy options has been developed for the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders including those characterized with low bone mineral density (BMD. Extreme low frequency pulsed electromagnetic field (ELF-PEMF can accelerate bone formation. Patients with end stage of renal disease (ESRD are predisposed to high incidence of fractures due to bone disorder with multifactorial pathogenesis. Vitamin D, calcium supplements, antiresorptive and anabolic drugs in those patients have changed pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics and have minimal or limited effects. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of long-term ELF-PEMF therapy applied in concordance with physical exercise on bone mass, incidence of new bone fractures and parathyroid hormone concentrations in ESRD patients on dialysis. Methods. In this 3-year prospective clinical trial, 151 patients with ESRD on dialysis program were subjected to treatment with ELF-PEMF (18 Hz, 2 mT applied during 40 min after 10 consecutive dialysis procedures, 4 times through one year (120 treatments in total during three years together with kinesitherapy (study group or only with kinesitherapy (control group on the voluntary basis. Results. Total of 124 patients have completed the study. In the study group (n = 54, regardless of sex, significant improvements of BMD, T-score and Z-score on both lumbar spine and femoral neck were achieved after 3-year treatment with ELF-PEMF. In the control group (n = 70, significant decreases of BMD, T-score and Z-score as well as the higher incidence of new bone fractures were recorded. Conclusion. ELF-PEMF could be a convenient and safe non-pharmacological therapeutic strategy for fracture prevention in nephrology practices.

  6. Wheelchair incidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drongelen AW van; Roszek B; Hilbers-Modderman ESM; Kallewaard M; Wassenaar C; LGM

    2002-01-01

    This RIVM study was performed to gain insight into wheelchair-related incidents with powered and manual wheelchairs reported to the USA FDA, the British MDA and the Dutch Center for Quality and Usability Research of Technical Aids (KBOH). The data in the databases do not indicate that incidents with

  7. MRSA carriage in community outpatients: a cross-sectional prevalence study in a high-density livestock farming area along the Dutch-German border.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paget, J.; Aangenend, H.; Kühn, M.; Hautvast, J.; Oorschot, D. van; Olde Loohuis, A.; Velden, K. van der; Friedrich, A.W.; Voss, A.; Köck, R.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives MRSA poses a considerable public health threat to the community. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of MRSA carriage and determine factors that were associated with MRSA carriage among outpatients who had used antibiotics in the previous three

  8. MRSA Carriage in Community Outpatients : A Cross-Sectional Prevalence Study in a High-Density Livestock Farming Area along the Dutch-German Border

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paget, John; Aangenend, Helen; Kuhn, Malte; Hautvast, Jeannine; van Oorschot, Desiree; Loohuis, Alphons Olde; van der Velden, Koos; Friedrich, Alexander W.; Voss, Andreas; Kock, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives MRSA poses a considerable public health threat to the community. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of MRSA carriage and determine factors that were associated with MRSA carriage among outpatients who had used antibiotics in the previous three months and who lived

  9. MRSA Carriage in Community Outpatients: A Cross-Sectional Prevalence Study in a High-Density Livestock Farming Area along the Dutch-German Border

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paget, J.; Aangenend, H.; Kuhn, M.; Hautvast, J.; Oorschot, D. van; Loohuis, A.; Velden, K. van der; Friedrich, A.W.; Voss, A.; Kock, R.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: MRSA poses a considerable public health threat to the community. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of MRSA carriage and determine factors that were associated with MRSA carriage among outpatients who had used antibiotics in the previous three months and who lived

  10. Incidents analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois, P.

    1996-01-01

    We undertook a study programme at the end of 1991. To start with, we performed some exploratory studies aimed at learning some preliminary lessons on this type of analysis: Assessment of the interest of probabilistic incident analysis; possibility of using PSA scenarios; skills and resources required. At the same time, EPN created a working group whose assignment was to define a new approach for analysis of incidents on NPPs. This working group gave thought to both aspects of Operating Feedback that EPN wished to improve: Analysis of significant incidents; analysis of potential consequences. We took part in the work of this group, and for the second aspects, we proposed a method based on an adaptation of the event-tree method in order to establish a link between existing PSA models and actual incidents. Since PSA provides an exhaustive database of accident scenarios applicable to the two most common types of units in France, they are obviously of interest for this sort of analysis. With this method we performed some incident analyses, and at the same time explores some methods employed abroad, particularly ASP (Accident Sequence Precursor, a method used by the NRC). Early in 1994 EDF began a systematic analysis programme. The first, transient phase will set up methods and an organizational structure. 7 figs

  11. Incidents analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francois, P

    1997-12-31

    We undertook a study programme at the end of 1991. To start with, we performed some exploratory studies aimed at learning some preliminary lessons on this type of analysis: Assessment of the interest of probabilistic incident analysis; possibility of using PSA scenarios; skills and resources required. At the same time, EPN created a working group whose assignment was to define a new approach for analysis of incidents on NPPs. This working group gave thought to both aspects of Operating Feedback that EPN wished to improve: Analysis of significant incidents; analysis of potential consequences. We took part in the work of this group, and for the second aspects, we proposed a method based on an adaptation of the event-tree method in order to establish a link between existing PSA models and actual incidents. Since PSA provides an exhaustive database of accident scenarios applicable to the two most common types of units in France, they are obviously of interest for this sort of analysis. With this method we performed some incident analyses, and at the same time explores some methods employed abroad, particularly ASP (Accident Sequence Precursor, a method used by the NRC). Early in 1994 EDF began a systematic analysis programme. The first, transient phase will set up methods and an organizational structure. 7 figs.

  12. Spatial variability of disease incidence and mortality in the sea fan Gorgonia ventalina in Puerto Rico (Alcyonacea: Goorgoniidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabella Zuluaga-Montero

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Populations of the common sea fan (Gorgonia ventalina were decimated by an aspergillosis outbreak throughout the Caribbean two decades ago. Since then, aspergillosis has been considered as the principal cause of mortality in sea fans. However, prevalence and presumably incidence of this disease have been declining in the Caribbean since the mid 1990s. Incidence indicates new cases of disease in previously healthy colonies, while prevalence indicates percent of diseased colonies at a given sample. Most coral disease studies use prevalence rather than incidence to assess the temporal dynamics of diseases. Nevertheless, conclusions based only on prevalence should be handled carefully to avoid misinterpretation. This study was carried out at six reefs in Eastern Puerto Rico. We monitored a total of 448 colonies to (1 obtain estimates of incidence and prevalence of disease and other types of lesions, and (2 to determine causes of sea fan mortality plus their spatial and temporal variation. Three transects (10x1m were haphazardly placed at each study site. At each transect, every colony was numbered and photographed and its height measured to the nearest cm. Transects were monitored at six months intervals and health status of the colonies was recorded. Also, the colonies were divided into height classes (small, medium and large for incidence, prevalence and mortality analyses. Incidence and prevalence of disease were low in all reefs, suggesting that disease currently plays a minor role in the regulation of sea fans populations. Detachment was the main cause of mortality, and size structure data suggest that recruitment may compensate for mortality rates in two of the reefs. Spatial differences in size structure and density may be related to environmental and physical characteristics at the reef scale that allow sea fans to reach a safe colony size. Rev. Biol. Trop. 60 (2: 517-526. Epub 2012 June 01.

  13. Heritability of prevalent vertebral fracture and volumetric bone mineral density and geometry at the lumbar spine in three generations of the Framingham study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ching-Ti; Karasik, David; Zhou, Yanhua; Hsu, Yi-Hsiang; Genant, Harry K; Broe, Kerry E; Lang, Thomas F; Samelson, Elizabeth J; Demissie, Serkalem; Bouxsein, Mary L; Cupples, L Adrienne; Kiel, Douglas P

    2012-04-01

    Genetic factors likely contribute to the risk for vertebral fractures; however, there are few studies on the genetic contributions to vertebral fracture (VFrx), vertebral volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), and geometry. Also, the heritability (h(2)) for VFrx and its genetic correlation with phenotypes contributing to VFrx risk have not been established. This study aims to estimate the h(2) of vertebral fracture, vBMD, and cross-sectional area (CSA) derived from quantitative computed tomography (QCT) scans and to estimate the extent to which they share common genetic association in adults of European ancestry from three generations of Framingham Heart Study (FHS) families. Members of the FHS families were assessed for VFrx by lateral radiographs or QCT lateral scout views at 13 vertebral levels (T(4) to L(4)) using Genant's semiquantitative (SQ) scale (grades 0 to 3). Vertebral fracture was defined as having at least 25% reduction in height of any vertebra. We also analyzed QCT scans at the L(3) level for integral (In.BMD) and trabecular (Tb.BMD) vBMD and CSA. Heritability estimates were calculated, and bivariate genetic correlation analysis was performed, adjusting for various covariates. For VFrx, we analyzed 4099 individuals (148 VFrx cases) including 2082 women and 2017 men from three generations. Estimates of crude and multivariable-adjusted h(2) were 0.43 to 0.69 (p < 1.1 × 10(-2)). A total of 3333 individuals including 1737 men and 1596 women from two generations had VFrx status and QCT-derived vBMD and CSA information. Estimates of crude and multivariable-adjusted h(2) for vBMD and CSA ranged from 0.27 to 0.51. In a bivariate analysis, there was a moderate genetic correlation between VFrx and multivariable-adjusted In.BMD (-0.22) and Tb.BMD (-0.29). Our study suggests vertebral fracture, vertebral vBMD, and CSA in adults of European ancestry are heritable, underscoring the importance of further work to identify the specific variants underlying

  14. Prevalence and Incidence of Anal and Cervical High-Risk Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Types covered by Current HPV Vaccines among HIV-Infected Women in the Study to Understand the Natural History of HIV/AIDS in the Era of Effective Therapy (The SUN Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojic, Erna Milunka; Conley, Lois; Bush, Tim; Cu-Uvin, Susan; Unger, Elizabeth R; Henry, Keith; Hammer, John; Escota, Gerome; Darragh, Teresa M; Palefsky, Joel M; Brooks, John T; Patel, Pragna

    2018-02-14

    Nonavalent (9v) human papilloma virus vaccine targets high-risk (HR)-HPV types 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, 58, and low-risk 6, 11. We examined prevalence, incidence, and clearance of anal and cervical HR-HPV in HIV-infected women. From 2004-2006, the SUN Study enrolled 167 women from four US cities. Anal and cervical specimens were collected annually for cytology and identification of 37 HPV types; 14 HR include: 9v 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, 58; non-9v 35, 39, 51, 56, 59, 66, 68. Baseline characteristics of 126 women included: median age 38 years; 57% non-Hispanic black; 67% HIV RNA HPV prevalence at anus and cervix was 90% and 83%; for 9v HR-HPV types, 67% and 51%; non-9v HR-HPV, 54% and 29%, respectively. 9v and non-9v HR-HPV incidence rates/100 person-years were similar (10.4 vs 9.5: 8.5 vs 8.3, respectively); 9v clearance rates were 42% and 61%; non-9v 46% and 59%, in anus and cervix, respectively. Anal HR-HPV prevalence was higher than cervical with lower clearance; incidence was similar. Although prevalence of non-9v HR-HPV was substantial, 9v HR-HPV types were generally more prevalent. These findings support use of nonavalent vaccine in HIV-infected women. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Prevalence of low bone mineral density among HIV patients on long-term suppressive antiretroviral therapy in resource limited setting of western India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dravid, Ameet; Kulkarni, Milind; Borkar, Amit; Dhande, Sachin

    2014-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) assessment in HIV patients is sparsely done in resource limited settings. We conducted a cross-sectional study of BMD amongst HIV patients following up in our clinic from 1 June to 1 December 2013 by performing dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan (Lunar Prodigy Advanced DXA System, GE Healthcare) of lumbar spine and hip. Patients on long term (≥12 months), virologically suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART) were included. Patients who were ART naïve were included as control population. Virologic failures were excluded. Low BMD was defined by WHO T-score criteria (normal: T score ≥-1;osteopenia: T score between -1 and -2.5 SD; osteoporosis: T score ≤-2.5 SD). Baseline risk factors associated with low BMD like age, low BMI, lipoatrophy, diabetes mellitus, current smoking, current alcohol intake, steroid exposure and menopause were recorded. ART-related factors associated with low BMD like ART duration, exposure to tenofovir and exposure to protease inhibitors (PI) were studied. A total of 536 patients (66% males, 496 ART experienced and 40 ART naïve) were included in this analysis. Median age was 42 years, mean BMI 23.35 kg/m(2) and median CD4 count 146 cells/mm(3). All ART experienced patients had plasma viral loadpatients in our cohort is a matter of deep concern due to its association with pathological fractures. Bone mineral loss was seen irrespective of ART used. Association of low BMD with low baseline CD4 count strengthens the case for early ART.

  16. Tackling the tobacco epidemic in the Nordic countries and lower cancer incidence by 1/5 in a 30-year period-The effect of envisaged scenarios changing smoking prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Therese M-L; Engholm, Gerda; Brink, Anne-Line; Pukkala, Eero; Stenbeck, Magnus; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Storm, Hans

    2018-03-29

    Tobacco smoking is a leading cause of cancer and the most preventable cause of cancer worldwide. The aim of this study was to quantify the proportion of the cancer burden in the Nordic countries linked to tobacco smoking and estimate the potential for cancer prevention by changes in smoking prevalence. The Prevent macro-simulation model was used, estimating the future number of cancer cases in the Nordic countries over a 30-year period (2016-2045), for 13 cancer sites, under different scenarios of changing smoking prevalence, and compared to the projected number of cases if constant prevalence prevailed. A total of 430,000 cancer cases, of the 2.2 million expected for the 13 studied cancer sites, could be avoided in the Nordic countries over the 30-year period if smoking was eliminated from 2016 onwards. If prevalence of smoking is reduced to 5% by year 2030 and to 2% by 2040, 230,000 cancer cases could be avoided. The largest proportion of cancers can be avoided in Denmark, where smoking prevalence is the highest, and similar to the prevalence in many European countries. A large amount of cancers could be avoided in the Nordic countries if smoking prevalence was reduced. The results from this study can be used to understand the potential impact and significance of primary prevention programmes targeted towards reducing the prevalence of tobacco smoking in the Nordic countries. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Differential impact of serum glucose, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol on cardiovascular risk factor burden in nondiabetic, obese African American women: implications for the prevalence of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Trudy; Schuster, Dara; Osei, Kwame

    2010-08-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) as defined by the Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III criteria includes 3 metabolic parameters: serum glucose, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) measurements. However, the impact of each of the 3 metabolic parameters on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in African American women (AAW) is unknown. Therefore, we investigated CVD risk clusters associated with each of the 3 metabolic components of MetS in adult nondiabetic, overweight/obese AAW. We studied the clinical and metabolic CVD risk factors of 258 AAW (mean age, 42.4 +/- 8.4 years; mean body mass index, 33.4 +/- 8.0 (kg/m(2)). Fasting serum insulin, glucose, and C-peptide levels were obtained in each subject. Waist circumference and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured. Insulin sensitivity (Bergman minimal model method) and insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment) were calculated. We examined the prevalence of MetS and its components associated with each of the 3 metabolic components (ie, serum glucose, HDL-C, and triglycerides) of the MetS as defined by ATP III. Worsening of any of the 3 metabolic parameters was associated with increasing waist circumference but not with age and body mass index nor with insulin, C-peptide, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and insulin sensitivity. As a group, the prevalence of MetS was 35.5% in our AAW. The prevalence of MetS increased 3-fold from first to third tertiles of serum glucose (14.1% and 42.3%, respectively). Worsening of serum HDL-C from tertiles 3 to 1 was associated with significant increases in the prevalence of MetS (1.2% vs 42.3%, respectively). Comparing first with third tertile of triglycerides, there was no significant increase in MetS in our AAW (7% vs 17%). Contrasting the 3 metabolic components, the prevalence of MetS was higher in the third tertile of glucose (43.2%) and first tertile of HDL-C (42.3%) and least with the third tertile of triglycerides (17%). In

  18. Prevalence and Parasite Density of Asymptomatic Malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: A total of 250 unbooked parturients participated in the study. The mean age of the ... and pains, malaise, generalized body weakness, etc., It is termed asymptomatic when ... underwent microscopic examination under oil immersion.

  19. Prevalência de marcadores imuno-hematológicos em recém-nascidos ao nascimento e em suas respectivas mães e incidência de doença hemolítica numa maternidade de São Paulo

    OpenAIRE

    Cianciarullo, Marco Antonio; Ceccon, Maria Esther Jurfest; Vaz, Flávio Adolfo Costa

    2003-01-01

    A introdução da imunoglobulina anti-D diminuiu a incidência da doença hemolítica neonatal por isoimunização Rh, porém persiste este diagnóstico por outros anticorpos mais raros e o avanço tecnológico tornou possível a detecção destes anticorpos. OBJETIVOS: Verificar a prevalência de marcadores imuno-hematológicos, representados pelos testes de Coombs indireto, direto e de eluição com identificação do anticorpo detectado; incidência de doença hemolítica e de tratamento entre os recém-nascidos ...

  20. prevalence and risk

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    owner

    2012-12-26

    Dec 26, 2012 ... increase the frequency of occurrence of hypoglycaemia. Hypoglycaemia is a ... not only in increased frequency of falciparum malaria, but also .... of illness before presentation. Table 3: Prevalence of hypoglycaemia according to time of last meal. Table 4, shows the higher the parasite density the greater.

  1. Annual Screening Mammogram and its Relation to Breast Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabek EAS

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Current national screening programs totally depend on mammographic evaluation. After increased incidence of breast cancer in women under the age of 35, mammography sensitivity in now a question. Several factors added to decrease sensitivity of mammography, such as increased density in older age groups and increased aggressiveness of tumour biology. All these factors will change the reliability of the screening program. The study is a retrospective study conducted at Ain Shams University. Method: 138 patients diagnosed with cancer breast underwent both mammography and sonography to determine percentage of patient with more than one focus, age and density distribution breast cancer in the affected patient and accuracy of both mammography and US. Results: By studying this population, we found that around 61,44% have areas of density ranging from dense breast, heterogenous density or scattered density. These areas of density render the mammography a less sensitive tool as its sensitivity fall to 34.09%, while that of US was 77.27%. Conclusion: As breast cancer is prevalent in younger population, also with increased density in older population who are relatively insensitive to mammography, we recommended the use of Automated Breast Ultrasound (ABUS in the national screening program.

  2. Regional comparison of cancer incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obralic, N.; Gavrankapetanovic, F.; Dizdarevic, Z.; Duric, O.; Sisic, F.; Selak, I.; Balta, S.; Nakas, B.

    2004-01-01

    Background. Due to specific war and post-war situation in Balkan region, differences in the number, type, development, biological course, treatment of malignant tumours and its outcome are possible. In order to perceive the situation realistically, it is necessary to gather continuously exact data about malignant tumours and compare them with the data from other European and world countries.The aim of the study was to collect and analyse the data on cancer incidence in the region of Sarajevo city, which represents a symbol of difficult times in the recent past, and to compare it to the incidence in the neighbouring countries. Patients and methods. Data on all newly diagnosed cancer cases, permanent residents of Sarajevo Canton, in the years 1999 and 2000 were collected. Crude incidence rate has been calculated according to the years observed, gender and localizations of the disease The data were compared to the cancer registries of Slovenia and Croatia and were observed in the light of specific local situation. Results. The crude cancer incidence of all sites but skin was the highest in both years and by both genders in Croatia. The incidence of the most common tumours (lung and breast cancer) was similar in all three countries. The differences in the incidence between both genders in the Sarajevo canton were registered in laryngeal and urinary bladder cancer, as well as in bone and cartilage sarcoma. Cervical cancer had extremely high incidence and was high up on the incidence list in the Sarajevo canton, which correlates with the data in developing countries. The incidence of other tumours in the post-war period is reaching expected numbers. Conclusions. It is difficult to identify whether the war and post-war stress, irregular and insufficient nutrition during and after the siege of the city of Sarajevo or some other factor influenced the cancer incidence among exposed population. The prevalence of smoking in the whole region is extremely high, in Bosnia and

  3. Predictions and estimations of colorectal cancer mortality, prevalence and incidence in Aragon, Spain, for the period 1998-2022 Estimaciones y proyecciones de incidencia, prevalencia y mortalidad del cáncer colorrectal en Aragón, España, para el periodo de 1998 a 2022

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyego Leandro Bezerra-de-Souza

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: estimate colorectal cancer incidence and prevalence in Aragón, Spain, based on mortality and survival data from the period 1998-2007, and provide projections of incidence, prevalence and mortality until the year 2022. Methods: general and colorectal cancer mortality rates were obtained from the National Statistics Institute and survival data was obtained from the EUROCARE study. Estimations were carried out through the program MIAMOD. The joinpoint program was used to quantify the annual change expected in the projections. Results: in men, an increase in prevalence is expected, from 237.2 (Crude Rate - CR = 303.5 to 237.7 (CR = 412.7 per 100.000 inhabitants/year in 2022. Incidence rates would increase from 48.2 (CR = 61.6 in 2007 to 55.2 (CR = 83.1, and mortality would increase from 22.7 (CR = 29.4 to 26.0 (CR = 39.6 when comparing 2007 and 2022. In women, a reduction in prevalence is expected from 181.5 (CR = 268.3 to 167.9 (CR = 286.2 cases per 100,000 inhabitants/year. Incidence would change from 25.0 (CR = 38.0 in 2007 to 22.7 (CR = 39.2, and for mortality there is also an expected decrease, from 11.3 (CR =18.0 to 10.3 (CR = 18.5. Conclusion: the projections indicate that colorectal cancer in Spain follows an increasing trend in incidence, mortality and prevalence in men, in opposition to corresponding decreasing trends in women. These projections must be considered in order to plan more effective prevention and treatment measures.Objetivo: estimar la incidencia y la prevalencia del cáncer colorrectal en Aragón, España, basándose en datos de mortalidad y supervivencia del periodo de 1998 a 2007, y proporcionar proyecciones de incidencia, prevalencia y mortalidad hasta el año 2022. Métodos: la mortalidad por todas las causas y para el cáncer colorrectal se obtuvo del Instituto Nacional de Estadística y los datos de supervivencia del estudio EUROCARE. Las estimaciones han sido realizadas utilizándose el programa MIAMOD. El

  4. [Bone mineral density in overweight and obese adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobayashi, Fernanda; Lopes, Luiz A; Taddei, José Augusto de A C

    2005-01-01

    To study bone density as a concomitant factor for obesity in post-pubertal adolescents, controlling for other variables that may interfere in such a relation. Study comprising 83 overweight and obese adolescents (BMI > or = P85) and 89 non obese ones (P5 obesity followed by multivariate analysis (logistic regression) according to a hierarchical conceptual model. The prevalence of bone density above the median was twice more frequent among cases (69.3%) than among controls (32.1%). In the bivariate analysis such prevalence resulted in an odds ratio (OR) of 4.78. The logistic regression model showed that the association between obesity and mineral density is yet more intense with an OR of 6.65 after the control of variables related to sedentary lifestyle and intake of milk and dairy products. Obese and overweight adolescents in the final stages of sexual maturity presented higher bone mineral density in relation to their normal-weight counterparts; however, cohort studies will be necessary to evaluate the influence of such characteristic on bone resistance in adulthood and, consequently, on the incidence of osteopenia and osteoporosis at older ages.

  5. Road density

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Road density is generally highly correlated with amount of developed land cover. High road densities usually indicate high levels of ecological disturbance. More...

  6. Lung density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garnett, E S; Webber, C E; Coates, G

    1977-01-01

    The density of a defined volume of the human lung can be measured in vivo by a new noninvasive technique. A beam of gamma-rays is directed at the lung and, by measuring the scattered gamma-rays, lung density is calculated. The density in the lower lobe of the right lung in normal man during quiet...... breathing in the sitting position ranged from 0.25 to 0.37 g.cm-3. Subnormal values were found in patients with emphsema. In patients with pulmonary congestion and edema, lung density values ranged from 0.33 to 0.93 g.cm-3. The lung density measurement correlated well with the findings in chest radiographs...... but the lung density values were more sensitive indices. This was particularly evident in serial observations of individual patients....

  7. Psychological Trauma in the Workplace: Variation of Incident Severity among Industry Settings and between Recurring vs Isolated Incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFraia, G S

    2015-07-01

    Psychologically traumatic workplace events (known as critical incidents) occur within various work environments, with workgroups in certain industries vulnerable to multiple incidents. With the increasing prevalence of incidents in the USA, incident response is a growing practice area within occupational medicine, industrial psychology, occupational social work and other occupational health professions. To analyze a measure of incident severity based on level of disruption to the workplace and explore whether incident severity varied among different industry settings or between workgroups experiencing multiple vs single traumatic incidents. Administrative data mining was employed to examine practice data from a workplace trauma response unit in the USA. Bivariate analyses were conducted to test whether scores from an instrument measuring incident severity level varied among industry settings or between workgroups impacted by multiple vs isolated events. Incident severity level differed among various industry settings. Banks, retail stores and fast food restaurants accounted for the most severe incidents, while industrial and manufacturing sites reported less severe incidents. Workgroups experiencing multiple incidents reported more severe incidents than workgroups experiencing a single incident. Occupational health practitioners should be alert to industry differences in several areas: pre-incident resiliency training, the content of business recovery plans, assessing worker characteristics, strategies to assist continuous operations and assisting workgroups impacted by multiple or severe incidents.

  8. Psychological Trauma in the Workplace: Variation of Incident Severity among Industry Settings and between Recurring vs Isolated Incidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GS DeFraia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychologically traumatic workplace events (known as critical incidents occur within various work environments, with workgroups in certain industries vulnerable to multiple incidents. With the increasing prevalence of incidents in the USA, incident response is a growing practice area within occupational medicine, industrial psychology, occupational social work and other occupational health professions. Objective: To analyze a measure of incident severity based on level of disruption to the workplace and explore whether incident severity varied among different industry settings or between workgroups experiencing multiple vs single traumatic incidents. Methods: Administrative data mining was employed to examine practice data from a workplace trauma response unit in the USA. Bivariate analyses were conducted to test whether scores from an instrument measuring incident severity level varied among industry settings or between workgroups impacted by multiple vs isolated events. Results: Incident severity level differed among various industry settings. Banks, retail stores and fast food restaurants accounted for the most severe incidents, while industrial and manufacturing sites reported less severe incidents. Workgroups experiencing multiple incidents reported more severe incidents than workgroups experiencing a single incident. Conclusion: Occupational health practitioners should be alert to industry differences in several areas: pre-incident resiliency training, the content of business recovery plans, assessing worker characteristics, strategies to assist continuous operations and assisting workgroups impacted by multiple or severe incidents.

  9. Prevalência de marcadores imuno-hematológicos em recém-nascidos ao nascimento e em suas respectivas mães e incidência de doença hemolítica numa maternidade de São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cianciarullo Marco Antonio

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A introdução da imunoglobulina anti-D diminuiu a incidência da doença hemolítica neonatal por isoimunização Rh, porém persiste este diagnóstico por outros anticorpos mais raros e o avanço tecnológico tornou possível a detecção destes anticorpos. OBJETIVOS: Verificar a prevalência de marcadores imuno-hematológicos, representados pelos testes de Coombs indireto, direto e de eluição com identificação do anticorpo detectado; incidência de doença hemolítica e de tratamento entre os recém-nascidos sensibilizados. MÉTODOS: Estudo do tipo Coorte retrospectiva, de janeiro de 1996 a julho de 1998, consistiu na descrição da análise dos perfis imuno-hematológicos de 1698 pares de mães e recém-nascidos como fator de risco para doença hemolítica, subdivididos de acordo com os marcadores. A metodologia empregada para identificação dos marcadores foi o da microplaca com hemácias de triagem, soro antiglobulina humana e gel centrifugação. Para tipagens e fenotipagens utilizou-se o método de microplaca com soros monoclonais. Para o estudo da incidência e seguimento neonatal foram realizadas bilirrubinas totais e frações, por método enzimático colorímetro, hemoglobina e hematócrito, automatizado e reticulócitos, por coloração supra vital, azul cresil brilhante e leitura por microscopia óptica. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de marcadores imuno-hematológicos associados à doença hemolítica foi de 9,07%. Por grupos estratificados obtivemos no grupo com Coombs indireto (grupo I 0,43%; no grupo com Coombs direto (grupo D, 4,10% e no grupo com eluição (grupo E 4,53%. A incidência de doença hemolítica no estudo foi de 36,23%. Quando estratificada por grupos, obtivemos no grupo I, 33,56%, no grupo D, 44,43% e no grupo E, 29,24%. O tratamento com fototerapia foi necessário em 36,23% dos RN, sendo maior sua indicação no grupo D e a exsangüíneotransfusão foi necessária em 0,88% dos RN, sendo maior sua indica

  10. Incident Information Management Tool

    CERN Document Server

    Pejovic, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Flaws of\tcurrent incident information management at CMS and CERN\tare discussed. A new data\tmodel for future incident database is\tproposed and briefly described. Recently developed draft version of GIS-­‐based tool for incident tracking is presented.

  11. Secondary prevention care and effect: Total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and lipid-lowering drug use in women and men after incident myocardial infarction - The Tromsø Study 1994-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopstock, Laila A; Eggen, Anne Elise; Løchen, Maja-Lisa; Mathiesen, Ellisiv B; Njølstad, Inger; Wilsgaard, Tom

    2018-02-01

    Secondary prevention guidelines after myocardial infarction (MI) are gender neutral, but underutilisation of treatment in women has been reported. We investigated the change in total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels and lipid-lowering drug (LLD) use after first-ever MI in a population-based study. We followed 10,005 participants (54% women) attending the Tromsø Study 1994-1995 and 8483 participants (55% women) attending the Tromsø Study 2007-2008 for first-ever MI up to their participation in 2007-2008 and 2015-2016, respectively. We used linear and logistic regression models to investigate sex differences in change in lipid levels. A total of 395 (MI cohort I) and 132 participants (MI cohort II) had a first-ever MI during 1994-2008 and 2007-2013, respectively. Mean change in total cholesterol was -2.34 mmol/L (SD 1.15) in MI cohort I, and in LDL cholesterol was -1.63 mmol/L (SD 1.12) in MI cohort II. Men had a larger decrease in lipid levels compared to women: the linear regression coefficient for change was -0.33 (95% confidence interval [CI] -0.51 to -0.14) for total cholesterol and -0.21 (95% CI -0.37 to -0.04) for LDL cholesterol, adjusted for baseline lipid value, age and cohort. Men had 73% higher odds (95% CI 1.15-2.61) of treatment target achievement compared to women, adjusted for baseline lipid value, age and cohort. LLD use was reported in 85% of women and 92% of men in MI cohort I, and 80% in women and 89% in men in MI cohort II. Compared to men, women had significantly less decrease in lipid levels after MI, and a smaller proportion of women achieved the treatment target.

  12. [Skin cancer incidence in Zacatecas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinedo-Vega, José Luis; Castañeda-López, Rosalba; Dávila-Rangel, J Ignacio; Mireles-García, Fernando; Ríos-Martínez, Carlos; López-Saucedo, Adrián

    2014-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most frequent cancer related to ultraviolet radiation. The aim was to estimate the incidence of skin cancer type, melanoma and non-melanoma in Zacatecas, Mexico. An epidemiological study was carried out during the period from 2008 to 2012. The data were obtained from the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS), Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales de los Trabajadores del Estado (ISSSTE), Secretaría de Salud de Zacatecas (SSZ) and a private source, the Centro Médico Alameda. The incidence and the global prevalence were estimated. We studied 958 skin cancer cases, histopathologically confirmed. The cases were distributed as: 63.6 % basal cell carcinomas, 25.8 % squamous cell carcinomas, and 10.6 % melanoma. Significantly higher proportions were observed in women in the basal cell carcinomas (60.4 %) and squamous cell carcinomas (53.4 %). However, in the case of melanoma, the major proportion was observed in men (55.9 %). The more frequent skin cancer location was the face and for basal cell carcinoma was the nose (53 %); for squamous cell carcinomas were the lips (36 %), and for melanoma it was also the nose (40 %). The skin cancer incidence was estimated in 20 cases for each 100 000 inhabitants. Linear regression analysis showed that the skin cancer is increasing at an annual rate of 10.5 %. The anatomical location indicates that solar UV radiation is a risk factor, since the face is the zone with major exposure to solar radiation.

  13. Incidence and costs of achalasia in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoeij, F. B.; Ponds, F. A.; Smout, A. J.; Bredenoord, A. J.

    2018-01-01

    Recent reports show increasing incidence of achalasia in some populations. The aim of this study was to estimate incidence, prevalence, and healthcare costs of achalasia in a large cohort in The Netherlands. Data were obtained from the largest Dutch healthcare insurance company (±4.4 million

  14. Autoimmune diseases incidence in Belarus after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanovich, O.O.; Titov, L.P

    2010-01-01

    The statistical analysis has shown undulation the incidence of thyroiditis since 1998. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is characterized by a constant increase of cases. Data testify to the tendency of increasing the prevalence autoimmune diseases in Republic of Belarus. (authors)

  15. Low Bone Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Density Exam/Testing › Low Bone Density Low Bone Density Low bone density is when your bone density ... people with normal bone density. Detecting Low Bone Density A bone density test will determine whether you ...

  16. Prevalência do hipotiroidismo subclínico e repercussões sobre o perfil lipídico e massa óssea em mulheres na pós-menopausa Prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism and its effects on lipidic profile and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Aguiar Petri Nahas

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a prevalência do hipotiroidismo subclínico e suas repercussões sobre o perfil lipídico e a densidade mineral óssea (DMO em mulheres na pós-menopausa. Métodos: trata-se de estudo transversal com recuperação de dados de prontuários de pacientes acompanhadas em ambulatório de climatério. Critérios de inclusão: mulheres na pós-menopausa com dosagem do hormônio estimulador da tiróide (TSH e de tiroxina livre (T4-L. Critérios de exclusão: hipertiroidismo e carcinoma de tiróide. Considerou-se hipotiroidismo subclínico valores de TSH superiores a 5,0 mUI/mL e T4-L normal. Foram selecionadas 320 pacientes (idade 55,2±6,4 anos divididas em 3 grupos: função tiroideana normal (n=208, hipotiroidismo subclínico (n=53 e hipotiroidismo clínico sob tratamento (n=59. Foram analisados dados clínicos, uso de terapia hormonal, índice de massa corpórea (IMC=kg/m², perfil lipídico (colesterol total, HDL, LDL, triglicerídeos e DMO da coluna lombar e fêmur. Na análise estatística, as diferenças entre as médias dos grupos foram comparadas utilizando-se a análise de variância (ANOVA. Para múltipla comparação, assumindo que a variância era diferente entre os grupos, utilizou-se o método de Tukey. RESULTADOS: o hipotiroidismo subclínico foi diagnosticado em 16,1% dos casos. Os grupos foram homogêneos quanto às características clínicas, IMC e perfil lipídico e uso de terapêutica hormonal. Nas pacientes com hipotiroidismo subclínico ou clínico encontrou-se menor freqüência de osteopenia na coluna lombar e fêmur quando comparadas às eutiroidianas (pPURPOSE: to evaluate the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism and its effects on lipidic profile and bone mineral density (BMD in postmenopausal women. METHODS: a cross-sectional study with survey of data from medical records of patients attended at a climacteric outpatient clinic. Inclusion criteria: postmenopausal women with measured thyroid

  17. Beyond Risk Compensation: Clusters of Antiretroviral Treatment (ART) Users in Sexual Networks Can Modify the Impact of ART on HIV Incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delva, Wim; Helleringer, Stéphane

    Concerns about risk compensation-increased risk behaviours in response to a perception of reduced HIV transmission risk-after the initiation of ART have largely been dispelled in empirical studies, but other changes in sexual networking patterns may still modify the effects of ART on HIV incidence. We developed an exploratory mathematical model of HIV transmission that incorporates the possibility of ART clusters, i.e. subsets of the sexual network in which the density of ART patients is much higher than in the rest of the network. Such clusters may emerge as a result of ART homophily-a tendency for ART patients to preferentially form and maintain relationships with other ART patients. We assessed whether ART clusters may affect the impact of ART on HIV incidence, and how the influence of this effect-modifying variable depends on contextual variables such as HIV prevalence, HIV serosorting, coverage of HIV testing and ART, and adherence to ART. ART homophily can modify the impact of ART on HIV incidence in both directions. In concentrated epidemics and generalized epidemics with moderate HIV prevalence (≈ 10%), ART clusters can enhance the impact of ART on HIV incidence, especially when adherence to ART is poor. In hyperendemic settings (≈ 35% HIV prevalence), ART clusters can reduce the impact of ART on HIV incidence when adherence to ART is high but few people living with HIV (PLWH) have been diagnosed. In all contexts, the effects of ART clusters on HIV epidemic dynamics are distinct from those of HIV serosorting. Depending on the programmatic and epidemiological context, ART clusters may enhance or reduce the impact of ART on HIV incidence, in contrast to serosorting, which always leads to a lower impact of ART on HIV incidence. ART homophily and the emergence of ART clusters should be measured empirically and incorporated into more refined models used to plan and evaluate ART programmes.

  18. Beyond Risk Compensation: Clusters of Antiretroviral Treatment (ART Users in Sexual Networks Can Modify the Impact of ART on HIV Incidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Delva

    Full Text Available Concerns about risk compensation-increased risk behaviours in response to a perception of reduced HIV transmission risk-after the initiation of ART have largely been dispelled in empirical studies, but other changes in sexual networking patterns may still modify the effects of ART on HIV incidence.We developed an exploratory mathematical model of HIV transmission that incorporates the possibility of ART clusters, i.e. subsets of the sexual network in which the density of ART patients is much higher than in the rest of the network. Such clusters may emerge as a result of ART homophily-a tendency for ART patients to preferentially form and maintain relationships with other ART patients. We assessed whether ART clusters may affect the impact of ART on HIV incidence, and how the influence of this effect-modifying variable depends on contextual variables such as HIV prevalence, HIV serosorting, coverage of HIV testing and ART, and adherence to ART.ART homophily can modify the impact of ART on HIV incidence in both directions. In concentrated epidemics and generalized epidemics with moderate HIV prevalence (≈ 10%, ART clusters can enhance the impact of ART on HIV incidence, especially when adherence to ART is poor. In hyperendemic settings (≈ 35% HIV prevalence, ART clusters can reduce the impact of ART on HIV incidence when adherence to ART is high but few people living with HIV (PLWH have been diagnosed. In all contexts, the effects of ART clusters on HIV epidemic dynamics are distinct from those of HIV serosorting.Depending on the programmatic and epidemiological context, ART clusters may enhance or reduce the impact of ART on HIV incidence, in contrast to serosorting, which always leads to a lower impact of ART on HIV incidence. ART homophily and the emergence of ART clusters should be measured empirically and incorporated into more refined models used to plan and evaluate ART programmes.

  19. Beyond Risk Compensation: Clusters of Antiretroviral Treatment (ART) Users in Sexual Networks Can Modify the Impact of ART on HIV Incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delva, Wim; Helleringer, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Concerns about risk compensation—increased risk behaviours in response to a perception of reduced HIV transmission risk—after the initiation of ART have largely been dispelled in empirical studies, but other changes in sexual networking patterns may still modify the effects of ART on HIV incidence. Methods We developed an exploratory mathematical model of HIV transmission that incorporates the possibility of ART clusters, i.e. subsets of the sexual network in which the density of ART patients is much higher than in the rest of the network. Such clusters may emerge as a result of ART homophily—a tendency for ART patients to preferentially form and maintain relationships with other ART patients. We assessed whether ART clusters may affect the impact of ART on HIV incidence, and how the influence of this effect-modifying variable depends on contextual variables such as HIV prevalence, HIV serosorting, coverage of HIV testing and ART, and adherence to ART. Results ART homophily can modify the impact of ART on HIV incidence in both directions. In concentrated epidemics and generalized epidemics with moderate HIV prevalence (≈ 10%), ART clusters can enhance the impact of ART on HIV incidence, especially when adherence to ART is poor. In hyperendemic settings (≈ 35% HIV prevalence), ART clusters can reduce the impact of ART on HIV incidence when adherence to ART is high but few people living with HIV (PLWH) have been diagnosed. In all contexts, the effects of ART clusters on HIV epidemic dynamics are distinct from those of HIV serosorting. Conclusions Depending on the programmatic and epidemiological context, ART clusters may enhance or reduce the impact of ART on HIV incidence, in contrast to serosorting, which always leads to a lower impact of ART on HIV incidence. ART homophily and the emergence of ART clusters should be measured empirically and incorporated into more refined models used to plan and evaluate ART programmes. PMID:27657492

  20. Discontinuation of denosumab and associated fracture incidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Jacques P; Roux, Christian; Törring, Ove

    2012-01-01

    associated with transient increases in bone remodeling and declines in bone mineral density (BMD), the effect on fracture risk during treatment cessation is not as well characterized. To understand the fracture incidence between treatment groups after cessation of investigational product, we evaluated...

  1. Level densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatyuk, A.V.

    1998-01-01

    For any applications of the statistical theory of nuclear reactions it is very important to obtain the parameters of the level density description from the reliable experimental data. The cumulative numbers of low-lying levels and the average spacings between neutron resonances are usually used as such data. The level density parameters fitted to such data are compiled in the RIPL Starter File for the tree models most frequently used in practical calculations: i) For the Gilber-Cameron model the parameters of the Beijing group, based on a rather recent compilations of the neutron resonance and low-lying level densities and included into the beijing-gc.dat file, are chosen as recommended. As alternative versions the parameters provided by other groups are given into the files: jaeri-gc.dat, bombay-gc.dat, obninsk-gc.dat. Additionally the iljinov-gc.dat, and mengoni-gc.dat files include sets of the level density parameters that take into account the damping of shell effects at high energies. ii) For the backed-shifted Fermi gas model the beijing-bs.dat file is selected as the recommended one. Alternative parameters of the Obninsk group are given in the obninsk-bs.dat file and those of Bombay in bombay-bs.dat. iii) For the generalized superfluid model the Obninsk group parameters included into the obninsk-bcs.dat file are chosen as recommended ones and the beijing-bcs.dat file is included as an alternative set of parameters. iv) For the microscopic approach to the level densities the files are: obninsk-micro.for -FORTRAN 77 source for the microscopical statistical level density code developed in Obninsk by Ignatyuk and coworkers, moller-levels.gz - Moeller single-particle level and ground state deformation data base, moller-levels.for -retrieval code for Moeller single-particle level scheme. (author)

  2. Radiological incidents in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobzova, L.; Novotny, J.

    2008-01-01

    In many countries a reporting system of radiological incidents to national regulatory body exists and providers of radiotherapy treatment are obliged to report all major and/or in some countries all incidents occurring in institution. State Office for Nuclear Safety (SONS) is providing a systematic guidance for radiotherapy departments from 1997 by requiring inclusion of radiation safety problems into Quality assurance manual, which is the basic document for obtaining a license of SONS for handling with sources of ionizing radiation. For that purpose SONS also issued the recommendation 'Introduction of QA system for important sources in radiotherapy-radiological incidents' in which the radiological incidents are defined and the basic guidance for their classification (category A, B, C, D), investigation and reporting are given. At regular periods the SONS in co-operation with radiotherapy centers is making a survey of all radiological incidents occurring in institutions and it is presenting obtained information in synoptic communication (2003 Motolske dny, 2005 Novy Jicin). This presentation is another summary report of radiological incidents that occurred in our radiotherapy institutions during last 3 years. Emphasis is given not only to survey and statistics, but also to analysis of reasons of the radiological incidents and to their detection and prevention. Analyses of incidents in radiotherapy have led to a much broader understanding of incident causation. Information about the error should be shared as early as possible during or after investigation by all radiotherapy centers. Learning from incidents, errors and near misses should be a part of improvement of the QA system in institutions. Generally, it is recommended that all radiotherapy facilities should participate in the reporting, analyzing and learning system to facilitate the dissemination of knowledge throughout the whole country to prevent errors in radiotherapy.(authors)

  3. An ecological analysis of childhood-onset type 1 diabetes incidence and prevalence in Latin America Análisis ecológico de la incidencia y prevalencia en América Latina de diabetes tipo 1 con inicio en la niñez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Collado-Mesa

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To explore, for Latin America, by means of an ecological correlation analysis, the possible relationships between both the incidence and prevalence of childhood type 1 diabetes and selected hypothesized etiological factors, including race/ethnicity, geographical latitude, breast-feeding rates, per capita milk supply and coffee consumption, and wealth-related indicators such as infant mortality rate, life expectancy at birth, and national human development index. METHODS: Recently published data on incidence and prevalence of type 1 diabetes in children ¾ 14 years of age in Latin American countries were utilized. Risk indicators were selected based on existing genetic and environmental hypotheses. Indicator data were obtained from publicly available resources. Spearman correlation coefficients were used to measure the association between both incidence and prevalence of type 1 diabetes and the selected indicators. RESULTS: A strong negative correlation was found between the proportion of Amerindians in a country's population and both incidence (r = ­0.75; P= 0.008 and estimated prevalence (r = ­0.78; POBJETIVO: Explorar para América Latina, mediante un análisis de correlación ecológico, las posibles relaciones entre tanto la incidencia como la prevalencia de diabetes sacarina tipo 1 con inicio en la niñez y algunos factores etiológicos hipotéticos, entre ellos la raza o etnia, la latitud geográfica, las tasas de lactancia materna, el abastecimiento de leche, el consumo de café per cápita y algunos indicadores de situación económica, tales como la tasa de mortalidad de menores de un año, la esperanza de vida al nacer y el índice nacional de desarrollo humano. MÉTODOS: Se usaron datos publicados recientemente acerca de la incidencia y prevalencia de diabetes tipo 1 en niños menores de 15 años en países latinoamericanos. Se escogieron los indicadores de riesgo en función de las hipótesis de carácter genético y

  4. Depressive affect in incident hemodialysis patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, John W; Wingard, Rebecca L; Jiao, Yue; Rosen, Sophia; Ma, Lin; Usvyat, Len A; Maddux, Franklin W

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background The prevalence of depressive affect is not well defined in the incident hemodialysis (HD) population. We investigated the prevalence of and associated risk factors and hospitalization rates for depressive affect in incident HD patients. Methods We performed a prospective investigation using the Patient Health Questionnaire 2 (PHQ2) depressive affect assessment. From January to July of 2013 at 108 in-center clinics randomly selected across tertiles of baseline quality measures, we contacted 577 and 543 patients by telephone for depressive affect screening. PHQ2 test scores range from 0 to 6 (scores  ≥3 suggest the presence of depressive affect). The prevalence of depressive affect was measured at 1–30 and 121–150 days after initiating HD; depressive affect risk factors and hospitalization rates by depressive affect status at 1–30 days after starting HD were computed. Results Of 1120 contacted patients, 340 completed the PHQ2. In patients screened at 1–30 or 121–150 days after starting HD, depressive affect prevalence was 20.2% and 18.5%, respectively (unpaired t-test, P = 0.7). In 35 patients screened at both time points, there were trends for lower prevalence of depressive affect at the end of incident HD, with 20.0% and 5.7% of patients positive for depressive affect at 1–30 and 121–150 days, respectively (paired t-test, P = 0.1). Hospitalization rates were higher in patients with depressive affect during the first 30 days, exhibiting 1.5 more admissions (P < 0.001) and 10.5 additional hospital days (P = 0.008) per patient-year. Females were at higher risk for depressive affect at 1–30 days (P = 0.01). Conclusions The prevalence of depressive affect in HD patients is high throughout the incident period. Rates of hospital admissions and hospital days are increased in incident HD patients with depressive affect. PMID:29423211

  5. Distribution, incidence, prevalence and default of patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The International Diabetes Federation's 2013 Diabetes Atlas[3] indicates .... Data were analysed using Microsoft Excel ... from the most recent 2 years (2013 and 2014). ..... R24TW008863 from the Office of the US Global AIDS Coordinator and.

  6. Prevalence and incidence of postharvest diseases of blueberries in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent establishment of low-chill southern highbush blueberry cultivars in California’s warm climate has significantly increased the acreage of blueberry production in the Central Valley of California, which is now a major southern highbush blueberry production region in the United States. The vast ...

  7. Incidence and prevalence of sexual dysfunction in infertile females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohina S. Aggarwal

    2013-09-01

    Results: In our study 170 (63.67% patients in the infertile group (n = 267 had female sexual dysfunction as compared to108 (46.35% in the fertile group (n = 233, which is statistically significant (P 0.0001. Most common dysfunction observed was arousal (70% in infertile patients. Common dysfunctions observed in fertile females were desire (40% and orgasm (40%. FSD was significantly higher in infertile females of the 31–37 years age group (P 0.002, while more common in fertile females of >42 years of age (P < 0.0001. Higher female sexual dysfunction was observed in illiterate infertile females (P 0.039. Among the pathological factors endometriosis was the statistically significant factor associated with female sexual dysfunction and infertility (P < 0.0001. No significant correlation in duration of infertility or type of infertility was observed with female sexual dysfunction. Female sexual dysfunction as the cause or the effect should be ascertained in infertility.

  8. prevalence of brucellosis in livestock and incidences in humans

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Records 700 - 1600 ... suggesting chances of increased spread to humans, and the disease being misdiagnosed for malaria. .... Despite farmers knowledge of the .... In the current study, camels showed negative results, possibly due to few samples collected as most farmers were unwilling to let their animals be sampled.

  9. Prevalence of brucellosis in livestock and incidences in humans in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brucellosis is an emerging zoonotic disease that poses a threat to both livestock and public health in east Africa. There are several reports of occurrence of the disease in livestock populations especially in Tanzania and Kenya, suggesting chances of increased spread to humans, and the disease being misdiagnosed for ...

  10. Ambient air emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and female breast cancer incidence in US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stults, William Parker; Wei, Yudan

    2018-05-05

    To examine ambient air pollutants, specifically polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), as a factor in the geographic variation of breast cancer incidence seen in the US, we conducted an ecological study involving counties throughout the US to examine breast cancer incidence in relation to PAH emissions in ambient air. Age-adjusted incidence rates of female breast cancer from the surveillance, epidemiology, and end results (SEER) program of the US National Cancer Institute were collected and analyzed using SEER*Stat 8.3.2. PAH emissions data were obtained from the Environmental Protection Agency. Linear regression analysis was performed using SPSS 23 software for Windows to analyze the association between PAH emissions and breast cancer incidence, adjusting for potential confounders. Age-adjusted incidence rates of female breast cancer were found being significantly higher in more industrialized metropolitan SEER regions over the years of 1973-2013 as compared to less industrialized regions. After adjusting for sex, race, education, socioeconomic status, obesity, and smoking prevalence, PAH emission density was found to be significantly associated with female breast cancer incidence, with the adjusted β of 0.424 (95% CI 0.278, 0.570; p < 0.0001) for emissions from all sources and of 0.552 (95% CI 0.278, 0.826; p < 0.0001) for emissions from traffic source. This study suggests that PAH exposure from ambient air could play a role in the increased breast cancer risk among women living in urban areas of the US. Further research could provide insight into breast cancer etiology and prevention.

  11. A cross-sectional study of the relationship between serum liver enzymes level and the incidence of impaired fasting glucose in males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Guangming; Lu, Lihong; Xiao, Yufei; Zhu, Yimiao; Pan, Wensheng; Xu, Xiang; Shen, Shengrong; Das, Undurti N

    2014-07-28

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible correlation between levels of serum liver enzymes and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) in Chinese adults and to provide a new perspective for the prevention of pre-diabetes. Serum liver enzymes of the samples including alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and g-glutamyl transferase (GGT), as well as plasma glucose, blood lipids, and insulin, were measured. The cumulative incidences of IFG between different quartiles of liver enzymes were compared by the chi-square test. A logistic regression model (binary regression) was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) of IFG with 95% confidence interval (95% CI). The total incidence of IFG was 20.3% and the cumulative incidence of IFG was higher in men compared to women. In both sexes, IFG is more prevalent in higher quartiles of liver enzymes. After adjusting for age, BMI, blood pressure, triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and total cholesterol (TC), the cumulative incidences of IFG were significantly higher in the highest quartiles of liver enzymes than in the lowest quartiles. A significantly higher cumulative incidence of IFG was found in the highest GGT quartile than in the lowest quartile for woman. The results of this study suggest that serum liver enzymes are related to the risk of IFG in Chinese adults. We infer that preserving the hepatic function may be an efficient way to prevent the development of IFG, especially in males.

  12. Increased Incidence of Critical Illness in Psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrie, Ruth Ann; Bernstein, Charles N; Peschken, Christine A; Hitchon, Carol A; Chen, Hui; Garland, Allan

    Psoriasis is associated with an increased risk of comorbid disease. Despite the recognition of increased morbidity in psoriasis, the effects on health care utilisation remain incompletely understood. Little is known about the risk of intensive care unit (ICU) admission in persons with psoriasis. To compare the incidence of ICU admission and post-ICU mortality rates in a psoriasis population compared with a matched population without psoriasis. Using population-based administrative data from Manitoba, Canada, we identified 40 930 prevalent cases of psoriasis and an age-, sex-, and geographically matched cohort from the general population (n = 150 210). We compared the incidence of ICU admission between populations using incidence rates and Cox regression models adjusted for age, sex, socioeconomic status, and comorbidity and compared mortality after ICU admission. Among incident psoriasis cases (n = 30 150), the cumulative 10-year incidence of ICU admission was 5.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.3%-5.8%), 21% higher than in the matched cohort (incidence rate ratio, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.15-1.27). In the prevalent psoriasis cohort, crude mortality in the ICU was 11.5% (95% CI, 9.9%-13.0%), 32% higher than observed in the matched population admitted to the ICU (8.7%; 95% CI, 8.3%-9.1%). Mortality rates after ICU admission remained elevated at all time points in the psoriasis cohort compared with the matched cohort. Psoriasis is associated with an increased risk for ICU admission and with an increased risk of mortality post-ICU admission.

  13. Police Incident Blotter (Archive)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Police Blotter Archive contains crime incident data after it has been validated and processed to meet Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) standards, published on a...

  14. 2011 Japanese Nuclear Incident

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s RadNet system monitored the environmental radiation levels in the United States and parts of the Pacific following the Japanese Nuclear Incident. Learn about EPA’s response and view historical laboratory data and news releases.

  15. Prediction of Safety Incidents

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Safety incidents, including injuries, property damage and mission failures, cost NASA and contractors thousands of dollars in direct and indirect costs. This project...

  16. Marine Animal Incident Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Large whale stranding, death, ship strike and entanglement incidents are all recorded to monitor the health of each population and track anthropogenic factors that...

  17. Acute incidents during anaesthesia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    management of acute incidents and the prevention of ... High or total (complete) spinal blocks in obstetric .... Pain and opioid analgesics lead to delayed ... Step up postoperative care and use ... recognise suprasternal and supraclavicular.

  18. Variations in the Incidence of Schizophrenia: Data Versus Dogma

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, John J

    2006-01-01

    The schizophrenia research community has shared a belief that the incidence of schizophrenia shows little variation. This belief is related to the dogma that schizophrenia affects all individuals equally, regardless of sex, race, or nationality. However, there is now robust evidence that the incidence of schizophrenia is characterized by substantial variability. There is prominent variation in the incidence of schizophrenia between sites. The incidence of schizophrenia is significantly higher in males than in females (male:female ratio = 1.4). Migrants and those living in urban areas have a higher incidence of schizophrenia. The incidence of schizophrenia has fluctuations across time. In addition, the prevalence of schizophrenia is also characterized by prominent variation. The realization that schizophrenia is characterized by rich and informative gradients will serve as a catalyst for future research. PMID:16135560

  19. Hazmat Yearly Incident Summary Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Series of Incident data and summary statistics reports produced which provide statistical information on incidents by type, year, geographical location, and others....

  20. Radiation incidents in dentistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovelock, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    Most dental practitioners act as their own radiographer and radiologist, unlike their medical colleagues. Virtually all dental surgeons have a dental X-ray machine for intraoral radiography available to them and 40% of dental practices have equipment for dental panoramic tomography. Because of the low energy of X-ray equipment used in dentistry, radiation incidents tend to be less serious than those associated with other aspects of patient care. Details of 47 known incidents are given. The advent of the 1985 and 1988 Ionising Radiation Regulations has made dental surgeons more aware of the hazards of radiation. These regulations, and general health and safety legislation, have led to a few dental surgeons facing legal action. Because of the publicity associated with these court cases, it is expected that there will be a decrease in radiation incidents arising from the practice of dentistry. (author)

  1. Incidence of sexually transmitted infections during pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloe A Teasdale

    Full Text Available Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STI is high among pregnant women in certain settings. We estimated STI incidence and compared STI risk in pregnant and non-pregnant women. Data came from the Methods for Improving Reproductive Health in Africa (MIRA study conducted in South Africa and Zimbabwe 2003-2006. Women aged 18-50 years with at least one follow-up visit within 6 months of enrollment were included. Follow-up visits included laboratory testing for pregnancy, chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, and HIV, as well as self-report of hormonal contraceptive (HC use, sexual behaviors and intravaginal practices. All visits were classified according to pregnancy status. Incidence of each STI was calculated using follow-up time. Cox proportional hazards models were fitted using pregnancy as a time-varying exposure and sexual behaviors and intravaginal practices as time-varying covariates. Among 4,549 women, 766 (16.8% had a positive pregnancy test. Median follow-up time was 18 months [IQR: 12-24]. The overall incidence rate of chlamydia was 6.7 per 100 person years (py and 9.9/100py during pregnancy; gonorrhea incidence was 2.7/100py and 4.9/100py during pregnancy; trichomoniasis incidence was 7.1/100py overall and 9.2/100py during pregnancy. Overall HIV incidence was 3.9/100py and 3.8/100py during pregnancy. In crude models, pregnancy increased risk for chlamydia (hazard ratio (HR 1.5, 95%CI: 1.1-1.2, however there was no increased risk of any measured STI in adjusted models. STI Incidence was high during pregnancy however pregnancy did not increase STI risk after adjustment for sexual behaviors. Greater efforts are needed to help pregnant women avoid STIs.

  2. Thermal self-focusing at oblique incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craxton, R.S.; McCrory, R.L.

    1984-03-01

    Thermal self-focusing at oblique incidence has been investigated in two-dimensional line-focus geometry using the Eulerian hydrodynamics simulation code SAGE. The laser beam interacts with a long-scale-length preformed plasma with an expontial density profiele. Questions to be addressed include: (1) What happens when a self-focusing channel reaches the turning point of the incident rays, and (2) Does the unabsorbed light return in the specular direction or back along the channel. A comparison is also made between thermal self-focusing at normal incidence in cylindrical and line-focus geometries: in cylindrical geometry the self-focusing mechanism is enhanced by the relative ease with which plasma may be expelled from a small cylindrical channel

  3. Incidence and Risk of Cytomegalovirus Infection during Pregnancy in an Urban Area of Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo De Paschale

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The fetal consequences of CMV infection make it one of the most serious infections contracted during pregnancy, but the scientific community is divided over the proposed implementation of preventive screening for anti-CMV antibodies. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence and risk of infection during pregnancy in 2817 women who underwent anti-CMV IgG and IgM antibody screening during the period 2005–2007. The prevalence of anti-CMV IgG antibodies was 68.3% (95% CI: 66.6–70.0; the seroconversion rate in the 892 seronegative women was 0.32%; the results of IgG avidity testing revealed an cumulative incidence of 1.4% (95% CI: 0.97–1.83, density incidence of 0.8% (as cases/pregnant woman-trimester (95% CI: 0.47–1.13, and a risk of infection of 0.5% (95% CI: 0.24–0.76. The screening identified 13 cases of primary infection (84.6% of which occurred in the first trimester of pregnancy. The possibility to identify these cases and consequently to plan appropriate interventions, supports the use of screening during pregnancy, especially in the first trimester when the risk of infection is greater.

  4. Novel association of the R230C variant of the ABCA1 gene with high triglyceride levels and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in Mexican school-age children with high prevalence of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa-Meléndez, Marco Alberto; Galindo-Gómez, Carlos; Juárez-Martínez, Liliana; Gómez, F Enrique; Diaz-Diaz, Eulises; Ávila-Arcos, Marco Antonio; Ávila-Curiel, Abelardo

    2015-08-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a disorder that includes a cluster of several risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The R230C variant of the ABCA1 gene has been associated with low HDL-cholesterol in several studies, but its association with MetS in children remains to be determined. The aim of this study was to analyze the association of the R230C variant with MetS and other metabolic traits in school-aged Mexican children. The study was performed in seven urban primary schools in the State of Mexico. Four hundred thirty-two Mexican school-age children 6-13 years old were recruited. MetS was identified using the International Diabetes Federation definition. The R230C variant of the ABCA1 gene was genotyped to seek associations with MetS and other metabolic traits. The prevalence of MetS was 29% in children aged 10-13 years. The R230C variant was not associated with MetS (OR = 1.65; p = 0.139). Furthermore, in the whole population, the R230C variant was associated with low HDL-cholesterol levels (β coefficient = -3.28, p <0.001). Interestingly, in the total population we found a novel association of this variant with high triglyceride levels (β coefficient = 14.34; p = 0.027). We found a new association of the R230C variant of the ABCA1 gene with high triglyceride levels. Our findings also replicate the association of this variant with low HDL-cholesterol levels in Mexican school-age children. Copyright © 2015 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Whistler wave trapping in a density crest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugai, H.; Niki, H.; Inutake, M.; Takeda, S.

    1979-11-01

    The linear trapping process of whistler waves in a field-aligned density crest is investigated theoretically and experimentally below ω = ωsub(c)/2 (half gyrofrequency). The conditions of the crest trapping are derived in terms of the frequency ω/ωsub(c), the incident wave-normal angle theta sub(i), and the density ratio n sub(i)/n sub(o), where n sub(i) and n sub(o) denote the density at the incident point and that at the ridge, respectively. The oscillation length of the trapped ray path is calculated for a parabolic density profile. The experiment on antenna-excited whistler wave has been performed in a large magnetized plasma with the density crest. The phase and amplitude profile of the whistler wave is measured along and across the crest. The measurement has verified characteristic behaviors of the crest trapping. (author)

  6. Lightning incidents in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myagmar Doljinsuren

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This is one of the first studies that has been conducted in Mongolia on the distribution of lightning incidents. The study covers a 10-year period from 2004 to 2013. The country records a human death rate of 15.4 deaths per 10 million people per year, which is much higher than that of many countries with similar isokeraunic level. The reason may be the low-grown vegetation observed in most rural areas of Mongolia, a surface topography, typical to steppe climate. We suggest modifications to Gomes–Kadir equation for such countries, as it predicts a much lower annual death rate for Mongolia. The lightning incidents spread over the period from May to August with the peak of the number of incidents occurring in July. The worst lightning affected region in the country is the central part. Compared with impacts of other convective disasters such as squalls, thunderstorms and hail, lightning stands as the second highest in the number of incidents, human deaths and animal deaths. Economic losses due to lightning is only about 1% of the total losses due to the four extreme weather phenomena. However, unless precautionary measures are not promoted among the public, this figure of losses may significantly increase with time as the country is undergoing rapid industrialization at present.

  7. Incident users of antipsychotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, Lone; Kruse, Marie

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: In Denmark, as well as in many other countries, consumption of antipsychotics is on the rise, partly due to increasing off-label use. The aim of this study was to analyze and quantify the extent of off-label use and polypharmacy in incident users of antipsychotic medication, and to examine...

  8. Obesity and Regional Immigrant Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Scott D; Carbert, Nicole S

    2017-11-24

    Canada has an increasingly large immigrant population. Areas of higher immigrant density, may relate to immigrants' health through reduced acculturation to Western foods, greater access to cultural foods, and/or promotion of salubrious values/practices. It is unclear, however, whether an association exists between Canada-wide regional immigrant density and obesity among immigrants. Thus, we examined whether regional immigrant density was related to obesity, among immigrants. Adult immigrant respondents (n = 15,595) to a national population-level health survey were merged with region-level immigrant density data. Multi-level logistic regression was used to model the odds of obesity associated with increased immigrant density. The prevalence of obesity among the analytic sample was 16%. Increasing regional immigrant density was associated with lower odds of obesity among minority immigrants and long-term white immigrants. Immigrant density at the region-level in Canada may be an important contextual factor to consider when examining obesity among immigrants.

  9. Incidents with hazardous radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenhacker, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Incidents with hazardous radiation sources can occur in any country, even those without nuclear facilities. Preparedness for such incidents is supposed to fulfill globally agreed minimum standards. Incidents are categorized in incidents with licensed handling of radiation sources as for material testing, transport accidents of hazardous radiation sources, incidents with radionuclide batteries, incidents with satellites containing radioactive inventory, incidents wit not licensed handling of illegally acquired hazardous radiation sources. The emergency planning in Austria includes a differentiation according to the consequences: incidents with release of radioactive materials resulting in restricted contamination, incidents with release of radioactive materials resulting in local contamination, and incidents with the hazard of e@nhanced exposure due to the radiation source.

  10. When did HIV incidence peak in Harare, Zimbabwe? Back-calculation from mortality statistics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Lopman

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available HIV prevalence has recently begun to decline in Zimbabwe, a result of both high levels of AIDS mortality and a reduction in incident infections. An important component in understanding the dynamics in HIV prevalence is knowledge of past trends in incidence, such as when incidence peaked and at what level. However, empirical measurements of incidence over an extended time period are not available from Zimbabwe or elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa. Using mortality data, we use a back-calculation technique to reconstruct historic trends in incidence. From AIDS mortality data, extracted from death registration in Harare, together with an estimate of survival post-infection, HIV incidence trends were reconstructed that would give rise to the observed patterns of AIDS mortality. Models were fitted assuming three parametric forms of the incidence curve and under nine different assumptions regarding combinations of trends in non-AIDS mortality and patterns of survival post-infection with HIV. HIV prevalence was forward-projected from the fitted incidence and mortality curves. Models that constrained the incidence pattern to a cubic spline function were flexible and produced well-fitting, realistic patterns of incidence. In models assuming constant levels of non-AIDS mortality, annual incidence peaked between 4 and 5% between 1988 and 1990. Under other assumptions the peak level ranged from 3 to 8% per annum. However, scenarios assuming increasing levels of non-AIDS mortality resulted in implausibly low estimates of peak prevalence (11%, whereas models with decreasing underlying crude mortality could be consistent with the prevalence and mortality data. HIV incidence is most likely to have peaked in Harare between 1988 and 1990, which may have preceded the peak elsewhere in Zimbabwe. This finding, considered alongside the timing and location of HIV prevention activities, will give insight into the decline of HIV prevalence in Zimbabwe.

  11. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and metabolic syndrome components in young adults: A pooled analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Nolan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetSyn represents a clustering of different metabolic abnormalities. MetSyn prevalence is present in approximately 25% of all adults with increased prevalence in advanced ages. The presence of one component of MetSyn increases the risk of developing MetSyn later in life and likely represents a high lifetime burden of cardiovascular disease risk. Therefore we pooled data from multiple studies to establish the prevalence of MetSyn and MetSyn component prevalence across a broad range of ethnicities. PubMed, SCOPUS and Medline databases were searched to find papers presenting MetSyn and MetSyn component data for 18–30 year olds who were apparently healthy, free of disease, and MetSyn was assessed using either the harmonized, National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII, American Heart Association/National Heart, Blood and Lung Institute (AHA/NHBLI, or International Diabetes Federation (IDF definitions of MetSyn. After reviewing returned articles, 26,609 participants' data from 34 studies were included in the analysis and the data were pooled. MetSyn was present in 4.8–7% of young adults. Atherogenic dyslipidaemia defined as low high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol was the most prevalent MetSyn component (26.9–41.2%, followed by elevated blood pressure (16.6–26.6%, abdominal obesity (6.8–23.6%, atherogenic dyslipidaemia defined as raised triglycerides (8.6–15.6%, and raised fasting glucose (2.8–15.4%. These findings highlight that MetSyn is prevalent in young adults. Establishing the reason why low HDL is the most prevalent component may represent an important step in promoting primary prevention of MetSyn and reducing the incidence of subsequent clinical disease.

  12. Incidence and characteristics of chemical burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Dong-Hee; Lee, Sang-Gil; Kim, Hwan-Cheol

    2017-05-01

    Chemical burns can lead to serious health outcomes. Previous studies about chemical burns have been performed based on burn center data so these studies have provided limited information about the incidence of chemical burns at the national level. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and characteristics of chemical burns using nationwide databases. A cohort representing the Korean population, which was established using a national health insurance database, and a nationwide workers' compensation database were used to evaluate the incidence and characteristics of chemical burns. Characteristics of the affected body region, depth of burns, industry, task, and causative agents were analyzed from two databases. The incidence of chemical burns was calculated according to employment status. The most common regions involving chemical burns with hospital visits were the skin followed by the eyes. For skin lesions, the hands and wrists were the most commonly affected regions. Second degree burns were the most common in terms of depth of skin lesions. The hospital visit incidence was 1.96 per 10,000 person-year in the general population. The compensated chemical burns incidence was 0.17 per 10,000 person-year. Employees and the self-employed showed a significantly increased risk of chemical burns undergoing hospital visits compared to their dependents. Chemical burns on the skin and eyes are almost equally prevalent. The working environment was associated with increased risk of chemical burns. Our results may aid in estimating the size of the problem and prioritizing prevention of chemical burns. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  13. Maximum Credible Incidents

    CERN Document Server

    Strait, J

    2009-01-01

    Following the incident in sector 34, considerable effort has been made to improve the systems for detecting similar faults and to improve the safety systems to limit the damage if a similar incident should occur. Nevertheless, even after the consolidation and repairs are completed, other faults may still occur in the superconducting magnet systems, which could result in damage to the LHC. Such faults include both direct failures of a particular component or system, or an incorrect response to a “normal” upset condition, for example a quench. I will review a range of faults which could be reasonably expected to occur in the superconducting magnet systems, and which could result in substantial damage and down-time to the LHC. I will evaluate the probability and the consequences of such faults, and suggest what mitigations, if any, are possible to protect against each.

  14. Prevalence of very mild to severe dementia in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, K; Lolk, A; Nielsen, H

    1997-01-01

    The prevalence of dementia has been estimated in several countries and a meta-analysis has shown moderate and severe dementia in people aged 65 years and older to be between 4% and 6%. The Odense study is aiming to estimate the prevalence and incidence of dementia and to identify risk factors....

  15. Prevalence and risk factors associated with retinopathy in diabetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diabetic retinopathy is the fifth leading cause of blindness worldwide accounting for nearly 5% of all blindness. However, most of the prevalence and incidence data is from developed countries, with very limited information from sub-Saharan Africa. The study sought to determine the prevalence of, and factors associated ...

  16. Contaminated Mexican steel incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This report documents the circumstances contributing to the inadvertent melting of cobalt 60 (Co-60) contaminated scrap metal in two Mexican steel foundries and the subsequent distribution of contaminated steel products into the United States. The report addresses mainly those actions taken by US Federal and state agencies to protect the US population from radiation risks associated with the incident. Mexico had much more serious radiation exposure and contamination problems to manage. The United States Government maintained a standing offer to provide technical and medical assistance to the Mexican Government. The report covers the tracing of the source to its origin, response actions to recover radioactive steel in the United States, and return of the contaminated materials to Mexico. The incident resulted in significant radiation exposures within Mexico, but no known significant exposure within the United States. Response to the incident required the combined efforts of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Department of Energy, Department of Transportation, Department of State, and US Customs Service (Department of Treasury) personnel at the Federal level and representatives of all 50 State Radiation Control Programs and, in some instances, local and county government personnel. The response also required a diplomatic interface with the Mexican Government and cooperation of numerous commercial establishments and members of the general public. The report describes the factual information associated with the event and may serve as information for subsequent recommendations and actions by the NRC. 8 figures

  17. Natural background radiation and oncologic disease incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burenin, P.I.

    1982-01-01

    Cause and effect relationships between oncologic disease incidence in human population and environmental factors are examined using investigation materials of Soviet and foreign authors. The data concerning US white population are adduced. The role and contribution of natural background radiation oncologic disease prevalence have been determined with the help of system information analysis. The probable damage of oncologic disease is shown to decrease as the background radiation level diminishes. The linear nature of dose-response relationspip has been established. The necessity to include the life history of the studied population along with environmental factors in epidemiological study under conditions of multiplicity of cancerogenesis causes is emphasized

  18. Survivorship of Anopheles darlingi (Diptera: Culicidae in relation with malaria incidence in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Saito Monteiro de Barros

    Full Text Available We performed a longitudinal study of adult survival of Anopheles darlingi, the most important vector in the Amazon, in a malarigenous frontier zone of Brazil. Survival rates were determined from both parous rates and multiparous dissections. Anopheles darlingi human biting rates, daily survival rates and expectation of life where higher in the dry season, as compared to the rainy season, and were correlated with malaria incidence. The biting density of mosquitoes that had survived long enough for completing at least one sporogonic cycle was related with the number of malaria cases by linear regression. Survival rates were the limiting factor explaining longitudinal variations in Plasmodium vivax malaria incidence and the association between adult mosquito survival and malaria was statistically significant by logistic regression (P<0.05. Survival rates were better correlated with malaria incidence than adult mosquito biting density. Mathematical modeling showed that P. falciparum and P. malariae were more vulnerable to changes in mosquito survival rates because of longer sporogonic cycle duration, as compared to P. vivax, which could account for the low prevalence of the former parasites observed in the study area. Population modeling also showed that the observed decreases in human biting rates in the wet season could be entirely explained by decreases in survival rates, suggesting that decreased breeding did not occur in the wet season, at the sites where adult mosquitoes were collected. For the first time in the literature, multivariate methods detected a statistically significant inverse relation (P<0.05 between the number of rainy days per month and daily survival rates, suggesting that rainfall may cause adult mortality.

  19. The incidence and antibiotics susceptibility of Escherichia coli O157 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-02-22

    Feb 22, 2010 ... The incidence of Escherichia coli 0157: H7 was assessed in meat samples from slaughtered cattle in. Ibadan metropolis by culturing ... high quality farm to fork wholesome and safe meat for public consumption in Nigeria. Key words: EHEC .... Prevalence and in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility. Trop. Vet. 26.

  20. Predictors of incident depression after hip fracture surgery.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Voshaar, R.C.; Banerjee, S.; Horan, M.; Baldwin, R.; Pendleton, N.; Proctor, R.; Tarrier, N.; Woodward, Y.; Burns, A.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Depression after hip fracture surgery is prevalent and associated with increased mortality rates and impaired functional recovery. The incidence of new-onset depressive symptoms in patients initially not depressed after hip fracture surgery and their relationship with functional recovery

  1. Medication incidents reported to an online incident reporting system.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Alrwisan, Adel

    2011-01-15

    AIMS: Approximately 20% of deaths from adverse events are related to medication incidents, costing the NHS an additional £500 million annually. Less than 5% of adverse events are reported. This study aims to assess the reporting rate of medication incidents in NHS facilities in the north east of Scotland, and to describe the types and outcomes of reported incidents among different services. Furthermore, we wished to quantify the proportion of reported incidents according to the reporters\\' profession. METHODS: A retrospective description was made of medication incidents reported to an online reporting system (DATIX) over a 46-month-period (July 2005 to April 2009). Reports originated from acute and community hospitals, mental health, and primary care facilities. RESULTS: Over the study period there were 2,666 incidents reported with a mean monthly reporting rate of 78.2\\/month (SD±16.9). 6.1% of all incidents resulted in harm, with insulin being the most commonly implicated medication. Nearly three-quarters (74.2%, n=1,978) of total incidents originated from acute hospitals. Administration incidents were implicated in the majority of the reported medication incidents (59%), followed by prescribing (10.8%) and dispensing (9.9%), while the nondescript "other medication incidents" accounted for 20.3% of total incidents. The majority of reports were made by nursing and midwifery staff (80%), with medical and dental professionals reporting the lowest number of incidents (n=56, 2%). CONCLUSIONS: The majority of medication incidents in this study were reported by nursing and midwifery staff, and were due to administration incidents. There is a clear need to elucidate the reasons for the limited contribution of the medical and dental professionals to reporting medication incidents.

  2. Spatial Distribution of Black Bear Incident Reports in Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden-Hiller, Jamie E; Beyer, Dean E; Belant, Jerrold L

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between humans and carnivores have existed for centuries due to competition for food and space. American black bears are increasing in abundance and populations are expanding geographically in many portions of its range, including areas that are also increasing in human density, often resulting in associated increases in human-bear conflict (hereafter, bear incidents). We used public reports of bear incidents in Michigan, USA, from 2003-2011 to assess the relative contributions of ecological and anthropogenic variables in explaining the spatial distribution of bear incidents and estimated the potential risk of bear incidents. We used weighted Normalized Difference Vegetation Index mean as an index of primary productivity, region (i.e., Upper Peninsula or Lower Peninsula), primary and secondary road densities, and percentage land cover type within 6.5-km2 circular buffers around bear incidents and random points. We developed 22 a priori models and used generalized linear models and Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) to rank models. The global model was the best compromise between model complexity and model fit (w = 0.99), with a ΔAIC 8.99 units from the second best performing model. We found that as deciduous forest cover increased, the probability of bear incident occurrence increased. Among the measured anthropogenic variables, cultivated crops and primary roads were the most important in our AIC-best model and were both positively related to the probability of bear incident occurrence. The spatial distribution of relative bear incident risk varied markedly throughout Michigan. Forest cover fragmented with agriculture and other anthropogenic activities presents an environment that likely facilitates bear incidents. Our map can help wildlife managers identify areas of bear incident occurrence, which in turn can be used to help develop strategies aimed at reducing incidents. Researchers and wildlife managers can use similar mapping techniques to

  3. Spatial Distribution of Black Bear Incident Reports in Michigan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie E McFadden-Hiller

    Full Text Available Interactions between humans and carnivores have existed for centuries due to competition for food and space. American black bears are increasing in abundance and populations are expanding geographically in many portions of its range, including areas that are also increasing in human density, often resulting in associated increases in human-bear conflict (hereafter, bear incidents. We used public reports of bear incidents in Michigan, USA, from 2003-2011 to assess the relative contributions of ecological and anthropogenic variables in explaining the spatial distribution of bear incidents and estimated the potential risk of bear incidents. We used weighted Normalized Difference Vegetation Index mean as an index of primary productivity, region (i.e., Upper Peninsula or Lower Peninsula, primary and secondary road densities, and percentage land cover type within 6.5-km2 circular buffers around bear incidents and random points. We developed 22 a priori models and used generalized linear models and Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC to rank models. The global model was the best compromise between model complexity and model fit (w = 0.99, with a ΔAIC 8.99 units from the second best performing model. We found that as deciduous forest cover increased, the probability of bear incident occurrence increased. Among the measured anthropogenic variables, cultivated crops and primary roads were the most important in our AIC-best model and were both positively related to the probability of bear incident occurrence. The spatial distribution of relative bear incident risk varied markedly throughout Michigan. Forest cover fragmented with agriculture and other anthropogenic activities presents an environment that likely facilitates bear incidents. Our map can help wildlife managers identify areas of bear incident occurrence, which in turn can be used to help develop strategies aimed at reducing incidents. Researchers and wildlife managers can use similar mapping

  4. Bevacizumab increases the incidence of cardiovascular events in patients with metastatic breast or colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Kapelakis

    2017-05-01

    Conclusions: The addition of bevacizumab to conventional chemotherapy for metastatic breast or colorectal cancer increases the incidence of cardiovascular events, which is mainly due to the increased prevalence of myocardial infarction and thromboembolic events.

  5. Improving freight crash incident management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the most effective way to mitigate the effect of freight : crash incidents on Louisiana freeways. Candidate incident management strategies were reviewed from : practice in other states and from those publi...

  6. Benign breast disease, mammographic breast density, and the risk of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, Jeffrey A; O'Meara, Ellen S; Weaver, Donald L; Vachon, Celine; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel; Kerlikowske, Karla

    2013-07-17

    Benign breast disease and high breast density are prevalent, strong risk factors for breast cancer. Women with both risk factors may be at very high risk. We included 42818 women participating in the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium who had no prior diagnosis of breast cancer and had undergone at least one benign breast biopsy and mammogram; 1359 women developed incident breast cancer in 6.1 years of follow-up (78.1% invasive, 21.9% ductal carcinoma in situ). We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) using Cox regression analysis. The referent group was women with nonproliferative changes and average density. All P values are two-sided. Benign breast disease and breast density were independently associated with breast cancer. The combination of atypical hyperplasia and very high density was uncommon (0.6% of biopsies) but was associated with the highest risk for breast cancer (HR = 5.34; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.52 to 8.09, P < .001). Proliferative disease without atypia (25.6% of biopsies) was associated with elevated risk that varied little across levels of density: average (HR = 1.37; 95% CI = 1.11 to 1.69, P = .003), high (HR = 2.02; 95% CI = 1.68 to 2.44, P < .001), or very high (HR = 2.05; 95% CI = 1.54 to 2.72, P < .001). Low breast density (4.5% of biopsies) was associated with low risk (HRs <1) for all benign pathology diagnoses. Women with high breast density and proliferative benign breast disease are at very high risk for future breast cancer. Women with low breast density are at low risk, regardless of their benign pathologic diagnosis.

  7. Increasing incidence of pyogenic spondylodiscitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehrer, Michala; Pedersen, Court; Jensen, Thøger G

    2014-01-01

    Smaller studies indicate that the incidence of pyogenic spondylodiscitis is increasing, possible related to a growing elderly population. Data supporting this is sparse, and we therefore studied patient characteristics and changes in spondylodiscitis incidence 1995-2008.......Smaller studies indicate that the incidence of pyogenic spondylodiscitis is increasing, possible related to a growing elderly population. Data supporting this is sparse, and we therefore studied patient characteristics and changes in spondylodiscitis incidence 1995-2008....

  8. Incident Management: Process into Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Gayle; Moore, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Tornados, shootings, fires--these are emergencies that require fast action by school district personnel, but they are not the only incidents that require risk management. The authors have introduced the National Incident Management System (NIMS) and the Incident Command System (ICS) and assured that these systems can help educators plan for and…

  9. The incidence of abortion worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henshaw, S K; Singh, S; Haas, T

    1999-01-01

    Accurate measurement of induced abortion levels has proven difficult in many parts of the world. Health care workers and policymakers need information on the incidence of both legal and illegal induced abortion to provide the needed services and to reduce the negative impact of unsafe abortion on women's health. Numbers and rates of induced abortions were estimated from four sources: official statistics or other national data on legal abortions in 57 countries; estimates based on population surveys for two countries without official statistics; special studies for 10 countries where abortion is highly restricted; and worldwide and regional estimates of unsafe abortion from the World Health Organization. Approximately 26 million legal and 20 million illegal abortions were performed worldwide in 1995, resulting in a worldwide abortion rate of 35 per 1,000 women aged 15-44. Among the subregions of the world, Eastern Europe had the highest abortion rate (90 per 1,000) and Western Europe to the lowest rate (11 per 1,000). Among countries where abortion is legal without restriction as to reason, the highest abortion rate, 83 per 1,000, was reported for Vietnam and the lowest, seven per 1,000, for Belgium and the Netherlands. Abortion rates are no lower overall in areas where abortion is generally restricted by law (and where many abortions are performed under unsafe conditions) than in areas where abortion is legally permitted. Both developed and developing countries can have low abortion rates. Most countries, however, have moderate to high abortion rates, reflecting lower prevalence and effectiveness of contraceptive use. Stringent legal restrictions do not guarantee a low abortion rate.

  10. EAP-based critical incident stress management: utilization of a practice-based assessment of incident severity level in responding to workplace trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFraia, Gary S

    2013-01-01

    Central to the field of trauma psychology is assessment of the impact of critical incidents on individuals, as measured by individual symptoms of stress. Accordingly, the trauma literature reflects a proliferation of clinical impact of event scales. Workplace incidents however, affect not only individual employees, but also work organizations, requiring a multi-level response. Critical incident stress management (CISM) is the most prevalent multi-level incident response strategy utilized by organizations, often through specialized CISM units operating within their employee assistance programs (EAPs). While EAP-based CISM units seeks to support both individuals and organizations, studies focused on individual stress dominate the literature, mirroring assessment scales that tend to emphasize clinical as opposed to organizational practice. This research contributes to less-prevalent studies exploring incident characteristics as disruptive to organizations, rather than clinical symptoms as disruptive to individuals. To measure incident disruption, an EAP-based CISM unit developed a critical incident severity scale. By analyzing this unit's extensive practice database, this exploratory study examines how critical incident severity level varies among various types of incidents. Employing the methodology of clinical data mining, this practice-based research generates evidence-informed practice recommendations in the areas of EAP-based CISM intake assessment, organizational consultation and incident response planning.

  11. Grazing incidence beam expander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akkapeddi, P.R.; Glenn, P.; Fuschetto, A.; Appert, Q.; Viswanathan, V.K.

    1985-01-01

    A Grazing Incidence Beam Expander (GIBE) telescope is being designed and fabricated to be used as an equivalent end mirror in a long laser resonator cavity. The design requirements for this GIBE flow down from a generic Free Electron Laser (FEL) resonator. The nature of the FEL gain volume (a thin, pencil-like, on-axis region) dictates that the output beam be very small. Such a thin beam with the high power levels characteristic of FELs would have to travel perhaps hundreds of meters or more before expanding enough to allow reflection from cooled mirrors. A GIBE, on the other hand, would allow placing these optics closer to the gain region and thus reduces the cavity lengths substantially. Results are presented relating to optical and mechanical design, alignment sensitivity analysis, radius of curvature analysis, laser cavity stability analysis of a linear stable concentric laser cavity with a GIBE. Fabrication details of the GIBE are also given.

  12. Incidence and outcomes of bulimia nervosa : a nationwide population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keski-Rahkonen, A.; Hoek, H. W.; Linna, M. S.; Raevuori, A.; Sihvola, E.; Bulik, C. M.; Rissanen, A.; Kaprio, J.

    Background. Little is known about the epidemiology of bulimia nervosa outside clinical settings. We report the incidence, prevalence and outcomes of bulimia nervosa using for the first time a nationwide Study design. Method. To assess the incidence and natural course and outcomes of DSM-IV bulimia

  13. The incidence of depression and its risk factors in Dutch nursing homes and residential care homes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boorsma, M.; Joling, K.J.; Dussel, M.; Ribbe, M.W.; Frijters, D.H.M.; van Marwijk, H.W.J.; Nijpels, G.; van Hout, H.P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Although it is known that depression is highly prevalent in institutionalized older adults, little is known about its incidence and risk factors in nursing homes and residential care homes. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the incidence and associated risk factors for

  14. Plasmas produced by incident laser in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira Campos, D. de; Boeckelmann, H.K.

    1984-01-01

    The experimental arrangement for plasma production by incident laser in solids and a system of diagnostics are presented. The system of diagnostics allows: verify the plasma generation and expansion through the ultrahigh-speed photography; obtain measurements of temperature and density by spectroscopy (using an optical analyser of multichannels) and obtain measurements of kinetic energy of ions through his fly time, using a 'Faraday cup'. A vacuum system with an adsorption pump for pre-vacuum and ionic pump was used to reduce pressure and avoid mechanical vibrations and system contaminations. (M.C.K.) [pt

  15. Scrub Typhus Incidence Modeling with Meteorological Factors in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Jaewon; Kim, Soojun; Kim, Gilho; Singh, Vijay P; Hong, Seungjin; Kim, Hung Soo

    2015-06-29

    Since its recurrence in 1986, scrub typhus has been occurring annually and it is considered as one of the most prevalent diseases in Korea. Scrub typhus is a 3rd grade nationally notifiable disease that has greatly increased in Korea since 2000. The objective of this study is to construct a disease incidence model for prediction and quantification of the incidences of scrub typhus. Using data from 2001 to 2010, the incidence Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model, which considers the time-lag between scrub typhus and minimum temperature, precipitation and average wind speed based on the Granger causality and spectral analysis, is constructed and tested for 2011 to 2012. Results show reliable simulation of scrub typhus incidences with selected predictors, and indicate that the seasonality in meteorological data should be considered.

  16. Scrub Typhus Incidence Modeling with Meteorological Factors in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewon Kwak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Since its recurrence in 1986, scrub typhus has been occurring annually and it is considered as one of the most prevalent diseases in Korea. Scrub typhus is a 3rd grade nationally notifiable disease that has greatly increased in Korea since 2000. The objective of this study is to construct a disease incidence model for prediction and quantification of the incidences of scrub typhus. Using data from 2001 to 2010, the incidence Artificial Neural Network (ANN model, which considers the time-lag between scrub typhus and minimum temperature, precipitation and average wind speed based on the Granger causality and spectral analysis, is constructed and tested for 2011 to 2012. Results show reliable simulation of scrub typhus incidences with selected predictors, and indicate that the seasonality in meteorological data should be considered.

  17. Grazing Incidence Neutron Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubarev, Mikhail V. (Inventor); Ramsey, Brian D. (Inventor); Engelhaupt, Darell E. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Neutron optics based on the two-reflection geometries are capable of controlling beams of long wavelength neutrons with low angular divergence. The preferred mirror fabrication technique is a replication process with electroform nickel replication process being preferable. In the preliminary demonstration test an electroform nickel optics gave the neutron current density gain at the focal spot of the mirror at least 8 for neutron wavelengths in the range from 6 to 20.ANG.. The replication techniques can be also be used to fabricate neutron beam controlling guides.

  18. The incidence of secual harassment at higher education institutions in South Africa: perceptions of academic staff

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre Joubert; Christo van Wyk; Sebastiaan Rothmann

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to investigate the perceptions of academic staff relating to the incidence of sexual harassment at higher education institutions in South Africa. The results show a relatively low incidence level of sexual harassment, with gender harassment being more prevalent than unwanted sexual attention and quid pro quo harassment. No statistically significant effect of gender, age, population group or years of service was found on the perceptions of the incidence of sexual harassment. ...

  19. Dyslipidemia in rural areas of North China: prevalence, characteristics, and predictive value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Nannan; Yu, Yong; Zhang, Bingchang; Yuan, Zhongshang; Zhang, Haiqing; Song, Yongfeng; Zhao, Meng; Ji, Jiadong; Liu, Lu; Xu, Chao; Zhao, Jiajun

    2016-09-13

    The prevalence of cardiovascular disease has been increasing worldwide. As a common pathogenic risk factor, dyslipidemia played a great role in the incidence and progress of these diseases. We investigated to achieve accurate and up-to-date information on the prevalence of dyslipidemia and its associations with other lipid-related diseases in rural North China. Using a complex, multistage, probability sampling design, we conducted a large-scale cross-sectional study of 8528 rural participants aged over 18 years in Shandong Province. Prevalence and characteristics of dyslipidemia were demonstrated. The odds ratios between dyslipidemia types and lipid-related diseases were further analyzed by logistic regression. Among the overall population, 45.8 % suffered from dyslipidemia. The prevalence of lipid abnormality (including high and very high levels) was 18.6, 12.7, 9.8 and 12.7 % for total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglycerides (TG), respectively. Among all participants with dyslipidemia, 23.9 % were aware, only 11.5 % were treated, 10.0 % were controlled. For subjects with dyslipidemia, the risk for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) was highest with a 3.3-fold over that of non-dyslipidmia (OR = 3.30, P Dyslipidemia has become a serious public health issue in rural North China. The rapid increase of high TC and incremental risk of high TG may contribute to the epidemic of AS, NAFLD and DM. It is imperative to develop individualized prevention and treatment guidelines according to dyslipidemia phenotypes.

  20. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone and Bone Mineral Density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Vliet, Nicolien A; Noordam, Raymond; van Klinken, Jan B

    2018-01-01

    With population aging, prevalence of low bone mineral density (BMD) and associated fracture risk are increased. To determine whether low circulating thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels within the normal range are causally related to BMD, we conducted a two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR...

  1. Cancer incidence among firefighters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pukkala, Eero; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Firefighters are potentially exposed to a wide range of known and suspected carcinogens through their work. The objectives of this study were to examine the patterns of cancer among Nordic firefighters, and to compare them with the results from previous studies. METHODS: Data for this......OBJECTIVES: Firefighters are potentially exposed to a wide range of known and suspected carcinogens through their work. The objectives of this study were to examine the patterns of cancer among Nordic firefighters, and to compare them with the results from previous studies. METHODS: Data...... for this study were drawn from a linkage between the census data for 15 million people from the five Nordic countries and their cancer registries for the period 1961-2005. SIR analyses were conducted with the cancer incidence rates for the entire national study populations used as reference rates. RESULTS......: A total of 16 422 male firefighters were included in the final cohort. A moderate excess risk was seen for all cancer sites combined, (SIR=1.06, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.11). There were statistically significant excesses in the age category of 30-49 years in prostate cancer (SIR=2.59, 95% CI 1.34 to 4...