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Sample records for prevalence geographical distribution

  1. Estimating the geographical distribution of the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in young Mexicans

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    Miguel Murguía-Romero

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The geographical distribution of the metabolic syndrome (MetS prevalence in young Mexicans (aged 17-24 years was estimated stepwise starting from its prevalence based on the body mass index (BMI in a study of 3,176 undergraduate students of this age group from Mexico City. To estimate the number of people with MetS by state, we multiplied its prevalence derived from the BMI range found in the Mexico City sample by the BMI proportions (range and state obtained from the Mexico 2006 national survey on health and nutrition. Finally, to estimate the total number of young people with MetS in Mexico, its prevalence by state was multiplied by the share of young population in each state according to the National Population and Housing Census 2010. Based on these figures, we estimated the national prevalence of MetS at 15.8%, the average BMI at 24.1 (standard deviation = 4.2, and the prevalence of overweight people (BMI ≥25 of that age group at 39.0%. These results imply that 2,588,414 young Mexicans suffered from MetS in 2010. The Yucatan peninsula in the south and the Sonora state in the north showed the highest rates of MetS prevalence. The calculation of the MetS prevalence by BMI range in a sample of the population, and extrapolating it using the BMI proportions by range of the total population, was found to be a useful approach. We conclude that the BMI is a valuable public health tool to estimate MetS prevalence in the whole country, including its geographical distribution.

  2. The prevalence and geographic distribution of complex co-occurring disorders: a population study.

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    Somers, J M; Moniruzzaman, A; Rezansoff, S N; Brink, J; Russolillo, A

    2016-06-01

    A subset of people with co-occurring substance use and mental disorders require coordinated support from health, social welfare and justice agencies to achieve diversion from homelessness, criminal recidivism and further health and social harms. Integrated models of care are typically concentrated in large urban centres. The present study aimed to empirically measure the prevalence and distribution of complex co-occurring disorders (CCD) in a large geographic region that includes urban as well as rural and remote settings. Linked data were examined in a population of roughly 3.7 million adults. Inclusion criteria for the CCD subpopulation were: physician diagnosed substance use and mental disorders; psychiatric hospitalisation; shelter assistance; and criminal convictions. Prevalence per 100 000 was calculated in 91 small areas representing urban, rural and remote settings. 2202 individuals met our inclusion criteria for CCD. Participants had high rates of hospitalisation (8.2 admissions), criminal convictions (8.6 sentences) and social assistance payments (over $36 000 CDN) in the past 5 years. There was wide variability in the geographic distribution of people with CCD, with high prevalence rates in rural and remote settings. People with CCD are not restricted to areas with large populations or to urban settings. The highest per capita rates of CCD were observed in relatively remote locations, where mental health and substance use services are typically in limited supply. Empirically supported interventions must be adapted to meet the needs of people living outside of urban settings with high rates of CCD.

  3. Prevalence and geographic distribution of herniated intervertebral disc in Korean 19-year-old male from 2008 to 2009: a study based on Korean conscription -national and geographic prevalence of herniated intervertebral disc in Korean 19YO male-.

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    Lee, Sang Hun; Oh, Chang Hyun; Yoon, Seung Hwan; Park, Hyeong-chun; Park, Chong Oon

    2013-09-01

    This study was to determine the prevalence of herniated intervertebral disc (HIVD) among Korean 19-year-old male in a large national sample and to compare the prevalence across geographic regions based on the data of conscription. We analyzed the conscription data of 615508 cases who were 19-year-old male, given an examination for conscription at nationwide Korean Military Manpower Administration from January 2008 to December 2009. Prevalence was determined by dividing the number of cases by the number of persons enrolled for 2 years. The analyses included of a cross-tabulations and nonparametric chi-square to compare the prevalence according to geographic region, disc severity, and conscription year. The prevalence of HIVD among 19-year-old male was 0.47%. Seoul had the highest prevalence of HIVD (total HIVD was 0.60%, and severe HIVD was 0.44%). The prevalence of HIVD was lower in Jeollabuk- do and Jeollanam-do (total HIVD was 0.25-0.27%, and severe HIVD was 0.16-0.17%). Annual prevalence of HIVD was slightly decreased in 2009, but geographic distribution annually was not different. In Korean 19-year-old male, the national prevalence of adolescent HIVD was 0.60%, but different geographic distribution was observed. It is quite possible that secondary contributing factor(s) interfere with the different geographic prevalence of HIVD.

  4. High Prevalence of Hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae Infection in China: Geographic Distribution, Clinical Characteristics, and Antimicrobial Resistance.

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    Zhang, Yawei; Zhao, Chunjiang; Wang, Qi; Wang, Xiaojuan; Chen, Hongbin; Li, Henan; Zhang, Feifei; Li, Shuguang; Wang, Ruobing; Wang, Hui

    2016-10-01

    Hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae (hvKP) is traditionally defined by hypermucoviscosity, but data based on genetic background are limited. Antimicrobial-resistant hvKP has been increasingly reported but has not yet been systematically studied. K. pneumoniae isolates from bloodstream infections, hospital-acquired pneumonia, and intra-abdominal infections were collected from 10 cities in China during February to July 2013. Clinical data were collected from medical records. All K. pneumoniae isolates were investigated by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, string test, extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) gene detection, capsular serotypes, virulence gene profiles, and multilocus sequence typing. hvKP was defined by aerobactin detection. Of 230 K. pneumoniae isolates, 37.8% were hvKP. The prevalence of hvKP varied among different cities, with the highest rate in Wuhan (73.9%) and the lowest in Zhejiang (8.3%). Hypermucoviscosity and the presence of K1, K2, K20, and rmpA genes were strongly associated with hvKP (P < 0.001). A significantly higher incidence of liver abscess (P = 0.026), sepsis (P = 0.038), and invasive infections (P = 0.043) was caused by hvKP. Cancer (odds ratio [OR], 2.285) and diabetes mellitus (OR, 2.256) appeared to be independent variables associated with hvKP infections by multivariate analysis. Importantly, 12.6% of hvKP isolates produced ESBLs, and most of them carried blaCTX-M genes. Patients with neutropenia (37.5% versus 5.6%; P = 0.020), history of systemic steroid therapy (37.5% versus 5.6%; P = 0.020), and combination therapy (62.5% versus 16.7%; P = 0.009) were more likely to be infected with ESBL-producing hvKP. The prevalence of hvKP is high in China and has a varied geographic distribution. ESBL-producing hvKP is emerging, suggesting an urgent need to enhance clinical awareness, especially for immunocompromised patients receiving combination therapy. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Geographical distribution and prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi genospecies in questing Ixodes ricinus from Romania: a countrywide study.

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    Kalmár, Zsuzsa; Mihalca, Andrei D; Dumitrache, Mirabela O; Gherman, Călin M; Magdaş, Cristian; Mircean, Viorica; Oltean, Miruna; Domşa, Cristian; Matei, Ioana A; Mărcuţan, Daniel I; Sándor, Attila D; D'Amico, Gianluca; Paştiu, Anamaria; Györke, Adriana; Gavrea, Raluca; Marosi, Béla; Ionică, Angela; Burkhardt, Etelka; Toriay, Hortenzia; Cozma, Vasile

    2013-09-01

    The paper reports the prevalence and geographical distribution of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) and its genospecies in 12,221 questing Ixodes ricinus ticks collected at 183 locations from all the 41 counties of Romania. The unfed ticks were examined for the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l. by PCR targeting the intergenic spacer 5S-23S. Reverse line blot hybridization (RLB) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis were performed for identification of B. burgdorferi genospecies. The overall prevalence of infection was 1.4%, with an average local prevalence between 0.75% and 18.8%. B. burgdorferi s.l. was found in ticks of 55 of the 183 localities. The overall prevalence B. burgdorferi s.l. in ticks in the infected localities was 3.8%. The total infection prevalence was higher in female ticks than in other developmental stages. Three Borrelia genospecies were detected. The most widely distributed genospecies was B. afzelii, followed by B. garinii and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.). The study is the first countrywide study and the first report of B. burgdorferi s.s. in Romania. The distribution maps show that higher prevalences were recorded in hilly areas, but Lyme borreliosis spirochetes were also present in forested lowlands, albeit with a lower prevalence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. The spatial distribution of known predictors of autism spectrum disorders impacts geographic variability in prevalence in central North Carolina

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    Hoffman Kate

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The causes of autism spectrum disorders (ASD remain largely unknown and widely debated; however, evidence increasingly points to the importance of environmental exposures. A growing number of studies use geographic variability in ASD prevalence or exposure patterns to investigate the association between environmental factors and ASD. However, differences in the geographic distribution of established risk and predictive factors for ASD, such as maternal education or age, can interfere with investigations of ASD etiology. We evaluated geographic variability in the prevalence of ASD in central North Carolina and the impact of spatial confounding by known risk and predictive factors. Methods Children meeting a standardized case definition for ASD at 8 years of age were identified through records-based surveillance for 8 counties biennially from 2002 to 2008 (n=532. Vital records were used to identify the underlying cohort (15% random sample of children born in the same years as children with an ASD, n=11,034, and to obtain birth addresses. We used generalized additive models (GAMs to estimate the prevalence of ASD across the region by smoothing latitude and longitude. GAMs, unlike methods used in previous spatial analyses of ASD, allow for extensive adjustment of individual-level risk factors (e.g. maternal age and education when evaluating spatial variability of disease prevalence. Results Unadjusted maps revealed geographic variation in surveillance-recognized ASD. Children born in certain regions of the study area were up to 1.27 times as likely to be recognized as having ASD compared to children born in the study area as a whole (prevalence ratio (PR range across the study area 0.57-1.27; global P=0.003. However, geographic gradients of ASD prevalence were attenuated after adjusting for spatial confounders (adjusted PR range 0.72-1.12 across the study area; global P=0.052. Conclusions In these data, spatial variation of ASD

  7. A preliminary study of multilevel geographic distribution & prevalence of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in the state of Goa, India.

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    Mahadev, P V M; Fulmali, P V; Mishra, A C

    2004-09-01

    Dengue virus activity has never been reported in the state of Goa. The present study was carried out to document a multilevel geographic distribution, prevalence and preliminary analysis of risk factors for the invasions of Aedes aegypti in Goa. A geographic information system (GIS) based Ae. aegypti surveys were conducted in dry (April 2002) and wet (July 2002) seasons in the rural and urban settlements. The random walk method was used for household coverage. The non-residential area visits included ancillaries of roadways, railways, air-and seaports. Simultaneous adult mosquito collections and one-larva per container technique were adopted. The Ae. aegypti larval and adult prevalence was noted in all the four urban areas in both dry (Density index (DI)= 3 to 6) and wet (DI= 5 to 7) seasons and only one out of 3 villages showed Ae aegypti presence in wet season (DI= 5 to 7). In the residential areas, hutments showed higher relative prevalence indices (Breteau index, BI=100; container index, CI=11.95; adult house index, AHI=13.33) followed by close set cement houses (BI=44.1; CI=12.0; AHI=11.24). Ae aegypti relative prevalence indices were also more for households with pets (BI=85.11; CI=12.5; AHI= 42.85); those with tap had higher risk (larval house index, LHI =32.03; relative risk, RR>2, n=256). Plastic drum was the most preferred breeding place (chi(2) = 19.81; Ptyres (chi(2) = 11.86; Ptyres, and transport tyres in non-residential areas.

  8. Prevalence of Aquatic Insects and Arsenic Concentration Determine the Geographical Distribution of Mycobacterium ulcerans Infection

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    Anthony Y. Aidoo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A modified SIR model is used to explain the transmission of Mycobacterium ulcerans (MU and its dependence on arsenic (As environments. Some studies have suggested that As plays a major role in the spread and prevalence of buruli ulcer (BU. In addition, it has been hypothesized that a vector in the form of a water-bug plays a key role in the epidemiology of BU. We develop an epidemiological model based on these assumptions for the dynamics and prevalence of BU and show that As positively induces the growth and spread of MU.

  9. Prevalence and Geographic Distribution of Vector-Borne Pathogens in Apparently Healthy Dogs in Croatia.

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    Mrljak, Vladimir; Kuleš, Josipa; Mihaljević, Željko; Torti, Marin; Gotić, Jelena; Crnogaj, Martina; Živičnjak, Tatjana; Mayer, Iva; Šmit, Iva; Bhide, Mangesh; Barić Rafaj, Renata

    2017-06-01

    Vector-borne pathogens (VBPs) are a group of globally extended and quickly spreading pathogens that are transmitted by various arthropod vectors. The aim of the present study was to investigate the seroprevalence against Babesia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Leishmania infantum, Dirofilaria immitis, and Ehrlichia canis in dogs in Croatia. We investigated 435 randomly selected apparently healthy dogs in 13 different locations of Croatia for antibodies to B. canis by indirect immunofluorescence using a commercial IFA IgG Antibody Kit. All samples were also tested for qualitative detection of D. immitis antigen and for antibodies to A. phagocytophilum, B. burgdorferi sensu lato, L. infantum, and E. canis with two point-of-care assays. Overall, 112 dogs (25.74%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 21.70-30.12) were serologically positive for one or more of the pathogens. B. canis was the most prevalent pathogen (20.00%, 95% CI 16.34-24.07), followed by A. phagocytophilum (6.21%, 95% CI 4.12-8.90), L. infantum, (1.38%, 95% CI 0.51-2.97), and B. burgdorferi sensu lato (0.69%, 95% CI 0.01-2.00). The lowest seroprevalence was for D. immitis and E. canis (0.46%, 95% CI 0.01-1.65). Coinfection was determined in 12 dogs (2.76%, 95% CI 1.43-4.77), of which 10 were positive to two pathogens (7 with B. canis and A. phagocytophilum and 1 B. canis with B. burgdorferi sensu lato or L. infantum or E. canis). One dog was positive to three pathogens and another dog to four pathogens. Seroprevalence for babesia was age, breed, and lifestyle/use dependent. Purebred dogs had almost half the chance of developing disease than crossbred (OR = 0.58, p < 0.026, 95% CI 0.37-0.94). Seropositivity to B. canis was 3.41 times higher for dogs that lived outdoors/shelter (p < 0.006) or 4.57 times higher in mixed/hunting (p < 0.001) compared to indoor/companion dogs. This is the first comprehensive survey of VBP seropositivity conducted in Croatia. Some

  10. Determinants of Dentists' Geographic Distribution.

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    Beazoglou, Tryfon J.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A model for explaining the geographic distribution of dentists' practice locations is presented and applied to particular market areas in Connecticut. Results show geographic distribution is significantly related to a few key variables, including demography, disposable income, and housing prices. Implications for helping students make practice…

  11. A comparative study of the spatial distribution of HIV prevalence in the metropolis of Kermanshah, Iran, in 1996-2014 using geographical information systems.

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    Khademi, N; Reshadat, S; Zangeneh, A; Saeidi, S; Ghasemi, S R; Rajabi-Gilan, N; Zakiei, A

    2017-03-01

    Geographical information systems (GISs) have made spatiotemporal understanding of geographical patterns possible and have contributed to the identification and analysis of factors relating to health care behaviours and outcomes. The present study is the first to examine the spatial distribution of HIV prevalence in the metropolis of Kermanshah, Iran, using GISs. The research methods were descriptive, analytical and comparative. Additionally, data recorded for HIV-infected patients in 1996-2014 were used and then the loci of HIV infection in the metropolis of Kermanshah were identified and analysed spatially using ArcGIS (Esri, New York, NY, USA). HIV prevalence in the metropolis of Kermanshah increased from 1996 to 2014. Analysis of the spatial distribution of the prevalence of HIV using ArcGIS indicated the presence of clusters of HIV infection. The findings demonstrate that there were many clusters of high HIV prevalence throughout the city of Kermanshah and that these clusters increased in size during the study period. Furthermore, the statistics are indicative of a growing number of HIV-infected women as well as a significant reduction in the mean age of the HIV-infected female population. The spatial differences in HIV prevalence across the city of Kermanshah, as well as the identification of the resulting spatial clusters in different parts of the city, suggest that measures should be put in place to prevent the growth of these clusters and to reduce the number of women being infected with HIV. © 2016 British HIV Association.

  12. [Analysis on geographic distribution of high blood pressure prevalence in children and adolescents aged 7-18 years in China, 2014].

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    Dong, Y H; Zou, Z Y; Wang, Z H; Wang, S; Yang, Z P; Chen, Y J; Ma, J

    2017-07-10

    Objective: To understand and evaluate the characteristics of geographic distribution of high blood pressure prevalence in children and adolescents aged 7-18 years in China in 2014, and provide evidence for the prevention of hypertension in children and adolescents. Methods: The data of 2014 Chinese National Surveys on Students Constitution and Health conducting 31 provinces (except Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan) were collected. A total of 216 299 children and adolescents who had complete blood pressure records were selected as study subjects. The low, middle and high prevalence areas were identified according to their high blood pressure detection rates in the children and adolescents,7 % , to analyze the geographic distribution of high blood pressure prevalence in the children and adolescents. The environmental data in the capitals of 31 provinces in 2014 were collected to analyze the correlation between environmental factors and blood pressure Z score in the children and adolescents. Results: The average detection rates of high blood pressure was 6.4 % in 31 provinces (1.5 % -14.2 % ). The high prevalence areas were mainly distributed in the eastern China, especially the Circum-Bohai sea area, low prevalence areas were mainly distributed in the central and western areas of China and some provinces in the east. Correlation analysis results showed that the annual average temperature, annual average air humidity and local altitude were negatively correlated with blood pressure Z score, including diastolic and systolic blood pressure, in both boys and girls. The annual average sunshine time, PM(2.5) and PM(10) concentrations, content of SO(2) were positively correlated with blood pressure Z score in both boys and girls. Conclusions: There was a significant difference in high blood pressure of children and adolescents among 31 provinces. More attention should be paid to the children and adolescents living high prevalence area. And it is necessary to understand

  13. Geostatistical modelling of malaria indicator survey data to assess the effects of interventions on the geographical distribution of malaria prevalence in children less than 5 years in Uganda.

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    Ssempiira, Julius; Nambuusi, Betty; Kissa, John; Agaba, Bosco; Makumbi, Fredrick; Kasasa, Simon; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2017-01-01

    Malaria burden in Uganda has declined disproportionately among regions despite overall high intervention coverage across all regions. The Uganda Malaria Indicator Survey (MIS) 2014-15 was the second nationally representative survey conducted to provide estimates of malaria prevalence among children less than 5 years, and to track the progress of control interventions in the country. In this present study, 2014-15 MIS data were analysed to assess intervention effects on malaria prevalence in Uganda among children less than 5 years, assess intervention effects at regional level, and estimate geographical distribution of malaria prevalence in the country. Bayesian geostatistical models with spatially varying coefficients were used to determine the effect of interventions on malaria prevalence at national and regional levels. Spike-and-slab variable selection was used to identify the most important predictors and forms. Bayesian kriging was used to predict malaria prevalence at unsampled locations. Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS) and Insecticide Treated Nets (ITN) ownership had a significant but varying protective effect on malaria prevalence. However, no effect was observed for Artemisinin Combination-based Therapies (ACTs). Environmental factors, namely, land cover, rainfall, day and night land surface temperature, and area type were significantly associated with malaria prevalence. Malaria prevalence was higher in rural areas, increased with the child's age, and decreased with higher household socioeconomic status and higher level of mother's education. The highest prevalence of malaria in children less than 5 years was predicted for regions of East Central, North East and West Nile, whereas the lowest was predicted in Kampala and South Western regions, and in the mountainous areas in Mid-Western and Mid-Eastern regions. IRS and ITN ownership are important interventions against malaria prevalence in children less than 5 years in Uganda. The varying effects of the

  14. Geostatistical modelling of malaria indicator survey data to assess the effects of interventions on the geographical distribution of malaria prevalence in children less than 5 years in Uganda.

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    Julius Ssempiira

    Full Text Available Malaria burden in Uganda has declined disproportionately among regions despite overall high intervention coverage across all regions. The Uganda Malaria Indicator Survey (MIS 2014-15 was the second nationally representative survey conducted to provide estimates of malaria prevalence among children less than 5 years, and to track the progress of control interventions in the country. In this present study, 2014-15 MIS data were analysed to assess intervention effects on malaria prevalence in Uganda among children less than 5 years, assess intervention effects at regional level, and estimate geographical distribution of malaria prevalence in the country.Bayesian geostatistical models with spatially varying coefficients were used to determine the effect of interventions on malaria prevalence at national and regional levels. Spike-and-slab variable selection was used to identify the most important predictors and forms. Bayesian kriging was used to predict malaria prevalence at unsampled locations.Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS and Insecticide Treated Nets (ITN ownership had a significant but varying protective effect on malaria prevalence. However, no effect was observed for Artemisinin Combination-based Therapies (ACTs. Environmental factors, namely, land cover, rainfall, day and night land surface temperature, and area type were significantly associated with malaria prevalence. Malaria prevalence was higher in rural areas, increased with the child's age, and decreased with higher household socioeconomic status and higher level of mother's education. The highest prevalence of malaria in children less than 5 years was predicted for regions of East Central, North East and West Nile, whereas the lowest was predicted in Kampala and South Western regions, and in the mountainous areas in Mid-Western and Mid-Eastern regions.IRS and ITN ownership are important interventions against malaria prevalence in children less than 5 years in Uganda. The varying

  15. Mapping the geographical distribution of lymphatic filariasis in Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mwase, Enala T; Stensgaard, Anna-Sofie; Nsakashalo-Senkwe, Mutale

    2014-01-01

    volunteers from 108 geo-referenced survey sites across Zambia were examined for circulating filarial antigens (CFA) with rapid format ICT cards, and a map indicating the distribution of CFA prevalences in Zambia was prepared. 78% of survey sites had CFA positive cases, with prevalences ranging between 1......% and 54%. Most positive survey sites had low prevalence, but six foci with more than 15% prevalence were identified. The observed geographical variation in prevalence pattern was examined in more detail using a species distribution modeling approach to explore environmental requirements for parasite...... to be an important determinant of medium-high prevalence levels. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: LF was found to be surprisingly widespread in Zambia, although in most places with low prevalence. The produced maps and the identified environmental correlates of LF infection will provide useful guidance for planning...

  16. Execution Management Solutions for Geographically Distributed Simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, T.W. van den; Jansen, H.G.M.; Jansen, R.E.J.; Prins, L.M.

    2009-01-01

    Managing the initialization, execution control and monitoring of HLA federates is not always straightforward, especially for a geographically distributed time managed federation. Issues include pre and post run-time data distribution and run-time data collection; starting, stopping and monitoring

  17. The scorpion families and their geographical distribution

    OpenAIRE

    LOURENÇO, W. R.

    2001-01-01

    A synoptic table is proposed for the families and genera of scorpions currently regarded as valid. Because there is considerable disagreement about the classification of scorpions, many changes are to be expected in the future. The classification proposed here is followed by considerations regarding the geographical distribution of each family.

  18. GENETIC DIVERSITY AND ECO-GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    GENETIC DIVERSITY AND ECO-GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF Eleusine ... floccifolia were analysed for genetic variation and inter-relationships using 20 microsatellite markers. All the ..... Key: ND = not done, B = B genome, A = A genome, AB = both A and B genome of Eleusine coracana subsp coracana (Dida et.

  19. Prevalence and distribution of iron overload in patients with transfusion-dependent anemias differs across geographic regions: results from the CORDELIA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydinok, Yesim; Porter, John B; Piga, Antonio; Elalfy, Mohsen; El-Beshlawy, Amal; Kilinç, Yurdanur; Viprakasit, Vip; Yesilipek, Akif; Habr, Dany; Quebe-Fehling, Erhard; Pennell, Dudley J

    2015-09-01

    The randomized comparison of deferasirox to deferoxamine for myocardial iron removal in patients with transfusion-dependent anemias (CORDELIA) gave the opportunity to assess relative prevalence and body distribution of iron overload in screened patients. Patients aged ≥ 10 yr with transfusion-dependent anemias from 11 countries were screened. Data were summarized descriptively, overall and across regions. Among 925 patients (99.1% with β-thalassemia major; 98.5% receiving prior chelation; mean age 19.2 yr), 36.7% had myocardial iron overload (myocardial T2* ≤ 20 ms), 12.1% had low left ventricular ejection fraction. Liver iron concentration (LIC) (mean 25.8 mg Fe/g dw) and serum ferritin (median 3702 ng/mL) were high. Fewer patients in the Middle East (ME; 28.5%) had myocardial T2* ≤ 20 ms vs. patients in the West (45.9%) and Far East (FE, 40.9%). Patients in the West had highest myocardial iron burden, but lowest LIC (26.9% with LIC < 7 mg Fe/g dw) and serum ferritin. Among patients with normal myocardial iron, a higher proportion of patients from the ME and FE had LIC ≥ 15 than < 7 mg Fe/g dw (ME, 56.7% vs. 17.2%; FE, 78.6% vs. 7.8%, respectively), a trend which was less evident in the West (44.6% vs. 33.9%, respectively). Transfusion and chelation practices differed between regions. Evidence of substantial myocardial and liver iron burden across regions revealed a need for optimization of effective, convenient iron chelation regimens. Significant regional variation exists in myocardial and liver iron loading that are not well explained; improved understanding of factors contributing to differences in body iron distribution may be of clinical benefit. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Glucokinase diabetes in 103 families from a country-based study in the Czech Republic: geographically restricted distribution of two prevalent GCK mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pruhova, Stepanka; Dusatkova, Petra; Sumnik, Zdenek

    2010-01-01

    Glucokinase diabetes, also called GCK-MODY or maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 2 (MODY2), is caused by heterozygous mutations in the gene encoding glucokinase (GCK). Objective: The aim of study was to investigate the current prevalence of GCK mutations in a large cohort of Czech patients...... with typical clinical appearance of GCK-MODY. In addition, we reanalyzed the negative results obtained previously by screening using the denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (dHPLC)....

  1. The geographical distribution and burden of trachoma in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Smith

    Full Text Available There remains a lack of epidemiological data on the geographical distribution of trachoma to support global mapping and scale up of interventions for the elimination of trachoma. The Global Atlas of Trachoma (GAT was launched in 2011 to address these needs and provide standardised, updated and accessible maps. This paper uses data included in the GAT to describe the geographical distribution and burden of trachoma in Africa.Data assembly used structured searches of published and unpublished literature to identify cross-sectional epidemiological data on the burden of trachoma since 1980. Survey data were abstracted into a standardised database and mapped using geographical information systems (GIS software. The characteristics of all surveys were summarized by country according to data source, time period, and survey methodology. Estimates of the current population at risk were calculated for each country and stratified by endemicity class.At the time of writing, 1342 records are included in the database representing surveys conducted between 1985 and 2012. These data were provided by direct contact with national control programmes and academic researchers (67%, peer-reviewed publications (17% and unpublished reports or theses (16%. Prevalence data on active trachoma are available in 29 of the 33 countries in Africa classified as endemic for trachoma, and 1095 (20.6% districts have representative data collected through population-based prevalence surveys. The highest prevalence of active trachoma and trichiasis remains in the Sahel area of West Africa and Savannah areas of East and Central Africa and an estimated 129.4 million people live in areas of Africa confirmed to be trachoma endemic.The Global Atlas of Trachoma provides the most contemporary and comprehensive summary of the burden of trachoma within Africa. The GAT highlights where future mapping is required and provides an important planning tool for scale-up and surveillance of trachoma

  2. Correlation Assessment of Climate and Geographic Distribution of Tuberculosis Using Geographical Information System (GIS)

    OpenAIRE

    BEIRANVAND, Reza; KARIMI, Asrin; DELPISHEH, Ali; SAYEHMIRI, Kourosh; SOLEIMANI, Samira; GHALAVANDI, Shahnaz

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tuberculosis (TB) spread pattern is influenced by geographic and social factors. Nowadays Geographic Information System (GIS) is one of the most important epidemiological instrumentation identifying high-risk population groups and geographic areas of TB. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between climate and geographic distribution of TB in Khuzestan Province using GIS during 2005-2012.Methods: Through an ecological study, all 6363 patients with definite diagno...

  3. Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures Report FY2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures Report (GDX) located on the Expenditures page in the Expenditure Tables category. This report details VA expenditures at...

  4. Geographical Heterogeneity of Multiple Sclerosis Prevalence in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivot, Diane; Debouverie, Marc; Grzebyk, Michel; Brassat, David; Clanet, Michel; Clavelou, Pierre; Confavreux, Christian; Edan, Gilles; Leray, Emmanuelle; Moreau, Thibault; Vukusic, Sandra; Hédelin, Guy; Guillemin, Francis

    2016-01-01

    Geographical variation in the prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) is controversial. Heterogeneity is important to acknowledge to adapt the provision of care within the healthcare system. We aimed to investigate differences in prevalence of MS in departments in the French territory. We estimated MS prevalence on October 31, 2004 in 21 administrative departments in France (22% of the metropolitan departments) by using multiple data sources: the main French health insurance systems, neurologist networks devoted to MS and the Technical Information Agency of Hospitalization. We used a spatial Bayesian approach based on estimating the number of MS cases from 2005 and 2008 capture-recapture studies to analyze differences in prevalence. The age- and sex-standardized prevalence of MS per 100,000 inhabitants ranged from 68.1 (95% credible interval 54.6, 84.4) in Hautes-Pyrénées (southwest France) to 296.5 (258.8, 338.9) in Moselle (northeast France). The greatest prevalence was in the northeast departments, and the other departments showed great variability. By combining multiple data sources into a spatial Bayesian model, we found heterogeneity in MS prevalence among the 21 departments of France, some with higher prevalence than anticipated from previous publications. No clear explanation related to health insurance coverage and hospital facilities can be advanced. Population migration, socioeconomic status of the population studied and environmental effects are suspected.

  5. Ethnicity and geographic distribution of pediatric chronic ataxia in Manitoba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Michael S; Masood, Shaheen; Azad, Meghan; Chodirker, Bernard N

    2014-01-01

    Genetic and environmental factors are important determinants of disease distribution. Several disorders associated with ataxia are known to occur more commonly in certain ethnic groups; for example, the disequilibrium syndrome in the Hutterites. The aim of this study was to determine the ethnic and geographic distribution of pediatric patients with chronic ataxia in Manitoba, Canada. We identified 184 patients less than 17 years-of-age with chronic ataxia during 1991-2008 from multiple sources. Their diagnosis, ethnicity and place of residence were determined following a chart review. Most patients resided in Manitoba (N=177) and the majority in Winnipeg, the provincial capital. Thirty five Aboriginal, 29 Mennonite and 11 Hutterite patients resided in Manitoba. The latter two groups were significantly overrepresented in our cohort. Ataxia telangiectasia, mitochondrial disorders, and non-progressive ataxia of unknown etiology associated with pyramidal tracts signs and developmental delay were significantly more common in Mennonite patients. Four of five patients with neuronal migration disorders associated with chronic ataxia were Aboriginal. Few isolated disorders with chronic ataxia occurred in the 11 Hutterite patients including a Joubert syndrome related disorder. Three disorders associated with chronic ataxia were more prevalent than expected in Mennonites in Manitoba. Few rare disorders were more prevalent in the Hutterite and Aboriginal population. Further research is needed to determine the risk factors underlying these variations in prevalence within different ethnic groups. The unique risk factor profiles of each ethnic group need to be considered in health promotion endeavors. Ethnie et distribution géographique de l'ataxie chronique chez des patients d'âge pédiatrique au Manitoba.

  6. The geographical distribution of tremellaceous fungi in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Władysław Wojewoda

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The geographical distribution of the Polish tremellaceous fungi is discussed in this paper. The list of localities and the maps of the distribution of 60 Polish species (45 of Tremellales, 13 of Auriculariales and 2 of Septobasidiales are given. The author distinguishes several geographical elements, and describes the vertical distribution of these fungi. This paper is a supplement to "Fungi (Mycota", vol. 8, Polish Flora (Wojewoda 1977.

  7. Comprehensive Monitoring for Heterogeneous Geographically Distributed Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratnikova, N. [Fermilab; Karavakis, E. [CERN; Lammel, S. [Fermilab; Wildish, T. [Princeton U.

    2015-12-23

    Storage capacity at CMS Tier-1 and Tier-2 sites reached over 100 Petabytes in 2014, and will be substantially increased during Run 2 data taking. The allocation of storage for the individual users analysis data, which is not accounted as a centrally managed storage space, will be increased to up to 40%. For comprehensive tracking and monitoring of the storage utilization across all participating sites, CMS developed a space monitoring system, which provides a central view of the geographically dispersed heterogeneous storage systems. The first prototype was deployed at pilot sites in summer 2014, and has been substantially reworked since then. In this paper we discuss the functionality and our experience of system deployment and operation on the full CMS scale.

  8. Chemotaxonomy and geographical distribution of tropane alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, W J; Lin, G D

    2000-03-01

    This review illustrates the distribution of tropane alkaloids within the families Solanaceae, Erythroxylaceae, Proteaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Rhizophoraceae, Convolvulaceae and Cruciferae. Whereas tropane alkaloids are characteristic of the genera Datura, Brugmansia (tree datura) and Duboisia of the Solanaceae, the distribution is more widespread with novel tropane derivatives in families not traditionally associated with these bases. The chemical nature of more recently discovered water-soluble calystegines and the di- and trimeric forms from the Convolvulaceae (e.g. schizanthines from Schizanthus spp.), truxillines from Bolivian coca leaves and moonines of Erythroxylum moonii are highlighted. Where possible and appropriate, links between the phytochemistry and taxonomy are discussed.

  9. Causality of the relationship between geographic distribution and species abundance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borregaard, Michael Krabbe; Rahbek, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    The positive relationship between a species' geographic distribution and its abundance is one of ecology's most well-documented patterns, yet the causes behind this relationship remain unclear. Although many hypotheses have been proposed to account for distribution-abundance relationships none have...

  10. Prevalence and geographical distribution of bovine eurytrematosis in cattle slaughtered in northern Paraná, Brazil Prevalência e distribuição geográfica de euritre-matose bovina em animais abatidos no norte do Estado do Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson R. de Azevedo

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective study of cattle slaughtered in northern Paraná during 2000 was performed to determine the prevalence and geographical distribution of bovine eurytrematosis (BE, as identified by the Federal Inspection Service (SIF. The cattle was from different regions of the State of Paraná; all regions had cattle parasitized by Eurytrema spp. BE was identified in 12.1% (12,534/103,411 of the total number of cattle inspected. Prevalence of animals parasitized by Eurytrema spp varied from 8.3% (Region G, São João do Caiuá, 1,069/12,914 to 40.5% (Region R, Ponta Grossa, 225/555. BE was more prevalent during the month of March (1.6 and markedly reduced during May (-2. A possible seasonal predominance of BE was identified: comparatively fewer cases occurred from April to August, while there was a peak from December to March. The study indicates that bovine eurytrematosis is hypoendemic and occurs in almost all geographical regions of the State of Paraná. The prevalence within this State is variable and may be directly related to factors of the biological cycle of the trematode, particularities of each region, and environmental conditions.Um estudo retrospectivo de bovinos abatidos no norte do Paraná durante o ano de 2000 foi realizado para determinar a prevalência e a distribuição geográfica da euritrematose bovina (EB, identificada pelo Serviço de Inspeção Federal (SIF. Bovinos foram originários de todas as localizações geográficas do Estado do Paraná; todas as regiões apresentaram gado parasitado por Eurytrema spp. EB foi identificado em 12,1% (12.534/10.3411 de todos os animais abatidos. A prevalência dos animais parasitados por Eurytrema spp variou entre 8,3% (Região G, São João do Caiuá; 1.069/12.914 e 40,5% (Região R, Ponta Grossa; 225/555. EB foi mais prevalente durante o mês de março (1,6 e marcadamente reduzida em maio (-2,0. Uma possível predominância sazonal foi identificada: comparativamente poucos casos

  11. The geographical distribution of underweight children in Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Nubé, Maarten; Sonneveld, Benjamin G. J. S.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study geographical patterns of underweight children in Africa by combining information on prevalence with headcounts at a subnational level. METHODS: We used large-scale, nationally representative nutrition surveys, in particular the Demographic and Health Surveys and the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, which have been designed, analysed and presented according to largely similar protocols, and which report at the national and subnational levels. FINDINGS: We found distinct ...

  12. Geographical variations in the prevalence of atopic sensitization in six study sites across Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan-Yeung, M; Anthonisen, N R; Becklake, M R; Bowie, D; Sonia Buist, A; Dimich-Ward, H; Ernst, P; Sears, M R; Siersted, H C; Sweet, L; Van Til, L; Manfreda, J

    2010-11-01

    Geographical variations in atopic sensitization in Canada have not been described previously. This study used the standardized protocol of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey-1 (ECRHS-1) to investigate the distribution and predictors of atopic sensitization in six sites across Canada and to compare the results with some ECRHS-1 centers. Adults aged 20-44 years in six study sites across Canada underwent allergy skin testing using 14 allergens (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae) cat, cockroach, grasses (Timothy grass, Kentucky grass), molds (Cladosporium herbarium, Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium), trees (tree mix, birch, Olea europea), and common ragweed. The overall prevalence of atopy (skin test over 0 mm to any allergen) was 62.7%. There was significant geographical variation in the prevalence of atopy in the six study sites (lowest 55.6% [95% C.I.51.3-59.9] in Prince Edward Island, highest 66.0 [61.7-70.3] in Montreal) and of sensitization to each of the allergens tested even after adjustment for confounders. When the first eight of the nine allergens in the ECRHS were used to estimate the prevalence of atopic sensitization, the prevalence of atopy in Canada was 57% compared with 35.2% overall for centers in the ECRHS. The prevalence of atopy in Vancouver (57% [52.3-61.8]) was close to that of Portland, Oregon (52.1% [46.2-58.0]). There was a significant variation in atopic sensitization among different study sites across Canada. The prevalence of atopic sensitization is relatively high in Canada compared with sites in the ECRHS and this may, in part, account for the high prevalence of asthma and asthma symptoms in Canada. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Geographical distribution and habitats of the freshwater snail ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A brief account is given of the geographical distribution and habitats of Bulinus reticulatus as reflected by the 278 samples currently on record in the database of the National Freshwater Snail Collection, Potchefstroom University. The susceptibility of field specimens and their F1 generation offspring to miracidia of ...

  14. Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae, Trachycephalus atlas Bokermann, 1966: distribution extension and geographic distribution map

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto, Igor; Ribeiro, Samuel; Bezerra, Lucas; Carneiro, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    The casqued-headed tree frog Trachycephalus atlas Bokermann, 1966 is recorded for the first time in the municipality of Jati, southern region of Ceará state, northeastern Brazil, extending in 72 km east the previous known geographic distribution of this species. An updated geographic distribution map of T. atlas is provided.

  15. Geographical distribution of β-globin gene mutations in Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murad, Hossam; Moasses, Faten; Dabboul, Amir; Mukhalalaty, Yasser; Bakoor, Ahmad Omar; Al-Achkar, Walid; Jarjour, Rami A

    2018-04-11

    Objectives β-Thalassemia disease is caused by mutations in the β-globin gene. This is considered as one of the common genetic disorders in Syria. The aim of this study was to identify the geographical distribution of the β-thalassemia mutations in Syria. Methods β-Globin gene mutations were characterized in 636 affected patients and 94 unrelated carriers using the amplification refractory mutations system-polymerase chain reaction technique and DNA sequencing. Results The study has revealed the presence of 38 β-globin gene mutations responsible for β-thalassemia in Syria. Important differences in regional distribution were observed. IVS-I.110 [G > A] (22.2%), IVS-I.1 [G > A] (17.8%), Cd 39 [C > T] (8.2%), IVS-II.1 [G > A] (7.6%), IVS-I.6 [T > C] (7.1%), Cd 8 [-AA] (6%), Cd 5 [-CT] (5.6%) and IVS-I.5 [G > C] (4.1%) were the eight predominant mutations found in our study. The coastal region had higher relative frequencies (37.9 and 22%) than other regions. A clear drift in the distribution of the third common Cd 39 [C > T] mutation in the northeast region (34.8%) to the northwest region (2.5%) was noted, while the IVS-I.5 [G > C] mutation has the highest prevalence in north regions. The IVS-I.6 [T > C] mutation had a distinct frequency in the middle region. Ten mutations -86 [C > G], -31 [A > G], -29 [A > G], 5'UTR; +22 [G > A], CAP + 1 [A > C], Codon 5/6 [-TG], IVS-I (-3) or codon 29 [C > T], IVS-I.2 [T > A], IVS-I.128 [T > G] and IVS-II.705 [T > G] were found in Syria for the first time. Conclusions These data will significantly facilitate the population screening, genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis in Syrian population.

  16. Causality of the relationship between geographic distribution and species abundance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borregaard, Michael Krabbe; Rahbek, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    The positive relationship between a species' geographic distribution and its abundance is one of ecology's most well-documented patterns, yet the causes behind this relationship remain unclear. Although many hypotheses have been proposed to account for distribution-abundance relationships none have...... differences in terminology and ecological point of view. Realizing and accounting for these differences facilitates integration, so that the relative contributions of each mechanism may be evaluated. Here, we review all the mechanisms that have been proposed to account for distribution-abundance relationships...

  17. Geodemography: Land cover, geographical information systems and population distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Goerlich Gisbert

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the recent application of the Geographical Information Systems (GIS to the analysis of population distribution. We mention the efforts of the National Statistical Institutes in this direction boosted by the last census 2011.The stating point is a growing need to have available population figures for areas not related to administrative boundaries, either user defined zones or in grid format.This allows a convenient zonal system to combine demographic characteristics with environmental and pure geographic data, so the relation between the man and the environment can be analyzed in a unified way.Eventually, we offer a practical illustration of the interactions between GIS techniques and administrative population data in the study of spatial population distribution: We build a density grid for Spain by dasymetric methods from census tracts population data and Land Cover and Use Information System of Spain (SIOSE.The analysis is done within the spatial reference framework of the European Union.

  18. Potential impacts of climatic change upon geographical distributions of birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huntley, Brian; Collingham, Yvonne C.; Green, Rhys E.

    2006-01-01

    biodiversity. Birds, in common with other terrestrial organisms, are expected to exhibit one of two general responses to climatic change: they may adapt to the changed conditions without shifting location, or they may show a spatial response, adjusting their geographical distribution in response...... to achieve a sufficient response by either or both of these mechanisms will be at risk of extinction; the Quaternary record documents examples of such extinctions. Relationships between the geographical distributions of birds and present climate have been modelled for species breeding in both Europe...... and Africa. The resulting models have very high goodness-of-fit and provide a basis for assessing the potential impacts of anthropogenic climatic changes upon avian species richness in the two continents. Simulations made for a range of general circulation model projections of late 21st century climate lead...

  19. Geographical Distribution of Taenia asiatica and Related Species

    OpenAIRE

    Eom, Keeseon S.; Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Rim, Han-Jong

    2009-01-01

    Geographical information of Taenia asiatica is reviewed together with that of T. solium and T. saginata. Current distribution of T. asiatica was found to be mostly from Asian countries: the Republic of Korea, China, Taiwan, Indonesia, and Thailand. Molecular genotypic techniques have found out more countries with T. asiatica from Japan, the Philippines, and Vietnam. Specimens used in this paper were collected from around the world and mostly during international collaboration projects of Kore...

  20. Correlation Assessment of Climate and Geographic Distribution of Tuberculosis Using Geographical Information System (GIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiranvand, Reza; Karimi, Asrin; Delpisheh, Ali; Sayehmiri, Kourosh; Soleimani, Samira; Ghalavandi, Shahnaz

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) spread pattern is influenced by geographic and social factors. Nowadays Geographic Information System (GIS) is one of the most important epidemiological instrumentation identifying high-risk population groups and geographic areas of TB. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between climate and geographic distribution of TB in Khuzestan Province using GIS during 2005-2012. Through an ecological study, all 6363 patients with definite diagnosis of TB from 2005 until the end of September 2012 in Khuzestan Province, southern Iran were diagnosed. Data were recorded using TB- Register software. Tuberculosis incidence based on the climate and the average of annual rain was evaluated using GIS. Data were analyzed through SPSS software. Independent t-test, ANOVA, Linear regression, Pearson and Eta correlation coefficient with a significance level of less than 5% were used for the statistical analysis. The TB incidence was different in various geographic conditions. The highest mean of TB cumulative incidence rate was observed in extra dry areas (P= 0.017). There was a significant inverse correlation between annual rain rate and TB incidence rate (R= -0.45, P= 0.001). The lowest TB incidence rate (0-100 cases per 100,000) was in areas with the average of annual rain more than 1000 mm (P= 0.003). The risk of TB has a strong relationship with climate and the average of annual rain, so that the risk of TB in areas with low annual rainfall and extra dry climate is more than other regions. Services and special cares to high-risk regions of TB are recommended.

  1. Formation and distribution of international tourism flows in geographical space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Korol

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Properties of geographical space that are of key importance for international tourism, as length and discreteness, are analyzed in the article. Length makes tourists cover distances, whereas discreteness manifests itself in spatial heterogeneity. Tourism in conditions of homogeneous space is vain. That is, heterogeneity brings sense to travels as well as determines their direction. So, the effect of geographical space’s length and spatial heterogeneity on formation and distribution of tourism flows is assessed, international tourism’s geographical essence is disclosed also. Apperception of geographical space in usual environment and its effect on tourist’s original motives are described. Following the bases of behaviorism, the tourism original motives, in particular those for migration, comfort, contrast and aesthetics are substantiated. The motive for migration is a kind of “pushing” tourists outside their usual environment. To stop all fears that may cause anxiety in destination, the latter should guarantee satisfaction of those human needs which A. Maslow refers to as basic needs. The necessity to satisfy these needs forms in tourists the motive for comfort. Closely located destinations in neighboring countries can be of little difference form usual environment. Driven by the motive for contrast, tourists aspire to visit places that totally differ from their usual environment, and contrast (are exotic to it. Thus, the motive for contrast seemingly “pulls” the tourists up to certain (exotic destinations. Finally, following the considered spatial specificities of land surface and tourist-driving original motives, a conceptual model of formation and distribution of international tourism flows in geographical space is developed.

  2. Geographic distribution of canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis infection in stray dogs of eastern Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Ciucă

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted in the eastern part of Romania to assess the prevalence and geographical distribution of Dirofilaria immitis in dogs. Plasma samples were collected from 458 stray dogs hosted in shelters in 8 counties and tested serologically for the presence of heartworm. In addition, 45 blood samples from dogs of a shelter in Galati city were examined by the modified Knott and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR techniques. The immmunological assay showed a heartworm infection prevalence of 8.9% in the dogs. Optical density results for positive samples ranged between 0.217 and 2.683. Geographical information systems (GIS were used to produce overlays of distribution maps of D. immitis prevalence and predictive maps based on temperature suitability. High prevalence of D. immitis was found in the central East up to the northern border of the country, i.e. Galati county (60%, followed by the counties of Vaslui (12.0% and Iasi (7.7%. Out of 45 samples examined using the Knott test, 23 were positive for circulating microfilariae (51.1%, while 19 dogs were positive for D. immitis and 4 for both D. immitis and D. repens with the multiplex PCR test. The high prevalence for D. immitis shown in dogs in the Southeast (Galati, 42.2% also by multiplex PCR gave strong support to the results achieved by the serological tests. The present study confirms the ability of GIS to predict the distribution and epidemiology of dirofilariosis in different geographical territories as has been already demonstrated by the empirical epidemiological data obtained at the continental, national and intraregional levels.

  3. Prevalence and distribution of Schistosoma haematobium infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and distribution of Schistosoma haematobium infection among school children living in southwestern shores of Lake Malawi. ... Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in primary schools. School ... Consistent and uniform interventions can reduce prevalence further and sustain control.

  4. Applications of Geographical Information Systems in Understanding Spatial Distribution of Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A. Rob

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Geographical Information Systems (GIS are becoming useful tools in making strategic decisions when-ever data are found to have spatial distribution. Federal, state, and local governments are using GIS for assessment and planning in such areas as housing, healthcare, land use, natural resources, environmental monitoring and transportation. Companies are also using it to expand and consolidate existing businesses, perform market analysis, and to find optimum delivery routes. In this paper, we illustrate the usefulness of GIS in the analysis and presentation of spatially distributed asthma prevalence among school children (13-17 years in the New York City area. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first presentation of asthma survey results distributed over the zip codes of a large city. Preliminary results show good correlation between asthma and poverty. They also correlate well with the spatial distribution of asthma hospitalization data. Results reveal an overall asthma prevalence of ~ 16% as compared to the national average of ~12% for a similar age group (5-17 years. When comparing asthma rates among the predominant racial groups of the city - Blacks and Hispanics are found to have a higher prevalence than Whites or Asians. The inner-city population shows a significantly higher asthma prevalence than those in the suburbs. This study shows our understanding of asthma prevalence in a dimension that could not have been possible prior to the availability of GIS. The results will help us making further decisions in planning for asthma research.

  5. Epidemiology and geographical distribution of enteric protozoan infections in Sydney, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Fletcher

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Enteric protozoa are associated with diarrhoeal illnesses in humans; however there are no recent studies on their epidemiology and geographical distribution in Australia. This study describes the epidemiology of enteric protozoa in the state of New South Wales and incorporates spatial analysis to describe their distribution. Design and methods. Laboratory and clinical records from four public hospitals in Sydney for 910 patients, who tested positive for enteric protozoa over the period January 2007-December 2010, were identified, examined and analysed. We selected 580 cases which had residence post code data available, enabling us to examine the geographic distribution of patients, and reviewed the clinical data of 252 patients to examine possible links between protozoa, demographic and clinical features. Results. Frequently detected protozoa were Blastocystis spp. (57%, Giardia intestinalis (27% and Dientamoeba fragilis (12%. The age distribution showed that the prevalence of protozoa decreased with age up to 24 years but increasing with age from 25 years onwards. The geographic provenance of the patients indicates that the majority of cases of Blastocystis (53.1% are clustered in and around the Sydney City Business District, while pockets of giardiasis were identified in regional/rural areas. The distribution of cases suggests higher risk of protozoan infection may exist for some communities. Conclusions. These findings provide useful information for policy makers to design and tailor interventions to target high risk communities. Follow-up investigation into the risk factors for giardiasis in regional/rural area is needed.

  6. Geographical distribution of Taenia asiatica and related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Keeseon S; Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Rim, Han-Jong

    2009-10-01

    Geographical information of Taenia asiatica is reviewed together with that of T. solium and T. saginata. Current distribution of T. asiatica was found to be mostly from Asian countries: the Republic of Korea, China, Taiwan, Indonesia, and Thailand. Molecular genotypic techniques have found out more countries with T. asiatica from Japan, the Philippines, and Vietnam. Specimens used in this paper were collected from around the world and mostly during international collaboration projects of Korean foundations for parasite control activities (1995-2009) in developing countries.

  7. Effect of Heterogeneity in Initial Geographic Distribution on Opinions’ Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander S. Balankin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Spin dynamics on networks allows us to understand how a global consensus emerges out of individual opinions. Here, we are interested in the effect of heterogeneity in the initial geographic distribution of a competing opinion on the competitiveness of its own opinion. Accordingly, in this work, we studied the effect of spatial heterogeneity on the majority rule dynamics using a three-state spin model, in which one state is neutral. Monte Carlo simulations were performed on square lattices divided into square blocks (cells. Accordingly, one competing opinion was distributed uniformly among cells, whereas the spatial distribution of the rival opinion was varied from the uniform to heterogeneous, with the median-to-mean ratio in the range from 1 to 0. When the size of discussion group is odd, the uncommitted agents disappear completely after  3.30 ± 0.05 update cycles, and then the system evolves in a two-state regime with complementary spatial distributions of two competing opinions. Even so, the initial heterogeneity in the spatial distribution of one of the competing opinions causes a decrease of this opinion competitiveness. That is, the opinion with initially heterogeneous spatial distribution has less probability to win, than the opinion with the initially uniform spatial distribution, even when the initial concentrations of both opinions are equal. We found that although the time to consensus , the opinion’s recession rate is determined during the first 3.3 update cycles. On the other hand, we found that the initial heterogeneity of the opinion spatial distribution assists the formation of quasi-stable regions, in which this opinion is dominant. The results of Monte Carlo simulations are discussed with regard to the electoral competition of political parties.

  8. Modelling Ecuador's rainfall distribution according to geographical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobar, Vladimiro; Wyseure, Guido

    2017-04-01

    It is known that rainfall is affected by terrain characteristics and some studies had focussed on its distribution over complex terrain. Ecuador's temporal and spatial rainfall distribution is affected by its location on the ITCZ, the marine currents in the Pacific, the Amazon rainforest, and the Andes mountain range. Although all these factors are important, we think that the latter one may hold a key for modelling spatial and temporal distribution of rainfall. The study considered 30 years of monthly data from 319 rainfall stations having at least 10 years of data available. The relatively low density of stations and their location in accessible sites near to main roads or rivers, leave large and important areas ungauged, making it not appropriate to rely on traditional interpolation techniques to estimate regional rainfall for water balance. The aim of this research was to come up with a useful model for seasonal rainfall distribution in Ecuador based on geographical characteristics to allow its spatial generalization. The target for modelling was the seasonal rainfall, characterized by nine percentiles for each one of the 12 months of the year that results in 108 response variables, later on reduced to four principal components comprising 94% of the total variability. Predictor variables for the model were: geographic coordinates, elevation, main wind effects from the Amazon and Coast, Valley and Hill indexes, and average and maximum elevation above the selected rainfall station to the east and to the west, for each one of 18 directions (50-135°, by 5°) adding up to 79 predictors. A multiple linear regression model by the Elastic-net algorithm with cross-validation was applied for each one of the PC as response to select the most important ones from the 79 predictor variables. The Elastic-net algorithm deals well with collinearity problems, while allowing variable selection in a blended approach between the Ridge and Lasso regression. The model fitting

  9. Geographical variation in the prevalence of positive skin tests to environmental aeroallergens in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousquet, P-J; Chinn, S; Janson, C; Kogevinas, M; Burney, P; Jarvis, D

    2007-03-01

    Many studies have reported the prevalence of sensitization using skin prick tests. However, comparisons between studies and between regions are difficult because the number and the type of allergens tested vary widely. Using the European Community Health Respiratory Survey I data, the geographical variation of sensitization to environmental allergen as measured by skin tests was established. Adults aged 20-44 years, living in 35 centres in 15 developed countries, underwent skin tests for allergy to nine common aeroallergens: Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, timothy grass, cat, Cladosporium herbarium, Alternaria alternata, birch, Olea europea, common ragweed and Parietaria judaica. The age-sex standardized prevalence of sensitization was determined and centres with high (95% confidence interval above and excluding study median) and low prevalence (95% confidence interval below and excluding study median) of sensitization to each allergen and to any of the nine allergens were identified. There was substantial geographical variation in the prevalence of sensitization to each of the nine allergens tested and in the prevalence of sensitization to any allergen (lowest 17.1%, median 36.8% and highest 54.8%). Sensitization to D. pteronyssinus, grass pollen and cat were usually the most prevalent (median between centre 21.7%, 16.9% and 8.8%, respectively). Timothy grass sensitization was higher than that for any other pollen species. As expected, geographical variations of sensitization to environmental allergen were observed across centres. These findings were compatible for those observed with serum-specific IgE. Skin tests can be used to assess the geographical distribution of allergens in a multicentric epidemiological survey.

  10. Prevalence of koala retrovirus in geographically diverse populations in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, G S; Young, P R; Hanger, J J; Jones, K; Clarke, D; McKee, J J; Meers, J

    2012-10-01

    To determine the prevalence of koala retrovirus (KoRV) in selected koala populations and to estimate proviral copy number in a subset of koalas. Blood or tissue samples from 708 koalas in Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria and South Australia were tested for KoRV pol provirus gene using standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR), nested PCR and real-time PCR (qPCR). Prevalence of KoRV provirus-positive koalas was 100% in four regions of Queensland and New South Wales, 72.2% in mainland Victoria, 26.6% on four Victorian islands and 14.8% on Kangaroo Island, South Australia. Estimated proviral copy number per cell in four groups of koalas from Queensland and Victoria showed marked variation, ranging from a mean of 165 copies per cell in the Queensland group to 1.29 × 10(-4) copies per cell in one group of Victorian koalas. The higher prevalence of KoRV-positive koalas in the north of Australia and high proviral loads in Queensland koalas may indicate KoRV entered and became endogenous in the north and is spreading southwards. It is also possible there are genetic differences between koalas in northern and southern Australia that affect susceptibility to KoRV infection or endogenisation, or that environmental factors affecting transmission in northern states are absent or uncommon in southern regions. Although further studies are required, the finding of proviral copy numbers orders of magnitude lower than what would be expected for the presence of a single copy in every cell for many Victorian animals suggests that KoRV is not endogenous in these animals and likely reflects ongoing exogenous infection. © 2012 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2012 Australian Veterinary Association.

  11. Benefits of Integrating Geographically Distributed District Heating Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominkovic, Dominik Franjo; Bačeković, I.; Sveinbjörnsson, Dadi Þorsteinn

    2016-01-01

    was reduced by 1.76 %. For the year 2029, in which intermittent renewable energy sources are dominating the energy generation, total socio-economic costs were reduced by 5.9 %, CO2 emissions by 7.1 % and primary energy supply by 8.4 % after the adjacent district heating systems were connected. Hence......Although liberalization of the electricity day-ahead markets has gained pace throughout the Europe, district heating markets are often dominated by lack of competition between suppliers, which curbs the potential of having cheaper systems in terms of socio-economic costs, and technically better...... system in terms of CO2 emissions. In order to assess the financial and technical outcome of connecting five adjacent district heating systems, a linear continuous optimization model that minimizes total socio-economic costs was developed. Geographical distribution of different district heating systems...

  12. Impacts of Scale on Geographic Analysis of Health Data: An Example of Obesity Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Lee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically in recent decades. It is an important public health issue as it causes many other chronic health conditions, such as hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, and type II diabetics. Obesity affects life expectancy and even the quality of lives. Eventually, it increases social costs in many ways due to increasing costs of health care and workplace absenteeism. Using the spatial patterns of obesity prevalence as an example; we show how different geographic units can reveal different degrees of detail in results of analysis. We used both census tracts and census block groups as units of geographic analysis. In addition; to reveal how different geographic scales may impact on the analytic results; we applied geographically weighted regression to model the relationships between obesity rates (dependent variable and three independent variables; including education attainment; unemployment rates; and median family income. Though not including an exhaustive list of explanatory variables; this regression model provides an example for revealing the impacts of geographic scales on analysis of health data. With obesity data based on reported heights and weights on driver’s licenses in Summit County, Ohio, we demonstrated that geographically weighted regression reveals varying spatial trends between dependent and independent variables that conventional regression models such as ordinary least squares regression cannot. Most importantly, analyses carried out with different geographic scales do show very different results. With these findings, we suggest that, while possible, smaller geographic units be used to allow better understanding of the studies phenomena.

  13. Widening disparity in the geographic distribution of pediatricians in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The shortage of physicians in Japan is a serious concern, particularly in specialties like pediatrics. The purpose of this study was to investigate recent changes in the geographic distribution of pediatricians and the factors underlying this change. Methods We investigated the numerical changes in the pediatrician workforce (2002 to 2007) per 100,000 of the population under the age of 15 years in 369 secondary medical areas throughout Japan, using attributive variables such as population size, social and economic status, and pediatric service delivery. We performed principal component analysis and multiple regression analysis. Results We obtained two principal components: one that reflected the degree of urbanization and another that reflected the volume of pediatric service delivery. Only the first component score was positively correlated with an increased pediatrician workforce per 100,000 of the population under the age of 15 years. We classified the secondary medical areas into four groups using component scores. The increase in pediatrician workforce during this period was primarily absorbed into the two groups with higher levels of urbanization, whereas the two rural groups exhibited little increase. Pediatricians aged 50 to 59 years increased in all four groups, whereas pediatricians aged 30 to 39 years decreased in the two rural groups and increased in the two urban groups. Conclusions The trends of the pediatrician workforce increase generally kept pace with urbanization, but were not associated with the original pediatrician workforce supply. The geographic distribution of pediatricians showed rapid concentration in urban areas. This trend was particularly pronounced among female pediatricians and those aged 30 to 39 years. Given that aging pediatricians in rural areas are not being replaced by younger doctors, these areas will likely face new crises when senior physicians retire. PMID:24267031

  14. Geographic distribution and clinical description of leishmaniasis cases in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, C M; Franke, E D; Cachay, M I; Tejada, A; Cruz, M E; Kreutzer, R D; Barker, D C; McCann, S H; Watts, D M

    1998-08-01

    Studies were conducted from 1986 through 1993 to further define the geographic distribution and relative importance of different species of Leishmania as a cause of leishmaniasis in Peru. Patients with a clinical diagnosis of cutaneous and/or mucosal or diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis were enrolled at the Naval Medical Research Institute Detachment (NAMRID) Laboratory in Lima, the Tropical Disease Clinic at San Marcos University Daniel A. Carrión, the Central Military Hospital, and a Ministry of Health hospital in Cusco, Peru. Clinical features, lesion aspirates, and biopsy tissue were obtained from each patient. All specimens were collected and assayed separately, including multiple specimens from some of the same patients for Leishmania parasites by inoculating aliquots of either aspirates or biopsy tissue suspensions onto Senekji's blood agar medium. Stocks of Leishmania isolates were used to prepare promastigotes to produce extracts for identifying the Leishmania species by the cellulose acetate electrophoresis enzyme technique. A total of 351 isolates of Leishmania were obtained from 350 patients who were infected primarily in the low and high jungle of at least 15 different Departments of Peru. Of the 351 isolates, 79% were identified as L. (V.) braziliensis, 7% as L. (V.) guyanensis, 10% as L. (V.) peruviana, 2% as L. (V.) lainsoni, and 1.7% as L. (L.) amazonensis. The clinical form of disease varied depending on the species of Leishmania, with L. (V.) braziliensis being associated most frequently with cutaneous, mucosal ulcers and mixed cutaneous and mucosal disease, and L. (V) peruviana, L. (V.) guyanensis, L. (V.) lainsoni with cutaneous lesions. Leishmania (L.) amazonensis was isolated from six patients, three with cutaneous lesions, one with mucosal lesions, and two with diffuse cutaneous lesions. Among all of the leishmaniasis cases, males were affected more frequently, and cases occurred among patients less than 10 to more than 51 years of age. These

  15. Original Research Prevalence and distribution of Schistosoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to determine the current prevalence and distribution of S. haematobium infection in school children along the southwestern shores of Lake Malawi and examine the control interventions present in the area. Methods. This prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in primary schools. School children ...

  16. Geographical distribution of a specific mitochondrial haplotype of Zymoseptoria tritici

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameh BOUKEF

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Severity of disease caused by the fungus Zymoseptoria tritici throughout world cereal growing regions has elicited much debate on the potential evolutionary mechanism conferring high adaptability of the pathogen to diverse climate conditions and different wheat hosts (Triticum durum and T. aestivum. Specific mitochondrial DNA sequence was used to investigate geographic distribution of the type 4 haplotype (mtRFLP4 within 1363 isolates of Z. tritici originating from 21 countries. The mtRFLP4 haplotype was detected from both durum and bread wheat hosts with greater frequency on durum wheat. The distribution of mtRFLP4 was limited to populations sampled from the Mediterranean and the Red Sea region. Greater frequencies of mtRFLP4 were found in Tunisia (87% and Algeria (60%. The haplotype was absent within European, Australian, North and South American populations except Argentina. While alternative hypotheses such as climatic adaptation could not be ruled out, it is postulated that mtRFLP4 originated in North Africa (e.g. Tunisia or Algeria as an adaptation to durum wheat as the prevailing cereal crop. The specialized haplotype has subsequently spread as indicated by lower frequency of occurrence in the surrounding Mediterranean countries and on bread wheat hosts.

  17. Veterans Affairs Geographic Distribution of Expenditures FY09 by State and County

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures (GDX) is an annual report that shows estimated VA expenditures for major programmatic areas by geographic area (state,...

  18. Veterans Affairs Geographic Distribution of Expenditures FY09 by Congressional District

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures (GDX) is an annual report that shows estimated VA expenditures for major programmatic areas by geographic area (state,...

  19. Veterans Affairs Geographic Distribution of Expenditures FY07 by Congressional District

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures (GDX) is an annual report that shows estimated VA expenditures for major programmatic areas by geographic area (state,...

  20. Veterans Affairs Geographic Distribution of Expenditures FY07 by State and County

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures (GDX) is an annual report that shows estimated VA expenditures for major programmatic areas by geographic area (state,...

  1. Veterans Affairs Geographic Distribution of Expenditures FY08 by Congressional District

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures (GDX) is an annual report that shows estimated VA expenditures for major programmatic areas by geographic area (state,...

  2. Veterans Affairs Geographic Distribution of Expenditures FY08 by State and County

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures (GDX) is an annual report that shows estimated VA expenditures for major programmatic areas by geographic area (state,...

  3. Veterans Affairs Geographic Distribution of Expenditures FY06 by Congressional District

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures (GDX) is an annual report that shows estimated VA expenditures for major programmatic areas by geographic area (state,...

  4. Veterans Affairs Geographic Distribution of Expenditures FY06 by State and County

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures (GDX) is an annual report that shows estimated VA expenditures for major programmatic areas by geographic area (state,...

  5. Fossil freshwater sponges: Taxonomy, geographic distribution, and critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Pronzato

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sponges are one of the most ancient animal phyla with about 8850 living species and about 5000 described fossil taxa. Most sponges are marine and live at all depths of all oceans. Freshwater bodies (lakes, rivers are inhabited only by a small minority of species, ca. 240 (<3% comprising the order Spongillida (Demospongiae most of which are able to produce specialized resting bodies to survive harsh terrestrial environmental conditions. This highly disproportionate ratio of marine and freshwater sponges is even more accentuated in the field of palaeontology with rare records reported up to the Miocene (<0.4% of all known fossil sponges. Only a few fossil taxa were correctly supported by strong and convincing taxonomic morphotraits at genus and species level, thus we provide here an overview of fossil freshwater sponges focusing on their morphotraits and distribution in time and space. Each recorded taxon is described in detail following the modern taxonomy and nomenclature. All fossil data suggest a clear trend of long term conservative morphology in the evolutionary history of Spongillida, although some traits of Recent gemmules evolved in a wide array of adaptive morpho-functional novelties. The majority of accepted fossil species belongs to the cosmopolitan family Spongillidae. The genera Oncosclera and Potamophloios of the family Potamolepidae seem to have had, in the past, a much larger geographic range than today. A synthesis of fossil taxa morphotraits is also provided in an Appendix 1.

  6. About the Geographic Distribution of Economic Science in Asian Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Nikolaevich Demyanenko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of empirical studies of modern geographic distribution of economic science in Asian Russia (i. e. three macro-regions of Russia: Far East, Siberia and the Urals Region. The study is based on an original database of articles on Economics and related disciplines which arearranged within the Elibrary platformfor 2005-2013. These articles arewritten by fellows of research organizations that are located in the Asian part of Russia.Statistical analysis of the main indicators of publication activity shows that there are significant differences in the scope, dynamics, and quality of the results of this activity among the research organizations of various types.The authors focused on the territorial structure of the study of the economy defined as a set of scientific centers of varying scale and type, as well as networks of scientific communication.It is revealed that publication activity of economic research institutions in Asian Russia has a high level of spatial concentration and the system of scientific communication, formed by the scientific journals of the region, has a high level of fragmentation

  7. Geographical patterns in cyanobacteria distribution: climate influence at regional scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitois, Frédéric; Thoraval, Isabelle; Baurès, Estelle; Thomas, Olivier

    2014-01-28

    Cyanobacteria are a component of public health hazards in freshwater environments because of their potential as toxin producers. Eutrophication has long been considered the main cause of cyanobacteria outbreak and proliferation, whereas many studies emphasized the effect of abiotic parameters (mainly temperature and light) on cell growth rate or toxin production. In view of the growing concerns of global change consequences on public health parameters, this study attempts to enlighten climate influence on cyanobacteria at regional scale in Brittany (NW France). The results show that homogeneous cyanobacteria groups are associated with climatic domains related to temperature, global radiation and pluviometry, whereas microcystins (MCs) occurrences are only correlated to local cyanobacteria species composition. As the regional climatic gradient amplitude is similar to the projected climate evolution on a 30-year timespan, a comparison between the present NW and SE situations was used to extrapolate the evolution of geographical cyanobacteria distribution in Brittany. Cyanobacteria composition should shift toward species associated with more frequent Microcystins occurrences along a NW/SE axis whereas lakes situated along a SW/NE axis should transition to species (mainly Nostocales) associated with lower MCs detection frequencies.

  8. Predicting the geographic distribution of a species from presence-only data subject to detection errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorazio, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    Several models have been developed to predict the geographic distribution of a species by combining measurements of covariates of occurrence at locations where the species is known to be present with measurements of the same covariates at other locations where species occurrence status (presence or absence) is unknown. In the absence of species detection errors, spatial point-process models and binary-regression models for case-augmented surveys provide consistent estimators of a species’ geographic distribution without prior knowledge of species prevalence. In addition, these regression models can be modified to produce estimators of species abundance that are asymptotically equivalent to those of the spatial point-process models. However, if species presence locations are subject to detection errors, neither class of models provides a consistent estimator of covariate effects unless the covariates of species abundance are distinct and independently distributed from the covariates of species detection probability. These analytical results are illustrated using simulation studies of data sets that contain a wide range of presence-only sample sizes. Analyses of presence-only data of three avian species observed in a survey of landbirds in western Montana and northern Idaho are compared with site-occupancy analyses of detections and nondetections of these species.

  9. Geographic distribution and dispersal of normapolles genera in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschudy, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    Normapolles pollen have been found in North America in Cretaceous and Lower Tertiary rocks from the eastern Atlantic Seaboard, the Mississippi embayment region and from the states and provinces from western North America as far north as the District of Mackenzie, Northwest Territories. Previous postulates relating to the Normapolles floral province (western Europe-eastern North America) were re-examined in the light of new finds of Normapolles genera in rocks from west of the Cretaceous epeiric seaway which separated the Normapolles province from the western North American Aquilapollenites province. A study of published occurrences of Normapolles genera and U.S. Geological Survey Denver Laboratory Normapolles records revealed that of the approximately 60 Normapolles genera recognized from western Europe, only 26 of these have been recognized from eastern North America. These data suggest that Normapolles-producing plants originated in western Europe and migrated to eastern North America prior to the opening of the north Atlantic seaway. Ten of these 26 genera also have been found in rocks from west of the Cretaceous epeiric seaway, suggesting that these genera were the only ones able to cross this barrier. At least six genera having Normapolles characteristics occur in eastern North America but have not yet been recorded from Europe. Two additional genera with Normapolles characteristics have been reported only from the Aquilapollenites province of western North America. Several discrepancies in the record need resolution, such as the latitudinal restriction of Thomsonipollis and Nudopollis to areas south 40??N latitude, the absence of records of Thomsonipollis east and north of central Georgia, and the absence of records of Kyandopollenites and Choanopollenites west of eastern Texas. These data show that the known boundaries of the Normapolles province are somewhat hazy and that firm conclusions regarding the geographic distribution and history of dispersal of

  10. Geographic distribution of otolaryngologists in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickery, Thad W; Weterings, Robbie; Cabrera-Muffly, Cristina

    2016-06-01

    We conducted a study to determine the demographic traits, training characteristics, and geographic distribution of otolaryngologists in the United States using publicly available data. We then correlated our findings with U.S. census data. Univariate analysis was performed to analyze results, with a p value of <0.05 determined as significant. We used data from the American Board of Otolaryngology's list of 18,587 board-certified allopathic otolaryngologists through 2013 and the American Osteopathic Colleges of Ophthalmology & Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery's list of 428 osteopathic otolaryngologists. From these two databases, 9,642 otolaryngologists met inclusion criteria, which included an active practice in the United States and an age of 70 years and younger. This group was made up of 8,185 men (84.9%) and 1,449 women (15.0%); we were not able to identify the sex of 8 otolaryngologists (0.1%). The median age of the women was significantly lower than that of the men (54 vs. 48 yr; p < 0.001). A total of 8,510 otolaryngologists (88.3%) graduated from a U.S. allopathic medical school, and 8,520 (88.4%) graduated from a U.S. allopathic residency program. We determined that 25.9% of otolaryngologists established their practice in the same metropolitan statistical area where they completed their residency training. Older practitioners (p < 0.001) and women (p < 0.001) were significantly more likely to stay in the same area than younger physicians and men. In terms of population, 61.8% of the otolaryngologists practiced in metropolitan areas with more than 1 million residents; by comparison, these areas represent only 55.3% of the total U.S. population, indicating that otolaryngologists are over-represented in larger U.S. cities.

  11. The impact of climate on the geographical distribution of phytoplankton species in boreal lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallstan, Simon; Trigal, Cristina; Johansson, Karin S L; Johnson, Richard K

    2013-12-01

    Here, we use a novel space-by-time approach to study large-scale changes in phytoplankton species distribution in Swedish boreal lakes in response to climate variability. Using phytoplankton samples from 27 lakes, evenly distributed across Sweden, all relatively unimpacted by anthropogenic disturbance and sampled annually between 1996 and 2010, we found significant shifts in the geographical distribution of 18 species. We also found significant changes in the prevalence of 45 species (33 became more common and 12 less common) over the study period. Using species distribution models and phytoplankton samples from 60 lakes sampled at least twice between 1992 and 2010, we evaluated the importance of climate variability and other environmental variables on species distribution. We found that temperature (e.g., extreme events and the duration of the growing season) was the most important predictor for species detections. Many cyanobacteria, chlorophytes, and, to a lesser extent, diatoms and zygnematophytes, showed congruent and positive responses to temperature. In contrast, precipitation explained little variation and was important only for a few taxa (e.g., Staurodesmus spp., Trachelomonas volvocina). At the community level, our results suggest a change in community composition at temperatures over 20 °C and growing seasons longer than 40 days. We conclude that climate is an important driver of the distributional patterns of individual phytoplankton species and may drive changes in community composition in minimally disturbed boreal lakes.

  12. Geographic distribution of Staphylococcus aureus causing invasive infections in Europe: a molecular-epidemiological analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajo Grundmann

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important human pathogens and methicillin-resistant variants (MRSAs are a major cause of hospital and community-acquired infection. We aimed to map the geographic distribution of the dominant clones that cause invasive infections in Europe.In each country, staphylococcal reference laboratories secured the participation of a sufficient number of hospital laboratories to achieve national geo-demographic representation. Participating laboratories collected successive methicillin-susceptible (MSSA and MRSA isolates from patients with invasive S. aureus infection using an agreed protocol. All isolates were sent to the respective national reference laboratories and characterised by quality-controlled sequence typing of the variable region of the staphylococcal spa gene (spa typing, and data were uploaded to a central database. Relevant genetic and phenotypic information was assembled for interactive interrogation by a purpose-built Web-based mapping application. Between September 2006 and February 2007, 357 laboratories serving 450 hospitals in 26 countries collected 2,890 MSSA and MRSA isolates from patients with invasive S. aureus infection. A wide geographical distribution of spa types was found with some prevalent in all European countries. MSSA were more diverse than MRSA. Genetic diversity of MRSA differed considerably between countries with dominant MRSA spa types forming distinctive geographical clusters. We provide evidence that a network approach consisting of decentralised typing and visualisation of aggregated data using an interactive mapping tool can provide important information on the dynamics of MRSA populations such as early signalling of emerging strains, cross border spread, and importation by travel.In contrast to MSSA, MRSA spa types have a predominantly regional distribution in Europe. This finding is indicative of the selection and spread of a limited number of clones within health care

  13. Geographical distribution and prevalence of the main tomato fungal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two farmer's fields were visited per village where five diseased plants were collected per field. Three pathogens identified from the samples collected in the diseased fields: Sclerotium rolfsii, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and F. solani. Pathogenicity test conducted for each of the isolated pathogens was positive.

  14. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) - Kinds and Distribution of Soils

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  15. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) - Kinds and Distribution of Soils

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  16. Geographic information system for pigweed distribution in the US Southeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the southeastern United States, pigweeds have become troublesome weeds in agricultural systems. To implement management strategies to control them, agriculturalists need information on areas affected by pigweeds. Geographic information systems (GIS) afford users the ability to evaluate agricult...

  17. Geographical distribution and ecology of the Armillaria species in western Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guillaumin, J.J.; Mohammed, C.; Anselmi, N.; Courtecuisse, R.; Gregory, S.C.; Holdenrieder, O.; Intini, M.; Lung, B.; Marxmüller, H.; Morrison, D.; Rishbeth, J.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Tirro, A.; Dam, van B.

    1993-01-01

    Over 4000 records of the six European Armillaria species were compiled to give distribution maps and host lists for each species. Differences in geographical and altitudinal distribution, pathogenicity, dissemination and ecological role are discussed.

  18. Geographic distribution of hepatitis C virus genotypes in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campiotto S.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is a country of continental dimension with a population of different ethnic backgrounds. Thus, a wide variation in the frequencies of hepatitis C virus (HCV genotypes is expected to occur. To address this point, 1,688 sequential samples from chronic HCV patients were analyzed. HCV-RNA was amplified by the RT-PCR from blood samples collected from 1995 to 2000 at different laboratories located in different cities from all Brazilian States. Samples were collected in tubes containing a gel separator, centrifuged in the site of collection and sent by express mail in a refrigerated container to Laboratório Bioquímico Jardim Paulista, São Paulo, SP, Brazil. HCV- RNA was extracted from serum and submitted to RT and nested PCR using standard procedures. Nested PCR products were submitted to cycle sequencing reactions without prior purification. Sequences were analyzed for genotype determination and the following frequencies were found: 64.9% (1,095 for genotype 1, 4.6% (78 for genotype 2, 30.2% (510 for genotype 3, 0.2% (3 for genotype 4, and 0.1% (2 for genotype 5. The frequencies of HCV genotypes were statistically different among Brazilian regions (P = 0.00017. In all regions, genotype 1 was the most frequent (51.7 to 74.1%, reaching the highest value in the North; genotype 2 was more prevalent in the Center-West region (11.4%, especially in Mato Grosso State (25.8%, while genotype 3 was more common in the South (43.2%. Genotypes 4 and 5 were rarely found and only in the Southeast, in São Paulo State. The present data indicate the need for careful epidemiological surveys throughout Brazil since knowing the frequency and distribution of the genotypes would provide key information for understanding the spread of HCV.

  19. The geographic distribution patterns of HIV-, HCV- and co-infections among drug users in a national methadone maintenance treatment program in Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yi-Biao; Liang, Song; Wang, Qi-Xing; Gong, Yu-Han; Nie, Shi-Jiao; Nan, Lei; Yang, Ai-Hui; Liao, Qiang; Song, Xiu-Xia; Jiang, Qing-Wu

    2014-03-10

    HIV-, HCV- and HIV/HCV co-infections among drug users have become a rapidly emerging global public health problem. In order to constrain the dual epidemics of HIV/AIDS and drug use, China has adopted a methadone maintenance treatment program (MMTP) since 2004. Studies of the geographic heterogeneity of HIV and HCV infections at a local scale are sparse, which has critical implications for future MMTP implementation and health policies covering both HIV and HCV prevention among drug users in China. This study aimed to characterize geographic patterns of HIV and HCV prevalence at the township level among drug users in a Yi Autonomous Prefecture, Southwest of China. Data on demographic and clinical characteristics of all clients in the 11 MMTP clinics of the Yi Autonomous Prefecture from March 2004 to December 2012 were collected. A GIS-based geographic analysis involving geographic autocorrelation analysis and geographic scan statistics were employed to identify the geographic distribution pattern of HIV-, HCV- and co-infections among drug users. A total of 6690 MMTP clients was analyzed. The prevalence of HIV-, HCV- and co-infections were 25.2%, 30.8%, and 10.9% respectively. There were significant global and local geographic autocorrelations for HIV-, HCV-, and co-infection. The Moran's I was 0.3015, 0.3449, and 0.3155, respectively (P geographic autocorrelation analysis and the geographic scan statistical analysis showed that HIV-, HCV-, and co-infections in the prefecture exhibited significant geographic clustering at the township level. The geographic distribution pattern of each infection group was different. HIV-, HCV-, and co-infections among drug users in the Yi Autonomous Prefecture all exhibited substantial geographic heterogeneity at the township level. The geographic distribution patterns of the three groups were different. These findings imply that it may be necessary to inform or invent site-specific intervention strategies to better devote currently

  20. The Geographical Distribution of Leadership in Globalized Clinical Trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekman, J.; Frenken, K.; de Zeeuw, D.; Lambers-Heerspink, H.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Pharmaceutical trials are mainly initiated by sponsors and investigators in the United States, Western Europe and Japan. However, more and more patients are enrolled in Central and Eastern Europe, Latin America and Asia. The involvement of patients in new geographical settings raises

  1. Modelling grid losses and the geographic distribution of electricity generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2005-01-01

    In Denmark more than 40% of the electricity consumption is covered by geographically scattered electricity sources namely wind power and local CHP (cogeneration of heat and power) plants. This causes problems in regard to load balancing and possible grid overloads. The potential grid problems...

  2. Soil-transmitted helminth prevalence and infection intensity among geographically and economically distinct Shuar communities in the Ecuadorian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepon-Robins, Tara J; Liebert, Melissa A; Gildner, Theresa E; Urlacher, Samuel S; Colehour, Alese M; Snodgrass, J Josh; Madimenos, Felicia C; Sugiyama, Lawrence S

    2014-10-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections can result in a variety of negative health outcomes (e.g., diarrhea, nutritional deficiencies). Market integration (MI; participation in market-based economies) has been suggested to alter levels of STH exposure due to associated changes in diet, sanitation, and behavior, but the effects are complicated and not well understood. Some effects of economic development result in decreased exposure to certain pathogens, and other factors can lead to higher pathogen exposure. With geographic location used as a proxy, the present study investigates the effects of economic development on parasite load among an indigenous population at multiple points along the spectrum of MI. This research has many implications for public health, including an increased understanding of how social and economic changes alter disease risk around the world and how changing parasite load affects other health outcomes (i.e., allergy, autoimmunity). Specifically, this study examines the prevalence of intestinal helminths among the Shuar, an indigenous group in the Morona-Santiago region of Ecuador, from 2 geographically/economically separated areas, with the following objectives: (1) report STH infection prevalence and intensity among Shuar; (2) explore STH infection prevalence and intensity as it relates to age distribution in the Shuar population; (3) compare STH infection patterns in geographically and economically separated Shuar communities at different levels of MI. Kato-Katz thick smears were made from fresh stool samples and examined to determine STH presence/intensity. Results indicate that 65% of the 211 participants were infected with at least 1 STH. Twenty-five percent of the sample had coinfections with at least 2 species of helminth. Infection was more common among juveniles (STH infection and exposure to MI, with implications for public health research and interventions.

  3. Geographic Distribution of Antipsychotic Use in Medicare Part D Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Anthony

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine if there is a geographic variation in antipsychotic prescribing in Medicare recipients in 10 US divisions. Methods: Data was collected in the Microsoft Excel format from the Medicare Provider Utilization and Payment Data: Part D Prescriber Public Use File for 2013 CMS data. Antipsychotics were sorted and downloaded into separate excel formats. The states were separated into the 10 geographic according to the US Census Bureau to identify prescribing trends. The primary endpoint was to determine the difference in the rates of CMS Medicare Part D utilizers who had antipsychotic prescriptions in each of the 10 geographic divisions. 
The rate of antipsychotic prescribing was calculated by determining the number of prescription claims for each antipsychotic for the division and dividing by the number of people utilizing Medicare Part D in each division. Data was converted to SPSS (version19, Armonk, NY for further analysis. ANOVA was used to compare the differences. Results: Approximately 35 million claims were included in the data set. Antipsychotics comprised 4.75% of the total spending on medications for Medicare Part D. New England was found to have the highest rate of claims at 0.83. No statistically significant differences in the rate of antipsychotic prescribing across geographic regions was observed; however, a statistically significant difference was observed for total claims (P<0.001 and total antipsychotic costs (P<0.017 across regions. Conclusion: Additional studies need to be conducted to determine if there is a difference in antipsychotic prescribing in the United States. Conflict of Interest We declare no conflicts of interest or financial interests that the authors or members of their immediate families have in any product or service discussed in the manuscript, including grants (pending or received, employment, gifts, stock holdings or options, honoraria, consultancies, expert testimony, patents and royalties

  4. A procedure to characterize geographic distributions of rare disorders in cohorts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hertz-Picciotto Irva

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individual point data can be analyzed against an entire cohort instead of only sampled controls to accurately picture the geographic distribution of populations at risk for low prevalence diseases. Analyzed as individual points, many smaller clusters with high relative risks (RR and low empirical p values are indistinguishable from a random distribution. When points are aggregated into areal units, small clusters may result in a larger cluster with a low RR or be lost if divided into pieces included in units of larger populations that show no increased prevalence. Previous simulation studies showed lowered validity of spatial scan tests for true clusters with low RR. Using simulations, this study explored the effects of low cluster RR and areal unit size on local area clustering test (LACT results, proposing a procedure to improve accuracy of cohort spatial analysis for rare events. Results Our simulations demonstrated the relationship of true RR to observed RR and p values with various, randomly located, cluster shapes, areal unit sizes and scanning window shapes in a diverse population distribution. Clusters with RR We propose a cluster identification procedure that applies parallel multiple LACTs, one on point data and three on two distinct sets of areal units created with varying population parameters that minimize the range of population sizes among units. By accepting only clusters identified by all LACTs, having a minimum population size, a minimum relative risk and a maximum p value, this procedure improves the specificity achieved by any one of these tests alone on a cohort study of low prevalence data while retaining sensitivity for small clusters. The procedure is demonstrated on two study regions, each with a five-year cohort of births and cases of a rare developmental disorder. Conclusion For truly exploratory research on a rare disorder, false positive clusters can cause costly diverted research efforts. By

  5. Mapping the prevalence of malaria in rural Papua New Guinea using a geographic information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namosha, Elias; Mueller, Ivo; Kastens, Will; Kiele, Regina; Kasehagen, Laurin; Siba, Peter M

    2010-01-01

    The application of geographic information systems (GIS) technology to malaria surveillance presents an opportunity for focusing intervention and prevention activities in the areas most affected. We used GIS technology to map the prevalence of malaria in the Wosera Health and Demographic Surveillance Site, East Sepik Province, Papua New Guinea (PNG). Malaria, demographic and GIS data collected between 2001 and 2003 were aggregated and analysed. This was achieved by geo-coding or linking the prevalence and demographic data to the village location. All GIS manipulation and cartographic displays were performed in MapInfo. The results suggest that malaria is endemic with high prevalence as observed across the 3 surveyed years. The optimized implementation of GIS can be of tremendous benefit in the fight against malaria and other public health challenges in PNG.

  6. Prevalence of Geographic tongue and Related Predisposing Factors in 7-18 Year-Old Students in Kermanshah, Iran 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Fatemeh; Safarzadeh, Mina; Mozafari, Hamidreza; Tavakoli, Payam

    2015-02-24

    Geographic tongue is a benign lesion at the dorsum and margins of the tongue that sometimes causes pain and burning sensation. This lesion is characterized by an erythematous area with white or yellow folded edges. The predisposing factors of this lesion include heredity, allergies, psoriasis, stress, fissured tongue and consumption of some foods. The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of geographic tongue and its related factors among the 7-18 year-old students in Kermanshah, Iran. This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in three schools in Kermanshah using multi-stage random cluster sampling method. A total number of 3600 students were examined (1800 girls and 1800 boys). Demographic data and the results of examinations were recorded in a questionnaire. The factors affecting the incidence of geographic tongue were analyzed by the SPSS-20 software and the Chi-square test.The prevalence of geographic tongue was 7.86% (283 individuals). The incidence of this lesion was significantly higher in males than in females (p<0.01). There was no relationship between geographic tongue and psoriasis or fissured tongue.  Pain and discomfort during eating was more prevalent in those with geographic tounge compared to those without this condition (p<0.02). The prevalence of geographic tongue among the studied population was 7.86%, and the prevalence of geographic tongue in male students was higher than in female students.

  7. Climatic variation and the geographical distribution of sex-determining mechanisms in the housefly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feldmeyer, B.; Kozielska-Reid, M.A.; Kuijper, A.L.W.; Weissing, F.J.; Beukeboom, L.W.; Pen, I.R.

    2008-01-01

    Questions: (1) Are the geographic clines of sex-determining factors in the housefly of the northern hemisphere mirrored by similar clines on the southern hemisphere? (2) What climatic factors can best explain the geographical distribution of sex-determining factors in the housefly? Data: Frequencies

  8. Model Checking Geographically Distributed Interlocking Systems Using UMC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantechi, Alessandro; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Nielsen, Michel Bøje Randahl

    2017-01-01

    The current trend of distributing computations over a network is here, as a novelty, applied to a safety critical system, namely a railway interlocking system. We show how the challenge of guaranteeing safety of the distributed application has been attacked by formally specifying and model checking...... the relevant distributed protocols. By doing that we obey the safety guidelines of the railway signalling domain, that require formal methods to support the certification of such products. We also show how formal modelling can help designing alternative distributed solutions, while maintaining adherence...

  9. Use of Remote Sensing/Geographical Information Systems (RS/GIS) to Identify the Distributional Limits of Soil-Transmitted Helminths (STHs) and Their Association to Prevalence of Intestinal Infection in School-Age Children in Four Rural Communities in Boaco, Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Max J.; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z.; Parajon, David G.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Luvall, Jeffrey; Parajon, Laura C.; Martinez, Roberto A.; Estes, Sue

    2011-01-01

    STHs can infect all members of a population but school-age children living in poverty are at greater risk. Infection can be controlled with drug treatment, health education and sanitation. Helminth control programs often lack resources and reliable information to identify areas of highest risk to guide interventions and to monitor progress. Objectives: To use RS/GIS to identify the environmental variables that correlate with the ecology of STHs and with the prevalence of STH infections. Methods: Geo-referenced in situ prevalence data will be overlaid over an ecological map derived from the RS environmental data using ESRI s ArcGIS 9.3. Prevalence data and RS environmental data matching at the same geographical location will be analyzed for correlation and those RS environmental variables that better correlate with prevalence data will be included in a multivariate regression model. Temperature, vegetation, and distance to bodies of water will be inferred using data from the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard the Terra and Aqua satellites, and Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhance Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) satellite sensors onboard Landsat 5 and Landsat 7 respectively. Elevation will be estimated with data from The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Prevalence and intensity of infections will be determined by parasitological survey (Kato Katz) of children enrolled in rural schools in Boaco, Nicaragua, in the communities of El Roblar, Cumaica Norte, Malacatoya 1, and Malacatoya 2). Expected Results: Associations between RS environmental data and prevalence in situ data will be determined and their applications to public health will be discussed. Discussion/Conclusions: The use of RS/GIS data to predict the prevalence of STH infections could be useful for helminth control programs, providing improved geographical guidance of interventions while increasing cost-effectiveness. Learning Objectives: (1) To identify the RS environmental

  10. The geographical distribution of leadership in globalized clinical trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarno Hoekman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pharmaceutical trials are mainly initiated by sponsors and investigators in the United States, Western Europe and Japan. However, more and more patients are enrolled in Central and Eastern Europe, Latin America and Asia. The involvement of patients in new geographical settings raises questions about scientific and ethical integrity, especially when experience with those settings is lacking at the level of trial management. We therefore studied to what extent the geographical shift in patient enrolment is anticipated in the composition of trial management teams using the author nationalities on the primary outcome publication as an indicator of leadership. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a cohort-study among 1,445 registered trials in www.clinicaltrials.gov that could be matched with a primary outcome publication using clinical trial registry numbers listed in publications. The name of the sponsor and the enrolment countries were extracted from all registrations. The author-addresses of all authors were extracted from the publications. We searched the author-address of all publications to determine whether enrolment countries and sponsors listed on registrations also appeared on a matched publication. Of all sponsors, 80.1% were listed with an author-address on the publication. Of all enrolment countries, 50.3% appeared with an author-address on the publication. The listing of enrolment countries was especially low for industry-funded trials (39.9% as compared to government (90.4% and not-for-profit funding (93.7%. We found that listing of enrolment countries in industry-funded trials was higher for traditional research locations such as the United States (98.2% and Japan (72.0% as compared to nontraditional research locations such as Poland (27.3% and Mexico (14.1%. CONCLUSIONS: Despite patient enrolment efforts, the involvement of researchers from nontraditional locations in trial management as measured by their contribution to

  11. The geographical distribution of leadership in globalized clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekman, Jarno; Frenken, Koen; de Zeeuw, Dick; Heerspink, Hiddo Lambers

    2012-01-01

    Pharmaceutical trials are mainly initiated by sponsors and investigators in the United States, Western Europe and Japan. However, more and more patients are enrolled in Central and Eastern Europe, Latin America and Asia. The involvement of patients in new geographical settings raises questions about scientific and ethical integrity, especially when experience with those settings is lacking at the level of trial management. We therefore studied to what extent the geographical shift in patient enrolment is anticipated in the composition of trial management teams using the author nationalities on the primary outcome publication as an indicator of leadership. We conducted a cohort-study among 1,445 registered trials in www.clinicaltrials.gov that could be matched with a primary outcome publication using clinical trial registry numbers listed in publications. The name of the sponsor and the enrolment countries were extracted from all registrations. The author-addresses of all authors were extracted from the publications. We searched the author-address of all publications to determine whether enrolment countries and sponsors listed on registrations also appeared on a matched publication. Of all sponsors, 80.1% were listed with an author-address on the publication. Of all enrolment countries, 50.3% appeared with an author-address on the publication. The listing of enrolment countries was especially low for industry-funded trials (39.9%) as compared to government (90.4%) and not-for-profit funding (93.7%). We found that listing of enrolment countries in industry-funded trials was higher for traditional research locations such as the United States (98.2%) and Japan (72.0%) as compared to nontraditional research locations such as Poland (27.3%) and Mexico (14.1%). Despite patient enrolment efforts, the involvement of researchers from nontraditional locations in trial management as measured by their contribution to manuscript writing is modest. This division of labor has

  12. Geographic association of Helicobacter pylori antibody prevalence and gastric cancer mortality in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, D; Sitas, F; Newell, D G; Stacey, A R; Boreham, J; Peto, R; Campbell, T C; Li, J; Chen, J

    1990-10-15

    To examine the geographic association between Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric cancer, we have assessed the prevalence of IgG antibodies to H. pylori in plasma samples taken in 1983 from 1882 men, aged 35-64 years, in 46 rural counties of the People's Republic of China. The gastric cancer mortality rates in these countries in 1973-75 varied from 3 per 1,000 (cumulative rate, 0-64 years) to 69 per 1,000, while the proportions of the population positive for H. pylori antibodies (based on an average of about 41 men per county) varied from 28% to 96%. After correction for the limited number of blood samples per county, the estimated correlation between H. pylori antibody prevalence and gastric cancer mortality was 40% (p = 0.02). No other type of cancer showed a significant association with H. pylori.

  13. An overview of factors responsible for geographic distribution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These are animal movement either for trade, nomadism, or migration due to civil unrest etc., habitat modification such as deforestation, large-scale mechanized cultivation and urbanization; drought and desertification, and global climate change. The accelerated change in tick distribution results in outbreaks of several ...

  14. Potential geographic distribution of hantavirus reservoirs in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Stefan Vilges; Escobar, Luis E; Peterson, A Townsend; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome is an emerging zoonosis in Brazil. Human infections occur via inhalation of aerosolized viral particles from excreta of infected wild rodents. Necromys lasiurus and Oligoryzomys nigripes appear to be the main reservoirs of hantavirus in the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado biomes. We estimated and compared ecological niches of the two rodent species, and analyzed environmental factors influencing their occurrence, to understand the geography of hantavirus transmission. N. lasiurus showed a wide potential distribution in Brazil, in the Cerrado, Caatinga, and Atlantic Forest biomes. Highest climate suitability for O. nigripes was observed along the Brazilian Atlantic coast. Maximum temperature in the warmest months and annual precipitation were the variables that most influence the distributions of N. lasiurus and O. nigripes, respectively. Models based on occurrences of infected rodents estimated a broader area of risk for hantavirus transmission in southeastern and southern Brazil, coinciding with the distribution of human cases of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. We found no demonstrable environmental differences among occurrence sites for the rodents and for human cases of hantavirus. However, areas of northern and northeastern Brazil are also apparently suitable for the two species, without broad coincidence with human cases. Modeling of niches and distributions of rodent reservoirs indicates potential for transmission of hantavirus across virtually all of Brazil outside the Amazon Basin.

  15. Potential geographic distribution of hantavirus reservoirs in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Vilges de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome is an emerging zoonosis in Brazil. Human infections occur via inhalation of aerosolized viral particles from excreta of infected wild rodents. Necromys lasiurus and Oligoryzomys nigripes appear to be the main reservoirs of hantavirus in the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado biomes. We estimated and compared ecological niches of the two rodent species, and analyzed environmental factors influencing their occurrence, to understand the geography of hantavirus transmission. N. lasiurus showed a wide potential distribution in Brazil, in the Cerrado, Caatinga, and Atlantic Forest biomes. Highest climate suitability for O. nigripes was observed along the Brazilian Atlantic coast. Maximum temperature in the warmest months and annual precipitation were the variables that most influence the distributions of N. lasiurus and O. nigripes, respectively. Models based on occurrences of infected rodents estimated a broader area of risk for hantavirus transmission in southeastern and southern Brazil, coinciding with the distribution of human cases of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. We found no demonstrable environmental differences among occurrence sites for the rodents and for human cases of hantavirus. However, areas of northern and northeastern Brazil are also apparently suitable for the two species, without broad coincidence with human cases. Modeling of niches and distributions of rodent reservoirs indicates potential for transmission of hantavirus across virtually all of Brazil outside the Amazon Basin.

  16. The Geographical Aspect of Flexibility in Distribution Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouzelis, Konstantinos; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    2015-01-01

    In the Smart Grid context, one of the most broadly investigated areas is the matter of flexibility. This term is still not defined in a unified way. As such, it is frequently encountered in both transmission and distribution system studies, nonetheless, with various perspectives. To some extent, ...

  17. Modelling the geographical distribution of soil-transmitted helminth infections in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chammartin, Frédérique; Scholte, Ronaldo G C; Malone, John B; Bavia, Mara E; Nieto, Prixia; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2013-05-25

    The prevalence of infection with the three common soil-transmitted helminths (i.e. Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworm) in Bolivia is among the highest in Latin America. However, the spatial distribution and burden of soil-transmitted helminthiasis are poorly documented. We analysed historical survey data using Bayesian geostatistical models to identify determinants of the distribution of soil-transmitted helminth infections, predict the geographical distribution of infection risk, and assess treatment needs and costs in the frame of preventive chemotherapy. Rigorous geostatistical variable selection identified the most important predictors of A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, and hookworm transmission. Results show that precipitation during the wettest quarter above 400 mm favours the distribution of A. lumbricoides. Altitude has a negative effect on T. trichiura. Hookworm is sensitive to temperature during the coldest month. We estimate that 38.0%, 19.3%, and 11.4% of the Bolivian population is infected with A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, and hookworm, respectively. Assuming independence of the three infections, 48.4% of the population is infected with any soil-transmitted helminth. Empirical-based estimates, according to treatment recommendations by the World Health Organization, suggest a total of 2.9 million annualised treatments for the control of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Bolivia. We provide estimates of soil-transmitted helminth infections in Bolivia based on high-resolution spatial prediction and an innovative variable selection approach. However, the scarcity of the data suggests that a national survey is required for more accurate mapping that will govern spatial targeting of soil-transmitted helminthiasis control.

  18. Mapping and modelling the geographical distribution of soil-transmitted helminthiases in Peninsular Malaysia: implications for control approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romano Ngui

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections in Malaysia are still highly prevalent, especially in rural and remote communities. Complete estimations of the total disease burden in the country has not been performed, since available data are not easily accessible in the public domain. The current study utilised geographical information system (GIS to collate and map the distribution of STH infections from available empirical survey data in Peninsular Malaysia, highlighting areas where information is lacking. The assembled database, comprising surveys conducted between 1970 and 2012 in 99 different locations, represents one of the most comprehensive compilations of STH infections in the country. It was found that the geographical distribution of STH varies considerably with no clear pattern across the surveyed locations. Our attempt to generate predictive risk maps of STH infections on the basis of ecological limits such as climate and other environmental factors shows that the prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides is low along the western coast and the southern part of the country, whilst the prevalence is high in the central plains and in the North. In the present study, we demonstrate that GIS can play an important role in providing data for the implementation of sustainable and effective STH control programmes to policy-makers and authorities in charge.

  19. Mapping and modelling the geographical distribution of soil-transmitted helminthiases in Peninsular Malaysia: implications for control approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngui, Romano; Shafie, Aziz; Chua, Kek H; Mistam, Mohd S; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Sulaiman, Wan W W; Mahmud, Rohela; Lim, Yvonne A L

    2014-05-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections in Malaysia are still highly prevalent, especially in rural and remote communities. Complete estimations of the total disease burden in the country has not been performed, since available data are not easily accessible in the public domain. The current study utilised geographical information system (GIS) to collate and map the distribution of STH infections from available empirical survey data in Peninsular Malaysia, highlighting areas where information is lacking. The assembled database, comprising surveys conducted between 1970 and 2012 in 99 different locations, represents one of the most comprehensive compilations of STH infections in the country. It was found that the geographical distribution of STH varies considerably with no clear pattern across the surveyed locations. Our attempt to generate predictive risk maps of STH infections on the basis of ecological limits such as climate and other environmental factors shows that the prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides is low along the western coast and the southern part of the country, whilst the prevalence is high in the central plains and in the North. In the present study, we demonstrate that GIS can play an important role in providing data for the implementation of sustainable and effective STH control programmes to policy-makers and authorities in charge.

  20. Geographic distribution of hospital beds throughout China: a county-level econometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jay; Shallcross, David

    2016-11-08

    Geographical distribution of healthcare resources is an important dimension of healthcare access. Little work has been published on healthcare resource allocation patterns in China, despite public equity concerns. Using national data from 2043 counties, this paper investigates the geographic distribution of hospital beds at the county level in China. We performed Gini coefficient analysis to measure inequalities and ordinary least squares regression with fixed provincial effects and additional spatial specifications to assess key determinants. We found that provinces in west China have the least equitable resource distribution. We also found that the distribution of hospital beds is highly spatially clustered. Finally, we found that both county-level savings and government revenue show a strong positive relationship with county level hospital bed density. We argue for more widespread use of disaggregated, geographical data in health policy-making in China to support the rational allocation of healthcare resources, thus promoting efficiency and equity.

  1. The prevalence of multimorbidity in a geographically defined American population: patterns by age, sex, and ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, Walter A.; Boyd, Cynthia M.; Grossardt, Brandon R.; Bobo, William V.; Rutten, Lila J.; Roger, Véronique L.; Ebbert, Jon O.; Therneau, Terry M.; Yawn, Barbara P.; Sauver, Jennifer L. St.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe the prevalence of multimorbidity involving 20 selected chronic conditions in a geographically defined US population, emphasizing age, sex, and ethnic differences. Patients and Methods Using the Rochester Epidemiology Project (REP) records-linkage system, we identified all residents of Olmsted County, MN on April 1, 2010, and we electronically extracted the International Classification of Diseases, ninth revision (ICD-9) codes associated with all healthcare visits made between April 1, 2005 and March 31, 2010 (5-year capture frame). Using these ICD-9 codes, we defined the 20 common chronic conditions recommended by the US Department of Health and Human Services. We counted only persons who received at least two codes for a given condition separated by more than 30 days, and calculated the age-, sex-, and ethnicity-specific prevalence of multimorbidity. Results Of the 138,858 study subjects, 52.4% were women, 38.9% had one or more conditions, 22.6% had two or more, and 4.9% had 5 or more conditions. The prevalence of multimorbidity (2 or more conditions) increased steeply with older age and reached 77.3% at ages 65 years and older. However, the absolute number of people affected by multimorbidity was higher in those younger than 65 years. Although the prevalence of multimorbidity was similar in men and women overall, the most common dyads and triads of conditions varied by sex. Compared to Whites, the prevalence of multimorbidity was slightly higher in Blacks and slightly lower in Asians. Conclusion Multimorbidity is common in the general population; it increases steeply with older age, has different patterns in men and women, and varies by ethnicity. PMID:25220409

  2. The impact of travel time on geographic distribution of dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashima, Saori; Matsumoto, Masatoshi; Ogawa, Takahiko; Eboshida, Akira; Takeuchi, Keisuke

    2012-01-01

    The geographic disparity of prevalence rates among dialysis patients is unclear. We evaluate the association between travel time to dialysis facilities and prevalence rates of dialysis patients living in 1,867 census areas of Hiroshima, Japan. Furthermore, we study the effects of geographic features (mainland or island) on the prevalence rates and assess if these effects modify the association between travel time and prevalence. The study subjects were all 7,374 people that were certified as the "renal disabled" by local governments in 2011. The travel time from each patient to the nearest available dialysis facility was calculated by incorporating both travel time and the capacity of all 98 facilities. The effect of travel time on the age- and sex-adjusted standard prevalence rate (SPR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) at each census area was evaluated in two-level Poisson regression models with 1,867 census areas (level 1) nested within 35 towns or cities (level 2). The results were adjusted for area-based parameters of socioeconomic status, urbanity, and land type. Furthermore, the SPR of dialysis patients was calculated in each specific subgroup of population for travel time, land type, and combination of land type and travel time. In the regression analysis, SPR decreased by 5.2% (95% CI: -7.9--2.3) per 10-min increase in travel time even after adjusting for potential confounders. The effect of travel time on prevalence was different in the mainland and island groups. There was no travel time-dependent SPR disparity on the islands. The SPR among remote residents (>30 min from facilities) in the mainland was lower (0.77, 95% CI: 0.71-0.85) than that of closer residents (≤ 30 min; 0.95, 95% CI: 0.92-0.97). The prevalence of dialysis patients was lower among remote residents. Geographic difficulties for commuting seem to decrease the prevalence rate.

  3. Geographical Distribution of Trypanosoma cruzi Genotypes in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Hernán J.; Segovia, Maikell; Llewellyn, Martin S.; Morocoima, Antonio; Urdaneta-Morales, Servio; Martínez, Cinda; Martínez, Clara E.; Garcia, Carlos; Rodríguez, Marlenes; Espinosa, Raul; de Noya, Belkisyolé A.; Díaz-Bello, Zoraida; Herrera, Leidi; Fitzpatrick, Sinead; Yeo, Matthew; Miles, Michael A.; Feliciangeli, M. Dora

    2012-01-01

    Chagas disease is an endemic zoonosis native to the Americas and is caused by the kinetoplastid protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. The parasite is also highly genetically diverse, with six discrete typing units (DTUs) reported TcI – TcVI. These DTUs broadly correlate with several epidemiogical, ecological and pathological features of Chagas disease. In this manuscript we report the most comprehensive evaluation to date of the genetic diversity of T. cruzi in Venezuela. The dataset includes 778 samples collected and genotyped over the last twelve years from multiple hosts and vectors, including nine wild and domestic mammalian host species, and seven species of triatomine bug, as well as from human sources. Most isolates (732) can be assigned to the TcI clade (94.1%); 24 to the TcIV group (3.1%) and 22 to TcIII (2.8%). Importantly, among the 95 isolates genotyped from human disease cases, 79% belonged to TcI - a DTU common in the Americas, however, 21% belonged to TcIV- a little known genotype previously thought to be rare in humans. Furthermore, were able to assign multiple oral Chagas diseases cases to TcI in the area around the capital, Caracas. We discuss our findings in the context of T. cruzi DTU distributions elsewhere in the Americas, and evaluate the impact they have on the future of Chagas disease control in Venezuela. PMID:22745843

  4. [Temporal variation and geographical distribution: congenital heart defects in the Comunitat Valenciana].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavero Carbonell, C; Zurriaga, O; Pérez Panadés, J; Barona Vilar, C; Martos Jiménez, C

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study is to estimate the prevalence of congenital heart defects (CHD) in the Comunitat Valenciana (CV) in children less than one year old and identify whether there are temporal and geographic variations within this prevalence. The minimum basic data set from hospital discharge reports was used to select patients, who were born between 1999-2008, were less than one year old, and who lived in the CV with at least one hospital admission in which the primary diagnosis and/or any of the events were coded as CHD (codes 745-747 of the International Classification of Diseases 9th Revision Clinical Modification). The first hospital discharge report with CHD was selected, using the health card number to detect duplication. The prevalence and 95% confidence intervals were calculated, and the prevalence ratio (PR) and smoothed PR was obtained for each municipality to identify geographic patterns. In the period 1999-2008 there were 6.377 patients younger than one year with some CHD, representing the 43.2% of cases of congenital anomalies. The prevalence was 134.3 per 10.000 live births (95% CI: 131.1-137.6). There was a significant increase in the prevalence, from 115.8 in the 1999-2003 period to 149.5 in the 2004-2008 period. A higher risk was identified in the north of the CV, and in some municipalities of the province of Alicante, in the south. The observed increase in CHD agrees with the findings in other countries and it can be explained, at least in part, by improved diagnostic techniques. The geographic pattern identified requires a more detailed analysis that could explain the geographic variations found. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Cyber Graph Queries for Geographically Distributed Data Centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, Jonathan W. [Mail Stop, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Collins, Michael [Christopher Newport Univ., VA (United States); Kearns, Aaron [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Phillips, Cynthia A. [Mail Stop, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Saia, Jared [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-05-01

    We present new algorithms for a distributed model for graph computations motivated by limited information sharing we first discussed in [20]. Two or more independent entities have collected large social graphs. They wish to compute the result of running graph algorithms on the entire set of relationships. Because the information is sensitive or economically valuable, they do not wish to simply combine the information in a single location. We consider two models for computing the solution to graph algorithms in this setting: 1) limited-sharing: the two entities can share only a polylogarithmic size subgraph; 2) low-trust: the entities must not reveal any information beyond the query answer, assuming they are all honest but curious. We believe this model captures realistic constraints on cooperating autonomous data centers. We have algorithms in both setting for s - t connectivity in both models. We also give an algorithm in the low-communication model for finding a planted clique. This is an anomaly- detection problem, finding a subgraph that is larger and denser than expected. For both the low- communication algorithms, we exploit structural properties of social networks to prove perfor- mance bounds better than what is possible for general graphs. For s - t connectivity, we use known properties. For planted clique, we propose a new property: bounded number of triangles per node. This property is based upon evidence from the social science literature. We found that classic examples of social networks do not have the bounded-triangles property. This is because many social networks contain elements that are non-human, such as accounts for a business, or other automated accounts. We describe some initial attempts to distinguish human nodes from automated nodes in social networks based only on topological properties.

  6. Exploring geographic distributions of high-risk water, sanitation, and hygiene practices and their association with child diarrhea in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuaki Hirai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: High-risk water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH practices are still prevalent in most low-income countries. Because of limited access to WASH, children may be put at an increased risk of diarrheal diseases. Objectives: This study aims to 1 develop a new measure of WASH-induced burden, the WASH Resource Index (WRI, and estimate its correlation with child diarrhea and an additive index of high-risk WASH practices; 2 explore the geographic distribution of high-risk WASH practices, child diarrhea, and summary indices at the cluster level; and 3 examine the association between the WRI and child diarrhea at the individual level. Design: A sample of 7,019 children from the Uganda Demographic and Health Survey 2011 were included in this study. Principal component analysis was used to develop a WRI, and households were classified as WASH poorest, poorer, middle, richer, and richest. A hot spot analysis was conducted to assess whether and how high-risk WASH practices and child diarrhea were geographically clustered. A potential association between the WRI and child diarrhea was examined through a nested regression analysis. Results: High-risk WASH practices were clustered at geographically distant regions from Kampala. The 2-week prevalence of child diarrhea, however, was concentrated in Eastern and East Central regions where high-risk WASH practices were not prevalent. At the individual level, none of the high-risk WASH practices were significantly associated with child diarrhea. Being in the highest WASH quintile was, however, significantly associated with 24.9% lower prevalence of child diarrhea compared to being in the lowest quintile (p<0.05. Conclusions: Only a weak association was found between the WRI and child diarrhea in this study. Future research should explore the potential utility of the WRI to examine WASH-induced burden.

  7. Predicting the potential geographical distribution of Rhodnius neglectus (Hemiptera, Reduviidae) based on ecological niche modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurgel-Goncalves, Rodrigo; Cuba, César Augusto Cuba

    2009-07-01

    Rhodnius neglectus is frequently found in palm trees and bird nests in sylvatic environments. However, adult specimens infected by Trypanosoma cruzi have been invading houses in central Brazil. Analyzing and predicting the geographical distribution of this species may improve vector surveillance strategies for Chagas disease. Ecological niche modeling using the genetic algorithm for rule-set production (GARP) was applied to predict the geographical distribution of R. neglectus from occurrence records and a set of 23 predictor variables (e.g., temperature, precipitation, altitude, and vegetation). Additionally, the geographical distribution of R. neglectus was compared with the geographical distribution of four species of palm trees and two species of birds from the study region. The models were able to predict, with high probability, the occurrence of R. neglectus as a regular (although nonendemic) species of the Cerrado biome in central Brazil. Caatinga, Amazonian savanna, Pantanal, and the Bolivian Chaco appear as areas with lower probabilities of potential occurrence for the species. A great overlap was observed between the distribution of R. neglectus, palm trees (Acrocomia aculeata and Syagrus oleracea), and birds (Phacellodomus ruber and Pseudoseisura cristata). By including new records for R. neglectus (from both sylvatic and domestic environments), our study showed a distribution increase toward the west and northeast areas of Brazil in the "diagonal of open/dry ecoregions of South America". These results should aid Chagas disease vector surveillance programs, given that household invasion by Rhodnius species maintains the risk of disease transmission and limits control strategies.

  8. Geographic distribution of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in wild rats (Rattus rattus and terrestrial snails in Florida, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather D Stockdale Walden

    Full Text Available The parasitic nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a major cause of eosinophilic meningitis in humans, and has been documented in other incidental hosts such as birds, horses, dogs and non-human primates. It is endemic in Hawaii, and there have been sporadic reports in the southern continental United States. This parasite uses rats as definitive hosts and snails as intermediate hosts. In this study, we collected potential definitive and intermediate hosts throughout Florida to ascertain the geographic distribution in the state: Rats, environmental rat fecal samples, and snails were collected from 18 counties throughout the state. Classical diagnostics and morphological identification, along with molecular techniques were used to identify nematode species and confirm the presence of A. cantonensis. Of the 171 Rattus rattus collected, 39 (22.8% were positive for A. cantonensis, and 6 of the 37 (16.2% environmental rat fecal samples collected in three of the surveyed counties were also positive for this parasite by real time PCR. We examined 1,437 gastropods, which represented 32 species; 27 (1.9% were positive for A. cantonensis from multiple sites across Florida. Three non-native gastropod species, Bradybaena similaris, Zachrysia provisoria, and Paropeas achatinaceum, and three native gastropod species, Succinea floridana, Ventridens demissus, and Zonitoides arboreus, which are newly recorded intermediate hosts for the parasite, were positive for A. cantonensis. This study indicates that A. cantonensis is established in Florida through the finding of adult and larval stages in definitive and intermediate hosts, respectively, throughout the state. The ability for this historically subtropical nematode to thrive in a more temperate climate is alarming, however as the climate changes and average temperatures rise, gastropod distributions will probably expand, leading to the spread of this parasite in more temperate areas. Through greater

  9. The spatial distribution of gender differences in obesity prevalence differs from overall obesity prevalence among US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartner, Danielle R; Taber, Daniel R; Hirsch, Jana A; Robinson, Whitney R

    2016-04-01

    Although obesity disparities between racial and socioeconomic groups have been well characterized, those based on gender and geography have not been as thoroughly documented. This study describes obesity prevalence by state, gender, and race and/or ethnicity to (1) characterize obesity gender inequality, (2) determine if the geographic distribution of inequality is spatially clustered, and (3) contrast the spatial clustering patterns of obesity gender inequality with overall obesity prevalence. Data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were used to calculate state-specific obesity prevalence and gender inequality measures. Global and local Moran's indices were calculated to determine spatial autocorrelation. Age-adjusted, state-specific obesity prevalence difference and ratio measures show spatial autocorrelation (z-score = 4.89, P-value obesity prevalence and obesity gender inequalities are not the same. High and low values of obesity prevalence and gender inequalities cluster in different areas of the United States. Clustering of gender inequality suggests that spatial processes operating at the state level, such as occupational or physical activity policies or social norms, are involved in the etiology of the inequality and necessitate further attention to the determinates of obesity gender inequality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Prevalence and temporal distribution of Schistosoma haematobium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2010-10-18

    Oct 18, 2010 ... (2003 and 2004). Occurrence of S. haematobium among hospital patients, university students and primary school children. The analysis of the urine samples collected from the hospitals indicated even higher prevalence of schisto- somiasis among out-patients visiting the hospitals for urinary tract infections.

  11. Geographical features are the predominant driver of molecular diversification in widely distributed North American whipsnakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Kyle A; Streicher, Jeffrey W; Smith, Eric N; Fujita, Matthew K

    2017-10-01

    Allopatric divergence following the formation of geographical features has been implicated as a major driver of evolutionary diversification. Widespread species complexes provide opportunities to examine allopatric divergence across varying degrees of isolation in both time and space. In North America, several geographical features may play such a role in diversification, including the Mississippi River, Pecos River, Rocky Mountains, Cochise Filter Barrier, Gulf of California and Isthmus of Tehuantepec. We used thousands of nuclear single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and mitochondrial DNA from several species of whipsnakes (genera Masticophis and Coluber) distributed across North and Central America to investigate the role that these geographical features have played on lineage divergence. We hypothesize that these features restrict gene flow and separate whipsnakes into diagnosable genomic clusters. We performed genomic clustering and phylogenetic reconstructions at the species and population levels using Bayesian and likelihood analyses and quantified migration levels across geographical features to assess the degree of genetic isolation due to allopatry. Our analyses suggest that (i) major genetic divisions are often consistent with isolation by geographical features, (ii) migration rates between clusters are asymmetrical across major geographical features, and (iii) areas that receive proportionally more migrants possess higher levels of genetic diversity. Collectively, our findings suggest that multiple features of the North American landscape contributed to allopatric divergence in this widely distributed snake group. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. [Geographical distribution and host selection of Leptotrombidium rubellum in some parts of Yunnan province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Ming-lu; Guo, Xian-guo; Guo, Bin

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the geographical distribution and host selection of Leptotrombidium rubellum among different small mammal hosts in some areas of Yunnan province, China. Field survey was carried out in 23 counties of Yunnan province between 2001 and 2011. Small mammal hosts were captured with mouse cages and traps with baits. Chigger mites on the surface of two auricles were scraped off by a bistoury, and then preserved in 70% ethanol. Every specimen of the chigger mites on the slides was finally identified into species under a microscope. Some conventional statistical methods were adopted to calculate all the collected chigger mite species and the constituent ratios of L. rubellum in different areas and on different hosts, with prevalence (P), mean intensity (MI) and mean abundance (MA) on different hosts calculated. Linear regression was used to analyze the relationship among P, MI and MA. Patch index (m*/m) was used to measure the spatial patterns of L. rubellum among different individuals of related small mammal hosts. A total of 108 480 chigger mites were collected from the body surface of all the captured small mammal hosts. All the collected chigger mites were identified as 3 subfamilies, 24 genera and 234 species. Of the 234 species of chigger mites, 654 individuals of L. rubellum were collected, only in 4 counties. The collected individuals of L. rubellum accounted for 0.603% of the total mites (108 480 individuals). 96.637% of L. rubellum came from flatland areas and habitats while only 3.363% of the L. rubellum were from the mountainous regions. The orderings of the hosts appeared as Rodentia and Insectivora harbored 96.296% and 2.469% respectively, of the collected while Lagomorpha and other orders there was no L. rubellum found. Of 67 species (in 34 genera and 12 families of 5 orders), Rattus tanezumi (in genus Rattus and family Muridae of Rodentia) harbored 96.788% of the collected L. rubellum with relatively low prevalence (P = 3.776%) or mean

  13. Higher gregarine parasitism often in sibling species of host damselflies with smaller geographical distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Mlynarek, JJ; Hassall, C; Forbes, MR

    2012-01-01

    1. This study investigated inter-specific variation in parasitism by gregarines (Eugregarinorida: Actinocephalidae), among sibling species of damselflies (Odonata: Zygoptera), in relation to relative size of geographical ranges of host species. 2. Gregarines are considered generalist parasites, particularly for taxonomically related host species collected at the same sites or area. Prevalence and median intensity of gregarine parasitism was obtained for 1338 adult damselflies, representing 14...

  14. Predicting geographically distributed adult dental decay in the greater Auckland region of New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, C M; Kruger, E; Whyman, R; Tennant, M

    2014-06-01

    To model the geographic distribution of current (and treated) dental decay on a high-resolution geographic basis for the Auckland region of New Zealand. The application of matrix-based mathematics to modelling adult dental disease-based on known population risk profiles to provide a detailed map of the dental caries distribution for the greater Auckland region. Of the 29 million teeth in adults in the region some 1.2 million (4%) are suffering decay whilst 7.2 million (25%) have previously suffered decay and are now restored. The model provides a high-resolution picture of where the disease burden lies geographically and presents to health planners a method for developing future service plans.

  15. Interaction of landscape varibles on the potential geographical distribution of parrots in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plasencia–Vázquez, A. H.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The loss, degradation, and fragmentation of forested areas are endangering parrot populations. In this study, we determined the influence of fragmentation in relation to vegetation cover, land use, and spatial configuration of fragments on the potential geographical distribution patterns of parrots in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. We used the potential geographical distribution for eight parrot species, considering the recently published maps obtained with the maximum entropy algorithm, and we incorporated the probability distribution for each species. We calculated 71 metrics/variables that evaluate forest fragmentation, spatial configuration of fragments, the ratio occupied by vegetation, and the land use in 100 plots of approximately 29 km², randomly distributed within the presence and absence areas predicted for each species. We also considered the relationship between environmental variables and the distribution probability of species. We used a partial least squares regression to explore patterns between the variables used and the potential distribution models. None of the environmental variables analyzed alone determined the presence/absence or the probability distribution of parrots in the Peninsula. We found that for the eight species, either due to the presence/absence or the probability distribution, the most important explanatory variables were the interaction among three variables, particularly the interactions among the total forest area, the total edge, and the tropical semi–evergreen medium– height forest. Habitat fragmentation influenced the potential geographical distribution of these species in terms of the characteristics of other environmental factors that are expressed together with the geographical division, such as the different vegetation cover ratio and land uses in deforested areas.

  16. An overview of the prevalence and distribution of gastrointestinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An overview of the prevalence and distribution of gastrointestinal parasitic infections in post-war Iraq. Noor Abdulhaleem, Aliyu Mahmuda, Al-Zihiry Khalid Jameel Khadim, Roslaini Abd Majid, Leslie Than Thian Lung, Wan Omar Abdullah, Zasmy Unyah ...

  17. The prevalence and age distribution of peripheral pulmonary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This autopsy-based study defined the prevalence and age distribution of peripheral pulmonary hamartomas in 47635 southern African miners examined between 1975 and 1988. The prevalence rate for white miners was 7,5/1000 and for black miners 1,1/1 000. When directly standardised to the white men in the general ...

  18. The bioclimatic envelope of the wolverine (Gulo gulo): do climatic constraints limit its geographic distribution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. P. Copeland; K. S. McKelvey; K. B. Aubry; A. Landa; J. Persson; R. M. Inman; J. Krebs; E. Lofroth; H. Golden; J. R. Squires; A. Magoun; M. K. Schwartz; J. Wilmot; C. L. Copeland; R. E. Yates; I. Kojola; R. May

    2010-01-01

    We propose a fundamental geographic distribution for the wolverine (Gulo gulo (L., 1758)) based on the hypothesis that the occurrence of wolverines is constrained by their obligate association with persistent spring snow cover for successful reproductive denning and by an upper limit of thermoneutrality. To investigate this hypothesis, we developed a composite of MODIS...

  19. Modelling the geographic distribution of wind power and the impact on transmission needs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2003-01-01

    of the distributed modelled. The results show that accuracy of the geographic modelling while important for the analysis of specific single transmission lines is not important for the analysis of the general response of the transmission system. The analyses thus corroborate previous analyses that demonstrated...

  20. Genome Sequence of Rickettsia hoogstraalii, a Geographically Widely Distributed Tick-Associated Bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentausa, Erwin; El Karkouri, Khalid; Nguyen, Thi-Tien; Caputo, Aurélia; Raoult, Didier; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard

    2014-11-06

    Rickettsia hoogstraalii is a tick-associated member of the spotted fever group rickettsiae that is geographically widely distributed. We report here the draft genome of R. hoogstraalii strain Croatica(T) (=DSM 22243 = UTMB 00003), which was isolated from Haemaphysalis sulcata ticks collected in Croatia. Copyright © 2014 Sentausa et al.

  1. History Shaped the Geographic Distribution of Genomic Admixture on the Island of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Via, Marc; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Roth, Lindsey A.; Fejerman, Laura; Galanter, Joshua; Choudhry, Shweta; Toro-Labrador, Gladys; Viera-Vera, Jorge; Oleksyk, Taras K.; Beckman, Kenneth; Ziv, Elad; Risch, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary genetic variation among Latin Americans human groups reflects population migrations shaped by complex historical, social and economic factors. Consequently, admixture patterns may vary by geographic regions ranging from countries to neighborhoods. We examined the geographic variation of admixture across the island of Puerto Rico and the degree to which it could be explained by historic and social events. We analyzed a census-based sample of 642 Puerto Rican individuals that were genotyped for 93 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) to estimate African, European and Native American ancestry. Socioeconomic status (SES) data and geographic location were obtained for each individual. There was significant geographic variation of ancestry across the island. In particular, African ancestry demonstrated a decreasing East to West gradient that was partially explained by historical factors linked to the colonial sugar plantation system. SES also demonstrated a parallel decreasing cline from East to West. However, at a local level, SES and African ancestry were negatively correlated. European ancestry was strongly negatively correlated with African ancestry and therefore showed patterns complementary to African ancestry. By contrast, Native American ancestry showed little variation across the island and across individuals and appears to have played little social role historically. The observed geographic distributions of SES and genetic variation relate to historical social events and mating patterns, and have substantial implications for the design of studies in the recently admixed Puerto Rican population. More generally, our results demonstrate the importance of incorporating social and geographic data with genetics when studying contemporary admixed populations. PMID:21304981

  2. Comparison of the geographical distribution of feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukemia virus infections in the United States of America (2000-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhetri, Bimal K; Berke, Olaf; Pearl, David L; Bienzle, Dorothee

    2013-01-05

    Although feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) have similar risk factors and control measures, infection rates have been speculated to vary in geographic distribution over North America. Since both infections are endemic in North America, it was assumed as a working hypothesis that their geographic distributions were similar. Hence, the purpose of this exploratory analysis was to investigate the comparative geographical distribution of both viral infections. Counts of FIV (n=17,108) and FeLV (n=30,017) positive serology results (FIV antibody and FeLV ELISA) were obtained for 48 contiguous states and District of Columbia of the United States of America (US) from the IDEXX Laboratories website. The proportional morbidity ratio of FIV to FeLV infection was estimated for each administrative region and its geographic distribution pattern was visualized by a choropleth map. Statistical evidence of an excess in the proportional morbidity ratio from unity was assessed using the spatial scan test under the normal probability model. This study revealed distinct spatial distribution patterns in the proportional morbidity ratio suggesting the presence of one or more relevant and geographically varying risk factors. The disease map indicates that there is a higher prevalence of FIV infections in the southern and eastern US compared to FeLV. In contrast, FeLV infections were observed to be more frequent in the western US compared to FIV. The respective excess in proportional morbidity ratio was significant with respect to the spatial scan test (p FIV to FeLV may be related to the presence of an additional or unique, but yet unknown, spatial risk factor. Putative factors may be geographic variations in specific virus strains and rate of vaccination. Knowledge of these factors and the geographical distributions of these infections can inform recommendations for testing, management and prevention. However, further studies are required to investigate

  3. Prevalence and subtype distribution of Blastocystis in healthy individuals in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbuOdeh, Raed; Ezzedine, Sinda; Samie, Amidou; Stensvold, Christen Rune; ElBakri, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Blastocystis is estimated to be one of the most common parasites of the intestinal tract of humans, comprising multiple subtypes (ST). Meanwhile, the distribution of Blastocystis ST in many communities and countries remains unknown. In the present work, we aimed to identify the prevalence of Blastocystis and the ST distribution in human stool samples collected from healthy expatriates from different geographical regions and residing in Sharjah, United Arabian Emirates (UAE). A total of 133 samples were screened and subtyped using partial small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. Fifty-nine (44.4%) samples were identified as positive. Among these, 39 were successfully sequenced and subtyped. The ST distribution was as follows: ST3, 58.9% (23/39); ST1, 28.2% (11/39); and ST2, 7.6% (3/39). No correlation between geographic origin and infection (χ(2)=11.006; P=0.528) nor gender and infection (χ(2)=1.264; P=0.261) was observed. The data were compared with those available for other Middle Eastern and North African neighboring countries. This study is the first to provide data concerning the prevalence of Blastocystis and the frequency of various STs in the UAE, confirming the absence of ST4 and the commonness of ST1, ST2, and ST3 in this geographical region. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Geographically determined Interactions of Distributed Generation, Consumption and the Transmission Network in the Case of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    2002-01-01

    . At some times electricity has to be exported to neighbouring countries at market prices pro-bably lower than the costs of generation. To match production and consumption in the future, and at the same time maintain a good economy, alternative regulation instruments have to be found. These could consist...... with the geographical distribution of electricity and district heat con-sumption. This paper presents a methodology for modelling the geographically determined interac-tions between local producers and consumption. The country has been divided into about 100 zones, for which hourly balances have been calculated...... electricity markets....

  5. HIV prevalence is strongly associated with geographical variations in male circumcision and foreskin cutting in Papua New Guinea: an ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLaren, David J; McBride, W John H; Kelly, Gerard C; Muller, Reinhold; Tommbe, Rachael; Kaldor, John M; Vallely, Andrew J

    2015-11-01

    To examine the correlation between HIV prevalence and male circumcision and other foreskin cutting practices across the four regions of Papua New Guinea (PNG). An ecological substudy using unique data from an interdisciplinary research programme to evaluate the acceptability, sociocultural context and public health impact of male circumcision for HIV prevention in PNG. Published data describing (a) self-reported circumcision status by region from the 'Acceptability and Feasibility of Male Circumcision for HIV prevention in PNG' study and (b) HIV prevalence by region from PNG National Department of Health were used to correlate male circumcision and other foreskin cutting practices and HIV prevalence. Maps were constructed to visually represent variations across the four regions of PNG. Regions of PNG with the highest HIV prevalence had the lowest prevalence of male circumcision and other forms of foreskin cutting and vice versa. Male circumcision and dorsal longitudinal cuts were strongly associated with HIV prevalence and able to explain 99% of the observed geographical variability in HIV prevalence in PNG (pPNG appears to be closely correlated with the regional distribution of male circumcision and dorsal longitudinal foreskin cuts. Further research is warranted to investigate causality of this correlation as well as the potential of dorsal longitudinal cuts to confer protection against HIV acquisition in heterosexual men. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. New records and geographical distribution of ctenid spiders (Araneae: Ctenidae) in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazzi, Nicolás A; Valderrama-Ardila, Carlos; Brescovit, Antonio D; Polotow, Daniele; Simó, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    This study provides new records, geographical distribution extensions and a checklist of the current ctenids species in Colombia based on the review of four arachnological collections and published literature. A total of 15 new records for Ctenidae in Colombia are reported; nine of these species are new records for the country and the distribution of the remaining six is expanded. The genus Centroctenus Mello-Leitão, 1929 (C. ocelliventer Strand, 1909) is recorded for first time in Colombia and Cupiennius coccineus (F.O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1901) for South America. Due to the strategic geographic position of Colombia, which is a transition zone between Southern and Central American biotas, species inventories in different localities are important to fill distributional gaps. The number of known species of ctenids in Colombia is increased from 16 to 25 and these data will be useful for future studies in taxonomy, systematics and biogeography of this family.

  7. Software Quality Validation for Web Applications Developed Using Geographically Distributed Human Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai GHEORGHE

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Developing web applications using Geographically Distributed Team Members has seen an increased popularity during the last years mainly because the rise of Open Source technologies, fast penetration of the Internet in emerging economies, the continuous quest for reduced costs as well for the fast adoption of online platforms and services which successfully address project planning, coordination and other development tasks. This paper identifies general software process stages for both collocated and distributed development and analyses the impact the use of planning, management and testing online services has on the duration, cost and quality of each stage. Given that Quality Assurance is one of the most important concerns in Geographically Distributed Software Development (GDSD, the focus is on Software Quality Validation.

  8. Performance of forest bryophytes with different geographical distributions transplanted across a topographically heterogeneous landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlberg, C Johan; Ehrlén, Johan; Hylander, Kristoffer

    2014-01-01

    Most species distribution models assume a close link between climatic conditions and species distributions. Yet, we know little about the link between species' geographical distributions and the sensitivity of performance to local environmental factors. We studied the performance of three bryophyte species transplanted at south- and north-facing slopes in a boreal forest landscape in Sweden. At the same sites, we measured both air and ground temperature. We hypothesized that the two southerly distributed species Eurhynchium angustirete and Herzogiella seligeri perform better on south-facing slopes and in warm conditions, and that the northerly distributed species Barbilophozia lycopodioides perform better on north-facing slopes and in relatively cool conditions. The northern, but not the two southern species, showed the predicted relationship with slope aspect. However, the performance of one of the two southern species was still enhanced by warm temperatures. An important reason for the inconsistent results can be that microclimatic gradients across landscapes are complex and influenced by many climate-forcing factors. Therefore, comparing only north- and south-facing slopes might not capture the complexity of microclimatic gradients. Population growth rates and potential distributions are the integrated results of all vital rates. Still, the study of selected vital rates constitutes an important first step to understand the relationship between population growth rates and geographical distributions and is essential to better predict how climate change influences species distributions.

  9. Mapping the geographical distribution of podoconiosis in Cameroon using parasitological, serological, and clinical evidence to exclude other causes of lymphedema.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kebede Deribe

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Podoconiosis is a non-filarial elephantiasis, which causes massive swelling of the lower legs. It was identified as a neglected tropical disease by WHO in 2011. Understanding of the geographical distribution of the disease is incomplete. As part of a global mapping of podoconiosis, this study was conducted in Cameroon to map the distribution of the disease. This mapping work will help to generate data on the geographical distribution of podoconiosis in Cameroon and contribute to the global atlas of podoconiosis.We used a multi-stage sampling design with stratification of the country by environmental risk of podoconiosis. We sampled 76 villages from 40 health districts from the ten Regions of Cameroon. All individuals of 15-years old or older in the village were surveyed house-to-house and screened for lymphedema. A clinical algorithm was used to reliably diagnose podoconiosis, excluding filarial-associated lymphedema. Individuals with lymphoedema were tested for circulating Wuchereria bancrofti antigen and specific IgG4 using the Alere Filariasis Test Strips (FTS test and the Standard Diagnostics (SD BIOLINE lymphatic filariasis IgG4 test (Wb123 respectively, in addition to thick blood films. Presence of DNA specific to W. bancrofti was checked on night blood using a qPCR technique.Overall, 10,178 individuals from 4,603 households participated in the study. In total, 83 individuals with lymphedema were identified. Of the 83 individuals with lymphedema, two were found to be FTS positive and all were negative using the Wb123 test. No microfilaria of W. bancrofti were found in the night blood of any individual with clinical lymphedema. None were found to be positive for W. bancrofti using qPCR. Of the two FTS positive cases, one was positive for Mansonella perstans DNA, while the other harbored Loa loa microfilaria. Overall, 52 people with podoconiosis were identified after applying the clinical algorithm. The overall prevalence of podoconiosis was

  10. Geographic distribution of suicide and railway suicide in Belgium, 2008-2013: a principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strale, Mathieu; Krysinska, Karolina; Overmeiren, Gaëtan Van; Andriessen, Karl

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the geographic distribution of suicide and railway suicide in Belgium over 2008--2013 on local (i.e., district or arrondissement) level. There were differences in the regional distribution of suicide and railway suicides in Belgium over the study period. Principal component analysis identified three groups of correlations among population variables and socio-economic indicators, such as population density, unemployment, and age group distribution, on two components that helped explaining the variance of railway suicide at a local (arrondissement) level. This information is of particular importance to prevent suicides in high-risk areas on the Belgian railway network.

  11. Breast cancer in Ethiopia: evidence for geographic difference in the distribution of molecular subtypes in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadgu, Endale; Seifu, Daniel; Tigneh, Wondemagegnhu; Bokretsion, Yonas; Bekele, Abebe; Abebe, Markos; Sollie, Thomas; Merajver, Sofia D; Karlsson, Christina; Karlsson, Mats G

    2018-02-14

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease with several morphological and molecular subtypes. Widely accepted molecular classification system uses assessment of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and proliferation marker Ki67. Few studies have been conducted on the incidence and molecular types of breast cancer in Sub-Saharan Africa. Previous studies mainly from Western and Central Africa, showed breast cancer to occur at younger ages and to present with aggressive features, such as high-grade, advanced stage and triple-negative phenotype (negative for ER, PR and HER2). Limited data from East Africa including Ethiopia however shows hormone receptor negative tumors to account for a lower proportion of all breast cancers than has been reported from elsewhere in Africa. In this study from Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital, 114 breast cancer patients diagnosed between 2012 and 2015 were enrolled. ER, PR, Ki67 and HER2 receptor status were assessed using immunohistochemistry from tissue microarrays. FISH was used for assessment of gene amplification in all equivocal tumor samples and for confirmation in HER2-enriched cases. The distribution of molecular subtypes was: Luminal A: 40%; Luminal B: 26%; HER2-enriched: 10%; TNBC: 23%. ER were positive in 65% of all tumors and 43% the cases were positive for PR. There was statistically significant difference in median age at diagnosis between the molecular subtypes (P molecular subtypes in different age ranges with Luminal B subtype being more common at younger ages (median = 36) and Luminal A subtype more prevalent at older ages (median = 42). There were no statistically significant differences in tumor grade, histology, and stage between the molecular subtypes of breast cancer. The present study detected Luminal A breast cancer to be the most common subtype and reveals a relatively low rate of hormone receptor negative and TNBC. Our findings and

  12. Coincidence between geographical distribution of Leptotrombidium scutellare and scrub typhus incidence in South Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Yul Roh

    Full Text Available To clarify the geographical distribution of scrub typhus vectors in Korea, a survey of larval trombiculid mites was conducted from 2005 to 2007 by collecting wild small mammals twice a year (spring and autumn at 24 sites nationwide. A total of 67,325 mites representing 4 genera and 14 species were collected from 783 trapped rodents, corresponding to a chigger index (number of chigger mites per rodent of 86.0. The predominant mite species were Leptotrombidium pallidum (52.6%, Leptotrombiduim scutellare (27.1%, Leptotrombidium palpale (8.2%, Leptotrombidium orientale (5.6%, and Neotrombicula tamiyai (1.7%. However, the proportions of L. scutellare in southern areas, including endemic provinces such as Jeollabuk-Do (34.3%, Jeollanam-Do (49.0%, and Gyeongsangnam-Do (88%, were relatively higher than in central Korean regions where L. pallidum was predominant. In autumn, the ratio of L. scutellare increased to 42% while the ratio of L. pallidum decreased. The geographical distribution map of the L. scutellare chigger index was identical to the incidence pattern of scrub typhus, whereas those of overall mites and L. pallidum showed no relationship with case incidence patterns. Distribution mapping analysis shows an identical geographical distribution of L. scutellare and epidemic incidence of scrub typhus in South Korea. L. pallidum could be another vector at all other parts of the Korean peninsula, including the eastern and northern regions that have a low level of scrub typhus incidence.

  13. Androctonus genus species in arid regions: Ecological niche models, geographical distributions, and envenomation risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moulay Abdelmonaim El Hidan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to establish environmental factors related to scorpion species occurrence and their current potential geographic distributions in Morocco, to produce a current envenomation risk map and also to assess the human population at risk of envenomation. Materials and Methods: In this study, 71 georeferenced points for all scorpion species and nine environmental indicators were used to generate species distribution models in Maxent (maximum entropy modeling of species geographic distributions version 3.3.3k. The models were evaluated by the area under the curve (AUC, using the omission error and the binomial probability. With the data generated by Maxent, distribution and envenomation risk maps were produced using the "ESRI® ArcGIS 10.2.2 for Desktop" software. Results: The models had high predictive success (AUC >0.95±0.025. Altitude, slope and five bioclimatic attributes were found to play a significant role in determining Androctonus scorpion species distribution. Ecological niche models (ENMs showed high concordance with the known distribution of the species. Produced risk map identified broad risk areas for Androctonus scorpion envenomation, extending along Marrakech-Tensift-Al Haouz, Souss-Massa-Draa, and some areas of Doukkala-Abda and Oriental regions. Conclusion: Considering these findings ENMs could be useful to afford important information on distributions of medically important scorpion species as well as producing scorpion envenomation risk maps.

  14. Ecological Niche Modeling for the Prediction of the Geographic Distribution of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalghaf, Bilel; Chlif, Sadok; Mayala, Benjamin; Ghawar, Wissem; Bettaieb, Jihène; Harrabi, Myriam; Benie, Goze Bertin; Michael, Edwin; Salah, Afif Ben

    2016-04-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a very complex disease involving multiple factors that limit its emergence and spatial distribution. Prediction of cutaneous leishmaniasis epidemics in Tunisia remains difficult because most of the epidemiological tools used so far are descriptive in nature and mainly focus on a time dimension. The purpose of this work is to predict the potential geographic distribution of Phlebotomus papatasi and zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major in Tunisia using Grinnellian ecological niche modeling. We attempted to assess the importance of environmental factors influencing the potential distribution of P. papatasi and cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. major. Vectors were trapped in central Tunisia during the transmission season using CDC light traps (John W. Hock Co., Gainesville, FL). A global positioning system was used to record the geographical coordinates of vector occurrence points and households tested positive for cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. major. Nine environmental layers were used as predictor variables to model the P. papatasi geographical distribution and five variables were used to model the L. major potential distribution. Ecological niche modeling was used to relate known species' occurrence points to values of environmental factors for these same points to predict the presence of the species in unsampled regions based on the value of the predictor variables. Rainfall and temperature contributed the most as predictors for sand flies and human case distributions. Ecological niche modeling anticipated the current distribution of P. papatasi with the highest suitability for species occurrence in the central and southeastern part of Tunisian. Furthermore, our study demonstrated that governorates of Gafsa, Sidi Bouzid, and Kairouan are at highest epidemic risk. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  15. Geographic distribution and conservation status of Caiman latirostris (Crocodylia, Alligatoridae in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Borteiro

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Populations of Caiman latirostris are known to occur in Uruguay but their geographic distribution remains uncertain. This work presents anupdate of the species distribution and conservation status in Uruguay. Surveys conducted by the authors confirmed the presence of this species in the previously known distribution range of northwestern Uruguay, where it seems to be widespread and relatively abundant in contrast to earlier reports. We report new localities for C. latirostris, most relevant being those of the Cebollatí and Tacuarí Rivers, and the Pelotas, India Muerta and San Miguel stream basins, which significantly expand its distribution through important wetlands in the eastern part of the country. The overall distribution is coincident with different landscape types, where lagoons, artificial impoundments, livestock waterholes, rivers, streams, creeks and marshes are inhabited by caiman. Illegal non-commercial hunting was detected all over the country.

  16. Local knowledge, use pattern and geographical distribution of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popoola, Jacob O; Obembe, Olawole O

    2013-11-25

    All parts of Moringa oleifera are medicinally valuable with overlapping uses in treating myriads of ailments and diseases including body pains and weakness, fever, asthma, cough, blood pressure, arthritis, diabetes, epilepsy, wound, and skin infection. Moringa also has robust ability to challenge terminal diseases such as HIV/AIDs infections, chronic anemia, cancer, malaria and hemorrhage. The present study was to obtain ethnobotanical information on the use and local knowledge variation, geographical distribution, and to collect different landraces of Moringa oleifera from the different agro-ecological regions in Nigeria, for further studies. Ethnobotanical data were collected through face to face interviews, semi structured questionnaires and discussions with selected people who had knowledge about the plant. The fidelity level (FL %) and use value for different use categories of Moringa oleifera and its parts were estimated. The variation in ethnobotanical knowledge was evaluated by comparing the mean use value among ethnic, gender and age groups using sample T test. Garmi GPS was used to determine the locations (latitude and longitude) and height in different areas to assess the geographical spread of the species. Seven (7) categories of use (Food, medicine, fodder, fencing, firewood, gum and coagulant) were recorded for Moringa oleifera. Food and medicinal uses showed highest fidelity level while the leaves and the seeds were the plant parts most utilized for the same purposes. There were significant differences among the ethnic, gender and age groups regarding the ethno-botanical use value. The geographical distribution pattern shows that the Moringa oleifera is well distributed in all ecological zones of Nigeria, well adapted to the varied climatic conditions and gaining unprecedented awareness among the people. Though considered an introduced species, Moringa oleifera has found wide acceptance, recognition and usefulness among the various ethnicities in the

  17. Analysis Of Educational Services Distribution-Based Geographic Information System GIS

    OpenAIRE

    Waleed Lagrab; Noura AKNIN

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This study analyzes the spatial distribution of kindergarten facilities in the study area based on the Geographic Information Systems GIS in order to test an efficiency of GIS technology to redistribute the existing kindergarten and choose the best location in the future and applying the standard criteria for selecting the suitable locations for kindergarten. To achieve this goal the data and information are collected via interviews and comprehensive statistics on the education facil...

  18. Current Knowledge of Leishmania Vectors in Mexico: How Geographic Distributions of Species Relate to Transmission Areas

    OpenAIRE

    González, Camila; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A.; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; Becker-Fauser, Ingeborg; Martínez-Meyer, Enrique; Peterson, A. Townsend; Sánchez-Cordero, Víctor

    2011-01-01

    Leishmaniases are a group of vector-borne diseases with different clinical manifestations caused by parasites transmitted by sand fly vectors. In Mexico, the sand fly Lutzomyia olmeca olmeca is the only vector proven to transmit the parasite Leishmania mexicana to humans, which causes leishmaniasis. Other vector species with potential medical importance have been obtained, but their geographic distributions and relation to transmission areas have never been assessed. We modeled the ecological...

  19. Andean Condor (Vultur gryphus) in Ecuador: Geographic Distribution, Population Size and Extinction Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveda-Rodríguez, Adrián; Vargas, Félix Hernán; Kohn, Sebastián; Zapata-Ríos, Galo

    2016-01-01

    The Andean Condor (Vultur gryphus) in Ecuador is classified as Critically Endangered. Before 2015, standardized and systematic estimates of geographic distribution, population size and structure were not available for this species, hampering the assessment of its current status and hindering the design and implementation of effective conservation actions. In this study, we performed the first quantitative assessment of geographic distribution, population size and population viability of Andean Condor in Ecuador. We used a methodological approach that included an ecological niche model to study geographic distribution, a simultaneous survey of 70 roosting sites to estimate population size and a population viability analysis (PVA) for the next 100 years. Geographic distribution in the form of extent of occurrence was 49 725 km2. During a two-day census, 93 Andean Condors were recorded and a population of 94 to 102 individuals was estimated. In this population, adult-to-immature ratio was 1:0.5. In the modeled PVA scenarios, the probability of extinction, mean time to extinction and minimum population size varied from zero to 100%, 63 years and 193 individuals, respectively. Habitat loss is the greatest threat to the conservation of Andean Condor populations in Ecuador. Population size reduction in scenarios that included habitat loss began within the first 15 years of this threat. Population reinforcement had no effects on the recovery of Andean Condor populations given the current status of the species in Ecuador. The population size estimate presented in this study is the lower than those reported previously in other countries where the species occur. The inferences derived from the population viability analysis have implications for Condor management in Ecuador. This study highlights the need to redirect efforts from captive breeding and population reinforcement to habitat conservation.

  20. Mapping progress in chronic hepatitis B: geographic variation in prevalence, diagnosis, monitoring and treatment, 2013-15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLachlan, Jennifer; Allard, Nicole; Carville, Kylie; Haynes, Katelin; Cowie, Benjamin

    2018-02-01

    To measure progress towards Australia's National Hepatitis B Strategy 2014-17 targets, and assess geographic variation in disease burden and access to care for those living with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Data were generated from routinely collected sources, including risk-group prevalence and population data, infectious diseases notifications, Medicare records, and immunisation registry data, and assessed nationally and according to geographic area for 2013-15. CHB prevalence in 2015 was 239,167 (1.0%), with 62% of those affected having been diagnosed (target 80%). Treatment uptake was 6.1% (target 15%), and only 15.3% of people with CHB received guideline-based care. CHB prevalence ranged within Australia's 31 Primary Health Networks (PHNs) from 1.77% (NT) to 0.56% (Grampians & Barwon South West VIC). No PHN reached the 15% treatment target, with uptake highest in South Western Sydney (13.7%). Immunisation coverage reached the 95% target in three PHNs. The CHB burden in Australia is significant and highly geographically focused, with notable disparities in access to care across Australia. Implications for public health: Efforts to improve progress toward National Strategy targets should focus on priority areas where the prevalence of CHB is substantial but access to treatment and care remains low. © 2017 The Authors.

  1. Hospital distribution in a metropolitan city: assessment by a geographical information system grid modelling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Soo Lee

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Grid models were used to assess urban hospital distribution in Seoul, the capital of South Korea. A geographical information system (GIS based analytical model was developed and applied to assess the situation in a metropolitan area with a population exceeding 10 million. Secondary data for this analysis were obtained from multiple sources: the Korean Statistical Information Service, the Korean Hospital Association and the Statistical Geographical Information System. A grid of cells measuring 1 × 1 km was superimposed on the city map and a set of variables related to population, economy, mobility and housing were identified and measured for each cell. Socio-demographic variables were included to reflect the characteristics of each area. Analytical models were then developed using GIS software with the number of hospitals as the dependent variable. Applying multiple linear regression and geographically weighted regression models, three factors (highway and major arterial road areas; number of subway entrances; and row house areas were statistically significant in explaining the variance of hospital distribution for each cell. The overall results show that GIS is a useful tool for analysing and understanding location strategies. This approach appears a useful source of information for decision-makers concerned with the distribution of hospitals and other health care centres in a city.

  2. [Analysis of the geographical distribution of cases of leprosy. Rio de Janeiro, 2001-2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracie, Renata; Peixoto, Julia Novaes de Barros; Soares, Fabiane Bertoni Dos Reis; Hacker, Mariana de Andrea Vilas-Boas

    2017-05-01

    Studies have demonstrated that the geographical distribution of leprosy is related to different socioeconomic factors. This article aims to study the geographical distribution of leprosy in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The cases of leprosy reported in the 2001-2012 period were mapped according to municipality. Epidemiological and socioeconomic indicators were calculated. The ArcMap program was used for the construction of maps and Earth View to calculate the Bayesian rate. It was observed that leprosy is presented in hyper-endemic levels especially in the metropolitan area. However, there is also a reduction of the detection rate in the most recent study period. In municipalities in the metropolitan region and the north western region detection in children under 15 is high, indicating an active transmission situation. In municipalities in the south-central region and especially in the coastal region, there was a high proportion of cases diagnosed with level II disability, reflecting late diagnosis. There was no linear correlation between socioeconomic indicators and leprosy rate. These results contribute to the analysis of the geographical distribution of leprosy, important for the identification of areas for resource allocation, aiming to control and eliminate the disease.

  3. Factors Influence on Geographic Distribution of Physicians in Selected Countries: A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Ashkan Nasiripour

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the most important inequalities of providing health services is misdistribution of human resources, especially physicians. Many factors contribute to the distribution of physicians in different regions. The present study was aimed to explore the effective factors in distributing physicians in different countries. Methods: This study is a systematic review, in which the data were gathered through literature review, online searches in multiple databases and relevant organizations’ websites. Later, the collected data were classified using content analysis method, and consequently, they were illustrated in comparative matrix. Results: The factors that influence the dispersion of the physicians are divided into 4 main groups. Firstly, Geographic and Demographic factors of the region such as, population, age, gender and climate. Secondly, Health factors of the region and the country such as, the number of hospitals, health centers and health indicators. Thirdly, Economic, Social and Political factors of the region such as, economic growth, culture and believes. And finally, the factors related to physicians' characteristics and motivation such as, age, gender and the compensation system. Conclusion: There are different reasons why physicians spread in different countries’ geographical regions. Regarding the unequal distribution of physicians in Iran, identifying these influential reasons and also the factors affecting the distribution of physicians, and the impact of each one of these, can lead to a fair and equal distribution of resources of the health sector.

  4. Availability and distribution of, and geographic access to emergency obstetric care in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrysch, Sabine; Simushi, Virginia; Campbell, Oona M R

    2011-08-01

    To assess the availability and coverage of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) services in Zambia. Reported provision of EmOC signal functions in the Zambian Health Facility Census and additional criteria on staffing, opening hours, and referral capacity were used to classify all Zambian health facilities as providing comprehensive EmOC, basic EmOC, or more limited care. Geographic accessibility of EmOC services was estimated by linking health facility data with data from the Zambian population census. Few Zambian health facilities provided all basic EmOC signal functions and had qualified health professionals available on a 24-hour basis. Of the 1131 Zambian delivery facilities, 135 (12%) were classified as providing EmOC. Zambia nearly met the UN EmOC density benchmarks nationally, but EmOC facilities and health professionals were unevenly distributed between provinces. Geographic access to EmOC services in rural areas was low; in most provinces, less than 25% of the population lived within 15 km of an EmOC facility. A national Health Facility Census with geographic information is a valuable tool for assessing service availability and coverage at national and subnational levels. Simultaneously assessing health worker density and geographic access adds crucial information. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Geographic distribution and ecological niche of plague in sub-Saharan Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neerinckx, Simon B; Peterson, Andrew T; Gulinck, Hubert

    2008-01-01

    Background Plague is a rapidly progressing, serious illness in humans that is likely to be fatal if not treated. It remains a public health threat, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. In spite of plague's highly focal nature, a thorough ecological understanding of the general distribution pattern...... of plague across sub-Saharan Africa has not been established to date. In this study, we used human plague data from sub-Saharan Africa for 1970-2007 in an ecological niche modeling framework to explore the potential geographic distribution of plague and its ecological requirements across Africa. Results We...... predict a broad potential distributional area of plague occurrences across sub-Saharan Africa. General tests of model's transferability suggest that our model can anticipate the potential distribution of plague occurrences in Madagascar and northern Africa. However, generality and predictive ability tests...

  6. Geological duration of ammonoids controlled their geographical range of fossil distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryoji Wani

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The latitudinal distributions in Devonian–Cretaceous ammonoids were analyzed at the genus level, and were compared with the hatchling sizes (i.e., ammonitella diameters and the geological durations. The results show that (1 length of temporal ranges of ammonoids effected broader ranges of fossil distribution and paleobiogeography of ammonoids, and (2 the hatchling size was not related to the geographical range of fossil distribution of ammonoids. Reducing the influence of geological duration in this analysis implies that hatchling size was one of the controlling factors that determined the distribution of ammonoid habitats at any given period in time: ammonoids with smaller hatchling sizes tended to have broader ammonoid habitat ranges. These relationships were somewhat blurred in the Devonian, Carboniferous, Triassic, and Jurassic, which is possibly due to (1 the course of development of a reproductive strategy with smaller hatchling sizes in the Devonian and (2 the high origination rates after the mass extinction events.

  7. Geological duration of ammonoids controlled their geographical range of fossil distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Ryoji

    2017-01-01

    The latitudinal distributions in Devonian-Cretaceous ammonoids were analyzed at the genus level, and were compared with the hatchling sizes (i.e., ammonitella diameters) and the geological durations. The results show that (1) length of temporal ranges of ammonoids effected broader ranges of fossil distribution and paleobiogeography of ammonoids, and (2) the hatchling size was not related to the geographical range of fossil distribution of ammonoids. Reducing the influence of geological duration in this analysis implies that hatchling size was one of the controlling factors that determined the distribution of ammonoid habitats at any given period in time: ammonoids with smaller hatchling sizes tended to have broader ammonoid habitat ranges. These relationships were somewhat blurred in the Devonian, Carboniferous, Triassic, and Jurassic, which is possibly due to (1) the course of development of a reproductive strategy with smaller hatchling sizes in the Devonian and (2) the high origination rates after the mass extinction events.

  8. Inorganic chemical quality of European tap-water: 2. Geographical distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flem, B.; Reimann, C.; Birke, M.; Banks, D.; Filzmoser, P.; Frengstad, B.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • European scale comparison of tap water. • 579 tap water samples have been analyses for more than 60 parameters. • Chemical geographical distribution. • Water treatment processes. • Importance of geology on tap water quality. - Abstract: 579 tap water samples were collected at the European scale and analysed at a single laboratory for more than 60 parameters. This dataset is analysed here in terms of the spatial and national distribution of the analysed inorganic chemical parameters. The distribution of most parameters is controlled by various artificial and natural factors (land use, distribution network, water source and treatment, geographical location and geology). The distribution of nitrate can be interpreted in terms of land use and climate. Water treatment affects the distribution of phosphorus in tap water; especially the policy of adding phosphate to potable water in the UK to suppress plumbosolvency. The distribution of alkalinity, Ca, Mg, Sr and Li appears to reflect both water source (low in surface waters) and the geological contrast between base-poor crystalline rock terrains and carbonate rich sedimentary rock. The Scandinavian nations’ tap water shows the highest concentrations of most of the rare earth elements, probably reflecting their geological availability and mobility in low pH raw water sources. The distribution of fluoride, uranium and arsenic also appear to exhibit geological and source (groundwater versus surface water) controls. Hungary returns several high As results, which may reflect As-rich reducing groundwaters of the Pannonian basin. Much Estonian tap water reflects a very specific hydrochemical environment, namely Palaeozoic near-coastal aquifers, which yield deep, reducing or saline groundwater (possibly influenced by marine intrusion), enriched in Ba, B, Br − , Cl − , Eu, F − , I, Li, K, Mn and Na

  9. The Current Landscape of US Pediatric Anesthesiologists: Demographic Characteristics and Geographic Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muffly, Matthew K; Muffly, Tyler M; Weterings, Robbie; Singleton, Mark; Honkanen, Anita

    2016-07-01

    There is no comprehensive database of pediatric anesthesiologists, their demographic characteristics, or geographic location in the United States. We endeavored to create a comprehensive database of pediatric anesthesiologists by merging individuals identified as US pediatric anesthesiologists by the American Board of Anesthesiology, National Provider Identifier registry, Healthgrades.com database, and the Society for Pediatric Anesthesia membership list as of November 5, 2015. Professorial rank was accessed via the Association of American Medical Colleges and other online sources. Descriptive statistics characterized pediatric anesthesiologists' demographics. Pediatric anesthesiologists' locations at the city and state level were geocoded and mapped with the use of ArcGIS Desktop 10.1 mapping software (Redlands, CA). We identified 4048 pediatric anesthesiologists in the United States, which is approximately 8.8% of the physician anesthesiology workforce (n = 46,000). The median age of pediatric anesthesiologists was 49 years (interquartile range, 40-57 years), and the majority (56.4%) were men. Approximately two-thirds of identified pediatric anesthesiologists were subspecialty board certified in pediatric anesthesiology, and 33% of pediatric anesthesiologists had an identified academic affiliation. There is substantial heterogeneity in the geographic distribution of pediatric anesthesiologists by state and US Census Division with urban clustering. This description of pediatric anesthesiologists' demographic characteristics and geographic distribution fills an important gap in our understanding of pediatric anesthesia systems of care.

  10. Spatial distribution and influence factors of interprovincial terrestrial physical geographical names in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S.; Wang, Y.; Ju, H.

    2017-12-01

    The interprovincial terrestrial physical geographical entities are the key areas of regional integrated management. Based on toponomy dictionaries and different thematic maps, the attributes and the spatial extent of the interprovincial terrestrial physical geographical names (ITPGN, including terrain ITPGN and water ITPGN) were extracted. The coefficient of variation and Moran's I were combined together to measure the spatial variation and spatial association of ITPGN. The influencing factors of the distribution of ITPGN and the implications for the regional management were further discussed. The results showed that 11325 ITPGN were extracted, including 7082 terrain ITPGN and 4243 water ITPGN. Hunan Province had the largest number of ITPGN in China, and Shanghai had the smallest number. The spatial variance of the terrain ITPGN was larger than that of the water ITPGN, and the ITPGN showed a significant agglomeration phenomenon in the southern part of China. Further analysis showed that the number of ITPGN was positively related with the relative elevation and the population where the relative elevation was lower than 2000m and the population was less than 50 million. But the number of ITPGN showed a negative relationship with the two factors when their values became larger, indicating a large number of unnamed entities existed in complex terrain areas and a decreasing number of terrestrial physical geographical entities in densely populated area. Based on these analysis, we suggest the government take the ITPGN as management units to realize a balance development between different parts of the entities and strengthen the geographical names census and the nomination of unnamed interprovincial physical geographical entities. This study also demonstrated that the methods of literature survey, coefficient of variation and Moran's I can be combined to enhance the understanding of the spatial pattern of ITPGN.

  11. Ecophysiological Traits of Leaves of Three Marsilea Species Distributed in Different Geographical Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Chung Wu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Marsilea, an amphibian fern genus (containing ca. 80 species characterized by their unusual leaves and reproductive structures, is distributed over the five continents. To investigate the adaptation traits of three Marsilea species (M. crenata, M. quadrifolia, and M. schelpiana, distributed in different geographic regions, to terrestrial conditions, we compared morphological features, optical properties and photosynthetic performance of leaflets of the three species grown in terrestrial environment. The results showed that leaflets of the three species had significant differences in some of the ecophysiogical traits. Among the three species, M. quadrifolia (distributed in temperate region where receiving low precipitation had the highest trichome density on its leaflet surface and the highest water use efficiency, M. schelpiana (mainly in southern Africa where accepting high level of solar irradiance had the tallest petiole and the highest leaf dissection index, total stomatal pore area index, PSII electron transport rate and photosaturated photosynthetic rate, M. crenata (mainly in southeastern Asia region where receiving high precipitation and with high humidity had the lowest leaf dissection index and water use efficiency. Accordingly, leaf characteristics of the three Marsilea species reflect the climate pattern of their habitats. The results also suggest that water availability and light intensity are two of the important factors contributing to the geographic distribution of the three species.

  12. Prevalence and distribution of Wuchereria bancrofti in Ose Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is one of the neglected tropical diseases endemic in Nigeria. Epidemiological studies were conducted to determine the prevalence, distribution and clinical signs of the disease in three communities of Ose LGA, Ondo State from October 2014 to January 2015. One thousand and ninety consented ...

  13. Prevalence and distribution of ringworm infections in primary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study on the prevalence and distribution of ringworm infection amongst primary school children in northern Ebony State of eastern Nigeria was carried out between November 2002 and June 2003. Of the 279 pupils sampled randomly from four schools, 59 (21.1%) had ringworm infection. While only two genera of fungi ...

  14. Prevalence, distribution and risk factors associated with taeniid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study we used the sodium chloride floatation technique and well structured close ended questionnaires to determine the prevalence, distribution and risk factors associated with these infections in trade dogs in Dawaki, Plateau State. Data were analysed using chi-square (x2) test, odds ratio and logistic regression at ...

  15. Altitude as a risk factor for the development of hypospadias. Geographical cluster distribution analysis in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Nicolas; Lorenzo, Armando; Bägli, Darius; Zarante, Ignacio

    2016-10-01

    Hypospadias is the most common congenital anomaly affecting the genitals. It has been established as a multifactorial disease with increasing prevalence. Many risk factors have been identified such as prematurity, birth weight, mother's age, and exposure to endocrine disruptors. In recent decades multiple authors using surveillance systems have described an increase in prevalence of hypospadias, but most of the published literature comes from developed countries in Europe and North America and few of the published studies have involved cluster analysis. Few large-scale studies have been performed addressing the effect of altitude and other geographical aspects on the development of hypospadias. Acknowledging this limitation, we present novel results of a multinational spatial scan statistical analysis over a 30-year period in South America and an altitude analysis of hypospadias distribution on a continent level. A retrospective review was performed of the Latin American collaborative study of congenital malformations (ECLAMC). A total of 4,020,384 newborns was surveyed between 1982 and December 2011 in all participating centers. We selected all patients with hypospadias. All degrees of clinical severity were included in the analysis. Each participating center was geographically identified with its coordinates and altitude above sea level. A spatial scan statistical analysis was performed using Kulldorf's methodology and a prevalence trend analysis over time in centers below and above 2000 m. During the study period we found 159 hospitals in six different countries (Colombia, Bolivia, Brazil, Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay) with 4,537 cases of hypospadias and a global prevalence rate of 11.3/10,000 newborns. Trend analysis showed that centers below 2000 m had an increasing trend with an average of 10/10,000 newborns as opposed to those centers above 2000 m that showed a reducing trend with an average prevalence of 7.8 (p = 0.1246). We identified clusters with

  16. Review of the geographic distribution of Micrurus decoratus (Jan, 1858 (Serpentes: Elapidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Castellari Gonzalez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Micrurus decoratus (Jan, 1858 is a poorly known species of coral snake, with a controversial history concerning its geographical range. The lack of consensus among researchers, since its original description, is largely due to the reporting of erroneous localities in publications. Herein we present the geographical range for the species based on the review of 184 records from 67 different municipalities in Brazil, including two new records for the state of Espírito Santo, extending its distribution to ca. 300 km northward from the previous northernmost locality. We also comment on doubtful records for the states of Rio Grande do Sul and Bahia, which contain no accurate data. We restrict the occurrence of Micrurus decoratus to the Atlantic Rainforest, with elevation range from 400 up to 1,600 m in the Brazilian states of Santa Catarina, Paraná, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo.

  17. Evolutionary consequences of changes in species' geographical distributions driven by Milankovitch climate oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynesius, M; Jansson, R

    2000-08-01

    We suggest Milankovitch climate oscillations as a common cause for geographical patterns in species diversity, species' range sizes, polyploidy, and the degree of specialization and dispersability of organisms. Periodical changes in the orbit of the Earth cause climatic changes termed Milankovitch oscillations, leading to large changes in the size and location of species' geographical distributions. We name these recurrent changes "orbitally forced species' range dynamics" (ORD). The magnitude of ORD varies in space and time. ORD decreases gradual speciation (attained by gradual changes over many generations), increases range sizes and the proportions of species formed by polyploidy and other "abrupt" mechanisms, selects against specialization, and favor dispersability. Large ORD produces species prone neither to extinction nor gradual speciation. ORD increases with latitude. This produces latitudinal patterns, among them the gradient in species diversity and species' range sizes (Rapoport's rule). Differential ORD and its evolutionary consequences call for new conservation strategies on the regional to global scale.

  18. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Lineage 4 comprises globally distributed and geographically restricted sublineages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscolla, Mireia; Liu, Qingyun; Trauner, Andrej; Fenner, Lukas; Rutaihwa, Liliana; Borrell, Sonia; Luo, Tao; Gao, Qian; Kato-Maeda, Midori; Ballif, Marie; Egger, Matthias; Macedo, Rita; Mardassi, Helmi; Moreno, Milagros; Tudo Vilanova, Griselda; Fyfe, Janet; Globan, Maria; Thomas, Jackson; Jamieson, Frances; Guthrie, Jennifer L.; Asante-Poku, Adwoa; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Wampande, Eddie; Ssengooba, Willy; Joloba, Moses; Henry Boom, W.; Basu, Indira; Bower, James; Saraiva, Margarida; Vaconcellos, Sidra E. G.; Suffys, Philip; Koch, Anastasia; Wilkinson, Robert; Gail-Bekker, Linda; Malla, Bijaya; Ley, Serej D.; Beck, Hans-Peter; de Jong, Bouke C.; Toit, Kadri; Sanchez-Padilla, Elisabeth; Bonnet, Maryline; Gil-Brusola, Ana; Frank, Matthias; Penlap Beng, Veronique N.; Eisenach, Kathleen; Alani, Issam; Wangui Ndung’u, Perpetual; Revathi, Gunturu; Gehre, Florian; Akter, Suriya; Ntoumi, Francine; Stewart-Isherwood, Lynsey; Ntinginya, Nyanda E.; Rachow, Andrea; Hoelscher, Michael; Cirillo, Daniela Maria; Skenders, Girts; Hoffner, Sven; Bakonyte, Daiva; Stakenas, Petras; Diel, Roland; Crudu, Valeriu; Moldovan, Olga; Al-Hajoj, Sahal; Otero, Larissa; Barletta, Francesca; Jane Carter, E.; Diero, Lameck; Supply, Philip; Comas, Iñaki; Niemann, Stefan; Gagneux, Sebastien

    2016-01-01

    Generalist and specialist species differ in the breadth of their ecological niche. Little is known about the niche width of obligate human pathogens. Here we analyzed a global collection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Lineage 4 clinical isolates, the most geographically widespread cause of human tuberculosis. We show that Lineage 4 comprises globally distributed and geographically restricted sublineages, suggesting a distinction between generalists and specialists. Population genomic analyses showed that while the majority of human T cell epitopes were conserved in all sublineages, the proportion of variable epitopes was higher in generalists. Our data further support a European origin for the most common generalist sublineage. Hence, the global success of Lineage 4 reflects distinct strategies adopted by different sublineages and the influence of human migration. PMID:27798628

  19. An Ambient Intelligence Framework for the Provision of Geographically Distributed Multimedia Content to Mobility Impaired Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehagias, Dionysios D.; Giakoumis, Dimitris; Tzovaras, Dimitrios; Bekiaris, Evangelos; Wiethoff, Marion

    This chapter presents an ambient intelligence framework whose goal is to facilitate the information needs of mobility impaired users on the move. This framework couples users with geographically distributed services and the corresponding multimedia content, enabling access to context-sensitive information based on user geographic location and the use case under consideration. It provides a multi-modal facility that is realized through a set of mobile devices and user interfaces that address the needs of ten different types of user impairments. The overall ambient intelligence framework enables users who are equipped with mobile devices to access multimedia content in order to undertake activities relevant to one or more of the following domains: transportation, tourism and leisure, personal support services, work, business, education, social relations and community building. User experience is being explored against those activities through a specific usage scenario.

  20. Quantitative Study of the Geographical Distribution of the Authorship of High-Energy Physics Journals

    CERN Document Server

    Krause, Jan; Mele, S

    2007-01-01

    The recent debate on Open Access publishing in High-Energy Physics has exposed the problem of assessing the scienti c production of every country where scholars are active in this discipline. This assessment is complicated by the highly-collaborative cross-border tradition of High-Energy Physics research. We present the results of a quantitative study of the geographical distribution of authors of High-Energy Physics articles, which takes into account cross-border co-authorship by attributing articles to countries on a pro-rata basis. Aggregated data on the share of scienti c results published by each country are presented together with a breakdown for the most popular journals in the eld, and a separation for articles by small groups or large collaborations. Collaborative patterns across large geographic areas are also investigated. Finally, the High-Energy Physics production of each country is compared with some economic indicators.

  1. Geographical Distribution Patterns and Niche Modeling of the Iconic Leafcutter Ant Acromyrmex striatus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões-Gomes, Flávia Carolina; Cardoso, Danon Clemes

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Ants are considered one of the most successful groups in the planet’s evolutionary history. Among them highlights the fungus-farming ants of the genera Atta and Acromyrmex that occur throughout most of the Americas. Within the Acromyrmex genus, the species A. striatus distinguishes from other Acromyrmex species as its morphology and karyotype differ from its congeners. This species is found in open environments of dry climate in the southern States of Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay; however, little is known about the current distribution of the species. This article aimed to investigate the current distribution of the species by compiling its known distribution and discussing its distributional range. To achieve this, published and unpublished data obtained through a literature search and active collections in various locations were compiled. Published and unpublished data revealed that 386 colonies were recorded, distributed across four countries where its occurrence is known. Environmental factors, such as temperature, humidity, soil type and vegetation, as well as historical geological and climate events that have modified Earth’s surface may have influenced species distribution patterns. In the Neotropics, the environmental factors that most impacted the distribution of species were the glaciation periods that occurred in the Quaternary, leading to a great migratory process. These factors may have contributed to the current geographical distribution of A. striatus. PMID:28355474

  2. Comparison of the geographical distribution of feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukemia virus infections in the United States of America (2000–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chhetri Bimal K

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV and feline leukemia virus (FeLV have similar risk factors and control measures, infection rates have been speculated to vary in geographic distribution over North America. Since both infections are endemic in North America, it was assumed as a working hypothesis that their geographic distributions were similar. Hence, the purpose of this exploratory analysis was to investigate the comparative geographical distribution of both viral infections. Counts of FIV (n=17,108 and FeLV (n=30,017 positive serology results (FIV antibody and FeLV ELISA were obtained for 48 contiguous states and District of Columbia of the United States of America (US from the IDEXX Laboratories website. The proportional morbidity ratio of FIV to FeLV infection was estimated for each administrative region and its geographic distribution pattern was visualized by a choropleth map. Statistical evidence of an excess in the proportional morbidity ratio from unity was assessed using the spatial scan test under the normal probability model. Results This study revealed distinct spatial distribution patterns in the proportional morbidity ratio suggesting the presence of one or more relevant and geographically varying risk factors. The disease map indicates that there is a higher prevalence of FIV infections in the southern and eastern US compared to FeLV. In contrast, FeLV infections were observed to be more frequent in the western US compared to FIV. The respective excess in proportional morbidity ratio was significant with respect to the spatial scan test (p Conclusions The observed variability in the geographical distribution of the proportional morbidity ratio of FIV to FeLV may be related to the presence of an additional or unique, but yet unknown, spatial risk factor. Putative factors may be geographic variations in specific virus strains and rate of vaccination. Knowledge of these factors and the geographical

  3. The Geographic Distribution of Pediatric Anesthesiologists Relative to the US Pediatric Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muffly, Matthew K; Medeiros, David; Muffly, Tyler M; Singleton, Mark A; Honkanen, Anita

    2017-07-01

    The geographic relationship between pediatric anesthesiologists and the pediatric population has potentially important clinical and policy implications. In the current study, we describe the geographic distribution of pediatric anesthesiologists relative to the US pediatric population (0-17 years) and a subset of the pediatric population (0-4 years). The percentage of the US pediatric population that lives within different driving distances to the nearest pediatric anesthesiologist (0 to 25 miles, >25 to 50 miles, >50 to 100 miles, >100 to 250 miles, and >250 miles) was determined by creating concentric driving distance service areas surrounding pediatric anesthesiologist practice locations. US Census block groups were used to determine the sum pediatric population in each anesthesiologist driving distance service area. The pediatric anesthesiologist-to-pediatric population ratio was then determined for each of the 306 hospital referral regions (HRRs) in the United States and compared with ratios of other physician groups to the pediatric population. All geographic mapping and analysis was performed using ArcGIS Desktop 10.2.2 mapping software (Redlands, CA). A majority of the pediatric population (71.4%) lives within a 25-mile drive of a pediatric anesthesiologist; however, 10.2 million US children (0-17 years) live greater than 50 miles from the nearest pediatric anesthesiologist. More than 2.7 million children ages 0 to 4 years live greater than 50 miles from the nearest identified pediatric anesthesiologist. The median ratio of pediatric anesthesiologists to 100,000 pediatric population at the HRR level was 2.25 (interquartile range, 0-5.46). Pediatric anesthesiologist geographic distribution relative to the pediatric population by HRR is lower and less uniform than for all anesthesiologists, neonatologists, and pediatricians. A substantial proportion of the US pediatric population lives greater than 50 miles from the nearest pediatric anesthesiologist, and

  4. Relative inequalities in geographic distribution of health care resources in Kermanshah province, Islamic Republic of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, S; Karyani, A K; Fallah, R; Matin, B K

    2016-04-19

    This study aimed to evaluate inequalities in the geographical distribution of human and physical resources in the health sector of Kermanshah province, Islamic Republic of Iran. In a retrospective, cross-sectional study, data from the Statistical Centre of Iran were used to calculate inequality measures (Gini coefficient and index of dissimilarity) over the years 2005-11. The highest Gini coefficient for human resources was observed for pharmacists in 2005 (0.75) and the lowest for paramedics in 2010 and 2011 (0.10). The highest indices of dissimilarity were also for pharmacists in 2005 (29%) and paramedics in 2011 (3%). For physical resources, the highest and lowest Gini coefficients were for rehabilitation centres in 2010 (0.59) and health houses in 2011 (0.12) respectively. Generally, inequalities in the distribution of health care resources were lower at the end of the study period, although there was potential for more equitable distribution of pharmacists, specialists, health houses and beds.

  5. Geographical distribution and eco-adaptability of calligonum l. in tarim basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, N.; Guan, K.; Feng, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Global climate fluctuations have profoundly affected the current distribution patterns and created opportunities and challenges for the survival and development of species. Studies on geographical distribution and eco-adaptability are necessary for both biodiversity conservation and sustainable biological resource utilization. In this study, we focus on five species of Calligonum in Tarim Basin, i.e. Calligonum roborovskii, C. kurlaense, C. yengisaricum, C. juochiangense and C. taklimakanense to confirm the distribution range by carrying out field population survey, along with the studies of herbarium specimen and relevant literature and also to find out the associations between the five species, distribution correlated with climate and soil characteristics through the mean variance analysis and principal component analysis. The results of the study were as follows: (1) C. roborovskii was widely distributed in Tarim Basin, but C. kurlaense, C. yengisaricum, C. juochiangense and C. taklimakanense have narrow distribution. The distribution areas of four latter species were overlapping with that of C. roborovskii showing sympatric distribution. (2) All the five species belonged to the warm and arid zone. The adaptability of C. roborovskii to moisture was higher, that of C. juochiangense and C. taklimakanense which grew in more arid areas than that of C. kurlaense and C. yengisaricum, had stronger drought tolerance. The soil type of the five species main was brown desert soil with high salinity, alkaline, and low content of organic matter in the top soil. (3) Low temperature, moisture factor, salinity and alkalinity were the main reasons leading to the different distribution of the four narrow distributed species. (4) The main factors limiting the distribution range of the five species were high temperature and moisture factor, followed by soil properties. For C. juochiangense and C. taklimakanense, moisture factor was much stronger than temperature. The results of the

  6. Analysis Of Educational Services Distribution-Based Geographic Information System GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed Lagrab

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study analyzes the spatial distribution of kindergarten facilities in the study area based on the Geographic Information Systems GIS in order to test an efficiency of GIS technology to redistribute the existing kindergarten and choose the best location in the future and applying the standard criteria for selecting the suitable locations for kindergarten. To achieve this goal the data and information are collected via interviews and comprehensive statistics on the education facilities in Mukalla districts in YEMEN which contributed to building a geographic database for the study area. After that the Kindergarten spatial patterns are analyzed in terms of proximity to each other and used near some other land in the surrounding area such as streets highways factories etc. Also measures the concentration dispersion clustering and distribution direction for the kindergarten this study showed the effectiveness of the GIS for spatial data analysis. One of the most important finding that most of the Kindergarten was established in Mukalla city did not take into account the criteria that set by the authorities. Furthermore almost district suffers from a shortage in the number of kindergarten and pattern of distribution of those kindergartens dominated by spatial dispersed.

  7. Fine scale distribution constrains cadmium accumulation rates in two geographical groups of Franciscana dolphin from Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polizzi, P.S.; Chiodi Boudet, L.N.; Romero, M.B.; Denuncio, P.E.; Rodríguez, D.H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Fine scale distribution of two Argentine stocks constrains the Cd accumulation rates. • Cadmium levels and accumulation patterns were different between geographic groups. • Marine diet has a major influence than the impact degree of origin environment. • Engraulis anchoita is the main Cd vector species in Argentine shelf for Franciscana. • Information is valuable for the conservation of Franciscana, a vulnerable species. -- Abstract: Franciscana dolphin is an endemic cetacean in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean and is classified as Vulnerable A3d by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. Cadmium accumulation was assessed in two geographic groups from Argentina; one inhabits the La Plata River estuary, a high anthropogenic impacted environment, and the other is distributed in marine coastal, with negligible pollution. Despite the environment, marine dolphins showed an increase of renal Cd concentrations since trophic independence; while in estuarine dolphins was from 6 years. This is associated with dietary Argentine anchovy which was absent in the diet of estuarine dolphins, being a trophic vector of cadmium in shelf waters of Argentina. Cluster analysis also showed high levels of cd in association with the presence of anchovy in the stomach. The difference in the fine scale distribution of species influences dietary exposure to Cd and, along with other data, indicates two stocks in Argentina

  8. Geographic distributions and ecology of ornamental Curcuma (Zingiberaceae) in Northeastern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khumkratok, Sutthira; Boongtiang, Kriangsuk; Chutichudet, Prasit; Pramaul, Pairot

    2012-10-01

    The genus Curcuma is a very important economic plant. Members of this genus were used as food, medicine and ornament plants. The objectives of this study were to examine the geographic distributions and ecological conditions in the natural habitats of Curcuma in Northeastern Thailand. Species diversity was examined using the line transect method. Ecological conditions of the species were examined using a sampling plot of 20 x 20 m. A total of five species were found including Curcuma angustifolia Roxb., C. alismatifolia Gagnep., C. gracillima Gagnep., C. parviflora Wall. and C. rhabdota. These species were in an altitudinal range between 290 m and 831 m above sea level. Four species (C. angustifolia, C. alismatifolia, C. gracillima and C. rhabdota) were distributed in open gaps in dry dipterocarp forest. One species, C. parviflora was found in the contact zone between dry dipterocarp and bamboo (Gigantochloa sp.) forest. C. rhabdota was found only in a habitat with high humidity and shading along the Thailand-Lao PDR border. Significant ecological conditions of the natural habitats of these Curcuma species were identified. Altitude is the most important factor when determining the geographic distributions of these Curcuma species in Northeastern Thailand.

  9. The impact of pesticide suicide on the geographic distribution of suicide in Taiwan: a spatial analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Shu-Sen

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pesticide self-poisoning is the most commonly used suicide method worldwide, but few studies have investigated the national epidemiology of pesticide suicide in countries where it is a major public health problem. This study aims to investigate geographic variations in pesticide suicide and their impact on the spatial distribution of suicide in Taiwan. Methods Smoothed standardized mortality ratios for pesticide suicide (2002-2009 were mapped across Taiwan's 358 districts (median population aged 15 or above = 27 000, and their associations with the size of agricultural workforce were investigated using Bayesian hierarchical models. Results In 2002-2009 pesticide poisoning was the third most common suicide method in Taiwan, accounting for 13.6% (4913/36 110 of all suicides. Rates were higher in agricultural East and Central Taiwan and lower in major cities. Almost half (47% of all pesticide suicides occurred in areas where only 13% of Taiwan's population lived. The geographic distribution of overall suicides was more similar to that of pesticide suicides than non-pesticide suicides. Rural-urban differences in suicide were mostly due to pesticide suicide. Areas where a higher proportion of people worked in agriculture showed higher pesticide suicide rates (adjusted rate ratio [ARR] per standard deviation increase in the proportion of agricultural workers = 1.58, 95% Credible Interval [CrI] 1.44-1.74 and overall suicide rates (ARR = 1.06, 95% CrI 1.03-1.10 but lower non-pesticide suicide rates (ARR = 0.91, 95% CrI 0.87-0.95. Conclusion Easy access to pesticides appears to influence the geographic distribution of suicide in Taiwan, highlighting the potential benefits of targeted prevention strategies such as restricting access to highly toxic pesticides.

  10. Environmental distribution and seasonal prevalence of Mycobacterium ulcerans in Southern Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennigan, Caroline E; Myers, Leann; Ferris, Michael J

    2013-04-01

    Mycobacterium ulcerans is an emerging environmental pathogen that causes debilitating, ulcerative disease in humans and other vertebrates. The majority of human cases occur in tropical and temperate regions of Africa and Australia, and outbreaks of piscine mycobacteriosis caused by M. ulcerans have been reported in disparate geographic locations spanning the globe. While exposure to a natural body of water is the most common risk factor for human infection, the environmental distribution of M. ulcerans in aquatic habitats has not been extensively studied. Although no human cases have been reported in the United States, a strain of M. ulcerans has been identified as the cause of a piscine mycobacteriosis in Striped bass (Morone saxatilis) within the Chesapeake Bay. Infected fish exhibit bright red ventral and lateral dermal lesions. We observed a possible outbreak causing similar lesions on red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) in wetlands of southern Louisiana and detected M. ulcerans-specific genetic markers in lesion samples from these fish. Based on these findings, we studied the geographic and seasonal prevalence of these markers across southern Louisiana. M. ulcerans was detected in each of the nine areas sampled across the state. M. ulcerans prevalence was significantly lower in the fall samples, and the low prevalence coincided with decreased nutrient levels and an increase in water temperature. To our knowledge, this is the first study of M. ulcerans biomarkers in the southern United States.

  11. Vascular plants of the Nevada Test Site and Central-Southern Nevada: ecologic and geographic distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beatley, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    The physical environment of the Nevada Test Site and surrounding area is described with regard to physiography, geology, soils, and climate. A discussion of plant associations is given for the Mojave Desert, Transition Desert, and Great Basin Desert. The vegetation of disturbed sites is discussed with regard to introduced species as well as endangered and threatened species. Collections of vascular plants were made during 1959 to 1975. The plants, belonging to 1093 taxa and 98 families are listed together with information concerning ecologic and geographic distributions. Indexes to families, genera, and species are included. (HLW)

  12. Geographical distribution of salmonella infected pig, cattle and sheep herds in Sweden 1993-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skog Lars

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Swedish salmonella control programme covers the entire production chain, from feed to food. All salmonella serotypes are notifiable. On average, less than 20 cases of salmonella in food-producing animals are reported every year. In some situations, the cases would be expected to cluster geographically. The aim of this study was to illustrate the geographic distribution of the salmonella cases detected in pigs, cattle and sheep. Methods Data on all herds with pigs, cattle and sheep found to be infected with salmonella during the time period from 1993 to 2010 were obtained from the Swedish Board of Agriculture. Using the ArcGIS software, various maps were produced of infected herds, stratified on animal species as well as salmonella serotype. Based on ocular inspection of all maps, some were collapsed and some used separately. Data were also examined for temporal trends. Results No geographical clustering was observed for ovine or porcine cases. Cattle herds infected with Salmonella Dublin were mainly located in the southeast region and cattle herds infected with Salmonella Typhimurium in the most southern part of the country. Some seasonal variation was seen in cattle, but available data was not sufficient for further analyses. Conclusions Analyses of data on salmonella infected herds revealed some spatial and temporal patterns for salmonella in cattle. However, despite using 18 years' of data, the number of infected herds was too low for any useful statistical analyses.

  13. TNT Maritime Interdiction Operation Experiments: Enabling Radiation Awareness and Geographically Distributed Collaboration for Network-Centric Maritime Interdiction Operations [Preprint

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bordetsky, Alex; Dougan, Arden; Chiann, Foo Y; Kilberg, Andres

    2007-01-01

    ...) comprised of long-haul OFDM networks combined with self-forming wireless mesh links to radiation detection sensors, and real-time radiation awareness collaboration with geographically distributed partners...

  14. Distribution, phenology and demography of sympatric sexual and asexual dandelions (Taraxacum officinale s.l.): geographic parthenogenesis on a small scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verduijn, M.H.; van Dijk, P.J.; Van Damme, J.M.M.

    2004-01-01

    In many plant and animal species, sexual and asexual forms have different geographical distributions ('geographic parthenogenesis'). The common dandelion Taraxacum officinale s.l. provides a particularly clear example of differing distributions: diploid sexuals are restricted to southern and central

  15. [Potential distribution and geographic characteristics of wild populations of Vanilla planifolia (Orchidaceae) Oaxaca, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Ruiz, Jesús; Herrera-Cabrera, B Edgar; Delgado-Alvarado, Adriana; Salazar-Rojas, Víctor M; Bustamante-Gonzalez, Ángel; Campos-Contreras, Jorge E; Ramírez-Juarez, Javier

    2016-03-01

    Wild specimens of Vanilla planifolia represent a vital part of this resource primary gene pool, and some plants have only been reported in Oaxaca, Mexico. For this reason, we studied its geographical distribution within the state, to locate and describe the ecological characteristics of the areas where they have been found, in order to identify potential areas of establishment. The method comprised four stages: 1) the creation of a database with herbarium records, 2) the construction of the potential distribution based on historical herbarium records for the species, using the model of maximum entropy (MaxEnt) and 22 bioclimatic variables as predictors; 3) an in situ systematic search of individuals, based on herbarium records and areas of potential distribution in 24 municipalities, to determine the habitat current situation and distribution; 4) the description of the environmental factors of potential ecological niches generated by MaxEnt. A review of herbarium collections revealed a total of 18 records of V. planifolia between 1939 and 1998. The systematic search located 28 plants distributed in 12 sites in 95 364 Km(2). The most important variables that determined the model of vanilla potential distribution were: precipitation in the rainy season (61.9 %), soil moisture regime (23.4 %) and precipitation during the four months of highest rainfall (8.1 %). The species potential habitat was found to be distributed in four zones: wet tropics of the Gulf of Mexico, humid temperate, humid tropical, and humid temperate in the Pacific. Precipitation oscillated within the annual ranges of 2 500 to 4 000 mm, with summer rains, and winter precipitation as 5 to 10 % of the total. The moisture regime and predominating climate were udic type I (330 to 365 days of moisture) and hot humid (Am/A(C) m). The plants were located at altitudes of 200 to 1 190 masl, on rough hillsides that generally make up the foothills of mountain systems, with altitudes of 1 300 to 2 500 masl. In

  16. Geographical ecology of the palms (Arecaceae): determinants of diversity and distributions across spatial scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiserhardt, Wolf L.; Svenning, J.-C.; Kissling, W. Daniel

    2011-01-01

    .g. climate on regional to finer scales, and hydrology and topography on landscape and broader scales. The importance of biotic interactions – apart from general vegetation structure effects – for the geographic ecology of palms is generally underexplored. Future studies should target scale......Background The palm family occurs in all tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Palms are of high ecological and economical importance, and display complex spatial patterns of species distributions and diversity. Scope This review summarizes empirical evidence for factors that determine...... palm species distributions, community composition and species richness such as the abiotic environment (climate, soil chemistry, hydrology and topography), the biotic environment (vegetation structure and species interactions) and dispersal. The importance of contemporary vs. historical impacts...

  17. Geographic Distribution of Leishmania Species in Ecuador Based on the Cytochrome B Gene Sequence Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hirotomo; Gomez, Eduardo A.; Martini-Robles, Luiggi; Muzzio, Jenny; Velez, Lenin; Calvopiña, Manuel; Romero-Alvarez, Daniel; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Uezato, Hiroshi; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2016-01-01

    A countrywide epidemiological study was performed to elucidate the current geographic distribution of causative species of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Ecuador by using FTA card-spotted samples and smear slides as DNA sources. Putative Leishmania in 165 samples collected from patients with CL in 16 provinces of Ecuador were examined at the species level based on the cytochrome b gene sequence analysis. Of these, 125 samples were successfully identified as Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis, L. (V.) braziliensis, L. (V.) naiffi, L. (V.) lainsoni, and L. (Leishmania) mexicana. Two dominant species, L. (V.) guyanensis and L. (V.) braziliensis, were widely distributed in Pacific coast subtropical and Amazonian tropical areas, respectively. Recently reported L. (V.) naiffi and L. (V.) lainsoni were identified in Amazonian areas, and L. (L.) mexicana was identified in an Andean highland area. Importantly, the present study demonstrated that cases of L. (V.) braziliensis infection are increasing in Pacific coast areas. PMID:27410039

  18. Relation between Water Balance and Climatic Variables Associated with the Geographical Distribution of Anurans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titon, Braz; Gomes, Fernando Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    Amphibian species richness increases toward the equator, particularly in humid tropical forests. This relation between amphibian species richness and environmental water availability has been proposed to be a consequence of their high rates of evaporative water loss. In this way, traits that estimate water balance are expected to covary with climate and constrain a species' geographic distribution. Furthermore, we predicted that coexisting species of anurans would have traits that are adapted to local hydric conditions. We compared the traits that describe water balance in 17 species of anurans that occur in the mesic Atlantic Forest and xeric Cerrado (savannah) habitats of Brazil. We predicted that species found in the warmer and dryer areas would show a lower sensitivity of locomotor performance to dehydration (SLPD), increased resistance to evaporative water loss (REWL) and higher rates of water uptake (RWU) than species restricted to the more mesic areas. We estimated the allometric relations between the hydric traits and body mass using phylogenetic generalized least squares. These regressions showed that REWL scaled negatively with body mass, whereas RWU scaled positively with body mass. Additionally, species inhabiting areas characterized by higher and more seasonally uniform temperatures, and lower and more seasonally concentrated precipitation, such as the Cerrado, had higher RWU and SLPD than species with geographical distributions more restricted to mesic environments, such as the Atlantic Forest. These results support the hypothesis that the interspecific variation of physiological traits shows an adaptation pattern to abiotic environmental traits.

  19. Geographic distribution of methyltransferases of Helicobacter pylori: evidence of human host population isolation and migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vítor Jorge MB

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Helicobacter pylori colonizes the human stomach and is associated with gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer. This ubiquitous association between H. pylori and humans is thought to be present since the origin of modern humans. The H. pylori genome encodes for an exceptional number of restriction and modifications (R-M systems. To evaluate if R-M systems are an adequate tool to determine the geographic distribution of H. pylori strains, we typed 221 strains from Africa, America, Asia, and Europe, and evaluated the expression of different 29 methyltransferases. Results Independence tests and logistic regression models revealed that ten R-M systems correlate with geographical localization. The distribution pattern of these methyltransferases may have been originated by co-divergence of regional H. pylori after its human host migrated out of Africa. The expression of specific methyltransferases in the H. pylori population may also reflect the genetic and cultural background of its human host. Methyltransferases common to all strains, M. HhaI and M. NaeI, are likely conserved in H. pylori, and may have been present in the bacteria genome since the human diaspora out of Africa. Conclusion This study indicates that some methyltransferases are useful geomarkers, which allow discrimination of bacterial populations, and that can be added to our tools to investigate human migrations.

  20. Geographical Distribution and Cluster Detection of Childhood Leukemia in the Metropolitan Area of Guadalajara, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlacuilo-Parra, Alberto; Garibaldi-Covarrubias, Roberto; Romo-Rubio, Hugo; Soto-Sumuano, Leonardo; Ruiz-Chávez, Carlos Fernando; Suárez-Arredondo, Mijail; Sánchez-Zubieta, Fernando; Gallegos-Castorena, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    Acute leukemia is the most common cancer in childhood. Analyzing the spatial distribution of acute leukemia may generate the identification of risk factors. To study the incidence rate of acute leukemia, its geographic distribution, and cluster detection in the metropolitan area of Guadalajara, Mexico. We included children under 15 years of age diagnosed with acute leukemia during the period 2010-2014 in the metropolitan area of Guadalajara. Each case was geo-referenced to street level to latitude and longitude coordinates using Quantum Geographic Information System (QGIS). Spatial clusters were found in the location of the acute leukemia cases applying the Density-Based Spatial Clustering of Applications with Noise (DBSCAN) algorithm with R statistical software. A total of 269 cases of leukemia were registered, 227 (84%) were acute lymphoblastic leukemia and 42 (16%) acute myeloblastic leukemia. The mean age was 6 ± 4 years. The mean incidence of acute leukemia was 6.44 cases/100,000 inhabitants: El Salto 10.12/100,000, Guadalajara 7.55/100,000, and Tlaquepaque 6.74/100,000. The DBSCAN found three clusters, all located within the municipality of Guadalajara. The incidence of acute leukemia in our population is higher than that in Canada and the USA. We found three spatial clusters of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia in the municipality of Guadalajara, suggesting the presence of local predisposing factors.

  1. Geographic distribution of phlebotomine sandfly species (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Central-West Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Paulo Silva; de Andrade, Andrey José; Sciamarelli, Alan; Raizer, Josué; Menegatti, Jaqueline Aparecida; Hermes, Sandra Cristina Negreli Moreira; de Carvalho, Maria do Socorro Laurentino; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    This study updates the geographic distributions of phlebotomine species in Central-West Brazil and analyses the climatic factors associated with their occurrence. The data were obtained from the entomology services of the state departments of health in Central-West Brazil, scientific collections and a literature review of articles from 1962-2014. Ecological niche models were produced for sandfly species with more than 20 occurrences using the Maxent algorithm and eight climate variables. In all, 2,803 phlebotomine records for 127 species were analysed. Nyssomyia whitmani, Evandromyia lenti and Lutzomyia longipalpis were the species with the greatest number of records and were present in all the biomes in Central-West Brazil. The models, which were produced for 34 species, indicated that the Cerrado areas in the central and western regions of Central-West Brazil were climatically more suitable to sandflies. The variables with the greatest influence on the models were the temperature in the coldest months and the temperature seasonality. The results show that phlebotomine species in Central-West Brazil have different geographical distribution patterns and that climate conditions in essentially the entire region favour the occurrence of at least one Leishmania vector species, highlighting the need to maintain or intensify vector control and surveillance strategies. PMID:26018450

  2. Cervical HPV prevalence and genotype distribution in immunosuppressed Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roensbo, Mette T; Blaakaer, Jan; Skov, Karin

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Women receiving immunosuppressive treatment due to organ transplantation are at increased risk of Human papilloma virus (HPV)-related diseases, including cervical neoplasia. This pilot study aimed to describe the cervical HPV prevalence and genotype distribution in immunosuppressed...... in 2014 had three cervical cytologies performed; one before and two after transplantation. The samples were examined for cytological abnormalities and tested for HPV using Cobas(®) HPV Test and CLART(®) HPV2 Test. RESULTS: Of 94 eligible cases we included 60 RTR and BMTR. The overall prevalence of high......-risk HPV was 15.0 (95% CI; 7.1-26.6) and the prevalence was higher among BMTR (29.4, CI; 10.3-56.0) than in RTR (9.3%, CI; 2.6-22.1) although this was not statistically significant (p=0.10). The distribution of high-risk HPV was broad with HPV 45 as the most common genotype (3.3%). The prevalences of high...

  3. Prevalence of hypospadias in the same geographic region as ascertained by three different registries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelson, Paul; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Jensen, Tina Kold

    2007-01-01

    Hypospadias birth prevalence may be increasing with maternal exposure to endocrine disrupters. Yet hypospadias registers are hindered by data quality concerns. We compare the birth prevalence per thousand male births (BP) and ascertainment of hypospadias in the South East of England between 1st...

  4. The Distribution of Heavy Metal Pollutants in Suez Bay Using Geographic Information System (GIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, H.B.; Mohamed, W.M.

    2017-01-01

    Suez city represents the southern entrance of the Suez Canal. As a result of the rapid development of industrialization and anthropogenic activities of Suez city may be entered containments such as heavy metals through Suez bay boundaries. The geographical information system (Arc GIS 9.1) is used to study the spatial distribution of heavy metals concentrations (Cd, Mn, Fe, Ni, Pb, Cu and Zn) of water samples which were collected in four different sampling sites (I, II, III and IV) from Suez bay. In this study, tabular data representation of the spatial distribution was developed using the inverse distance weighted (IDW) interpolation method. The GIS technique was applied to transfer the information into a final map illustrating the spatial distribution of heavy metals within the studied area. GIS models showed the high concentrations of heavy metals in some sites in the Suez city affecting by their activities. An overall distribution map of heavy metals is observed from GIS special analysis. Site (IV) in Suez City demonstrated the highest polluted are a in the overall distribution map

  5. Prevalence of emotional and behavioural problems in Johor Bahru District school children--comparing three geographical areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Y C; Kadir, A B; Jeyarajah, S

    1997-06-01

    This is a cross sectional community study in Johor Bahru District. The aim of this study is to estimate the overall prevalence of emotional and behavioural deviance among the school children in three different geographical areas, and to identify their correlates. This paper presents the findings of phase one of a two-stage procedure involving a total of 589 children aged 10-12 years. Using the cut-off point validated locally, the prevalence of deviance on the parental scale was 40% in the rural school, 30.2% in the agricultural resettlement (Felda) school and 32.3% in the urban school. On the teachers' assessment, the prevalence of deviance was 40.8% in the rural school, 10.8% in the Felda School and 8.9% in the urban school. There was significantly higher prevalence of deviance in the rural school on the teachers' scale. In the rural school, significantly higher prevalence of deviance was found among boys.

  6. Geographical variation in the prevalence of sensitization to common aeroallergens in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newson, R B; van Ree, R; Forsberg, B

    2014-01-01

    of allergens, and geometric mean serum total immunoglobulin E (IgE), in 3451 participants aged 18-75 years in 13 areas of Europe. Estimated prevalence was standardized to account for study design. We compared prevalence estimates in younger and older subjects and further adjusted for age, gender, smoking...... variation in gender, age, smoking history, farm exposure, family size and BMI. Higher prevalence in younger, compared to older, adults may reflect cohort-associated increases in sensitization or the influence of ageing on immune or tissue responses....

  7. Enhancing national data to align with policy objectives: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smoking prevalence at finer geographic levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Alyson; Lovett, Ray; Roe, Yvette; Richardson, Alice

    2017-06-05

    Objectives The aim of the study was to assess the utility of national Aboriginal survey data in a regional geospatial analysis of daily smoking prevalence for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians and discuss the appropriateness of this analysis for policy and program impact assessment. Methods Data from the last two Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) national surveys of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Survey 2014-15 (n=7022 adults) and the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey 2012-13 (n=10896 adults), were used to map the prevalence of smoking by Indigenous regions. Results Daily smoking prevalence in 2014-15 at Indigenous regions ranges from 27.1% (95%CI 18.9-35.3) in the Toowoomba region in Queensland to 68.0% (95%CI 58.1-77.9) in the Katherine region in the Northern Territory. The confidence intervals are wide and there is no significant difference in daily smoking prevalence between the two time periods for any region. Conclusion There are significant limitations with analysing national survey data at finer geographical scales. Given the national program for Indigenous tobacco control is a regional model, evaluation requires finer geographical analysis of smoking prevalence to inform public health progress, policy and program effects. Options to improve the data currently collected include increasing national survey sample sizes, implementing a smoking status question in census surveys, investing in current cohort studies focused on this population or implementing localised surveys. What is known about the topic? The last geospatial analysis of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smoking prevalence was undertaken in 1997. Current national survey data have not been analysed geospatially. What does this paper add? This paper provides new insights into the use of national survey data for understanding regional patterns and prevalence levels of smoking

  8. Geographical distribution of soil transmitted helminths and the effects of community type in South Asia and South East Asia - A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary A Silver

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections are among the most prevalent neglected tropical diseases (NTD worldwide. Since the publication of the WHO road map to combat NTD in 2012, there has been a renewed commitment to control STH. In this study, we analysed the geographical distribution and effect of community type on prevalence of hookworm, Trichuris and Ascaris in south Asia and south east Asia.We conducted a systematic review of open-access literature published in PubMed Central and the Global Atlas of Helminth Infection. A total of 4182 articles were available and after applying selection criteria, 174 studies from the region were retained for analysis.Ascaris was the commonest STH identified with an overall prevalence of 18% (95% CI, 14-23% followed by Trichuris (14%, 9-19% and hookworm (12%, 9-15%. Hookworm prevalence was highest in Laos, Vietnam and Cambodia. We found a geographical overlap in countries with high prevalence rates for Trichuris and Ascaris (Malaysia, Philippines, Myanmar, Vietnam and Bangladesh. When the effect of community type was examined, prevalence rates of hookworm was comparable in rural (19%, 14-24% and tribal communities (14%, 10-19%. Tribal communities, however, showed higher prevalence of Trichuris (38%, 18-63% and Ascaris (32%, 23-43% than rural communities (13%, 9-20% and 14%, 9-20% respectively. Considerable between and within country heterogeneity in the distribution of STH (I2 >90% was also noted. When available data from school aged children (SAC were analysed, prevalence of Ascaris (25% 16-31% and Trichuris (22%, 14-34% were higher than among the general population while that of hookworm (10%, 7-16% was comparable.Our analysis showed significant variation in prevalence rates between and within countries in the region. Highlighting the importance of community type in prevalence and species mix, we showed that tribal and rural communities had higher hookworm infections than urban communities and for

  9. Predicting Posttraumatic Stress Symptom Prevalence and Local Distribution after an Earthquake with Scarce Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussaillant, Francisca; Apablaza, Mauricio

    2017-08-01

    After a major earthquake, the assignment of scarce mental health emergency personnel to different geographic areas is crucial to the effective management of the crisis. The scarce information that is available in the aftermath of a disaster may be valuable in helping predict where are the populations that are in most need. The objectives of this study were to derive algorithms to predict posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptom prevalence and local distribution after an earthquake and to test whether there are algorithms that require few input data and are still reasonably predictive. A rich database of PTS symptoms, informed after Chile's 2010 earthquake and tsunami, was used. Several model specifications for the mean and centiles of the distribution of PTS symptoms, together with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) prevalence, were estimated via linear and quantile regressions. The models varied in the set of covariates included. Adjusted R2 for the most liberal specifications (in terms of numbers of covariates included) ranged from 0.62 to 0.74, depending on the outcome. When only including peak ground acceleration (PGA), poverty rate, and household damage in linear and quadratic form, predictive capacity was still good (adjusted R2 from 0.59 to 0.67 were obtained). Information about local poverty, household damage, and PGA can be used as an aid to predict PTS symptom prevalence and local distribution after an earthquake. This can be of help to improve the assignment of mental health personnel to the affected localities. Dussaillant F , Apablaza M . Predicting posttraumatic stress symptom prevalence and local distribution after an earthquake with scarce data. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(4):357-367.

  10. Prevalence and distribution of (micro)albuminuria in toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracchi, Valentina; van den Belt, Sophie M; Küpers, Leanne K; Corpeleijn, Eva; de Zeeuw, Dick; Heerspink, Hiddo J L

    2016-10-01

    Microalbuminuria is common in the general adult population, with a prevalence of ∼7%, and is an independent indicator of renal and cardiovascular risks. Whether albuminuria is acquired during life (as a result of hypertension/diabetes) or is congenital and already present at birth is unknown. We studied the prevalence of microalbuminuria in toddlers and compared the distribution of albuminuria with that of the general adult population. In addition, we looked for possible associations between microalbuminuria and antenatal, postnatal and maternal factors. The urinary albumin concentration (UAC) was measured in 1352 children and the urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (UACR) in 1288 children from the Groningen Expert Center for Kids with Obesity (GECKO) Drenthe cohort (age range 20-40 months). Albuminuria distribution was compared with the albuminuria distribution in 40 854 participants of the general adult cohort of the Prevention of Renal and Vascular End stage Disease (PREVEND) study. Associations between albuminuria (expressed as UAC and UACR) and antenatal, postnatal and maternal factors were tested with linear regression analysis. The median UAC in the GECKO study was 2.3 mg/L (5th-95th percentiles: 2.1-25.5) and in the PREVEND study it was 6.0 mg/L (2.3-28.6) (P distribution comparison 0.053). The prevalence of UAC ≥ 20 mg/L was 6.9% in the GECKO study and 7.8% in the PREVEND study (P = 0.195). The prevalence of UACR ≥ 30 mg/g in the GECKO study was 23.4%. UAC and UACR were lower in boys. UAC was not associated with other determinants, but UACR was associated with age and gestational diabetes. The distribution of UAC and the prevalence of UAC > 20 mg/L in toddlers and in the young general adult population are comparable. These findings suggest that microalbuminuria is a congenital condition that may predispose to a higher cardiovascular risk later in life. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  11. Ecology and geographic distribution of Yersinia enterocolitica among livestock and wildlife in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Junrong; Duan, Ran; Xia, Shengli; Hao, Qiong; Yang, Jinchuan; Xiao, Yuchun; Qiu, Haiyan; Shi, Guoxiang; Wang, Shukun; Gu, Wenpeng; Wang, Chunxiang; Wang, Mingliu; Tian, Kecheng; Luo, Longze; Yang, Meng; Tian, Huaiyu; Wang, Jiazheng; Jing, Huaiqi; Wang, Xin

    2015-07-09

    The results in this study show the prevalence of Yersinia enterocolitica varies in different animal species and regions of China. The highest prevalence is among pigs (12.91%), followed by dogs (9.80%), Ochotona curzoniae (plateau pica) (6.76%), chickens (4.50%), rodents (3.40%), cattle (2.78%) and sheep (0.89%). Pathogenic isolates comprised the majority of the Y. enterocolitica recovered from pigs (73.50%) and dogs (59.44%); whereas the nonpathogenic Y. enterocolitica made up most of poultry and wildlife recovered strains. A correlation analysis comparing the prevalence and geographic factors showed the isolation rate of Y. enterocolitica in pigs and dogs was negatively correlated with elevation (r=-0.50, Penterocolitica carried ail and ystB virulence genes, and one biotype 1A nonpathogenic strain positive with ail, ystB and ystA genes were isolated from Microtus fuscus (Qinghai vole) on plague foci of the Qinghai-Xizang plateau. The PFGE pattern K6GN11C30021 was predominant in pigs (44.25%) and patients (41.18%); K6GN11C30068 was predominant in dogs (40.16%). Animal isolates from the same region shared the same pattern (K6GN11C30021 and K6GN11C30012), indicating they may be from the same clone and arose through cross infection. Moreover, the identical PFGE pattern among local animals and diarrhea patients suggested that the animals may be the source of infections in these areas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Driving forces for changes in geographical distribution of Ixodes ricinus ticks in Europe

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    Medlock Jolyon M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many factors are involved in determining the latitudinal and altitudinal spread of the important tick vector Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae in Europe, as well as in changes in the distribution within its prior endemic zones. This paper builds on published literature and unpublished expert opinion from the VBORNET network with the aim of reviewing the evidence for these changes in Europe and discusses the many climatic, ecological, landscape and anthropogenic drivers. These can be divided into those directly related to climatic change, contributing to an expansion in the tick’s geographic range at extremes of altitude in central Europe, and at extremes of latitude in Scandinavia; those related to changes in the distribution of tick hosts, particularly roe deer and other cervids; other ecological changes such as habitat connectivity and changes in land management; and finally, anthropogenically induced changes. These factors are strongly interlinked and often not well quantified. Although a change in climate plays an important role in certain geographic regions, for much of Europe it is non-climatic factors that are becoming increasingly important. How we manage habitats on a landscape scale, and the changes in the distribution and abundance of tick hosts are important considerations during our assessment and management of the public health risks associated with ticks and tick-borne disease issues in 21st century Europe. Better understanding and mapping of the spread of I. ricinus (and changes in its abundance is, however, essential to assess the risk of the spread of infections transmitted by this vector species. Enhanced tick surveillance with harmonized approaches for comparison of data enabling the follow-up of trends at EU level will improve the messages on risk related to tick-borne diseases to policy makers, other stake holders and to the general public.

  13. Genetic Variability and Geographical Distribution of Mycotoxigenic Fusarium verticillioides Strains Isolated from Maize Fields in Texas

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    Carlos S. Ortiz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Maize is the dominant cereal crop produced in the US. One of the main fungal pathogens of maize is Fusarium verticillioides, the causative agent of ear and stalk rots. Significantly, the fungus produces a group of mycotoxins - fumonisins - on infested kernels, which have been linked to various illnesses in humans and animals. Nonetheless, durable resistance against F. verticillioides in maize is not currently available. In Texas, over 2.1 million acres of maize are vulnerable to fumonisin contamination, but understanding of the distribution of toxigenic F. verticillioides in maize-producing areas is currently lacking. Our goal was to investigate the genetic variability of F. verticillioides in Texas with an emphasis on fumonisin trait and geographical distribution. A total of 164 F. verticillioides cultures were isolated from 65 maize-producing counties. DNA from each isolate was extracted and analyzed by PCR for the presence of FUM1- a key fumonisin biosynthesis gene - and mating type genes. Results showed that all isolates are in fact F. verticillioides capable of producing fumonisins with a 1:1 mating-type gene ratio in the population. To further study the genetic diversity of the population, isolates were analyzed using RAPD fingerprinting. Polymorphic markers were identified and the analysis showed no clear correlation between the RAPD profile of the isolates and their corresponding geographical origin. Our data suggest the toxigenic F. verticillioides population in Texas is widely distributed wherever maize is grown. We also hypothesize that the population is fluid, with active movement and genetic recombination occurring in the field.

  14. Effects of interstate migration on the geographic distribution of stroke mortality in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanska, D J; Peterson, P M

    1995-04-01

    This study examines the effects of lifetime net interstate migration on the geographic distribution of stroke mortality in the United States. National Center for Health Statistics and Bureau of the Census data were used to map the geographic distribution of age-adjusted, race-, and race/sex-specific stroke mortality rates by interstate migration status for natives, outmigrants, nonmigrants, inmigrants, and residents in the United States for 1979 to 1981. High age-adjusted stroke mortality rates were significantly clustered in the southeastern United States for both whites and blacks; in addition, for whites, low-rate states were concentrated in some Mountain and northeastern states. Migrant status did not change this large-scale pattern, but individual states showed significant migration effects, which varied in magnitude and direction. Among whites, states that benefited from migration, with markedly lower stroke mortality rates among residents than natives, included Arizona, Colorado, District of Columbia, and Florida, whereas states that suffered from migration included California, Idaho, Montana, North Dakota, Nevada, and Oklahoma. Among blacks, only Colorado showed an apparent large benefit from migration, whereas 21 states suffered from migration. Although the overall large-scale spatial distribution of resident stroke mortality rates cannot be explained by migration effects, some individual states had rates that were strongly influenced by migration. Patterns of mortality among migrant groups in Sun Belt retirement destination states probably result from differential selection effects for retirement migration in older adults. Patterns of mortality for black migrants to the North are probably influenced by "carryover" effects from their origin states.

  15. Constant fluctuating asymmetry but not directional asymmetry along the geographic distribution of Drosophila antonietae (Diptera, Drosophilidae

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    Marcelo Costa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The population dynamics of a species tends to change from the core to the periphery of its distribution. Therefore, one could expect peripheral populations to be subject to a higher level of stress than more central populations (the center–periphery hypothesis and consequently should present a higher level of fluctuating asymmetry. To test these predictions we study asymmetry in wing shape of five populations of Drosophila antonietae collected throughout the distribution of the species using fluctuating asymmetry as a proxy for developmental instability. More specifically, we addressed the following questions: (1 what types of asymmetry occur in populations of D. antonietae? (2 Does the level of fluctuating asymmetry vary among populations? (3 Does peripheral populations have a higher fluctuating asymmetry level than central populations? We used 12 anatomical landmarks to quantify patterns of asymmetry in wing shape in five populations of D. antonietae within the framework of geometric morphometrics. Net asymmetry – a composite measure of directional asymmetry + fluctuating asymmetry – varied significantly among populations. However, once net asymmetry of each population is decomposed into directional asymmetry and fluctuating asymmetry, most of the variation in asymmetry was explained by directional asymmetry alone, suggesting that populations of D. antonietae have the same magnitude of fluctuating asymmetry throughout the geographical distribution of the species. We hypothesize that larval development in rotting cladodes might play an important role in explaining our results. In addition, our study underscores the importance of understanding the interplay between the biology of a species and its geographical patterns of asymmetry.

  16. Current Knowledge of Leishmania Vectors in Mexico: How Geographic Distributions of Species Relate to Transmission Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Camila; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A.; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; Becker-Fauser, Ingeborg; Martínez-Meyer, Enrique; Peterson, A. Townsend; Sánchez-Cordero, Víctor

    2011-01-01

    Leishmaniases are a group of vector-borne diseases with different clinical manifestations caused by parasites transmitted by sand fly vectors. In Mexico, the sand fly Lutzomyia olmeca olmeca is the only vector proven to transmit the parasite Leishmania mexicana to humans, which causes leishmaniasis. Other vector species with potential medical importance have been obtained, but their geographic distributions and relation to transmission areas have never been assessed. We modeled the ecological niches of nine sand fly species and projected niches to estimate potential distributions by using known occurrences, environmental coverages, and the algorithms GARP and Maxent. All vector species were distributed in areas with known recurrent transmission, except for Lu. diabolica, which appeared to be related only to areas of occasional transmission in northern Mexico. The distribution of Lu. o. olmeca does not overlap with all reported cutaneous leishmaniasis cases, suggesting that Lu. cruciata and Lu. shannoni are likely also involved as primary vectors in those areas. Our study provides useful information of potential risk areas of leishmaniasis transmission in Mexico. PMID:22049037

  17. Current knowledge of Leishmania vectors in Mexico: how geographic distributions of species relate to transmission areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Camila; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; Becker-Fauser, Ingeborg; Martínez-Meyer, Enrique; Peterson, A Townsend; Sánchez-Cordero, Víctor

    2011-11-01

    Leishmaniases are a group of vector-borne diseases with different clinical manifestations caused by parasites transmitted by sand fly vectors. In Mexico, the sand fly Lutzomyia olmeca olmeca is the only vector proven to transmit the parasite Leishmania mexicana to humans, which causes leishmaniasis. Other vector species with potential medical importance have been obtained, but their geographic distributions and relation to transmission areas have never been assessed. We modeled the ecological niches of nine sand fly species and projected niches to estimate potential distributions by using known occurrences, environmental coverages, and the algorithms GARP and Maxent. All vector species were distributed in areas with known recurrent transmission, except for Lu. diabolica, which appeared to be related only to areas of occasional transmission in northern Mexico. The distribution of Lu. o. olmeca does not overlap with all reported cutaneous leishmaniasis cases, suggesting that Lu. cruciata and Lu. shannoni are likely also involved as primary vectors in those areas. Our study provides useful information of potential risk areas of leishmaniasis transmission in Mexico.

  18. Diversity, natural history, and geographic distribution of snakes in the Caatinga, Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Thaís B; Nogueira, Cristiano; Marques, Otavio A V

    2014-09-19

    The present study is a synthesis on snake diversity and distribution in the Caatinga region of northeastern Brazil, providing an updated species list and data on natural history and geographic distribution. Our study is based on the careful revision of 7,102 voucher specimens, housed in 17 herpetological collections, complemented by data on taxonomic literature. We recorded a total of 112 snake species in the Caatinga, belonging to nine families: Anomalepididae, Leptotyphlopidae, Typhlopidae, Aniliidae, Boidae, Viperidae, Elapidae, Colubridae, and Dipsadidae. Our list includes at least 13 never recorded species for this region, as well as distribution records for all species known from the Caatinga (including expansion and new records of distribution). The snake assemblage of the Caatinga is complex, sharing species with other continental open areas (38.4%), forested areas (27.7%), and both open and forested areas (32.1%). The richest areas were isolated plateaus, followed by contact areas, semi-arid caatinga, and sandy dunes of the São Franscisco River. We identified 22 Caatinga endemic species with the sandy dunes of São Franscico River showing the highest endemism level (12 species, with six endemic species restricted to the area) followed by semi-arid caatinga, and isolated plateaus (eight endemic species each, and six and three endemic species with restricted distribution to each area, respectively). Most species show relatively restricted ranges in parts of the Caatinga. The snake assemblage in Caatinga includes mainly terrestrial species (38.4%), followed by fossorial/cryptozoic (26.8%), arboreal/semi-arboreal (26.8%), and aquatic/semi-aquatic (7.1%) species. Vertebrates are the most important dietary item (80.4%), with 56.6% of species being generalist consumers of this kind of prey; 24.4% are frog-eaters, 7.8% prey on caecilians/amphisbaenians, 6.7% lizard-eaters, 3.3% mammal-eaters, and 1.1% are fish-eaters. Only 18.7% of the snakes eat invertebrate

  19. Does the prevalence of gsp mutations in GH-secreting pituitary adenomas differ geographically or racially? Prevalence of gsp mutations in Japanese patients revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasufuku-Takano, Junko; Takano, Koji; Morita, Koji; Takakura, Kintomo; Teramoto, Akira; Fujita, Toshiro

    2006-01-01

    The prevalence of gsp mutations in GH-secreting pituitary adenomas was thought to differ geographically or racially, given its exceptionally lower incidence among Japanese patients (4.4-9.3%) compared to other regions (30-50%). However, this notion is now being challenged after a recent paper reported a 53.3% incidence among Japanese with acromegaly. We have since re-evaluated the prevalence of gsp mutations on a larger scale. One hundred Japanese acromegaly patients with surgically confirmed GH-secreting pituitary adenomas were enrolled. mRNAs from primary cultured adenomas were used for reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing of the Gsalpha subunit. Patient data were reviewed from medical charts. There were 53 gsp mutations (53%), consisting of 42 Arg201Cys, one Arg201His, one Arg201Ser, 8 Gln227Leu, and one Gln227Arg mutation. Age at operation, sex ratio, basal serum GH and IGF-I levels were no different with or without the mutations. In contrast, patients responded differently to most dynamic tests with statistical significance: serum GH levels in gsp-positive patients had blunted response to GHRH, were well suppressed by bromocriptine, and had higher rates of paradoxical response to TRH. Notably, paradoxical response to LHRH was observed exclusively in gsp-negative patients. Octreotide suppressed GH levels strongly regardless of gsp status. These clinical characteristics are similar to those of Caucasian patients. We conclude that the prevalence of gsp mutations in Japanese acromegaly patients is comparable to those of other reports from various regions. Therefore, Japanese patients do not stand as an example for geographical or racial difference in the prevalence of gsp mutations in GH-secreting pituitary adenomas.

  20. A study of prevalence and distribution of tooth agenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozga, A; Stanciu, R P; Mănuc, D

    2014-01-01

    Tooth agenesis is a phenomenon that occurs relatively commonly. The incidence of the missing teeth presented in the previous reports varies according to the studied population. The aim of this study was to find the prevalence of tooth agenesis in a population group in Bucharest. The prevalence and distribution of dental agenesis was determined in a sample of 518 patients, 285 females and 233 males, aged 6 to 41 years, who had been treated in the Clinic of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics in Bucharest. The tooth agenesis was diagnosed by using the orthodontic records and study casts for each patient. 35 of the patients, 17 males and 18 females, were diagnosed with at least one absent permanent tooth and 47 missing permanent teeth were reported. A prevalence of 6.757% was observed for tooth agenesis. The mandibular second premolar was found to be the most affected tooth, followed by the maxillary lateral incisor, maxillary second premolar, mandibular central incisors, mandibular second molar and mandibular lateral incisor. The incidence of dental agenesis, its pattern and distribution per tooth type are in accordance with the previous published studies.

  1. The geographic distribution of the otolaryngology workforce in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lango, Miriam N; Handorf, Elizabeth; Arjmand, Ellis

    2017-01-01

    To describe the deployment of otolaryngologists and evaluate factors associated with the geographic distribution of otolaryngologists in the United States. Cross-sectional study. The otolaryngology physician supply was defined as the number of otolaryngologists per 100,000 in the hospital referral region (HRR). The otolaryngology physician supply was derived from the American Medical Association Masterfile or from the Medicare Enrollment and Provider Utilization Files. Multiple linear regression tested the association of population, physician, and hospital factors on the supply of Medicare-enrolled otolaryngologists/HRR. Two methods of measuring the otolaryngology workforce were moderately correlated across hospital referral regions (Pearson coefficient 0.513, P = .0001); regardless, the supply of otolaryngology providers varies greatly over different geographic regions. Otolaryngologists concentrate in regions with many other physicians, particularly specialist physicians. The otolaryngology supply also increases with regional population income and education levels. Using AMA-derived data, there was no association between the supply of otolaryngologists and staffed acute-care hospital beds and the presence of an otolaryngology residency-training program. In contrast, the supply of otolaryngology providers enrolled in Medicare independently increases for each HRR by 0.8 per 100,000 for each unit increase in supply of hospital beds (P Otological Society, Inc.

  2. The Prevalence of Mild Cognitive Impairment in Diverse Geographical and Ethnocultural Regions: The COSMIC Collaboration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perminder S Sachdev

    Full Text Available Changes in criteria and differences in populations studied and methodology have produced a wide range of prevalence estimates for mild cognitive impairment (MCI.Uniform criteria were applied to harmonized data from 11 studies from USA, Europe, Asia and Australia, and MCI prevalence estimates determined using three separate definitions of cognitive impairment.The published range of MCI prevalence estimates was 5.0%-36.7%. This was reduced with all cognitive impairment definitions: performance in the bottom 6.681% (3.2%-10.8%; Clinical Dementia Rating of 0.5 (1.8%-14.9%; Mini-Mental State Examination score of 24-27 (2.1%-20.7%. Prevalences using the first definition were 5.9% overall, and increased with age (P < .001 but were unaffected by sex or the main races/ethnicities investigated (Whites and Chinese. Not completing high school increased the likelihood of MCI (P ≤ .01.Applying uniform criteria to harmonized data greatly reduced the variation in MCI prevalence internationally.

  3. Molecular insight into systematics, host associations, life cycles and geographic distribution of the nematode family Rhabdiasidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkach, Vasyl V; Kuzmin, Yuriy; Snyder, Scott D

    2014-04-01

    Rhabdiasidae Railliet, 1915 is a globally distributed group of up to 100 known species of nematodes parasitic in amphibians and reptiles. This work presents the results of a molecular phylogenetic analysis of 36 species of Rhabdiasidae from reptiles and amphibians from six continents. New DNA sequences encompassing partial 18S rDNA, ITS1, 5.8S rDNA, ITS2 and partial 28S rDNA regions of nuclear ribosomal DNA were obtained from 27 species and pre-existing sequences for nine species were incorporated. The broad taxonomic, host and geographical coverage of the specimens allowed us to address long-standing questions in rhabdiasid systematics, evolution, geographic distribution, and patterns of host association. Our analysis demonstrated that rhabdiasids parasitic in snakes are an independent genus sister to the rest of the Rhabdiasidae, a status supported by life cycle data. Based on the combined evidence of molecular phylogeny, morphology and life cycle characteristics, a new genus Serpentirhabdias gen. nov. with the type species Serpentirhabdias elaphe (Sharpilo, 1976) comb. nov. is established. The phylogeny supports the monophyly of Entomelas Travassos, 1930, Pneumonema Johnston, 1916 and the largest genus of the family, Rhabdias Stiles and Hassall, 1905. DNA sequence comparisons demonstrate the presence of more than one species in the previously monotypic Pneumonema from Australian scincid lizards. The distribution of some morphological characters in the genus Rhabdias shows little consistency within the phylogenetic tree topology, in particular the apical structures widely used in rhabdiasid systematics. Our data suggest that some of the characters, while valuable for species differentiation, are not appropriate for differentiation among higher taxa and are of limited phylogenetic utility. Rhabdias is the only genus with a cosmopolitan distribution, but some of the lineages within Rhabdias are distributed on a single continent or a group of adjacent

  4. A reappraisal of the geographic distribution of Bokkermannohyla sazimai (Anura: Hylidae through morphological and bioacoustic approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Ribeiro de Carvalho

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The type locality of Bokermannohyla sazimai is in the municipality of São Roque de Minas, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. In this paper, we reassess the geographic distribution of B. sazimai and provide additional information on variation of several other non-topotypic populations in comparisons of topotypic populations (São Roque de Minas and Vargem Bonita, on the basis of three lines of evidence (color-pattern, morphometry and vocalizations. Differences obtained among all populations with respect to color pattern, morphometry and advertisement calls were attributed to interpopulational variation, so that this variation was not enough to recognize any population as a distinctive lineage in comparison with the topotypic information available on B. sazimai.

  5. Scorpion sting epidemiology in Montes Municipality of the State of Sucre, Venezuela: geographic distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sousa, L; Bonoli, S; Quiroga, M; Parrilla, P

    1996-01-01

    Scorpion stings were surveyed in the Montes Municipality of the State of Sucre, Venezuela, aiming to extend the information on these poisonous accidents by characterizing their geographic distribution. From 1980 to 1990, 184 cases of scorpion stings were recorded with an incidence rate of 38.6 cases per 10,000 inhabitants. The locality of San Fernando presented the highest incidence (68.3/1000) of poisonous accidents. The highest percentages of severe cases were recorded in the towns of Arenas (27%), San Lorenzo (21%), and Cocollar (19%), which are located at the foot of the Turimiquire Mountains. This region is a dispersion area of scorpions of the Tityus genus. Our results show that this region of the State of Sucre is endemic for scorpion stings which are an important public health problem.

  6. Pulp Stones, Prevalence and Distribution in an Iranian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzekanani, Maryam; Haghani, Jahangir; Walsh, Laurence J; Estabragh, Mohammad Am

    2018-01-01

    This study determined the prevalence and distribution of pulp stones in the permanent dentition of an adult population using their periapical radiographs. The study followed a cross-sectional design. A total of 800 periapical radiographs collected from 412 patients attending dental clinics in Kerman, Islamic Republic of Iran, were examined using magnification. Pulp stones were present in 9.6% of all permanent teeth examined, being most common in maxillary first and second molars, followed by mandibular first and second molars. They were present in 31.5% of all adult patients, with a significantly increased prevalence in females compared with males (40.5 vs 23.9%, chi-squared test p endodontic treatment. They obstruct access to the canal orifices and thus complicate endodontic treatment. Knowing where and when pulp stones are likely to occur improves the quality of root canal treatments.

  7. Geographic information system-coupling sediment delivery distributed modeling based on observed data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S E; Kang, S H

    2014-01-01

    Spatially distributed sediment delivery (SEDD) models are of great interest in estimating the expected effect of changes on soil erosion and sediment yield. However, they can only be applied if the model can be calibrated using observed data. This paper presents a geographic information system (GIS)-based method to calculate the sediment discharge from basins to coastal areas. For this, an SEDD model, with a sediment rating curve method based on observed data, is proposed and validated. The model proposed here has been developed using the combined application of the revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE) and a spatially distributed sediment delivery ratio, within Model Builder of ArcGIS's software. The model focuses on spatial variability and is useful for estimating the spatial patterns of soil loss and sediment discharge. The model consists of two modules, a soil erosion prediction component and a sediment delivery model. The integrated approach allows for relatively practical and cost-effective estimation of spatially distributed soil erosion and sediment delivery, for gauged or ungauged basins. This paper provides the first attempt at estimating sediment delivery ratio based on observed data in the monsoon region of Korea.

  8. The geographical distribution of diagnostic medical and dental X-ray services in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters; Zietsman; Bhagwandin

    1998-03-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was threefold, viz.: (i) to evaluate the availability and accessiblity of medical and dental X-ray services in South Africa; (ii) to evaluate geographical information systems (GIS) as a tool for management of health care technologies; and (iii) to guide policy and develop a process to provide optimal utilisation of X-ray services in South Africa. METHODS: Information supplied by the Department of Health on licensed X-ray equipment was integrated with census data and processed with GIS. Four key areas were assessed, viz. distribution, accessibility, age and availability of X-ray services in South Africa. RESULTS: The analysis shows a vast inequity in the distribution of X-ray services on a provincial as well as a district level, although on the national level the distribution of X-ray services meets the World health Organisation criteria. CONCLUSION: GIS is a useful tool in evaluating and planning of essential health services/techniques. However, care must be taken in interpreting the data on a macro level, as this masks vast inequities on the district level. RECOMMENDATIONS: The indicators of coverage should be expanded, similar reports should be prepared for the nine provinces, and these data should be integrated into the clinic planning programme. Radiological services should be added to and managed as part of an essential district health care technology package.

  9. Geographically distributed hybrid testing & collaboration between geotechnical centrifuge and structures laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojaghi, Mobin; Martínez, Ignacio Lamata; Dietz, Matt S.; Williams, Martin S.; Blakeborough, Anthony; Crewe, Adam J.; Taylor, Colin A.; Madabhushi, S. P. Gopal; Haigh, Stuart K.

    2018-01-01

    Distributed Hybrid Testing (DHT) is an experimental technique designed to capitalise on advances in modern networking infrastructure to overcome traditional laboratory capacity limitations. By coupling the heterogeneous test apparatus and computational resources of geographically distributed laboratories, DHT provides the means to take on complex, multi-disciplinary challenges with new forms of communication and collaboration. To introduce the opportunity and practicability afforded by DHT, here an exemplar multi-site test is addressed in which a dedicated fibre network and suite of custom software is used to connect the geotechnical centrifuge at the University of Cambridge with a variety of structural dynamics loading apparatus at the University of Oxford and the University of Bristol. While centrifuge time-scaling prevents real-time rates of loading in this test, such experiments may be used to gain valuable insights into physical phenomena, test procedure and accuracy. These and other related experiments have led to the development of the real-time DHT technique and the creation of a flexible framework that aims to facilitate future distributed tests within the UK and beyond. As a further example, a real-time DHT experiment between structural labs using this framework for testing across the Internet is also presented.

  10. Optimizing Geographic Allotment of Photovoltaic Capacity in a Distributed Generation Setting: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urquhart, B.; Sengupta, M.; Keller, J.

    2012-09-01

    A multi-objective optimization was performed to allocate 2MW of PV among four candidate sites on the island of Lanai such that energy was maximized and variability in the form of ramp rates was minimized. This resulted in an optimal solution set which provides a range of geographic allotment alternatives for the fixed PV capacity. Within the optimal set, a tradeoff between energy produced and variability experienced was found, whereby a decrease in variability always necessitates a simultaneous decrease in energy. A design point within the optimal set was selected for study which decreased extreme ramp rates by over 50% while only decreasing annual energy generation by 3% over the maximum generation allocation. To quantify the allotment mix selected, a metric was developed, called the ramp ratio, which compares ramping magnitude when all capacity is allotted to a single location to the aggregate ramping magnitude in a distributed scenario. The ramp ratio quantifies simultaneously how much smoothing a distributed scenario would experience over single site allotment and how much a single site is being under-utilized for its ability to reduce aggregate variability. This paper creates a framework for use by cities and municipal utilities to reduce variability impacts while planning for high penetration of PV on the distribution grid.

  11. Geographic Distribution and Ecology of Triatoma dimidiata (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra-Henao, Gabriel; Angulo, Víctor Manuel; Osorio, Lisardo; Jaramillo-O, Nicolás

    2016-01-01

    Triatoma dimidiata Latreille is the second most important vector of Chagas' disease in Colombia and is found in urban and periurban areas. From January 2007 to June 2008, we performed field work in 8 departments, 18 municipalities, and 44 rural villages, covering most of its known distribution and all of its ecological zones in the country. The goal was to determine the geographical distribution, the ecology, and house infestation indices of T. dimidiata over its range and hence the Chagas' disease transmission risk. In Colombia, T. dimidiata occupies a wide variety of ecosystems, from transformed ecosystems in the Andean biome with shrub and xerofitic vegetation to very dense forests in the humid tropical forests in the Sierra Nevada of Santa Marta. According to genetic and ecological criteria, at least two T. dimidiata forms of this species are present: populations from the northwest of the country (Caribbean plains) are restricted to palm tree habitats, and domestic involvement is limited to sporadic visits because of attraction by light; and populations of the east region (Andean mountains) presenting a complex distributional pattern including sylvatic, peridomestic, and domiciliated ecotopes, and occupying a great variety of life zones. The latter population is of epidemiological importance due to the demonstrated migration and genetical flow of individuals among the different habitats. Control, therefore, must take into account its diversity of habitats. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. A Heterogeneous Distributed Virtual Geographic Environment—Potential Application in Spatiotemporal Behavior Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Shen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to their strong immersion and real-time interactivity, helmet-mounted virtual reality (VR devices are becoming increasingly popular. Based on these devices, an immersive virtual geographic environment (VGE provides a promising method for research into crowd behavior in an emergency. However, the current cheaper helmet-mounted VR devices are not popular enough, and will continue to coexist with personal computer (PC-based systems for a long time. Therefore, a heterogeneous distributed virtual geographic environment (HDVGE could be a feasible solution to the heterogeneous problems caused by various types of clients, and support the implementation of spatiotemporal crowd behavior experiments with large numbers of concurrent participants. In this study, we developed an HDVGE framework, and put forward a set of design principles to define the similarities between the real world and the VGE. We discussed the HDVGE architecture, and proposed an abstract interaction layer, a protocol-based interaction algorithm, and an adjusted dead reckoning algorithm to solve the heterogeneous distributed problems. We then implemented an HDVGE prototype system focusing on subway fire evacuation experiments. Two types of clients are considered in the system: PC, and all-in-one VR. Finally, we evaluated the performances of the prototype system and the key algorithms. The results showed that in a low-latency local area network (LAN environment, the prototype system can smoothly support 90 concurrent users consisting of PC and all-in-one VR clients. HDVGE provides a feasible solution for studying not only spatiotemporal crowd behaviors in normal conditions, but also evacuation behaviors in emergency conditions such as fires and earthquakes. HDVGE could also serve as a new means of obtaining observational data about individual and group behavior in support of human geography research.

  13. Burkholderia, a Genus Rich in Plant-Associated Nitrogen Fixers with Wide Environmental and Geographic Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-De Los Santos, Paulina; Bustillos-Cristales, Rocío; Caballero-Mellado, Jesús

    2001-01-01

    The genus Burkholderia comprises 19 species, including Burkholderia vietnamiensis which is the only known N2-fixing species of this bacterial genus. The first isolates of B. vietnamiensis were recovered from the rhizosphere of rice plants grown in a phytotron, but its existence in natural environments and its geographic distribution were not reported. In the present study, most N2-fixing isolates recovered from the environment of field-grown maize and coffee plants cultivated in widely separated regions of Mexico were phenotypically identified as B. cepacia using the API 20NE system. Nevertheless, a number of these isolates recovered from inside of maize roots, as well as from the rhizosphere and rhizoplane of maize and coffee plants, showed similar or identical features to those of B. vietnamiensis TVV75T. These features include nitrogenase activity with 10 different carbon sources, identical or very similar nifHDK hybridization patterns, very similar protein electrophoregrams, identical amplified 16S rDNA restriction (ARDRA) profiles, and levels of DNA-DNA reassociation higher than 70% with total DNA from strain TVV75T. Although the ability to fix N2 is not reported to be a common feature among the known species of the genus Burkholderia, the results obtained show that many diazotrophic Burkholderia isolates analyzed showed phenotypic and genotypic features different from those of the known N2-fixing species B. vietnamiensis as well as from those of B. kururiensis, a bacterium identified in the present study as a diazotrophic species. DNA-DNA reassociation assays confirmed the existence of N2-fixing Burkholderia species different from B. vietnamiensis. In addition, this study shows the wide geographic distribution and substantial capability of N2-fixing Burkholderia spp. for colonizing diverse host plants in distantly separated environments. PMID:11375196

  14. Temporal, geographic, and host distribution of avian paramyxovirus 1 (Newcastle disease virus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, Kiril M.; Ramey, Andy M.; Qiu, Xueting; Bahl, Justin; Afonso, Claudio L.

    2016-01-01

    Newcastle disease is caused by virulent forms of avian paramyxovirus of serotype 1 (APMV-1) and has global economic importance. The disease reached panzootic proportions within two decades after first being identified in 1926 in the United Kingdom and Indonesia and still remains endemic in many countries across the world. Here we review information on the host, temporal, and geographic distribution of APMV-1 genetic diversity based on the evolutionary systematics of the complete coding region of the fusion gene. Strains of APMV-1 are phylogenetically separated into two classes (class I and class II) and further classified into genotypes based on genetic differences. Class I viruses are genetically less diverse, generally present in wild waterfowl, and are of low virulence. Class II viruses are genetically and phenotypically more diverse, frequently isolated from poultry with occasional spillovers into wild birds, and exhibit a wider range of virulence. Waterfowl, cormorants, and pigeons are natural reservoirs of all APMV-1 pathotypes, except viscerotropic velogenic viruses for which natural reservoirs have not been identified. Genotypes I and II within class II include isolates of high and low virulence, the latter often being used as vaccines. Viruses of genotypes III and IX that emerged decades ago are now isolated rarely, but may be found in domestic and wild birds in China. Containing only virulent viruses and responsible for the majority of recent outbreaks in poultry and wild birds, viruses from genotypes V, VI, and VII, are highly mobile and have been isolated on different continents. Conversely, virulent viruses of genotypes XI (Madagascar), XIII (mainly Southwest Asia), XVI (North America) and XIV, XVII and XVIII (Africa) appear to have a more limited geographic distribution and have been isolated predominantly from poultry.

  15. Phenotypic plasticity influences the size, shape and dynamics of the geographic distribution of an invasive plant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Baptiste Pichancourt

    Full Text Available Phenotypic plasticity has long been suspected to allow invasive species to expand their geographic range across large-scale environmental gradients. We tested this possibility in Australia using a continental scale survey of the invasive tree Parkinsonia aculeata (Fabaceae in twenty-three sites distributed across four climate regions and three habitat types. Using tree-level responses, we detected a trade-off between seed mass and seed number across the moisture gradient. Individual trees plastically and reversibly produced many small seeds at dry sites or years, and few big seeds at wet sites and years. Bigger seeds were positively correlated with higher seed and seedling survival rates. The trade-off, the relation between seed mass, seed and seedling survival, and other fitness components of the plant life-cycle were integrated within a matrix population model. The model confirms that the plastic response resulted in average fitness benefits across the life-cycle. Plasticity resulted in average fitness being positively maintained at the wet and dry range margins where extinction risks would otherwise have been high ("Jack-of-all-Trades" strategy JT, and fitness being maximized at the species range centre where extinction risks were already low ("Master-of-Some" strategy MS. The resulting hybrid "Jack-and-Master" strategy (JM broadened the geographic range and amplified average fitness in the range centre. Our study provides the first empirical evidence for a JM species. It also confirms mechanistically the importance of phenotypic plasticity in determining the size, the shape and the dynamic of a species distribution. The JM allows rapid and reversible phenotypic responses to new or changing moisture conditions at different scales, providing the species with definite advantages over genetic adaptation when invading diverse and variable environments. Furthermore, natural selection pressure acting on phenotypic plasticity is predicted to result

  16. Large-scale geographic variation in distribution and abundance of Australian deep-water kelp forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel M Marzinelli

    Full Text Available Despite the significance of marine habitat-forming organisms, little is known about their large-scale distribution and abundance in deeper waters, where they are difficult to access. Such information is necessary to develop sound conservation and management strategies. Kelps are main habitat-formers in temperate reefs worldwide; however, these habitats are highly sensitive to environmental change. The kelp Ecklonia radiate is the major habitat-forming organism on subtidal reefs in temperate Australia. Here, we provide large-scale ecological data encompassing the latitudinal distribution along the continent of these kelp forests, which is a necessary first step towards quantitative inferences about the effects of climatic change and other stressors on these valuable habitats. We used the Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV facility of Australia's Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS to survey 157,000 m2 of seabed, of which ca 13,000 m2 were used to quantify kelp covers at multiple spatial scales (10-100 m to 100-1,000 km and depths (15-60 m across several regions ca 2-6° latitude apart along the East and West coast of Australia. We investigated the large-scale geographic variation in distribution and abundance of deep-water kelp (>15 m depth and their relationships with physical variables. Kelp cover generally increased with latitude despite great variability at smaller spatial scales. Maximum depth of kelp occurrence was 40-50 m. Kelp latitudinal distribution along the continent was most strongly related to water temperature and substratum availability. This extensive survey data, coupled with ongoing AUV missions, will allow for the detection of long-term shifts in the distribution and abundance of habitat-forming kelp and the organisms they support on a continental scale, and provide information necessary for successful implementation and management of conservation reserves.

  17. Large-scale geographic variation in distribution and abundance of Australian deep-water kelp forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzinelli, Ezequiel M; Williams, Stefan B; Babcock, Russell C; Barrett, Neville S; Johnson, Craig R; Jordan, Alan; Kendrick, Gary A; Pizarro, Oscar R; Smale, Dan A; Steinberg, Peter D

    2015-01-01

    Despite the significance of marine habitat-forming organisms, little is known about their large-scale distribution and abundance in deeper waters, where they are difficult to access. Such information is necessary to develop sound conservation and management strategies. Kelps are main habitat-formers in temperate reefs worldwide; however, these habitats are highly sensitive to environmental change. The kelp Ecklonia radiate is the major habitat-forming organism on subtidal reefs in temperate Australia. Here, we provide large-scale ecological data encompassing the latitudinal distribution along the continent of these kelp forests, which is a necessary first step towards quantitative inferences about the effects of climatic change and other stressors on these valuable habitats. We used the Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) facility of Australia's Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) to survey 157,000 m2 of seabed, of which ca 13,000 m2 were used to quantify kelp covers at multiple spatial scales (10-100 m to 100-1,000 km) and depths (15-60 m) across several regions ca 2-6° latitude apart along the East and West coast of Australia. We investigated the large-scale geographic variation in distribution and abundance of deep-water kelp (>15 m depth) and their relationships with physical variables. Kelp cover generally increased with latitude despite great variability at smaller spatial scales. Maximum depth of kelp occurrence was 40-50 m. Kelp latitudinal distribution along the continent was most strongly related to water temperature and substratum availability. This extensive survey data, coupled with ongoing AUV missions, will allow for the detection of long-term shifts in the distribution and abundance of habitat-forming kelp and the organisms they support on a continental scale, and provide information necessary for successful implementation and management of conservation reserves.

  18. Quantifying the effects of geographical and environmental factors on distribution of stream bacterioplankton within nature reserves of Fujian, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongming; Yang, Jun; Liu, Lemian; Yu, Zheng

    2015-07-01

    Bacterioplankton are important components of freshwater ecosystems and play essential roles in ecological functions and processes; however, little is known about their geographical distribution and the factors influencing their ecology, especially in stream ecosystems. To examine how geographical and environmental factors affect the composition of bacterioplankton communities, we used denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and clone sequencing to survey bacterioplankton communities in 31 samples of streamwater from seven nature reserves in Fujian province, southeast China. Our results revealed that dominant bacterioplankton communities exhibited a distinct geographical pattern. Further, we provided evidence for distance decay relationships in bacterioplankton community similarity and found similar community gradients in response to elevation and latitude. Both redundancy analyses and Mantel tests showed that bacterioplankton community composition was significantly correlated with both environmental (electrical conductivity, total phosphorus, and PO4-P) and geographical factors (latitude, longitude, and elevation). Variance partitioning further showed that the joint effect of geographical and environmental factors explained the largest proportion of the variation in distribution of bacterioplankton communities (13.6 %), followed by purely geographical factors (11.2 %), and purely environmental factors (0.6 %). The Betaproteobacteria were the most common taxa in the streams, followed by Firmicutes and Gammaproteobacteria. Therefore, our results suggest that the biogeographical patterns of stream bacterioplankton communities across the Fujian nature reserves are more influenced by geographical factors than by local physicochemical properties.

  19. Determination of geographic variance in stroke prevalence using Internet search engine analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walcott, Brian P; Nahed, Brian V; Kahle, Kristopher T; Redjal, Navid; Coumans, Jean-Valery

    2011-06-01

    Previous methods to determine stroke prevalence, such as nationwide surveys, are labor-intensive endeavors. Recent advances in search engine query analytics have led to a new metric for disease surveillance to evaluate symptomatic phenomenon, such as influenza. The authors hypothesized that the use of search engine query data can determine the prevalence of stroke. The Google Insights for Search database was accessed to analyze anonymized search engine query data. The authors' search strategy utilized common search queries used when attempting either to identify the signs and symptoms of a stroke or to perform stroke education. The search logic was as follows: (stroke signs + stroke symptoms + mini stroke--heat) from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2010. The relative number of searches performed (the interest level) for this search logic was established for all 50 states and the District of Columbia. A Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient was calculated from the statespecific stroke prevalence data previously reported. Web search engine interest level was available for all 50 states and the District of Columbia over the time period for January 1, 2005-December 31, 2010. The interest level was highest in Alabama and Tennessee (100 and 96, respectively) and lowest in California and Virginia (58 and 53, respectively). The Pearson correlation coefficient (r) was calculated to be 0.47 (p = 0.0005, 2-tailed). Search engine query data analysis allows for the determination of relative stroke prevalence. Further investigation will reveal the reliability of this metric to determine temporal pattern analysis and prevalence in this and other symptomatic diseases.

  20. Review of prevalence and distribution of schistosomiasis in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokogawa, M

    1976-06-01

    There has been a temporary increase in schistosomiasis japonica after World War II in each of the known endemic areas, but a national control programme, including use of molluscicides, lining irrigation ditches through rice paddies with concrete and the reclamation of swampy areas by drainage and filling, begun around 1950, drastically reduced the prevalence and distribution of the disease. It can be said that these measures together with improvements in agricultural techniques, mechanization of farming and also socioeconomic factors such as improvements in the living standards of the inhabitants and urbanization have brought about a rapid decrease in schistosomiasis in Japan.

  1. Sero-prevalence, risk factors and distribution of foot and mouth disease in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdela, Nejash

    2017-05-01

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD), world's most important highly infectious and contagious trans-boundary animal diseases, is responsible for huge global losses of livestock production as well as severe impacts on international trade. This vesicular disease is caused by foot and mouth disease virus of the genus Aphthovirus, family Picornaviridae. Currently FMD is major global animal health problem and endemic in Africa including Ethiopia. This paper systematically reviewed the sero-prevalence reports, associated risk factors and distribution of FMD in Ethiopia with the main aim of making compressive document on prevalence, risk factor and distribution of the disease thus helping as a basis for designing effective control strategies. FMD is widely distributed in Ethiopia and its prevalence varies from place to place with seropositivity that ranges from 5.6% to 42.7% in cattle and from 4% to 11% in small ruminant and in 30% in ungulate wildlife. In Ethiopia endemic distributions of five of seven serotypes, namely serotypes O, A, C, SAT1 and SAT2 have been documented. The dominant serotype being reported recently is serotype O and serotype C has not been reported in the country since 1983. However, serotype C specific antibody was detected in cattle indicating that circulation of serotype C viruses in the country may have gone unnoticed. The most common risk factor associated with FMD infection in Ethiopia includes production system, geographic location, species, age of animals, contact with wildlife and season of the year, mixed animal species and Breed. Conclusively, this paper revealed as FMD is posing a major threat in different area of the country thereby causing substantial economic losses through morbidity, mortality and restriction of international trade. Thus, demanding for great attention as its occurrence is may affect the export earnings of the country thereby threaten the livelihood of farmers and economy of the country at large. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B

  2. Geographic Distribution of Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea along the Kuril Islands in the Western Subarctic Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmei Jing

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Community composition and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA in the ocean were affected by different physicochemical conditions, but their responses to physical barriers (such as a chain of islands were largely unknown. In our study, geographic distribution of the AOA from the surface photic zone to the deep bathypelagic waters in the western subarctic Pacific adjacent to the Kuril Islands was investigated using pyrosequencing based on the ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA gene. Genotypes of clusters A and B dominated in the upper euphotic zone and the deep waters, respectively. Quantitative PCR assays revealed that the occurrence and ammonia-oxidizing activity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA reached their maxima at the depth of 200 m, where a higher diversity and abundance of actively transcribed AOA was observed at the station located in the marginal sea exposed to more terrestrial input. Similar community composition of AOA observed at the two stations adjacent to the Kuril Islands maybe due to water exchange across the Bussol Strait. They distinct from the station located in the western subarctic gyre, where sub-cluster WCAII had a specific distribution in the surface water, and this sub-cluster seemed having a confined distribution in the western Pacific. Habitat-specific groupings of different WCB sub-clusters were observed reflecting the isolated microevolution existed in cluster WCB. The effect of the Kuril Islands on the phylogenetic composition of AOA between the Sea of Okhotsk and the western subarctic Pacific is not obvious, possibly because our sampling stations are near to the Bussol Strait, the main gateway through which water is exchanged between the Sea of Okhotsk and the Pacific. The vertical and horizontal distribution patterns of AOA communities among stations along the Kuril Islands were essentially determined by the in situ prevailing physicochemical gradients along the two dimensions.

  3. Exploring Geographic Variability in Cancer Prevalence in Eastern Morocco: A Retrospective Study over Eight Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elidrissi Errahhali, Manal; Elidrissi Errahhali, Mounia; Abda, Naima; Bellaoui, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Malignant diseases have been believed to be more common in some areas of Eastern Morocco, but until now, cancer patterns have not been reported for this region. In this paper we present for the first time the cancer prevalence analysis in Eastern Morocco. Cross-sectional study carried out among all patients diagnosed and/or treated with cancer at the Hassan II Regional Oncology Center (ROC) since it was established in October 2005 until December 2012. The ROC is the only hospital specialized in cancer care in Eastern Morocco. A total of 8,508 cases of cancer were registered among residents in Eastern Morocco, with a female to male ratio of 2.1. The mean age at diagnosis was 53.9 ± 15.2 years (median age = 53 years). Thus, unlike in Western countries, cancer in Eastern Morocco afflicts younger population. The areas of Eastern Morocco did not differ significantly by mean age at diagnosis (p = 0.061). However, these regions differed significantly by sex ratio (p Morocco was observed, both in males and females (p Morocco differed significantly by cancer prevalence (p Morocco. Our study illustrates substantial differences in cancer patterns between areas of Eastern Morocco. These findings are important for cancer control and highlight the need to develop program aiming at controlling and preventing the spread of major cancer sites in Eastern Morocco, particularly in areas with increased cancer prevalence rates.

  4. Temporal changes in the geographic distribution, elevation, and potential origin of the Martian outflow channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribe, S.; Clifford, S. M.

    1993-01-01

    Observational evidence of outflow channel activity on Mars suggests that water was abundant in the planet's early crust. However, with the decline in the planet's internal heat flow, a freezing front developed within the regolith that propagated downward with time and acted as a thermodynamic sink for crustal H2O. One result of this thermal evolution is that, if the initial inventory of water on Mars was small, the cryosphere may have grown to the point where all the available water was taken up as ground ice. Alternatively, if the inventory of H2O exceeds the current pore volume of the cryosphere, then Mars has always possessed extensive bodies of subpermafrost groundwater. We have investigated the relative age, geographic distribution, elevation, and geologic setting of the outflow channels in an effort to accomplish the following: (1) identify possible modes of origin and evolutionary trends in their formation; (2) gain evidence regarding the duration and spatial distribution of groundwater in the crust; and (3) better constraint estimates of the planetary inventory of H2O.

  5. Geographical distribution of methanogenic archaea in nine representative paddy soils in China

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    Qianhui Zu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Paddy field methanogenic archaea are responsible for methane (CH4 production and contribute significantly to climate change. The information regarding the spatial variations in the abundance, the diversity and the composition of such ecologically important microbes, however, is quite limited at large scale. In this investigation, we studied the abundance, alpha diversity and geographical distribution of methanogenic archaeal communities in nine representative paddy sites, along a large latitudinal gradient in China, using pyrosequencing and real-time quantitative PCR. It is found that all paddy soils harbor constant methanogenic archaeal constituents, which is dominated by family Methanocellaceae (37.3%, Methanobacteriaceae (22.1%, Methanosaetaceae (17.2% and Methanosarcinaceae (9.8%. Methanogenic archaeal abundance is primarily influenced by soil C (R=0.612, P=0.001 and N (R=0.673, P=0.001 contents, as well as alpha diversity by soil pH (PD: R=-0.552, P=0.006; Chao1: R=-0.615, P=0.002. Further exploration revealed that both spatial distance (R=0.3469, P=0.001, partial mental test and soil chemical variables mainly about soil C and N (R=0.2847, P=0.001 are the two major factors affecting methanogenic archaeal community composition distribution in paddy soils. This finding will allow us to develop a better picture of the biogeographic ranges of these ecologically important microbes and get deeper insights into their ecology.

  6. Geographic Distribution of Chagas Disease Vectors in Brazil Based on Ecological Niche Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo; Galvão, Cléber; Costa, Jane; Peterson, A. Townsend

    2012-01-01

    Although Brazil was declared free from Chagas disease transmission by the domestic vector Triatoma infestans, human acute cases are still being registered based on transmission by native triatomine species. For a better understanding of transmission risk, the geographic distribution of Brazilian triatomines was analyzed. Sixteen out of 62 Brazilian species that both occur in >20 municipalities and present synanthropic tendencies were modeled based on their ecological niches. Panstrongylus geniculatus and P. megistus showed broad ecological ranges, but most of the species sort out by the biome in which they are distributed: Rhodnius pictipes and R. robustus in the Amazon; R. neglectus, Triatoma sordida, and T. costalimai in the Cerrado; R. nasutus, P. lutzi, T. brasiliensis, T. pseudomaculata, T. melanocephala, and T. petrocchiae in the Caatinga; T. rubrovaria in the southern pampas; T. tibiamaculata and T. vitticeps in the Atlantic Forest. Although most occurrences were recorded in open areas (Cerrado and Caatinga), our results show that all environmental conditions in the country are favorable to one or more of the species analyzed, such that almost nowhere is Chagas transmission risk negligible. PMID:22523500

  7. Interactive analysis of geographically distributed population imaging data collections over light-path data networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lew, Baldur; Botha, Charl P.; Milles, Julien R.; Vrooman, Henri A.; van de Giessen, Martijn; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P. F.

    2015-03-01

    The cohort size required in epidemiological imaging genetics studies often mandates the pooling of data from multiple hospitals. Patient data, however, is subject to strict privacy protection regimes, and physical data storage may be legally restricted to a hospital network. To enable biomarker discovery, fast data access and interactive data exploration must be combined with high-performance computing resources, while respecting privacy regulations. We present a system using fast and inherently secure light-paths to access distributed data, thereby obviating the need for a central data repository. A secure private cloud computing framework facilitates interactive, computationally intensive exploration of this geographically distributed, privacy sensitive data. As a proof of concept, MRI brain imaging data hosted at two remote sites were processed in response to a user command at a third site. The system was able to automatically start virtual machines, run a selected processing pipeline and write results to a user accessible database, while keeping data locally stored in the hospitals. Individual tasks took approximately 50% longer compared to a locally hosted blade server but the cloud infrastructure reduced the total elapsed time by a factor of 40 using 70 virtual machines in the cloud. We demonstrated that the combination light-path and private cloud is a viable means of building an analysis infrastructure for secure data analysis. The system requires further work in the areas of error handling, load balancing and secure support of multiple users.

  8. Geographical Distribution of Thundersnow and their Properties from GPM Ku-band Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, A.; Liu, C.

    2017-12-01

    Lightning in snow and freezing rain are relatively uncommon, compared to the warm season thunderstorm. These events can be identified by lightning with the surface temperature colder than 0oC, or named as "cold lightning", A six-years of "cold lightning" characteristics and climatology, including seasonal, diurnal, and surface temperature distribution, are generated after collocating WWLLN and NLDN lightning with ERA-Interim 2 meter temperature. The thundersnow cases are further identified with all vertical temperature profile below 0oC, and the freezing rain cases have temperature warmer than 4oC somewhere in the column above the freezing surface. The statistics of thundersnow events from WWLLN and NLDN are compared over the United States (US). Though with different detection efficiency, WWLLN and NLDN demonstrate almost identical geographical distribution of thundersnow over the US. Taking the full advantage of the Global Precipitation Measuring Mission (GPM) Ku band radar, Thunder Snow Features (TSFs) are defined with contiguous area of non-zero near surface snow precipitation derived from Ku radar along with the collocated WWLLN lightning strikes. Though only a small number of TSFs are identified with three year GPM data, all TSFs have maximum radar reflectivity above 30 dBZ at temperature colder than -10oC, which indicates the importance of non-inductive charging in these events.

  9. Mapping and Modelling the Geographical Distribution and Environmental Limits of Podoconiosis in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deribe, Kebede; Cano, Jorge; Newport, Melanie J; Golding, Nick; Pullan, Rachel L; Sime, Heven; Gebretsadik, Abeba; Assefa, Ashenafi; Kebede, Amha; Hailu, Asrat; Rebollo, Maria P; Shafi, Oumer; Bockarie, Moses J; Aseffa, Abraham; Hay, Simon I; Reithinger, Richard; Enquselassie, Fikre; Davey, Gail; Brooker, Simon J

    2015-01-01

    Ethiopia is assumed to have the highest burden of podoconiosis globally, but the geographical distribution and environmental limits and correlates are yet to be fully investigated. In this paper we use data from a nationwide survey to address these issues. Our analyses are based on data arising from the integrated mapping of podoconiosis and lymphatic filariasis (LF) conducted in 2013, supplemented by data from an earlier mapping of LF in western Ethiopia in 2008-2010. The integrated mapping used woreda (district) health offices' reports of podoconiosis and LF to guide selection of survey sites. A suite of environmental and climatic data and boosted regression tree (BRT) modelling was used to investigate environmental limits and predict the probability of podoconiosis occurrence. Data were available for 141,238 individuals from 1,442 communities in 775 districts from all nine regional states and two city administrations of Ethiopia. In 41.9% of surveyed districts no cases of podoconiosis were identified, with all districts in Affar, Dire Dawa, Somali and Gambella regional states lacking the disease. The disease was most common, with lymphoedema positivity rate exceeding 5%, in the central highlands of Ethiopia, in Amhara, Oromia and Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples regional states. BRT modelling indicated that the probability of podoconiosis occurrence increased with increasing altitude, precipitation and silt fraction of soil and decreased with population density and clay content. Based on the BRT model, we estimate that in 2010, 34.9 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 20.2-51.7) million people (i.e. 43.8%; 95% CI: 25.3-64.8% of Ethiopia's national population) lived in areas environmentally suitable for the occurrence of podoconiosis. Podoconiosis is more widespread in Ethiopia than previously estimated, but occurs in distinct geographical regions that are tied to identifiable environmental factors. The resultant maps can be used to guide programme planning

  10. Identification of geographically distributed sub-populations of Leishmania (Leishmania major by microsatellite analysis

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    Schwenkenbecher Jan

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leishmania (Leishmania major, one of the agents causing cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL in humans, is widely distributed in the Old World where different species of wild rodent and phlebotomine sand fly serve as animal reservoir hosts and vectors, respectively. Despite this, strains of L. (L. major isolated from many different sources over many years have proved to be relatively uniform. To investigate the population structure of the species highly polymorphic microsatellite markers were employed for greater discrimination among it's otherwise closely related strains, an approach applied successfully to other species of Leishmania. Results Multilocus Microsatellite Typing (MLMT based on 10 different microsatellite markers was applied to 106 strains of L. (L. major from different regions where it is endemic. On applying a Bayesian model-based approach, three main populations were identified, corresponding to three separate geographical regions: Central Asia (CA; the Middle East (ME; and Africa (AF. This was congruent with phylogenetic reconstructions based on genetic distances. Re-analysis separated each of the populations into two sub-populations. The two African sub-populations did not correlate well with strains' geographical origin. Strains falling into the sub-populations CA and ME did mostly group according to their place of isolation although some anomalies were seen, probably, owing to human migration. Conclusion The model- and distance-based analyses of the microsatellite data exposed three main populations of L. (L. major, Central Asia, the Middle East and Africa, each of which separated into two sub-populations. This probably correlates with the different species of rodent host.

  11. Genetic Diversity and Geographic Distribution of Genetically Distinct Rabies Viruses in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Mariko; Oshitani, Hitoshi; Orbina, Jun Ryan C.; Tohma, Kentaro; de Guzman, Alice S.; Kamigaki, Taro; Demetria, Catalino S.; Manalo, Daria L.; Noguchi, Akira; Inoue, Satoshi; Quiambao, Beatriz P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Rabies continues to be a major public health problem in the Philippines, where 200–300 human cases were reported annually between 2001 and 2011. Understanding the phylogeography of rabies viruses is important for establishing a more effective and feasible control strategy. Methods We performed a molecular analysis of rabies viruses in the Philippines using rabied animal brain samples. The samples were collected from 11 of 17 regions, which covered three island groups (Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao). Partial nucleoprotein (N) gene sequencing was performed on 57 samples and complete glycoprotein (G) gene sequencing was performed on 235 samples collected between 2004 and 2010. Results The Philippine strains of rabies viruses were included in a distinct phylogenetic cluster, previously named Asian 2b, which appeared to have diverged from the Chinese strain named Asian 2a. The Philippine strains were further divided into three major clades, which were found exclusively in different island groups: clades L, V, and M in Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao, respectively. Clade L was subdivided into nine subclades (L1–L9) and clade V was subdivided into two subclades (V1 and V2). With a few exceptions, most strains in each subclade were distributed in specific geographic areas. There were also four strains that were divided into two genogroups but were not classified into any of the three major clades, and all four strains were found in the island group of Luzon. Conclusion We detected three major clades and two distinct genogroups of rabies viruses in the Philippines. Our data suggest that viruses of each clade and subclade evolved independently in each area without frequent introduction into other areas. An important implication of these data is that geographically targeted dog vaccination using the island group approach may effectively control rabies in the Philippines. PMID:23593515

  12. Capacity of Physiotherapy Workforce Production in Thailand: Public-Private Mix, Secular Trend and Geographic Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewsawang, Sarinee; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Vongsirinavarat, Mantana

    2016-06-01

    In Thailand, the shortage of physiotherapists has been an increasing concern because of increased health burden from demographic and epidemiologic changes. This study aims to analyse the current situation of the physiotherapy workforce production system, secular trend, geographical distribution and comparison of public and private physiotherapy training institutes. Longitudinal data related to production capacity of the physiotherapy institutes were applied. Data from 2008 to 2012 were obtained from all 16 physiotherapy institutes in Thailand. Data during 2000-2007 were also retrieved from annual reports from the Ministry of Education. Descriptive statistics were initially used. Comparison was made between public and private physiotherapy institutes in terms of the number of students admitted and graduated, number of teachers, annual tuition fee, student-teacher ratio and dropout rate within 1 year. Predictive factors for graduation within 4 years were determined using logistic regression. In Thailand, there was an average of 800 physiotherapy graduates per year. New private institutes have been recently established and have steadily increased student admission rates. However, this has resulted in a high student-teacher ratio (median 7.1, inter-quartile range (IQR) 5.9-10.0). The first-year dropout rate in 2012 was 29.1%. Geographically, the majority of the institutes are clustered in the central region. Multivariate analysis revealed significantly lower probability of graduation within 4 years among students admitted to the private institutes and those in non-north-east region. The production capacity of the physiotherapy workforce is below an estimated need. Private physiotherapy institutes need more support to improve the situation of staff shortages and student graduation rates. The non-central regions should be encouraged to produce more physiotherapists. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Geographical distribution of the red howler monkey (Alouatta seniculus) and yellow fever in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piedrahita-Cortés, Juan; Soler-Tovar, Diego

    2016-02-11

    Colombia is a country with an important diversity of non-human primates, of which the red howler monkey (Alouatta seniculus) stands out because of its distribution and the role it plays in the occurrence of yellow fever.  To describe the geographic co-occurrence of Alouatta seniculus and the reported presence of yellow fever.  We conducted a descriptive study. The reported presence of yellow fever in Colombia was obtained from the reports and bulletins issued by the Instituto Nacional de Salud, and the study by Segura, et al. (2013). The occurrence of A. seniculus was determined based on the data from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility and the Colombian Biodiversity Information System. A map of the occurrence was developed using the DIVA-GIS program, and the ecological niche model under current conditions was created with the Maxent program.  The departments with the highest occurrence of A. seniculus were Antioquia, Meta and Casanare; 69.5% of the departments with reported history of yellow fever had co-occurrence with A. seniculus. The ecological niche model showed that Antioquia, Bolívar, La Guajira, Magdalena, Meta, Santander, Norte de Santander and Vichada had geographical portions with a probability rate nearing to 0.9 (90%).  In 69.5% of the departments with a history of yellow fever there was co-occurrence with A. seniculus, which is relevant because non-human primates play a well-known role as natural reservoirs of the virus, and they might contribute to the occurrence of the yellow fever, which makes them very useful as sentinels.

  14. The idiosyncrasies of place: geographic variation in the climate-distribution relationships of the American pika.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffress, Mackenzie R; Rodhouse, Thomas J; Ray, Chris; Wolff, Susan; Epps, Clinton W

    2013-06-01

    lowered occurrence probabilities in some parks, suggesting an upper elevational limit for pikas in some environments. Our results demonstrate that the idiosyncrasies of place influence both the nature and strength of the climate-distribution relationship for the American pika. Fine-grained, but geographically extensive, studies replicated across multiple landscapes offer insights important to assessing the impacts of climate change that otherwise may be masked at macroecological scales. The hierarchical approach to modeling provides a coherent conceptual and technical framework for gaining these insights.

  15. Human Papillomavirus Prevalence and Type Distribution Among 968 Women in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Kyeong A; Hong, Jin Hwa; Lee, Jae Kwan

    2016-06-01

    Geographic variation in the prevalence of carcinogenic types and human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype distribution is closely associated with the impact of HPV prophylactic vaccines. We determined the prevalence and distribution of HPV genotypes among healthy women in Korea. This study included 968 healthy women who were examined at a health promotion center of the Korea University Guro Hospital between January and June 2013. Each participant had a Pap test and a HPV DNA test using the Anyplex™ II HPV 28 Detection system, which detects 19 high-risk HPVs (HR HPVs) and 9 low-risk HPVs (LR HPVs). Women with abnormal cytology and/or positivity for HR HPVs were referred to colposcopic biopsy. Overall HR HPV prevalence based on the assay was 33.7%. Among them, 225 women had single infection and 101 women had multiple infection. The most frequently occurring HR HPV types were 53 (6.5%), 52 (6.1%), 58 (4.8%), 16 (4.5%), and 68 (4.2%). The most frequently occurring LR HPV types were 54 (5.4%), 70 (3.8%), 42 (3.6%), 61 (3.4%), and 44 (3.1%). The prevalence of HPV 16 was highest (17.6%) among women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and HPV 16 was strongly associated with a diagnosis of CIN2/3 (odds ratio = 20.5; 95% confidence interval: 3.9-107.1; P women. HPV16 was the most common type in high-grade CIN lesions, as shown in most studies worldwide. The results might be useful information for cervical cancer prevention in South Korea.

  16. Efficient workload management in geographically distributed data centers leveraging autoregressive models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altomare, Albino; Cesario, Eugenio; Mastroianni, Carlo

    2016-10-01

    The opportunity of using Cloud resources on a pay-as-you-go basis and the availability of powerful data centers and high bandwidth connections are speeding up the success and popularity of Cloud systems, which is making on-demand computing a common practice for enterprises and scientific communities. The reasons for this success include natural business distribution, the need for high availability and disaster tolerance, the sheer size of their computational infrastructure, and/or the desire to provide uniform access times to the infrastructure from widely distributed client sites. Nevertheless, the expansion of large data centers is resulting in a huge rise of electrical power consumed by hardware facilities and cooling systems. The geographical distribution of data centers is becoming an opportunity: the variability of electricity prices, environmental conditions and client requests, both from site to site and with time, makes it possible to intelligently and dynamically (re)distribute the computational workload and achieve as diverse business goals as: the reduction of costs, energy consumption and carbon emissions, the satisfaction of performance constraints, the adherence to Service Level Agreement established with users, etc. This paper proposes an approach that helps to achieve the business goals established by the data center administrators. The workload distribution is driven by a fitness function, evaluated for each data center, which weighs some key parameters related to business objectives, among which, the price of electricity, the carbon emission rate, the balance of load among the data centers etc. For example, the energy costs can be reduced by using a "follow the moon" approach, e.g. by migrating the workload to data centers where the price of electricity is lower at that time. Our approach uses data about historical usage of the data centers and data about environmental conditions to predict, with the help of regressive models, the values of the

  17. Comparing geographic area-based and classical population-based incidence and prevalence rates, and their confidence intervals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding-Geng Chen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available To quantify the HIV epidemic, the classical population-based prevalence and incidence rates (P rates are the two most commonly used measures used for policy interventions. However, these P rates ignore the heterogeneity of the size of geographic region where the population resides. It is intuitive that with the same P rates, the likelihood for HIV can be much greater to spread in a population residing in a crowed small urban area than the same number of population residing in a large rural area. With this limitation, Chen and Wang (2017 proposed the geographic area-based rates (G rates to complement the classical P rates. They analyzed the 2000–2012 US data on new HIV infections and persons living with HIV and found, as compared with other methods, using G rates enables researchers to more quickly detect increases in HIV rates. This capacity to reveal increasing rates in a more efficient and timely manner is a crucial methodological contribution to HIV research. To enhance this newly proposed concept of G rates, this article presents a discussion of 3 areas for further development of this important concept: (1 analysis of global HIV epidemic data using the newly proposed G rates to capture the changes globally; (2 development of the associated population density-based rates (D rates to incorporate the heterogeneities from both geographical area and total population-at-risk; and (3 development of methods to calculate variances and confidence intervals for the P rates, G rates, and D rates to capture the variability of these indices.

  18. Habitat, world geographic range, and embryonic development of hosts explain the prevalence of avian hematozoa at small spatial and phylogenetic scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tella, J L; Blanco, G; Forero, M G; Gajón, A; Donázar, J A; Hiraldo, F

    1999-02-16

    The factors explaining interspecific differences in prevalences of blood parasites in birds are poorly known. We simultaneously assessed 20 social, ecological, life history, and sampling-related variables that could influence hemoparasite prevalences among diurnal birds of prey in Spain. Our results show that multiple factors are responsible for the studied host-parasite association. We confirmed for the first time that prevalence is inversely correlated to the embryonic development period, and thus probably to immune performance, even among closely related birds. Macrohabitat features related to vector availability are also important, prevalences being higher in species breeding in forested habitats. Finally, prevalence is positively correlated with the host's world geographic range. We hypothesize that larger geographic ranges offered more opportunities for host-vector-hemoparasite associations to become established. The results from our multivariate analyses differ from those obtained through univariate ones, showing that all potential factors should be assessed jointly when testing any ecological or evolutionary hypothesis dealing with parasites.

  19. Geographic distribution and morphometric differentiation of Triatoma nitida usinger 1939 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae in Guatemala

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    Monroy Carlota

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma nitida was found in 14 (0.4% out of 3,726 houses located in six departments across Guatemala, which were surveyed from 1994 to 1998 by the man-hour collection method. Compared to previous information, the distribution of T. nitida in Guatemala has increased from five to nine departments; the species is present in mild climates at altitudes from 960 to 1,500 m. Fourteen percent of the intradomestic T. nitida were infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. The species was often found in conjunction with other triatomines (T. dimidiata and Rhodnius prolixus. The domestic and peridomestic presence of T. nitida in Guatemala was rare, but occasionally this species was colonizing human-made constructions. T. nitida appears to have a low importance as Chagas disease vector in Guatemala, as indicated by its scarce presence in the domestic habitats and defecation patterns. However, it clearly has potential to become a Chagas vector so we recommend an on-going study of the intradomestic presence of T. nitida following the control programs in Guatemala. Morphometric analysis of 47 T. nitida males from three localities showed quantitative differences between the populations, which indicates that geographic distance is an important factor in the structuring of T. nitida populations.

  20. Geographical distribution and accumulation features of PBDEs in human breast milk from Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudaryanto, Agus [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology (BPPT), JL. MH. Thamrin 8, Jakarta (Indonesia); Kajiwara, Natsuko; Takahashi, Shin [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Muawanah [National Seafarming Development Centre (NSDC), JL. Yos Sudarso, Hanura Padang Cermin, Lampung (Indonesia); Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)], E-mail: shinsuke@agr.ehime-u.ac.jp

    2008-01-15

    The present study reports concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and organochlorines (OCs) in human breast milk from Indonesia covering urban, suburban and rural areas. PBDEs were detected in all the samples of the present study with total concentrations ranging from 0.49 to 13 ng/g lipid wt. Geographical distribution showed that concentrations of PBDEs were relatively uniform (p > 0.05) and the levels were in the same order as those in Japan and some European countries, but were one or two order lower than North America. When compared to OCs, the level of total PBDEs was lower. The congener pattern was in accordance with other studies on human matrices, in which BDE-47 was the most abundant congener. Variations of PBDE congeners in human breast milk were further discussed to elucidate the potential exposure source(s) and pathways. - PBDEs are ubiquitous pollutants in general population of Indonesia which contains various congeners from di- to deca-bromodiphenyl ether in exposed donors.

  1. SPECIES COMPOSITION AND GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES OF LOCUST INHABITING KARACHAY-CHERKESSIA

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    Z. S. Temirlieva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this work was to study the characteristics of the fauna of locusts in Karachay-Cherkessia, as some areas of the region's fauna has not been studied for a long time. Locusts (Acrididae can be defined as dominant in numbers and biomass, which makes them an important role as herbivores as well as crop pests, so the modern study of locusts is of great interest. Methods. With observations in nature and conducted experiments in the laboratory we have made tests on behavior for five species of locusts (Omocestus haemorrhoidalis Ch., Chorthippus albomarginatus Deg., Chorthippus bigutullus L., Chorthippus apricarius L., Chorthippus mollis Ch.. Results. As a result, the inventory of species composition of locusts inhabiting the territory of Karachay-Cherkessia revealed 53 species belonging to 31 genera. Conclusions. This work is a modern faunal study of locusts inhabiting KarachayCherkessia. It has been identified 53 species of locusts, and data about the fauna group under study was updated. The faunal information is given in compliance with the current level of taxonomic knowledge of the group, and also presents data on the geographic distribution of all known species of the region. 

  2. Ribosomal DNA sequence analysis of different geographically distributed Aloe Vera plants: Comparison with clonally regenerated plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, A.; Sato, Y.; Miwa, Y.; Kabbash, A.; Moustafa, S.; Shimomura, K.; El-Bassuony, A.

    2006-01-01

    A comparison of the sequences in an internally transcribed spacer (ITS) 1 region of rDNA between clonally regenerated A.vera and same species in Japan, USA and Egypt revealed the presence of two types of nucleotide sequences, 252 and 254 bps. Based on the findings in the ITS 1 region, A.vera having 252 and 254 bps clearly showed a stable sequence similarity, suggesting high conversation of the base peak sequence in the ITS 1 region. However, frequent base substitutions in the 252 bps samples leaves that came from callus tissue and micropropagated plants were observed around the regions of nucleotide positions 66, 99 and 199-201. The minor deviation in clonally regenerated A.vera may be due to the stage of regeneration and cell specification in cases of the callus tissue. In the present study, the base peak sequence of the Its 1 region of rDNA was adopted as a molecular marker for differentiating A.vera plants from geographically distributed and clonally regenerated A.vera plants and it was suggested that the base peak substitutions in the ITS 1 region may arise from the different nutritional and environmental factors in cultivation and plant growth stages. (author)

  3. Predicting geographic distributions of Phacellodomus species (Aves: Furnariidae in South America based on ecological niche modeling

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    Maria da Salete Gurgel Costa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Phacellodomus Reichenbach, 1853, comprises nine species of Furnariids that occur in South America in open and generally dry areas. This study estimated the geographic distributions of Phacellodomus species in South America by ecological niche modeling. Applying maximum entropy method, models were produced for eight species based on six climatic variables and 949 occurrence records. Since highest climatic suitability for Phacellodomus species has been estimated in open and dry areas, the Amazon rainforest areas are not very suitable for these species. Annual precipitation and minimum temperature of the coldest month are the variables that most influence the models. Phacellodomus species occurred in 35 ecoregions of South America. Chaco and Uruguayan savannas were the ecoregions with the highest number of species. Despite the overall connection of Phacellodomus species with dry areas, species such as P. ruber, P. rufifrons, P. ferrugineigula and P. erythrophthalmus occurred in wet forests and wetland ecoregions.

  4. Potential geographic distribution and conservation of Audubon's Shearwater, Puffinus lherminieri in Brazil

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    Ana Cecília P.A. Lopes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Audubon's Shearwater (Puffinus lherminieri Lesson 1839 is a tropical seabird occurring mainly between southern Canada and the southeast coast of Brazil. Puffinus lherminieri is considered Critically Endangered on the Brazilian Red List because it only occurs in two known localities, both of which contain very small populations. However, many offshore islands along the Brazilian coast are poorly known and the discovery of new colonies would be of considerable significance for the conservation of this species. The aim of this study was to estimate the potential geographic distribution of Audubon's Shearwater in Brazil, based on ecological niche model (ENM using Maxent algorithm with layers obtained from AquaMaps environmental dataset. The ENM was based on 37 records for reproduction areas in North and South America. The model yielded a very broad potential distribution, covering most of the Atlantic coast ranging from Brazil to the US. When filtered for islands along the Brazilian coast, the model indicates higher levels of environmental suitability near the states of São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Espírito Santo and Bahia. However, P. lherminieri prefers islands in environments with warm saline water. Thus, based on the influence of currents that act on the Brazilian coast we can infer undiscovered colonies are most likely to occur on islands on coast of Bahia, Espírito Santo and extreme north of the Rio de Janeiro. These should be intensively surveyed while the islands south of Cabo Frio should be discarded. The existence of new populations would have profound effects on the conservation status of this enigmatic and rarely seen seabird.

  5. The pollutants from livestock and poultry farming in China-geographic distribution and drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Ling; Hu, Xisheng

    2016-05-01

    Livestock and poultry farming is a major source of agricultural pollution. However, our knowledge of the constraining factors of the geographic distribution of pollutants from livestock and poultry farming is still limited. In this study, using the optimized pollutant generation coefficients, we estimated the annual pollutant productions of eight livestock and poultry species at the provincial level in 2005 and 2013 and their growth rates during the study period in China; using canonical correlation analysis, we also explored the association between the eight pollutant measurements as dependent variables and 14 factors (including resource endowment, developmental level, and economic structure factors) as independent variables. Results indicate that there exist spatial disparity in the distribution of pollutants from livestock and poultry farming across regions, with provinces in the Huang-Huai-Hai region and the southwestern region accounting for approximately 50 % of the total productions in the nation. Cattle, pig, and poultry constitute the primary pollution sources in terms of livestock and poultry farming not only at the national level but also at the province level. While the species constitute and their respective growth rates of the pollutants can be also characterized by spatial disparity across regions, canonical correlation analysis shows that the observed regional patterns of the pollutants can be largely explained by the resource endowment factors (positive effects) and the developmental level factors (negative effects). In addition, we found that the development of livestock and poultry farming is negatively associated with the growing rate of both the resource endowment and the socioeconomic factors. This indicates that there exist different driving patterns in the gross and increment of the pollutant productions. Our research has significant implications for the appropriate environmental protection policy formulation and implementation in livestock

  6. Prevalence and distribution of tooth wear among Sri Lankan adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnayake, Nilantha; Ekanayake, Lilani

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence, distribution and sociodemographic factors associated with tooth wear among Sri Lankan adolescents. A total of 1200 17-year-olds were selected from government, private and international schools in the Colombo district of Sri Lanka using a two-stage cluster sampling technique. The data were collected using a pretested, validated self-administered questionnaire and by conducting a clinical examination. Tooth wear was recorded using a modified version of Smith and Knight's tooth wear index. The prevalence of tooth wear among Sri Lankan adolescents was found to be 22.4%. In nearly 13.7%, tooth wear was confined to the enamel, whereas 8.7% had wear lesions extending up to the dentine. Occlusal surface was the most frequently affected surface, while the first molar was the most frequently affected tooth. Tooth wear was significantly associated with the type of school attended, father's occupational status and mother's level of education. The present study found that nearly one-fourth of the adolescents were affected by tooth wear. These findings are in agreement with those from developed countries where tooth wear has been shown to be an emerging oral health problem.

  7. Geographical distribution of drinking-water with high iodine level and association between high iodine level in drinking-water and goitre: a Chinese national investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hongmei; Liu, Shoujun; Sun, Dianjun; Zhang, Shubin; Su, Xiaohui; Shen, Yanfeng; Han, Hepeng

    2011-07-01

    Excessive iodine intake can cause thyroid function disorders as can be caused by iodine deficiency. There are many people residing in areas with high iodine levels in drinking-water in China. The main aim of the present study was to map the geographical distribution of drinking-water with high iodine level in China and to determine the relationship between high iodine level in drinking-water and goitre prevalence. Iodine in drinking-water was measured in 1978 towns of eleven provinces in China, with a total of 28,857 water samples. We randomly selected children of 8-10 years old, examined the presence of goitre and measured their urinary iodine in 299 towns of nine provinces. Of the 1978 towns studied, 488 had iodine levels between 150 and 300 μg/l in drinking-water, and in 246 towns, the iodine level was >300 μg/l. These towns are mainly distributed along the original Yellow River flood areas, the second largest river in China. Of the 56 751 children examined, goitre prevalence was 6.3 % in the areas with drinking-water iodine levels of 150-300 μg/l and 11.0 % in the areas with drinking-water iodine >300 μg/l. Goitre prevalence increased with water and urinary iodine levels. For children with urinary iodine >1500 μg/l, goitre prevalence was 3.69 times higher than that for those with urinary iodine levels of 100-199 μg/l. The present study suggests that drinking-water with high iodine levels is distributed in eleven provinces of China. Goitre becomes more prevalent with the increase in iodine level in drinking-water. Therefore, it becomes important to prevent goitre through stopping the provision of iodised salt and providing normal drinking-water iodine through pipelines in these areas in China.

  8. Interactions among climate and soil properties influence current and future geographic distribution of an invasive grass in the Chihuahuan Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/Methods: Lehmann lovegrass (Eragrostis lehmanniana) is an invasive exotic perennial grass throughout the Sonoran Desert. However, in the neighboring Chihuahuan Desert, this species is generally present in low abundance, although data on its geographic distribution are scarce. Our...

  9. The geographical distribution and habitats of three liver fluke intermediate hosts in South - Africa and the health implications involved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. N. de Kock

    2008-09-01

    persons and authorities were totally unsuccessful. In view of statistics available for elsewhere in the world, it would be unwise to assume that no problems exist in this regard in South Africa. The number of people suffering from fasciolosis was already estimated at 2.4 million in 61 countries in 1995 and another 180 million at risk of becoming infected, with the highest prevalence’s reported from Bolivia, China, Ecuador, Egypt, France, Iran, Peru and Portugal. The results of recent serological assays for the detection of fasciolosis in cattle herds in selected areas in South Africa indicated positive cases from localities that closely correspond to the geographical distribution of the three Lymnaea species in this country. According to reports in the literature, the high prevalence of fasciolosis in livestock in the highlands of Ethiopia couldhave serious health implications for people in the area because they have to use the same water resources. In many rural areas in South Africa local populations also have no other options than to share natural water resources with their livestock. In most instances these water bodies harbour at least one of the Lymnaea species which can maintain the life cycle of fasciola. Under such conditions residents could daily be exposed to the risk of becoming infected. It is a matter of concern that epidemiological research with regard to human fasciolosis is such aneglected subject in South Africa. In our opinion epidemiological surveys should be conducted to determine the prevalence of human fasciolosis in specific areas which could be selected on the basis of using the geographical distribution of the three Linnaean species as guidelines. Efforts should also be made to conduct surveys to update the geographical distribution of the snail intermediate hosts and awareness programmes should be launched in rural areas at risk.

  10. Study of the geographical distribution of the European population, with a view to assessing the radiological consequences of radioactive releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnier, A.; Sauve, A.

    1981-04-01

    A grid model was designed to display homogeneously and uniformly the geographical distribution of the population of the European Communities and Switzerland. It allows also to introduce various other data needed for health physics purposes. This grid is defined in the first part of the report. Then, we described the demographical and geographical data from several countries, and the methods and codes designed to process and to make them available. The complete data base, on magnetic tape, is available and can be used for health physics evaluations, mainly on a regional scale, for instance in transfrontier regions [fr

  11. Diversity, frequency, and geographic distribution of facultative bacterial endosymbionts in introduced aphid pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda, Daniela A; Zepeda-Paulo, Francisca; Ramírez, Claudio C; Lavandero, Blas; Figueroa, Christian C

    2017-06-01

    Facultative bacterial endosymbionts in insects have been under intense study during the last years. Endosymbionts can modify the insect's phenotype, conferring adaptive advantages under environmental stress. This seems particularly relevant for a group of worldwide agricultural aphid pests, because endosymbionts modify key fitness-related traits, including host plant use, protection against natural enemies and heat tolerance. Aimed to understand the role of facultative endosymbionts on the success of introduced aphid pests, the distribution and abundance of 5 facultative endosymbionts (Hamiltonella defensa, Regiella insecticola, Serratia symbiotica, Rickettsia and Spiroplasma) were studied and compared in 4 cereal aphids (Sitobion avenae, Diuraphis noxia, Metopolophium dirhodum and Schizaphis graminium) and in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum complex from 2 agroclimatic zones in Chile. Overall, infections with facultative endosymbionts exhibited a highly variable and characteristic pattern depending on the aphid species/host race and geographic zone, which could explain the success of aphid pest populations after their introduction. While S. symbiotica and H. defensa were the most frequent endosymbionts carried by the A. pisum pea-race and A. pisum alfalfa-race aphids, respectively, the most frequent facultative endosymbiont carried by all cereal aphids was R. insecticola. Interestingly, a highly variable composition of endosymbionts carried by S. avenae was also observed between agroclimatic zones, suggesting that endosymbionts are responding differentially to abiotic variables (temperature and precipitations). In addition, our findings constitute the first report of bacterial endosymbionts in cereal aphid species not screened before, and also the first report of aphid endosymbionts in Chile. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  12. Leishmania isoenzyme polymorphisms in Ecuador: Relationships with geographic distribution and clinical presentation

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    Mimori Tatsuyuki

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Determinants of the clinical presentation of the leishmaniases are poorly understood but Leishmania species and strain differences are important. To examine the relationship between clinical presentation, species and isoenzyme polymorphisms, 56 Leishmania isolates from distinct presentations of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL from Ecuador were analyzed. Methods Isolates were characterized by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis for polymorphisms of 11 isoenzymes. Patients were infected in four different ecologic regions: highland and lowland jungle of the Pacific coast, Amazonian lowlands and Andean highlands. Results Six Leishmania species constituting 21 zymodemes were identified: L. (Viannia panamensis (21 isolates, 7 zymodemes, L. (V. guyanensis (7 isolates, 4 zymodemes, L. (V. braziliensis (5 isolates, 3 zymodemes, L. (Leishmania mexicana (11 isolates, 4 zymodemes, L. (L. amazonensis (10 isolates, 2 zymodemes and L. (L. major (2 isolates, 1 zymodeme. L. panamensis was the species most frequently identified in the Pacific region and was associated with several clinical variants of cutaneous disease (CL; eight cases of leishmaniasis recidiva cutis (LRC found in the Pacific highlands were associated with 3 zymodemes of this species. Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis found only in the Amazonian focus was associated with 3 zymodemes of L. braziliensis. The papular variant of CL, Uta, found in the Andean highlands was related predominantly with a single zymodeme of L. mexicana. Conclusion Our data show a high degree of phenotypic variation within species, and some evidence for associations between specific variants of ATL (i.e. Uta and LRC and specific Leishmania zymodemes. This study further defines the geographic distribution of Leishmania species and clinical variants of ATL in Ecuador.

  13. Methylmercury in fish from the South China Sea: Geographical distribution and biomagnification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Aijia; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Zhanzhou; Huang, Liangmin; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A large-scale investigation of MeHg in 46 species of marine wild fish from South China Sea. • Log 10 MeHg concentration was significantly related to their length and wet weight. • Feeding habit and habitat were the primary factors influencing MeHg bioaccumulation. • Demersal fish were more likely to be contaminated with MeHg than the epipelagic and mesopelagic species. • Biomagnification of MeHg was site-specific. -- Abstract: We conducted a large-scale investigation of methylmercury (MeHg) in a total of 628 marine wild fish covering 46 different species collected from the South China Sea between 2008 and 2009. Biological and ecological characteristics such as size (length and wet weight), feeding habit, habitat, and stable isotope (δ 15 N) were examined to explain MeHg bioaccumulation in marine fish and their geographical distribution. MeHg levels in the muscle tissues of the 628 individuals ranged from 0.010 to 1.811 μg/g dry wt. Log 10 MeHg concentration was significantly related to their length and wet weight. Feeding habit and habitat were the primary factors influencing MeHg bioaccumulation. Demersal fish were more likely to be contaminated with MeHg than the epipelagic and mesopelagic varieties. Linear relationships were obtained between Log 10 (MeHg) and δ 15 N only for one location, indicating that biomagnification was site-specific. Results from this study suggest that dietary preference and trophic structure were the main factors affecting MeHg bioaccumulation in marine fish from the South China Sea

  14. Geographical distribution of complement receptor type 1 variants and their associated disease risk.

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    Thaisa Lucas Sandri

    Full Text Available Pathogens exert selective pressure which may lead to substantial changes in host immune responses. The human complement receptor type 1 (CR1 is an innate immune recognition glycoprotein that regulates the activation of the complement pathway and removes opsonized immune complexes. CR1 genetic variants in exon 29 have been associated with expression levels, C1q or C3b binding and increased susceptibility to several infectious diseases. Five distinct CR1 nucleotide substitutions determine the Knops blood group phenotypes, namely Kna/b, McCa/b, Sl1/Sl2, Sl4/Sl5 and KCAM+/-.CR1 variants were genotyped by direct sequencing in a cohort of 441 healthy individuals from Brazil, Vietnam, India, Republic of Congo and Ghana.The distribution of the CR1 alleles, genotypes and haplotypes differed significantly among geographical settings (p≤0.001. CR1 variants rs17047660A/G (McCa/b and rs17047661A/G (Sl1/Sl2 were exclusively observed to be polymorphic in African populations compared to the groups from Asia and South-America, strongly suggesting that these two SNPs may be subjected to selection. This is further substantiated by a high linkage disequilibrium between the two variants in the Congolese and Ghanaian populations. A total of nine CR1 haplotypes were observed. The CR1*AGAATA haplotype was found more frequently among the Brazilian and Vietnamese study groups; the CR1*AGAATG haplotype was frequent in the Indian and Vietnamese populations, while the CR1*AGAGTG haplotype was frequent among Congolese and Ghanaian individuals.The African populations included in this study might have a selective advantage conferred to immune genes involved in pathogen recognition and signaling, possibly contributing to disease susceptibility or resistance.

  15. [Epidemiological characteristics and geographical distribution of schistosomiasis and geohelminths, in the State of Sergipe, according to data from the Schistosomiasis Control Program in Sergipe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollemberg, Carla Virginia Vieira; Santos, Cybele Maria Bomfim; Silva, Marília Matos Bezerra Lemos; Souza, Acacia Maria Barros; Silva, Angela Maria da; Almeida, José Antônio Pacheco de; Almeida, Roque Pacheco de; Jesus, Amélia Ribeiro de

    2011-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is endemic in Brazil, with high prevalence in the State of Sergipe, despite the existence of the Schistosomiasis Control Program (PCE). The data from Sergipe's PCE between 2005 and 2008 were surveyed. From the raw information, a database was created on a spreadsheet using the Access software. The frequency and geographic distribution of infections due to Schistosoma mansoni and other intestinal parasites were analyzed. These data were exported to the Spring 5.0.5 software for georeferencing and preparation of thematic maps of the spatial and temporal distribution according to year of evaluation. In 2005, 13.6% (14,471/106,287) of the tests were positive for S. mansoni, 11.2% (16,196/145,069) in 2006, 11.8% (10,220/86,824) in 2007 and 10.6% (8,329/78,859) in 2008. Analysis on the maps showed that there was high prevalence of the disease in Sergipe, and particularly in the municipalities of Ilha das Flores, Santa Rosa de Lima, Santa Luzia do Itanhi and São Cristóvão. Furthermore, we evaluated the association between the frequencies of these parasitic diseases and social and developmental indicators in the different municipalities, according to data from the Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics (IBGE) and the Department of Water Resources (SRH). We found that municipalities with schistosomiasis prevalence higher than 15% had lower coverage of sewage systems (hygiene index) (p = 0.05). Additionally, municipalities with hookworm prevalence higher than 10% had lower educational HDI (p = 0.04). The importance of greater control over environmental risk and educational factors needs to be emphasized in attempts to reduce the prevalence of these parasitic diseases.

  16. Geographical distribution of Toxoplasma gondii genotypes in Asia: A link with neighboring continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaichan, P; Mercier, A; Galal, L; Mahittikorn, A; Ariey, F; Morand, S; Boumédiène, F; Udonsom, R; Hamidovic, A; Murat, J B; Sukthana, Y; Dardé, M L

    2017-09-01

    Defining the pattern of genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii is important to understand its worldwide distribution. During the last decades, a large number of studies have been published on Toxoplasma genotypes circulating in Europe, in North and South America. Two continents are still largely unexplored, Africa and, to a less extent, Asia. In this last continent, an increasing number of publications reported genotypes circulating in diverse provinces of China, but very few data are available for other Asian countries. After a systematic database search, 47 papers related to T. gondii genotypes in Asia were analyzed. Genetic characterization of DNA was performed by microsatellite markers, or more usually by a multiplex PCR using 11 PCR-RFLP markers, allowing data comparison to draw a first global picture of the population structure of this parasite throughout Asia. Overall, 390 isolates or DNA extracts were completely typed by PCR-RFLP and/or microsatellite marker methods, revealing 36 different PCR-RFLP or equivalent microsatellite genotypes: 15 genotypes identified by a ToxoDB number and 21 atypical or unique genotypes. The most common genotype found in Asia is the genotype ToxoDB#9 (Chinese 1). The clonal types I, II and II variant, and III were also commonly found in Asia. The geographical distribution of these genotypes across Asia may reflect either a continuum with Europe for the western part of Asia (presence of Type II), or the circulation of strains through animal migration or human activities between Africa and the Southwestern part of Asia (Africa 1 genotype in Turkey or ToxoDB#20 both I Sri-Lanka and in Ethiopia or Egypt). Although there are some indications of a genetic population structure in Southeast Asian countries different from the rest of Asia, more studies in this tropical part of Asia will be necessary for a region which represent as well as Africa one of the missing links of the T. gondii genetic diversity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B

  17. Species Diversity Distribution Patterns of Chinese Endemic Seed Plants Based on Geographical Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jihong; Ma, Keping; Huang, Jianhua

    2017-01-01

    Based on a great number of literatures, we established the database about the Chinese endemic seed plants and analyzed the compositions, growth form, distribution and angiosperm original families of them within three big natural areas and seven natural regions. The results indicate that the above characters of Chinese endemic plants take on relative rule at the different geographical scales. Among the three big natural areas, Eastern Monsoon area has the highest endemic plants richness, whereas Northwest Dryness area is the lowest. For life forms, herbs dominate. In contrast, the proportion of herbs of Eastern Monsoon area is remarkable under other two areas. Correspondingly the proportions of trees and shrubs are substantially higher than other two. For angiosperm original families, the number is the highest in Eastern Monsoon area, and lowest in Northwest Dryness area. On the other hand, among the seven natural regions, the humid and subtropical zone in Central and Southern China has the highest endemic plants richness, whereas the humid, hemi-humid region and temperate zone in Northeast China has the lowest. For life forms, the proportion of herbs tends to decrease from humid, hemi-humid region and temperate zone in Northeast China to humid and tropical zone in Southern China. Comparably, trees, shrubs and vines or lianas increase with the same directions. This fully represents these characters of Chinese endemic plants vary with latitudinal gradients. Furthermore, as to the number of endemic plants belonging to angiosperm original families, the number is the most in humid and subtropical zone in Center and Southern China, and tropical zone in Southern China in the next place. In contrast, the endemic plant of these two regions relatively is richer than that of The Qinghai-Tibet alpine and cold region. All above results sufficiently reflect that the Chinese endemic plants mainly distribute in Eastern Monsoon area, especially humid and subtropical zone in Center

  18. Geographic distribution of pediatricians in the United States: an analysis of the fifty states and Washington, DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, R K; Halfon, N

    1997-08-01

    To determine current geographic distribution of pediatricians in the United States, to assess the changes in the geographic distribution of pediatricians between 1982 and 1992, and to identify factors associated with the distribution of pediatricians among the 50 states. A data set was constructed using several published data sources including the American Medical Association Physician Masterfile as the principal source for physician information. The pediatrician-to-child population ratio (PCPR, the number of pediatricians per 100 000 people under 18 years of age) was calculated to compare the distribution of pediatricians among states and the distributional changes between 1982 and 1992. Lorenz curves and Gini indices were used to describe distributions and to compare distributions across time periods. Linear regression analysis was performed to assess the relationship between PCPR (dependent variable) with 9 predictor variables. Between 1982 and 1992, there was a 5.4% increase in the United States (US) child population and a 46.1% increase in the number of pediatricians in patient care. During that time period, the PCPR increased by 38.6% from 35.1 per 100 000 to 48.6 per 100 000. There was a more than 4-fold difference in the PCPRs of the highest state (Maryland, 84.3) and the lowest state (Idaho, 18.5) in 1992. The PCPR increased in all 50 states, but varied from a 4.1% increase in Wyoming to a 63.4% increase in Massachusetts. The Lorenz curve showed that pediatricians were less evenly distributed than all physicians, but more evenly distributed than pediatric cardiologists. Between 1982 to 1992 the Gini index decreased 9.8% for all physicians and 10.2% for pediatric cardiologists, but only 1. 9% for pediatricians. Since a decrease in the Gini index signifies better overall distribution, these changes are relatively modest for pediatricians as a whole, especially when compared to other physicians. Regression analysis showed that a higher PCPR was associated

  19. Geographical distribution of Angiostrongylus vasorum in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in the Republic of Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, G; Ferrand, M; De Waal, T; Zintl, A; McGrath, G; Byrne, W; O'Neill, E J

    2016-04-01

    The reported incidence of the metastrongylid nematode Angiostrongylus vasorum, that infects dogs and other canids, is increasing worldwide outside recognized endemic foci. This apparent expansion of the parasite's range is causing concern to veterinary clinicians as the disease caused in dogs can be life threatening and its treatment is not straightforward. The red fox is thought to be a reservoir host for dogs. To investigate the spatial distribution of infection in foxes in Ireland, the hearts and lungs of 542 foxes from all over Ireland were examined. The incidence of infection was found to be 39·9% [95% confidence interval (CI) 35·7-44·1] with positive samples occurring in each of the country's 26 counties. This report confirms that the parasite is endemic in Ireland and the overall prevalence is the second highest in Europe. This is the first survey of A. vasorum infection in Irish foxes and highlights the potential exposure of the Irish dog population to high risk of cross-infection. Additionally, Crenosoma vulpis was found in seven of the foxes, a parasite not previously reported in the Irish fox.

  20. Addressing diarrhea prevalence in the West African Middle Belt: social and geographic dimensions in a case study for Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arouna Aminou

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In West Africa, the Northern Sahelian zone and the coastal areas are densely populated but the Middle Belt in between is in general sparsely settled. Predictions of climate change foresee more frequent drought in the north and more frequent flooding in the coastal areas, while conditions in the Middle Belt will remain moderate. Consequently, the Middle Belt might become a major area for immigration but there may be constraining factors as well, particularly with respect to water availability. As a case study, the paper looks into the capacity of the Middle Belt zone of Benin, known as the Oueme River Basin (ORB, to reduce diarrhea prevalence. In Benin it links to the Millennium Development Goals on child mortality and environmental sustainability that are currently farthest from realization. However, diarrhea prevalence is only in part due to lack of availability of drinking water from a safe source. Social factors such as hygienic practices and poor sanitation are also at play. Furthermore, we consider these factors to possess the properties of a local public good that suffers from under provision and requires collective action, as individual actions to prevent illness are bound to fail as long as others free ride. Methods Combining data from the Demographic Health Survey with various spatial data sets for Benin, we apply mixed effect logit regression to arrive at a spatially explicit assessment of geographical and social determinants of diarrhea prevalence. Starting from an analysis of these factors separately at national level, we identify relevant proxies at household level, estimate a function with geo-referenced independent variables and apply it to evaluate the costs and impacts of improving access to good water in the basin. Results First, the study confirms the well established stylized fact on the causes of diarrhea that a household with access to clean water and with good hygienic practices will, irrespective of

  1. Addressing diarrhea prevalence in the West African Middle Belt: social and geographic dimensions in a case study for Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pande, Saket; Keyzer, Michiel A; Arouna, Aminou; Sonneveld, Ben G J S

    2008-04-23

    In West Africa, the Northern Sahelian zone and the coastal areas are densely populated but the Middle Belt in between is in general sparsely settled. Predictions of climate change foresee more frequent drought in the north and more frequent flooding in the coastal areas, while conditions in the Middle Belt will remain moderate. Consequently, the Middle Belt might become a major area for immigration but there may be constraining factors as well, particularly with respect to water availability. As a case study, the paper looks into the capacity of the Middle Belt zone of Benin, known as the Oueme River Basin (ORB), to reduce diarrhea prevalence. In Benin it links to the Millennium Development Goals on child mortality and environmental sustainability that are currently farthest from realization. However, diarrhea prevalence is only in part due to lack of availability of drinking water from a safe source. Social factors such as hygienic practices and poor sanitation are also at play. Furthermore, we consider these factors to possess the properties of a local public good that suffers from under provision and requires collective action, as individual actions to prevent illness are bound to fail as long as others free ride. Combining data from the Demographic Health Survey with various spatial data sets for Benin, we apply mixed effect logit regression to arrive at a spatially explicit assessment of geographical and social determinants of diarrhea prevalence. Starting from an analysis of these factors separately at national level, we identify relevant proxies at household level, estimate a function with geo-referenced independent variables and apply it to evaluate the costs and impacts of improving access to good water in the basin. First, the study confirms the well established stylized fact on the causes of diarrhea that a household with access to clean water and with good hygienic practices will, irrespective of other conditions, not suffer diarrhea very often. Second

  2. New Insights into the Geographic Distribution of Mycobacterium leprae SNP Genotypes Determined for Isolates from Leprosy Cases Diagnosed in Metropolitan France and French Territories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Reibel

    Full Text Available Between 20 and 30 bacteriologically confirmed cases of leprosy are diagnosed each year at the French National Reference Center for mycobacteria. Patients are mainly immigrants from various endemic countries or living in French overseas territories. We aimed at expanding data regarding the geographical distribution of the SNP genotypes of the M. leprae isolates from these patients.Skin biopsies were obtained from 71 leprosy patients diagnosed between January 2009 and December 2013. Data regarding age, sex and place of birth and residence were also collected. Diagnosis of leprosy was confirmed by microscopic detection of acid-fast bacilli and/or amplification by PCR of the M. leprae-specific RLEP region. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP, present in the M. leprae genome at positions 14 676, 1 642 875 and 2 935 685, were determined with an efficiency of 94% (67/71. Almost all patients were from countries other than France where leprosy is still prevalent (n = 31 or from French overseas territories (n = 36 where leprosy is not totally eradicated, while only a minority (n = 4 was born in metropolitan France but have lived in other countries. SNP type 1 was predominant (n = 33, followed by type 3 (n = 17, type 4 (n = 11 and type 2 (n = 6. SNP types were concordant with those previously reported as prevalent in the patients' countries of birth. SNP types found in patients born in countries other than France (Comoros, Haiti, Benin, Congo, Sri Lanka and French overseas territories (French Polynesia, Mayotte and La Réunion not covered by previous work correlated well with geographical location and history of human settlements.The phylogenic analysis of M. leprae strains isolated in France strongly suggests that French leprosy cases are caused by SNP types that are (a concordant with the geographic origin or residence of the patients (non-French countries, French overseas territories, metropolitan France or (b more likely random in regions where

  3. New Insights into the Geographic Distribution of Mycobacterium leprae SNP Genotypes Determined for Isolates from Leprosy Cases Diagnosed in Metropolitan France and French Territories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reibel, Florence; Chauffour, Aurélie; Brossier, Florence; Jarlier, Vincent; Cambau, Emmanuelle; Aubry, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Between 20 and 30 bacteriologically confirmed cases of leprosy are diagnosed each year at the French National Reference Center for mycobacteria. Patients are mainly immigrants from various endemic countries or living in French overseas territories. We aimed at expanding data regarding the geographical distribution of the SNP genotypes of the M. leprae isolates from these patients. Skin biopsies were obtained from 71 leprosy patients diagnosed between January 2009 and December 2013. Data regarding age, sex and place of birth and residence were also collected. Diagnosis of leprosy was confirmed by microscopic detection of acid-fast bacilli and/or amplification by PCR of the M. leprae-specific RLEP region. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), present in the M. leprae genome at positions 14 676, 1 642 875 and 2 935 685, were determined with an efficiency of 94% (67/71). Almost all patients were from countries other than France where leprosy is still prevalent (n = 31) or from French overseas territories (n = 36) where leprosy is not totally eradicated, while only a minority (n = 4) was born in metropolitan France but have lived in other countries. SNP type 1 was predominant (n = 33), followed by type 3 (n = 17), type 4 (n = 11) and type 2 (n = 6). SNP types were concordant with those previously reported as prevalent in the patients' countries of birth. SNP types found in patients born in countries other than France (Comoros, Haiti, Benin, Congo, Sri Lanka) and French overseas territories (French Polynesia, Mayotte and La Réunion) not covered by previous work correlated well with geographical location and history of human settlements. The phylogenic analysis of M. leprae strains isolated in France strongly suggests that French leprosy cases are caused by SNP types that are (a) concordant with the geographic origin or residence of the patients (non-French countries, French overseas territories, metropolitan France) or (b) more likely random in regions where diverse

  4. Gender and Geographic Differences in the Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Children: Analysis of Data from the National Disability Registry of Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Der-Chung; Tseng, Yen-Cheng; Hou, Yuh-Ming; Guo, How-Ran

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in the world has increased dramatically in the recent decades. However, data at the national level are limited, and geographic differences are seldom evaluated. According to the law, the local governments in Taiwan began to certify disabled residents and provide various services in 1980, and the…

  5. Prevalence and characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes in feces of black beef cattle reared in three geographically distant areas in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Megumi; Iwabuchi, Eriko; Yamamoto, Shiori; Muramatsu, Masatake; Takashima, Ikuo; Hirai, Katsuya

    2014-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes in the feces of black beef cattle reared in geographically distant areas in Japan. We surveyed 130 farms in the following three areas: northern (Hokkaido prefecture), central (Gifu and Mie prefectures), and southern (Oita, Miyazaki, and Kagoshima prefectures) areas and collected 1738 fecal samples. Our data showed the following isolation rate for each area: northern, 11.4% of 651; central, 2.8% of 572; and southern, 2.9% of 515, indicating that the isolation rate in the northern area was significantly higher than that in the central or southern areas (pprevalent serotype (40.5%), followed by 1/2a (36.9%), 4b (21.6%), and 4ab (1.0%). In the northern area, multiple serotypes were isolated from 60% of L. monocytogenes-positive farms. In addition, multiple serotypes were isolated from individual fecal samples from 18 cattle. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) characterization of 239 isolates detected 48 different PFGE types. We found that isolates from northern farms were genetically diverse compared to those from central and southern farms. Five isolates from human clinical cases and three isolates from animal clinical cases were identical to isolates from black beef cattle. Furthermore, the isolates from northern and central farms were characterized to possess epidemic clone II or III markers. We next showed that the isolates were susceptible to penicillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin, gentamicin, kanamycin, streptomycin, erythromycin, vancomycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Taken together, our survey provides crucial data regarding the prevalence and characteristics of L. monocytogenes in black beef cattle farms throughout Japan.

  6. Changes in the geographical distribution of plant species and climatic variables on the West Cornwall peninsula (South West UK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosanic, Aleksandra; Anderson, Karen; Harrison, Stephan; Turkington, Thea; Bennie, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    Recent climate change has had a major impact on biodiversity and has altered the geographical distribution of vascular plant species. This trend is visible globally; however, more local and regional scale research is needed to improve understanding of the patterns of change and to develop appropriate conservation strategies that can minimise cultural, health, and economic losses at finer scales. Here we describe a method to manually geo-reference botanical records from a historical herbarium to track changes in the geographical distributions of plant species in West Cornwall (South West England) using both historical (pre-1900) and contemporary (post-1900) distribution records. We also assess the use of Ellenberg and climate indicator values as markers of responses to climate and environmental change. Using these techniques we detect a loss in 19 plant species, with 6 species losing more than 50% of their previous range. Statistical analysis showed that Ellenberg (light, moisture, nitrogen) and climate indicator values (mean January temperature, mean July temperature and mean precipitation) could be used as environmental change indicators. Significantly higher percentages of area lost were detected in species with lower January temperatures, July temperatures, light, and nitrogen values, as well as higher annual precipitation and moisture values. This study highlights the importance of historical records in examining the changes in plant species' geographical distributions. We present a method for manual geo-referencing of such records, and demonstrate how using Ellenberg and climate indicator values as environmental and climate change indicators can contribute towards directing appropriate conservation strategies.

  7. Mesoniviruses are mosquito-specific viruses with extensive geographic distribution and host range

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The family Mesoniviridae (order Nidovirales) comprises of a group of positive-sense, single-stranded RNA ([+]ssRNA) viruses isolated from mosquitoes. Findings Thirteen novel insect-specific virus isolates were obtained from mosquitoes collected in Indonesia, Thailand and the USA. By electron microscopy, the virions appeared as spherical particles with a diameter of ~50 nm. Their 20,129 nt to 20,777 nt genomes consist of positive-sense, single-stranded RNA with a poly-A tail. Four isolates from Houston, Texas, and one isolate from Java, Indonesia, were identified as variants of the species Alphamesonivirus-1 which also includes Nam Dinh virus (NDiV) from Vietnam and Cavally virus (CavV) from Côte d’Ivoire. The eight other isolates were identified as variants of three new mesoniviruses, based on genome organization and pairwise evolutionary distances: Karang Sari virus (KSaV) from Java, Bontag Baru virus (BBaV) from Java and Kalimantan, and Kamphaeng Phet virus (KPhV) from Thailand. In comparison with NDiV, the three new mesoniviruses each contained a long insertion (180 – 588 nt) of unknown function in the 5’ region of ORF1a, which accounted for much of the difference in genome size. The insertions contained various short imperfect repeats and may have arisen by recombination or sequence duplication. Conclusions In summary, based on their genome organizations and phylogenetic relationships, thirteen new viruses were identified as members of the family Mesoniviridae, order Nidovirales. Species demarcation criteria employed previously for mesoniviruses would place five of these isolates in the same species as NDiV and CavV (Alphamesonivirus-1) and the other eight isolates would represent three new mesonivirus species (Alphamesonivirus-5, Alphamesonivirus-6 and Alphamesonivirus-7). The observed spatiotemporal distribution over widespread geographic regions and broad species host range in mosquitoes suggests that mesoniviruses may be common in

  8. Cost-effective age structure and geographical distribution of boreal forest reserves.

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    Lundström, Johanna; Ohman, Karin; Perhans, Karin; Rönnqvist, Mikael; Gustafsson, Lena; Bugman, Harald

    2011-02-01

    1. Forest reserves are established to preserve biodiversity, and to maintain natural functions and processes. Today there is heightened focus on old-growth stages, with less attention given to early successional stages. The biodiversity potential of younger forests has been overlooked, and the cost-effectiveness of incorporating different age classes in reserve networks has not yet been studied.2. We performed a reserve selection analysis in boreal Sweden using the Swedish National Forest Inventory plots. Seventeen structural variables were used as biodiversity indicators, and the cost of protecting each plot as a reserve was assessed using the Heureka system. A goal programming approach was applied, which allowed inclusion of several objectives and avoided a situation in which common indicators affected the result more than rare ones. The model was limited either by budget or area.3. All biodiversity indicators were found in all age classes, with more than half having the highest values in ages ≥ 100 years. Several large-tree indicators and all deadwood indicators had higher values in forests 0-14 years than in forests 15-69 years.4. It was most cost-effective to protect a large proportion of young forests since they generally have a lower net present value compared to older forests, but still contain structures of importance for biodiversity. However, it was more area-effective to protect a large proportion of old forests since they have a higher biodiversity potential per area.5. The geographical distribution of reserves selected with the budget-constrained model was strongly biassed towards the north-western section of boreal Sweden, with a large proportion of young forest, whereas the area-constrained model focussed on the south-eastern section, with dominance by the oldest age class.6.Synthesis and applications. We show that young forests with large amounts of structures important to biodiversity such as dead wood and remnant trees are cheap and cost

  9. Geographic Distribution of Nonphysician Clinicians Who Independently Billed Medicare for Common Dermatologic Services in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Adewole S; Suarez, Elizabeth A; McDaniel, Philip; Leiphart, Paul A; Zeitany, Alana; Kirby, Joslyn S

    2018-01-01

    Nurse practitioners (NPs) and physician assistants (PAs) are nonphysician clinicians (NPCs) who can deliver dermatology services. Many of these services are provided independently. Little is known about the types of services provided or where NPCs provide independent care. To examine characteristics of dermatology care for Medicare enrollees billed independently by NPCs. Retrospective review of the 2014 Medicare Provider Utilization and Payment Data: Physician and Other Supplier Public Use File, which reflects fee-for-service payments to clinicians for services rendered to Medicare beneficiaries. Clinician location was matched with county-level demographic data from the American Community Survey, US Census Bureau. Clinicians identified using National Provider Identifier as NPs or PAs with at least 11 claims for common dermatology-associated Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System procedure codes were included. Total services provided by service type category, density of dermatologists and nondermatologists who perform dermatology-related services, and geographic location by county. Among the cohort of NPCs were 824 NPs (770 [93.5%] female) and 2083 PAs (1602 [76.9%] female) who independently billed Medicare $59 438 802 and $171 645 943, respectively. Dermatologists were affiliated with 2667 (92%) independently billing NPCs. Most payments were for non-evaluation and management services including destruction of premalignant lesions, biopsies, excisions of skin cancer, surgical repairs, flaps/grafts, and interpretation of pathologic analysis. Nurse practitioners and PAs billed for a similar distribution of service categories overall. A total of 2062 (70.9%) NPCs practiced in counties with dermatologist density of greater than 4 per 100 000 population. Only 3.0% (86) of independently billing NPCs practiced in counties without a dermatologist. Both dermatologists and NPCs were less likely to be in rural counties than in urban counties. Nonphysician

  10. Prevalence and pathogen distribution of neonatal sepsis among very-low-birth-weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Wai Ho; Lien, Reyin; Huang, Yhu-Chering; Chiang, Ming-Chou; Fu, Ren-Huei; Chu, Shih-Ming; Hsu, Jen-Fu; Yang, Peng-Hong

    2012-08-01

    Neonatal sepsis contributes to great mortality and morbidity among very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants. Prevalence and pathogen distribution of sepsis in the neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) vary with time and geographic location. Such information serves as a guide for selection of empirical antibiotics coverage. This is a case series study performed by retrospective chart review of VLBW infants (birth body weight, BBW, <1500 g) in a medical center during a 5-year period from January 2005 to December 2009. Episodes of positive blood cultures, pathogen distribution and related clinical manifestations were described. A total of 158 episodes of sepsis were identified from 1042 VLBW infants. Sepsis rate was 152 per 1000 live births. The vast majority of infections (60.7%) were caused by Gram-positive organisms [G(+)], and overall Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) (52.5%) were the most common pathogen identified. Prevalence for early-onset sepsis (EOS) was 1% and for late-onset sepsis (LOS) was 14.2%. Infants with EOS had a much higher case fatality rate than LOS (40% vs. 4.7%). Escherichia coli (40%) were the leading pathogen of EOS while CoNS (54.7%) was the leading pathogens of LOS. Overall, apnea and/or bradycardia and/or cyanosis (65.8%), poor activity (48.7%), and increased respiratory effort (43.0%) were the most common presenting features of sepsis. Unlike term infants, Gram-negative organism and E coli were the leading pathogen of EOS among VLBW infants. Judicious and timely use of antibiotic therapy is crucial in the care of VLBW infants. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Geographical distribution of MTHFR C677T, A1298C and MTRR A66G gene polymorphisms in China: findings from 15357 adults of Han nationality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyi Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR C677T, A1298C and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR A66G polymorphisms are important genetic determinants for homocysteine (Hcy levels, and are associated with several disorders. These polymorphisms are heterogeneously distributed worldwide. Our objective was to explore the geographical distributions of these polymorphisms in China. METHODOLOGIES: 15357 healthy adults were recruited from 10 regions. Buccal samples were collected and genomic DNA was isolated. Genotyping was performed using the fluorogenic 5'-nuclease assay. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The prevalence of the three polymorphisms among different populations from China varied significantly and showed apparent geographical gradients. For MTHFR C677T, the frequencies of the 677T allele and the 677TT genotype were significantly higher among northern populations and ranged from the lowest values (24.0% and 6.4%, respectively in Hainan (southern to the highest values (63.1% and 40.8%, respectively in Shandong (northern. For MTHFR A1298C, the 1298C allele and the 1298CC genotype frequencies were significantly higher among southern populations and increased from low values (13.1% and 1.4%, respectively in Shandong to high values (25.7% and 6.7%, respectively in Hainan. For A66G, the 66G allele and the 66GG genotype frequencies increased from lower values (23.7% and 5.4%, respectively in Shandong to higher values (29.2% and 8.6%, respectively in Hainan. The overall frequency of the 677T allele, 677TT genotype, 1298C allele, 1298CC genotype, 66G allele and 66GG genotype in the Chinese Han population was 45.2%, 23.2%, 18.6%, 3.9%, 25.7%, and 6.6%, respectively. No gender differences were found in the prevalence of both the MTHFR C677T and MTRR A66G polymorphisms. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that there are marked geographical variations in the prevalence of the three polymorphisms among Chinese Han populations. Our baseline data may be

  12. Geographical Distribution of MTHFR C677T, A1298C and MTRR A66G Gene Polymorphisms in China: Findings from 15357 Adults of Han Nationality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Boyi; Liu, Yuyan; Li, Yongfang; Fan, Shujun; Zhi, Xueyuan; Lu, Xiangxiang; Wang, Da; Zheng, Quanmei; Wang, Yinuo; Wang, Yanxun; Sun, Guifan

    2013-01-01

    Background Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T, A1298C and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) A66G polymorphisms are important genetic determinants for homocysteine (Hcy) levels, and are associated with several disorders. These polymorphisms are heterogeneously distributed worldwide. Our objective was to explore the geographical distributions of these polymorphisms in China. Methodologies 15357 healthy adults were recruited from 10 regions. Buccal samples were collected and genomic DNA was isolated. Genotyping was performed using the fluorogenic 5′-nuclease assay. Principal Findings The prevalence of the three polymorphisms among different populations from China varied significantly and showed apparent geographical gradients. For MTHFR C677T, the frequencies of the 677T allele and the 677TT genotype were significantly higher among northern populations and ranged from the lowest values (24.0% and 6.4%, respectively) in Hainan (southern) to the highest values (63.1% and 40.8%, respectively) in Shandong (northern). For MTHFR A1298C, the 1298C allele and the 1298CC genotype frequencies were significantly higher among southern populations and increased from low values (13.1% and 1.4%, respectively) in Shandong to high values (25.7% and 6.7%, respectively) in Hainan. For A66G, the 66G allele and the 66GG genotype frequencies increased from lower values (23.7% and 5.4%, respectively) in Shandong to higher values (29.2% and 8.6%, respectively) in Hainan. The overall frequency of the 677T allele, 677TT genotype, 1298C allele, 1298CC genotype, 66G allele and 66GG genotype in the Chinese Han population was 45.2%, 23.2%, 18.6%, 3.9%, 25.7%, and 6.6%, respectively. No gender differences were found in the prevalence of both the MTHFR C677T and MTRR A66G polymorphisms. Conclusions This study indicates that there are marked geographical variations in the prevalence of the three polymorphisms among Chinese Han populations. Our baseline data may be useful for

  13. Geographical distribution of fluoride in the public water supply in the province of Tucumán, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Alberto Durán

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This work studied the geographical distribution of fluoride content in the public water supply in the province of Tucumán, Argentina. A total of 1,210 samples were collected in 190 localities of the 17 departments of the province during the 2008-2012 period. The analytical determination was performed using the SPADNS method and QGis 2.16 was used for processing the information. The fluoride content requirements in the studied localities were determined according to the Argentine Food Code. The results showed that 94% of population studied consumed water with fluoride concentrations below the recommended limits, 5% were exposed to fluoride concentrations above the required maximum limit and 1% consumed water at optimal fluoride concentrations. The maps showed a heterogeneous geographical distribution of fluorides, in which areas with deficit, excess and recommended values of fluorides can be differentiated; in some departments an inverse relationship between the density of the hydrological network and fluoride concentration can be observed. In the capital of the province, the average value found was 0.32 mg/l, presenting a homogeneous geographical distribution. The information obtained is indispensable for the proper management of fluoride, so as to improve public health through policy.

  14. [Geographical distribution of fluoride in the public water supply in the province of Tucumán, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, Raúl Alberto; Durán, Estela Liliana; Ojeda, Graciela de Jesús; Castellanos, Walter Alfredo

    2017-01-01

    This work studied the geographical distribution of fluoride content in the public water supply in the province of Tucumán, Argentina. A total of 1,210 samples were collected in 190 localities of the 17 departments of the province during the 2008-2012 period. The analytical determination was performed using the SPADNS method and QGis 2.16 was used for processing the information. The fluoride content requirements in the studied localities were determined according to the Argentine Food Code. The results showed that 94% of population studied consumed water with fluoride concentrations below the recommended limits, 5% were exposed to fluoride concentrations above the required maximum limit and 1% consumed water at optimal fluoride concentrations. The maps showed a heterogeneous geographical distribution of fluorides, in which areas with deficit, excess and recommended values of fluorides can be differentiated; in some departments an inverse relationship between the density of the hydrological network and fluoride concentration can be observed. In the capital of the province, the average value found was 0.32 mg/l, presenting a homogeneous geographical distribution. The information obtained is indispensable for the proper management of fluoride, so as to improve public health through policy.

  15. Geographic Distribution of CT, MRI and PET Devices in Japan: A Longitudinal Analysis Based on National Census Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Masatoshi; Koike, Soichi; Kashima, Saori; Awai, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Japan has the most CT and MRI scanners per unit population in the world; however, the geographic distribution of these technologies is currently unknown. Moreover, nothing is known of the cause-effect relationship between the number of diagnostic imaging devices and their geographic distribution. Data on the number of CT, MRI and PET devices and that of their utilizations in all 1829 municipalities of Japan was generated, based on the Static Survey of Medical Institutions conducted by the government. The inter-municipality equity of the number of devices or utilizations was evaluated with Gini coefficient. Between 2005 and 2011, the number of CT, MRI and PET devices in Japan increased by 47% (8789 to 12945), 19% (5034 to 5990) and 70% (274 to 466), respectively. Gini coefficient of the number of devices was largest for PET and smallest for CT (p for PET-MRI difference geographic distribution of the diagnostic imaging technology in Japan appears to be affected by spatial competition derived from a market force.

  16. Climate Shapes the Geographic Distribution of the Blowfly Sarconesia chlorogaster (Diptera: Calliphoridae): An Environmental Niche Modeling Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecheta, Melise Cristine; Corrêa, Rodrigo César; Moura, Mauricio Osvaldo

    2017-10-01

    For all species, abiotic factors directly affect performance, survival and reproduction, and consequently, their geographic distribution. Species distribution models (SDMs) are important tools to predict the influence of abiotic factors in species distributions and has been more applied over the years. However, these models can be built under different algorithms and using different methods to select environmental predictors, which can lead to different results. Five different algorithms and two sets of environmental predictors were compared to predict the geographic distribution of the blowfly Sarconesia chlorogaster (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). This species has several occurrence points and a considerable amount of biological data available, which makes S. chlorogaster a good model system to compare environmental predictors. Two sets of environmental predictors (mainly derived from temperature and humidity) were built, and the set based on the influence of abiotic variables on the ecophysiology of S. chlorogaster showed better results than the principal component analysis (PCA) approach using 19 climatic variables. We also employed five modeling algorithms-Envelope Score, Mahalanobis Distance, GARP, Support Vector Machines, and Maxent-and the latter two showed the best performances. The results indicate that temperature is the main factor shaping geographic distribution of S. chlorogaster through its effect on fitness. Furthermore, we showed that this species is mainly distributed in south, southeastern, and some northwestern and southwestern sites of South America. In addition, our results also predicted suitable areas in Ecuador and Colombia, countries without previous records. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Geographic distance and pH drive bacterial distribution in alkaline lake sediments across Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jinbo; Liu, Yongqin; Lin, Xiangui; Zhang, Huayong; Zeng, Jun; Hou, Juzhi; Yang, Yongping; Yao, Tandong; Knight, Rob; Chu, Haiyan

    2012-01-01

    Continent-scale biogeography has been extensively studied in soils and marine systems, but little is known about biogeographical patterns in non-marine sediments. We used barcode pyrosequencing to quantify the effects of local geochemical properties and geographic distance for bacterial community structure and membership, using sediment samples from 15 lakes on the Tibetan Plateau (4–1670 km apart). Bacterial communities were surprisingly diverse, and distinct from soil communities. Four of 26 phyla detected were dominant: Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, albeit 20.2% of sequences were unclassified at the phylum level. As previously observed in acidic soil, pH was the dominant factor influencing alkaline sediment community structure, phylotype richness and phylogenetic diversity. In contrast, archaeal communities were less affected by pH. More geographically distant sites had more dissimilar communities (r = 0.443, P = 0.030). Variance partitioning analysis showed that geographic distance (historical contingencies) contributed more to bacterial community variation (12.2%) than any other factor, although the environmental factors explained more variance when combined (28.9%). Together, our results show that pH is the best predictor of bacterial community structure in alkaline sediments, and confirm that both geographic distance and chemical factors govern bacterial biogeography in lake sediments. PMID:22676420

  18. Genetic diversity and geographical distribution of wild Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains from the wine-producing area of Charentes, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versavaud, A; Courcoux, P; Roulland, C; Dulau, L; Hallet, J N

    1995-10-01

    Electrophoretic karyotyping, mitochondrial DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, and PCR amplification of interspersed repeats were used to study the variability, phylogenetic affinities, and biogeographic distribution of wild Saccharomyces cerevisiae enological yeasts. The survey concentrated on 42 individual wine cellars in the Charentes area (Cognac region, France). A limited number (35) of predominant S. cerevisiae strains responsible for the fermentation process have been identified by the above molecular methods of differentiation. One strain (ACI) was found to be distributed over the entire area surveyed. There seemed to be little correlation between geographic location and genetic affinity.

  19. Redefining the Australian Anthrax Belt: Modeling the Ecological Niche and Predicting the Geographic Distribution of Bacillus anthracis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barro, Alassane S; Fegan, Mark; Moloney, Barbara; Porter, Kelly; Muller, Janine; Warner, Simone; Blackburn, Jason K

    2016-06-01

    The ecology and distribution of B. anthracis in Australia is not well understood, despite the continued occurrence of anthrax outbreaks in the eastern states of the country. Efforts to estimate the spatial extent of the risk of disease have been limited to a qualitative definition of an anthrax belt extending from southeast Queensland through the centre of New South Wales and into northern Victoria. This definition of the anthrax belt does not consider the role of environmental conditions in the distribution of B. anthracis. Here, we used the genetic algorithm for rule-set prediction model system (GARP), historical anthrax outbreaks and environmental data to model the ecological niche of B. anthracis and predict its potential geographic distribution in Australia. Our models reveal the niche of B. anthracis in Australia is characterized by a narrow range of ecological conditions concentrated in two disjunct corridors. The most dominant corridor, used to redefine a new anthrax belt, parallels the Eastern Highlands and runs from north Victoria to central east Queensland through the centre of New South Wales. This study has redefined the anthrax belt in eastern Australia and provides insights about the ecological factors that limit the distribution of B. anthracis at the continental scale for Australia. The geographic distributions identified can help inform anthrax surveillance strategies by public and veterinary health agencies.

  20. Malacological survey and geographical distribution of vector snails for schistosomiasis within informal settlements of Kisumu City, western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opisa Selpha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although schistosomiasis is generally considered a rural phenomenon, infections have been reported within urban settings. Based on observations of high prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infection in schools within the informal settlements of Kisumu City, a follow-up malacological survey incorporating 81 sites within 6 informal settlements of the City was conducted to determine the presence of intermediate host snails and ascertain whether active transmission was occurring within these areas. Methods Surveyed sites were mapped using a geographical information system. Cercaria shedding was determined from snails and species of snails identified based on shell morphology. Vegetation cover and presence of algal mass at the sites was recorded, and the physico-chemical characteristics of the water including pH and temperature were determined using a pH meter with a glass electrode and a temperature probe. Results Out of 1,059 snails collected, 407 (38.4% were putatively identified as Biomphalaria sudanica, 425 (40.1% as Biomphalaria pfeifferi and 227 (21.5% as Bulinus globosus. The spatial distribution of snails was clustered, with few sites accounting for most of the snails. The highest snail abundance was recorded in Nyamasaria (543 snails followed by Nyalenda B (313 snails. As expected, the mean snail abundance was higher along the lakeshore (18 ± 12 snails compared to inland sites (dams, rivers and springs (11 ± 32 snails (F1, 79 = 38.8, P Biomphalaria snails was higher in the inland (2.7% compared to the lakeshore sites (0.3% (P = 0.0109. B. sudanica was more abundant in sites along the lakeshore whereas B. pfeifferi and B. globosus were more abundant in the inland sites. Biomphalaria and Bulinus snails were found at 16 and 11 out of the 56 inland sites, respectively. Conclusions The high abundance of Biomphalaria and Bulinus spp. as well as observation of field-caught snails shedding cercariae confirmed that besides Lake

  1. A revised geographical range for Liolaemus elongates Koslowsky, 1896 (Squamata: Liolaemini in Argentina: review of reported and new-data based distribution with new localities

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    Ignacio Minoli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Estimating the effective geographical ranges of species is central to species-oriented conservation and management. In this paper, we review the geographical distribution of Liolaemus elongatus Koslowsky, 1896 with three new records for northern Chubut and southern Río Negro provinces, Argentina. Based on detailed locality records pooled from multiple data sources, including new records obtained for this study, we revise the range of L. elongatus sensu stricto and provide geographical distribution maps comparing the previously recognized range to that proposed herein. Our results show that L. elongatus possesses a much more limited geographic distribution than previously thought, being restricted to areas south of 38°S latitude; the newly proposed range is merely half the species formerly recognized geographical distribution.

  2. Spatial vulnerability of fine particulate matter relative to the geographic disparities of adult's diabetes prevalence in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Lung-Chang; Alamgir, Hassanat; Yu, Hwa-Lung

    2015-04-01

    Potentially larger regional effects of climate change have been revealed on the elevation of fine particulate matter (≤ 2.5 µg in diameter; PM2.5) in the U.S. In addition, recent research supports a link between diabetes and PM2.5 in both laboratory and epidemiology studies. However, research investigating the potential relationship of the spatial vulnerability of diabetes to concomitant PM2.5 levels is still sparse, and the level of diabetes geographic disparities attributed to PM2.5 levels has yet to be evaluated. We conducted a Bayesian structured additive regression modeling approach to determine whether long-term exposure to PM2.5 is spatially associated with diabetes prevalence after adjusting for the socioeconomic status of county residents. This study utilizes the following data sources from 2004-2010: the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, the American Community Survey, and the Environmental Protection Agency. We also conducted spatial comparisons with low, median-low, median-high, and high levels of PM2.5 concentrations. When PM2.5 concentrations increased 1 µg/m3, the increase in the relative risk percentage for diabetes ranged from -5.47% (95% credible interval = -6.14, -4.77) to 2.34% (95% CI = 2.01, 2.70), where 1,323 of 3,109 counties (42.55%) displayed diabetes vulnerability with significantly positive relative risk percentages. These vulnerable counties are more likely located in the Southeast, Central, and South Regions of the U.S. A similar spatial vulnerability pattern for concentrations of low PM2.5 levels was also present in these same three regions. A clear cluster of vulnerable counties at median-high PM2.5 level was found in Michigan. This study identifies the spatial vulnerability of diabetes prevalence associated with PM2.5, and thereby provides the evidence needed to prompt and establish enhanced surveillance that can monitor diabetes vulnerability in areas with low PM2.5 pollution.

  3. On statistical methods for analysing the geographical distribution of cancer cases near nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bithell, J.F.; Stone, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper sets out to show that epidemiological methods most commonly used can be improved. When analysing geographical data it is necessary to consider location. The most obvious quantification of location is ranked distance, though other measures which may be more meaningful in relation to aetiology may be substituted. A test based on distance ranks, the ''Poisson maximum test'', depends on the maximum of observed relative risk in regions of increasing size, but with significance level adjusted for selection. Applying this test to data from Sellafield and Sizewell shows that the excess of leukaemia incidence observed at Seascale, near Sellafield, is not an artefact due to data selection by region, and that the excess probably results from a genuine, if as yet unidentified cause (there being little evidence of any other locational association once the Seascale cases have been removed). So far as Sizewell is concerned, geographical proximity to the nuclear power station does not seen particularly important. (author)

  4. Geographical Distribution of Biomass Carbon in Tropical Southeast Asian Forests: A Database; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, S

    2001-01-01

    A database was generated of estimates of geographically referenced carbon densities of forest vegetation in tropical Southeast Asia for 1980. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to incorporate spatial databases of climatic, edaphic, and geomorphological indices and vegetation to estimate potential (i.e., in the absence of human intervention and natural disturbance) carbon densities of forests. The resulting map was then modified to estimate actual 1980 carbon density as a function of population density and climatic zone. The database covers the following 13 countries: Bangladesh, Brunei, Cambodia (Campuchea), India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar (Burma), Nepal, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam. The data sets within this database are provided in three file formats: ARC/INFO(trademark) exported integer grids, ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) files formatted for raster-based GIS software packages, and generic ASCII files with x, y coordinates for use with non-GIS software packages

  5. New species of Bakeriella (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae from the New World and new data on geographic distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Kawada

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Bakeriella lata sp. nov. (Brazil, Rondônia, Bakeriella aurata sp. nov. (Brazil, Amazonas and Bakeriella sulcaticeps sp. nov. (Brazil, Amazonas are described and illustrated. New geographic records and variation data for B. cristata Evans, 1964, B. floridana Evans, 1964, B. flavicornis Kieffer, 1910, B. incompleta Azevedo, 1994, B. mira Evans, 1997, B. montivaga (Kieffer, 1910, B. olmeca Evans, 1964 and B. subcarinata Evans, 1965 are provided. The male of B. incompleta is described for the first time.

  6. The microlepidopterous natural enemy Brachymeria subrugosa Blanchard, 1942 (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae): identity, hosts and geographic distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, Daniel Alejandro; Tavares, Marcelo Texeira; Balducci, Ezequiel; Baca, Verónica; De Quinteros, Sara Quintana

    2015-09-08

    A lectotype is designated for Brachymeria subrugosa Blanchard 1942 (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae). The species is diagnosed, redescribed, and compared to B. subconica Bouček, both of which are illustrated by macrophotography. Taxonomic notes, new parasitoid/host associations and new geographical records are also given for B. subrugosa. Brachymeria annulipes (Costa Lima 1919), a junior secondary homonymy of Chalcis annulipes Walker 1834, is proposed as a junior synonym of B. subrugosa syn. nov.

  7. Geographic distribution of Hemigrammus ora (Ostariophysi: Characiformes: Characidae in the Amazon basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando C Jerep

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available New records of Hemigrammus ora Zarske, Le Bail & Géry, 2006, previously believed to be endemic to the French Guiana drainages, are confirmed for Brazilian drainages. The species is reported from the Tocantins-Araguaia system and lower Amazon River. Morphometric and meristic data, previously undescribed morphological traits related to caudal-fin squamation and anal-fin hooks, and geographic variation are presented for the species.

  8. Geographic distribution of childhood diabetes and obesity relative to the supply of pediatric endocrinologists in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joyce M; Davis, Matthew M; Menon, Ram K; Freed, Gary L

    2008-03-01

    To determine the geographic distribution of childhood diabetes and obesity relative to the supply of US pediatric endocrinologists. Estimation of observed and "index" ratios of children with diabetes (by region and division) and obesity (body mass index >/=95th % for age and sex) (by region and state) to board-certified pediatric endocrinologists. At the national level, the ratio of children with diabetes to pediatric endocrinologists is 290:1, and the ratio of obese children to pediatric endocrinologists is 17,741:1. Ratios of children with diabetes to pediatric endocrinologists in the Midwest (370:1), South (335:1), and West (367:1) are twice as high as in the Northeast (144:1). Across states, there is up to a 19-fold difference in the observed ratios of obese children to pediatric endocrinologists. Under conditions of equitably distributed endocrinologist supply, variation across states would be mitigated considerably. The distribution of children with diabetes and obesity does not parallel the distribution of pediatric endocrinologists in the United States, due largely to geographic disparities in endocrinologist supply. Given the large burden of obese children to endocrinologists, multidisciplinary models of care delivery are essential for the US health care system to address the needs of children with diabetes and obesity.

  9. Determination of distribution pattern of the heavy metal concentrations in the potable network of Gachsaran by Geographical Information System (GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Paraham

    2013-12-01

    . Methods: In this descriptive, cross-sectional study, samples were taken from11 spots of the drinking water distribution network and tested for concentration of 10 metals by Inductivity Coupled Ions Plasma (ICP method in summer of 2010. The research data were compared with national and international water standards. Then the distribution map of heavy metals concentrations in the drinking water wells of the region was prepared by using the Geographical Information System (GIS software. Data were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results: In all samples, the average concentration of heavy metals were: Arsenic 0.54, Cadmium 0.05, Zinc 55.9, Lead 0.18, Copper .82, Chromium 1.6, Barium 36.5, Selenium0.5, Mercury 0.1 and Silver 0.05 micrograms per liter and was less than the water quality standard. Conclusion: Based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that concentrations of heavy metals in Gachsaran’s drinking water distribution network are not higher than national and international standards and therefore not harmful for people. Key words: Heavy metals, Distribution network, Gachsaran, geographical information system (GIS

  10. Molecular Identification of Paramecium bursaria Syngens and Studies on Geographic Distribution using Mitochondrial Cytochrome C Oxidase Subunit I (COI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagata, Patrycja; Greczek-Stachura, Magdalena; Tarcz, Sebastian; Rautian, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Paramecium bursaria is composed of five syngens that are morphologically indistinguishable but sexually isolated. The aim of the present study was to confirm by molecular methods (analyses of mitochondrial COI) the identification of P. bursaria syngens originating from different geographical locations. Phylograms constructed using both the neighbor-joining and maximum-likelihood methods based on a comparison of 34 sequences of P. bursaria strains and P. multimicronucleatum, P. caudatum and P.calkinsi strains used as outgroups revealed five clusters which correspond to results obtained previously by mating reaction. Our analysis shows the existence of 24 haplotypes for the COI gene sequence in the studied strains. The interspecies haplotype diversity was Hd = 0.967. We confirmed genetic differentiation between strains of P. bursaria and the occurrence of a correlation between geographical distribution and the correspondent syngen.

  11. Modeling the distribution of Schistosoma mansoni and host snails in Uganda using satellite sensor data and Geographical Information Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensgaard, Anna-Sofie; Jørgensen, A; Kabatereine, N B

    2005-01-01

    The potential value of MODIS satellite sensor data on Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and land surface temperatures (LST) for describing the distribution of the Schistosoma mansoni-"Biomphalaria pfeifferi"/Biomphalaria sudanica parasite-snail system in inland Uganda, were tested...... by developing annual and seasonal composite models, and iteratively analysing for their relationship with parasite and snail distribution. The dry season composite model predicted an endemic area that produced the best fit with the distribution of schools with > or =5% prevalence. NDVI values of 151-174, day...

  12. Geographic distribution of HIV stigma among women of childbearing age in rural Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akullian, Adam; Kohler, Pamela; Kinuthia, John; Laserson, Kayla; Mills, Lisa A.; Okanda, John; Olilo, George; Ombok, Maurice; Odhiambo, Frank; Rao, Deepa; Wakefield, Jonathan; John-Stewart, Grace

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s) HIV stigma is considered to be a major driver of the HIV/AIDS pandemic, yet there is a limited understanding of its occurrence. We describe the geographic patterns of two forms of HIV stigma in a cross-sectional sample of women of childbearing age from western Kenya: internalized stigma (associated with shame) and externalized stigma (associated with blame). Design Geographic studies of HIV stigma provide a first step in generating hypotheses regarding potential community-level causes of stigma and may lead to more effective community-level interventions. Methods Spatial regression using generalized additive models and point pattern analyses using K-functions were used to assess the spatial scale(s) at which each form of HIV stigma clusters, and to assess whether the spatial clustering of each stigma indicator was present after adjustment for individual-level characteristics. Results There was evidence that externalized stigma (blame) was geographically heterogeneous across the study area, even after controlling for individual-level factors (P=0.01). In contrast, there was less evidence (P=0.70) of spatial trend or clustering of internalized stigma (shame). Conclusion Our results may point to differences in the underlying social processes motivating each form of HIV stigma. Externalized stigma may be driven more by cultural beliefs disseminated within communities, whereas internalized stigma may be the result of individual-level characteristics outside the domain of community influence. These data may inform community-level interventions to decrease HIV-related stigma, and thus impact the HIV epidemic. PMID:24835356

  13. Geographic variation in migration chronology and winter distribution of midcontinent greater white-fronted geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Craig R.; Nieman, Daniel J.; Alisauskas, Ray T.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Hines, James E.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated spatial and temporal differences in migratory behavior among different breeding groups of midcontinent greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons) using band-recovery data and observations of neck collared geese during migration and winter. Birds from different breeding areas were initially delineated by geographic distance into 6 banding reference areas (BRAs): 1) interior Alaska, 2) North Slope of Alaska, 3) western Northwest Territories (NWT), 4) western Nunavut, 5) central Nunavut, and 6) eastern Nunavut. The banding groups also differed by breeding habitat, with geese from interior Alaska nesting in the boreal forest (taiga), and all other groups breeding in tundra habitats. Geese from interior Alaska migrated earlier during autumn, and were more likely to winter farther south (in Mexico) than geese from other breeding areas. Geese banded in central and eastern Nunavut (Queen Maud Gulf and Inglis River) wintered farther east (in Louisiana) than geese from other breeding areas. Small-scale (within-state) geographic segregation of wintering flocks was evidenced by the recent (post-1990) nearly exclusive use of a new wintering area in north central Texas by geese from interior Alaska. Segregation among BRAs was also apparent in Mexico, where taiga geese were found predominantly in the central Highlands (states of Zacatecas and Durango), whereas tundra geese mostly used states along the Gulf Coast (primarily Tamaulipas). Interior Alaska birds initiated spring migration earlier than geese from other areas, and were more likely than others to stop in the Rainwater Basin of Nebraska, a region where cholera outbreaks periodically kill thousands of geese. Geese from interior Alaska were the first to arrive at spring staging areas in prairie Canada where BRAs exhibited spatial delineation (a longitudinal cline) in relation to breeding areas. Our results show significant geographic and temporal variation among taiga and tundra breeding cohorts during

  14. Geographic Distribution of Radiologists and Utilization of Teleradiology in Japan: A Longitudinal Analysis Based on National Census Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Masatoshi; Koike, Soichi; Kashima, Saori; Awai, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Japan has the most CT and MRI scanners per unit population in the world, and as these technologies spread, their geographic distribution is becoming equalized. In contrast, the number of radiologists per unit population in Japan is the lowest among OECD countries and their geographic distribution is unknown. Likewise, little is known about the use of teleradiology, which can compensate for the uneven distribution of radiologists. Based on the Survey of Physicians, Dentists and Pharmacists and the Static Survey of Medical Institutions by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, a dataset of radiologists and CT and MRI utilizations in each of Japan's 1811 municipalities was created. The inter-municipality equity of the number of radiologists was evaluated using Gini coefficient. Logistic regression analysis, based on Static Survey data, was performed to evaluate the association between hospital location and teleradiology use. Between 2006 and 2012 the number of radiologists increased by 21.7%, but the Gini coefficient remained unchanged. The number of radiologists per 1,000 CT (MRI) utilizations decreased by 17.9% (1.0%); the number was highest in metropolis and lowest in town/village and the disparity has widened from 1.9 to 2.2 (1.6 to 2.0) times. The number of hospitals and clinics using teleradiology has increased (by 69.6% and 18.1%, respectively). Hospitals located in towns/villages (odds ratio 1.61; 95% confidence interval 1.26-2.07) were more likely to use teleradiology than those in metropolises. Contrary to the CT and MRI distributions, radiologist distribution has not been evened out by the increase in their number; in other words, the distribution of radiologists was not affected by market-derived spatial competition force. As a consequence, the gap of the radiologist shortage between urban and rural areas is increasing. Teleradiology, which is one way to ameliorate this gap, should be encouraged.

  15. Local Geographical Distribution of Acute Involuntary Psychiatric Admissions in Subdistricts In and Around Utrecht, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braam, Arjan W; van Ommeren, Omar W H R; van Buuren, Melissa L; Laan, Wijnand; Smeets, Hugo M; Engelhard, Iris M

    BACKGROUND: Acute involuntary psychiatric admissions (AIPA) tend to be applied more often in urban areas. OBJECTIVE: The current study aims to describe AIPA prevalence differences between the subdistricts in an urban area, and to identify which district characteristics are associated with a higher

  16. The potential effect of global warming on the geographic and seasonal distribution of Phlebotomus papatasi in Southwest Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, E.R.; Hyams, K.C. [Naval Medical Research Inst., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1996-07-01

    The distribution of Phlebotomus papatasi in Southwest Asia is thought to be highly dependent on temperature and relative humidity. A discriminant analysis model based on weather data and reported vector surveys was developed to predict the seasonal and geographic distribution of P. papatasi in this region. To simulate global warming, temperature values for 115 weather stations were increased by 1 {degrees}C, 3{degrees}C, and 5{degrees}C, and the outcome variable coded as unknown in the model. Probability of occurrence values were then predicted for each location with a weather station. Stations with positive probability of occurrence values for May, June, July, and August were considered locations where two or more life cycles of P. papatasi could occur and which could support endemic transmission of leishmaniasis and sandfly fever. Among 115 weather stations, 71 (62%) would be considered endemic with current temperature conditions; 14 (12%) additional station could become endemic with an increase of 1 {degrees}C; 17 (15%) more than a 3{degrees}C increase; and 12 (10%) more (all but one station) with a t{degrees}C increase. In addition to increased geographic distribution, seasonality of disease transmission could be extended throughout 12 months of the year in 7 (6%) locations with at least a 3{degrees}C rise in temperature and in 29 (25%) locations with a 5{degrees}C rise. 15 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Global Climate Change Effects on Venezuela's Vulnerability to Chagas Disease is Linked to the Geographic Distribution of Five Triatomine Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccarelli, Soledad; Rabinovich, Jorge E

    2015-11-01

    We analyzed the possible effects of global climate change on the potential geographic distribution in Venezuela of five species of triatomines (Eratyrus mucronatus (Stal, 1859), Panstrongylus geniculatus (Latreille, 1811), Rhodnius prolixus (Stål, 1859), Rhodnius robustus (Larrousse, 1927), and Triatoma maculata (Erichson, 1848)), vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease. To obtain the future potential geographic distributions, expressed as climatic niche suitability, we modeled the presences of these species using two IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) future emission scenarios of global climate change (A1B and B1), the Global Climate model CSIRO Mark 3.0, and three periods of future projections (years 2020, 2060, and 2080). After estimating with the MaxEnt software the future climatic niche suitability for each species, scenario, and period of future projections, we estimated a series of indexes of Venezuela's vulnerability at the county, state, and country level, measured as the number of people exposed due to the changes in the geographical distribution of the five triatomine species analyzed. Despite that this is not a measure of the risk of Chagas disease transmission, we conclude that possible future effects of global climate change on the Venezuelan population vulnerability show a slightly decreasing trend, even taking into account future population growth; we can expect fewer locations in Venezuela where an average Venezuelan citizen would be exposed to triatomines in the next 50-70 yr. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. The distribution and habitat preferences of the declining species Orobanche arenaria Borkh at the northern limit of its geographical range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Piwowarczyk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Three new sites of Orobanche arenaria were discovered during floristic investigations in the Wyżyna Małopolska upland in central Poland. The new localities are concentrated in the Ponidzie area (Garb Pińczowski ridge and Niecka Połaniecka basin and form the northern limit of the geographical range of O. arenaria. The paper presents information on the distribution of Orobanche arenaria in Poland, the abundance at the sites and habitats occupied by the species.

  19. Distribution, incidence, prevalence and default of patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results. The study showed that the majority (38.7%) of patients with diabetes on the public sector register were from the district of eThekwini. Positive correlations were found between the prevalence of diabetes, the mortality rate and the number of defaulters (patients with diabetes who did not return for regular treatment).

  20. Prevalence and distribution of intestinal parasite infections in HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We wanted to establish the relationship of the immunologic status and the prevalence of intestinal parasites in HIV/AIDS patients enrolled for antiretroviral therapy at the Vom Christian health centre. Materials & Methods: With their consent, stool samples of 205 subjects were collected and examined parasitologically by ...

  1. Comparison of geographic distributions of Irritable Bowel Syndrome with Inflammatory Bowel Disease fail to support common evolutionary roots: Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Inflammatory Bowel Diseases are not related by evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilagyi, Andrew; Xue, Xiaoqing

    2018-01-01

    Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) shares overlapping symptoms and some features of pathogenesis with Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD: Crohn's disease [CD], and Ulcerative Colitis [UC]). Geographic markers such as latitude/sunshine and more recently lactase population distributions are found to be correlated with IBD. As a result of clinical and pathogenic similarities between the 2 conditions, some authorities questioned whether a connection exists between them. We compare IBS directly with IBD, and indirectly with geographic markers associated with IBD, in order to evaluate possible evolutionary links between IBS and IBD. Similar correlations may link IBS as a precursor to IBD and possibly other conditions which are geographically connected with IBD. Data from four systematic reviews on IBD incidence and prevalence, IBS prevalence, and lactase distributions were included. Pearson's correlations were used for comparisons, with IBD values log-transformed because of skewed distribution. The articles provided 18-28 complete set of national data. Direct comparison between IBS and IBD showed no significant correlations (r = -0.14, r = -0.06 for CD and UC prevalence, r = -0.10 for CD incidence). Indirect comparisons also failed to show correlations of IBS with lactase distributions (r = -0.17), sunshine (r = -0.2) or latitude (r = 0.097); however, there was significant correlation between lactase distributions and CD incidence (r = -0.84), prevalence (r = -0.55) and UC prevalence (r = -0.59). Both sunshine (r= -0.53) and latitude (r = 0.58) are also significantly related to CD incidence. It is concluded that IBS and IBD do not follow similar global geographic patterns. This suggests a lack of an evolutionary genetic background coincident with emergence of lactase persistence. As well, vitamin D has no obvious impact on development of IBS. Similarities with IBD may result from sub groups (not yet identified) within the current Rome

  2. Geographical distribution and spatio-temporal patterns of dengue cases in Jeddah Governorate from 2006-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzahrani, Abdullah G; Al Mazroa, Mohammad A; Alrabeah, Abdullah M; Ibrahim, Adel M; Mokdad, Ali H; Memish, Ziad A

    2013-01-01

    Dengue remains a major health problem in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. A surveillance system was initiated to detect new cases in 2006. The study aims to examine these data for detection of space-time clustering and identify target areas for effective interventions. Through a cross-sectional design, we included all confirmed dengue cases among residents of Jeddah with a clearly written addresses (n = 2288). Cases were geo-coded at the district level, and then analyzed by ArcGIS for geographical distribution and by the space-time permutation model of SaTScan for detection of clusters of cases. This study showed a seasonal pattern of dengue infections mainly in the first half of the year. Males and younger age-groups were more likely to be affected (70.8 and 67.3%, respectively). Descriptive spatial analysis showed that the infection was concentrated in the south and central-north regions. Space-time permutation scan statistics demonstrated five spatio-temporal clusters of dengue cases with no variations by age-groups, gender and nationality-group. Our results showed clear geographical patterns of dengue in Jeddah. Our unique data with geographical coding enabled us to detect and target dengue clusters that support the use of geospatial information in infection control in Saudi Arabia and would allow for better targeting of interaction progress.

  3. Geographic distribution of selected elements in the livers of polar bears from Greenland, Canada and the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rush, Scott A. [University of Georgia, Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources, Athens, GA 30602-2152 (United States); Borga, Katrine [Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Gaustadalleen 21, 0349 Oslo (Norway); Dietz, Rune [National Environmental Research Institute, Department of Arctic Environment, Roskilde DK-4000 (Denmark); Born, Erik W. [Greenland Institute of Natural Resources, P.O. Box 570, DK-3900 Nuuk, Greenland (Denmark); Sonne, Christian [National Environmental Research Institute, Department of Arctic Environment, Roskilde DK-4000 (Denmark); Evans, Thomas [United States Fish and Wildlife Service, Marine Mammals Management, Anchorage, AK 99503 (United States); Muir, Derek C.G. [Environment Canada, Water Science and Technology Directorate, Burlington, ON L7R 4A6 (Canada); Letcher, Robert J. [Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Carleton University, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada); Norstrom, Ross J. [Carleton University, Department of Chemistry, Ottawa, ON K1S 5B6 (Canada); Fisk, Aaron T. [University of Windsor, Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research, Windsor, ON N9B 3P4 (Canada)], E-mail: afisk@uwindsor.ca

    2008-06-15

    To assess geographic distributions of elements in the Arctic we compared essential and non-essential elements in the livers of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) collected from five regions within Canada in 2002, in Alaska between 1994 and 1999 and from the northwest and east coasts of Greenland between 1988 and 2000. As, Hg, Pb and Se varied with age, and Co and Zn with gender, which limited spatial comparisons across all populations to Cd, which was highest in Greenland bears. Collectively, geographic relationships appeared similar to past studies with little change in concentration over time in Canada and Greenland for most elements; Hg and Se were higher in some Canadian populations in 2002 as compared to 1982 and 1984. Concentrations of most elements in the polar bears did not exceed toxicity thresholds, although Cd and Hg exceeded levels correlated with the formation of hepatic lesions in laboratory animals. - Geographical trends were observed for a number of elements in livers, including mercury, of polar bears collected across Alaska, Canada and Greenland and were similar to those observed in the early 1980s.

  4. Geographic distribution of selected elements in the livers of polar bears from Greenland, Canada and the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rush, Scott A.; Borga, Katrine; Dietz, Rune; Born, Erik W.; Sonne, Christian; Evans, Thomas; Muir, Derek C.G.; Letcher, Robert J.; Norstrom, Ross J.; Fisk, Aaron T.

    2008-01-01

    To assess geographic distributions of elements in the Arctic we compared essential and non-essential elements in the livers of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) collected from five regions within Canada in 2002, in Alaska between 1994 and 1999 and from the northwest and east coasts of Greenland between 1988 and 2000. As, Hg, Pb and Se varied with age, and Co and Zn with gender, which limited spatial comparisons across all populations to Cd, which was highest in Greenland bears. Collectively, geographic relationships appeared similar to past studies with little change in concentration over time in Canada and Greenland for most elements; Hg and Se were higher in some Canadian populations in 2002 as compared to 1982 and 1984. Concentrations of most elements in the polar bears did not exceed toxicity thresholds, although Cd and Hg exceeded levels correlated with the formation of hepatic lesions in laboratory animals. - Geographical trends were observed for a number of elements in livers, including mercury, of polar bears collected across Alaska, Canada and Greenland and were similar to those observed in the early 1980s

  5. Geographic information system analysis on the distribution of patients visiting the periodontology department at a dental college hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Byungjoon; Joo, Hyun-Tae; Shin, Hyun-Seung; Lim, Mi-Hwa; Park, Jung-Chul

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze and visualize the distribution of patients visiting the periodontology department at a dental college hospital, using a geographic information system (GIS) to utilize these data in patient care and treatment planning, which may help to assess the risk and prevent periodontal diseases. Basic patient information data were obtained from Dankook University Dental Hospital, including the unit number, gender, date of birth, and address, down to the dong (neighborhood) administrative district unit, of 306,656 patients who visited the hospital between 2007 and 2014. The data of only 26,457 patients who visited the periodontology department were included in this analysis. The patient distribution was visualized using GIS. Statistical analyses including multiple regression, logistic regression, and geographically weighted regression were performed using SAS 9.3 and ArcGIS 10.1. Five factors, namely proximity, accessibility, age, gender, and socioeconomic status, were investigated as the explanatory variables of the patient distribution. The visualized patient data showed a nationwide scale of the patient distribution. The mean distance from each patient's regional center to the hospital was 30.94±29.62 km and was inversely proportional to the number of patients from the respective regions. The distance from a regional center to the adjacent toll gate had various effects depending on the local distance from the hospital. The average age of the patients was 52.41±12.97 years. Further, a majority of regions showed a male dominance. Personal income had inconsistent results between analyses. The distribution of patients is significantly affected by the proximity, accessibility, age, gender and socioeconomic status of patients, and the patients visiting the periodontology department travelled farther distances than those visiting the other departments. The underlying reason for this needs to be analyzed further.

  6. Epidemiology and geographical distribution of gastrointestinal parasitic infection in humans in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudlová A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Examinations of the set of 2,760 samples of human stools revealed the current epidemiological situation in the occurrence of gastrointestinal parasitoses in Slovakia. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasitic infection was P = 6.81 % out of which the protozoan infections was P = 2.64 % and helminthiases P = 4.17 %, in the representation of endoparasitic species Entamoeba coli, Giardia intestinalis, Blastocystis hominis, Endolimax nana, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and Enterobius vermicularis.

  7. Spatial distribution and risk factors of influenza in Jiangsu province, China, based on geographical information system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Cheng Zhang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Influenza poses a constant, heavy burden on society. Recent research has focused on ecological factors associated with influenza incidence and has also studied influenza with respect to its geographic spread at different scales. This research explores the temporal and spatial parameters of influenza and identifies factors influencing its transmission. A spatial autocorrelation analysis, a spatial-temporal cluster analysis and a spatial regression analysis of influenza rates, carried out in Jiangsu province from 2004 to 2011, found that influenza rates to be spatially dependent in 2004, 2005, 2006 and 2008. South-western districts consistently revealed hotspots of high-incidence influenza. The regression analysis indicates that railways, rivers and lakes are important predictive environmental variables for influenza risk. A better understanding of the epidemic pattern and ecological factors associated with pandemic influenza should benefit public health officials with respect to prevention and controlling measures during future epidemics.

  8. Tantilla alticola (Boulenger, 1903) (Squamata: Colubridae): filling a geographical distribution gap in western Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Vanega-Guerrero, Jhonattan; Batista, Abel; Medina, Iliana; Vargas-Salinas, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Based on a single specimen collected in La Delfina, municipality of Dagua, department of Valle del Cauca, we fills a record gap of 255 km in the distribution of the snake Tantilla alticola in western Colombia.

  9. Integrating evolution into geographical ecology: a phylogenetic perspective on palm distributions and community composition across scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiserhardt, Wolf L.; Svenning, J.-C.; Kissling, W. Daniel

    Species distributions, assemblage composition, and species richness depend on both current environment and the diversification of lineages in past environments. On broad scales, processes that constrain diversifying lineages to certain regions or environments are particularly important. Through...

  10. Prevalence and distribution of principal periodontal pathogens worldwide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rylev, Mette; Kilian, Mogens

    2008-01-01

    putative periodontal pathogens and particular subsets of these species vary between ethnic groups. Few of these differences can, with the limited information available, be directly related to differences in periodontal disease prevalence. Asian populations are regularly colonized with Actinobacillus...... actinomycetemcomitans serotype c with questionable pathogenic potential. Conversely, the JP2 clone of A. actinomycetemcomitans has enhanced virulence and causes significantly higher prevalence of aggressive periodontitis in adolescents whose descent can be traced back to the Mediterranean and Western parts of Africa....... Some genetically distinct types of Porphyromonas gingivalis are more associated with disease than others, but additional work is required to relate this to clinical differences. CONCLUSIONS: Studies that take into account differences linked to the genetics of both patients and potential pathogens...

  11. Prevalence and Distribution of Developmental Dental Anomalies in Pediatric Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merve Erkmen Almaz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of dental anomalies in paediatric patients attending the Department of Paediatric Dentistry, Kırıkkale University Faculty of Dentistry. Materials and Methods: The study consisted a sample of 9173 patients, aged between 0-15 years, referred to our clinic between 1 August 2011-1 August 2012. The patients were examined clinically and radiographically in terms of the number, size, shape, structure and color anomalies. Results: One hundred sixty six children (1.8% were found to have developmental dental anomalies. The most frequently observed anomalies were congenitally missing teeth (0.52% and supernumerary teeth (0.27%. Anomalies such as dens invaginatus (0.03%, dentinogenesis imperfecta (0.02% and dilaceration (0.02% were encountered more rarely. Conclusion: Early diagnosis and determination of the prevalence of dental anomalies in children is important in the treatment planning.

  12. What influences national and foreign physicians' geographic distribution? An analysis of medical doctors' residence location in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Giuliano; Ferrinho, Paulo; de Sousa, Bruno; Conceição, Cláudia

    2012-07-02

    The debate over physicians' geographical distribution has attracted the attention of the economic and public health literature over the last forty years. Nonetheless, it is still to date unclear what influences physicians' location, and whether foreign physicians contribute to fill the geographical gaps left by national doctors in any given country. The present research sets out to investigate the current distribution of national and international physicians in Portugal, with the objective to understand its determinants and provide an evidence base for policy-makers to identify policies to influence it. A cross-sectional study of physicians currently registered in Portugal was conducted to describe the population and explore the association of physician residence patterns with relevant personal and municipality characteristics. Data from the Portuguese Medical Council on physicians' residence and characteristics were analysed, as well as data from the National Institute of Statistics on municipalities' population, living standards and health care network. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, negative binomial and logistic regression modelling were applied to determine: (a) municipality characteristics predicting Portuguese and International physicians' geographical distribution, and; (b) doctors' characteristics that could increase the odds of residing outside the country's metropolitan areas. There were 39,473 physicians in Portugal in 2008, 51.1% of whom male, and 40.2% between 41 and 55 years of age. They were predominantly Portuguese (90.5%), with Spanish, Brazilian and African nationalities also represented. Population, Population's Purchasing Power, Nurses per capita and Municipality Development Index (MDI) were the municipality characteristics displaying the strongest association with national physicians' location. For foreign physicians, the MDI was not statistically significant, while municipalities' foreign population applying for residence

  13. Topographic, latitudinal and climatic distribution of Pinus coulteri: geographic range limits are not at the edge of the climate envelope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chardon, Nathalie I.; Cornwell, William K.; Flint, Lorraine E.; Flint, Alan L.; Ackerly, David D.

    2015-01-01

    With changing climate, many species are projected to move poleward or to higher elevations to track suitable climates. The prediction that species will move poleward assumes that geographically marginal populations are at the edge of the species' climatic range. We studied Pinus coulteri from the center to the northern (poleward) edge of its range, and examined three scenarios regarding the relationship between the geographic and climatic margins of a species' range. We used herbarium and iNaturalist.org records to identify P. coulteri sites, generated a species distribution model based on temperature, precipitation, climatic water deficit, and actual evapotranspiration, and projected suitability under future climate scenarios. In fourteen populations from the central to northern portions of the range, we conducted field studies and recorded elevation, slope and aspect (to estimate solar insolation) to examine relationships between local and regional distributions. We found that northern populations of P. coulteri do not occupy the cold or wet edge of the species' climatic range; mid-latitude, high elevation populations occupy the cold margin. Aspect and insolation of P. coulteri populations changed significantly across latitudes and elevations. Unexpectedly, northern, low-elevation stands occupy north-facing aspects and receive low insolation, while central, high-elevation stands grow on more south-facing aspects that receive higher insolation. Modeled future climate suitability is projected to be highest in the central, high elevation portion of the species range, and in low-lying coastal regions under some scenarios, with declining suitability in northern areas under most future scenarios. For P. coulteri, the lack of high elevation habitat combined with a major dispersal barrier may limit northward movement in response to a warming climate. Our analyses demonstrate the importance of distinguishing geographically vs. climatically marginal populations, and the

  14. On the geographic distribution of Scarabaeus (Scarabaeus aegyptiacus Stolfa, 1938 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: first record from Atlantic Sahara (southwestern Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Ruiz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Scarabaeus aegyptiacus is a species widely distributed from the Arabian Peninsula to Morocco, occupying mainly arid and desert regions. Despite its wide geographic range, the number of known localities is very low (ten locations and its populations seem apparently fragmented and spaced. During a recent field survey in southwestern Morocco, we found a population of S. aegyptiacus in a rocky steppe (hamada near Msied (Tan-Tan province, Guelmin-Smara region, which constitutes the first record from Atlantic Sahara and extends about 1000 km to the southwest its known distribution. The specimens were found in a water cistern (“matfiya” in the local language, infrastructure that acts as a deadly trap for many animals, especially reptiles, amphibians and epigean arthropods, whose negative effect on invertebrate communities has not yet been evaluated. Chorological information of the species is synthesized and data on the habitat are provided.

  15. The Spatial Scope of Competition and the Geographical Distribution of Entrepreneurship: Magazine Foundings and the U.S. Post Office

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather A. Haveman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose that the geographic distribution of entrepreneurship evolves as developing communication systems alter the spatial scope of competition Our arguments imply that as spatial barriers to communication diminish founding events will be less sensitive to local context and more sensitive to distant competition. We test this argument with data on the first modern communication system, the US post office, and foundings of organizations that depended on it for distribution: magazine-publishing ventures. We find that as the postal system expanded, the spatial scope of competition among magazines increased: magazines in distant locations exerted more negative effects on local founding rates, whereas magazines in the focal location exerted less positive effects on local founding rates These findings reveal how spatial barriers to competition shape the geography of entrepreneurial activity.

  16. Geographic distribution of Research Groups and their publications on diet and exercise interventions in cancer in the Brazilian territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Ferreira de Jesus Leite

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Aims This study promoted a screening of the geographical distribution and scientific production of the Brazilian research groups on interventions with diet and/or exercise in cancer. Methods A systematic search on the current basis of the Directory of Research Groups of the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development was done to collect information such as name of group; name of leader; unit of federation; institution; year of creation; number of researchers, students and technicians; and the group's knowledge sub-area. All leaders' curricula were accessed to screen their general publications on cancer and their specific publications on nutrition, exercise and cancer. The publications were classified according to the QUALIS (2015 criteria of the Coordination of Improvement of Higher Education Personnel in the Physical Education area. Results The Southeast has the highest number of active groups, but the North has no registered groups. The Midwest concentrates the largest number of members in its research groups and the largest overall scientific production on cancer, but the Southeast presents the largest specific production on nutrition, physical exercise and cancer. Most of the specific publications were B2. Conclusion Research groups and scientific contributions involving this knowledge field need to be encouraged and better distributed geographically throughout the Brazilian territory.

  17. The Impact of Global Climate Change on the Geographic Distribution and Sustainable Harvest of Hancornia speciosa Gomes (Apocynaceae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabout, João Carlos; Magalhães, Mara Rúbia; de Amorim Gomes, Marcos Aurélio; da Cunha, Hélida Ferreira

    2016-04-01

    The global Climate change may affect biodiversity and the functioning of ecosystems by changing the appropriate locations for the development and establishment of the species. The Hancornia speciosa, popularly called Mangaba, is a plant species that has potential commercial value and contributes to rural economic activities in Brazil. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of global climate change on the potential geographic distribution, productivity, and value of production of H. speciosa in Brazil. We used MaxEnt to estimate the potential geographic distribution of the species in current and future (2050) climate scenarios. We obtained the productivity and value of production for 74 municipalities in Brazil. Moreover, to explain the variation the productivity and value of production, we constructed 15 models based on four variables: two ecological (ecological niche model and the presence of Unity of conservation) and two socio-economic (gross domestic product and human developed index). The models were selected using Akaike Information Criteria. Our results suggest that municipalities currently harvesting H. speciosa will have lower harvest rates in the future (mainly in northeastern Brazil). The best model to explain the productivity was ecological niche model; thus, municipalities with higher productivity are inserted in regions with higher environmental suitability (indicated by niche model). Thus, in the future, the municipalities harvesting H. speciosa will produce less because there will be less suitable habitat for H. speciosa, which in turn will affect the H. speciosa harvest and the local economy.

  18. The Impact of Global Climate Change on the Geographic Distribution and Sustainable Harvest of Hancornia speciosa Gomes (Apocynaceae) in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabout, João Carlos; Magalhães, Mara Rúbia; de Amorim Gomes, Marcos Aurélio; da Cunha, Hélida Ferreira

    2016-04-01

    The global Climate change may affect biodiversity and the functioning of ecosystems by changing the appropriate locations for the development and establishment of the species. The Hancornia speciosa, popularly called Mangaba, is a plant species that has potential commercial value and contributes to rural economic activities in Brazil. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of global climate change on the potential geographic distribution, productivity, and value of production of H. speciosa in Brazil. We used MaxEnt to estimate the potential geographic distribution of the species in current and future (2050) climate scenarios. We obtained the productivity and value of production for 74 municipalities in Brazil. Moreover, to explain the variation the productivity and value of production, we constructed 15 models based on four variables: two ecological (ecological niche model and the presence of Unity of conservation) and two socio-economic (gross domestic product and human developed index). The models were selected using Akaike Information Criteria. Our results suggest that municipalities currently harvesting H. speciosa will have lower harvest rates in the future (mainly in northeastern Brazil). The best model to explain the productivity was ecological niche model; thus, municipalities with higher productivity are inserted in regions with higher environmental suitability (indicated by niche model). Thus, in the future, the municipalities harvesting H. speciosa will produce less because there will be less suitable habitat for H. speciosa, which in turn will affect the H. speciosa harvest and the local economy.

  19. Geographic distribution and relative abundance of the invasive glassy-winged sharpshooter: effects of temperature and egg parasitoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Andrew Paul; Ponti, Luigi; Hoddle, Mark; Almeida, Rodrigo P P; Irvin, Nicola A

    2011-08-01

    The capacity to predict the geographic distribution and relative abundance of invasive species is pivotal to developing policy for eradication or control and management. Commonly used methods fall under the ambit of ecological niche models (ENMs). These methods were reviewed and shortcomings identified. Weather-driven physiologically based demographic models (PBDMs) are proposed that resolve many of the deficiencies of ENMs. The PBDM approach is used to analyze the invasiveness of the polyphagous glassy-winged sharpshooter (Homalodisca vitripennis [Germar]), a pest native to the southeastern United States and northeastern Mexico that extended its range into California in 1989. Glassy-winged sharpshooter vectors the pathogenic bacterium, Xylella fastidiosa (Wells) that causes Pierce's disease in grape and scorch-like diseases in other plants. PBDMs for glassy-winged sharpshooter and its egg parasitoids (Gonatocerus ashmeadi Girault and G. triguttatus Girault) were developed and linked to a PBDM for grape published by Wermelinger et al. (1991). Daily weather data from 108 locations across California for the period 1995-2006 were used to drive the PBDM system, and GRASS GIS was used to map the simulation results. The geographic distribution of glassy-winged sharpshooter, as observed, is predicted to be largely restricted to the warm areas of southern California, with the action of the two egg parasitoids reducing its abundance >90%. The average indispensable mortality contributed by G. triguttatus is central valley of California. The utility of holistic analyses for formulating control policy and tactics for invasive species is discussed.

  20. Geographic variability in elevation and topographic constraints on the distribution of native and nonnative trout in the Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Dana R.; Dunham, Jason B.; Hockman-Wert, David

    2014-01-01

    Understanding local and geographic factors influencing species distributions is a prerequisite for conservation planning. Our objective in this study was to model local and geographic variability in elevations occupied by native and nonnative trout in the northwestern Great Basin, USA. To this end, we analyzed a large existing data set of trout presence (5,156 observations) to evaluate two fundamental factors influencing occupied elevations: climate-related gradients in geography and local constraints imposed by topography. We applied quantile regression to model upstream and downstream distribution elevation limits for each trout species commonly found in the region (two native and two nonnative species). With these models in hand, we simulated an upstream shift in elevation limits of trout distributions to evaluate potential consequences of habitat loss. Downstream elevation limits were inversely associated with latitude, reflecting regional gradients in temperature. Upstream limits were positively related to maximum stream elevation as expected. Downstream elevation limits were constrained topographically by valley bottom elevations in northern streams but not in southern streams, where limits began well above valley bottoms. Elevation limits were similar among species. Upstream shifts in elevation limits for trout would lead to more habitat loss in the north than in the south, a result attributable to differences in topography. Because downstream distributions of trout in the north extend into valley bottoms with reduced topographic relief, trout in more northerly latitudes are more likely to experience habitat loss associated with an upstream shift in lower elevation limits. By applying quantile regression to relatively simple information (species presence, elevation, geography, topography), we were able to identify elevation limits for trout in the Great Basin and explore the effects of potential shifts in these limits that could occur in response to changing

  1. Geographic distributions of Idh-1 alleles in a cricket are linked to differential enzyme kinetic performance across thermal environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huestis Diana L

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geographic clines within species are often interpreted as evidence of adaptation to varying environmental conditions. However, clines can also result from genetic drift, and these competing hypotheses must therefore be tested empirically. The striped ground cricket, Allonemobius socius, is widely-distributed in the eastern United States, and clines have been documented in both life-history traits and genetic alleles. One clinally-distributed locus, isocitrate dehydrogenase (Idh-1, has been shown previously to exhibit significant correlations between allele frequencies and environmental conditions (temperature and rainfall. Further, an empirical study revealed a significant genotype-by-environmental interaction (GxE between Idh-1 genotype and temperature which affected fitness. Here, we use enzyme kinetics to further explore GxE between Idh-1 genotype and temperature, and test the predictions of kinetic activity expected under drift or selection. Results We found significant GxE between temperature and three enzyme kinetic parameters, providing further evidence that the natural distributions of Idh-1 allele frequencies in A. socius are maintained by natural selection. Differences in enzyme kinetic activity across temperatures also mirror many of the geographic patterns observed in allele frequencies. Conclusion This study further supports the hypothesis that the natural distribution of Idh-1 alleles in A. socius is driven by natural selection on differential enzymatic performance. This example is one of several which clearly document a functional basis for both the maintenance of common alleles and observed clines in allele frequencies, and provides further evidence for the non-neutrality of some allozyme alleles.

  2. The geographical distribution of grey wolves (Canis lupus) in China: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Ma, Ya-Ping; Zhou, Qi-Jun; Zhang, Ya-Ping; Savolaimen, Peter; Wang, Guo-Dong

    2016-11-18

    The grey wolf ( Canis lupus ) is one of the most widely distributed terrestrial mammals, and its distribution and ecology in Europe and North America are largely well described. However, the distribution of grey wolf in southern China is still highly controversial. Several well-known western literatures stated that there are no grey wolves in southern China, while the presence of grey wolf across China has been indicated in A Guide to the Mammals of China , published by Princeton University Press. It is essential to solve this discrepancy since dogs may have originated from grey wolfs in southern China. Therefore, we systematically investigated Chinese literatures about wild animal surveys and identified more than 100 articles and books that included information of the distribution of grey wolves in China. We also surveyed the collections of three Chinese natural museums and found 26 grey wolf skins specimens collected across China. Moreover, we investigated the fossil records of wolf in China and identified 25 archaeological sites with wolf remains including south China. In conclusion, with the comprehensive summary of Chinese literatures, museum specimens and fossil records, we demonstrate that grey wolves does distribute across all parts of the Chinese mainland, including the most southern parts of China.

  3. Human papillomavirus prevalence and type-distribution in cervical glandular neoplasias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holl, Katsiaryna; Nowakowski, Andrzej M; Powell, Ned

    2015-01-01

    Cervical glandular neoplasias (CGN) present a challenge for cervical cancer prevention due to their complex histopathology and difficulties in detecting preinvasive stages with current screening practices. Reports of human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and type-distribution in CGN vary, providi...

  4. Gender and geographic differences in the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders in children: analysis of data from the national disability registry of Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Der-Chung; Tseng, Yen-Cheng; Hou, Yuh-Ming; Guo, How-Ran

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in the world has increased dramatically in the recent decades. However, data at the national level are limited, and geographic differences are seldom evaluated. According to the law, the local governments in Taiwan began to certify disabled residents and provide various services in 1980, and the central government maintains a registry of certified cases. The registry started to enroll cases of ASD in 1990, providing a unique opportunity for studying ASD at the national level. Because the government discourages the certification under 3 years of age, we limited our analyses to those who were at least 3 years old. Using the registry data from 2004 to 2010, we calculated the prevalence of ASD by age, gender, and geographic area and assessed the changes over time. From 2004 to 2010, the registered cases between 3 and 17 years old increased from 3995 to 8072 annually, and the prevalence generally increased every year in all age groups (p<0.01). In each year there were more boy cases than girl cases, and the prevalence rate ratio ranged from 5.64:1 to 6.06:1 (p<0.01 in all years), with an increasing trend over time (p<0.01). A higher prevalence was observed in the urban areas over the years, and the prevalence rate ratio ranged from 2.24:1 to 2.72:1 (p<0.01 in all years), with a decreasing trend over time (p<0.01). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Geographical Variation in Prevalence of Cryptococcal Antigenemia among HIV-infected Treatment-Naïve Patients in Nigeria: A multicenter cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeanolue, Echezona E.; Nwizu, Chidi; Greene, Gregory S.; Amusu, Olatilewa; Chukwuka, Chinwe; Ndembi, Nicaise; Smith, Rachel M.; Chiller, Tom; Pharr, Jennifer; Kozel, Thomas R

    2016-01-01

    Objective Worldwide, HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis affects approximately 1 million persons and causes 600,000 deaths each year mostly in sub-Sharan Africa. Limited data exist on cryptococcal meningitis and antigenemia in Nigeria, and most studies are geographically restricted. We determined the prevalence of cryptococcal antigenemia (CrAg) among HIV-infected treatment-naïve individuals in Nigeria. Design/Methods This was a retrospective, cross-sectional study across four geographic regions in Nigeria. We performed CrAg testing using a lateral flow immunoassay on archived whole blood samples collected from HIV-infected participants at US PEPFAR-supported sites selected to represent the major geographical and ethnic diversity in Nigeria. Eligible samples were (1) stored in an -80° freezer; (2) collected from consenting patients (>15 years) naïve to antiretroviral therapy with CD4+ count less than 200 cells/mm3. Results A total of 2,752 stored blood samples were retrospectively screened for CrAg. A majority of samples were from participants aged 30 - 44 (57.6%), and 1,570 (57.1%) were from women. The prevalence of CrAg positivity in specimens with CD4 < 200 cells/mm3 was 2.3% (95% CI = 1.8%-3.0%), and varied significantly across the four regions (p < 0.001). At 4.4% (3.2%-5.9%), the South East contained the highest prevalence. Conclusion The significant regional variation in CrAg prevalence found in Nigeria should be taken into consideration as plans are made to integrate routine screening into clinical care for HIV-infected patients. PMID:27144527

  6. Ring distributions leading to species formation: a global topographic analysis of geographic barriers associated with ring species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, William B; Pereira, Ricardo J; Wake, David B

    2012-03-12

    In the mid 20th century, Ernst Mayr and Theodosius Dobzhansky championed the significance of circular overlaps or ring species as the perfect demonstration of speciation, yet in the over 50 years since, only a handful of such taxa are known. We developed a topographic model to evaluate whether the geographic barriers that favor processes leading to ring species are common or rare, and to predict where other candidate ring barriers might be found. Of the 952,147 geographic barriers identified on the planet, only about 1% are topographically similar to barriers associated with known ring taxa, with most of the likely candidates occurring in under-studied parts of the world (for example, marine environments, tropical latitudes). Predicted barriers separate into two distinct categories: (i) single cohesive barriers (barriers - formed by groups of barriers (each 184,000 to 1.7 million km2) in close geographic proximity (totaling 1.9 to 2.3 million km2) - associated with taxa that differentiate at larger spatial scales (birds: Phylloscopus trochiloides and Larus (sp. argentatus and fuscus)). When evaluated globally, we find a large number of cohesive barriers that are topographically similar to those associated with known ring taxa. Yet, compared to cohesive barriers, an order of magnitude fewer composite barriers are similar to those that favor ring divergence in species with higher dispersal. While these findings confirm that the topographic conditions that favor evolutionary processes leading to ring speciation are, in fact, rare, they also suggest that many understudied natural systems could provide valuable demonstrations of continuous divergence towards the formation of new species. Distinct advantages of the model are that it (i) requires no a priori information on the relative importance of features that define barriers, (ii) can be replicated using any kind of continuously distributed environmental variable, and (iii) generates spatially explicit hypotheses of

  7. Ring distributions leading to species formation: a global topographic analysis of geographic barriers associated with ring species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monahan William B

    2012-03-01

    relative importance of features that define barriers, (ii can be replicated using any kind of continuously distributed environmental variable, and (iii generates spatially explicit hypotheses of geographic species formation. The methods developed here - combined with study of the geographical ecology and genetics of taxa in their environments - should enable recognition of ring species phenomena throughout the world.

  8. A Tabu Search WSN Deployment Method for Monitoring Geographically Irregular Distributed Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we address the Wireless Sensor Network (WSN deployment issue. We assume that the observed area is characterized by the geographical irregularity of the sensed events. Formally, we consider that each point in the deployment area is associated a differentiated detection probability threshold, which must be satisfied by our deployment method. Our resulting WSN deployment problem is formulated as a Multi-Objectives Optimization problem, which seeks to reduce the gap between the generated events detection probabilities and the required thresholds while minimizing the number of deployed sensors. To overcome the computational complexity of an exact resolution, we propose an original pseudo-random approach based on the Tabu Search heuristic. Simulations show that our proposal achieves better performances than several other approaches proposed in the literature. In the last part of this paper, we generalize the deployment problem by including the wireless communication network connectivity constraint. Thus, we extend our proposal to ensure that the resulting WSN topology is connected even if a sensor communication range takes small values.

  9. A Tabu Search WSN Deployment Method for Monitoring Geographically Irregular Distributed Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitsaadi, Nadjib; Achir, Nadjib; Boussetta, Khaled; Pujolle, Guy

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we address the Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) deployment issue. We assume that the observed area is characterized by the geographical irregularity of the sensed events. Formally, we consider that each point in the deployment area is associated a differentiated detection probability threshold, which must be satisfied by our deployment method. Our resulting WSN deployment problem is formulated as a Multi-Objectives Optimization problem, which seeks to reduce the gap between the generated events detection probabilities and the required thresholds while minimizing the number of deployed sensors. To overcome the computational complexity of an exact resolution, we propose an original pseudo-random approach based on the Tabu Search heuristic. Simulations show that our proposal achieves better performances than several other approaches proposed in the literature. In the last part of this paper, we generalize the deployment problem by including the wireless communication network connectivity constraint. Thus, we extend our proposal to ensure that the resulting WSN topology is connected even if a sensor communication range takes small values.

  10. The distribution of the prevalence of ocular chlamydial infection in communities where trachoma is disappearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M. Lietman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical models predict that the prevalence of infection in different communities where an infectious disease is disappearing should approach a geometric distribution. Trachoma programs offer an opportunity to test this hypothesis, as the World Health Organization (WHO has targeted trachoma to be eliminated as a public health concern by the year 2020. We assess the distribution of the community prevalence of childhood ocular chlamydia infection from periodic, cross-sectional surveys in two areas of Ethiopia. These surveys were taken in a controlled setting, where infection was documented to be disappearing over time. For both sets of surveys, the geometric distribution had the most parsimonious fit of the distributions tested, and goodness-of-fit testing was consistent with the prevalence of each community being drawn from a geometric distribution. When infection is disappearing, the single sufficient parameter describing a geometric distribution captures much of the distributional information found from examining every community. The relatively heavy tail of the geometric suggests that the presence of an occasional high-prevalence community is to be expected, and does not necessarily reflect a transmission hot spot or program failure. A single cross-sectional survey can reveal which direction a program is heading. A geometric distribution of the prevalence of infection across communities may be an encouraging sign, consistent with a disease on its way to eradication.

  11. Distribution and geographical variation of the White-tailed Hawk (Buteo albicaudatus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voous, K.H.

    1968-01-01

    The present knowledge on infraspecific variation, distribution, and migration of the White-tailed Hawk ( Buteo albicaudatus Vieillot) is critically reviewed. In practically every aspect knowledge is highly inadequate. Size variation (tables I—IV) is in accordance with Bergmann’s Phenomenon, but does

  12. Distribution and geographic variation of the Ameivas of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heatwole, Harold; Torres, Frank

    1967-01-01

    The broad outlines of the taxonomy and distribution of the Antillean ameivas have been sketched by BARBOUR & NOBLE (1915). Two principal ancestral stocks were recognized: (1) One gave rise to the Ameiva ameiva group whose center of origin and dispersal was northeastern South America, and which

  13. Geographical distribution of radiation risk unaccountable by direct exposure dose in hiroshima A-bomb victims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonda, Tetsuji; Satoh, Kenichi; Ohani, Keiko

    2012-01-01

    Death risks due to solid cancer were estimated from region to region where the A-bomb survivors had been actually exposed, to visualize the risk distribution on the map, which resulting in risk regional difference that had been unaccountable by direct exposure dose estimation. Analysis was performed with 3 hazard models of the previous one, + direct exposed dose as a confounding factor and, further, + spatial distance from the explosion point. Subjects were 37,382 A-bomb survivors at Jan. 1, 1970 with known positional coordinate at explosion, followed until Dec. 31, 2009, whose endpoint was set by 4,371 deaths due to cancer except leukemia, cancers of thyroid and breast. Confounding factors in the previous hazard model were sex, age at the exposure, dose and shielding. With the previous model, risk distribution was observed in a concentric circular region around the hypocenter and in an additional west to northwestern suburbs. The latter risk distribution was also seen with the second model in the same region, where dose decreased with -7 powers of the distance. When adjusted with -3 powers of the distance with the third model, the actual risk distribution was found best fitted, indicating the presence of distance-dependent risk. It was suggested that the region exposed to additional dose possibly derived from fallout had been the actual black rainfall area as those regions agreed with each other. (T.T.)

  14. Hosts, seasonality and geographic distribution of the South African tortoise tick, Amblyomma marmoreum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.G. Horak

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The tortoise tick Amblyomma marmoreum was collected from large numbers of reptiles and other animals during the course of numerous surveys conducted in South Africa. A total of 1 229 ticks, of which 550 were adults, were recovered from 309 reptiles belonging to 13 species, with leopard tortoises, Geochelone pardalis being the most heavily infested. The 269 birds sampled harboured 4 901 larvae, 217 nymphs and no adult ticks, and the prevalence of infestation was greatest on hel meted guinea fowls, Numida meleagris. Only two larvae were recovered from 610 rodents, including 31 spring hares, Pedetes capensis, whereas 1 144 other small mammals yielded 1 835 immature ticks, of which 1 655 were collected from 623 scrub hares, Lepus saxatilis. The 213 carnivores examined harboured 2 459 ticks of which none were adult. A single adult tick and 6 684 larvae and 62 nymphs were recovered from 656 large herbivores, and a total of 4 081 immature ticks and three adults were collected from 1 543 domestic animals and 194 humans. Adult male and female A. marmoreum were most numerous on reptiles during January and February, and larvae during March. The largest numbers of larvae were present on domestic cattle and helmeted guineafowls in the Eastern Cape Province during March or April respectively, whereas larvae were most numerous on helmeted guineafowls, scrub hares and the vegetation in north-eastern Mpumalanga Province during May. In both provinces nymphs were most numerous between October and December. Amblyomma marmoreum appears to be most prevalent in the western regions of the Western and Eastern Cape and Free State provinces, and the north-eastern regions of the Northern Cape, KwaZulu- Natal, Mpumulanga and Limpopo provinces.

  15. Prevalence and distribution of malaria, Pfcrt , Pfmdr 1 Genes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at evaluating the distribution of malaria, Plasmodium falciparum resistant chloroquine transporter (Pfrct), and Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistant (Pfmdr 1) mutant genes amongst residents of Benin metropolis, was carried out during the period between October 2008 and April 2010. Seven hundred ...

  16. prevalence and age distribution of peripheral hamartomas in adult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-07-24

    Jul 24, 1990 ... However, the majority of deaths occurred in" the sixth decade in the autopsy population and in the seventh in the general population. The age distribution in black autopsy cases was, however, very different from that of blacks in the general population (Fig. 1). The cases of peripheral pulmonary hamartomas ...

  17. The Assessment of Inequality in the Geographical Distribution of Burn Beds in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geravandi, Sara; Najafi, Marziye; Rajaee, Roya; Mahmoudi, Saeid; Pakdaman, Mohsen

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, the World Health Organization (WHO) has emphasized the importance of determining the equality of the distribution of healthcare resources. Inequalities in the healthcare system are one of the world's most important developmental challenges, and the inefficiencies that exist in healthcare systems are the most important reason for these challenges. Thermal burns are one of the common injuries worldwide, and their effects are a significant reason for the mortality and morbidity rates throughout the world. Considering the importance of burns as one of the 30 leading causes of death in Iran, this study was aimed to compare the distribution of burn beds with its disability-adjusted life years (DALY) in Iran. This applied analytic-descriptive study was conducted in order to determine the distribution of burn beds in Iran using the Lorenz curve. In this way, the distribution of burn beds was analyzed in relation to the population of each province and lost DALY caused by burns in Iran. For each province, the number of burn beds in 2012 was collected from credible and authoritative sources at the Ministry of Health, and the population of each province was obtained using data from the National Center of Statistics. The data were analyzed and presented using Microsoft Office Excel. Isfahan and Khorasan Razavi Provinces had approximately 11 and 10.4% of the country's burn beds, respectively. The Provinces that had the most DALY were Sistan Baluchestan, Fars, and Kerman with 10.75%, 10.34%, and 9.54%, respectively. The Gini coefficients of burn beds in relation to population and DALY were calculated as 0.09 and 0.16, respectively. The Gini coefficients in relation to population and DALY were less than 0.2. Although the Gini coefficient of the burn beds in relation to DALY was more than that for the population, the difference was not significant, and the distributions of beds regarding the two calculated coefficients were equal. It is recommended that healthcare

  18. Geographic distribution and habitat diversity of the Barbary Macaque sylvanus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taub, D M

    1977-01-01

    During a 15-month behavioral study in Morocco and a 3-month survey in Morocco and Algeria, the present distribution of the Barbary macaque was determined. In Algeria, monkeys are found in seven constricted and disjunct localities in the Grande and Petite Kabylie mountain ranges. These localities are severely restricted in space and are located in remote or inaccessible areas which support only small populations. Their habitats include mixed cedar and holm oak forests, humid Portuguese and cork oak mixes and gorges dominated by scrub vegetation. In only two regions (Guerrouch and Agfadou) can population of reasonable size be found; even there they do not approach the abundance found in the central Middle Atlas zone of Morocco. Distribution was more extensive earlier in this century and some areas have become unoccupied within the past 15 years. Today, their absolute numbers and population densities are low in all but two locations. Algeria contains approximately 23% (5,500 maximum) of the total number of surviving Barbary macaques in North Africa. About 77% of the total number of Barbary macaques occur in Morocco. Moroccan habitats include high cedar forests, cedar/holm-oak mixtures and pure holm oak forests. Macaque distribution in the High Atlas is restricted to the Ourika valley where only a small relict population survives. There are between five and eight small, disjunct forest pockets in the Rif which support small groups of monkeys. In the Middle Atlas, monkeys are found in high numbers and in relatively wide stretches of distribution, although there are constricted areas of low densities in this region also. 65% (14,000 maximum) of the animals and their highest densities occur in the high mixed cedar forests of the Central zone, and mixed cedar forest appears to be the preferred habitat for the species. With the exception of the Central zone, their remaining distribution is typically disjunct and constricted, and population densities aer low. As in Algeria

  19. Geographical Distribution of Biomass Carbon in Tropical Southeast Asian Forests: A Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, S.

    2002-02-07

    A database was generated of estimates of geographically referenced carbon densities of forest vegetation in tropical Southeast Asia for 1980. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to incorporate spatial databases of climatic, edaphic, and geomorphological indices and vegetation to estimate potential (i.e., in the absence of human intervention and natural disturbance) carbon densities of forests. The resulting map was then modified to estimate actual 1980 carbon density as a function of population density and climatic zone. The database covers the following 13 countries: Bangladesh, Brunei, Cambodia (Campuchea), India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar (Burma), Nepal, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam. The data sets within this database are provided in three file formats: ARC/INFO{trademark} exported integer grids, ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) files formatted for raster-based GIS software packages, and generic ASCII files with x, y coordinates for use with non-GIS software packages. This database includes ten ARC/INFO exported integer grid files (five with the pixel size 3.75 km x 3.75 km and five with the pixel size 0.25 degree longitude x 0.25 degree latitude) and 27 ASCII files. The first ASCII file contains the documentation associated with this database. Twenty-four of the ASCII files were generated by means of the ARC/INFO GRIDASCII command and can be used by most raster-based GIS software packages. The 24 files can be subdivided into two groups of 12 files each. These files contain real data values representing actual carbon and potential carbon density in Mg C/ha (1 megagram = 10{sup 6} grams) and integer- coded values for country name, Weck's Climatic Index, ecofloristic zone, elevation, forest or non-forest designation, population density, mean annual precipitation, slope, soil texture, and vegetation classification. One set of 12 files contains these data at a spatial resolution of 3.75 km

  20. Geographical Distribution of Biomass Carbon in Tropical Southeast Asian Forests: A Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, S

    2001-05-22

    A database was generated of estimates of geographically referenced carbon densities of forest vegetation in tropical Southeast Asia for 1980. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to incorporate spatial databases of climatic, edaphic, and geomorphological indices and vegetation to estimate potential (i.e., in the absence of human intervention and natural disturbance) carbon densities of forests. The resulting map was then modified to estimate actual 1980 carbon density as a function of population density and climatic zone. The database covers the following 13 countries: Bangladesh, Brunei, Cambodia (Campuchea), India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar (Burma), Nepal, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam. The data sets within this database are provided in three file formats: ARC/INFOTM exported integer grids, ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) files formatted for raster-based GIS software packages, and generic ASCII files with x, y coordinates for use with non-GIS software packages. This database includes ten ARC/INFO exported integer grid files (five with the pixel size 3.75 km x 3.75 km and five with the pixel size 0.25 degree longitude x 0.25 degree latitude) and 27 ASCII files. The first ASCII file contains the documentation associated with this database. Twenty-four of the ASCII files were generated by means of the ARC/INFO GRIDASCII command and can be used by most raster-based GIS software packages. The 24 files can be subdivided into two groups of 12 files each. These files contain real data values representing actual carbon and potential carbon density in Mg C/ha (1 megagram = 10{sup 6} grams) and integer-coded values for country name, Weck's Climatic Index, ecofloristic zone, elevation, forest or non-forest designation, population density, mean annual precipitation, slope, soil texture, and vegetation classification. One set of 12 files contains these data at a spatial resolution of 3.75 km, whereas the

  1. Geographical distribution for malignant neoplasm of the pancreas in relation to selected climatic factors in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okada Masafumi

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malignant neoplasm of the pancreas has become one of the leading causes of death from malignant neoplasm in Japan (the 5th in 2003. Although smoking is believed to be a risk factor, other risk factors remain unclear. Mortality from malignant neoplasm of the pancreas tends to be higher in northern Japan and in northern European countries. A recent study reported that standardized mortality ratios (SMRs for malignant neoplasm of the pancreas were negatively correlated to global solar radiation level. People residing in regions with lower solar radiation and lower temperatures may be at higher risk of development of malignant neoplasm of the pancreas. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the relationship between SMRs for malignant neoplasm of the pancreas and climatic factors, such as the amount of global solar radiation and the daily maximum temperature in Japan. Results The study used multiple linear regression models. Number of deaths and demographic data from 1998 to 2002 were used for the calculation of SMR. We employed mesh climatic data for Japan published in 2006 by the Japan Meteorological Agency. Regression coefficients for the amount of global solar radiation and the daily maximum temperature in males were -4.35 (p = 0.00034 and -2.81 (p Conclusion This study suggested that low solar radiation and low temperature might relate to the increasing risk of malignant neoplasm of the pancreas. Use of group data has a limitation in the case of evaluating environmental factors affecting health, since the impact of climatic factors on the human body varies according to individual lifestyles and occupations. Use of geographical mesh climatic data, however, proved useful as an index of risk or beneficial factors in a small study area. Further research using individual data is necessary to elucidate the relationship between climatic factors and the development of malignant neoplasm of the pancreas.

  2. Geographic distribution of the tortoises and freshwater turtles of Colombia and their representation in the protected area network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forero Medina, German; Yusti Munoz, Ana Paola; Castano Mora, Olga V

    2014-01-01

    Colombia has a remarkable diversity of tortoises and freshwater turtles. However, a considerable portion of these species is threatened, and for others there is not enough information to make an adequate evaluation of their conservation status. This study is a first approximation to the quantitative evaluation of the geographic distribution of Colombia's non-marine chelonians. Based on records of occurrence for each species, we evaluated the geographic distribution using statistical models (maxent), hydrological basins, and the extent of occurrence and area of occupancy. Based on the presence data and the models, we studied the representation of each species in national natural parks (NNP), which correspond to the most rigorous conservation category of IUCN classification in Colombia, and other types of protected areas such as private reserves. We generated distribution models and estimated the area (km 2 ) for 25 out of 27 species in the country. This information will be valuable for updating and evaluating the threat categories at the national level. The areas with the highest species richness correspond to the riverine ecosystems of the Amazon and Orinoco River Basins and the Caribbean Region, particularly the Western Caribbean. This region is a top priority not only because of its richness but also because of the presence of endemics and its high level of threat. Only 56 % of the species have confirmed records within national parks. A greater portion could be present in these areas according to the statistical models, but only ten of those species would have more than 10 % of their ranges within a park's boundary. Although the resulting models have certain limitations due to the nature of the data and analyses, they can be a starting point for research on the occurrence of turtles in NNP. Endemic species are poorly represented in protected areas, both in NNP and in other categories. Thus, protected areas that can assure the persistence of their

  3. Predicting geographic and ecological distributions of triatomine species in the southern Mexican state of Puebla using ecological niche modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval-Ruiz, C A; Zumaquero-Rios, J L; Rojas-Soto, O R

    2008-05-01

    We analyzed the geographic distribution using ecological niche modeling of three species of triatomines distributed in the Mexican state of Puebla. Punctual records were gathered for a period of 5 yr of fieldwork sampling. We used the genetic algorithm for rule-set production (GARP) to achieve the potential distribution of the ecological niche of triatomines. The models showed that Triatoma barberi and Meccus pallidipennis are sympatric and widely distributed in the central-southern part of the state, whereas T. dimidata is restricted to the northern mountains of the state with no overlapping among other species, M. bassolsae was not modeled because of the scarce number of locality records. We highlighted the warm and dry conditions in southern Puebla as important potential areas for triatomine presence. Finally, we correlated the species potential presence with the human population at risk of acquiring Chagas disease by vector-borne transmission; it is showed that M. pallidipennis presents the highest values of both ecological and poverty risk scenarios representing the main potential vector in the state.

  4. Geographic conditions for distribution of agriculture and potentials for tourism development on Mokra mountain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Marko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This work considers important natural conditions of distribution of agricultural production, cattle breeding in particular, and also potentials for tourism development on Mokra mountain. Half-nomadic cattle breeding in mountain settlements was highly developed in recent past. It represented the main source of existence for local highlanders. Today it is neglected and in phase of dying out. The mountain disposes with excellent natural potentials for ecological and mountain tourism, but these potentials are unused.

  5. Improved Predictions of the Geographic Distribution of Invasive Plants Using Climatic Niche Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Albores, Jorge E; Bustamante, Ramiro O; Badano, Ernesto I

    2016-01-01

    Climatic niche models for invasive plants are usually constructed with occurrence records taken from literature and collections. Because these data neither discriminate among life-cycle stages of plants (adult or juvenile) nor the origin of individuals (naturally established or man-planted), the resulting models may mispredict the distribution ranges of these species. We propose that more accurate predictions could be obtained by modelling climatic niches with data of naturally established individuals, particularly with occurrence records of juvenile plants because this would restrict the predictions of models to those sites where climatic conditions allow the recruitment of the species. To test this proposal, we focused on the Peruvian peppertree (Schinus molle), a South American species that has largely invaded Mexico. Three climatic niche models were constructed for this species using high-resolution dataset gathered in the field. The first model included all occurrence records, irrespective of the life-cycle stage or origin of peppertrees (generalized niche model). The second model only included occurrence records of naturally established mature individuals (adult niche model), while the third model was constructed with occurrence records of naturally established juvenile plants (regeneration niche model). When models were compared, the generalized climatic niche model predicted the presence of peppertrees in sites located farther beyond the climatic thresholds that naturally established individuals can tolerate, suggesting that human activities influence the distribution of this invasive species. The adult and regeneration climatic niche models concurred in their predictions about the distribution of peppertrees, suggesting that naturally established adult trees only occur in sites where climatic conditions allow the recruitment of juvenile stages. These results support the proposal that climatic niches of invasive plants should be modelled with data of

  6. Predictions of potential geographical distribution and quality of Schisandra sphenanthera under climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanlong Guo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Climate change will significantly affect plant distribution as well as the quality of medicinal plants. Although numerous studies have analyzed the effect of climate change on future habitats of plants through species distribution models (SDMs, few of them have incorporated the change of effective content of medicinal plants. Schisandra sphenanthera Rehd. et Wils. is an endangered traditional Chinese medical plant which is mainly located in the Qinling Mountains. Combining fuzzy theory and a maximum entropy model, we obtained current spatial distribution of quality assessment for S. spenanthera. Moreover, the future quality and distribution of S. spenanthera were also projected for the periods 2020s, 2050s and 2080s under three different climate change scenarios (SRES-A1B, SRES-A2 and SRES-B1 emission scenarios described in the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES of IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The results showed that the moderately suitable habitat of S. sphenanthera under all climate change scenarios remained relatively stable in the study area. The highly suitable habitat of S. sphenanthera would gradually decrease in the future and a higher decline rate of the highly suitable habitat area would occur under climate change scenarios SRES-A1B and SRES-A2. The result suggested that in the study area, there would be no more highly suitable habitat areas for S. sphenanthera when the annual mean temperature exceeds 20 °C or its annual precipitation exceeds 1,200 mm. Our results will be influential in the future ecological conservation and management of S. sphenanthera and can be taken as a reference for habitat suitability assessment research for other medicinal plants.

  7. Alcohol beverage control, privatization and the geographic distribution of alcohol outlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grubesic Tony H

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With Pennsylvania currently considering a move away from an Alcohol Beverage Control state to a privatized alcohol distribution system, this study uses a spatial analytical approach to examine potential impacts of privatization on the number and spatial distribution of alcohol outlets in the city of Philadelphia over a long time horizon. Methods A suite of geospatial data were acquired for Philadelphia, including 1,964 alcohol outlet locations, 569,928 land parcels, and school, church, hospital, park and playground locations. These data were used as inputs for exploratory spatial analysis to estimate the expected number of outlets that would eventually operate in Philadelphia. Constraints included proximity restrictions (based on current ordinances regulating outlet distribution of at least 200 feet between alcohol outlets and at least 300 feet between outlets and schools, churches, hospitals, parks and playgrounds. Results Findings suggest that current state policies on alcohol outlet distributions in Philadelphia are loosely enforced, with many areas exhibiting extremely high spatial densities of outlets that violate existing proximity restrictions. The spatial model indicates that an additional 1,115 outlets could open in Philadelphia if privatization was to occur and current proximity ordinances were maintained. Conclusions The study reveals that spatial analytical approaches can function as an excellent tool for contingency-based “what-if” analysis, providing an objective snapshot of potential policy outcomes prior to implementation. In this case, the likely outcome is a tremendous increase in alcohol outlets in Philadelphia, with concomitant negative health, crime and quality of life outcomes that accompany such an increase.

  8. Geographic conditions for distribution of agriculture and potentials for tourism development on Mokra mountain

    OpenAIRE

    Knežević Marko; Knežević Danilo

    2009-01-01

    This work considers important natural conditions of distribution of agricultural production, cattle breeding in particular, and also potentials for tourism development on Mokra mountain. Half-nomadic cattle breeding in mountain settlements was highly developed in recent past. It represented the main source of existence for local highlanders. Today it is neglected and in phase of dying out. The mountain disposes with excellent natural potentials for ecological and mountain tourism, but these p...

  9. Geographic distribution of soluble salts, exchangeable sodium and calcium carbonate in the Caribbean Region of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulido, Carlos E

    2000-01-01

    A research was carried out to establish the distribution of soluble salts, exchangeable sodium and calcium carbonate in the soils of the Caribbean Region. The results show that 28,3% (3.506.033 ha) of the soils have problems related to salinity. The soils of the arid and semiarid zones and those belonging to the sea plain are affected severely by soluble salts, exchangeable sodium and calcium carbonate

  10. The distribution of ocular Chlamydia prevalence across Tanzanian communities where trachoma is declining.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman A Rahman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical models predict an exponential distribution of infection prevalence across communities where a disease is disappearing. Trachoma control programs offer an opportunity to test this hypothesis, as the World Health Organization has targeted trachoma for elimination as a public health concern by the year 2020. Local programs may benefit if a single survey could reveal whether infection was headed towards elimination. Using data from a previously-published 2009 survey, we test the hypothesis that Chlamydia trachomatis prevalence across 75 Tanzanian communities where trachoma had been documented to be disappearing is exponentially distributed.We fit multiple continuous distributions to the Tanzanian data and found the exponential gave the best approximation. Model selection by Akaike Information Criteria (AICc suggested the exponential distribution had the most parsimonious fit to the data. Those distributions which do not include the exponential as a special or limiting case had much lower likelihoods of fitting the observed data. 95% confidence intervals for shape parameter estimates of those distributions which do include the exponential as a special or limiting case were consistent with the exponential. Lastly, goodness-of-fit testing was unable to reject the hypothesis that the prevalence data came from an exponential distribution.Models correctly predict that infection prevalence across communities where a disease is disappearing is best described by an exponential distribution. In Tanzanian communities where local control efforts had reduced the clinical signs of trachoma by 80% over 10 years, an exponential distribution gave the best fit to prevalence data. An exponential distribution has a relatively heavy tail, thus occasional high-prevalence communities are to be expected even when infection is disappearing. A single cross-sectional survey may be able to reveal whether elimination efforts are on-track.

  11. The distribution of ocular Chlamydia prevalence across Tanzanian communities where trachoma is declining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Salman A; West, Sheila K; Mkocha, Harran; Munoz, Beatriz; Porco, Travis C; Keenan, Jeremy D; Lietman, Thomas M

    2015-03-01

    Mathematical models predict an exponential distribution of infection prevalence across communities where a disease is disappearing. Trachoma control programs offer an opportunity to test this hypothesis, as the World Health Organization has targeted trachoma for elimination as a public health concern by the year 2020. Local programs may benefit if a single survey could reveal whether infection was headed towards elimination. Using data from a previously-published 2009 survey, we test the hypothesis that Chlamydia trachomatis prevalence across 75 Tanzanian communities where trachoma had been documented to be disappearing is exponentially distributed. We fit multiple continuous distributions to the Tanzanian data and found the exponential gave the best approximation. Model selection by Akaike Information Criteria (AICc) suggested the exponential distribution had the most parsimonious fit to the data. Those distributions which do not include the exponential as a special or limiting case had much lower likelihoods of fitting the observed data. 95% confidence intervals for shape parameter estimates of those distributions which do include the exponential as a special or limiting case were consistent with the exponential. Lastly, goodness-of-fit testing was unable to reject the hypothesis that the prevalence data came from an exponential distribution. Models correctly predict that infection prevalence across communities where a disease is disappearing is best described by an exponential distribution. In Tanzanian communities where local control efforts had reduced the clinical signs of trachoma by 80% over 10 years, an exponential distribution gave the best fit to prevalence data. An exponential distribution has a relatively heavy tail, thus occasional high-prevalence communities are to be expected even when infection is disappearing. A single cross-sectional survey may be able to reveal whether elimination efforts are on-track.

  12. Geographical variations in the prevalence and management of cardiovascular risk factors in outpatients with CAD: Data from the contemporary CLARIFY registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Roberto; Ford, Ian; Greenlaw, Nicola; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Tendera, Michal; Abergel, Hélène; Fox, Kim; Hu, Dayi; Shalnova, Svetlana; Steg, Ph Gabriel

    2015-08-01

    To determine the current prevalence and control of major cardiovascular risk factors in stable CAD outpatients worldwide. We analysed variations in cardiovascular risk factors in stable CAD outpatients from CLARIFY, a 5-year observational longitudinal cohort study, in seven geographical zones (Western/Central Europe; Canada/South Africa/Australia/UK; Eastern Europe; Central/South America; Middle East; East Asia; and India). Patient presentation (N=32,954, mean age 64.2 years, 78% male) varied between zones, as did prevalence of risk factors (all p Africa/Australia/UK) to 65% (Eastern Europe), elevated heart rate (≥70 bpm) from 38% (Western/Central Europe) to 78% (India), diabetes from 17% (Eastern Europe) to 60% (Middle East), and smoking from 6% (Central/South America) to 19% (Eastern Europe). Aspirin and lipid-lowering drugs were widely used everywhere (≥84% and ≥88%, respectively). Rates of risk factor control varied geographically (all p Africa/Australia/UK), heart rate Africa/Australia/UK and Central/South America). Prevalence and control of major cardiovascular risk factors in stable CAD vary markedly worldwide. Many stable CAD outpatients are being treated suboptimally. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  13. Gender and geographic differences in the prevalence of intellectual disability in children: analysis of data from the national disability registry of Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Der-Chung; Tseng, Yen-Cheng; Hou, Yuh-Ming; Guo, How-Ran

    2012-01-01

    Intellectual disability (ID) is not uncommon in children, but data at the national level are limited, especially those on geographic differences. On the basis of the Disabled Welfare Law, Taiwan began to certify disabled residents and provide various services in 1980. All the cases are registered, and the registry provides a rare opportunity for studying ID at the national level. Using the data from 2004 to 2010, we calculated the prevalence of ID in children by age, gender, and geographic area and assessed the changes over time. We limited analyses to children at least 3 years of age, because certification before 3 years old is discouraged by the government. We found that from 2004 to 2010, the registered cases between 3 and 17 years old ranged from 20,531 to 23,547, and the prevalence of ID increased constantly from 4.40/1000 to 5.79/1000 (p<0.01), which generally increased every year in all age groups (p<0.01). In each year there were more boy cases than girl cases, and the boy-to-girl ratio generally decreased with age (p<0.01 for chi-square test for trend in all years). The prevalence rate ratio ranged from 1.33 to 1.37 (p<0.01 in all years), and the changes in the rate ratio were small over the years. We observed a higher prevalence in the rural areas over the years, and the prevalence rate ratio ranged from 1.34 to 1.43 (p<0.01 in all years), with an increasing trend over time (p<0.01). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Distribution et prevalence de Aphelenchoides besseyi (christie) sur ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le riz (Oryza sativa) est un aliment de base de la plupart des pays africains et il est également sujet à l'attaque de nombreux ravageurs parmi lesquels, les nématodes parasites des plantes qui réduisent le rendement. L'objectif de ce travail est d'étudier la distribution et la prévalence du nématode de grains Aphelenchoides ...

  15. Aspects of benthic decapod diversity and distribution from rocky nearshore habitat at geographically widely dispersed sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Pohle

    Full Text Available Relationships of diversity, distribution and abundance of benthic decapods in intertidal and shallow subtidal waters to 10 m depth are explored based on data obtained using a standardized protocol of globally-distributed samples. Results indicate that decapod species richness overall is low within the nearshore, typically ranging from one to six taxa per site (mean = 4.5. Regionally the Gulf of Alaska decapod crustacean community structure was distinguishable by depth, multivariate analysis indicating increasing change with depth, where assemblages of the high and mid tide, low tide and 1 m, and 5 and 10 m strata formed three distinct groups. Univariate analysis showed species richness increasing from the high intertidal zone to 1 m subtidally, with distinct depth preferences among the 23 species. A similar depth trend but with peak richness at 5 m was observed when all global data were combined. Analysis of latitudinal trends, confined by data limitations, was equivocal on a global scale. While significant latitudinal differences existed in community structure among ecoregions, a semi-linear trend in changing community structure from the Arctic to lower latitudes did not hold when including tropical results. Among boreal regions the Canadian Atlantic was relatively species poor compared to the Gulf of Alaska, whereas the Caribbean and Sea of Japan appeared to be species hot spots. While species poor, samples from the Canadian Atlantic were the most diverse at the higher infraordinal level. Linking 11 environmental variables available for all sites to the best fit family-based biotic pattern showed a significant relationship, with the single best explanatory variable being the level of organic pollution and the best combination overall being organic pollution and primary productivity. While data limitations restrict conclusions in a global context, results are seen as a first-cut contribution useful in generating discussion and more in

  16. Edible Lepidoptera in Mexico: Geographic distribution, ethnicity, economic and nutritional importance for rural people

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we reported the butterflies and moths that are consumed in Mexico. We identified 67 species of Lepidoptera that are eaten principally in their larval stage in 17 states of Mexico. These species belong to 16 families: Arctiidae, Bombycidae, Castniidae, Cossidae, Geometridae, Hepialidae, Hesperiidae, Lasiocampidae, Noctuidae, Nymphalidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae, Pyralidae, Saturniidae, Sesiidae, and Sphingidae. Saturniidae, Pieridae, Noctuidae and Nymphalidae were the more species consumed with 16, 11, 9, and 8 species, respectively. The genera with the largest numbers of species were: Phassus, Phoebis, Hylesia and Spodoptera, with three species. Their local distribution, corresponding to each state of Mexico, is also presented. PMID:21211040

  17. Edible Lepidoptera in Mexico: Geographic distribution, ethnicity, economic and nutritional importance for rural people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliva-Rivera Héctor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we reported the butterflies and moths that are consumed in Mexico. We identified 67 species of Lepidoptera that are eaten principally in their larval stage in 17 states of Mexico. These species belong to 16 families: Arctiidae, Bombycidae, Castniidae, Cossidae, Geometridae, Hepialidae, Hesperiidae, Lasiocampidae, Noctuidae, Nymphalidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae, Pyralidae, Saturniidae, Sesiidae, and Sphingidae. Saturniidae, Pieridae, Noctuidae and Nymphalidae were the more species consumed with 16, 11, 9, and 8 species, respectively. The genera with the largest numbers of species were: Phassus, Phoebis, Hylesia and Spodoptera, with three species. Their local distribution, corresponding to each state of Mexico, is also presented.

  18. GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION AND INHERITANCE OF «A» TYPE SEED COAT IN BRASSICA RAPA L. POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Ignatov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Distribution and inheritance of «A» and «B» types of seed coat in populations of B. rapa originated from Europe, Central Asia, China and Japan was studied. «A» type seeds were found in Central Asian and Japanese populations represented by toria, Asian turnip and plants of «B». rapa ssp. nipposinica (L.H.Bailey Hanelt. In intraspecific crosses, «A» type of seed coat was controlled by two complementary dominant genes. 

  19. Prevalence and type distribution of human papillomavirus in squamous cell carcinoma and intraepithelial neoplasia of the vulva

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Mette T; Sand, Freja Lærke; Albieri, Vanna

    2017-01-01

    In this updated systematic review and meta-analysis, we estimate the pooled prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA and HPV type distribution in squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva (vulvar cancer) and vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN). PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library databases were...... samples. Thus, HPV vaccination targeting these HPV types may prevent a substantial number of vulvar lesions.......In this updated systematic review and meta-analysis, we estimate the pooled prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA and HPV type distribution in squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva (vulvar cancer) and vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN). PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library databases were......-study heterogeneity was observed (vulvar cancer: I2 = 88.4%; VIN: I2 = 90.7%) with the largest variation between geographical regions. Among HPV-positive cases, the predominant high-risk HPV type was HPV16, followed by HPV33 and HPV18. HPV6 was detected as a single infection in a small subset of VIN and vulvar cancer...

  20. Investigation of selection bias in the association of race with prevalent atrial fibrillation in a national cohort study: REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Evan L; Soliman, Elsayed Z; Pulley, LeaVonne; Safford, Monika M; Howard, George; Howard, Virginia J

    2016-08-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is diagnosed more commonly in whites than blacks in the United States. In epidemiologic studies, selection bias could induce a noncausal positive association of white race with prevalent AF if voluntary enrollment was influenced by both race and AF status. We investigated whether nonrandom enrollment biased the association of race with prevalent self-reported AF in the US-based REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke Study (REGARDS). REGARDS had a two-stage enrollment process, allowing us to compare 30,183 fully enrolled REGARDS participants with 12,828 people who completed the first-stage telephone survey but did not complete the second-stage in-home visit to finalize their REGARDS enrollment (telephone-only participants). REGARDS enrollment was higher among whites (77.1%) than among blacks (62.3%) but did not differ by self-reported AF status. The prevalence of AF was 8.45% in whites and 5.86% in blacks adjusted for age, sex, income, education, and perceived general health. The adjusted white/black prevalence ratio of self-reported AF was 1.43 (95% CI, 1.32-1.56) among REGARDS participants and 1.38 (1.22-1.55) among telephone-only participants. These findings suggest that selection bias is not a viable explanation for the higher prevalence of self-reported AF among whites in population studies such as REGARDS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Geographic distribution, evolution, and disease importance of species within the Neotropical Anopheles albitarsis Group (Diptera, Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Desmond H; Linton, Yvonne-Marie; Ruiz-Lopez, J Freddy; Conn, Jan E; Sallum, Maria Anice M; Póvoa, Marinete M; Bergo, Eduardo S; Oliveira, Tatiane M P; Sucupira, Izis; Wilkerson, Richard C

    2014-06-01

    The Anopheles albitarsis group of mosquitoes comprises eight recognized species and one mitochondrial lineage. Our knowledge of malaria vectorial importance and the distribution and evolution of these taxa is incomplete. We constructed ecological niche models (ENMs) for these taxa and used hypothesized phylogenetic relationships and ENMs to investigate environmental and ecological divergence associated with speciation events. Two major clades were identified, one north (Clade 1) and one south (Clade 2) of the Amazon River that likely is or was a barrier to mosquito movement. Clade 1 species occur more often in higher average temperature locations than Clade 2 species, and taxon splits within Clade 1 corresponded with a greater divergence of variables related to precipitation than was the case within Clade 2. Comparison of the ecological profiles of sympatric species and sister species support the idea that phylogenetic proximity is related to ecological similarity. Anopheles albitarsis I, An. janconnae, and An. marajoara ENMs had the highest percentage of their predicted suitable habitat overlapping distribution models of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax, and warrant additional studies of the transmission potential of these species. Phylogenetic proximity may be related to malaria vectorial importance within the Albitarsis Group. © 2014 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  2. An updated overview of the geographic and bathymetric distribution of Savalia savaglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi. GIUSTI

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of gold coral Savalia savaglia is modified on the basis of bibliographic information and recent occurrence data, collected using a ROV (Remotely Operated Vehicle and SCUBA divers. The species is long-lived, rare and has been exploited in the past by divers for collection purposes. S. savaglia is listed in Annex II of the SPA/BD Protocol of the Barcelona Convention and has a wider distribution than previously thought, including both the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. Our results highlighted that specimens mainly live at a depth range of 15-90 m, but may reach as deep as 900 m in the Mediterranean Sea. This species can form monospecific facies of hundreds of colonies, as observed in Montenegro (Adriatic Sea, between 10 and 20 m, and in the Canary Islands, at a depth range of 27-70 m. Recent data highlighted numerous cases of specimens that were endangered by lost fishing gear, which exposed this species to further threats. Considering its longevity and structural role, it is urgent to develop an effective protection measure for S. savaglia, thereby increasing research efforts and implementing protection areas for this species.

  3. Association between Aquilaria distribution, geographic characteristics, edaphic factors and water availability in natural tropical rainforest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shyful Azizi Abdul Rahman; Khairuddin Abdul Rahim; Ahsanulkhaliqin Abdul Wahab; Mohd Fajri Osman; Chong Saw Peng

    2006-01-01

    Oud or gaharu is a fragrant resin produced from Aquilaria trees as a response to injury, wounding and/or a fungal infection. Proliferation of Aquilaria under plantation system is essential to ensure continuous supply of gaharu. Even though the plantation of Aquilaria is aggressively conducted nowadays, there are still lack of details information and knowledge in terms of plant agronomy and oleoresin production. Understanding of plant, soil, water and environment relationship in natural habitat is important in order to provide guidelines and strategies for growers to adopt new agroforestry approaches that can lead to the best management practices for Aquilaria plantation. A study on soil physical and chemical characteristics, topographic condition, soil moisture and climate has been carried out to investigate the plant distribution pattern and resin production potential of 178 stand of Aquilaria in MINT Tech-Park tertiary forest and Gunung Tebu Forest Reserve. Result show that Aquilaria distributions concentrate at slope areas of gradient between 10 degrees to 15 degrees, the soil type is the stony low fertility sandy loam to sandy clay and this area receives a high density of rainfall which is more than 2500 mm/year. For the potential of resin production analysis, slope with high gradient show a significant potential of resin production probably due to the plant stress condition factors

  4. A Virtual Geophysical Network: Using Industry Standard Technology to Link Geographically Distributed Sensors and Data Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, T. K.; Benson, R. B.; Crotwell, H. P.

    2003-12-01

    The IRIS Data Management System has long supported distributed data centers as a method of providing scientific researchers access to data from seismological networks around the world. For nearly a decade, the NetDC system used email as the method through which users could access data centers located around the globe in a seamless fashion. More recently the IRIS DMC has partnered with the University of South Carolina to develop a new method through which a virtual data center can be created. The Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) technology is an industry standard distributed computing architecture. Traditionally used by major corporations, IRIS has developed a Data Handling Interface (DHI) system that is capable of connecting services at participating data centers (servers) to applications running on end-users computing platforms (clients). For seismology we have identified three services. 1) A network service that provides information about geophysical observatories around the world such as where the sensors exist, what types of information are recorded on the sensors, and calibration information that allows proper use of the data, 2) an event service that allows applications to access information about earthquakes and seismological events and 3) waveform services that allow users to gain access to seismograms or time series data from other geophysical sensors. Seismological Data Centers operate the servers thereby allowing a variety of client applications to directly access the information at these data centers. Currently IRIS, the U. of South Carolina, UC Berkeley, and a European Data Center (ORFEUS) have been involved in the DHI project. This talk will highlight some of the DHI enabled clients that allow geophysical information to be directly transferred to the clients. Since the data center servers appear with the same interface specification (Interface Definition Language) a client that can talk to one DHI server can talk to any DHI enabled

  5. Assessing the status and trend of bat populations across broad geographic regions with dynamic distribution models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodhouse, Thomas J.; Ormsbee, Patricia C.; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Vierling, Lee A.; Szewczak, Joseph M.; Vierling, Kerri T.

    2012-01-01

    Bats face unprecedented threats from habitat loss, climate change, disease, and wind power development, and populations of many species are in decline. A better ability to quantify bat population status and trend is urgently needed in order to develop effective conservation strategies. We used a Bayesian autoregressive approach to develop dynamic distribution models for Myotis lucifugus, the little brown bat, across a large portion of northwestern USA, using a four-year detection history matrix obtained from a regional monitoring program. This widespread and abundant species has experienced precipitous local population declines in northeastern USA resulting from the novel disease white-nose syndrome, and is facing likely range-wide declines. Our models were temporally dynamic and accounted for imperfect detection. Drawing on species–energy theory, we included measures of net primary productivity (NPP) and forest cover in models, predicting that M. lucifugus occurrence probabilities would covary positively along those gradients.

  6. Childhood and Adolescent Cancer in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil: Incidence, Geographical Distribution, and Association With Environmental Health Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Lídia N V; Silveira, José C; Luna, Carlos F; Lucena-Silva, Norma

    2018-01-01

    Cases of childhood and adolescent cancer diagnosed from 2009 to 2012 in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil, were analyzed considering the patients' sex and age, the type of cancer and the municipality of living to determine the incidence, geographical distribution, and association with environmental health indicators. The spatial distribution pattern of the cancer incidence was estimated using the Global Moran's index. The association between environmental health indicators and cancer incidence was evaluated by multiple regression. From 2009 to 2012, 1261 new cases of cancer were diagnosed in patients younger than 20 years old in the state of Pernambuco. Leukemia/lymphoma were the most common type of cancer contemplating 45.28% of the cases. The average age-adjusted incidence rate was 113 cases per million with no spatial distribution pattern. The municipalities were clustered according to their degree of inequality (P=0.017), human development index (P=0.001), population growth rate (P=0.008), urbanization level (P=0.001), number of agricultural crops per capita (P=0.001), and number of industries per capita (P=0.030). However, only urbanization level was positive correlated with incidence of pediatric cancer (P=0.009) likely because in more developed cities, people are more exposed to potential oncogenic factors, such as air and water pollution and processed and ultraprocessed food. The better access to specialized health services, which increases the chances of early diagnosis, may also contributes for a higher number of cases in more developed cities.

  7. Human migration, railways and the geographic distribution of leprosy in Rio Grande do Norte State – Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Mauricio Lisboa; Dupnik, Kathryn Margaret; Nobre, Paulo José Lisboa; De Souza, Márcia Célia Freitas; Dűppre, Nádia Cristina; Sarno, Euzenir Nunes; Jerŏnimo, Selma Maria Bezerra

    2016-01-01

    Summary Introduction Leprosy is a public health problem in Brazil where 31,044 new cases were detected in 2013. Rio Grande do Norte is a small Brazilian state with a rate of leprosy lower than other areas in the same region, for unknown reasons. Objectives We present here a review based on the analysis of a database of registered leprosy cases in Rio Grande do Norte state, comparing leprosy's geographic distribution among municipalities with local socio-economic and public health indicators and with historical documents about human migration in this Brazilian region. Results The current distribution of leprosy in Rio Grande do Norte did not show correlation with socio-economic or public health indicators at the municipal level, but it appears related to economically emerging municipalities 100 years ago, with spread facilitated by railroads and train stations. Drought-related migratory movements which occurred from this state to leprosy endemic areas within the same period may be involved in the introduction of leprosy and with its present distribution within Rio Grande do Norte. Conclusions Leprosy may disseminate slowly, over many decades in certain circumstances, such as in small cities with few cases. This is a very unusual situation currently and a unique opportunity for epidemiologic studies of leprosy as an emerging disease. PMID:26964429

  8. Geostatistics and Geographic Information Systems to Study the Spatial Distribution of Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Peach Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, F; Calvo, M V; Borges, A; Scatoni, I B

    2015-08-01

    The oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), is the most serious pest in peach, and several insecticide applications are required to reduce crop damage to acceptable levels. Geostatistics and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are employed to measure the range of spatial correlation of G. molesta in order to define the optimum sampling distance for performing spatial analysis and to determine the current distribution of the pest in peach orchards of southern Uruguay. From 2007 to 2010, 135 pheromone traps per season were installed and georeferenced in peach orchards distributed over 50,000 ha. Male adult captures were recorded weekly from September to April. Structural analysis of the captures was performed, yielding 14 semivariograms for the accumulated captures analyzed by generation and growing season. Two sets of maps were constructed to describe the pest distribution. Nine significant models were obtained in the 14 evaluated periods. The range estimated for the correlation was from 908 to 6884 m. Three hot spots of high population level and some areas with comparatively low populations were constant over the 3-year period, while there is a greater variation in the size of the population in different generations and years in other areas.

  9. Geographic distribution of lung and stomach cancers in England and Wales over 50 years: changing and unchanging patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swerdlow, A J; dos Santos Silva, I

    1991-05-01

    The distribution of cancers of the lung and stomach in the counties of England and Wales in 1968-81 was mapped, and compared to the distribution in the country in 1921-30 described by Stocks. The high risk of stomach cancer in North Wales noted by Stocks was found still to exist in each sex, although its disparity from the rest of the country has diminished. In general the geographic distribution of stomach cancer in both periods has paralleled that of post-neonatal mortality, at the same time and earlier, as an index of general poverty, but postneonatal mortality in North Wales has not been exceptionally high. In 1921-30 the highest risk of lung cancer was in and around London. In the modern data this was still true for older women, but for men and women under 45 years of age, and to a lesser extent for older men, the pattern has changed greatly; the epidemic has moved north, and highest risk is now in Northumberland and Durham. This spread appears to have occurred earlier for men than for women, and for urban than for rural areas, occurring latest of all for women in rural areas. Regional disparity has also increased, especially in males: risks in the northern regions are now over twice those in much of Wales and the South.

  10. Predicting habitat suitability and geographic distribution of anchovy (Engraulis ringens) due to climate change in the coastal areas off Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Claudio; Andrade, Isabel; Yáñez, Eleuterio; Hormazabal, Samuel; Barbieri, María Ángela; Aranis, Antonio; Böhm, Gabriela

    2016-08-01

    results of this work show that the model has produced robust estimates of habitat suitability and geographic distribution off Chile and has been especially effective in capturing the spatial and temporal variability of CPUE. Using IDRISI geographical information system (GIS), these HSI models simulated monthly changes in the habitat suitability (i.e., relative abundance) and distribution of anchovy off Chile forced by changes in the regionalised SST and Chl-a as projected by the NCAR model under the A2 emission scenario. The simulations predicted a moderate negative change of 17% and 13% for the north and central-south areas, respectively, in the habitat suitability (i.e., potential relative abundance) of anchovy by 2055.

  11. Geographic distribution and host plants of Raoiella indica and associated mite species in northern Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez, Carlos; de Moraes, Gilberto J

    2013-05-01

    The red palm mite (RPM), Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), is an invasive pest in the New World, where it is currently considered a serious threat to coconut and banana crops. It was first reported from northern Venezuela in 2007. To determine its current distribution in this country, surveys were carried out from October 2008 to April 2010 on coconut (Cocos nucifera L.), banana (Musa spp.), ornamental plants and weeds in northern Venezuela. Higher population levels of RPM were registered on commercial coconut farms in Falcón and Sucre states but also on other plant species naturally growing along the coastal line in Anzoategui, Aragua, Carabobo, Monagas and Nueva Esparta states. Out of 34 botanical species evaluated, all RPM stages were observed only on eight arecaceous, one musaceous and one streliziaceous species, indicating that the pest developed and reproduced only on these plants. Mite specimens found on weeds were considered spurious events, as immature stages of the pest were never found on these. Amblyseius largoensis (Muma) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) was the most frequent predatory mite associated with RPM in all sampling sites. The results indicate that RPM has spread to extensive areas of northern Venezuela since its initial detection in Güiria, Sucre state. Considering the report of this pest mite in northern Brazil in the late 2009, additional samplings in southern Venezuela should be carried out, to evaluate the possible presence of RPM also in that region.

  12. Photosynthetic pathways and the geographical distribution of grasses in South West Africa/Namibia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, R.P.; Vogel, J.C.; Fuls, A.

    1980-01-01

    Analysis of floristic lists for South West Africa/Namibia shows that, throughout the territory, more than 95% of the grass species occurring in any given area display the C 4 photosynthetic pathway. Exceptions are areas in the north-east and southwest where between 5% and 18% of the grass species are of the C 3 type. The south-western district of Luderitz falls within the winter rainfall area and it is only here that temperate C 3 genera are found. The C 3 species in the north-east belong to tropical groups. Most of the South West African C 3 grasses grow in specialized habitats and are either hydrophytes or sciophytes. Subdivision of the C 4 grasses into the three subtypes of the C 4 pathway reveals distinctive distributional trends. Malate formers or NADP-me species clearly become more abundant with increasing rainfall, whereas the aspartate formers show the opposite tendency. However, within the aspartate forming group the results show that it is specifically the NAD-me type of species which dominate in areas of very low precipitation, notably in the Namib and pre-Namib areas where rainfall is less than 200 mm/yr. The PEP-ck species form a group intermediate between the malate formers and the NAD-me grasses, especially as far as their water requirements are concerned [af

  13. Geographical distribution, accumulation kinetics and infants health risk of organochlorines in human breast milk from Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudaryanto, A.; Kunisue, T.; Iwata, H. [Center for Marine Environmental Studies, Ehime Univ., Matsuyama (Japan); Tanabe, S. [Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2004-09-15

    Worldwide production and use of organochlorine compounds (OCs) have led to their widespread occurrence in the environment and bioaccumulation in various organisms, including humans. In Indonesia, large usage and production of OCs in the past, particularly OCs pesticides for agricultural and vector-borne disease eradication programs may implicate contaminations of OCs in the environment. Previous studies dealing with mussels as bioindicator reported widespread occurrence of OCs in the coastal environment of this country, and found hot spots of contamination in the waters surroundings Java Island. Occurrence of OCs were also reported in various environmental compartments including fish, sediment and air. However, data on levels of OCs in humans are very scarce. Hence this study has highlighted the accumulation of OCs in human milk from Indonesia, particularly in Java Island where industrial and intensive agriculture are taking place. In this study, concentrations of classical OCs, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and the most recently identified microcontaminants, tris (4-chlorophenyl) methanol (TCPMOH) and tris (4-chlorophenyl) methane (TCPMe) were determined in human breast milk collected from several locations in Indonesia to elucidate their distribution in relation to their site activities, to assess their possible association with maternal characteristics and to evaluate the possible potential risk of OCs in breast-milk on infant's health.

  14. Estimating the geographic distribution of human Tanapox and potential reservoirs using ecological niche modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Benjamin P; Nakazawa, Yoshinori J; Reynolds, Mary G; Carroll, Darin S

    2014-09-25

    Tanapox virus is a zoonotic infection that causes mild febrile illness and one to several nodular skin lesions. The disease is endemic in parts of Africa. The principal reservoir for the virus that causes Tanapox is unknown, but has been hypothesized to be a non-human primate. This study employs ecological niche modeling (ENM) to determine areas of tropical Africa suitable for the occurrence of human Tanapox and a list of hypothetical reservoirs. The resultant niche model will be a useful tool to guide medical surveillance activities in the region. This study uses the Desktop GARP software to predict regions where human Tanapox might be expected to occur based on historical human case locations and environmental data. Additional modeling of primate species, using occurrence data from museum records was performed to determine suitable disease reservoirs. The final ENM predicts a potential distribution of Tanapox over much of equatorial Africa, exceeding the borders of Kenya and Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) where it has been historically reported. Five genera of non-human primates were found to be potential reservoir taxa. Validity testing suggests the model created here is robust (p modeling technique has several limitations and results should be interpreted with caution. This study may increase knowledge and engage further research in this neglected disease.

  15. Chagas disease in Mexico: an analysis of geographical distribution during the past 76 years - A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Cruz-Reyes

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Literature from 1928 through 2004 was compiled from different document sources published in Mexico or elsewhere. From these 907 publications, we found 19 different topics of Chagas disease study in Mexico. The publications were arranged by decade and also by state. This information was used to construct maps describing the distribution of Chagas disease according to different criteria: the disease, vectors, reservoirs, and strains. One of the major problems confronting study of this zoonotic disease is the great biodiversity of the vector species; there are 30 different species, with at least 10 playing a major role in human infection. The high variability of climates and biogeographic regions further complicate study and understanding of the dynamics of this disease in each region of the country. We used a desktop Genetic Algorithm for Rule-Set Prediction procedure to provide ecological models of organism niches, offering improved flexibility for choosing predictive environmental and ecological data. This approach may help to identify regions at risk of disease, plan vector-control programs, and explore parasitic reservoir association. With this collected information, we have constructed a data base: CHAGMEX, available online in html format.

  16. Allelic Diversity and Geographical Distribution of the Gene Encoding Plasmodium falciparum Merozoite Surface Protein-3 in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawaswong, Vorthon; Simpalipan, Phumin; Siripoon, Napaporn; Harnyuttanakorn, Pongchai; Pattaradilokrat, Sittiporn

    2015-04-01

    Merozoite surface proteins (MSPs) of malaria parasites play critical roles during the erythrocyte invasion and so are potential candidates for malaria vaccine development. However, because MSPs are often under strong immune selection, they can exhibit extensive genetic diversity. The gene encoding the merozoite surface protein-3 (MSP-3) of Plasmodium falciparum displays 2 allelic types, K1 and 3D7. In Thailand, the allelic frequency of the P. falciparum msp-3 gene was evaluated in a single P. falciparum population in Tak at the Thailand and Myanmar border. However, no study has yet looked at the extent of genetic diversity of the msp-3 gene in P. falciparum populations in other localities. Here, we genotyped the msp-3 alleles of 63 P. falciparum samples collected from 5 geographical populations along the borders of Thailand with 3 neighboring countries (Myanmar, Laos, and Cambodia). Our study indicated that the K1 and 3D7 alleles coexisted, but at different proportions in different Thai P. falciparum populations. K1 was more prevalent in populations at the Thailand-Myanmar and Thailand-Cambodia borders, whilst 3D7 was more prevalent at the Thailand-Laos border. Global analysis of the msp-3 allele frequencies revealed that proportions of K1 and 3D7 alleles of msp-3 also varied in different continents, suggesting the divergence of malaria parasite populations. In conclusion, the variation in the msp-3 allelic patterns of P. falciparum in Thailand provides fundamental knowledge for inferring the P. falciparum population structure and for the best design of msp-3 based malaria vaccines.

  17. Modeling the distribution of Schistosoma mansoni and host snails in Uganda using satellite sensor data and Geographical Information Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensgaard, Anna-Sofie; Jørgensen, A; Kabatereine, N B

    2005-01-01

    by developing annual and seasonal composite models, and iteratively analysing for their relationship with parasite and snail distribution. The dry season composite model predicted an endemic area that produced the best fit with the distribution of schools with > or =5% prevalence. NDVI values of 151-174, day...... temperatures of 26-36 degrees C, and night temperatures of 15-20 degrees C were used as criteria for the prediction model. Using the same approach with host snail data indicated that most of Uganda is suitable "B. pfeifferi"/B. sudanica habitat, except for possibly the north-eastern region of the country...... climate data on precipitation, as the best ecological determinants of the S. mansoni-"B. pfeifferi"/B. sudanica system. Satellite composite models and logistic regression analysis, suggest low night time temperature as one of the significant factors inhibiting S. mansoni transmission in the south...

  18. Geographic distribution of the mid-continent population of sandhill cranes and related management applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapu, Gary L.; Brandt, David A.; Jones, Kenneth L.; Johnson, Douglas H.

    2011-01-01

    The Mid-continent Population (MCP) of sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) is widely hunted in North America and is separated into the Gulf Coast Subpopulation and Western Subpopulation for management purposes. Effective harvest management of the MCP requires detailed knowledge of breeding distribution of subspecies and subpopulations, chronology of their use of fall staging areas and wintering grounds, and exposure to and harvest from hunting. To address these information needs, we tagged 153 sandhill cranes with Platform Transmitting Terminals (PTTs) during 22 February–12 April 1998–2003 in the Central and North Platte River valleys of south-central Nebraska. We monitored PTT-tagged sandhill cranes, hereafter tagged cranes, from their arrival to departure from breeding grounds, during their fall migration, and throughout winter using the Argos satellite tracking system. The tracking effort yielded 74,041 useable locations over 49,350 tag days; median duration of tracking of individual cranes was 352 days and 73 cranes were tracked >12 months. Genetic sequencing of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from blood samples taken from each of our random sample of tagged cranes indicated 64% were G. c. canadensis and 34% were Grus canadensis tabida. Tagged cranes during the breeding season settled in northern temperate, subarctic, and arctic North America (U.S. [23%, n = 35], Canada [57%, n = 87]) and arctic regions of northeast Asia (Russia [20%, n = 31]). Distribution of tagged cranes by breeding affiliation was as follows: Western Alaska–Siberia (WA–S, 42 ± 4% [SE]), northern Canada–Nunavut (NC–N, 21 ± 4%), west-central Canada–Alaska (WC–A, 23 ± 4%) and East-central Canada–Minnesota (EC–M, 14 ± 3%). All tagged cranes returned to the same breeding affiliation used during the previous year with a median distance of 1.60 km (range: 0.08–7.7 km, n = 53) separating sites used in year 1 and year 2. Fall staging occurred

  19. A Geographic Information Systems (GIS)-based analysis of modern South African rodent distributions, habitat use, and environmental tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Timothy L; Lewis, Patrick J; Thies, Monte L; Williams, Justin K

    2012-01-01

    Goals of this study were to: (1) develop distributional maps of modern rodent genera throughout the countries of South Africa, Lesotho, and Swaziland by georeferencing museum specimens; (2) assess habitat preferences for genera by cross-referencing locality position with South African vegetation; and (3) identify mean annual precipitation and temperature range where the genera are located. Conterminous South Africa including the countries of Lesotho and Swaziland Digital databases of rodent museum specimens housed in the Ditsong National Museum of Natural History, South Africa (DM), and the Division of Mammals, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, United States (NMNH), were acquired and then sorted into a subset of specimens with associated coordinate data. The coordinate data were then used to develop distributional maps for the rodent genera present within the study area. Percent habitat occupation and descriptive statistics for six climatic variables were then determined for each genus by cross-referencing locality positions with vegetation and climatic maps. This report presents a series of maps illustrating the distribution of 35 rodent genera based on 19,471 geo-referenced specimens obtained from two major collections. Inferred habitat use by taxon is provided for both locality and specimen percent occurrence at three hierarchical habitat levels: biome, bioregion, and vegetation unit. Descriptive statistics for six climatic variables are also provided for each genus based on locality and specimen percent incidence. As rodent faunas are commonly used in paleoenvironmental reconstructions, an accurate assessment of rodent environmental tolerance ranges is necessary before confidence can be placed in an actualistic model. While the data presented here represent only a subset of the modern geographic distributions for many of the taxa examined, a wide range of environmental regimes are observed, suggesting that more research is necessary

  20. [Geographic distribution and gene sequencing of Paragonimus westermani in some areas of Guangdong Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yu-Yun; Liu, Qiao; Tang, Gao-Xing; Shen, Hao-Xian; Zhong, Jian-Xin; Xie, Quan-Chao; Fu, Guang-Hua; Chen, Yu-Lian; Li, Hao-Bin; He, Hai-Feng

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the current distribution of Paragonimus westermani in Guangdong Province. Snails and crabs collected from mountain streams in regional survey sites were dissected to detect cercarial and metacercarial infections of P. westermani. Domestic cats and dogs artificially infected with the collected metacercariae were also dissected to detect adult worms of P. westermani. The COI and ITS2 gene sequences of those adult worms were compared with those of known Paragonimus specimen deposited in the GenBank. All of the first intermediate hosts in five survey sites of Liangkou, Nankun, Mountain, Dadong, Muxi, Guowu, were identified as Semisulcospira libertina, whose cercariae infection rates were 0.33%, 0.15%, 0.058%, 0.10%, and 0.05%, respectively; the second intermediate hosts in above five sites were all identified as Sinopotamon denticulatum, whose metacercariae infection rates were 100%, 100%, 38.09%, 55.36%, and 65.26%, respectively. The numbers of metacercariae in the five sites were 79.4, 105.66, 9.16, 16.18, and 15.6 per positive crab, respectively, and 11.12, 7.87, 0.58, 0.69, and 0.85 per gram of crab, respectively. All the metacercariae were identical to those of P. westermani. Adult worms and eggs of P. westermani were found in both reservoir hosts of domestic cats and dogs infected artificially. By comparing the COI genes of five representative samples from each survey site with that of Paragonimus #AF219379.21, AF540958.1 from GenBank, we found out the homology to be 99%, 99%, 99%, 98%, and 99%, respectively. In addition, a comparison of the ITS2 gene sequences between the above five samples and Paragonimus #DQ836243.1, DQ351845.1, AB354217.1 from GenBank revealed 98%, 99%, 98%, 98%, and 98% gene homology, respectively. Two ultra-high and three high endemic areas of P. westermani are discovered in Guangdong Province. No obvious differences were found among the types of P. westermani in the above five endemic areas.

  1. A geographic information system on the potential distribution and abundance of Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica in east Africa based on Food and Agriculture Organization databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, J B; Gommes, R; Hansen, J; Yilma, J M; Slingenberg, J; Snijders, F; Nachtergaele, F; Ataman, E

    1998-07-31

    An adaptation of a previously developed climate forecast computer model and digital agroecologic database resources available from FAO for developing countries were used to develop a geographic information system risk assessment model for fasciolosis in East Africa, a region where both F. hepatica and F. gigantica occur as a cause of major economic losses in livestock. Regional F. hepatica and F. gigantica forecast index maps were created. Results were compared to environmental data parameters, known life cycle micro-environment requirements and to available Fasciola prevalence survey data and distribution patterns reported in the literature for each species (F. hepatica above 1200 m elevation, F. gigantica below 1800 m, both at 1200-1800 m). The greatest risk, for both species, occurred in areas of extended high annual rainfall associated with high soil moisture and surplus water, with risk diminishing in areas of shorter wet season and/or lower temperatures. Arid areas were generally unsuitable (except where irrigation, water bodies or floods occur) due to soil moisture deficit and/or, in the case of F. hepatica, high average annual mean temperature >23 degrees C. Regions in the highlands of Ethiopia and Kenya were identified as unsuitable for F. gigantica due to inadequate thermal regime, below the 600 growing degree days required for completion of the life cycle in a single year. The combined forecast index (F. hepatica+F. gigantica) was significantly correlated to prevalence data available for 260 of the 1220 agroecologic crop production system zones (CPSZ) and to average monthly normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) values derived from the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) sensor on board the NOAA polar-orbiting satellites. For use in Fasciola control programs, results indicate that monthly forecast parameters, developed in a GIS with digital agroecologic zone databases and monthly climate databases, can be used to define the

  2. Climate change effects on the geographic distribution of specialist tree species of the Brazilian tropical dry forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, P M S; Silva, J O; Eisenlohr, P V; Schaefer, C E G R

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the ecological niche models (ENMs) for three specialist trees (Anadenanthera colubrina, Aspidosperma pyrifolium and Myracrodruon urundeuva) in seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs) in Brazil, considering present and future pessimist scenarios (2080) of climate change. These three species exhibit typical deciduousness and are widely distributed by SDTF in South America, being important in studies of the historical and evolutionary processes experienced by this ecosystem. The modeling of the potential geographic distribution of species was done by the method of maximum entropy (Maxent).We verified a general expansion of suitable areas for occurrence of the three species in future (c.a., 18%), although there was reduction of areas with high environmental suitability in Caatinga region. Precipitation of wettest quarter and temperature seasonality were the predictor variables that most contributed to our models. Climatic changes can provide more severe and longer dry season with increasing temperature and tree mortality in tropics. On this scenario, areas currently occupied by rainforest and savannas could become more suitable for occurrence of the SDTF specialist trees, whereas regions occupied by Caatinga could not support the future level of unsustainable (e.g., aridity). Long-term multidisciplinary studies are necessary to make reliable predictions of the plant's adaptation strategies and responses to climate changes in dry forest at community level. Based on the high deforestation rate, endemism and threat, public policies to minimize the effects of climate change on the biodiversity found within SDTFs must be undertaken rapidly.

  3. Updating the geographical distribution and frequency of Aedes albopictus in Brazil with remarks regarding its range in the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Gomes Carvalho/

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The geographical distribution of Aedes albopictus in Brazil was updated according to the data recorded across the country over the last eight years. Countrywide house indexes (HI for Ae. albopictus in urban and suburban areas were described for the first time using a sample of Brazilian municipalities. This mosquito is currently present in at least 59% of the Brazilian municipalities and in 24 of the 27 federal units (i.e., 26 states and the Federal District. In 34 Brazilian municipalities, the HI values for Ae. albopictus were higher than those recorded for Ae. aegypti, reaching figures as high as HI = 7.72 in the Southeast Region. Remarks regarding the current range of this mosquito species in the Americas are also presented. Nineteen American countries are currently infested and few mainland American countries have not confirmed the occurrence of Ae. albopictus. The large distribution and high frequency of Ae. albopictus in the Americas may become a critical factor in the spread of arboviruses like chikungunya in the new world.

  4. Geographical distribution of the annual mean radon concentrations in primary schools of Southern Serbia – application of geostatistical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossew, P.; Žunić, Z.S.; Stojanovska, Z.; Tollefsen, T.; Carpentieri, C.; Veselinović, N.; Komatina, S.; Vaupotič, J.; Simović, R.D.; Antignani, S.; Bochicchio, F.

    2014-01-01

    Between 2008 and 2011 a survey of radon ( 222 Rn) was performed in schools of several districts of Southern Serbia. Some results have been published previously (Žunić et al., 2010; Carpentieri et al., 2011; Žunić et al., 2013). This article concentrates on the geographical distribution of the measured Rn concentrations. Applying geostatistical methods we generate “school radon maps” of expected concentrations and of estimated probabilities that a concentration threshold is exceeded. The resulting maps show a clearly structured spatial pattern which appears related to the geological background. In particular in areas with vulcanite and granitoid rocks, elevated radon (Rn) concentrations can be expected. The “school radon map” can therefore be considered as proxy to a map of the geogenic radon potential, and allows identification of radon-prone areas, i.e. areas in which higher Rn radon concentrations can be expected for natural reasons. It must be stressed that the “radon hazard”, or potential risk, estimated this way, has to be distinguished from the actual radon risk, which is a function of exposure. This in turn may require (depending on the target variable which is supposed to measure risk) considering demographic and sociological reality, i.e. population density, distribution of building styles and living habits. -- Highlights: • A map of Rn concentrations in primary schools of Southern Serbia. • Application of geostatistical methods. • Correlation with geology found. • Can serve as proxy to identify radon prone areas

  5. Estimation of the prevalence and distribution of HPV genotypes and identification of related risk factors among Turkish women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Kulhan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study : The present study aims to estimate the prevalence and distribution of HPV genotypes and identify related risk factors among Turkish women. Material and methods : 11 624 Turkish women attending our gynaecological clinic and expressing a desire for access to cervical cancer screening were assessed during the years 2014–2016. Cervical specimens were collected and transported using the HC2 HPV DNA Collection Device (consisting of a cervical brush and digene Specimen Transport Medium. Results : Among these 11 624 individuals, positive HPV test results were obtained for 325 (2.79%, and negative results were observed for 11 299 (97.2%. The vast majority of patients were between the 3rd and 5th decades and the mean age of the patients was 44 ±9.12 (range 27–66. Among the HPV-positive women, 205 were positive for a single HPV type (205/325 = 63.1% of HPV infections; 205/11624 = 1.76% of all samples and 120 were positive for multiple types (120/325 = 36.9% of HPV infections; 120/11624 = 1.03% of all samples. The four most prevalent high-risk types were HPV 16, 31, 51 and 52, with frequencies of 11.25%, 7.83%, 6.06% and 3.16%, respectively. Conclusions : There appears to be geographic variation in the distribution of HPV genotypes. In this study, the four most prevalent high-risk types were HPV 16, 31, 51 and 52, with frequencies of 11.25%, 7.83%, 6.06% and 3.16%, respectively.

  6. Geographic distribution and mortality risk factors during the cholera outbreak in a rural region of Haiti, 2010-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Laure Page

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2010 and 2011, Haiti was heavily affected by a large cholera outbreak that spread throughout the country. Although national health structure-based cholera surveillance was rapidly initiated, a substantial number of community cases might have been missed, particularly in remote areas. We conducted a community-based survey in a large rural, mountainous area across four districts of the Nord department including areas with good versus poor accessibility by road, and rapid versus delayed response to the outbreak to document the true cholera burden and assess geographic distribution and risk factors for cholera mortality.A two-stage, household-based cluster survey was conducted in 138 clusters of 23 households in four districts of the Nord Department from April 22nd to May 13th 2011. A total of 3,187 households and 16,900 individuals were included in the survey, of whom 2,034 (12.0% reported at least one episode of watery diarrhea since the beginning of the outbreak. The two more remote districts, Borgne and Pilate were most affected with attack rates up to 16.2%, and case fatality rates up to 15.2% as compared to the two more accessible districts. Care seeking was also less frequent in the more remote areas with as low as 61.6% of reported patients seeking care. Living in remote areas was found as a risk factor for mortality together with older age, greater severity of illness and not seeking care.These results highlight important geographical disparities and demonstrate that the epidemic caused the highest burden both in terms of cases and deaths in the most remote areas, where up to 5% of the population may have died during the first months of the epidemic. Adapted strategies are needed to rapidly provide treatment as well as prevention measures in remote communities.

  7. Association between socioeconomic position and the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Ghanaians in different geographic locations: the RODAM study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Addo, Juliet; Agyemang, Charles; de-Graft Aikins, Ama; Beune, Erik; Schulze, Matthias B.; Danquah, Ina; Galbete, Cecilia; Nicolaou, Mary; Meeks, Karlijn; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Bahendaka, Silver; Mockenhaupt, Frank P.; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Kunst, Anton; Stronks, Karien; Smeeth, Liam

    2017-01-01

    Background The prevalence of diabetes has been shown to be socially patterned but the direction of the association in low-income countries and among migrant populations in Europe has varied in the literature. This study examined the association between socioeconomic position (SEP) and diabetes in

  8. Association between socioeconomic position and the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Ghanaians in different geographic locations: the RODAM study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Addo, Juliet; Agyemang, Charles; de-Graft Aikins, Ama; Beune, Erik; Schulze, Matthias B; Danquah, Ina; Galbete, Cecilia; Nicolaou, Mary; Meeks, Karlijn; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Bahendaka, Silver; Mockenhaupt, Frank P; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Kunst, Anton; Stronks, Karien; Smeeth, Liam

    Background The prevalence of diabetes has been shown to be socially patterned but the direction of the association in low-income countries and among migrant populations in Europe has varied in the literature. This study examined the association between socioeconomic position (SEP) and diabetes in

  9. How important are determinants of obesity measured at the individual level for explaining geographic variation in body mass index distributions? Observational evidence from Canada using Quantile Regression and Blinder-Oaxaca Decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, Daniel J; McLaren, Lindsay

    2016-04-01

    Obesity prevalence varies between geographic regions in Canada. The reasons for this variation are unclear but most likely implicate both individual-level and population-level factors. The objective of this study was to examine whether equalising correlates of body mass index (BMI) across these geographic regions could be reasonably expected to reduce differences in BMI distributions between regions. Using data from three cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) 2001, 2003 and 2007 for males and females, we modelled between-region BMI cross-sectionally using quantile regression and Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition of the quantile regression results. We show that while individual-level variables (ie, age, income, education, physical activity level, fruit and vegetable consumption, smoking status, drinking status, family doctor status, rural status, employment in the past 12 months and marital status) may be Caucasian important correlates of BMI within geographic regions, those variables are not capable of explaining variation in BMI between regions. Equalisation of common correlates of BMI between regions cannot be reasonably expected to reduce differences in the BMI distributions between regions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. Distribution and prevalence of crown rot pathogens affecting wheat crops in southern Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Ernesto Moya-Elizondo; Nolberto Arismendi; María Paz Castro; Herman Doussoulin

    2015-01-01

    Crown rot pathogens are associated with higher losses for wheat crop farmers, but information about the distribution and prevalence of these pathogens in Chile is inadequate. Distribution and prevalence of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crown rot pathogens were examined in a survey of 48 commercial fields from December 2011 to February 2012 in southern Chile. These fields were located between Collipulli (37°56'00" S; 72°26'39" W) and Purranque (40°50'30" S; 73°22'03" W). Severity of crown rot d...

  11. Geographical distribution of Trypanosoma cruzi in triatomine vectors in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

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    Marlon Cezar Cominetti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This work presents the initial findings of a molecular epidemiological investigation of Trypanosoma cruzi in triatomine insects in State of Mato Grosso do Sul. Methods A total of 511 triatomines from different regions of the state were examined. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA was extracted from the intestinal contents of the insects using phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol (25:24:1. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR using primers 121/122 targeting DNA kinetoplast (kDNA was then performed to identify T. cruzi, and positive samples were subjected to PCR using the primer pair TcSC5D-F/R followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP with the restriction enzymes SphI and HpaI (1 U/reaction, cloning and sequencing. Results One hundred samples were positive for T. cruzi, and three discrete typing units (DTUs were identified (TcI, TcII, and TcBat. Triatoma sordida had the highest T. cruzi occurrence (83.3%, and DTUs were found in three samples: 58.3% of the samples were TcI, 33.3% were TcII and 8.3% were TcBat. There was a clear geographical distribution of the DTUs throughout the state, with TcI, TcII and TcBat located in the center, TcI located in the east, and TcII located in the west. Conclusions This study showed the occurrence of overlapping DTUs in State of Mato Grosso do Sul. The distributions of the DTUs were different, with TcI, TcII and TcBat in the center of the state, TcI predominantly in the east, and TcII in the west. Further studies may reveal a more defined mosaic distribution of DTUs in MS.

  12. Geographical distribution of Trypanosoma cruzi in triatomine vectors in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cominetti, Marlon Cezar; Csordas, Bárbara Guimarães; Cunha, Rodrigo Casquero; Andreotti, Renato

    2014-01-01

    This work presents the initial findings of a molecular epidemiological investigation of Trypanosoma cruzi in triatomine insects in State of Mato Grosso do Sul. A total of 511 triatomines from different regions of the state were examined. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was extracted from the intestinal contents of the insects using phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol (25:24:1). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers 121/122 targeting DNA kinetoplast (kDNA) was then performed to identify T. cruzi, and positive samples were subjected to PCR using the primer pair TcSC5D-F/R followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) with the restriction enzymes SphI and HpaI (1 U/reaction), cloning and sequencing. One hundred samples were positive for T. cruzi, and three discrete typing units (DTUs) were identified (TcI, TcII, and TcBat). Triatoma sordida had the highest T. cruzi occurrence (83.3%), and DTUs were found in three samples: 58.3% of the samples were TcI, 33.3% were TcII and 8.3% were TcBat. There was a clear geographical distribution of the DTUs throughout the state, with TcI, TcII and TcBat located in the center, TcI located in the east, and TcII located in the west. This study showed the occurrence of overlapping DTUs in State of Mato Grosso do Sul. The distributions of the DTUs were different, with TcI, TcII and TcBat in the center of the state, TcI predominantly in the east, and TcII in the west. Further studies may reveal a more defined mosaic distribution of DTUs in MS.

  13. Prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica , Giardia lamblia , and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The intestinal protozoa Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium spp. are the causative agents of giardiasis, amebiasis, and cryptosporidiosis, respectively. Adequate knowledge of the geographical distribution of parasites and the demographic variables that influence their prevalence is ...

  14. Geographic variation in the age- and gender-specific prevalence and incidence of epilepsy: analysis of Taiwanese National Health Insurance-based data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Chuan; Chen, Li-Sheng; Yen, Ming-Fang; Chen, Hsiu-Hsi; Liou, Horng-Huei

    2012-02-01

    We studied geographic variation in age- and gender-specific prevalence and incidence of epilepsy in four different areas of Taiwan. By using large-scale, National Health Insurance (NHI)-based data from 2000-2003 in Taiwan, we identified 131,287 patients diagnosed with epilepsy (ICD code 345) receiving at least of one of 11 antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Information on age, gender, and location were also collected. The multivariable Poisson regression analysis was used to assess the heterogeneity of the morbidity of epilepsy in different regions. External data validation was also performed to assess the accuracy of capturing epilepsy cases through our NHI data set. The age-adjusted prevalence and incidence of epilepsy were 5.85 (per 1,000) between 2000 and 2003 and 97 (per 100,000 person-years) during the follow-up time from 2001 to 2003 in Taiwan. The sensitivity and specificity of ICD-9 coding for epilepsy in the NHI data set were 83.91% and 99.83%, respectively, resulting in a slight overestimation. Male patients had a higher probability of having epilepsy than did females. East Taiwan had significantly higher prevalence and incidence than did other areas. The age-specific incidence pattern in east Taiwan was atypical in that it revealed clustering in young and middle-aged groups. Our study demonstrated geographic variation in epidemiologic patterns of epilepsy within Taiwan. The findings are informative and provide insight into the clinical management of epilepsy based on consideration of different target groups in different areas. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2011 International League Against Epilepsy.

  15. Ticks: Geographic Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... local public health authority or USDA Agricultural Extension Office to determine more specific information at the state, county, or municipal level. Background data ... Word file Microsoft Excel file ...

  16. Changes in the geographical distribution and abundance of the tick Ixodes ricinus during the past 30 years in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaenson Thomas GT

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ixodes ricinus is the main vector in Europe of human-pathogenic Lyme borreliosis (LB spirochaetes, the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV and other pathogens of humans and domesticated mammals. The results of a previous 1994 questionnaire, directed at people living in Central and North Sweden (Svealand and Norrland and aiming to gather information about tick exposure for humans and domestic animals, suggested that Ixodes ricinus ticks had become more widespread in Central Sweden and the southern part of North Sweden from the early 1980s to the early 1990s. To investigate whether the expansion of the tick's northern geographical range and the increasing abundance of ticks in Sweden were still occurring, in 2009 we performed a follow-up survey 16 years after the initial study. Methods A questionnaire similar to the one used in the 1994 study was published in Swedish magazines aimed at dog owners, home owners, and hunters. The questionnaire was published together with a popular science article about the tick's biology and role as a pathogen vector in Sweden. The magazines were selected to get information from people familiar with ticks and who spend time in areas where ticks might be present. Results Analyses of data from both surveys revealed that during the near 30-year period from the early 1980s to 2008, I. ricinus has expanded its distribution range northwards. In the early 1990s ticks were found in new areas along the northern coastline of the Baltic Sea, while in the 2009 study, ticks were reported for the first time from many locations in North Sweden. This included locations as far north as 66°N and places in the interior part of North Sweden. During this 16-year period the tick's range in Sweden was estimated to have increased by 9.9%. Most of the range expansion occurred in North Sweden (north of 60°N where the tick's coverage area doubled from 12.5% in the early 1990s to 26.8% in 2008. Moreover, according to the

  17. Changes in the geographical distribution and abundance of the tick Ixodes ricinus during the past 30 years in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaenson, Thomas G T; Jaenson, David G E; Eisen, Lars; Petersson, Erik; Lindgren, Elisabet

    2012-01-10

    Ixodes ricinus is the main vector in Europe of human-pathogenic Lyme borreliosis (LB) spirochaetes, the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and other pathogens of humans and domesticated mammals. The results of a previous 1994 questionnaire, directed at people living in Central and North Sweden (Svealand and Norrland) and aiming to gather information about tick exposure for humans and domestic animals, suggested that Ixodes ricinus ticks had become more widespread in Central Sweden and the southern part of North Sweden from the early 1980s to the early 1990s. To investigate whether the expansion of the tick's northern geographical range and the increasing abundance of ticks in Sweden were still occurring, in 2009 we performed a follow-up survey 16 years after the initial study. A questionnaire similar to the one used in the 1994 study was published in Swedish magazines aimed at dog owners, home owners, and hunters. The questionnaire was published together with a popular science article about the tick's biology and role as a pathogen vector in Sweden. The magazines were selected to get information from people familiar with ticks and who spend time in areas where ticks might be present. Analyses of data from both surveys revealed that during the near 30-year period from the early 1980s to 2008, I. ricinus has expanded its distribution range northwards. In the early 1990s ticks were found in new areas along the northern coastline of the Baltic Sea, while in the 2009 study, ticks were reported for the first time from many locations in North Sweden. This included locations as far north as 66°N and places in the interior part of North Sweden. During this 16-year period the tick's range in Sweden was estimated to have increased by 9.9%. Most of the range expansion occurred in North Sweden (north of 60°N) where the tick's coverage area doubled from 12.5% in the early 1990s to 26.8% in 2008. Moreover, according to the respondents, the abundance of ticks had increased

  18. Changes in the geographical distribution and abundance of the tick Ixodes ricinus during the past 30 years in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Ixodes ricinus is the main vector in Europe of human-pathogenic Lyme borreliosis (LB) spirochaetes, the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and other pathogens of humans and domesticated mammals. The results of a previous 1994 questionnaire, directed at people living in Central and North Sweden (Svealand and Norrland) and aiming to gather information about tick exposure for humans and domestic animals, suggested that Ixodes ricinus ticks had become more widespread in Central Sweden and the southern part of North Sweden from the early 1980s to the early 1990s. To investigate whether the expansion of the tick's northern geographical range and the increasing abundance of ticks in Sweden were still occurring, in 2009 we performed a follow-up survey 16 years after the initial study. Methods A questionnaire similar to the one used in the 1994 study was published in Swedish magazines aimed at dog owners, home owners, and hunters. The questionnaire was published together with a popular science article about the tick's biology and role as a pathogen vector in Sweden. The magazines were selected to get information from people familiar with ticks and who spend time in areas where ticks might be present. Results Analyses of data from both surveys revealed that during the near 30-year period from the early 1980s to 2008, I. ricinus has expanded its distribution range northwards. In the early 1990s ticks were found in new areas along the northern coastline of the Baltic Sea, while in the 2009 study, ticks were reported for the first time from many locations in North Sweden. This included locations as far north as 66°N and places in the interior part of North Sweden. During this 16-year period the tick's range in Sweden was estimated to have increased by 9.9%. Most of the range expansion occurred in North Sweden (north of 60°N) where the tick's coverage area doubled from 12.5% in the early 1990s to 26.8% in 2008. Moreover, according to the respondents, the abundance

  19. Temporal and geographical distributions of epilithic sodium dodecyl sulfate-degrading bacteria in a polluted South Wales river

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D.J.; Day, M.J.; Russell, N.J.; White, G.F.

    1988-02-01

    Epilithic bacteria were isolated nonselectively from riverbed stones and examined by gel zymography for their ability to produce alkylsulfatase (AS) enzymes and thus to metabolize alkyl sulfate surfactants such as sodium dodecyl sulfate. The percentages of AS+ isolates from stone epilithon at five sites from the source to the river mouth were measured on five sampling days spread over 1 year. The results showed that (i) the prevalence of epilithic AS+ strains (as a percentage of all isolates) was much higher at polluted sites than at the source; (ii) when averaged over the whole river, percentages of AS+ strains were significantly higher at the end of summer compared with either the preceding or the following winter; (iii) analysis of site-sampling time interactions indicated that water quality factors (e.g., biochemical oxygen demand and dissolved oxygen concentration) rather than climatic factors determined the distributions of epilithic AS+ isolates; (iv) constitutive strains were the most prevalent (7.2% of all isolates), with smaller numbers of isolates with inducible (4.5%) and repressible (1.7%) enzymes.

  20. [Analysis on the exposure level and geographic distribution trend of toxicological indicators in rural drinking water, Shandong Province, in 2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, F; Lyu, S P; Kong, F L; Yang, X T; Zhou, J Y

    2017-09-06

    Objective: To analyze the exposure level and the geographical distribution trend of toxicological indicators of rural drinking water in Shandong Province. Methods: The drawing method was used to randomly select no less than 60% villages and towns from 137 counties (cities, districts) of 17 cities in Shandong Province in 2015, and then 1-3 rural centralized water supply units were selected according to the circumstance of rural centralized water supply units in each village and town. In total, 735 villages and towns, 1 473 rural centralized water supply units were selected, and 1 473 water samples were collected. The water treatment process, water supply population and other circumstances of the rural centralized water supply units were investigated, the water quality was monitored, the content of toxicological indicators of drinking water in different areas was compared, and the trend surface isogram of excessive toxicological indicators was drawn. Results: The qualified rate of toxicological indicators in 1 473 water samples was 83.64% ( n =1 232). The main toxicological indicators that affected the qualified rate of toxicological indicators of drinking water in rural areas in Shandong Province were nitrate and fluoride. The excessive rate of fluoride was 5.70% ( n =84) and the exposed population was 1 736 709 (4.22%). The excessive rate of nitrate (as nitrogen) was 12.29% ( n =181) and the exposed population was 1 393 612 (3.39%). The P (5)0 content of fluoride in the eastern, middle and western regions was 0.24, 0.29 and 0.59 mg/L, respective;which was higher in the western region than in the east and the middle regions ( P 0.05). The P (50) content of nitrate (as nitrogen) in the eastern, middle and western regions was 8.00, 7.48, and 2.00 mg/L, which was higher in the eastern and middle regions than in the west region ( P 0.05). The trend surface isogram of nitrate and fluoride content showed that the content of nitrate (as nitrogen) in rural drinking water in

  1. The geographic distribution of strontium isotopes in Danish surface waters - A base for provenance studies in archaeology, hydrology and agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frei, Karin M.; Frei, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Strontium isotope data of 192 surface waters from Denmark. → Geographic baseline distribution of bio-available fractions. → Applicable for provenance studies within archaeology, geology, agriculture and hydrology. → Proposal of a band of strontium isotope values to characterize 'local' Danish signatures. - Abstract: In this paper Sr isotope signatures are reported for 192 surface water (lakes/ponds and rivers/creeks) samples from within Denmark and an isotope distribution map is presented that may serve as a base for provenance applications, including archaeological migration studies, ground water - surface water - seawater interaction/contamination monitoring, and potentially for agricultural applications, including cases of authenticity proof for particular food products. The Sr isotopic compositions of surface waters range from 87 Sr/ 86 Sr = 0.7078 to 0.7125 (average 0.7096 ± 0.0016; 2σ). This average value lies above the range of 87 Sr/ 86 Sr values between 0.7078 and 0.7082 expected from Late Cretaceous to Early Tertiary (Oligocene) limestones which form the dominant bedrock type in a NW-SE trending belt in Denmark. The elevated 87 Sr/ 86 Sr signatures >∼0.7095 are explained by additions to the surface waters of radiogenic Sr predominantly derived from the near-surface weathering and wash-out of Quarternary glaciogenic tills and soils deposited and formed during and after the last two ice age stages (Saale and Weichsel). The Sr isotopic compositions and concentrations of the surface waters can, therefore, best be modeled by a two-component mixing involving carbonaceous bedrock and glaciogenic cover sediments as the two predominant Sr sources. A feasibility study for using Sr isotopic compositions of surface waters as a proxy for bio-available Sr signatures was conducted in a representative test area on Zealand (Land of Legends, Lejre) where there is no use and application of commercial fertilizers. It is demonstrated that

  2. Geographical distribution, socioeconomic status and health- related physical fitness in adolescents from a large population-based sample from Bogotá, Colombia: the ser study

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues-Bezerra, Diogo

    2016-01-01

    Background: The negative gradient between socio-economic status and prevalence of non-communicable disease in adulthood has prompted investigation of potential foundations based in childhood. The objective of the present study is to examine the influence of socio-geographical variations and socioeconomic status on health-related physical fitness in adolescents from a large population-based sample of Colombian ninth graders. Methods: During the 2014–2015 school years, we examined a cross-secti...

  3. Extent of mangrove nursery habitats determines the geographic distribution of a coral reef fish in a South-Pacific archipelago.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christelle Paillon

    Full Text Available Understanding the drivers of species' geographic distribution has fundamental implications for the management of biodiversity. For coral reef fishes, mangroves have long been recognized as important nursery habitats sustaining biodiversity in the Western Atlantic but there is still debate about their role in the Indo-Pacific. Here, we combined LA-ICP-MS otolith microchemistry, underwater visual censuses (UVC and mangrove cartography to estimate the importance of mangroves for the Indo-Pacific coral reef fish Lutjanus fulviflamma in the archipelago of New Caledonia. Otolith elemental compositions allowed high discrimination of mangroves and reefs with 83.8% and 98.7% correct classification, respectively. Reefs were characterized by higher concentrations of Rb and Sr and mangroves by higher concentrations of Ba, Cr, Mn and Sn. All adult L. fulviflamma collected on reefs presented a mangrove signature during their juvenile stage with 85% inhabiting mangrove for their entire juvenile life (about 1 year. The analysis of 2942 UVC revealed that the species was absent from isolated islands of the New Caledonian archipelago where mangroves were absent. Furthermore, strong positive correlations existed between the abundance of L. fulviflamma and the area of mangrove (r = 0.84 for occurrence, 0.93 for density and 0.89 for biomass. These results indicate that mangrove forest is an obligatory juvenile habitat for L. fulviflamma in New Caledonia and emphasize the potential importance of mangroves for Indo-Pacific coral reef fishes.

  4. Investigation on the geographical distribution and life form of plant species in sub alpine zone Karsanak region, Shahrekord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahanbakhsh Pairanj

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in rangelands of Karsanak, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province, which is regarded as one of the rich rangelands. Phytogeographically, this region is located in Irano-Turanian (zone of sub alpine. Endemic and rare plants were identified and geographical distribution and life form of identified plant species were investigated as well. Overall, 100 species from 17 families were identified from which 20 percent of identified species was endemic element of Irano-Turanian region. Results indicated that 75.7 percent of identified plants belonged to the Irano-Turanian and only 3 and 2 percent belonged to Euro-Siberian and Mediterranean regions respectively. The reason of high percentage of Irano-Turanian elements is probably the long distance of this region from other regions. Similarities of Irano-Turanian and Mediterranean were included 6.1 percent of identified plants and Irano-Turanian and Euro-Siberian included 2 percent. Results of life forms showed hemichryptophytes including 60 percent of life forms which indicate the cold and mountainous weather.

  5. Climate change effects on the geographic distribution of specialist tree species of the Brazilian tropical dry forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PMS Rodrigues

    Full Text Available AbstractThe aim of this study was to evaluate the ecological niche models (ENMs for three specialist trees (Anadenantheracolubrina, Aspidosperma pyrifolium and Myracrodruon urundeuva in seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs in Brazil, considering present and future pessimist scenarios (2080 of climate change. These three species exhibit typical deciduousness and are widely distributed by SDTF in South America, being important in studies of the historical and evolutionary processes experienced by this ecosystem. The modeling of the potential geographic distribution of species was done by the method of maximum entropy (Maxent.We verified a general expansion of suitable areas for occurrence of the three species in future (c.a., 18%, although there was reduction of areas with high environmental suitability in Caatinga region. Precipitation of wettest quarter and temperature seasonality were the predictor variables that most contributed to our models. Climatic changes can provide more severe and longer dry season with increasing temperature and tree mortality in tropics. On this scenario, areas currently occupied by rainforest and savannas could become more suitable for occurrence of the SDTF specialist trees, whereas regions occupied by Caatinga could not support the future level of unsustainable (e.g., aridity. Long-term multidisciplinary studies are necessary to make reliable predictions of the plant’s adaptation strategies and responses to climate changes in dry forest at community level. Based on the high deforestation rate, endemism and threat, public policies to minimize the effects of climate change on the biodiversity found within SDTFs must be undertaken rapidly.

  6. Distribution of hemoglobin and prevalence of anemia in 10 ethnic minorities in China: A population-based, cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiuli; He, Yuan; Xie, Xiaoxu; Ji, Mengmeng; Ma, Xu; Yu, Zengli

    2017-12-01

    Racial differences have been reported in hemoglobin (Hb). However, distributions of Hb and anemia rate in ethnic minorities were rarely reported.We aimed to observe whether there are ethnic differences in Hb distributions and prevalence of anemia.The data included 480,699 women 20 to 49 years' old from 10 ethnic minorities in China in 2014. Analyses of variance were used to examine the differences of Hb distribution among the 10 ethnic groups, as well as the differences in Hb level between different ages, education levels, occupations, and non- or ethnic enclaves in each ethnic group. χ2-test was adopted to analyze the differences in anemia rate among the 10 ethnic groups and between different ages and nonethnic or ethnic enclaves in each ethnic group.The ethnic differences of the Hb distribution and anemia prevalence were observed in the 10 ethnic groups. The lowest mean Hb concentration was shown in Chuang (126.8 g/L), and the highest mean Hb concentration was in Tibetan (138.5 g/L). According to the World Health Organization criteria to define anemia, the highest prevalence was in Tibetan (46.9%) after the adjustment of Hb concentration for altitude, and the lowest prevalence was in Yi (10.6%). Furthermore, there were differences on mean Hb concentration or anemia rate in participants between ethnic enclaves and non-ethnic enclaves in most ethnic groups.The ethnic differences of the Hb distribution and anemia prevalence were observed in the 10 ethnic groups, which might be associated with geographic conditions, genetic background, and eating habits. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevalence and distribution of gastrointestinal parasites of working camels in Sokoto metropolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mahmuda

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: An epidemiological study of gastrointestinal parasites of working camels in Sokoto metropolis was conducted between March and September, 2013, where the general prevalence and seasonal distribution were identified. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 faecal samples from working camels were examined using standard parasitological techniques (Centrifugal sedimentation and simple flotation. Microscopic examination of faecal samples revealed that some samples were positive for at least one or more parasite eggs/oocysts. Results: The overall prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites was found to be 78 (78.0% and seasonal prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites was found to be 35 (70.0% for the dry season and 43 (86.0% for the rainy season. Overall, the prevalence of nematodes, trematodes, cestodes, and protozoa were 87 (80.56%, 7 (6.48%, 4 (3.71% and 10 (9.26%, respectively. The prevalence of helminths parasites indicated as most dominant eggs of Strongyles 68 (62.96% followed by Strongyloides spp 10 (9.26%, and Trichuris spp 8 (7.41%, while Protozoan oocyst from the faecal samples recorded Coccidia spp 9 (8.33%. The prevalence by sex, age, and breed were also determined in the study animals. Conclusion: The presence of polyparasitism with high prevalence is an indication that favorable environmental conditions for infection, survival and perpetuation of the parasites exist in Sokoto metropolis.

  8. An emendation of the generic diagnosis of the monotypic Glanitaenia (Cestoda: Proteocephalidae), with notes on the geographical distribution of G-osculata, a parasite of invasive wels catfish

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    de Chambrier, A.; Scholz, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 123, č. 1 (2016), s. 1-9 ISSN 0035-418X R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Cestoda * Glanitaenia osculata * morphology * redescription * freshwater fish * geographical distribution * Europe Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.380, year: 2016

  9. Modeling species’ realized climatic niche space and predicting their response to global warming for several western forest species with small geographic distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus V. Warwell; Gerald E. Rehfeldt; Nicholas L. Crookston

    2010-01-01

    The Random Forests multiple regression tree was used to develop an empirically based bioclimatic model of the presence-absence of species occupying small geographic distributions in western North America. The species assessed were subalpine larch (Larix lyallii), smooth Arizona cypress (Cupressus arizonica ssp. glabra...

  10. An ecological study on the geographic patterns of ischaemic heart disease in Portugal and its association with demography, economic factors and health resources distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Pinto, Luís Manuel; Rocha-Gonçalves, Francisco; Teixeira-Pinto, Armando

    2012-01-01

    Being one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in developed countries, ischaemic heart disease's (IHD) incidence and mortality present clear differences between and within countries. Several authors already proposed possible explanations based on the demography, environmental factors, diet and level of urbanisation. This study reflects the Portuguese reality concerning IHD, by analysing the geographical distribution of hospital admissions and mortality due to this condition, in Portugal, and its association with demography, economical factors and the distribution of healthcare resources at the regional level. Ecological study. Data from all Portuguese Public Hospitals were obtained using the National Registry of Hospital Admissions, between 2000 and 2007, and data on demography, economical factors and health resources distribution were obtained from the National Institute of Statistics. Aggregated statistics on hospital admissions and mortality were computed for 278 counties based on almost 200 000 admissions. Mortality rate; hospital admissions rate. The geographical distribution of non-adjusted mortality and hospital admission showed an inner/coastal pattern but no North/South gradient was clear. Counties with higher economical development had significantly higher mortality and admission rates. However, healthcare resources distribution was not significantly associated with IHD hospital admission and mortality. When adjusted for age, gender, economic development and health resources distribution, there was still unexplained geographical variation both in hospital admissions and mortality rates. A pattern in the geographic distribution of incidence and mortality of IHD was clear even after the adjustment for age and gender. Economical variables were the ones presenting the strongest association. These types of analysis may be very helpful for the definition of health policies, in particular to identify priority regions for disease prevention and

  11. Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and variation in risk factors across four geographically diverse resource-limited settings in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaganath, Devan; Miranda, J Jaime; Gilman, Robert H; Wise, Robert A; Diette, Gregory B; Miele, Catherine H; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Checkley, William

    2015-03-18

    It is unclear how geographic and social diversity affects the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We sought to characterize the prevalence of COPD and identify risk factors across four settings in Peru with varying degrees of urbanization, altitude, and biomass fuel use. We collected sociodemographics, clinical history, and post-bronchodilator spirometry in a randomly selected, age-, sex- and site-stratified, population-based sample of 2,957 adults aged ≥35 years (median age was 54.8 years and 49.3% were men) from four resource-poor settings: Lima, Tumbes, urban and rural Puno. We defined COPD as a post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC urban Tumbes, 6.1% in urban Puno, 6.2% in Lima, and 9.9% in rural Puno (p < 0.001). Population attributable risks (PARs) of COPD due to smoking ≥10 pack-years were less than 10% for all sites, consistent with a low prevalence of daily smoking (3.3%). Rather, we found that PARs of COPD varied by setting. In Lima, for example, the highest PARs were attributed to post-treatment tuberculosis (16% and 22% for men and women, respectively). In rural Puno, daily biomass fuel for cooking among women was associated with COPD (prevalence ratio 2.22, 95% CI 1.02-4.81) and the PAR of COPD due to daily exposure to biomass fuel smoke was 55%. The burden of COPD in Peru was not uniform and, unlike other settings, was not predominantly explained by tobacco smoking. This study emphasizes the role of biomass fuel use, and highlights pulmonary tuberculosis as an often neglected risk factor in endemic areas.

  12. Muscidae (Insecta: Diptera) of Latin America and the Caribbean: geographic distribution and check-list by country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwenberg-Neto, Peter; De Carvalho, Claudio J B

    2013-01-01

    Here we provide a geographic database for the Muscidae (Insecta: Diptera) that are endemic to Latin America and the Caribbean and non-synanthropic. We summarize the geographic information provided by specimens from three entomological collections in Brazil (DZUP, MNRJ, and MZUEFS) as well as geographic information we compiled in the literature. The resulting 817 species were linked to their geographic records by country, state/province/department, locality, latitude and longitude, including source reference. When coordinates were not provided in specimens' labels, we used the locality information to search geographic coordinates in online gazetteers. We also separated the species by country for a country-species list. These data comprise 250 years of collections and taxonomic studies of Neotropical Muscidae and we expect that it provides a foundation and serves as guide for future studies of systematics and biogeography of the family.

  13. The prevalence and distribution of Fusarium species in Norwegian cereals: a survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosiak, B.; Torp, M.; Skjerve, E.

    2003-01-01

    the regions. A total of 695 grain samples were analysed. The amount of Fusarium infection varied with cereal species and region of origin. The most frequently isolated Fusarium spp. from all samples were F. avenaceum, F. poae, F. tricinctum and F. culmorum. Other important toxigenic Fusarium spp. were F......In the period 1994-1996 a post-harvest survey was conducted in wheat, barley and oats to assess the occurrence and geographic distribution of Fusarium species in Norwegian cereals. The number of samples investigated was adjusted proportionally to the production of each cereal species within...... and F. culmorum demonstrated in this study , corresponded to previously reported DON-distribution, although DON seems to be produced by different species in different regions. Distribution of the isolated Fusarium species and comparison between cereals and locations are discussed....

  14. Geographic distribution and regional origin of 272 cystic fibrosis mutations in European populations. The Biomed CF Mutation Analysis Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estivill, X; Bancells, C; Ramos, C

    1997-01-01

    The geographic distribution of 272 cystic fibrosis (CF) mutations has been studied by assessing the origin of 27,177 CF chromosomes from 29 European countries and three countries from the North of Africa. The most common mutations are delta F308 (66.8%), G542X (2.6%), N1303K (1.6%), G551D (1.5%) and W1282X (1.0%). The delta F508 mutation has the highest frequency in Denmark (87.2%) and the lowest in Algeria (26.3%). Mutation G542X is common in the Mediterranean countries, with a mean frequency of 6.1%. N1303K is found in most of the western and Mediterranean countries and has the highest frequency in Tunisia (17.2%). The wide distribution of these mutations suggests an ancient origin. G551D is common in north-west and central Europe, but is uncommon in other parts of Europe. W1282X has the highest frequency in Israel (36.2%), being also common in most Mediterranean countries and north Africa. Seventeen mutation have frequencies between 0.1 and 0.9%, 1717-1G-->A (0.83%), R553X (0.75%), R1162X (0.51%), 621 + 1G-->T (0.54%) and 2183AA-->G (0.36%), being the most common ones. Some mutations reach relatively high frequencies in some extended geographic regions, such as mutation 394delTT in northern Europe (1.1-28.8%), R117H in northwestern Europe (1.3-3.0%), R553X in central Europe (1.1-24.4%), 1717-1G-->A in Belgium and France (1.1-5.3%), and 2183AA-->G in Italy and Greece (3.2%). Other mutations are only common in small regions: T338I (Sardinia), 711 + 1G-->T (Tunisia), R1162X (Algeria and north of Italy), 1609delCA (east of Spain), 1811 + 1.6kbA-->G (southeastern Spain), R1066C (Portugal), S549R (Algeria), R334W (Crete), 621 + 1G-->T (Central Greece), 3849 + 10kbC-->T (Israel), 2789 + 5G-->A (south of Greece), 451 + 1G--A (Israel), R347P (south of Bulgaria), 1677delTA (south of Bulgaria and Turkey), G85E (south of Greece), R347H (Turkey), 3905insT (Switzerland), 1078delT (Brittany), 1898 + 1G-->A (Wales), A455E (The Netherlands), delta I507 (Brittany), 3659del

  15. The Prevalence and Distribution of Vitreoretinal Interface Abnormalities among Urban Community Population in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to identify the prevalence and distribution of vitreoretinal interface abnormalities (VIAs among urban community population in Shenyang, China. According to the WHO criteria, a cross-sectional study was carried out among 304 Type 2 diabetes (T2D patients and 304 people without diabetes as control over 45 years old. The presence of VIAs was determined by standardized grading of macular optical coherence tomography (Optovue OCT; Optovue, Inc., Fremont, CA scans and two-field fundus photographs in at least one eye. For both men and women, high prevalence of VIAs (70.79% was observed among over 65-years-old T2D patients. Prevalence of VIAs was observed to be high among T2D patients in all age groups compared to normal subjects. Prevalence of VIAs increased with age in all subjects. Prevalence of components of VIAs was epiretinal membrane (ERM 11.43%, posterior vitreous detachment (PVD 17.76%, vitreomacular traction syndrome (VMT 5.67%, macular cysts/macular edema (MC/ME 4.61%, full-thickness macular hole (FTMH 0.82%, and partial thickness macular hole (PTMH 0.74% in any eye, respectively. ERM and MC/ME were more prevalent in T2D in both males and females. The results highlight the need for early detection using OCT and approaches for the prevention of VIAs of diabetes in urban community.

  16. Hot topic: Geographical distribution and strain diversity of Lactobacillus wasatchensis isolated from cheese with unwanted gas formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culumber, Michele; McMahon, Donald J; Ortakci, Fatih; Montierth, Lauren; Villalba, Beatriz; Broadbent, Jeffery R; Oberg, Craig J

    2017-11-01

    Lactobacillus wasatchensis, an obligate heterofermentative nonstarter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB) implicated in causing gas defects in aged cheeses, was originally isolated from an aged Cheddar produced in Logan, Utah. To determine the geographical distribution of this organism, we isolated slow-growing NSLAB from cheeses collected in different regions of the United States, Australia, New Zealand, and Ireland. Seven of the cheeses showed significant gas defects and 12 did not. Nonstarter lactic acid bacteria were isolated from these cheeses on de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe medium supplemented with ribose, a preferred substrate for Lb. wasatchensis. Identification was confirmed with 16S rRNA gene sequencing and the API50CH (bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France) carbohydrate panel. Isolates were also compared with one another by using repetitive element sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR). Lactobacillus wasatchensis was isolated only from cheeses demonstrating late-gas development and was found in samples from 6 of the 7 cheeses. This supports laboratory evidence that this organism is a causative agent of late gas production defects. The rep-PCR analysis produced distinct genetic fingerprints for isolates from each cheese, indicating that Lb. wasatchensis is found in several regions across the United States and is not a local phenomenon. The Authors. Published by the Federation of Animal Science Societies and Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the American Dairy Science Association®. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

  17. Clock gene polymorphism, migratory behaviour and geographic distribution: a comparative study of trans-Saharan migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzi, Gaia; Cecere, Jacopo G; Caprioli, Manuela; Gatti, Emanuele; Gianfranceschi, Luca; Podofillini, Stefano; Possenti, Cristina D; Ambrosini, Roberto; Saino, Nicola; Spina, Fernando; Rubolini, Diego

    2016-12-01

    Migratory behaviour is controlled by endogenous circannual rhythms that are synchronized by external cues, such as photoperiod. Investigations on the genetic basis of circannual rhythmicity in vertebrates have highlighted that variation at candidate 'circadian clock' genes may play a major role in regulating photoperiodic responses and timing of life cycle events, such as reproduction and migration. In this comparative study of 23 trans-Saharan migratory bird species, we investigated the relationships between species-level genetic variation at two candidate genes, Clock and Adcyap1, and species' traits related to migration and geographic distribution, including timing of spring migration across the Mediterranean Sea, migration distance and breeding latitude. Consistently with previous evidence showing latitudinal clines in 'circadian clock' genotype frequencies, Clock allele size increased with breeding latitude across species. However, early- and late-migrating species had similar Clock allele size. Species migrating over longer distances, showing delayed spring migration and smaller phenotypic variance in spring migration timing, had significantly reduced Clock (but not Adcyap1) gene diversity. Phylogenetic confirmatory path analysis suggested that migration date and distance were the most important variables directly affecting Clock gene diversity. Hence, our study supports the hypothesis that Clock allele size increases poleward as a consequence of adaptation to the photoperiodic regime of the breeding areas. Moreover, we show that long-distance migration is associated with lower Clock diversity, coherently with strong stabilizing selection acting on timing of life cycle events in long-distance migratory species, likely resulting from the time constraints imposed by late spring migration. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Balanites aegyptiaca (L. Delile: geographical distribution and ethnobotanical knowledge by local populations in the Ferlo (north Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagna, MB.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Balanites aegyptiaca (L. Delile is a species of tropical flora for which the variety aegyptiaca is adapted to Sahelian climate. The species is among those chosen for the restoration of Sahelian ecosystems in the context of the pan-African reforestation project, the Great Green Wall for the Sahara and Sahel Initiative (GGW. This study redefines the distribution range and its ecology and studies its uses in the Ferlo region in the north of Senegal using surveys carried out among the local population. The eco-geographical study shows that the species occupies several Sahel-Saharan regions of Africa and the Middle East. With broad ecological amplitude, it is very resistant to drought and relatively indifferent to the type of soil. Results of the ethno-botanical survey show that local people in the Ferlo region have a wealth of knowledge and expertise on B. aegyptiaca. These surveys also revealed the extent to which local populations rely on the tree for food, fodder, construction and medicine. The fruit and wood are the most highly prized parts of the tree, with the greatest use of the fruit in people's diets. In medicinal terms, B. aegyptiaca is used to treat several affections. Marketing the fruits could be of socio-economic interest for local people, and in particular, for women. This study is particularly opportune since B. aegyptiaca var. aegyptiaca is currently being planted in large numbers within the Great Green Wall for the Sahara and the Sahel Initiative (GGW. It also provides information that could help in better management of this natural resource, adapted both to the hostile Sahelian climate and of great use to Mankind.

  19. Analysis of Impact of Geographical Environment and Socio-economic Factors on the Spatial Distribution of Kaohsiung Dengue Fever Epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wei-Yin; Wen, Tzai-Hung; Yu, Hwa-Lung

    2013-04-01

    Taiwan is located in subtropical and tropical regions with high temperature and high humidity in the summer. This kind of climatic condition is the hotbed for the propagation and spread of the dengue vector mosquito. Kaohsiung City has been the worst dengue fever epidemic city in Taiwan. During the study period, from January 1998 to December 2011, Taiwan CDC recorded 7071 locally dengue epidemic cases in Kaohsiung City, and the number of imported case is 118. Our research uses Quantile Regression, a spatial infection disease distribution, to analyze the correlation between dengue epidemic and geographic environmental factors and human society factors in Kaohsiung. According to our experiment statistics, agriculture and natural forest have a positive relation to dengue fever(5.5~34.39 and 3.91~15.52). The epidemic will rise when the ratio for agriculture and natural forest increases. Residential ratio has a negative relation for quantile 0.1 to 0.4(-0.005~-0.78), and a positive relation for quantile 0.5 to0.9(0.01~18.0) . The mean income is also a significant factor in social economy field, and it has a negative relation to dengue fever(-0.01~-0.04). Conclusion from our research is that the main factor affecting the degree of dengue fever in predilection area is the residential proportion and the ratio of agriculture and natural forest plays an important role affecting the degree of dengue fever in non predilection area. Moreover, the serious epidemic area located by regression model is the same as the actual condition in Kaohsiung. This model can be used to predict the serious epidemic area of dengue fever and provide some references for the Health Agencies

  20. Forecasting the regional distribution and sufficiency of physicians in Japan with a coupled system dynamics-geographic information system model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Tomoki; Fujiwara, Kensuke; Ohba, Hisateru; Suzuki, Teppei; Ogasawara, Katsuhiko

    2017-09-12

    In Japan, the shortage of physicians has been recognized as a major medical issue. In our previous study, we reported that the absolute shortage will be resolved in the long term, but maldistribution among specialties will persist. To address regional shortage, several Japanese medical schools increased existing quota and established "regional quotas." This study aims to assist policy makers in designing effective policies; we built a model for forecasting physician numbers by region to evaluate future physician supply-demand balances. For our case study, we selected Hokkaido Prefecture in Japan, a region displaying disparities in healthcare services availability between urban and rural areas. We combined a system dynamics (SD) model with geographic information system (GIS) technology to analyze the dynamic change in spatial distribution of indicators. For Hokkaido overall and for each secondary medical service area (SMSA) within the prefecture, we analyzed the total number of practicing physicians. For evaluating absolute shortage and maldistribution, we calculated sufficiency levels and Gini coefficient. Our study covered the period 2010-2030 in 5-year increments. According to our forecast, physician shortage in Hokkaido Prefecture will largely be resolved by 2020. Based on current policies, we forecast that four SMSAs in Hokkaido will continue to experience physician shortages past that date, but only one SMSA would still be understaffed in 2030. The results show the possibility that diminishing imbalances between SMSAs would not necessarily mean that regional maldistribution would be eliminated, as seen from the sufficiency levels of the various SMSAs. Urgent steps should be taken to place doctors in areas where our forecasting model predicts that physician shortages could occur in the future.

  1. Genotypic and geographical distribution of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses in mainland China in 1996-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jia-Cong; Xiong, Jun-Yao; Ye, Chao; Chang, Xiao-Bo; Guo, Jin-Chao; Jiang, Cheng-Gang; Zhang, Gui-Hong; Tian, Zhi-Jun; Cai, Xue-Hui; Tong, Guang-Zhi; An, Tong-Qing

    2017-09-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) has caused huge economic losses to Chinese swine industry and remains a major threat since it was first reported in 1996. However, investigations of molecular epidemiological and genetic diversity of PRRS viruses (PRRSVs) in China were limited to a small number of representative strains collected in several areas. Moreover, lineage classifications reported by individual researchers were quite different. In the present study, we sequenced ORF5 sequences of 217 PRRSVs from clinical samples, retrieved all the available ORF5 sequences of PRRSVs isolated in China in 1996-2016 (n=2213) from GenBank, and systematically analyzed corresponding epidemiological data. NA-type PRRSVs in China were classified into five lineages: lineage 1, lineage 3, lineage 5, lineage 8, and lineage 9. Most strains in China belonged to lineage 8 (85.6%), with dominant strains being classified as sublineage 8.3 (78.3%). Importantly, the emerging lineage 1 and lineage 3 strains spread rapidly, and their proportions among circulating PRRSVs have significantly increased in recent years. The geographical distribution of different PRRSV lineages in each province was analyzed and possible inter-province transmission routes were outlined for main lineages and sublineages. To our knowledge, this study is the most comprehensive and extensive phylogeographical analysis of PRRSVs in China since PRRS outbreak in 1996. Our dataset can serve as a canonical standard for PRRSV classification and will help to study genetic evolution of PRRSV. The results of the present study may also improve prevention of PRRS in China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Mycobacterial disease in cats in Great Britain: I. Culture results, geographical distribution and clinical presentation of 339 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn-Moore, Danièlle A; McFarland, Sarah E; Brewer, Jacqueline I; Crawshaw, Timothy R; Clifton-Hadley, Richard S; Kovalik, Marcel; Shaw, Darren J

    2011-12-01

    This study investigated 339 cases of feline mycobacterial disease from cats with cutaneous lesions or masses found at exploratory laparotomy. Tissue samples were submitted to the Veterinary Laboratories Agency for mycobacterial culture over a 4-year period to December 2008. The study assessed which species of culturable mycobacteria were involved, where the cats lived, and their clinical presentation (physical findings, serum biochemistry, radiography, feline leukaemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus status). Mycobacterium microti was cultured from 19%, Mycobacterium bovis 15%, Mycobacterium avium 7%, non-M avium non-tuberculous mycobacteria 6%, with no growth in 53% of samples. M microti, M bovis and M avium were found in almost mutually exclusive clusters within Great Britain (GB) (ie, M bovis in South-West England/Wales/Welsh Border, M avium in eastern England and M microti south of London and in South-West Scotland). While differences were seen in the clinical presentation and distribution of lesions caused by the different infections, these were not sufficiently different to be diagnostic. Cats commonly presented with single or multiple cutaneous lesions (74%), which were sometimes ulcerated or discharging, located most frequently on the head (54%). Lymph nodes were usually involved (47%); typically the submandibular nodes. Systemic or pulmonary signs were rarely seen (10-16%). When a cat is suspected of having mycobacteriosis, accurate identification of the species involved helps to determine appropriate action. Our findings show that knowing the cat's geographic location can be helpful, while the nature of the clinical presentation is less useful. Most cases of feline mycobacterial disease in GB are cutaneous. Copyright © 2011 ISFM and AAFP. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Geographic distribution of perinatal mortality due to congenital malformations in Colombia, 1999-2008: An analysis of vital statistics data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misnaza, Sandra Patricia; Roncancio, Claudia Patricia; Peña, Isabel Cristina; Prieto, Franklin Edwin

    2016-09-01

    During 2012, 13% of the deaths worldwide in children under the age of 28 days were due to congenital malformations. In Colombia, congenital malformations are the second leading cause of infant mortality. Objective: To determine the geographical distribution of extended perinatal mortality due to congenital malformations in Colombia between 1999 and 2008. Materials and methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study. We revised all death certificates issued between 1999 and 2008. We defined perinatal mortality as fetal or non-fetal deaths within the first 28 days after delivery in children with body weight ≥500 grams, and congenital malformations according to ICD-10 diagnostic codes Q000 - Q999. The annual birth projection was used as the denominator. We defined high mortality areas due to congenital malformations as those in the 90th percentile. Results: We recorded 22,361 perinatal deaths due to congenital malformations. The following provinces exceeded the 90th perinatal mortality percentile: Antioquia, Caldas, Risaralda, Huila, Quindío, Bogotá, Valle del Cauca and Guainía. Among the municipalities, the highest perinatal mortality rates were found in Giraldo, Ciudad Bolívar, Riosucio, Liborina, Supía, Alejandría, Sopetrán, San Jerónimo, Santa Fe de Antioquia and Marmato (205.81 and 74.18 per 10.000 live births).The perinatal mortality rate due to malformations of the circulatory system was 28.1 per 10.000 live births, whereas the rates for central nervous system defects and chromosomal abnormalities were 13.7 and 7.0, respectively. The Andean region showed high perinatal mortality rates due to congenital malformations. There is an urgent need to identify possible risk factors of perinatal mortality and implement successive prevention programs in that particular region.

  4. Effects of Abiotic Factors on the Geographic Distribution of Body Size Variation and Chromosomal Polymorphisms in Two Neotropical Grasshopper Species (Dichroplus: Melanoplinae: Acrididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio J. Bidau

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the effects of abiotic factors on body size in two grasshopper species with large geographical distributions: Dichroplus pratensis and D. vittatus, inhabiting Argentina in diverse natural habitats. Geographical spans for both species provide an opportunity to study the effects of changes in abiotic factors on body size. The analyses of body size distribution in both species revealed a converse Bergmannian pattern: body size is positively correlated with latitude, altitude, and seasonality that influences time available for development and growth. Allen’s rule is also inverted. Morphological variability increases towards the ends of the Bergmannian clines and, in D. pratensis, is related with a central-marginal distribution of chromosomal variants that influence recombination. The converse Bergmannian patterns influence sexual size dimorphism in both species but in different fashions. Body size variation at a microspatial scale in D. pratensis is extremely sensitive to microclimatic clines. We finally compare our results with those for other Orthopteran species.

  5. Identification of novel mammalian hosts and Brazilian biome geographic distribution of Trypanosoma cruzi TcIII and TcIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Juliana Helena S; Xavier, Samanta Cristina C; Bilac, Daniele; Lima, Valdirene Santos; Dario, Maria Augusta; Jansen, Ana Maria

    2017-08-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is a parasitic protozoan responsible for Chagas disease. Seven different Discrete Typing Units (DTUs) of T. cruzi are currently identified in nature: TcI-TcVI, and TcBat whose distribution patterns in nature, hosts/reservoirs and eco-epidemiological importance are still little known. Here, we present novel data on the geographic distribution and diversity of mammalian hosts and vectors of T. cruzi DTUs TcIII and TcIV. In this study, we analyzed 61 T. cruzi isolates obtained from 18 species of mammals (five orders) and two Hemiptera genera. Samples were collected from five Brazilian biomes (Pantanal, Caatinga, Cerrado, Atlantic Rainforest, and Amazon) previously characterized as Z3 or mixed infection (TcI-Z3) by mini-exon gene PCR. To identify TcIII and TcIV genotypes, we applied restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis to the PCR-amplified histone 3 gene. DTUs TcIII and TcIV were identified in single and mixed infections from wide dispersion throughout five Brazilian biomes studied, with TcIV being the most common. Pantanal was the biome that displayed the largest number of samples characterized as TcIII and TcIV in single and mixed infections, followed by Atlantic Rainforest and Amazon. Species from the Didelphimorphia order displayed the highest frequency of infection and were found in all five biomes. We report, for the first time, the infection of a species of the Artiodactyla order by DTU TcIII. In addition, we describe new host species: five mammals (marsupials and rodents) and two genera of Hemiptera. Our data indicate that DTUs TcIII and TcIV are more widespread and infect a larger number of mammalian species than previously thought. In addition, they are transmitted in restricted foci and cycles, but in different microhabitats and areas with distinct ecological profiles. Finally, we show that DTUs TcIII and TcIV do not present any specific association with biomes or host species. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Los Mezquites Mexicanos: Biodiversidad y Distribución Geográfica Mexican mesquites: Biodiversity and geographical distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón A. Palacios

    2006-07-01

    sp. nov. (Yucatán; 11 P. juliflora (Yucatán. A key to the 11 Mexican species is provided and their geographical distributions are illustrated.

  7. Degenerative Inter-Vertebral Disc Disease (Osteochondrosis Intervertebralis) in Europe: Prevalence, Geographic Variation, and Radiological Correlates in Men and Women Aged 50 and Over

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbrecht, Gabriele; Felsenberg, Dieter; Ganswindt, Melanie; Lunt, Mark; Kaptoge, Stephen K; Abendroth, Klaus; Aroso Dias, Antonio; Bhalla, Ashok K; Cannata Andia, Jorge; Dequeker, Jan; Eastell, Richard; Hoszowski, Krysztoff; Lyritis, George; Masaryk, Pavol; van Meurs, Joyce; Miazgowski, Tomasz; Nuti, Ranuccio; Poór, Gyula; Redlund-Johnell, Inga; Reid, David M; Schatz, Helmut; Todd, Christopher J; Woolf, Anthony D; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Javaid, Muhammad K; Cooper, Cyrus; Silman, Alan J; O’Neill, Terence W; Reeve, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To assess the prevalence across Europe of radiological indices of degenerative inter-vertebral disc disease (DDD); and to quantify their associations with, age, sex, physical anthropometry, areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and change in aBMD with time. Methods In the population-based European Prospective Osteoporosis Study 27 age-stratified samples of men and women from across the continent aged 50+ had standardized lateral radiographs of the lumbar and thoracic spine to evaluate the severity of DDD, using the Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) scale. Measurements of anterior, mid-body and posterior vertebral heights on all assessed vertebrae from T4 to L4 were used to generate indices of end-plate curvature. Results Images from 10,132 participants (56% female, mean age 63.9 years) passed quality checks. Overall, 47% of men and women had DDD grade 3 or more in the lumbar spine and 36% in both thoracic and lumbar spine. Risk ratios for DDD grades 3 and 4, adjusted for age and anthropometric determinants, varied across a three-fold range between centres, yet prevalences were highly correlated in men and women. DDD was associated with flattened, non-ovoid inter-vertebral disc spaces. KL grade 4 and loss of inter-vertebral disc space were associated with higher spine aBMD. Discussion KL Grades 3 and 4 are often used clinically to categorise radiological DDD. Highly variable European prevalences of radiologically-defined DDD Grades 3+ along with the large effects of age may have growing and geographically unequal health and economic impacts as the population ages. These data encourage further studies of potential genetic and environmental causes. PMID:28398504

  8. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus from distinct geographic locations in China: an increasing prevalence of spa-t030 and SCCmec type III.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Chen

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus belongs to one of the most common bacteria causing healthcare and community associated infections in China, but their molecular characterization has not been well studied. From May 2011 to June 2012, a total of 322 non-duplicate S. aureus isolates were consecutively collected from seven tertiary care hospitals in seven cities with distinct geographical locations in China, including 171 methicillin sensitive S. aureus (MSSA and 151 MRSA isolates. All isolates were characterized by spa typing. The presence of virulence genes was tested by PCR. MRSA were further characterized by SCCmec typing. Seventy four and 16 spa types were identified among 168 MSSA and 150 MRSA, respectively. One spa type t030 accounted for 80.1% of all MRSA isolates, which was higher than previously reported, while spa-t037 accounted for only 4.0% of all MRSA isolates. The first six spa types (t309, t189, t034, t377, t078 and t091 accounted for about one third of all MSSA isolates. 121 of 151 MRSA isolates (80.1% were identified as SCCmec type III. pvl gene was found in 32 MSSA (18.7% and 5 MRSA (3.3% isolates, with ST22-MSSA-t309 as the most commonly identified strain. Compared with non-epidemic MRSA clones, epidemic MRSA clones (corresponding to ST239 exhibited a lower susceptibility to rifampin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, a higher prevalence of sea gene and a lower prevalence of seb, sec, seg, sei and tst genes. The increasing prevalence of multidrug resistant spa-t030 MRSA represents a major public health problem in China.

  9. The geographic distribution of strontium isotopes in Danish surface waters - A base for provenance studies in archaeology, hydrology and agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frei, Karin M., E-mail: kmfrei@hum.ku.dk [Danish National Research Foundation Centre for Textile Research, SAXO Institute, University of Copenhagen, Njalsgade 80, DK-2300 Copenhagen (Denmark); Frei, Robert [Institute of Geography and Geology and Nordic Center for Earth Evolution (NordCEE), University of Copenhagen, Oster Voldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2011-03-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Strontium isotope data of 192 surface waters from Denmark. {yields} Geographic baseline distribution of bio-available fractions. {yields} Applicable for provenance studies within archaeology, geology, agriculture and hydrology. {yields} Proposal of a band of strontium isotope values to characterize 'local' Danish signatures. - Abstract: In this paper Sr isotope signatures are reported for 192 surface water (lakes/ponds and rivers/creeks) samples from within Denmark and an isotope distribution map is presented that may serve as a base for provenance applications, including archaeological migration studies, ground water - surface water - seawater interaction/contamination monitoring, and potentially for agricultural applications, including cases of authenticity proof for particular food products. The Sr isotopic compositions of surface waters range from {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr = 0.7078 to 0.7125 (average 0.7096 {+-} 0.0016; 2{sigma}). This average value lies above the range of {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr values between 0.7078 and 0.7082 expected from Late Cretaceous to Early Tertiary (Oligocene) limestones which form the dominant bedrock type in a NW-SE trending belt in Denmark. The elevated {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr signatures >{approx}0.7095 are explained by additions to the surface waters of radiogenic Sr predominantly derived from the near-surface weathering and wash-out of Quarternary glaciogenic tills and soils deposited and formed during and after the last two ice age stages (Saale and Weichsel). The Sr isotopic compositions and concentrations of the surface waters can, therefore, best be modeled by a two-component mixing involving carbonaceous bedrock and glaciogenic cover sediments as the two predominant Sr sources. A feasibility study for using Sr isotopic compositions of surface waters as a proxy for bio-available Sr signatures was conducted in a representative test area on Zealand (Land of Legends, Lejre) where there is no use

  10. Mastery of fundamental movement skills among children in New South Wales: prevalence and sociodemographic distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okely, A D; Booth, M L

    2004-09-01

    Fundamental movement skills form the foundation for many of the specific motor skills employed in popular sports and leisure activities. Little data exist on the prevalence and socioeconomic distribution of fundamental movement skill mastery among young children in Australia. This study process-assessed performance on six fundamental movement skills in a randomly selected sample of students from Years 1 through 3 in the Sydney metropolitan area of New South Wales. The prevalence and sociodemographic distribution of mastery and near mastery for each skill and each skill component is reported for boys and girls in each school year. The findings revealed that the prevalence of mastery and near mastery of each of fundamental movement skill was generally low. Boys performed significantly better than girls in the run and in the four object-control skills (throw, catch, kick, and strike) whilst girls performed better than boys in the skip. There was no consistent association between prevalence of skill mastery and socio-economic status (SES), with only the kick and vertical jump for boys and catch, dodge, and vertical jump for girls differing across SES tertiles. Based on these results, we recommend that adequate curriculum time, resources, and professional development continue to be devoted to fundamental movement skills in NSW primary schools.

  11. Prevalence and distribution of colonic diverticula assessed with CT colonography (CTC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Cecco, Carlo Nicola; Ciolina, Maria; Rengo, Marco; Bellini, Davide; Muscogiuri, Giuseppe; Iafrate, Franco; Laghi, Andrea; Annibale, Bruno; Maruotti, Antonello; Saba, Luca

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of colonic diverticula according to age, gender, distribution, disease extension and symptoms with CT colonography (CTC). The study population included 1091 consecutive patients who underwent CTC. Patients with diverticula were retrospectively stratified according to age, gender, clinical symptoms and colonic segment involvement. Extension of colonic diverticula was evaluated using a three-point quantitative scale. Using this data, a multivariate regression analysis was applied to investigate the existence of any correlation among variables. Colonic diverticula were observed in 561 patients (240 men, mean age 68 ± 12 years). Symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease (SUDD) was present in 47.4 % of cases. In 25.6 % of patients ≤40 years, at least one diverticulum in the colon was observed. Prevalence of right-sided diverticula in patients >60 years was 14.2 % in caecum and 18.5 % in ascending colon. No significant difference was found between symptomatic and asymptomatic patients regarding diverticula prevalence and extension. No correlation was present between diverticula extension and symptoms. The incidence of colonic diverticula appears to be greater than expected. Right colon diverticula do not appear to be an uncommon finding, with their prevalence increasing with patient age. SUDD does not seem to be related to diverticula distribution and extension. (orig.)

  12. Prevalence and distribution of colonic diverticula assessed with CT colonography (CTC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Cecco, Carlo Nicola [University of Rome ' ' Sapienza' ' - Polo Pontino, Department of Radiological Sciences, Oncology and Pathology, Latina (Italy); Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Charleston, SC (United States); Ciolina, Maria; Rengo, Marco; Bellini, Davide; Muscogiuri, Giuseppe; Iafrate, Franco; Laghi, Andrea [University of Rome ' ' Sapienza' ' - Polo Pontino, Department of Radiological Sciences, Oncology and Pathology, Latina (Italy); Annibale, Bruno [University of Rome ' ' Sapienza' ' - Sant' Andrea Hospital, Department of Digestive and Liver Disease, Rome (Italy); Maruotti, Antonello [University ' ' Roma Tre' ' , Department of Public Institutions, Economy and Society, Rome (Italy); University of Southampton, Southampton Statistical Sciences Research Institute and School of Mathematics, Southampton (United Kingdom); Saba, Luca [Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria di Cagliari, Department of Radiology, Cagliari (Italy)

    2016-03-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of colonic diverticula according to age, gender, distribution, disease extension and symptoms with CT colonography (CTC). The study population included 1091 consecutive patients who underwent CTC. Patients with diverticula were retrospectively stratified according to age, gender, clinical symptoms and colonic segment involvement. Extension of colonic diverticula was evaluated using a three-point quantitative scale. Using this data, a multivariate regression analysis was applied to investigate the existence of any correlation among variables. Colonic diverticula were observed in 561 patients (240 men, mean age 68 ± 12 years). Symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease (SUDD) was present in 47.4 % of cases. In 25.6 % of patients ≤40 years, at least one diverticulum in the colon was observed. Prevalence of right-sided diverticula in patients >60 years was 14.2 % in caecum and 18.5 % in ascending colon. No significant difference was found between symptomatic and asymptomatic patients regarding diverticula prevalence and extension. No correlation was present between diverticula extension and symptoms. The incidence of colonic diverticula appears to be greater than expected. Right colon diverticula do not appear to be an uncommon finding, with their prevalence increasing with patient age. SUDD does not seem to be related to diverticula distribution and extension. (orig.)

  13. The prevalence and distribution of Fusarium species in Norwegian cereals: a survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosiak, B.; Torp, M.; Skjerve, E.

    2003-01-01

    In the period 1994-1996 a post-harvest survey was conducted in wheat, barley and oats to assess the occurrence and geographic distribution of Fusarium species in Norwegian cereals. The number of samples investigated was adjusted proportionally to the production of each cereal species within...... the regions. A total of 695 grain samples were analysed. The amount of Fusarium infection varied with cereal species and region of origin. The most frequently isolated Fusarium spp. from all samples were F. avenaceum, F. poae, F. tricinctum and F. culmorum. Other important toxigenic Fusarium spp. were F....... graminearum, "powdery F. poae ", F. equiseti and F. sporotrichioides . A north-south gradient was valid for F. tricinctum, F. poae and in 1994 for "powdery F. poae ". In 1994 "powdery F. poae " was the most abundant potential producer of HT-2 and T-2 toxins in Norwegian cereals. Distribution of F. graminearum...

  14. Geographic Distribution and Temporal Trends of HIV-1 Subtypes through Heterosexual Transmission in China: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Peipei; Li, Jianjun; Fu, Gengfeng; Zhou, Ying; Huan, Xiping; Yang, Haitao

    2017-07-24

    Background : Heterosexual transmission (HST) has become the current predominant transmission pathways of the HIV-1 epidemic in China. The aim of this study was to explore the geographic and dynamic change of HIV-1 subtypes through HST in China from published studies. Methods : Several electronic databases were searched to identify the studies, and the overall prevalence of HIV-1 subtypes was estimated by a meta-analysis method. Subgroup analysis was conducted by study region and time period. Publication bias was evaluated using Egger's test. The χ ² test was used to evaluate the proportion differences among subgroups. Sensitivity analysis was carried out to assess the stability of the overall prevalence estimates. Results: 42 studies were included in our final analysis. The overall prevalence of CRF01_AE was 46.34% (95% CI: 40.56-52.17%), CRF07_BC was 19.16% (95% CI: 15.02-23.66%), B/B' was 13.25% (95% CI: 9.68-17.25%), CRF08_BC was 10.61% (95% CI: 7.08-14.70%), and C was 4.29% (95% CI: 1.85-7.48%). In subgroup analysis, the prevalence of CRF01_AE and CRF07_BC increased, while the prevalence of B/B' decreased over time, whereby the prevalence of CRF07_BC and CRF08_BC have exceeded that of B/B' since 2010. A significant higher prevalence of CRF01_AE was found in the South provinces, CRF07_BC in East provinces, CRF08_BC and C in Southwest provinces, and B/B' in North provinces. Conclusions : The HIV-1 prevalent strains have evolved into complicated and diverse subtypes, and the proportion of HIV-1 subtypes through HST has changed constantly in different regions and periods in China. This highlights the urgent need to vigorously strengthen the prevention and control of the HIV-1 epidemic.

  15. Trends in the geographic distribution of nursing staff before and after the Great East Japan Earthquake: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morioka, Noriko; Tomio, Jun; Seto, Toshikazu; Kobayashi, Yasuki

    2015-08-25

    Medical care systems in Iwate, Miyagi and Fukushima prefectures were greatly damaged by the Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE), which struck on 11 March 2011. The shortage of nurses in this area was concerning; however, temporal trends have not been investigated. This study aimed to investigate the trends in the geographic distribution of total nursing staff per population in the secondary medical areas (SMAs) of these prefectures before and after the GEJE. We also aimed to qualify the above trends. We conducted a longitudinal study at four time points (July 2007, 2010, 2011 and 2013) over 6 years using reports of basic hospitalization charges from all hospitals within Iwate, Miyagi and Fukushima prefectures that experienced severe damage from the GEJE. We calculated the number of total nursing staff per population in the SMAs and compiled descriptive statistics. Changes from 2010 to 2013 were qualified and mapped. In coastal SMAs, the ratios of total nursing staff per population decreased immediately after the GEJE. In most SMAs in 2013, the ratios increased and exceeded the pre-GEJE level. However, the changes in total nursing staff per population from 2010 to 2013 were negative in Ryouban (-4.0%), Ishinomaki-Tome-Kesennuma (-1.9%), Sousou (-47.7%) and Iwaki (-1.9%). In Sousou, which is closest to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, the changes in total nursing staff per population qualified by job role were -33.7% for nurses, -57.7% for associate nurses and -63.2% for nursing aides. Our study indicated that the temporal trends in the number of total nursing staff per population due to the GEJE differed between the physically damaged areas and those affected by radiation. We also found the difference in the trend by qualifications: the reduction in total nursing staff per population was larger in Sousou, the area most affected by radiation, than in any other SMAs. Moreover, the number of nursing aides was most affected among the three types of staff. To

  16. The geographical distribution of the potential for seed germination and seedling establishment of Pinus densiflora in Japan as influenced by soil and air temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwagi, Y.

    1991-12-01

    The geographical distribution of Pinus densiflora forests in Japan was examined in relation to the seed germination and seedling establishment information obtained from laboratory experiments, field observations and field experiments. The laboratory experiments indicated that seed germination can occur in all areas of Japan because effective cumulative soil temperatures reaches to 75 °C · day everywhere. However, the field observations and field experiments suggested that seedling establishment is impossible in the northern, eastern and central parts of Hokkaido because the effective cumulative air temperature at a height of 6 cm over bare ground is less than 2 000 °C · day. These results agree approximately with the actual geographical distribution of P. densiflora forest, which can not be found under natural circumstances in these areas.

  17. Relative importance of meteorological and geographical factors in the distribution of Fasciola hepatica infestation in farmed sheep in Qinghai province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Hongyu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fasciola hepatica is an important trematode parasite of economic importance that infests sheep and cattle worldwide. We conducted a detailed investigation into the spatial distribution of F. hepatica infestation in farmed sheep in Qinghai (Wutumeiren province, Mainland China. Mathematical modelling was used to assess the inter-relationships between meteorological and geographical factors and the risk of F. hepatica infestation across the province. A capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA test (MM3-SERO was used to detect F. hepatica infestation. A niche model based on the maximum entropy method (MaxEnt was used to estimate the influence of meteorological and geographical factors on the observed spatial distribution of F. hepatica infestation. Results of jackknife analysis indicated that temperature, precipitation, solar radiation, digital elevation and slope were associated with the occurrence of F. hepatica infestation, and that infestation rates were significantly higher among animals from districts with a high percentage of grassland habitat. The findings indicate that meteorological and geographical factors may be important variables affecting the distribution of F. hepatica infestation and should be taken into account in the development of future surveillance and control programmes for fascioliasis.

  18. Relative importance of meteorological and geographical factors in the distribution of Fasciola hepatica infestation in farmed sheep in Qinghai province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Hongyu; Gao, Xiang; Wang, Hongbin; Xiao, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    Fasciola hepatica is an important trematode parasite of economic importance that infests sheep and cattle worldwide. We conducted a detailed investigation into the spatial distribution of F. hepatica infestation in farmed sheep in Qinghai (Wutumeiren) province, Mainland China. Mathematical modelling was used to assess the inter-relationships between meteorological and geographical factors and the risk of F. hepatica infestation across the province. A capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test (MM3-SERO) was used to detect F. hepatica infestation. A niche model based on the maximum entropy method (MaxEnt) was used to estimate the influence of meteorological and geographical factors on the observed spatial distribution of F. hepatica infestation. Results of jackknife analysis indicated that temperature, precipitation, solar radiation, digital elevation and slope were associated with the occurrence of F. hepatica infestation, and that infestation rates were significantly higher among animals from districts with a high percentage of grassland habitat. The findings indicate that meteorological and geographical factors may be important variables affecting the distribution of F. hepatica infestation and should be taken into account in the development of future surveillance and control programmes for fascioliasis. © H. Qin et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2016.

  19. Prevalence and distribution of Wellfleet Bay virus exposure in the Common Eider (Somateria mollissima)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Jennifer R.; Mickley, Randall M.; Gibbs, Samantha E.J.; Dwyer, Chris P.; Soos, Catherine; Harms, N. Jane; Gilchrist, H. Grant; Hall, Jeffrey S.; Franson, J. Christian; Milton, G. Randy; Parsons, Glen; Allen, Brad; Giroux, Jean-Francois; Lair, Stéphane; Mead, Daniel G.; Fischer, John R.

    2017-01-01

    Between 1998 and 2014, recurrent mortality events were reported in the Dresser's subspecies of the Common Eider (Somateria mollissima dresseri) on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA near Wellfleet Harbor. The early die-offs were attributed to parasitism and emaciation, but beginning in 2006 a suite of distinct lesions was observed concomitant with the isolation of a previously unknown RNA virus. This novel pathogen was identified as an orthomyxovirus in the genus Quaranjavirus and was named Wellfleet Bay virus (WFBV). To assess evidence of exposure to this virus in Common Eiders, we conducted a longitudinal study of the prevalence of WFBV antibodies at multiple locations from 2004–14; we collected 2,258 serum samples from six locations and analyzed each using a microneutralization assay. Results corroborate the emergence of WFBV in 2006 based on the first detection of antibodies in that year. Significantly higher prevalence was detected in Common Eiders sampled in Massachusetts compared to those in Maine, Nova Scotia, and Québec. For birds breeding and wintering in Massachusetss, viral exposure varied by age, sex, and season of sampling, and prevalence by season and sex were highly interrelated with greater numbers of antibody-positive males in the autumn and females in the spring. No evidence of viral exposure was detected in the Northern subspecies (Somateria mollissima borealis). Among the locations sampled, Massachusetts appears to be the epicenter of Common Eider exposure to WFBV. Further research is warranted to understand the factors controlling the epidemiology of WFBV in Massachussetts, including those that may be limiting geographic expansion of this virus.

  20. Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed E. Mansour

    2013-07-01

    Conclusion: The prevalence of spontaneous bacterial pleuritis in the studied group of patients with hepatic hydrothorax was 14.3%. Patients with advanced liver disease, low pleural fluid protein, or SBP are at risk for spontaneous bacterial pleuritis.

  1. Geographic Distributions of Idh-1 Alleles in a Cricket are Linked to Differential Enzyme Kinetic Performance Across Thermal Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geographic clines within species are often interpreted as evidence of adaptation to varying environmental conditions. However, clines can also result from genetic drift, and these competing hypotheses must therefore be tested empirically. The striped ground cricket, Allonemobius socius, is widely-di...

  2. Prevalence and distribution of Peste des petits ruminants virus antibodies in various districts of Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swai, Emmanuel Senyael; Kapaga, A; Kivaria, F; Tinuga, D; Joshua, G; Sanka, P

    2009-12-01

    Despite the widespread prevalence of infection with Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) in goats and sheep industry in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, there have been few, if any, structured population-based studies examining the epidemiology of this infection in Tanzania. In this study, we investigated the seroprevalence, and risk factors, of Peste des petitis ruminants(PPR) in sheep and goat flocks from seven different geographical administration authorities (Ngorongoro, Monduli, Longido, Karatu, Mbulu, Siha and Simanjiro) located in Northern Tanzania. Serum samples from 657 and 892 sheep and goats, respectively, corresponding to 91 sheep/goat flocks and 43 villages were collected. Competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA) was used to detect the presence of antibodies in the serum against PPRV. Chi-square analysis and multivariable logistic regression model were used to identify risk factors for PPRV seropositivity. Findings suggested that the sero-positive cases were significantly higher in goats than in sheep (49.5% versus 39.8%; P=0.002). The overall seroprevalence of PPRV infection in small ruminants was 45.8%. Highest seroprevalence (42.6-88.02%) was observed in Mbulu, Siha, Longido, Ngorongoro districts, while antibodies less than 40% to none were found in serum from Monduli, Karatu and Simanjiro, respectively. These findings confirm natural transmission of PPRV under field condition for the first time in Tanzania. Results may be correlated with variations in the sheep and goat husbandry practices within different geographic localities, the uncontrolled movement of animals, the levels of natural immunity and the sharing of grazing field amongst agro and pastoralists.

  3. Geographic Names

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), developed by the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Board of Geographic Names, provides...

  4. Prevalence and serotype distribution of nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in China: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Fu, Jinjian; Liang, Zhuoxin; Chen, Jichang

    2017-12-13

    To explore the overall prevalence and serotype distribution of nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae(S. pneumoniae) among healthy children. A search for pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage studies including children published up to July 31th, 2016 was conducted to describe carriage in China. The review also describes antibiotic resistance in and serotypes of S. pneumoniae and assesses the impact of vaccination on carriage in this region. Summary measures for overall prevalence, antibiotic resistance, and serotype distributions extracted from the analyzed data were determined with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using random-effects models. Heterogeneity was assessed using I 2 test statistics. Thirty-seven studies were included in this review, and the majority of studies (64.9%) were located in the pre-introduction period of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in China. The pooled prevalence of S. pneumoniae nasopharyngeal carriage was 21.4% (95% CI: 18.3-24.4%). Carriage was highest in children attending kindergartens [24.5%, (19.7-29.3%)] and decreased with increasing age. Before the introduction of PCV7 into China, the prevalence of S. pneumoniae nasopharyngeal carriage was 25.8% (20.7-30.9%), the pooled carriage of S. pneumoniae sharply dropped into the 14.1% (11.3-16.9%) by PCV7 vaccination period (P China, the penicillin resistance rate in S. pneumoniae isolated from healthy children was 31.9% (21.2-42.6%); however, this rate sharply decreased after the introduction of PCV7 in China [21.6%, (7.4-35.9%)], and the difference between the rates during these two time periods was statistically significant (P value China. PCV7 immunization was found to be associated with reduction of nasopharyngeal colonization of S. pneumoniae. Conjugate vaccination coverage was slightly affected by the introduction of PCV7 into China because of low vaccination rate. The government should implement timely adjusted conjugate vaccination strategies based on

  5. The prevalence, age distribution and comorbidity of personality disorders in Australian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirk, Shae E; Berk, Michael; Pasco, Julie A; Brennan-Olsen, Sharon L; Chanen, Andrew M; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli; Burke, Lisa M; Jackson, Henry J; Hulbert, Carol; A Olsson, Craig; Moran, Paul; Stuart, Amanda L; Williams, Lana J

    2017-02-01

    We aimed to describe the prevalence and age distribution of personality disorders and their comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders in an age-stratified sample of Australian women aged ⩾25 years. Individual personality disorders (paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal, histrionic, narcissistic, borderline, antisocial, avoidant, dependent, obsessive-compulsive), lifetime mood, anxiety, eating and substance misuse disorders were diagnosed utilising validated semi-structured clinical interviews (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders, Research Version, Non-patient Edition and Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders). The prevalence of personality disorders and Clusters were determined from the study population ( n = 768), and standardised to the Australian population using the 2011 Australian Bureau of Statistics census data. Prevalence by age and the association with mood, anxiety, eating and substance misuse disorders was also examined. The overall prevalence of personality disorders in women was 21.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 18.7, 24.9). Cluster C personality disorders (17.5%, 95% CI: 16.0, 18.9) were more common than Cluster A (5.3%, 95% CI: 3.5, 7.0) and Cluster B personality disorders (3.2%, 95% CI: 1.8, 4.6). Of the individual personality disorders, obsessive-compulsive (10.3%, 95% CI: 8.0, 12.6), avoidant (9.3%, 95% CI: 7.1, 11.5), paranoid (3.9%, 95% CI: 3.1, 4.7) and borderline (2.7%, 95% CI: 1.4, 4.0) were among the most prevalent. The prevalence of other personality disorders was low (⩽1.7%). Being younger (25-34 years) was predictive of having any personality disorder (odds ratio: 2.36, 95% CI: 1.18, 4.74), as was being middle-aged (odds ratio: 2.41, 95% CI: 1.23, 4.72). Among the strongest predictors of having any personality disorder was having a lifetime history of psychiatric disorders (odds ratio: 4.29, 95% CI: 2.90, 6.33). Mood and anxiety disorders were the most common comorbid

  6. Prevalence and Genotype Distribution of Pneumocystis jirovecii in Cuban Infants and Toddlers with Whooping Cough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroy-Vaca, Ernesto X.; de Armas, Yaxsier; Illnait-Zaragozí, María T.; Toraño, Gilda; Diaz, Raúl; Vega, Dania; Alvarez-Lam, Ileana; Calderón, Enrique J.

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the prevalence and genotype distribution of Pneumocystis jirovecii obtained from nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs from immunocompetent Cuban infants and toddlers with whooping cough (WC). A total of 163 NP swabs from 163 young Cuban children with WC who were admitted to the respiratory care units at two pediatric centers were studied. The prevalence of the organism was determined by a quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay targeting the P. jirovecii mitochondrial large subunit (mtLSU) rRNA gene. Genotypes were identified by direct sequencing of mtLSU ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) gene amplicons. qPCR detected P. jirovecii DNA in 48/163 (29.4%) samples. mtLSU rDNA sequence analysis revealed the presence of three different genotypes in the population. Genotype 2 was most common (48%), followed in prevalence by genotypes 1 (23%) and 3 (19%); mixed-genotype infections were seen in 10% of the cases. RFLP analysis of DHPS PCR products revealed four genotypes, 18% of which were associated with resistance to sulfa drugs. Only contact with coughers (prevalence ratio [PR], 3.51 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.79 to 6.87]; P = 0.000) and exposure to tobacco smoke (PR, 1.82 [95% CI, 1.14 to 2.92]; P = 0.009) were statistically associated with being colonized by P. jirovecii. The prevalence of P. jirovecii in infants and toddlers with WC and the genotyping results provide evidence that this population represents a potential reservoir and transmission source of P. jirovecii. PMID:24131683

  7. Geographical and Ethnic Distributions of the MTHFR C677T, A1298C and MTRR A66G Gene Polymorphisms in Chinese Populations: A Meta-Analysis.

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    Xingmin Wang

    Full Text Available The geographical and ethnic distributions of the polymorphic methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR mutations (C677T and A1298C and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR mutation (A66G remain heterogeneous in China. The goal of this study was to estimate the pooled frequencies of the alleles and associated genotypes of these gene polymorphisms among healthy populations in Mainland China.We systematically reviewed published epidemiological studies on the distributions of 3 genetic variants in Chinese healthy populations living in Mainland China through a meta-analysis. The relevant electronic databases were searched. All of the raw data of the eligible citations were extracted. The frequency estimates were stratified by geography, ethnicity and sex.Sixty-six studies were identified with a total of 92277 study participants. The meta-analysis revealed that the frequencies of the MTHFR C677T, A1298C, and MTRR A66G gene polymorphisms varied significantly between different ethnic groups and along geographical gradients. The frequencies of the 677T allele and 677TT genotype increased along the southern-central-northern direction across Mainland China (all Pvalues≤0.001. The frequencies of the 1298C, 1298CC, 66G and 66GG genotypes decreased along the south-central-north direction across the country (all Pvalues≤0.001.Our meta-analysis strongly indicates significant geographical and ethnic variations in the frequencies of the C677T, A1298C, and A66G gene polymorphisms in the folate metabolism pathway among Chinese populations.

  8. Geographical and Ethnic Distributions of the MTHFR C677T, A1298C and MTRR A66G Gene Polymorphisms in Chinese Populations: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingmin; Fu, Jinjian; Li, Qianxi; Zeng, Dingyuan

    2016-01-01

    The geographical and ethnic distributions of the polymorphic methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) mutations (C677T and A1298C) and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) mutation (A66G) remain heterogeneous in China. The goal of this study was to estimate the pooled frequencies of the alleles and associated genotypes of these gene polymorphisms among healthy populations in Mainland China. We systematically reviewed published epidemiological studies on the distributions of 3 genetic variants in Chinese healthy populations living in Mainland China through a meta-analysis. The relevant electronic databases were searched. All of the raw data of the eligible citations were extracted. The frequency estimates were stratified by geography, ethnicity and sex. Sixty-six studies were identified with a total of 92277 study participants. The meta-analysis revealed that the frequencies of the MTHFR C677T, A1298C, and MTRR A66G gene polymorphisms varied significantly between different ethnic groups and along geographical gradients. The frequencies of the 677T allele and 677TT genotype increased along the southern-central-northern direction across Mainland China (all Pvalues≤0.001). The frequencies of the 1298C, 1298CC, 66G and 66GG genotypes decreased along the south-central-north direction across the country (all Pvalues≤0.001). Our meta-analysis strongly indicates significant geographical and ethnic variations in the frequencies of the C677T, A1298C, and A66G gene polymorphisms in the folate metabolism pathway among Chinese populations.

  9. Distribution and prevalence of crown rot pathogens affecting wheat crops in southern Chile

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    Ernesto Moya-Elizondo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Crown rot pathogens are associated with higher losses for wheat crop farmers, but information about the distribution and prevalence of these pathogens in Chile is inadequate. Distribution and prevalence of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. crown rot pathogens were examined in a survey of 48 commercial fields from December 2011 to February 2012 in southern Chile. These fields were located between Collipulli (37°56'00" S; 72°26'39" W and Purranque (40°50'30" S; 73°22'03" W. Severity of crown rot disease was determined through visual assessment of the first internode of 20 tillers obtained from each field. Incidence of crown rot pathogens per field was determined by plating the 20 tillers on Petri plates with 20% potato dextrose agar amended with lactic acid (aPDA medium. Resulting fungal colonies from monoxenic culture were identified by morphological or molecular-assisted identification. Severity of crown rot varied between 11.3% and 80% for individual fields. Culture plate analysis showed 72.2% of stems were infected with some fungus. Fusarium avenaceum, F. graminearum, and F. culmorum, pathogens associated with Fusarium crown rot disease were isolated from 13.5% of tillers. Gaeumannomyces graminis, causal agent of take-all disease in cereals, was isolated from 11.1% of culms. Phaeosphaeria sp., an endophyte and possibly a non-pathogenic fungus, was isolated from 13.9% of tillers. Pathogenic fungi such as Rhizoctonia spp. and Microdochium nivale, other saprophyte, and several unidentified non-sporulating fungi were isolated at frequencies lower than 3% of the total. Fusarium crown rot and take-all were the most prevalent and distributed crown rot diseases present in wheat crops in southern Chile.

  10. Time variation of the effect of geographical factors on spatial distribution of summer precipitation over the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moliba Bankanza, Jacques Celestin

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 115, 1-2 (2011), s. 51-70 ISSN 0324-6329 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : multivariate regression * precipitation models * summer precipitation * geographic influence * environmental variables * temporal variability * Czech Republic Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 0.364, year: 2011 http://owww.met.hu/download.php?id=2&vol=115&no=1-2&a=4

  11. The prevalence, serogroup distribution and risk factors of meningococcal carriage in adolescents and young adults in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin, Rahmi Tuna; Dinleyici, Ener Cagri; Ceyhan, Mehmet; Karbuz, Adem; Salman, Nuran; Sutçu, Murat; Kurugol, Zafer; Balliel, Yasemin; Celik, Melda; Hacimustafaoglu, Mustafa; Kuyucu, Necdet; Kondolot, Meda; Sensoy, Gülnar; Metin, Ozge; Kara, Soner Sertan; Dinleyici, Meltem; Kılıç, Omer; Bayhan, Cihangul; Gurbuz, Venhar; Aycan, Emre; Memedova, Aygun; Karli, Arzu; Bozlu, Gulçin; Celebi, Solmaz

    2017-05-04

    The serogroup epidemiology of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD), which varies considerably by geographic region and immunization schedule, changes continuously. Meningococcal carriage data are crucial for assessing IMD epidemiology and designing f potential vaccination strategies. Meningococcal seroepidemiology in Turkey differs from that in other countries: serogroups W and B are the predominant strains for IMD during childhood, whereas no serogroup C cases were identified over the last 10 y and no adolescent peak for IMD was found. There is a lack of data on meningococcal carriage that represents the whole population. The aims of this multicenter study (12 cities in Turkey) were to evaluate the prevalence of Neisseria meningitidis carriage, the serogroup distribution and the related risk factors (educational status, living in a dormitory or student house, being a household contact with Hajj pilgrims, smoking, completion of military service, attending bars/clubs) in 1518 adolescents and young adults aged 10-24 y. The presence of N. meningitidis DNA was tested, and a serogroup analysis was performed using polymerase chain reaction. The overall meningococcal carriage rate was 6.3% (n = 96) in the study population. A serogroup distribution of the 96 N. meningitidis strains isolated from the nasopharyngeal specimens revealed serogroup A in 5 specimens (5.2%), serogroup B in 9 specimens (9.4%), serogroup W in 64 specimens (66.6%), and serogroup Y in 4 specimens (4.2%); 14 were classified as non-grouped (14.4%). No serogroup C cases were detected. The nasopharyngeal meningococcal carriage rate was 5% in the 10-14 age group, 6.4% in the 15-17 age-group, and 4.7% in the 18-20 age group; the highest carriage rate was found in the 21-24 age group (9.1%), which was significantly higher than those of the other age groups (p Turkey and was similar to the recent rates observed in the same age groups in other countries. The most prevalent serogroup was W, and no serogroup C

  12. High risk human papillomavirus prevalence and genotype distribution among women infected with HIV in Manaus, Amazonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Monique Figueiredo; Sabidó, Meritxell; Leturiondo, André Luiz; de Oliveira Ferreira, Cynthia; Torres, Kátia Luz; Benzaken, Adele Schwartz

    2018-02-17

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive women have a high prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV), and are infected with a broader range of HPV types than HIV-negative women. We aimed to determine the prevalence of cervical cytologic abnormalities, high-risk (HR)-HPV prevalence, type distribution according to the severity of cervical lesions and CD4 cell count and identify factors associated with HR-HPV infection among women living with HIV in Manaus, Amazonas. We enrolled 325 women living with HIV that attended an infectious diseases referral hospital. Each woman underwent a gynecological exam, cervical cytology, HR-HPV detection by Polymerase chain Reaction (PCR) using the BD Onclarity™ HPV Assay, colposcopy and biopsy, when necessary. We assessed the associations between potential risk factors and HR-HPV infection. Overall, 299 (92.0%) women had a PCR result. The prevalence of HR-HPV- infection was 31.1%. The most prevalent HR-HPV types were: 56/59/66 (32.2%), 35/39/68 (28.0%), 52 (21.5%), 16 (19.4%), and 45 (12.9%). Among the women with HR-HPV infection (n = 93), 43.0% had multiple infections. Women with HPV infection showed higher prevalence of cervical abnormalities than that HPV-negative (LSIL: 22.6% vs. 1.5%; HSIL: 10.8% vs. 0.0%). The prevalence of HR-HPV among women with cytological abnormalities was 87.5% for LSIL and 100.0% for HSIL. Women with CD4 Amazonas. The low CD4 cell count was an important determinant of HPV infection and abnormal cytological findings. HPV quadrivalent vaccination used in Brazil might not offer protection for an important fraction of HPV-related disease burden in women living with HIV. This is partly explained by the high presence of non targeted vaccine HR-HPVs, such as the HPV genotype groups 56/59/66, 35/39/68 and individually HPV-52 and HPV-45, some of which contribute to high-grade lesion.

  13. Predicting the geographic distribution of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) and visceral leishmaniasis in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Paulo Silva de; Sciamarelli, Alan; Batista, Paulo Mira; Ferreira, Ademar Dimas; Nascimento, João; Raizer, Josué; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo

    2013-12-01

    To understand the geographic distribution of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul (MS), Brazil, both the climatic niches of Lutzomyia longipalpis and VL cases were analysed. Distributional data were obtained from 55 of the 79 counties of MS between 2003-2012. Ecological niche models (ENM) of Lu. longipalpis and VL cases were produced using the maximum entropy algorithm based on eight climatic variables. Lu. longipalpis showed a wide distribution in MS. The highest climatic suitability for Lu. longipalpis was observed in southern MS. Temperature seasonality and annual mean precipitation were the variables that most influenced these models. Two areas of high climatic suitability for the occurrence of VL cases were predicted: one near Aquidauana and another encompassing several municipalities in the southeast region of MS. As expected, a large overlap between the models for Lu. longipalpis and VL cases was detected. Northern and northwestern areas of MS were suitable for the occurrence of cases, but did not show high climatic suitability for Lu. longipalpis. ENM of vectors and human cases provided a greater understanding of the geographic distribution of VL in MS, which can be applied to the development of future surveillance strategies.

  14. Prevalence, distribution and background variables of smooth-bordered tooth wear in teenagers in the hague, the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijkom, H.M. van; Truin, G.J.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.; König, K.G.G.; Hof, M.A. van 't; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Roeters, F.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    The purposes of the study were: (1) to assess the prevalence and distribution of smooth-bordered tooth wear in teenagers, and (2) to investigate the relationship between smooth-bordered tooth wear and social background, dietary pattern, drinking habits, oral hygiene practices and caries prevalence.

  15. Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Al-Darwish

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Results indicated that dental caries prevalence among school children in Qatar has reached critical levels, and is influenced by socio-demographic factors. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth values obtained in this study were the second highest detected in the Eastern Mediterranean region.

  16. Distribution and prevalence of knemidokoptic mange in Hawai`i `Amakihi on the island of Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudioso, Jacqueline; LaPointe, Dennis; Atkinson, Carter T.; Apelgren, Chloe

    2014-01-01

    Knemidokoptic mange was first observed on two Hawai‘i ‘Amakihi (Hemignathus virens) mist netted in Manuka Natural Area Reserve (NAR) on the Island of Hawai‘i in June 2007. Microscopic examination of skin scrapings from lesions of the infested individuals revealed the scaley-leg mite, Knemidokoptes jamaicensis. Continued surveillance at Manuka NAR (2007-2009) documented a 24% (15/63) prevalence of mange among Hawai‘i ‘Amakihi distributed from coastal habitat to 1,500 m above sea level (asl). From 2012-2014, we conducted an island-wide survey of wild passerine birds from several leeward sites (Manuka NAR, Kahuku Unit of Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park (HAVO), Pu‘u Wa‘awa‘a Forest Bird Sanctuary, and Kipahoehoe NAR) and windward sites (Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge, ‘Ᾱinahou Ranch of HAVO, Malama Ki Forest Reserve, and Keauohana Forest Reserve) to determine the current distribution and host range of knemidokoptic mange. We also determined the prevalence of malaria in Hawai‘i ‘Amakihi populations where mange was present and treated a subset of infested Hawai‘i ‘Amakihi mange with a single, topical dose of moxidectin. We mist netted and examined a total of 1,734 passerines, including 738 Hawai‘i ‘Amakihi. Mange was present in Hawai‘i ‘Amakihi at Manuka NAR (595 and 305 m asl), Kahuku Ranch Unit of HAVO (Glover site: 1,201 m asl and Kipuka Akala site: 1,532 m asl), Malama Ki Forest Reserve and Keauohana Forest Reserve (293 m asl). No other passerine birds (n = 995) were infected. Mange prevalence ranged from a high of 69% (40/58) in Keauohana Forest Reserve to a low of 2% (1/65) in the Kahuku Ranch Unit of HAVO (Kipuka Akala). At Manuka NAR prevalence had decreased from 26% in 2010 to 10% (7/81) in 2012–2014. We found no significant relationship between the prevalence of mange and the prevalence of avian malaria in mesic habitats at Manuka NAR (P = 0.59 (FET, n = 81)), but there was a significant association between the

  17. The prevalence and distribution of Argas walkerae (Acari: Argasidae in the eastern region of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa : research communications

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    N. Nyangiwe

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and geographic distribution of the fowl tampan, Argas walkerae Kaiser & Hoogstraal, 1969 was determined in the eastern region of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa by inspecting two fowl houses in the vicinity of each of 72 randomly selected communal cattle dip-tanks. Tampans were collected from 102 (70.8 % of the 144 fowl houses in the neighbourhood of 57 (79.2 % of the 72 selected dip-tanks, and the localities of the collections were mapped. Argas walkerae was present in fowl houses from the warm coastal regions of the Indian Ocean in the south to the cold and mountainous Drakensberg in the north-east of the Province. Taking into account the probable sensitivity of the sampling method, it is estimated that A. walkerae is likely to be present in fowl houses belonging to between 74 and 84 % of communities making use of cattle dip-tanks in the eastern region of the Eastern Cape Province, and that when it is present, between 64 and 75 % of fowl houses will be infested. The geographic distribution of A. walkerae seemed to be more strongly associated with the presence of fowls and fowl houses containing raw or processed wood in their structure than with climate.

  18. Rapid integrated clinical survey to determine prevalence and co-distribution patterns of lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis in a Loa loa co-endemic area: The Angolan experience

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    Miguel Brito

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Angola is a priority country for onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis (LF elimination, however, the co-distribution of the filarial parasite Loa loa (loiasis is a significant impediment, due to the risk of severe adverse events (SAEs associated with ivermectin used in mass drug administration (MDA campaigns. Angola has a high risk loiasis zone identified in Bengo Province where alternative interventions may need to be implemented; however, the presence and geographical overlap of the three filarial infections/diseases are not well defined. Therefore, this study conducted a rapid integrated filarial mapping survey based on readily identifiable clinical conditions of each disease in this risk zone to help determine prevalence and co-distribution patterns in a timely manner with limited resources. In total, 2007 individuals from 29 communities in five provincial municipalities were surveyed. Community prevalence estimates were determined by the rapid assessment procedure for loiasis (RAPLOA and rapid epidemiological mapping of onchocerciasis (REMO together with two questions on LF clinical manifestations (presence of lymphoedema, hydrocoele. Overall low levels of endemicity, with different overlapping distributions were found. Loiasis was found in 18 communities with a prevalence of 2.0% (31/1571, which contrasted to previous results defining the area as a high risk zone. Onchocerciasis prevalence was 5.3% (49/922 in eight communities, and LF prevalence was 0.4% for lymphoedema (8/2007 and 2.6% for hydrocoeles (20/761 males in seven and 12 communities respectively. The clinical mapping survey method helped to highlight that all three filarial infections are present in this zone of Bengo Province. However, the significant difference in loiasis prevalence found between the past and this current survey suggests that further studies including serological and parasitological confirmation are required. This will help determine levels

  19. Prevalence

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    Jeanesse Scerri

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is a major nosocomial pathogen worldwide. Malta is one of the countries with the highest MRSA prevalence in Europe, as identified from hospital blood cultures [1]. However, community prevalence of MRSA has never previously been investigated. This study aimed at establishing the prevalence of community MRSA nasal colonization in Maltese individuals and identifying the clonal characteristics of the detected isolates. Nasal swabs were collected from 329 healthy individuals who were also asked to complete a brief questionnaire about risk factors commonly associated with MRSA carriage and infection. The swabs were transported and enriched in a nutrient broth supplemented with NaCl. The presence of MRSA was then determined by culturing on MRSA Select chromogenic agar and then confirming by several assays, including catalase, coagulase and PBP2a agglutination tests. The isolates were assayed for antibiotic susceptibilities and typed by microarray analysis to determine the clonal characteristics of each strain. The prevalence of MRSA nasal colonization in the healthy Maltese population was found to be 8.81% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.75–11.87%, much higher than that found in other studies carried out in several countries. No statistical association was found between MRSA carriage and demographics or risk factors; however, this was hindered by the small sample size. Almost all the isolates were fusidic-acid resistant. The majority were found to belong to a local endemic clone (CC5 which seems to be replacing the previously prevalent European clone UK-EMRSA-15 in the country. A new clone (CC50-MRSA-V was also characterized. The presence of such a significant community reservoir of MRSA increases the burdens already faced by the local healthcare system to control the MRSA epidemic. Colonization of MRSA in otherwise healthy individuals may represent a risk for endogenous infection and transmission to

  20. Hematologic and serum biochemical reference intervals for free-ranging common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and variation in the distributions of clinicopathologic values related to geographic sampling site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwacke, Lori H; Hall, Ailsa J; Townsend, Forrest I; Wells, Randall S; Hansen, Larry J; Hohn, Aleta A; Bossart, Gregory D; Fair, Patricia A; Rowles, Teresa K

    2009-08-01

    To develop robust reference intervals for hematologic and serum biochemical variables by use of data derived from free-ranging bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and examine potential variation in distributions of clinicopathologic values related to sampling sites' geographic locations. 255 free-ranging bottlenose dolphins. Data from samples collected during multiple bottlenose dolphin capture-release projects conducted at 4 southeastern US coastal locations in 2000 through 2006 were combined to determine reference intervals for 52 clinicopathologic variables. A nonparametric bootstrap approach was applied to estimate 95th percentiles and associated 90% confidence intervals; the need for partitioning by length and sex classes was determined by testing for differences in estimated thresholds with a bootstrap method. When appropriate, quantile regression was used to determine continuous functions for 95th percentiles dependent on length. The proportion of out-of-range samples for all clinicopathologic measurements was examined for each geographic site, and multivariate ANOVA was applied to further explore variation in leukocyte subgroups. A need for partitioning by length and sex classes was indicated for many clinicopathologic variables. For each geographic site, few significant deviations from expected number of out-of-range samples were detected. Although mean leukocyte counts did not vary among sites, differences in the mean counts for leukocyte subgroups were identified. Although differences in the centrality of distributions for some variables were detected, the 95th percentiles estimated from the pooled data were robust and applicable across geographic sites. The derived reference intervals provide critical information for conducting bottlenose dolphin population health studies.

  1. Prevalence and distribution of inactivity and weight excess in Spanish scholar children

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    Arturo Rodríguez-Hernández

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This work aims to study the distribution of leisure time physical activity pattern and weight status of Spanish schoolchildren. The sample corresponds to 6,803 school-aged children (3,491 boys and 3,312 girls, who took part in the Spanish National Health Survey 2006, being representative of the Spanish scholar population. It has assessed their pattern of physical activity and weight status through international body mass index cut offs. The relatio