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Sample records for prevalence geographical distribution

  1. Ethnic and geographic variations in HPV prevalence and genotype distribution in north-western Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloch, Zulqarnain; Yuan, Tao; Wang, Binghui; Tai, Wenlin; Feng, Yue; Liu, Yanqing; Li, Xiao; Feng, Yue; Liu, Li; Zhang, A-mei; Wu, Xiaomei; Xia, Xueshan

    2016-03-01

    The prevalence and genotype distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) vary throughout the world. To assess the prevalence and genotype distribution of HPV among three ethnic groups in two geographic locations in north-western Yunnan, we recruited 522 women in Shangri-le (n = 255) and Lijiang (n = 267). PCR amplification of HPV DNA was performed on cervical cells from these women using two consensus primer systems (MY09/11 and GP5/6). Amplified-HPV DNA was genotyped using the HPV GenoArray test. Geographically, the HPV prevalence was significantly higher (P = 0.002) among Shangri-le women than among Lijiang women. Infections with high-risk (HR)-HPV and with multiple HPV genotypes were also significantly more common (P = 0.001) among women in Shangri-le than women in Lijiang. Additionally, the prevalence of overall, HR-HPV, and single genotype HPV infections was significantly higher (P = 0.001) among Tibetan women than among Naxi and Han women. HPV-16 and HPV-33 were significantly more frequent in Shangri-le women compared with Lijiang (P = 0.006) women. In addition, HPV-16 (9.81%) and HPV-33 (5.88%) were significantly more prevalent in Tibetan women than in Naxi and Han women. Here, for the first time, we highlight the significant variation in the prevalence and genotype distribution of HPV in various populations in the north-western region of Yunnan Province. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Prevalence and geographic distribution of herniated intervertebral disc in Korean 19-year-old male from 2008 to 2009: a study based on Korean conscription -national and geographic prevalence of herniated intervertebral disc in Korean 19YO male-.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Hun; Oh, Chang Hyun; Yoon, Seung Hwan; Park, Hyeong-chun; Park, Chong Oon

    2013-09-01

    This study was to determine the prevalence of herniated intervertebral disc (HIVD) among Korean 19-year-old male in a large national sample and to compare the prevalence across geographic regions based on the data of conscription. We analyzed the conscription data of 615508 cases who were 19-year-old male, given an examination for conscription at nationwide Korean Military Manpower Administration from January 2008 to December 2009. Prevalence was determined by dividing the number of cases by the number of persons enrolled for 2 years. The analyses included of a cross-tabulations and nonparametric chi-square to compare the prevalence according to geographic region, disc severity, and conscription year. The prevalence of HIVD among 19-year-old male was 0.47%. Seoul had the highest prevalence of HIVD (total HIVD was 0.60%, and severe HIVD was 0.44%). The prevalence of HIVD was lower in Jeollabuk- do and Jeollanam-do (total HIVD was 0.25-0.27%, and severe HIVD was 0.16-0.17%). Annual prevalence of HIVD was slightly decreased in 2009, but geographic distribution annually was not different. In Korean 19-year-old male, the national prevalence of adolescent HIVD was 0.60%, but different geographic distribution was observed. It is quite possible that secondary contributing factor(s) interfere with the different geographic prevalence of HIVD.

  3. [Spatial distribution of occupational disease prevalence in Guangzhou and Foshan city by geographic information system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Q; Tu, H W; Gu, C H; Li, X D; Li, R Z; Wang, M; Chen, S G; Cheng, Y J; Liu, Y M

    2017-11-20

    Objective: To explore the occupational disease spatial distribution characteristics in Guangzhou and Foshan city in 2006-2013 with Geographic Information System and to provide evidence for making control strategy. Methods: The data on occupational disease diagnosis in Guangzhou and Foshan city from 2006 through 2013 were collected and linked to the digital map at administrative county level with Arc GIS12.0 software for spatial analysis. Results: The maps of occupational disease and Moran's spatial autocor-relation analysis showed that the spatial aggregation existed in Shunde and Nanhai region with Moran's index 1.727, -0.003. Local Moran's I spatial autocorrelation analysis pointed out the "positive high incidence re-gion" and the "negative high incidence region" during 2006~2013. Trend analysis showed that the diagnosis case increased slightly then declined from west to east, increase obviously from north to south, declined from? southwest to northeast, high in the middle and low on both sides in northwest-southeast direction. Conclusions: The occupational disease is obviously geographical distribution in Guangzhou and Foshan city. The corresponding prevention measures should be made according to the geographical distribution.

  4. The spatial distribution of known predictors of autism spectrum disorders impacts geographic variability in prevalence in central North Carolina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffman Kate

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The causes of autism spectrum disorders (ASD remain largely unknown and widely debated; however, evidence increasingly points to the importance of environmental exposures. A growing number of studies use geographic variability in ASD prevalence or exposure patterns to investigate the association between environmental factors and ASD. However, differences in the geographic distribution of established risk and predictive factors for ASD, such as maternal education or age, can interfere with investigations of ASD etiology. We evaluated geographic variability in the prevalence of ASD in central North Carolina and the impact of spatial confounding by known risk and predictive factors. Methods Children meeting a standardized case definition for ASD at 8 years of age were identified through records-based surveillance for 8 counties biennially from 2002 to 2008 (n=532. Vital records were used to identify the underlying cohort (15% random sample of children born in the same years as children with an ASD, n=11,034, and to obtain birth addresses. We used generalized additive models (GAMs to estimate the prevalence of ASD across the region by smoothing latitude and longitude. GAMs, unlike methods used in previous spatial analyses of ASD, allow for extensive adjustment of individual-level risk factors (e.g. maternal age and education when evaluating spatial variability of disease prevalence. Results Unadjusted maps revealed geographic variation in surveillance-recognized ASD. Children born in certain regions of the study area were up to 1.27 times as likely to be recognized as having ASD compared to children born in the study area as a whole (prevalence ratio (PR range across the study area 0.57-1.27; global P=0.003. However, geographic gradients of ASD prevalence were attenuated after adjusting for spatial confounders (adjusted PR range 0.72-1.12 across the study area; global P=0.052. Conclusions In these data, spatial variation of ASD

  5. Correlation of geographic distributions of haptoglobin alleles with prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) - a narrative literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamm, Vladimir V; Geist, Arielle M; Harauz, George

    2017-02-01

    We have proposed that the myelin damage observed in multiple sclerosis (MS) may be partly mediated through the long-term release and degradation of extracellular hemoglobin (Hb) and the products of its oxidative degradation [Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, 71, 1789-1798, 2014]. The protein haptoglobin (Hpt) binds extracellular Hb as a first line of defense, and can serve as a vascular antioxidant. Humans have two different Hpt alleles: Hpt1 and Hpt2, giving either homozygous Hpt1-1 or Hpt2-2 phenotypes, or a heterozygous Hpt1-2 phenotype. We questioned whether those geographic regions with higher frequency of the Hpt2 allele (conversely, lower frequency of Hpt1 allele) would correlate with an increased incidence of MS, because different Hpt phenotypes will have variable anti-oxidative potentials in protecting myelin from damage inflicted by extracellular Hb and its degradation products. To test this hypothesis, we undertook a systematic analysis of the literature on reported geographic distributions of Hpt alleles to compare them with data reported in the World Health Organization Atlas of worldwide MS prevalence. We found the frequency of the Hpt1 allele to be low in European and North American countries with a high prevalence of MS, consistent with our hypothesis. However, this correlation was not observed in China and India, countries with the lowest Hpt1 frequencies, yet low reported prevalence of MS. Nevertheless, this work shows the need for continued refinement of geographic patterns of MS prevalence, including data on ethnic or racial origin, and for new clinical studies to probe the observed correlation and evaluate Hpt phenotype as a predictor of disease variability and progression, severity, and/or comorbidity with cardiovascular disorders.

  6. Prevalence and Geographic Distribution of Vector-Borne Pathogens in Apparently Healthy Dogs in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrljak, Vladimir; Kuleš, Josipa; Mihaljević, Željko; Torti, Marin; Gotić, Jelena; Crnogaj, Martina; Živičnjak, Tatjana; Mayer, Iva; Šmit, Iva; Bhide, Mangesh; Barić Rafaj, Renata

    2017-06-01

    Vector-borne pathogens (VBPs) are a group of globally extended and quickly spreading pathogens that are transmitted by various arthropod vectors. The aim of the present study was to investigate the seroprevalence against Babesia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Leishmania infantum, Dirofilaria immitis, and Ehrlichia canis in dogs in Croatia. We investigated 435 randomly selected apparently healthy dogs in 13 different locations of Croatia for antibodies to B. canis by indirect immunofluorescence using a commercial IFA IgG Antibody Kit. All samples were also tested for qualitative detection of D. immitis antigen and for antibodies to A. phagocytophilum, B. burgdorferi sensu lato, L. infantum, and E. canis with two point-of-care assays. Overall, 112 dogs (25.74%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 21.70-30.12) were serologically positive for one or more of the pathogens. B. canis was the most prevalent pathogen (20.00%, 95% CI 16.34-24.07), followed by A. phagocytophilum (6.21%, 95% CI 4.12-8.90), L. infantum, (1.38%, 95% CI 0.51-2.97), and B. burgdorferi sensu lato (0.69%, 95% CI 0.01-2.00). The lowest seroprevalence was for D. immitis and E. canis (0.46%, 95% CI 0.01-1.65). Coinfection was determined in 12 dogs (2.76%, 95% CI 1.43-4.77), of which 10 were positive to two pathogens (7 with B. canis and A. phagocytophilum and 1 B. canis with B. burgdorferi sensu lato or L. infantum or E. canis). One dog was positive to three pathogens and another dog to four pathogens. Seroprevalence for babesia was age, breed, and lifestyle/use dependent. Purebred dogs had almost half the chance of developing disease than crossbred (OR = 0.58, p Croatia. Some of these VBPs are zoonotic and represent a potential risk to public health.

  7. Determinants of Dentists' Geographic Distribution.

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    Beazoglou, Tryfon J.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A model for explaining the geographic distribution of dentists' practice locations is presented and applied to particular market areas in Connecticut. Results show geographic distribution is significantly related to a few key variables, including demography, disposable income, and housing prices. Implications for helping students make practice…

  8. [Analysis on geographic distribution of high blood pressure prevalence in children and adolescents aged 7-18 years in China, 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Y H; Zou, Z Y; Wang, Z H; Wang, S; Yang, Z P; Chen, Y J; Ma, J

    2017-07-10

    Objective: To understand and evaluate the characteristics of geographic distribution of high blood pressure prevalence in children and adolescents aged 7-18 years in China in 2014, and provide evidence for the prevention of hypertension in children and adolescents. Methods: The data of 2014 Chinese National Surveys on Students Constitution and Health conducting 31 provinces (except Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan) were collected. A total of 216 299 children and adolescents who had complete blood pressure records were selected as study subjects. The low, middle and high prevalence areas were identified according to their high blood pressure detection rates in the children and adolescents,7 % , to analyze the geographic distribution of high blood pressure prevalence in the children and adolescents. The environmental data in the capitals of 31 provinces in 2014 were collected to analyze the correlation between environmental factors and blood pressure Z score in the children and adolescents. Results: The average detection rates of high blood pressure was 6.4 % in 31 provinces (1.5 % -14.2 % ). The high prevalence areas were mainly distributed in the eastern China, especially the Circum-Bohai sea area, low prevalence areas were mainly distributed in the central and western areas of China and some provinces in the east. Correlation analysis results showed that the annual average temperature, annual average air humidity and local altitude were negatively correlated with blood pressure Z score, including diastolic and systolic blood pressure, in both boys and girls. The annual average sunshine time, PM(2.5) and PM(10) concentrations, content of SO(2) were positively correlated with blood pressure Z score in both boys and girls. Conclusions: There was a significant difference in high blood pressure of children and adolescents among 31 provinces. More attention should be paid to the children and adolescents living high prevalence area. And it is necessary to understand

  9. Prevalence, geographic distribution, and fitness effects of Microphallus turgidus (trematoda: Microphallidae) in grass shrimp (Palaemonetes spp.) from coastal Georgia.

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    Pung, Oscar J; Khan, Ritindra N; Vives, Stephen P; Walker, Casey B

    2002-02-01

    Grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio Holthuis and P. vilgaris (Say), were collected at 11 localities along the coast of Georgia and surveyed for digenetic trematode metacercariae. The effect of trematode infection on grass shrimp fitness was also examined. Microphallus turgidas (Leigh) was the only trematode observed. The prevalence of metacercarial cysts of this parasite in P. pugio (75%) was higher than in P. vulgaris (24%), as were the mean intensity, abundance, and population density (no. cysts/cm host body length) of the parasite. Infected shrimp were found at every collection locality and parasite prevalence and density were greatest in P. pugio from higher salinity localities (> or = 20 parts per thousand [ppt]). There was no relation between host body size and parasite density in P. vulgaris, and parasite density increased with host body size in P. pugio, suggesting that the parasite does not affect host survival. There was no relation between parasite density and shrimp egg mass, but nonovigerous female P. pugio were more heavily infected than ovigerous ones. In addition, 1 metacercaria of M. turgidus in each of 2 specimens of P. vulgaris was parasitized by the haplosporidian Urosporidium crescens De Turk. This represents a new shrimp host record for this hyperparasite.

  10. Prevalence and Geographical Distribution of Insulin Pump Therapy in the Central Denmark Region and its Association with Metabolic Parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampmann, Ulla; Ring Madsen, Lene; Bjerg, Lasse

    2018-01-01

    /mol) versus 8.0 % (64 mmol/mol)) in unadjusted analyses. After adjustment for clinically relevant characteristics the difference between CSII and MDI-treated patients was attenuated, but remained statistically significant. CONCLUSION: The distribution of CSII differed markedly between hospitals and CSII users...

  11. Mapping the geographical distribution of lymphatic filariasis in Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mwase, Enala T; Stensgaard, Anna-Sofie; Nsakashalo-Senkwe, Mutale

    2014-01-01

    to be an important determinant of medium-high prevalence levels. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: LF was found to be surprisingly widespread in Zambia, although in most places with low prevalence. The produced maps and the identified environmental correlates of LF infection will provide useful guidance for planning...... volunteers from 108 geo-referenced survey sites across Zambia were examined for circulating filarial antigens (CFA) with rapid format ICT cards, and a map indicating the distribution of CFA prevalences in Zambia was prepared. 78% of survey sites had CFA positive cases, with prevalences ranging between 1......% and 54%. Most positive survey sites had low prevalence, but six foci with more than 15% prevalence were identified. The observed geographical variation in prevalence pattern was examined in more detail using a species distribution modeling approach to explore environmental requirements for parasite...

  12. Execution Management Solutions for Geographically Distributed Simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, T.W. van den; Jansen, H.G.M.; Jansen, R.E.J.; Prins, L.M.

    2009-01-01

    Managing the initialization, execution control and monitoring of HLA federates is not always straightforward, especially for a geographically distributed time managed federation. Issues include pre and post run-time data distribution and run-time data collection; starting, stopping and monitoring

  13. Prevalence, types, and geographical distribution of Listeria monocytogenes from a survey of retail Queso Fresco and associated cheese processing plants and dairy farms in Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Enriquez, R I; Garcia-Galaz, A; Acedo-Felix, E; Gonzalez-Rios, I H; Call, J E; Luchansky, J B; Diaz-Cinco, M E

    2007-11-01

    In the first part of this study, samples were collected from farms, cheese processing plants (CPPs), and retail markets located in various geographical areas of Sonora, Mexico, over a 12-month period during the summer of 2004 and winter of 2005. Four (all Queso Fresco [QF] from retail markets) of 349 total samples tested positive for Listeria monocytogenes (Lm). Of these four positive samples, three were collected in the northern region and one in the southern region of Sonora. Additionally, two were collected during the winter months, and two were collected during the summer months. For the second part of the study, a total of 39 samples from a farm, a CPP, and retail markets were collected and processed according to a combination of the Norma Oficial Mexicana NOM-143-SSA1-1995.10 method (NOM) and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Bacteriological Analytical Manual method, and 27 samples from these same locations were collected and processed according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service method (USDA-FSIS). The NOM-FDA method recovered the pathogen from 6 (15%) of 39 samples (one cheese and five product contact surfaces), while the USDA-FSIS method recovered the pathogen from 5 (18.5%) of 27 samples (all product contact surfaces). In addition, the 40 isolates recovered from the 15 total samples that tested positive for Lm grouped into five distinct pulsotypes that were ca. 60% related, as determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis. The results of this study confirmed a 3.4% prevalence of Lm in QF collected from retail markets located in Sonora and no appreciable difference in the effectiveness of either the NOM-FDA or USDA-FSIS method to recover the pathogen from cheese or environmental samples.

  14. Geographic Prevalence and Mix of Regional Cuisines in Chinese Cities

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    Jingwei Zhu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous research on the geographies of food put a considerable focus on analyzing how different types of food or ingredients are consumed across different places. Little is known, however, about how food culture is manifested through various cooking traditions as well as people’s perceptions over different culinary styles. Using a data set captured from one of the largest online review sites in China (www.dianping.com, this study demonstrates how geo-referenced social review data can be leveraged to better understand the geographic prevalence and mix of regional cuisines in Chinese cities. Based on information of millions of restaurants obtained in selected cities (i.e., provincial capitals and municipalities under direct supervision of the Chinese central government, we first measure by each city the diversity of restaurants that serve regional Chinese cuisines using the Shannon entropy, and analyze how cities with different characteristics are geographically distributed. A hierarchical clustering algorithm is then used to further explore the similarities of consumers’ dining options among these cities. By associating each regional Chinese cuisine to its origin, we then develop a weighted distance measure to quantify the geographic prevalence of each cuisine type. Finally, a popularity index (POPU is introduced to quantify consumers’ preferences for different regional cuisines. We find that: (1 diversity of restaurants among the cities shows an “east–west” contrast that is in general agreement with the socioeconomic divide in China; (2 most of the cities have their own unique characteristics, which are mainly driven by a large market share of the corresponding local cuisine; (3 there exists great heterogeneity of the geographic prevalence of different Chinese cuisines. In particular, Chuan and Xiang, which are famous for their spicy taste, are widely distributed across the mainland China and (4 among the top-tier restaurants ranked

  15. Geographic distribution of wild potato species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijmans, R.J.; Spooner, D.M.

    2001-01-01

    The geographic distribution of wild potatoes (Solanaceae sect. Petota) was analyzed using a database of 6073 georeferenced observations. Wild potatoes occur in 16 countries, but 88% of the observations are from Argentina, Bolivia, Mexico, and Peru. Most species are rare and narrowly endemic: for 77

  16. Community structure informs species geographic distributions

    KAUST Repository

    Montesinos-Navarro, Alicia

    2018-05-23

    Understanding what determines species\\' geographic distributions is crucial for assessing global change threats to biodiversity. Measuring limits on distributions is usually, and necessarily, done with data at large geographic extents and coarse spatial resolution. However, survival of individuals is determined by processes that happen at small spatial scales. The relative abundance of coexisting species (i.e. \\'community structure\\') reflects assembly processes occurring at small scales, and are often available for relatively extensive areas, so could be useful for explaining species distributions. We demonstrate that Bayesian Network Inference (BNI) can overcome several challenges to including community structure into studies of species distributions, despite having been little used to date. We hypothesized that the relative abundance of coexisting species can improve predictions of species distributions. In 1570 assemblages of 68 Mediterranean woody plant species we used BNI to incorporate community structure into Species Distribution Models (SDMs), alongside environmental information. Information on species associations improved SDM predictions of community structure and species distributions moderately, though for some habitat specialists the deviance explained increased by up to 15%. We demonstrate that most species associations (95%) were positive and occurred between species with ecologically similar traits. This suggests that SDM improvement could be because species co-occurrences are a proxy for local ecological processes. Our study shows that Bayesian Networks, when interpreted carefully, can be used to include local conditions into measurements of species\\' large-scale distributions, and this information can improve the predictions of species distributions.

  17. Sirenomelia in Argentina: Prevalence, geographic clusters and temporal trends analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groisman, Boris; Liascovich, Rosa; Gili, Juan Antonio; Barbero, Pablo; Bidondo, María Paz

    2016-07-01

    Sirenomelia is a severe malformation of the lower body characterized by a single medial lower limb and a variable combination of visceral abnormalities. Given that Sirenomelia is a very rare birth defect, epidemiological studies are scarce. The aim of this study is to evaluate prevalence, geographic clusters and time trends of sirenomelia in Argentina, using data from the National Network of Congenital Anomalies of Argentina (RENAC) from November 2009 until December 2014. This is a descriptive study using data from the RENAC, a hospital-based surveillance system for newborns affected with major morphological congenital anomalies. We calculated sirenomelia prevalence throughout the period, searched for geographical clusters, and evaluated time trends. The prevalence of confirmed cases of sirenomelia throughout the period was 2.35 per 100,000 births. Cluster analysis showed no statistically significant geographical aggregates. Time-trends analysis showed that the prevalence was higher in years 2009 to 2010. The observed prevalence was higher than the observed in previous epidemiological studies in other geographic regions. We observed a likely real increase in the initial period of our study. We used strict diagnostic criteria, excluding cases that only had clinical diagnosis of sirenomelia. Therefore, real prevalence could be even higher. This study did not show any geographic clusters. Because etiology of sirenomelia has not yet been established, studies of epidemiological features of this defect may contribute to define its causes. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 106:604-611, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Glucokinase diabetes in 103 families from a country-based study in the Czech Republic: geographically restricted distribution of two prevalent GCK mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pruhova, Stepanka; Dusatkova, Petra; Sumnik, Zdenek

    2010-01-01

    Glucokinase diabetes, also called GCK-MODY or maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 2 (MODY2), is caused by heterozygous mutations in the gene encoding glucokinase (GCK). Objective: The aim of study was to investigate the current prevalence of GCK mutations in a large cohort of Czech patients...... with typical clinical appearance of GCK-MODY. In addition, we reanalyzed the negative results obtained previously by screening using the denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (dHPLC)....

  19. Geographical differences in the prevalence of hypospadias in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aho, Martti Olavi; Koivisto, Anna-Maija; Juhani Tammela, Teuvo Leo; Auvinen, Anssi-Pekka

    2003-01-01

    Hypospadias is one of the most common congenital anomalies but the etiology is not fully understood. There seem to be genetic, endocrinological, and environmental factors involved. Great geographical variation in the prevalence of hypospadias has been reported both between and within countries. We studied the determinants of geographical variation in the prevalence of hypospadias in Finland. All patients treated for hypospadias in 1970-1996 before the age of 9 years among boys born in 1970-1986 were identified in the national hospital discharge registry. Prevalence of hypospadias was calculated for each of the 355 municipalities in Finland. Demographic data were obtained from Statistics Finland. Association of the explanatory factors with prevalence of hypospadias was assessed using Poisson regression methods. The prevalence of operated hypospadias varied between provinces and between university hospital districts, from a ratio of 0.65 to a ratio of 1.01. An association between the prevalence of hypospadias and the remoteness from the closest city was observed. There was no association with level of education, social class, or occupation. The observed differences in the prevalence of operated hypospadias in Finland may have several explanations. Different levels of ascertainment and both genetic and environmental factors can not be ruled out

  20. The geographical distribution and burden of trachoma in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Smith

    Full Text Available There remains a lack of epidemiological data on the geographical distribution of trachoma to support global mapping and scale up of interventions for the elimination of trachoma. The Global Atlas of Trachoma (GAT was launched in 2011 to address these needs and provide standardised, updated and accessible maps. This paper uses data included in the GAT to describe the geographical distribution and burden of trachoma in Africa.Data assembly used structured searches of published and unpublished literature to identify cross-sectional epidemiological data on the burden of trachoma since 1980. Survey data were abstracted into a standardised database and mapped using geographical information systems (GIS software. The characteristics of all surveys were summarized by country according to data source, time period, and survey methodology. Estimates of the current population at risk were calculated for each country and stratified by endemicity class.At the time of writing, 1342 records are included in the database representing surveys conducted between 1985 and 2012. These data were provided by direct contact with national control programmes and academic researchers (67%, peer-reviewed publications (17% and unpublished reports or theses (16%. Prevalence data on active trachoma are available in 29 of the 33 countries in Africa classified as endemic for trachoma, and 1095 (20.6% districts have representative data collected through population-based prevalence surveys. The highest prevalence of active trachoma and trichiasis remains in the Sahel area of West Africa and Savannah areas of East and Central Africa and an estimated 129.4 million people live in areas of Africa confirmed to be trachoma endemic.The Global Atlas of Trachoma provides the most contemporary and comprehensive summary of the burden of trachoma within Africa. The GAT highlights where future mapping is required and provides an important planning tool for scale-up and surveillance of trachoma

  1. The geographical distribution of tremellaceous fungi in Poland

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    Władysław Wojewoda

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The geographical distribution of the Polish tremellaceous fungi is discussed in this paper. The list of localities and the maps of the distribution of 60 Polish species (45 of Tremellales, 13 of Auriculariales and 2 of Septobasidiales are given. The author distinguishes several geographical elements, and describes the vertical distribution of these fungi. This paper is a supplement to "Fungi (Mycota", vol. 8, Polish Flora (Wojewoda 1977.

  2. Comprehensive Monitoring for Heterogeneous Geographically Distributed Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratnikova, N. [Fermilab; Karavakis, E. [CERN; Lammel, S. [Fermilab; Wildish, T. [Princeton U.

    2015-12-23

    Storage capacity at CMS Tier-1 and Tier-2 sites reached over 100 Petabytes in 2014, and will be substantially increased during Run 2 data taking. The allocation of storage for the individual users analysis data, which is not accounted as a centrally managed storage space, will be increased to up to 40%. For comprehensive tracking and monitoring of the storage utilization across all participating sites, CMS developed a space monitoring system, which provides a central view of the geographically dispersed heterogeneous storage systems. The first prototype was deployed at pilot sites in summer 2014, and has been substantially reworked since then. In this paper we discuss the functionality and our experience of system deployment and operation on the full CMS scale.

  3. [Geographical variation and related factors in prediabetes prevalence in Chinese adults in 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Z P; Li, Y C; Wang, L M; Zhang, M; Huang, Z J; Zhang, X; Li, C; Deng, Q; Zhou, M G

    2018-02-06

    smoking, hazardous drinking and harmful drinking, drinking in the past 30 days, overweight, obesity, central obesity, sugary drink intake, hypertension, high total cholesterol, high triglycerides, high blood low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low blood high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (all Pprediabetes prevalence conld be explained on the provincial level. Conclusion: The geographical distribution of prediabetes in adults in China differed by geographic areas, and it significantly varied on the county level. The related variables included demographic variables, personal behavior, and geographic related variables.

  4. Prevalence and geographic variations in asthma symptoms in children and adolescents in Galicia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Silvarrey-Varela, Angel; Pértega-Díaz, Sonia; Rueda-Esteban, Santiago; Sánchez-Lastres, Juan Manuel; San-José-González, Miguel Angel; Sampedro-Campos, Manuel; Pérez-Castro, Teresa; Garnelo-Suárez, Luciano; Bamonde-Rodríguez, Luis; López-Silvarrey-Varela, Javier; González-Barcala, Javier

    2011-06-01

    To determine the prevalence and geographic variations of the symptoms associated with asthma in Galician children and adolescents. A cross-sectional epidemiological study following ISAAC (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood) methodology, and using a written questionnaire distributed in schools. The study sample included 10,371 6-7 year-old children and 10,372 13-14 year-old adolescents, all of them from Galician Health Areas. A logistic regression model was used to analyse geographic variations. In the 6-7 year-old group, wheezing in the last 12 months varied from 11.4% (Santiago) to 15.7% (Vigo) and in the adolescents varied from 8.8% (Ourense) to 18.8% (Vigo). The distribution by gender showed a predominant significance in 6-7 year-old males (Pchildren and 2.39 (95% CI, 1.82-3.13) for adolescents. The estimated prevalence of asthma in the Autonomous Community of Galicia was 13.6% in younger children and 12.2% in adolescents. The prevalence of wheezing in the last 12 months in the different areas of Galicia is considerably higher than the rest of Spanish ISAAC cities in the 6-7 years group and very similar in the 13-14 years group, except in Vigo where it is considerably higher. We found a clearly defined geographic pattern in the adolescent group, with higher prevalences in coastal areas than in the interior. Copyright © 2010 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Measuring Geographic Distribution of Economic Activity in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measuring Geographic Distribution of Economic Activity in Nigeria Using Gross Domestic Product. ... and environmental factors in planning. There is need for adequate understanding of spatial pattern and centrographic analysis of economic activity to support evidence based economic and regional development policies.

  6. Geographic differences in overweight and obesity prevalence in Peruvian children, 2010-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Roman, J Smith; Urrunaga-Pastor, Diego; Avilez, Jose L; Helguero-Santin, Luis M; Malaga, German

    2018-03-14

    Childhood obesity is emerging as a major public health problem worldwide. To date, most studies of obesity and overweight in Peru are focused on adults, with few of them involving children, a population at a critical stage of development. The trend in overweight and obesity prevalence in Peruvian children under the age of five has not yet been determined. Thus, the objective of the present study is to evaluate the prevalence rates of overweight and obesity between 2010 and 2015 in children under the age of five, stratified by geographical areas in Peru. Data were obtained from the Nutritional Status Information System of Peru. The total number of children evaluated was 14,155,914. For the Geographic Information Systems (GIS), the program Geo Da 1.8® was used to ascertain the spatial distribution of prevalence rates and was mapped for children under five. To assess the degree of spatial dependence, exploratory spatial data analysis was performed using the Moran's I statistic and was assessed with the Local Indicators of Spatial Association (LISA) analysis to identify geographic concentrations of high and low of obesity and overweight levels. Between 2010 and 2015, the national prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity ranged from 6.2%- 6.8% and 1.5%-2.7%, respectively. The highest prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity was found in 2014 and 2013, respectively. During these years, we observed that obesity decreased, but overweight remained stable. The highest prevalence of overweight and obesity was found in the departments located on the coast. Significant positive spatial autocorrelation was found for both overweight and obesity. The departments with the highest prevalence of overweight and obesity were concentrated in Lima, Callao, Ica, Moquegua and Tacna. The lowest were found in Loreto, Cusco and San Martin. The decrease in obesity and the stabilisation of overweight are positive results for the Peruvian childhood. However, in comparison

  7. Geographical distribution of β-globin gene mutations in Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murad, Hossam; Moasses, Faten; Dabboul, Amir; Mukhalalaty, Yasser; Bakoor, Ahmad Omar; Al-Achkar, Walid; Jarjour, Rami A

    2018-04-11

    Objectives β-Thalassemia disease is caused by mutations in the β-globin gene. This is considered as one of the common genetic disorders in Syria. The aim of this study was to identify the geographical distribution of the β-thalassemia mutations in Syria. Methods β-Globin gene mutations were characterized in 636 affected patients and 94 unrelated carriers using the amplification refractory mutations system-polymerase chain reaction technique and DNA sequencing. Results The study has revealed the presence of 38 β-globin gene mutations responsible for β-thalassemia in Syria. Important differences in regional distribution were observed. IVS-I.110 [G > A] (22.2%), IVS-I.1 [G > A] (17.8%), Cd 39 [C > T] (8.2%), IVS-II.1 [G > A] (7.6%), IVS-I.6 [T > C] (7.1%), Cd 8 [-AA] (6%), Cd 5 [-CT] (5.6%) and IVS-I.5 [G > C] (4.1%) were the eight predominant mutations found in our study. The coastal region had higher relative frequencies (37.9 and 22%) than other regions. A clear drift in the distribution of the third common Cd 39 [C > T] mutation in the northeast region (34.8%) to the northwest region (2.5%) was noted, while the IVS-I.5 [G > C] mutation has the highest prevalence in north regions. The IVS-I.6 [T > C] mutation had a distinct frequency in the middle region. Ten mutations -86 [C > G], -31 [A > G], -29 [A > G], 5'UTR; +22 [G > A], CAP + 1 [A > C], Codon 5/6 [-TG], IVS-I (-3) or codon 29 [C > T], IVS-I.2 [T > A], IVS-I.128 [T > G] and IVS-II.705 [T > G] were found in Syria for the first time. Conclusions These data will significantly facilitate the population screening, genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis in Syrian population.

  8. Modelling grid losses and the geographic distribution of electricity generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2005-01-01

    In Denmark more than 40% of the electricity consumption is covered by geographically scattered electricity sources namely wind power and local CHP (cogeneration of heat and power) plants. This causes problems in regard to load balancing and possible grid overloads. The potential grid problems...... and methods for solving these are analysed in this article on the basis of energy systems analyses, geographic distribution of consumption and production and grid load-flow analyses. It is concluded that by introducing scattered load balancing using local CHP plants actively and using interruptible loads...

  9. [Geographic distribution of supportive care for disabled young people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgarel, Sophie; Piteau-Delord, Monique

    2013-01-01

    To analyse the logic for the distribution of home care services for disabled children (SESSAD) in a context of under-equipment. Questionnaire-based survey of 75 units (82% of the region's SESSAD units) concerning patient transport. Equipment and transport mapping. Support units for disabled children are often set up in the housing facilities that contributed to their creation. These sites are sometimes situated a long way from densely populated regions, thereby generating unnecessary travel times and expenses. Chronic under-equipment makes these sites viable, as the various units are always full, despite their distance from the children for whom they provide support. Mapping illustrates the extensive recruitment zones overlapping several units managing similar patients. The major revision of accreditation of these units, planned for 2017, could lead to redefinition of geographical zones of accreditations. New unit opening procedures based on ARS calls for tenders may help to improve the geographical distribution of this supportive care.

  10. Geographical variation in the prevalence of sensitization to common aeroallergens in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newson, R B; van Ree, R; Forsberg, B

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Geographical variation in the prevalence of sensitization to aeroallergens may reflect differences in exposure to risk factors such as having older siblings, being raised on a farm or other unidentified exposures. OBJECTIVE: We wanted to measure geographical variation in skin prick te...

  11. Formation and distribution of international tourism flows in geographical space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Korol

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Properties of geographical space that are of key importance for international tourism, as length and discreteness, are analyzed in the article. Length makes tourists cover distances, whereas discreteness manifests itself in spatial heterogeneity. Tourism in conditions of homogeneous space is vain. That is, heterogeneity brings sense to travels as well as determines their direction. So, the effect of geographical space’s length and spatial heterogeneity on formation and distribution of tourism flows is assessed, international tourism’s geographical essence is disclosed also. Apperception of geographical space in usual environment and its effect on tourist’s original motives are described. Following the bases of behaviorism, the tourism original motives, in particular those for migration, comfort, contrast and aesthetics are substantiated. The motive for migration is a kind of “pushing” tourists outside their usual environment. To stop all fears that may cause anxiety in destination, the latter should guarantee satisfaction of those human needs which A. Maslow refers to as basic needs. The necessity to satisfy these needs forms in tourists the motive for comfort. Closely located destinations in neighboring countries can be of little difference form usual environment. Driven by the motive for contrast, tourists aspire to visit places that totally differ from their usual environment, and contrast (are exotic to it. Thus, the motive for contrast seemingly “pulls” the tourists up to certain (exotic destinations. Finally, following the considered spatial specificities of land surface and tourist-driving original motives, a conceptual model of formation and distribution of international tourism flows in geographical space is developed.

  12. Geographic distribution of canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis infection in stray dogs of eastern Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Ciucă

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted in the eastern part of Romania to assess the prevalence and geographical distribution of Dirofilaria immitis in dogs. Plasma samples were collected from 458 stray dogs hosted in shelters in 8 counties and tested serologically for the presence of heartworm. In addition, 45 blood samples from dogs of a shelter in Galati city were examined by the modified Knott and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR techniques. The immmunological assay showed a heartworm infection prevalence of 8.9% in the dogs. Optical density results for positive samples ranged between 0.217 and 2.683. Geographical information systems (GIS were used to produce overlays of distribution maps of D. immitis prevalence and predictive maps based on temperature suitability. High prevalence of D. immitis was found in the central East up to the northern border of the country, i.e. Galati county (60%, followed by the counties of Vaslui (12.0% and Iasi (7.7%. Out of 45 samples examined using the Knott test, 23 were positive for circulating microfilariae (51.1%, while 19 dogs were positive for D. immitis and 4 for both D. immitis and D. repens with the multiplex PCR test. The high prevalence for D. immitis shown in dogs in the Southeast (Galati, 42.2% also by multiplex PCR gave strong support to the results achieved by the serological tests. The present study confirms the ability of GIS to predict the distribution and epidemiology of dirofilariosis in different geographical territories as has been already demonstrated by the empirical epidemiological data obtained at the continental, national and intraregional levels.

  13. Epidemiology and geographical distribution of enteric protozoan infections in Sydney, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Fletcher

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Enteric protozoa are associated with diarrhoeal illnesses in humans; however there are no recent studies on their epidemiology and geographical distribution in Australia. This study describes the epidemiology of enteric protozoa in the state of New South Wales and incorporates spatial analysis to describe their distribution. Design and methods. Laboratory and clinical records from four public hospitals in Sydney for 910 patients, who tested positive for enteric protozoa over the period January 2007-December 2010, were identified, examined and analysed. We selected 580 cases which had residence post code data available, enabling us to examine the geographic distribution of patients, and reviewed the clinical data of 252 patients to examine possible links between protozoa, demographic and clinical features. Results. Frequently detected protozoa were Blastocystis spp. (57%, Giardia intestinalis (27% and Dientamoeba fragilis (12%. The age distribution showed that the prevalence of protozoa decreased with age up to 24 years but increasing with age from 25 years onwards. The geographic provenance of the patients indicates that the majority of cases of Blastocystis (53.1% are clustered in and around the Sydney City Business District, while pockets of giardiasis were identified in regional/rural areas. The distribution of cases suggests higher risk of protozoan infection may exist for some communities. Conclusions. These findings provide useful information for policy makers to design and tailor interventions to target high risk communities. Follow-up investigation into the risk factors for giardiasis in regional/rural area is needed.

  14. The Geographical Aspect of Flexibility in Distribution Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouzelis, Konstantinos; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    2015-01-01

    , the reason for this is that flexibility is a multidimensional commodity. It can be associated with a unit or a system, a time-frame and a time-horizon of measuring it, its power magnitude and ramp rate, its energy shifting capability, its location and several other features. In this paper, the locational...... aggregation taking into account the distribution grid's radial structure. By aggregating the flexibility in this manner, different geographical points for offering it are defined. Through an illustrative market scenario, it is demonstrated how utilities might profit from their local flexibility by assisting...

  15. Geographical Distribution of Taenia asiatica and Related Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Rim, Han-Jong

    2009-01-01

    Geographical information of Taenia asiatica is reviewed together with that of T. solium and T. saginata. Current distribution of T. asiatica was found to be mostly from Asian countries: the Republic of Korea, China, Taiwan, Indonesia, and Thailand. Molecular genotypic techniques have found out more countries with T. asiatica from Japan, the Philippines, and Vietnam. Specimens used in this paper were collected from around the world and mostly during international collaboration projects of Korean foundations for parasite control activities (1995-2009) in developing countries. PMID:19885327

  16. Prevalence of malnutrition in various political, economic, and geographic settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klek, Stanislaw; Krznaric, Zeljko; Gundogdu, Riza Haldun; Chourdakis, Michael; Kekstas, Gintautas; Jakobson, Triin; Paluszkiewicz, Piotr; Vranesic Bender, Darija; Uyar, Mehmet; Demirag, Kubilay; Poulia, Kalliopi Anna; Klimasauskas, Andrius; Starkopf, Joel; Galas, Aleksander

    2015-02-01

    Disease-related malnutrition (DRM) represents a critical public health concern. Therefore, Fight Against Malnutrition (FAM) should be a state priority, but the degree to which this is true appears to differ considerably among European countries. The aim of this study was to put the problem into perspective by comparing the prevalence of malnutrition in countries from opposite parts of the continent. Six countries-Croatia, Estonia, Greece, Lithuania, Poland, and Turkey-participated in the study. A short questionnaire was used to assess DRM: its prevalence, the current situation in hospitals, regulations for reimbursement, and general healthcare circumstances. Data from ESPEN's NutritionDay 2006 were used to broaden the perspective. At admission in October 2012, 4068 patients were assessed. The study was performed in 160 hospitals and 225 units with 9143 beds. The highest proportions of patients with 3 or more points on the Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 were observed in Estonia (80.4%) and Turkey (39.4%), whereas the lowest were in Lithuania (14.2%). The provision of nutrition support was best in Turkey (39.4% required intervention, 34.4% received intervention) and Poland (21.9% and 27.8%, respectively). Nutrition support teams (NSTs) are active in some countries, whereas in others they virtually do not exist. The prevalence of malnutrition was quite high in some countries, and the nutrition approach differed among them. It could be the result of the lack of reimbursement, inactive or nonexistent NSTs, and low nutrition awareness. Those facts confirmed that the continuation of FAM activities is necessary. © 2013 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  17. Impacts of Scale on Geographic Analysis of Health Data: An Example of Obesity Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Lee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically in recent decades. It is an important public health issue as it causes many other chronic health conditions, such as hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, and type II diabetics. Obesity affects life expectancy and even the quality of lives. Eventually, it increases social costs in many ways due to increasing costs of health care and workplace absenteeism. Using the spatial patterns of obesity prevalence as an example; we show how different geographic units can reveal different degrees of detail in results of analysis. We used both census tracts and census block groups as units of geographic analysis. In addition; to reveal how different geographic scales may impact on the analytic results; we applied geographically weighted regression to model the relationships between obesity rates (dependent variable and three independent variables; including education attainment; unemployment rates; and median family income. Though not including an exhaustive list of explanatory variables; this regression model provides an example for revealing the impacts of geographic scales on analysis of health data. With obesity data based on reported heights and weights on driver’s licenses in Summit County, Ohio, we demonstrated that geographically weighted regression reveals varying spatial trends between dependent and independent variables that conventional regression models such as ordinary least squares regression cannot. Most importantly, analyses carried out with different geographic scales do show very different results. With these findings, we suggest that, while possible, smaller geographic units be used to allow better understanding of the studies phenomena.

  18. Species composition and geographical distribution of Saharan scorpion fauna, Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oulaid Touloun

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the species composition of scorpions and to study its geographical distribution in Laayoune-Sakia El Hamra and Dakhla-Oued Ed Dahab regions in July 2014. Methods: To locate scorpions, the ground was examined through searching the places under the stones, rocks and in burrows. The nocturnal missions were also conducted using portable ultraviolet lamps. The scorpions were subsequently identified in the laboratory. Results: The results of the investigations in these regions showed the presence of five scorpion species, two of which Androctonus gonneti and Buthus bonito were endemic in Morocco. Conclusions: This work is allowed to complete the inventory of the studied scorpion fauna and provides some considerations on the distribution patterns in the study area.

  19. Potential impacts of climatic change upon geographical distributions of birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huntley, Brian; Collingham, Yvonne C.; Green, Rhys E.

    2006-01-01

    likely to decrease. Species with restricted distributions and specialized species of particular biomes are likely to suffer the greatest impacts. Migrant species are likely to suffer especially large impacts as climatic change alters both their breeding and wintering areas, as well as critical stopover......Potential climatic changes of the near future have important characteristics that differentiate them from the largest magnitude and most rapid of climatic changes of the Quaternary. These potential climatic changes are thus a cause for considerable concern in terms of their possible impacts upon...... biodiversity. Birds, in common with other terrestrial organisms, are expected to exhibit one of two general responses to climatic change: they may adapt to the changed conditions without shifting location, or they may show a spatial response, adjusting their geographical distribution in response...

  20. Effect of Heterogeneity in Initial Geographic Distribution on Opinions’ Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander S. Balankin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Spin dynamics on networks allows us to understand how a global consensus emerges out of individual opinions. Here, we are interested in the effect of heterogeneity in the initial geographic distribution of a competing opinion on the competitiveness of its own opinion. Accordingly, in this work, we studied the effect of spatial heterogeneity on the majority rule dynamics using a three-state spin model, in which one state is neutral. Monte Carlo simulations were performed on square lattices divided into square blocks (cells. Accordingly, one competing opinion was distributed uniformly among cells, whereas the spatial distribution of the rival opinion was varied from the uniform to heterogeneous, with the median-to-mean ratio in the range from 1 to 0. When the size of discussion group is odd, the uncommitted agents disappear completely after  3.30 ± 0.05 update cycles, and then the system evolves in a two-state regime with complementary spatial distributions of two competing opinions. Even so, the initial heterogeneity in the spatial distribution of one of the competing opinions causes a decrease of this opinion competitiveness. That is, the opinion with initially heterogeneous spatial distribution has less probability to win, than the opinion with the initially uniform spatial distribution, even when the initial concentrations of both opinions are equal. We found that although the time to consensus , the opinion’s recession rate is determined during the first 3.3 update cycles. On the other hand, we found that the initial heterogeneity of the opinion spatial distribution assists the formation of quasi-stable regions, in which this opinion is dominant. The results of Monte Carlo simulations are discussed with regard to the electoral competition of political parties.

  1. The Geographic Distribution of Liver Cancer in Canada Does Not Associate with Cyanobacterial Toxin Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meaghan A. Labine

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of liver cancer has been increasing in Canada over the past decade, as has cyanobacterial contamination of Canadian freshwater lakes and drinking water sources. Cyanotoxins released by cyanobacteria have been implicated in the pathogenesis of liver cancer. Objective: To determine whether a geographic association exists between liver cancer and surrogate markers of cyanobacterial contamination of freshwater lakes in Canada. Methods: A negative binomial regression model was employed based on previously identified risk factors for liver cancer. Results: No association existed between the geographic distribution of liver cancer and surrogate markers of cyanobacterial contamination. As predicted, significant associations existed in areas with a high prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection, large immigrant populations and urban residences. Discussion and Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that cyanobacterial contamination of freshwater lakes does not play an important role in the increasing incidence of liver cancer in Canada.

  2. Geographic distribution and clinical description of leishmaniasis cases in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, C M; Franke, E D; Cachay, M I; Tejada, A; Cruz, M E; Kreutzer, R D; Barker, D C; McCann, S H; Watts, D M

    1998-08-01

    Studies were conducted from 1986 through 1993 to further define the geographic distribution and relative importance of different species of Leishmania as a cause of leishmaniasis in Peru. Patients with a clinical diagnosis of cutaneous and/or mucosal or diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis were enrolled at the Naval Medical Research Institute Detachment (NAMRID) Laboratory in Lima, the Tropical Disease Clinic at San Marcos University Daniel A. Carrión, the Central Military Hospital, and a Ministry of Health hospital in Cusco, Peru. Clinical features, lesion aspirates, and biopsy tissue were obtained from each patient. All specimens were collected and assayed separately, including multiple specimens from some of the same patients for Leishmania parasites by inoculating aliquots of either aspirates or biopsy tissue suspensions onto Senekji's blood agar medium. Stocks of Leishmania isolates were used to prepare promastigotes to produce extracts for identifying the Leishmania species by the cellulose acetate electrophoresis enzyme technique. A total of 351 isolates of Leishmania were obtained from 350 patients who were infected primarily in the low and high jungle of at least 15 different Departments of Peru. Of the 351 isolates, 79% were identified as L. (V.) braziliensis, 7% as L. (V.) guyanensis, 10% as L. (V.) peruviana, 2% as L. (V.) lainsoni, and 1.7% as L. (L.) amazonensis. The clinical form of disease varied depending on the species of Leishmania, with L. (V.) braziliensis being associated most frequently with cutaneous, mucosal ulcers and mixed cutaneous and mucosal disease, and L. (V) peruviana, L. (V.) guyanensis, L. (V.) lainsoni with cutaneous lesions. Leishmania (L.) amazonensis was isolated from six patients, three with cutaneous lesions, one with mucosal lesions, and two with diffuse cutaneous lesions. Among all of the leishmaniasis cases, males were affected more frequently, and cases occurred among patients less than 10 to more than 51 years of age. These

  3. [Prediction of potential geographic distribution of Lyme disease in Qinghai province with Maximum Entropy model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Hou, Xuexia; Liu, Huixin; Liu, Wei; Wan, Kanglin; Hao, Qin

    2016-01-01

    To predict the potential geographic distribution of Lyme disease in Qinghai by using Maximum Entropy model (MaxEnt). The sero-diagnosis data of Lyme disease in 6 counties (Huzhu, Zeku, Tongde, Datong, Qilian and Xunhua) and the environmental and anthropogenic data including altitude, human footprint, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and temperature in Qinghai province since 1990 were collected. By using the data of Huzhu Zeku and Tongde, the prediction of potential distribution of Lyme disease in Qinghai was conducted with MaxEnt. The prediction results were compared with the human sero-prevalence of Lyme disease in Datong, Qilian and Xunhua counties in Qinghai. Three hot spots of Lyme disease were predicted in Qinghai, which were all in the east forest areas. Furthermore, the NDVI showed the most important role in the model prediction, followed by human footprint. Datong, Qilian and Xunhua counties were all in eastern Qinghai. Xunhua was in hot spot areaⅡ, Datong was close to the north of hot spot area Ⅲ, while Qilian with lowest sero-prevalence of Lyme disease was not in the hot spot areas. The data were well modeled in MaxEnt (Area Under Curve=0.980). The actual distribution of Lyme disease in Qinghai was in consistent with the results of the model prediction. MaxEnt could be used in predicting the potential distribution patterns of Lyme disease. The distribution of vegetation and the range and intensity of human activity might be related with Lyme disease distribution.

  4. Association between adolescent idiopathic scoliosis prevalence and age at menarche in different geographic latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihas Constantinos

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Age at menarche is considered a reliable prognostic factor for idiopathic scoliosis and varies in different geographic latitudes. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis prevalence has also been reported to be different in various latitudes and demonstrates higher values in northern countries. A study on epidemiological reports from the literature was conducted to investigate a possible association between prevalence of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and age at menarche among normal girls in various geographic latitudes. An attempt is also made to implicate a possible role of melatonin in the above association. Material-methods 20 peer-reviewed published papers reporting adolescent idiopathic scoliosis prevalence and 33 peer-reviewed papers reporting age at menarche in normal girls from most geographic areas of the northern hemisphere were retrieved from the literature. The geographic latitude of each centre where a particular study was originated was documented. The statistical analysis included regression of the adolescent idiopathic scoliosis prevalence and age at menarche by latitude. Results The regression of prevalence of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and age at menarche by latitude is statistically significant (p Conclusion Late age at menarche is parallel with higher prevalence of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Pubarche appears later in girls that live in northern latitudes and thus prolongs the period of spine vulnerability while other pre-existing or aetiological factors are contributing to the development of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. A possible role of geography in the pathogenesis of idiopathic scoliosis is discussed, as it appears that latitude which differentiates the sunlight influences melatonin secretion and modifies age at menarche, which is associated to the prevalence of idiopathic scoliosis.

  5. Veterans Affairs Geographic Distribution of Expenditures FY07 by State and County

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures (GDX) is an annual report that shows estimated VA expenditures for major programmatic areas by geographic area (state,...

  6. Veterans Affairs Geographic Distribution of Expenditures FY09 by Congressional District

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures (GDX) is an annual report that shows estimated VA expenditures for major programmatic areas by geographic area (state,...

  7. Veterans Affairs Geographic Distribution of Expenditures FY08 by Congressional District

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures (GDX) is an annual report that shows estimated VA expenditures for major programmatic areas by geographic area (state,...

  8. Veterans Affairs Geographic Distribution of Expenditures FY08 by State and County

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures (GDX) is an annual report that shows estimated VA expenditures for major programmatic areas by geographic area (state,...

  9. Geographical distribution of a specific mitochondrial haplotype of Zymoseptoria tritici

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameh BOUKEF

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Severity of disease caused by the fungus Zymoseptoria tritici throughout world cereal growing regions has elicited much debate on the potential evolutionary mechanism conferring high adaptability of the pathogen to diverse climate conditions and different wheat hosts (Triticum durum and T. aestivum. Specific mitochondrial DNA sequence was used to investigate geographic distribution of the type 4 haplotype (mtRFLP4 within 1363 isolates of Z. tritici originating from 21 countries. The mtRFLP4 haplotype was detected from both durum and bread wheat hosts with greater frequency on durum wheat. The distribution of mtRFLP4 was limited to populations sampled from the Mediterranean and the Red Sea region. Greater frequencies of mtRFLP4 were found in Tunisia (87% and Algeria (60%. The haplotype was absent within European, Australian, North and South American populations except Argentina. While alternative hypotheses such as climatic adaptation could not be ruled out, it is postulated that mtRFLP4 originated in North Africa (e.g. Tunisia or Algeria as an adaptation to durum wheat as the prevailing cereal crop. The specialized haplotype has subsequently spread as indicated by lower frequency of occurrence in the surrounding Mediterranean countries and on bread wheat hosts.

  10. Geographical patterns in cyanobacteria distribution: climate influence at regional scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitois, Frédéric; Thoraval, Isabelle; Baurès, Estelle; Thomas, Olivier

    2014-01-28

    Cyanobacteria are a component of public health hazards in freshwater environments because of their potential as toxin producers. Eutrophication has long been considered the main cause of cyanobacteria outbreak and proliferation, whereas many studies emphasized the effect of abiotic parameters (mainly temperature and light) on cell growth rate or toxin production. In view of the growing concerns of global change consequences on public health parameters, this study attempts to enlighten climate influence on cyanobacteria at regional scale in Brittany (NW France). The results show that homogeneous cyanobacteria groups are associated with climatic domains related to temperature, global radiation and pluviometry, whereas microcystins (MCs) occurrences are only correlated to local cyanobacteria species composition. As the regional climatic gradient amplitude is similar to the projected climate evolution on a 30-year timespan, a comparison between the present NW and SE situations was used to extrapolate the evolution of geographical cyanobacteria distribution in Brittany. Cyanobacteria composition should shift toward species associated with more frequent Microcystins occurrences along a NW/SE axis whereas lakes situated along a SW/NE axis should transition to species (mainly Nostocales) associated with lower MCs detection frequencies.

  11. About the Geographic Distribution of Economic Science in Asian Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Nikolaevich Demyanenko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of empirical studies of modern geographic distribution of economic science in Asian Russia (i. e. three macro-regions of Russia: Far East, Siberia and the Urals Region. The study is based on an original database of articles on Economics and related disciplines which arearranged within the Elibrary platformfor 2005-2013. These articles arewritten by fellows of research organizations that are located in the Asian part of Russia.Statistical analysis of the main indicators of publication activity shows that there are significant differences in the scope, dynamics, and quality of the results of this activity among the research organizations of various types.The authors focused on the territorial structure of the study of the economy defined as a set of scientific centers of varying scale and type, as well as networks of scientific communication.It is revealed that publication activity of economic research institutions in Asian Russia has a high level of spatial concentration and the system of scientific communication, formed by the scientific journals of the region, has a high level of fragmentation

  12. Soil-transmitted helminth prevalence and infection intensity among geographically and economically distinct Shuar communities in the Ecuadorian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepon-Robins, Tara J; Liebert, Melissa A; Gildner, Theresa E; Urlacher, Samuel S; Colehour, Alese M; Snodgrass, J Josh; Madimenos, Felicia C; Sugiyama, Lawrence S

    2014-10-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections can result in a variety of negative health outcomes (e.g., diarrhea, nutritional deficiencies). Market integration (MI; participation in market-based economies) has been suggested to alter levels of STH exposure due to associated changes in diet, sanitation, and behavior, but the effects are complicated and not well understood. Some effects of economic development result in decreased exposure to certain pathogens, and other factors can lead to higher pathogen exposure. With geographic location used as a proxy, the present study investigates the effects of economic development on parasite load among an indigenous population at multiple points along the spectrum of MI. This research has many implications for public health, including an increased understanding of how social and economic changes alter disease risk around the world and how changing parasite load affects other health outcomes (i.e., allergy, autoimmunity). Specifically, this study examines the prevalence of intestinal helminths among the Shuar, an indigenous group in the Morona-Santiago region of Ecuador, from 2 geographically/economically separated areas, with the following objectives: (1) report STH infection prevalence and intensity among Shuar; (2) explore STH infection prevalence and intensity as it relates to age distribution in the Shuar population; (3) compare STH infection patterns in geographically and economically separated Shuar communities at different levels of MI. Kato-Katz thick smears were made from fresh stool samples and examined to determine STH presence/intensity. Results indicate that 65% of the 211 participants were infected with at least 1 STH. Twenty-five percent of the sample had coinfections with at least 2 species of helminth. Infection was more common among juveniles (<15 yr) than adults. Infection prevalence and intensity was highest among more isolated communities with less market access. This study documents preliminary

  13. Geographic variation in the prevalence of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and risk factors for transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sanjose, Silvia; Mbisa, Georgina; Perez-Alvarez, Susana; Benavente, Yolanda; Sukvirach, Sukhon; Hieu, Nguyen Trong; Shin, Hai-Rim; Anh, Pham Thi Hoang; Thomas, Jaiyeola; Lazcano, Eduardo; Matos, Elena; Herrero, Rolando; Muñoz, Nubia; Molano, Monica; Franceschi, Silvia; Whitby, Denise

    2009-05-15

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) in the female general population, to define geographic variation in and heterosexual transmission of the virus. The study included 10,963 women from 9 countries for whom information on sociodemographic characteristics and reproductive, sexual, and smoking behaviors were available. Antibodies against KSHV that encoded lytic antigen K8.1 and latent antigen ORF73 were determined. The range of prevalence of KSHV (defined as detection of any antigen) was 3.81%-46.02%, with significant geographic variation noted. In Nigeria, the prevalence was 46.02%; in Colombia, 13.32%; in Costa Rica, 9.81%; in Argentina, 6.40%; in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, 15.50%; in Hanoi, Vietnam, 11.26%; in Songkla, Thailand, 10%; in Lampang, Thailand, 8.63%; in Korea, 4.93%; and in Spain, 3.65%. The prevalence of KSHV slightly increased with increasing age among subjects in geographic areas where the prevalence of KSHV was high, such as Nigeria and Colombia, and it significantly decreased with increases in the educational level attained by subjects in those areas. KSHV was not statistically associated with age at first sexual intercourse, number of sex partners, number of children, patterns of oral contraceptive use, presence of cervical human papillomavirus DNA, or smoking status. The study provides comparable estimates of KSHV prevalence in diverse cultural settings across 4 continents and provides evidence that sexual transmission of KSHV is not a major source of infection in the general population.

  14. Temporal trend, geographic distribution, and publication quality in asbestos research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugolini, Donatella; Bonassi, Stefano; Cristaudo, Alfonso; Leoncini, Giacomo; Ratto, Giovanni Battista; Neri, Monica

    2015-05-01

    Asbestos is a well-known cause of cancer and respiratory diseases. The aim of the current study was to investigate the scientific production in asbestos research evaluating temporal trend, geographic distribution, impact factor (IF) of published literature, and taking into account socioeconomic variables. The PubMed database was searched starting from 1970. Publication numbers and IF were evaluated as absolute values and after standardization by population and gross domestic product (GDP). Six thousand nine hundred seven articles related to asbestos were retrieved. Publications grew steeply in the 1970s, leveled off in the 1980s, decreased in the 1990s, and then increased again. Mesothelioma, lung neoplasms, and occupational diseases are the most commonly used keywords. In the period of 1988-2011, 4220 citations were retrieved, 3187 of whom had an impact factor. The US, Italy, and the UK were the most productive countries. European countries published about 20 % more asbestos-related articles than the US, although the latter reached a higher mean IF, ranking second after Australia. When the national scientific production (sum of IF) was compared taking into account socioeconomic variables, Australia and Scandinavian countries performed very well, opposite to all main asbestos producers like Russia, China, and Brazil (except for Canada). The American Journal of Industrial Medicine and the Italian La Medicina del Lavoro published the highest numbers of articles. This study provides the first bibliometric analysis of scientific production in asbestos research. Interest appears to be higher in selected countries, with strong national features, and is growing again in the new millennium.

  15. Geographic distribution of otolaryngologists in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickery, Thad W; Weterings, Robbie; Cabrera-Muffly, Cristina

    2016-06-01

    We conducted a study to determine the demographic traits, training characteristics, and geographic distribution of otolaryngologists in the United States using publicly available data. We then correlated our findings with U.S. census data. Univariate analysis was performed to analyze results, with a p value of <0.05 determined as significant. We used data from the American Board of Otolaryngology's list of 18,587 board-certified allopathic otolaryngologists through 2013 and the American Osteopathic Colleges of Ophthalmology & Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery's list of 428 osteopathic otolaryngologists. From these two databases, 9,642 otolaryngologists met inclusion criteria, which included an active practice in the United States and an age of 70 years and younger. This group was made up of 8,185 men (84.9%) and 1,449 women (15.0%); we were not able to identify the sex of 8 otolaryngologists (0.1%). The median age of the women was significantly lower than that of the men (54 vs. 48 yr; p < 0.001). A total of 8,510 otolaryngologists (88.3%) graduated from a U.S. allopathic medical school, and 8,520 (88.4%) graduated from a U.S. allopathic residency program. We determined that 25.9% of otolaryngologists established their practice in the same metropolitan statistical area where they completed their residency training. Older practitioners (p < 0.001) and women (p < 0.001) were significantly more likely to stay in the same area than younger physicians and men. In terms of population, 61.8% of the otolaryngologists practiced in metropolitan areas with more than 1 million residents; by comparison, these areas represent only 55.3% of the total U.S. population, indicating that otolaryngologists are over-represented in larger U.S. cities.

  16. Geographic distribution of Staphylococcus aureus causing invasive infections in Europe: a molecular-epidemiological analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajo Grundmann

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important human pathogens and methicillin-resistant variants (MRSAs are a major cause of hospital and community-acquired infection. We aimed to map the geographic distribution of the dominant clones that cause invasive infections in Europe.In each country, staphylococcal reference laboratories secured the participation of a sufficient number of hospital laboratories to achieve national geo-demographic representation. Participating laboratories collected successive methicillin-susceptible (MSSA and MRSA isolates from patients with invasive S. aureus infection using an agreed protocol. All isolates were sent to the respective national reference laboratories and characterised by quality-controlled sequence typing of the variable region of the staphylococcal spa gene (spa typing, and data were uploaded to a central database. Relevant genetic and phenotypic information was assembled for interactive interrogation by a purpose-built Web-based mapping application. Between September 2006 and February 2007, 357 laboratories serving 450 hospitals in 26 countries collected 2,890 MSSA and MRSA isolates from patients with invasive S. aureus infection. A wide geographical distribution of spa types was found with some prevalent in all European countries. MSSA were more diverse than MRSA. Genetic diversity of MRSA differed considerably between countries with dominant MRSA spa types forming distinctive geographical clusters. We provide evidence that a network approach consisting of decentralised typing and visualisation of aggregated data using an interactive mapping tool can provide important information on the dynamics of MRSA populations such as early signalling of emerging strains, cross border spread, and importation by travel.In contrast to MSSA, MRSA spa types have a predominantly regional distribution in Europe. This finding is indicative of the selection and spread of a limited number of clones within health care

  17. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) - Kinds and Distribution of Soils

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  18. Geographic information system for pigweed distribution in the US Southeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the southeastern United States, pigweeds have become troublesome weeds in agricultural systems. To implement management strategies to control them, agriculturalists need information on areas affected by pigweeds. Geographic information systems (GIS) afford users the ability to evaluate agricult...

  19. Geographic disparities of asthma prevalence in south-western United States of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Lung-Chang; Alamgir, Hasanat

    2014-11-01

    Asthma is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases in the United States of America (USA), and many of its risk factors have so far been investigated and identified; however, evidence is limited on how spatial disparities impact the disease. The purpose of this study was to provide scientific evidence on the location influence on asthma in the four states of southwestern USA (California, Arizona, New Mexico and Texas) which, together, include 360 counties. The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System database for these four states covering the period of 2000 to 2011 was used in this analysis, and a Bayesian structured additive regression model was applied to analyse by a geographical information system. After adjusting for individual characteristics, socioeconomic status and health behaviour, this study found higher odds associated with asthma and a likely cluster around the Bay Area in California, while lower odds appeared in several counties around the larger cities of Texas, such as Dallas, Houston and San Antonio. The significance map shows 43 of 360 counties (11.9%) to be high-risk areas for asthma. The level of geographical disparities demonstrates that the county risk of asthma prevalence varies significantly and can be about 19.9% (95% confidence interval: 15.3-25.8) higher or lower than the overall asthma prevalence. We provide an efficient method to utilise and interpret the existing surveillance data on asthma. Visualisation by maps may help deliver future interventions on targeted areas and vulnerable populations to reduce geographical disparities in the burden of asthma.

  20. Geographical variations in the prevalence of atopic sensitization in six study sites across Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan-Yeung, M; Anthonisen, N R; Becklake, M R

    2010-01-01

    Geographical variations in atopic sensitization in Canada have not been described previously. This study used the standardized protocol of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey-1 (ECRHS-1) to investigate the distribution and predictors of atopic sensitization in six sites across Canada...

  1. Geographic Variations in Arthritis Prevalence, Health-Related Characteristics, and Management - United States, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Kamil E; Moss, Susan; Croft, Janet B; Helmick, Charles G; Theis, Kristina A; Brady, Teresa J; Murphy, Louise B; Hootman, Jennifer M; Greenlund, Kurt J; Lu, Hua; Wang, Yan

    2018-03-16

    Doctor-diagnosed arthritis is a common chronic condition affecting an estimated 23% (54 million) of adults in the United States, greatly influencing quality of life and costing approximately $300 billion annually. The geographic variations in arthritis prevalence, health-related characteristics, and management among states and territories are unknown. Therefore, public health professionals need to understand arthritis in their areas to target dissemination of evidence-based interventions that reduce arthritis morbidity. 2015. The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System is an annual, random-digit-dialed landline and cellular telephone survey of noninstitutionalized adults aged ≥18 years residing in the United States. Self-reported data are collected from the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Guam, and Puerto Rico. Unadjusted and age-standardized prevalences of arthritis, arthritis health-related characteristics, and arthritis management were calculated. County-level estimates were calculated using a validated statistical modeling method. In 2015, in the 50 states and the District of Columbia, median age-standardized prevalence of arthritis was 23.0% (range: 17.2%-33.6%). Modeled prevalence of arthritis varied considerably by county (range: 11.2%-42.7%). In 13 states that administered the arthritis management module, among adults with arthritis, the age-standardized median percentage of participation in a self-management education course was 14.5% (range: 9.1%-19.0%), being told by a health care provider to engage in physical activity or exercise was 58.5% (range: 52.3%-61.9%), and being told to lose weight to manage arthritis symptoms (if overweight or obese) was 44.5% (range: 35.1%-53.2%). Respondents with arthritis who lived in the quartile of states with the highest prevalences of arthritis had the highest percentages of negative health-related characteristics (i.e., arthritis-attributable activity limitations, arthritis-attributable severe joint pain

  2. The geographic distribution patterns of HIV-, HCV- and co-infections among drug users in a national methadone maintenance treatment program in Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yi-Biao; Liang, Song; Wang, Qi-Xing; Gong, Yu-Han; Nie, Shi-Jiao; Nan, Lei; Yang, Ai-Hui; Liao, Qiang; Song, Xiu-Xia; Jiang, Qing-Wu

    2014-03-10

    HIV-, HCV- and HIV/HCV co-infections among drug users have become a rapidly emerging global public health problem. In order to constrain the dual epidemics of HIV/AIDS and drug use, China has adopted a methadone maintenance treatment program (MMTP) since 2004. Studies of the geographic heterogeneity of HIV and HCV infections at a local scale are sparse, which has critical implications for future MMTP implementation and health policies covering both HIV and HCV prevention among drug users in China. This study aimed to characterize geographic patterns of HIV and HCV prevalence at the township level among drug users in a Yi Autonomous Prefecture, Southwest of China. Data on demographic and clinical characteristics of all clients in the 11 MMTP clinics of the Yi Autonomous Prefecture from March 2004 to December 2012 were collected. A GIS-based geographic analysis involving geographic autocorrelation analysis and geographic scan statistics were employed to identify the geographic distribution pattern of HIV-, HCV- and co-infections among drug users. A total of 6690 MMTP clients was analyzed. The prevalence of HIV-, HCV- and co-infections were 25.2%, 30.8%, and 10.9% respectively. There were significant global and local geographic autocorrelations for HIV-, HCV-, and co-infection. The Moran's I was 0.3015, 0.3449, and 0.3155, respectively (P geographic autocorrelation analysis and the geographic scan statistical analysis showed that HIV-, HCV-, and co-infections in the prefecture exhibited significant geographic clustering at the township level. The geographic distribution pattern of each infection group was different. HIV-, HCV-, and co-infections among drug users in the Yi Autonomous Prefecture all exhibited substantial geographic heterogeneity at the township level. The geographic distribution patterns of the three groups were different. These findings imply that it may be necessary to inform or invent site-specific intervention strategies to better devote currently

  3. The Geographical Distribution of Leadership in Globalized Clinical Trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekman, J.; Frenken, K.; de Zeeuw, D.; Lambers-Heerspink, H.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Pharmaceutical trials are mainly initiated by sponsors and investigators in the United States, Western Europe and Japan. However, more and more patients are enrolled in Central and Eastern Europe, Latin America and Asia. The involvement of patients in new geographical settings raises

  4. Geographical Distribution of the Most Frequent Mutations of Familial Mediterranean fever in the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Hadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF is an autosomal recessive disease. Generally, the Mediterranean basin is the region where the first cases of FMF have been identified. The gene responsible for FMF is gene MEFV. Disease occurs due to mutations in the gene MEFV. Our aim was to determine the geographical distribution of the most frequent mutations in Familial Mediterranean Fever Disease in the world. Material and Methods: In this study, databases including Google Scholar, PubMed, Medline, Ovid, IranMedex, Irandoc, SID, Magiran and published papers were searched with no limitation in time. Then, all collected studies without any limitation were assessed to determine relevant studies. At the end, world map of the most frequent mutations of FMF was generated by Geographical Information System (GIS software. Results: Although more than 290 mutations of the MEFV gene have been described, only four mutations (M694V, M694I, V726A, and E148Q were prevalent among patients with FMF. Conclusion: The most frequent mutation associated with FMF mutation is M694V all over the world. E148Q mutation was found to be with mild clinical relevance.

  5. Energy gradients and the geographic distribution of local ant diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspari, Michael; Ward, Philip S; Yuan, May

    2004-08-01

    Geographical diversity gradients, even among local communities, can ultimately arise from geographical differences in speciation and extinction rates. We evaluated three models--energy-speciation, energy-abundance, and area--that predict how geographic trends in net diversification rates generate trends in diversity. We sampled 96 litter ant communities from four provinces: Australia, Madagascar, North America, and South America. The energy-speciation hypothesis best predicted ant species richness by accurately predicting the slope of the temperature diversity curve, and accounting for most of the variation in diversity. The communities showed a strong latitudinal gradient in species richness as well as inter-province differences in diversity. The former vanished in the temperature-diversity residuals, suggesting that the latitudinal gradient arises primarily from higher diversification rates in the tropics. However, inter-province differences in diversity persisted in those residuals--South American communities remained more diverse than those in North America and Australia even after the effects of temperature were removed.

  6. Geographic disparities of asthma prevalence in south-western United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lung-Chang Chien

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases in the United States of America (USA, and many of its risk factors have so far been investigated and identified; however, evidence is limited on how spatial disparities impact the disease. The purpose of this study was to provide scientific evidence on the location influence on asthma in the four states of south- western USA (California, Arizona, New Mexico and Texas which, together, include 360 counties. The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System database for these four states covering the period of 2000 to 2011 was used in this analysis, and a Bayesian structured additive regression model was applied to analyse by a geographical information system. After adjusting for individual characteristics, socioeconomic status and health behaviour, this study found higher odds associated with asth- ma and a likely cluster around the Bay Area in California, while lower odds appeared in several counties around the larger cities of Texas, such as Dallas, Houston and San Antonio. The significance map shows 43 of 360 counties (11.9% to be high-risk areas for asthma. The level of geographical disparities demonstrates that the county risk of asthma prevalence varies significantly and can be about 19.9% (95% confidence interval: 15.3-25.8 higher or lower than the overall asthma prevalence. We provide an efficient method to utilise and interpret the existing surveillance data on asthma. Visualisation by maps may help deliver future interventions on targeted areas and vulnerable populations to reduce geographical disparities in the burden of asthma.

  7. Use of Remote Sensing/Geographical Information Systems (RS/GIS) to Identify the Distributional Limits of Soil-Transmitted Helminths (STHs) and Their Association to Prevalence of Intestinal Infection in School-Age Children in Four Rural Communities in Boaco, Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Max J.; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z.; Parajon, David G.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Luvall, Jeffrey; Parajon, Laura C.; Martinez, Roberto A.; Estes, Sue

    2011-01-01

    STHs can infect all members of a population but school-age children living in poverty are at greater risk. Infection can be controlled with drug treatment, health education and sanitation. Helminth control programs often lack resources and reliable information to identify areas of highest risk to guide interventions and to monitor progress. Objectives: To use RS/GIS to identify the environmental variables that correlate with the ecology of STHs and with the prevalence of STH infections. Methods: Geo-referenced in situ prevalence data will be overlaid over an ecological map derived from the RS environmental data using ESRI s ArcGIS 9.3. Prevalence data and RS environmental data matching at the same geographical location will be analyzed for correlation and those RS environmental variables that better correlate with prevalence data will be included in a multivariate regression model. Temperature, vegetation, and distance to bodies of water will be inferred using data from the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard the Terra and Aqua satellites, and Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhance Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) satellite sensors onboard Landsat 5 and Landsat 7 respectively. Elevation will be estimated with data from The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Prevalence and intensity of infections will be determined by parasitological survey (Kato Katz) of children enrolled in rural schools in Boaco, Nicaragua, in the communities of El Roblar, Cumaica Norte, Malacatoya 1, and Malacatoya 2). Expected Results: Associations between RS environmental data and prevalence in situ data will be determined and their applications to public health will be discussed. Discussion/Conclusions: The use of RS/GIS data to predict the prevalence of STH infections could be useful for helminth control programs, providing improved geographical guidance of interventions while increasing cost-effectiveness. Learning Objectives: (1) To identify the RS environmental

  8. Prevalence and Geographic Variations of Polypharmacy Among West Virginia Medicaid Beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xue; Tan, Xi; Riley, Brittany; Zheng, Tianyu; Bias, Thomas K; Becker, James B; Sambamoorthi, Usha

    2017-11-01

    West Virginia (WV) residents are at high risk for polypharmacy given its considerable chronic disease burdens. To evaluate the prevalence, correlates, outcomes, and geographic variations of polypharmacy among WV Medicaid beneficiaries. In this cross-sectional study, we analyzed 2009-2010 WV Medicaid fee-for-service (FFS) claims data for adults aged 18-64 (N=37,570). We defined polypharmacy as simultaneous use of drugs from five or more different drug classes on a daily basis for at least 60 consecutive days in one year. Multilevel logistic regression was used to explore the individual- and county-level factors associated with polypharmacy. Its relationship with healthcare utilization was assessed using negative binomial regression and logistic regression. The univariate local indicators of spatial association method was applied to explore spatial patterns of polypharmacy in WV. The prevalence of polypharmacy among WV Medicaid beneficiaries was 44.6%. High-high clusters of polypharmacy were identified in southern WV, indicating counties with above-average prevalence surrounded by counties with above-average prevalence. Polypharmacy was associated with being older, female, eligible for Medicaid due to cash assistance or medical eligibility, having any chronic conditions or more chronic conditions, and living in a county with lower levels of education. Polypharmacy was associated with more hospitalizations, emergency department visits, and outpatient visits, as well as higher non-drug medical expenditures. Polypharmacy was prevalent among WV Medicaid beneficiaries and was associated with substantial healthcare utilization and expenditures. The clustering of high prevalence of polypharmacy in southern WV may suggest targeted strategies to reduce polypharmacy burden in these areas.

  9. Model Checking Geographically Distributed Interlocking Systems Using UMC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantechi, Alessandro; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Nielsen, Michel Bøje Randahl

    2017-01-01

    the relevant distributed protocols. By doing that we obey the safety guidelines of the railway signalling domain, that require formal methods to support the certification of such products. We also show how formal modelling can help designing alternative distributed solutions, while maintaining adherence...

  10. Measuring Geographic Distribution of Economic Activity in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    For example, the outcome of this study could help further development of ... selection of the years was informed by the availability of gridded population data. The dataset .... slight difference in the directional distribution of the economic activity.

  11. Modelling the geographic distribution of wind power and the impact on transmission needs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2003-01-01

    Through energy systems modelling, transmission systems modelling and geographical modelling, the article examines the sensitivity of the response of the transmission system to the geographic distributions of wind power and in particular the sensitivity of the results to the accuracy...... of the distributed modelled. The results show that accuracy of the geographic modelling while important for the analysis of specific single transmission lines is not important for the analysis of the general response of the transmission system. The analyses thus corroborate previous analyses that demonstrated...

  12. The geographical distribution of leadership in globalized clinical trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarno Hoekman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pharmaceutical trials are mainly initiated by sponsors and investigators in the United States, Western Europe and Japan. However, more and more patients are enrolled in Central and Eastern Europe, Latin America and Asia. The involvement of patients in new geographical settings raises questions about scientific and ethical integrity, especially when experience with those settings is lacking at the level of trial management. We therefore studied to what extent the geographical shift in patient enrolment is anticipated in the composition of trial management teams using the author nationalities on the primary outcome publication as an indicator of leadership. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a cohort-study among 1,445 registered trials in www.clinicaltrials.gov that could be matched with a primary outcome publication using clinical trial registry numbers listed in publications. The name of the sponsor and the enrolment countries were extracted from all registrations. The author-addresses of all authors were extracted from the publications. We searched the author-address of all publications to determine whether enrolment countries and sponsors listed on registrations also appeared on a matched publication. Of all sponsors, 80.1% were listed with an author-address on the publication. Of all enrolment countries, 50.3% appeared with an author-address on the publication. The listing of enrolment countries was especially low for industry-funded trials (39.9% as compared to government (90.4% and not-for-profit funding (93.7%. We found that listing of enrolment countries in industry-funded trials was higher for traditional research locations such as the United States (98.2% and Japan (72.0% as compared to nontraditional research locations such as Poland (27.3% and Mexico (14.1%. CONCLUSIONS: Despite patient enrolment efforts, the involvement of researchers from nontraditional locations in trial management as measured by their contribution to

  13. The geographical distribution of leadership in globalized clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekman, Jarno; Frenken, Koen; de Zeeuw, Dick; Heerspink, Hiddo Lambers

    2012-01-01

    Pharmaceutical trials are mainly initiated by sponsors and investigators in the United States, Western Europe and Japan. However, more and more patients are enrolled in Central and Eastern Europe, Latin America and Asia. The involvement of patients in new geographical settings raises questions about scientific and ethical integrity, especially when experience with those settings is lacking at the level of trial management. We therefore studied to what extent the geographical shift in patient enrolment is anticipated in the composition of trial management teams using the author nationalities on the primary outcome publication as an indicator of leadership. We conducted a cohort-study among 1,445 registered trials in www.clinicaltrials.gov that could be matched with a primary outcome publication using clinical trial registry numbers listed in publications. The name of the sponsor and the enrolment countries were extracted from all registrations. The author-addresses of all authors were extracted from the publications. We searched the author-address of all publications to determine whether enrolment countries and sponsors listed on registrations also appeared on a matched publication. Of all sponsors, 80.1% were listed with an author-address on the publication. Of all enrolment countries, 50.3% appeared with an author-address on the publication. The listing of enrolment countries was especially low for industry-funded trials (39.9%) as compared to government (90.4%) and not-for-profit funding (93.7%). We found that listing of enrolment countries in industry-funded trials was higher for traditional research locations such as the United States (98.2%) and Japan (72.0%) as compared to nontraditional research locations such as Poland (27.3%) and Mexico (14.1%). Despite patient enrolment efforts, the involvement of researchers from nontraditional locations in trial management as measured by their contribution to manuscript writing is modest. This division of labor has

  14. Mapping and modelling the geographical distribution of soil-transmitted helminthiases in Peninsular Malaysia: implications for control approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romano Ngui

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections in Malaysia are still highly prevalent, especially in rural and remote communities. Complete estimations of the total disease burden in the country has not been performed, since available data are not easily accessible in the public domain. The current study utilised geographical information system (GIS to collate and map the distribution of STH infections from available empirical survey data in Peninsular Malaysia, highlighting areas where information is lacking. The assembled database, comprising surveys conducted between 1970 and 2012 in 99 different locations, represents one of the most comprehensive compilations of STH infections in the country. It was found that the geographical distribution of STH varies considerably with no clear pattern across the surveyed locations. Our attempt to generate predictive risk maps of STH infections on the basis of ecological limits such as climate and other environmental factors shows that the prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides is low along the western coast and the southern part of the country, whilst the prevalence is high in the central plains and in the North. In the present study, we demonstrate that GIS can play an important role in providing data for the implementation of sustainable and effective STH control programmes to policy-makers and authorities in charge.

  15. Potential geographic distribution of hantavirus reservoirs in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Vilges de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome is an emerging zoonosis in Brazil. Human infections occur via inhalation of aerosolized viral particles from excreta of infected wild rodents. Necromys lasiurus and Oligoryzomys nigripes appear to be the main reservoirs of hantavirus in the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado biomes. We estimated and compared ecological niches of the two rodent species, and analyzed environmental factors influencing their occurrence, to understand the geography of hantavirus transmission. N. lasiurus showed a wide potential distribution in Brazil, in the Cerrado, Caatinga, and Atlantic Forest biomes. Highest climate suitability for O. nigripes was observed along the Brazilian Atlantic coast. Maximum temperature in the warmest months and annual precipitation were the variables that most influence the distributions of N. lasiurus and O. nigripes, respectively. Models based on occurrences of infected rodents estimated a broader area of risk for hantavirus transmission in southeastern and southern Brazil, coinciding with the distribution of human cases of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. We found no demonstrable environmental differences among occurrence sites for the rodents and for human cases of hantavirus. However, areas of northern and northeastern Brazil are also apparently suitable for the two species, without broad coincidence with human cases. Modeling of niches and distributions of rodent reservoirs indicates potential for transmission of hantavirus across virtually all of Brazil outside the Amazon Basin.

  16. Modelling the geographical distribution of soil-transmitted helminth infections in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chammartin, Frédérique; Scholte, Ronaldo G C; Malone, John B; Bavia, Mara E; Nieto, Prixia; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2013-05-25

    The prevalence of infection with the three common soil-transmitted helminths (i.e. Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworm) in Bolivia is among the highest in Latin America. However, the spatial distribution and burden of soil-transmitted helminthiasis are poorly documented. We analysed historical survey data using Bayesian geostatistical models to identify determinants of the distribution of soil-transmitted helminth infections, predict the geographical distribution of infection risk, and assess treatment needs and costs in the frame of preventive chemotherapy. Rigorous geostatistical variable selection identified the most important predictors of A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, and hookworm transmission. Results show that precipitation during the wettest quarter above 400 mm favours the distribution of A. lumbricoides. Altitude has a negative effect on T. trichiura. Hookworm is sensitive to temperature during the coldest month. We estimate that 38.0%, 19.3%, and 11.4% of the Bolivian population is infected with A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, and hookworm, respectively. Assuming independence of the three infections, 48.4% of the population is infected with any soil-transmitted helminth. Empirical-based estimates, according to treatment recommendations by the World Health Organization, suggest a total of 2.9 million annualised treatments for the control of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Bolivia. We provide estimates of soil-transmitted helminth infections in Bolivia based on high-resolution spatial prediction and an innovative variable selection approach. However, the scarcity of the data suggests that a national survey is required for more accurate mapping that will govern spatial targeting of soil-transmitted helminthiasis control.

  17. Trends and geographic inequalities in the prevalence of Down syndrome in Europe, 1980-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolk, H; Loane, M; Garne, E; De Walle, H; Queisser-Luft, A; De Vigan, C; Addor, M C; Gener, B; Haeusler, M; Jordan, H; Tucker, D; Stoll, C; Feijoo, M; Lillis, D; Bianchi, F

    2005-11-01

    pregnancy has in most of the regions covered by EUROCAT counteracted the effect of maternal age in its effect on live birth prevalence. Under the joint influences of maternal age and prenatal screening the pattern of geographic inequalities in Down syndrome live birth prevalence in Europe has also been changed.

  18. [Differences on geographic distribution of rabies virus lineages in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q; Li, M L; Chen, Y; Wang, B; Tao, X Y; Zhu, W Y

    2018-04-10

    Objective: To study the lineages of rabies virus and the epidemic characteristics in different provincial populations of China, to provide information for the development of control and prevention measures in each respective provinces. Methods: Full length N and G genes and full-genome of epidemic strains of rabies virus collected in China were downloaded from GenBank and combined with newly sequenced strains by our lab. Each strain was classified under six lineages of China rabies by constructing phylogenetic trees based on the N or G sequences. Numbers of strains and lineages in each province were counted and compared. Results: Six lineages (China Ⅰ-Ⅵ) were prevalent in China, with 4 found in Yunnan and Hunan. In 6 provinces, including Henan and Fujian, 3 lineages were found. In 8 provinces, including Shanghai and Jiangxi, 2 lineages were found Only 1 lineage, were found in Beijing, Tianjin and other 12 provinces. the China Ⅰ, was the dominant one in 25 provinces. In recent years, China Ⅲ had been found in wild animals and spread over livestock in Inner Mongolia and Xinjiang areas. Qinghai and Tibet had been influenced by China Ⅳ, which also been found in wild animals of Inner Mongolia and Heilongjiang. Conclusion: There had been obvious differences in lineages and strain numbers of rabies virus identified in different provinces in China.

  19. Geographical patterns of onchocerciasis in southern Venezuela: relationships between environment and infection prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botto, C; Escalona, E; Vivas-Martinez, S; Behm, V; Delgado, L; Coronel, P

    2005-03-01

    Onchocerciasis is a chronic filarial infection transmitted by Simulium flies that has a focal geographical distribution in Latin America. The southern Venezuelan focus has a gradient of endemicity that includes the largest number of hyperendemic communities in the continent, many of them in remote forest and mountainous areas, where it is an important public health problem among the Yanomami indigenous population. The recent introduction of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) tools and a landscape epidemiology approach for study of vector borne diseases is helping to understand relationships between environment and transmission dynamics of onchocerciasis. Striking differences in the transmission dynamics of onchocerciasis between different river courses were detected. A significant relationship between onchocerciasis and temperature was also demonstrated. The geologic substrate, kind of landscape and vegetation seemed also to influence the transmission of onchocerciasis. In the Venezuelan Amazon, different kinds of landscapes associated with distinctive vector species, show different intensities of transmission of onchocerciasis. In this sense, landscape analysis aided by GIS, may prove to be a useful tool for better identification of the spatial distribution of onchocerciasis risk in the Orinoco basin.

  20. The impact of travel time on geographic distribution of dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashima, Saori; Matsumoto, Masatoshi; Ogawa, Takahiko; Eboshida, Akira; Takeuchi, Keisuke

    2012-01-01

    The geographic disparity of prevalence rates among dialysis patients is unclear. We evaluate the association between travel time to dialysis facilities and prevalence rates of dialysis patients living in 1,867 census areas of Hiroshima, Japan. Furthermore, we study the effects of geographic features (mainland or island) on the prevalence rates and assess if these effects modify the association between travel time and prevalence. The study subjects were all 7,374 people that were certified as the "renal disabled" by local governments in 2011. The travel time from each patient to the nearest available dialysis facility was calculated by incorporating both travel time and the capacity of all 98 facilities. The effect of travel time on the age- and sex-adjusted standard prevalence rate (SPR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) at each census area was evaluated in two-level Poisson regression models with 1,867 census areas (level 1) nested within 35 towns or cities (level 2). The results were adjusted for area-based parameters of socioeconomic status, urbanity, and land type. Furthermore, the SPR of dialysis patients was calculated in each specific subgroup of population for travel time, land type, and combination of land type and travel time. In the regression analysis, SPR decreased by 5.2% (95% CI: -7.9--2.3) per 10-min increase in travel time even after adjusting for potential confounders. The effect of travel time on prevalence was different in the mainland and island groups. There was no travel time-dependent SPR disparity on the islands. The SPR among remote residents (>30 min from facilities) in the mainland was lower (0.77, 95% CI: 0.71-0.85) than that of closer residents (≤ 30 min; 0.95, 95% CI: 0.92-0.97). The prevalence of dialysis patients was lower among remote residents. Geographic difficulties for commuting seem to decrease the prevalence rate.

  1. The spatial distribution of gender differences in obesity prevalence differs from overall obesity prevalence among US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartner, Danielle R; Taber, Daniel R; Hirsch, Jana A; Robinson, Whitney R

    2016-04-01

    Although obesity disparities between racial and socioeconomic groups have been well characterized, those based on gender and geography have not been as thoroughly documented. This study describes obesity prevalence by state, gender, and race and/or ethnicity to (1) characterize obesity gender inequality, (2) determine if the geographic distribution of inequality is spatially clustered, and (3) contrast the spatial clustering patterns of obesity gender inequality with overall obesity prevalence. Data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were used to calculate state-specific obesity prevalence and gender inequality measures. Global and local Moran's indices were calculated to determine spatial autocorrelation. Age-adjusted, state-specific obesity prevalence difference and ratio measures show spatial autocorrelation (z-score = 4.89, P-value obesity prevalence and obesity gender inequalities are not the same. High and low values of obesity prevalence and gender inequalities cluster in different areas of the United States. Clustering of gender inequality suggests that spatial processes operating at the state level, such as occupational or physical activity policies or social norms, are involved in the etiology of the inequality and necessitate further attention to the determinates of obesity gender inequality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Managing Communication among Geographically Distributed Teams: A Brazilian Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Ana Carina M.; de Farias Junior, Ivaldir H.; de S. Carneiro, Pedro Jorge

    The growing demand for qualified professionals is making software companies opt for distributed software development (DSD). At the project conception, communication and synchronization of information are critical factors for success. However problems such as time-zone difference between teams, culture, language and different development processes among sites could difficult the communication among teams. In this way, the main goal of this paper is to describe the solution adopted by a Brazilian team to improve communication in a multisite project environment. The purposed solution was based on the best practices described in the literature, and the communication plan was created based on the infrastructure needed by the project. The outcome of this work is to minimize the impact of communication issues in multisite projects, increasing productivity, good understanding and avoiding rework on code and document writing.

  3. A geographic distribution data set of biodiversity in Italian freshwaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Boggero

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a data set on the biodiversity of Italian freshwaters, including lakeshores and riverbanks of natural (N=379: springs, streams and lakes and artificial (N=11: fountains sites. The data set belongs partly to the Italian Long Term Ecological Research network (LTER-Italy and partly to LifeWatch, the European e-Science infrastructure for biodiversity and ecosystem research. The data included cover a time period corresponding to the last fifty years (1962-2014. They span a large number of taxa from prokaryotes and unicellular eukaryotes to vertebrates and plants, including taxa linked to the aquatic habitat in at least part of their life cycles (like immature stages of insects, amphibians, birds and vascular plants. The data set consists of 6463 occurrence data and distribution records for 1738 species. The complete data set is available in csv file format via the LifeWatch Service Centre.

  4. [Temporal variation and geographical distribution: congenital heart defects in the Comunitat Valenciana].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavero Carbonell, C; Zurriaga, O; Pérez Panadés, J; Barona Vilar, C; Martos Jiménez, C

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study is to estimate the prevalence of congenital heart defects (CHD) in the Comunitat Valenciana (CV) in children less than one year old and identify whether there are temporal and geographic variations within this prevalence. The minimum basic data set from hospital discharge reports was used to select patients, who were born between 1999-2008, were less than one year old, and who lived in the CV with at least one hospital admission in which the primary diagnosis and/or any of the events were coded as CHD (codes 745-747 of the International Classification of Diseases 9th Revision Clinical Modification). The first hospital discharge report with CHD was selected, using the health card number to detect duplication. The prevalence and 95% confidence intervals were calculated, and the prevalence ratio (PR) and smoothed PR was obtained for each municipality to identify geographic patterns. In the period 1999-2008 there were 6.377 patients younger than one year with some CHD, representing the 43.2% of cases of congenital anomalies. The prevalence was 134.3 per 10.000 live births (95% CI: 131.1-137.6). There was a significant increase in the prevalence, from 115.8 in the 1999-2003 period to 149.5 in the 2004-2008 period. A higher risk was identified in the north of the CV, and in some municipalities of the province of Alicante, in the south. The observed increase in CHD agrees with the findings in other countries and it can be explained, at least in part, by improved diagnostic techniques. The geographic pattern identified requires a more detailed analysis that could explain the geographic variations found. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Geographic distribution of hospital beds throughout China: a county-level econometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jay; Shallcross, David

    2016-11-08

    Geographical distribution of healthcare resources is an important dimension of healthcare access. Little work has been published on healthcare resource allocation patterns in China, despite public equity concerns. Using national data from 2043 counties, this paper investigates the geographic distribution of hospital beds at the county level in China. We performed Gini coefficient analysis to measure inequalities and ordinary least squares regression with fixed provincial effects and additional spatial specifications to assess key determinants. We found that provinces in west China have the least equitable resource distribution. We also found that the distribution of hospital beds is highly spatially clustered. Finally, we found that both county-level savings and government revenue show a strong positive relationship with county level hospital bed density. We argue for more widespread use of disaggregated, geographical data in health policy-making in China to support the rational allocation of healthcare resources, thus promoting efficiency and equity.

  6. Exploring geographic distributions of high-risk water, sanitation, and hygiene practices and their association with child diarrhea in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuaki Hirai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: High-risk water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH practices are still prevalent in most low-income countries. Because of limited access to WASH, children may be put at an increased risk of diarrheal diseases. Objectives: This study aims to 1 develop a new measure of WASH-induced burden, the WASH Resource Index (WRI, and estimate its correlation with child diarrhea and an additive index of high-risk WASH practices; 2 explore the geographic distribution of high-risk WASH practices, child diarrhea, and summary indices at the cluster level; and 3 examine the association between the WRI and child diarrhea at the individual level. Design: A sample of 7,019 children from the Uganda Demographic and Health Survey 2011 were included in this study. Principal component analysis was used to develop a WRI, and households were classified as WASH poorest, poorer, middle, richer, and richest. A hot spot analysis was conducted to assess whether and how high-risk WASH practices and child diarrhea were geographically clustered. A potential association between the WRI and child diarrhea was examined through a nested regression analysis. Results: High-risk WASH practices were clustered at geographically distant regions from Kampala. The 2-week prevalence of child diarrhea, however, was concentrated in Eastern and East Central regions where high-risk WASH practices were not prevalent. At the individual level, none of the high-risk WASH practices were significantly associated with child diarrhea. Being in the highest WASH quintile was, however, significantly associated with 24.9% lower prevalence of child diarrhea compared to being in the lowest quintile (p<0.05. Conclusions: Only a weak association was found between the WRI and child diarrhea in this study. Future research should explore the potential utility of the WRI to examine WASH-induced burden.

  7. Original Research Prevalence and distribution of Schistosoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    control. As prevalence falls, diagnostics can identify high transmission areas, monitor disease trends, and guide evidence-based control strategies. Introduction ..... Fever. 255. 0.50. Abdominal pain. 295. 0.015. Blurred vision. 26. 0.44. Blood in ...

  8. Dental erosion: prevalence, incidence, and distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, D.H.J.; Amaechi, B.T.

    2015-01-01

    Dental erosion is one of the most common dental diseases and it is a growing problem. Numerous epidemiological studies have investigated the prevalence of dental erosion. For these studies different cross sections of the population are investigated. Large differences were found between countries,

  9. Prevalence and distribution of Schistosoma haematobium infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A questionnaire was administered to 3 health facilities on diagnosis and treatment of schistosomiasis, as well as the control interventions against it. Results: Four ... Mass chemotherapy, health education, and improved water supply and sanitation were some of the interventions that contributed to lower prevalence rates in ...

  10. Geographical Distribution of Trypanosoma cruzi Genotypes in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Hernán J.; Segovia, Maikell; Llewellyn, Martin S.; Morocoima, Antonio; Urdaneta-Morales, Servio; Martínez, Cinda; Martínez, Clara E.; Garcia, Carlos; Rodríguez, Marlenes; Espinosa, Raul; de Noya, Belkisyolé A.; Díaz-Bello, Zoraida; Herrera, Leidi; Fitzpatrick, Sinead; Yeo, Matthew; Miles, Michael A.; Feliciangeli, M. Dora

    2012-01-01

    Chagas disease is an endemic zoonosis native to the Americas and is caused by the kinetoplastid protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. The parasite is also highly genetically diverse, with six discrete typing units (DTUs) reported TcI – TcVI. These DTUs broadly correlate with several epidemiogical, ecological and pathological features of Chagas disease. In this manuscript we report the most comprehensive evaluation to date of the genetic diversity of T. cruzi in Venezuela. The dataset includes 778 samples collected and genotyped over the last twelve years from multiple hosts and vectors, including nine wild and domestic mammalian host species, and seven species of triatomine bug, as well as from human sources. Most isolates (732) can be assigned to the TcI clade (94.1%); 24 to the TcIV group (3.1%) and 22 to TcIII (2.8%). Importantly, among the 95 isolates genotyped from human disease cases, 79% belonged to TcI - a DTU common in the Americas, however, 21% belonged to TcIV- a little known genotype previously thought to be rare in humans. Furthermore, were able to assign multiple oral Chagas diseases cases to TcI in the area around the capital, Caracas. We discuss our findings in the context of T. cruzi DTU distributions elsewhere in the Americas, and evaluate the impact they have on the future of Chagas disease control in Venezuela. PMID:22745843

  11. Cyber Graph Queries for Geographically Distributed Data Centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, Jonathan W. [Mail Stop, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Collins, Michael [Christopher Newport Univ., VA (United States); Kearns, Aaron [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Phillips, Cynthia A. [Mail Stop, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Saia, Jared [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-05-01

    We present new algorithms for a distributed model for graph computations motivated by limited information sharing we first discussed in [20]. Two or more independent entities have collected large social graphs. They wish to compute the result of running graph algorithms on the entire set of relationships. Because the information is sensitive or economically valuable, they do not wish to simply combine the information in a single location. We consider two models for computing the solution to graph algorithms in this setting: 1) limited-sharing: the two entities can share only a polylogarithmic size subgraph; 2) low-trust: the entities must not reveal any information beyond the query answer, assuming they are all honest but curious. We believe this model captures realistic constraints on cooperating autonomous data centers. We have algorithms in both setting for s - t connectivity in both models. We also give an algorithm in the low-communication model for finding a planted clique. This is an anomaly- detection problem, finding a subgraph that is larger and denser than expected. For both the low- communication algorithms, we exploit structural properties of social networks to prove perfor- mance bounds better than what is possible for general graphs. For s - t connectivity, we use known properties. For planted clique, we propose a new property: bounded number of triangles per node. This property is based upon evidence from the social science literature. We found that classic examples of social networks do not have the bounded-triangles property. This is because many social networks contain elements that are non-human, such as accounts for a business, or other automated accounts. We describe some initial attempts to distinguish human nodes from automated nodes in social networks based only on topological properties.

  12. Application of a random walk model to geographic distributions of animal mitochondrial DNA variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neigel, J E; Avise, J C

    1993-12-01

    In rapidly evolving molecules, such as animal mitochondrial DNA, mutations that delineate specific lineages may not be dispersed at sufficient rates to attain an equilibrium between genetic drift and gene flow. Here we predict conditions that lead to nonequilibrium geographic distributions of mtDNA lineages, test the robustness of these predictions and examine mtDNA data sets for consistency with our model. Under a simple isolation by distance model, the variance of an mtDNA lineage's geographic distribution is expected be proportional to its age. Simulation results indicated that this relationship is fairly robust. Analysis of mtDNA data from natural populations revealed three qualitative distributional patterns: (1) significant departure of lineage structure from equilibrium geographic distributions, a pattern exhibited in three rodent species with limited dispersal; (2) nonsignificant departure from equilibrium expectations, exhibited by two avian and two marine fish species with potentials for relatively long-distance dispersal; and (3) a progression from nonequilibrium distributions for younger lineages to equilibrium distributions for older lineages, a condition displayed by one surveyed avian species. These results demonstrate the advantages of considering mutation and genealogy in the interpretation of mtDNA geographic variation.

  13. The prevalence and age distribution of peripheral pulmonary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This autopsy-based study defined the prevalence and age distribution of peripheral pulmonary hamartomas in 47635 southern African miners examined between 1975 and 1988. The prevalence rate for white miners was 7,5/1000 and for black miners 1,1/1 000. When directly standardised to the white men in the general ...

  14. prevalence and age distribution of peripheral hamartomas in adult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-07-24

    Jul 24, 1990 ... distribution of peripheral pulmonary hamartomas in 47635 southern African miners ... The prevalence rate for white miners was 7,5/1000 and for ..... in childhood and are never seen at birth.14 The peak prevalence is reported ...

  15. Prevalence, distribution and risk factors associated with taeniid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence, distribution and risk factors associated with taeniid cestode infections of trade dogs, in Dawaki, Plateau State, Nigeria. ... and the control of these cestode infections requires improved management practices and public education.

  16. An overview of the prevalence and distribution of gastrointestinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An overview of the prevalence and distribution of gastrointestinal parasitic infections in post-war Iraq. Noor Abdulhaleem, Aliyu Mahmuda, Al-Zihiry Khalid Jameel Khadim, Roslaini Abd Majid, Leslie Than Thian Lung, Wan Omar Abdullah, Zasmy Unyah ...

  17. Consanguinity in Lebanon: prevalence, distribution and determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Bernadette; Salameh, Pascale

    2009-07-01

    The union of individuals with a common ancestor may lead to serious health consequences in their offspring. Consanguinity is high in Middle Eastern communities; it was around 26% in 1988. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of consanguinity in Beirut and other Lebanese regions, and its associated factors in different subgroups. The cross-sectional study was performed on a convenience sample of married women in Lebanon. The women were administered a standardized questionnaire in a face-to-face interview by independent enquirers. Among 1556 women, the overall prevalence of consanguineous marriages was 35.5%, and the consanguinity coefficient was 0.020; 968 marriages (62.2%) were not consanguineous, 492 (31.6%) were first cousin, 61 (3.9%) were second cousin and 36 (2.3%) had lower degrees of consanguinity. Beirut suburb dwelling, low education subgroups, women working in the home and non-Christian religion presented the highest rates of consanguinity (pwomen thinking that consanguinity would not lead to serious diseases. Consanguinity is therefore still a prevailing problem in Lebanon. Specific health education, and genetic counselling in particular, are suggested to explain the consequences of consanguinity to the general population and to help couples make informed choices.

  18. [Geographic distribution of avoidable mortality in the community of Valencia (1975-1990)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, X A; Bayo Vila, A; Alfonso Sánchez, J L; Cortina Greus, P; Chana González, P; Sáiz Sánchez, C

    1996-04-20

    Avoidable mortality (AM) has been proposed as the indicator of the quality and the efficacy of health care services and a parameter useful to distribute health care resources. The aim of this study was to analyze the size and geographic variability of AM in the Community of Valencia, Spain (1975-1990). The causes of AM were analyzed by the classification of Holland divided into indicators of medical care (IMC) and indicators on national health care policy (INHCP) in addition to the causes of the Charlton classification. Standard rates for Spain and the European Community, the rate of masculinity and contribution to total mortality were calculated. Geographic distribution by areas and provinces was analyzed by the rate of standardized mortality. According to the Holland classification AM was 30% of the deaths from 5 to 64 years of age. Out of these cases, 18.5% corresponded to INHCP and 11.1% to IMC. According to the Charlton classification, this percentage was 3.6%. A considerable variation was observed among the 20 areas analyzed due to many causes. The geographic distribution by groups (IMC, INHCP and the Charlton classification) is quite homogeneous. The worse results corresponded to the city of Valencia and to the area 21 (area of the city of Alicante). A great variation was found in the results regarding geographic distribution for individual causes of death while the distribution was quite homogeneous for all of the groups of mortality with the worst results being observed in large urban centers.

  19. HIV prevalence is strongly associated with geographical variations in male circumcision and foreskin cutting in Papua New Guinea: an ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLaren, David J; McBride, W John H; Kelly, Gerard C; Muller, Reinhold; Tommbe, Rachael; Kaldor, John M; Vallely, Andrew J

    2015-11-01

    To examine the correlation between HIV prevalence and male circumcision and other foreskin cutting practices across the four regions of Papua New Guinea (PNG). An ecological substudy using unique data from an interdisciplinary research programme to evaluate the acceptability, sociocultural context and public health impact of male circumcision for HIV prevention in PNG. Published data describing (a) self-reported circumcision status by region from the 'Acceptability and Feasibility of Male Circumcision for HIV prevention in PNG' study and (b) HIV prevalence by region from PNG National Department of Health were used to correlate male circumcision and other foreskin cutting practices and HIV prevalence. Maps were constructed to visually represent variations across the four regions of PNG. Regions of PNG with the highest HIV prevalence had the lowest prevalence of male circumcision and other forms of foreskin cutting and vice versa. Male circumcision and dorsal longitudinal cuts were strongly associated with HIV prevalence and able to explain 99% of the observed geographical variability in HIV prevalence in PNG (pPNG appears to be closely correlated with the regional distribution of male circumcision and dorsal longitudinal foreskin cuts. Further research is warranted to investigate causality of this correlation as well as the potential of dorsal longitudinal cuts to confer protection against HIV acquisition in heterosexual men. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Predicting geographically distributed adult dental decay in the greater Auckland region of New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, C M; Kruger, E; Whyman, R; Tennant, M

    2014-06-01

    To model the geographic distribution of current (and treated) dental decay on a high-resolution geographic basis for the Auckland region of New Zealand. The application of matrix-based mathematics to modelling adult dental disease-based on known population risk profiles to provide a detailed map of the dental caries distribution for the greater Auckland region. Of the 29 million teeth in adults in the region some 1.2 million (4%) are suffering decay whilst 7.2 million (25%) have previously suffered decay and are now restored. The model provides a high-resolution picture of where the disease burden lies geographically and presents to health planners a method for developing future service plans.

  1. Interaction of landscape varibles on the potential geographical distribution of parrots in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plasencia–Vázquez, A. H.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The loss, degradation, and fragmentation of forested areas are endangering parrot populations. In this study, we determined the influence of fragmentation in relation to vegetation cover, land use, and spatial configuration of fragments on the potential geographical distribution patterns of parrots in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. We used the potential geographical distribution for eight parrot species, considering the recently published maps obtained with the maximum entropy algorithm, and we incorporated the probability distribution for each species. We calculated 71 metrics/variables that evaluate forest fragmentation, spatial configuration of fragments, the ratio occupied by vegetation, and the land use in 100 plots of approximately 29 km², randomly distributed within the presence and absence areas predicted for each species. We also considered the relationship between environmental variables and the distribution probability of species. We used a partial least squares regression to explore patterns between the variables used and the potential distribution models. None of the environmental variables analyzed alone determined the presence/absence or the probability distribution of parrots in the Peninsula. We found that for the eight species, either due to the presence/absence or the probability distribution, the most important explanatory variables were the interaction among three variables, particularly the interactions among the total forest area, the total edge, and the tropical semi–evergreen medium– height forest. Habitat fragmentation influenced the potential geographical distribution of these species in terms of the characteristics of other environmental factors that are expressed together with the geographical division, such as the different vegetation cover ratio and land uses in deforested areas.

  2. [Projection of potential geographic distribution of Apocynum venetum under climate change in northern China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui-Feng; Zheng, Jiang-Hua; Jia, Xiao-Guang; Li, Xiao-Jin

    2017-03-01

    Apocynum venetum belongs to apocynaceae and is a perennial medicinal plant, its stem is an important textile raw materials. The projection of potential geographic distribution of A. venetum has an important significance for the protection and sustainable utilization of the plant. This study was conducted to determine the potential geographic distribution of A. venetum and to project how climate change would affect its geographic distribution. The projection geographic distribution of A. venetum under current bioclimatic conditions in northern China was simulated using MaxEnt software based on species presence data at 44 locations and 19 bioclimatic parameters. The future distributions of A. venetum were also projected in 2050 and 2070 under the climate change scenarios of RCP2.6 and RCP8.5 described in 5th Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The result showed that min air temperature of the coldest month, annual mean air temperature, precipitation of the coldest quarter and mean air temperature of the wettest quarter dominated the geographic distribution of A. venetum. Under current climate, the suitable habitats of A. venetum is 11.94% in China, the suitable habitats are mainly located in the middle of Xinjiang, in the northern part of Gansu, in the southern part of Neimeng, in the northern part of Ningxia, in the middle and northern part of Shaanxi, in the southern part of Shanxi, in the middle and northern part of Henan, in the middle and southern part of Hebei, Shandong, Tianjin, in the southern part of Liaoning and part of Beijing. From 2050 to 2070, the model outputs indicated that the suitable habitats of A. venetum would decrease under the climate change scenarios of RCP2.6 and RCP8.5. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  3. The bioclimatic envelope of the wolverine (Gulo gulo): do climatic constraints limit its geographic distribution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. P. Copeland; K. S. McKelvey; K. B. Aubry; A. Landa; J. Persson; R. M. Inman; J. Krebs; E. Lofroth; H. Golden; J. R. Squires; A. Magoun; M. K. Schwartz; J. Wilmot; C. L. Copeland; R. E. Yates; I. Kojola; R. May

    2010-01-01

    We propose a fundamental geographic distribution for the wolverine (Gulo gulo (L., 1758)) based on the hypothesis that the occurrence of wolverines is constrained by their obligate association with persistent spring snow cover for successful reproductive denning and by an upper limit of thermoneutrality. To investigate this hypothesis, we developed a composite of MODIS...

  4. Differentiation between diploid and tetraploid Centaurea phrygia: mating barriers, morphology and geographic distribution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koutecký, P.; Štěpánek, Jan; Baďurová, T.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 1 (2012), s. 1-32 ISSN 0032-7786 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/1126 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : geographic distribution * polyploidy * reproductive isolation Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.833, year: 2012

  5. Limited geographic distribution of the novel cyclovirus CyCV-VN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le, Van Tan; de Jong, Menno D.; Nguyen, Van Kinh; Nguyen, Vu Trung; Taylor, Walter; Wertheim, Heiman F. L.; van der Ende, Arie; van der Hoek, Lia; Canuti, Marta; Crusat, Martin; Sona, Soeng; Nguyen, Hanh Uyen; Giri, Abhishek; Nguyen, Thi Thuy Chinh Bkrong; Ho, Dang Trung Nghia; Farrar, Jeremy; Bryant, Juliet E.; Tran, Tinh Hien; Nguyen, Van Vinh Chau; van Doorn, H. Rogier

    2014-01-01

    A novel cyclovirus, CyCV-VN, was recently identified in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with central nervous system (CNS) infections in central and southern Vietnam. To explore the geographic distribution of this novel virus, more than 600 CSF specimens from patients with suspected CNS

  6. Geographic distribution of Staphylococcus aureus causing invasive infections in Europe : A molecular-epidemiological analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grundmann, Hajo; Aanensen, David M; van den Wijngaard, Cees C; Spratt, Brian G; Harmsen, Dag; Friedrich, Alexander W; Tami, Adriana

    Background: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important human pathogens and methicillin-resistant variants (MRSAs) are a major cause of hospital and community-acquired infection. We aimed to map the geographic distribution of the dominant clones that cause invasive infections in Europe.

  7. Geographical distribution of centenarians in Colombia: an analysis of three databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Rosselli

    2017-07-01

    Conclusions: Although the results are consistent with the number and geographical distribution of centenarians, some errors may be found in the date of birth stated in the records, which is the basis for estimating age in the three sources. Other factors potentially involved in the results may be physical activity, family and community support, low stress and healthy diet in these regions.

  8. Global checklist of species of Grania (Clitellata: Enchytraeidae with remarks on their geographic distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Prantoni

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A checklist of all currently accepted species of Grania Southern, 1913 (Annelida, Clitellata, Enchytraeidae is presented. The genus is widespread over the world and comprises 81 species described to date. Remarks on their geographical distribution, habitat, synonymies and museum catalogue numbers are provided.

  9. Reptilia, Gymnophthalmidae, Micrablepharus maximiliani (Reinhardt and Lutken, 1861: Distribution extension, new state record and geographic distribution map.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moura, M. R.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We provide records for Micrablepharus maximiliani from state of Minas Gerais and present a map representingits distribution. The record of M. maximiliani from municipality of Resplendor, Minas Gerais, represents a distributionextension of 1,050 km southern from the type locality at the municipality of Maruim, Sergipe. Others 57 new recordsare presented based on specimens housed in several Brazilian and Paraguayan herpetological collections, improving theknowledge on geographic distribution of M. maximiliani in South America.

  10. History Shaped the Geographic Distribution of Genomic Admixture on the Island of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Via, Marc; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Roth, Lindsey A.; Fejerman, Laura; Galanter, Joshua; Choudhry, Shweta; Toro-Labrador, Gladys; Viera-Vera, Jorge; Oleksyk, Taras K.; Beckman, Kenneth; Ziv, Elad; Risch, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary genetic variation among Latin Americans human groups reflects population migrations shaped by complex historical, social and economic factors. Consequently, admixture patterns may vary by geographic regions ranging from countries to neighborhoods. We examined the geographic variation of admixture across the island of Puerto Rico and the degree to which it could be explained by historic and social events. We analyzed a census-based sample of 642 Puerto Rican individuals that were genotyped for 93 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) to estimate African, European and Native American ancestry. Socioeconomic status (SES) data and geographic location were obtained for each individual. There was significant geographic variation of ancestry across the island. In particular, African ancestry demonstrated a decreasing East to West gradient that was partially explained by historical factors linked to the colonial sugar plantation system. SES also demonstrated a parallel decreasing cline from East to West. However, at a local level, SES and African ancestry were negatively correlated. European ancestry was strongly negatively correlated with African ancestry and therefore showed patterns complementary to African ancestry. By contrast, Native American ancestry showed little variation across the island and across individuals and appears to have played little social role historically. The observed geographic distributions of SES and genetic variation relate to historical social events and mating patterns, and have substantial implications for the design of studies in the recently admixed Puerto Rican population. More generally, our results demonstrate the importance of incorporating social and geographic data with genetics when studying contemporary admixed populations. PMID:21304981

  11. Spatially-explicit estimation of geographical representation in large-scale species distribution datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalwij, Jesse M; Robertson, Mark P; Ronk, Argo; Zobel, Martin; Pärtel, Meelis

    2014-01-01

    Much ecological research relies on existing multispecies distribution datasets. Such datasets, however, can vary considerably in quality, extent, resolution or taxonomic coverage. We provide a framework for a spatially-explicit evaluation of geographical representation within large-scale species distribution datasets, using the comparison of an occurrence atlas with a range atlas dataset as a working example. Specifically, we compared occurrence maps for 3773 taxa from the widely-used Atlas Florae Europaeae (AFE) with digitised range maps for 2049 taxa of the lesser-known Atlas of North European Vascular Plants. We calculated the level of agreement at a 50-km spatial resolution using average latitudinal and longitudinal species range, and area of occupancy. Agreement in species distribution was calculated and mapped using Jaccard similarity index and a reduced major axis (RMA) regression analysis of species richness between the entire atlases (5221 taxa in total) and between co-occurring species (601 taxa). We found no difference in distribution ranges or in the area of occupancy frequency distribution, indicating that atlases were sufficiently overlapping for a valid comparison. The similarity index map showed high levels of agreement for central, western, and northern Europe. The RMA regression confirmed that geographical representation of AFE was low in areas with a sparse data recording history (e.g., Russia, Belarus and the Ukraine). For co-occurring species in south-eastern Europe, however, the Atlas of North European Vascular Plants showed remarkably higher richness estimations. Geographical representation of atlas data can be much more heterogeneous than often assumed. Level of agreement between datasets can be used to evaluate geographical representation within datasets. Merging atlases into a single dataset is worthwhile in spite of methodological differences, and helps to fill gaps in our knowledge of species distribution ranges. Species distribution

  12. International geographic correlation study of the prevalence of disorders of male reproductive health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, T; Chevrier, C; Multigner, L; Cordier, S; Jégou, B

    2013-07-01

    Is there evidence at the population level of associations between different male genital disorders, outside Scandinavian countries? At an international scale, there is evidence for a number of correlations between rates of four male reproductive disorders (hypospadias, cryptorchidism, testicular cancer and low sperm concentration). Some associations between these outcomes have been shown in studies focusing on individuals and mainly in Nordic European countries. These associations, together with histological evidence of a dysgenesis pattern in testicular tissue specimens, have generated the concept of the existence of a 'testicular dysgenesis syndrome' originating in utero. This is a geographical correlation study using cancer, malformations rates and sperm quality data collected between the years 1998 and 2005. Incidence rates of testicular cancer were extracted from International Agency for Research on Cancer registries and Globocan, while cryptorchidism and hypospadias prevalence rates were obtained from EUROCAT and International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research registries. Sperm concentration data were extracted from recent studies using standardized methodology. A total of 39 registries and 9 sperm studies were selected. Non-parametric Spearman correlation tests were used to test the association between these four disorders. Correlations were computed for all registries together, for registries with high-quality matching coverage only and by continents. Sensitivity analyses were also conducted using data from prospective clinical studies to take into account potential bias related mainly to ascertainment of malformation rates. We found positive correlations between testicular cancer and hypospadias (r = 0.32, P = 0.05) and between hypospadias and cryptorchidism (r = 0.70, P = 0.008). Stronger correlations were observed when using registries with high-quality matching coverage. Among these registries, differences between Europe and the

  13. [New findings on the geographic distribution of the verrucarum group (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejarano, Eduar Elías; Sierra, Diana; Vélez, Iván Darío

    2003-09-01

    The incrimination of sand flies belonging to verrucarum species group in the leishmaniasis transmission underscores the need for a detailed information on the geographical distribution of these species. The current listing adds 34 new records that extend significantly the knowledge of the geographical distribution of the verrucarum group in Colombia. The most important new records pertain to Lutzomyia spinicrassa in the tropical dry forest of the Atlantic coast, Lutzomyia ovallesi in the Orinoco and Amazon River watersheds regions of Colombia, and the sympatric occurrence of Lutzomyia spinicrassa and Lutzomyia quasitownsendi in the eastern chain of the Andes mountains. Additionally, the municipal and altitudinal distributions are compiled for 19 new species recorded for Colombia. The series townsendi of the verrucarum group generally restricted to premontane and lower montane zones based on distribution data on Lutzomyia longiflocosa, L. quasitownsendi, Lutzomyia sauroida, L. spinicrassa, Lutzomyia torvida, Lutzomyia townsendi and Lutzomyia youngi. The series verrucarum is distributed from the tropical lowland to the montane zones, and includes species with wide geographical range (Lutzomyia evansi, Lutzomyia columbiana, L. ovallesi, Lutzomyia nuneztovari, Lutzomyia nevesi), and species of highly endemic distribution (Lutzomyia andina, Lutzomyia disiuncta, Lutzomyia moralesi, Lutzomyia antioquiensis). Members of the series pia (Lutzomyia pia, Lutzomyia limafalcaoae) and the series serrana (Lutzomyia serrana) occur from the tropical lowlands to the lower montane zones. The altitudinal divergences may be intrinsically tied to speciation process, especially as it relates to the climatic and geologic events that have affected the flora and fauna of the Andean region.

  14. Reptiles of Chubut province, Argentina: richness, diversity, conservation status and geographic distribution maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minoli, Ignacio; Morando, Mariana; Avila, Luciano Javier

    2015-01-01

    Abstract An accurate estimation of species and population geographic ranges is essential for species-focused studies and conservation and management plans. Knowledge of the geographic distributions of reptiles from Patagonian Argentina is in general limited and dispersed over manuscripts from a wide variety of topics. We completed an extensive review of reptile species of central Patagonia (Argentina) based on information from a wide variety of sources. We compiled and checked geographic distribution records from published literature and museum records, including extensive new data from the LJAMM-CNP (CENPAT-CONICET) herpetological collection. Our results show that there are 52 taxa recorded for this region and the highest species richness was seen in the families Liolaemidae and Dipsadidae with 31 and 10 species, respectively. The Patagónica was the phytogeographic province most diverse in species and Phymaturus was the genus of conservation concern most strongly associated with it. We present a detailed species list with geographical information, richness species, diversity analyses with comparisons across phytogeographical provinces, conservation status, taxonomic comments and distribution maps for all of these taxa. PMID:25931966

  15. Geographic Variation of Chronic Kidney Disease Prevalence: Correlation with the Incidence of Renal Cell Carcinoma or Urothelial Carcinoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Yit-Sheung; Chuang, Kai-Wen; Chiang, Chun-Ju; Chuang, Hung-Yi; Lu, Sheng-Nan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate whether geographic variations in the prevalence of late-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD) exist and are associated with incidence rates of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC), or lower tract urothelial carcinoma (LTUC). Prevalence rates of late-stage CKD for 366 townships (n > 30) in Taiwan were calculated for 1,518,241 and 1,645,151 subjects aged 40 years or older in years 2010 and 2009, respectively. Late-stage CKD prevalence in year 2010 was used as a training set and its age-adjusted standardized morbidity rates (ASMR) were divided into three groups as defined ASMR ASMR of late-stage CKD in years 2010 and 2009 were 1.76%, and 2.09%, respectively. Geographic variations were observed, with notably higher rates of disease in areas of the central, southwestern mountainside, and southeastern seaboard. There were no significant differences among different combined risk groups of RCC, UTUC, and LTUC incidence. The substantial geographic variations in the prevalence of late-stage CKD exist, but are not correlated with RCC, UTUC, or LTUC incidence.

  16. Geographic Variation of Chronic Kidney Disease Prevalence: Correlation with the Incidence of Renal Cell Carcinoma or Urothelial Carcinoma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yit-Sheung Yap

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether geographic variations in the prevalence of late-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD exist and are associated with incidence rates of renal cell carcinoma (RCC, upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC, or lower tract urothelial carcinoma (LTUC. Methods. Prevalence rates of late-stage CKD for 366 townships (n>30 in Taiwan were calculated for 1,518,241 and 1,645,151 subjects aged 40 years or older in years 2010 and 2009, respectively. Late-stage CKD prevalence in year 2010 was used as a training set and its age-adjusted standardized morbidity rates (ASMR were divided into three groups as defined <1.76%, 1.76% ≤ ASMR < 2.64%, and ≥2.64%, respectively. Year 2009, defined as the validation set, was used to validate the results. Results. The ASMR of late-stage CKD in years 2010 and 2009 were 1.76%, and 2.09%, respectively. Geographic variations were observed, with notably higher rates of disease in areas of the central, southwestern mountainside, and southeastern seaboard. There were no significant differences among different combined risk groups of RCC, UTUC, and LTUC incidence. Conclusion. The substantial geographic variations in the prevalence of late-stage CKD exist, but are not correlated with RCC, UTUC, or LTUC incidence.

  17. The prevalence of age-related maculopathy by geographic region and ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, R; Klein, B E; Cruickshanks, K J

    1999-05-01

    The prevalence of age-related maculopathy (ARM) varies considerably in different locations and racial/ethnic groups around the world. At present there are insufficient data to determine whether it is likely that these differences in prevalence, especially for the early forms of ARM are due to variations in genetic and environmental factors or due to variations in age of the cohorts and methods used to ascertain and define ARM. In three population-based studies of whites living in Beaver Dam, Wisconsin, Blue Mountains, Australia, and Rotterdam, The Netherlands, in which similar methods of ascertainment and classification were used to detect and define ARM, late ARM was present in 1.2%, 1.4%, and 1.2% of the population less than 86 years of age, respectively. While data from clinical studies suggest that late ARM associated with choroidal neovascularization is rare in blacks compared with whites, some epidemiological studies suggest that late ARM may be similar in blacks and whites. There are still too few data from various ethnic/racial groups around the world and too few population-based data in older Hispanic and Asian populations to make meaningful comparisons. There is a need for further research into the distribution of ARM and its possible causes using similar methodologies to ascertain and define the disease. Further insights will be gained when genotypes associated with ARM are discovered.

  18. Mapping the geographical distribution of podoconiosis in Cameroon using parasitological, serological, and clinical evidence to exclude other causes of lymphedema.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kebede Deribe

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Podoconiosis is a non-filarial elephantiasis, which causes massive swelling of the lower legs. It was identified as a neglected tropical disease by WHO in 2011. Understanding of the geographical distribution of the disease is incomplete. As part of a global mapping of podoconiosis, this study was conducted in Cameroon to map the distribution of the disease. This mapping work will help to generate data on the geographical distribution of podoconiosis in Cameroon and contribute to the global atlas of podoconiosis.We used a multi-stage sampling design with stratification of the country by environmental risk of podoconiosis. We sampled 76 villages from 40 health districts from the ten Regions of Cameroon. All individuals of 15-years old or older in the village were surveyed house-to-house and screened for lymphedema. A clinical algorithm was used to reliably diagnose podoconiosis, excluding filarial-associated lymphedema. Individuals with lymphoedema were tested for circulating Wuchereria bancrofti antigen and specific IgG4 using the Alere Filariasis Test Strips (FTS test and the Standard Diagnostics (SD BIOLINE lymphatic filariasis IgG4 test (Wb123 respectively, in addition to thick blood films. Presence of DNA specific to W. bancrofti was checked on night blood using a qPCR technique.Overall, 10,178 individuals from 4,603 households participated in the study. In total, 83 individuals with lymphedema were identified. Of the 83 individuals with lymphedema, two were found to be FTS positive and all were negative using the Wb123 test. No microfilaria of W. bancrofti were found in the night blood of any individual with clinical lymphedema. None were found to be positive for W. bancrofti using qPCR. Of the two FTS positive cases, one was positive for Mansonella perstans DNA, while the other harbored Loa loa microfilaria. Overall, 52 people with podoconiosis were identified after applying the clinical algorithm. The overall prevalence of podoconiosis was

  19. Limited geographic distribution of the novel cyclovirus CyCV-VN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Van Tan; de Jong, Menno D; Nguyen, Van Kinh; Nguyen, Vu Trung; Taylor, Walter; Wertheim, Heiman F L; van der Ende, Arie; van der Hoek, Lia; Canuti, Marta; Crusat, Martin; Sona, Soeng; Nguyen, Hanh Uyen; Giri, Abhishek; Nguyen, Thi Thuy Chinh Bkrong; Ho, Dang Trung Nghia; Farrar, Jeremy; Bryant, Juliet E; Tran, Tinh Hien; Nguyen, Van Vinh Chau; van Doorn, H Rogier

    2014-02-05

    A novel cyclovirus, CyCV-VN, was recently identified in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with central nervous system (CNS) infections in central and southern Vietnam. To explore the geographic distribution of this novel virus, more than 600 CSF specimens from patients with suspected CNS infections in northern Vietnam, Cambodia, Nepal and The Netherlands were screened for the presence of CyCV-VN but all were negative. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis between CyCV-VN and another novel cyclovirus recently identified in CSF from Malawian patients indicated that these represent distinct cycloviral species, albeit phylogenetically closely related. The data suggest that CyCV-VN has a limited geographic distribution within southern and central Vietnam. Further research is needed to determine the global distribution and diversity of cycloviruses and importantly their possible association with human disease.

  20. The geographical vector in distribution of genetic diversity for Clonorchis sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solodovnik, Daria A; Tatonova, Yulia V; Burkovskaya, Polina V

    2018-01-01

    Clonorchis sinensis, the causative agent of clonorchiasis, is one of the most important parasites that inhabit countries of East and Southeast Asia. In this study, we validated the existence of a geographical vector for C. sinensis using the partial cox1 mtDNA gene, which includes a conserved region. The samples of parasite were divided into groups corresponding to three river basins, and the size of the conserved region had a strong tendency to increase from the northernmost to the southernmost samples. This indicates the availability of the geographical vector in distribution of genetic diversity. A vector is a quantity that is characterized by magnitude and direction. Geographical vector obtained in cox1 gene of C. sinensis has both these features. The reasons for the occurrence of this feature, including the influence of intermediate and definitive hosts on vector formation, and the possibility of its use for clonorchiasis monitoring are discussed. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  1. Geographic distribution of suicide and railway suicide in Belgium, 2008-2013: a principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strale, Mathieu; Krysinska, Karolina; Overmeiren, Gaëtan Van; Andriessen, Karl

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the geographic distribution of suicide and railway suicide in Belgium over 2008--2013 on local (i.e., district or arrondissement) level. There were differences in the regional distribution of suicide and railway suicides in Belgium over the study period. Principal component analysis identified three groups of correlations among population variables and socio-economic indicators, such as population density, unemployment, and age group distribution, on two components that helped explaining the variance of railway suicide at a local (arrondissement) level. This information is of particular importance to prevent suicides in high-risk areas on the Belgian railway network.

  2. Breast cancer in Ethiopia: evidence for geographic difference in the distribution of molecular subtypes in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadgu, Endale; Seifu, Daniel; Tigneh, Wondemagegnhu; Bokretsion, Yonas; Bekele, Abebe; Abebe, Markos; Sollie, Thomas; Merajver, Sofia D; Karlsson, Christina; Karlsson, Mats G

    2018-02-14

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease with several morphological and molecular subtypes. Widely accepted molecular classification system uses assessment of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and proliferation marker Ki67. Few studies have been conducted on the incidence and molecular types of breast cancer in Sub-Saharan Africa. Previous studies mainly from Western and Central Africa, showed breast cancer to occur at younger ages and to present with aggressive features, such as high-grade, advanced stage and triple-negative phenotype (negative for ER, PR and HER2). Limited data from East Africa including Ethiopia however shows hormone receptor negative tumors to account for a lower proportion of all breast cancers than has been reported from elsewhere in Africa. In this study from Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital, 114 breast cancer patients diagnosed between 2012 and 2015 were enrolled. ER, PR, Ki67 and HER2 receptor status were assessed using immunohistochemistry from tissue microarrays. FISH was used for assessment of gene amplification in all equivocal tumor samples and for confirmation in HER2-enriched cases. The distribution of molecular subtypes was: Luminal A: 40%; Luminal B: 26%; HER2-enriched: 10%; TNBC: 23%. ER were positive in 65% of all tumors and 43% the cases were positive for PR. There was statistically significant difference in median age at diagnosis between the molecular subtypes (P molecular subtypes in different age ranges with Luminal B subtype being more common at younger ages (median = 36) and Luminal A subtype more prevalent at older ages (median = 42). There were no statistically significant differences in tumor grade, histology, and stage between the molecular subtypes of breast cancer. The present study detected Luminal A breast cancer to be the most common subtype and reveals a relatively low rate of hormone receptor negative and TNBC. Our findings and

  3. Coincidence between geographical distribution of Leptotrombidium scutellare and scrub typhus incidence in South Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Yul Roh

    Full Text Available To clarify the geographical distribution of scrub typhus vectors in Korea, a survey of larval trombiculid mites was conducted from 2005 to 2007 by collecting wild small mammals twice a year (spring and autumn at 24 sites nationwide. A total of 67,325 mites representing 4 genera and 14 species were collected from 783 trapped rodents, corresponding to a chigger index (number of chigger mites per rodent of 86.0. The predominant mite species were Leptotrombidium pallidum (52.6%, Leptotrombiduim scutellare (27.1%, Leptotrombidium palpale (8.2%, Leptotrombidium orientale (5.6%, and Neotrombicula tamiyai (1.7%. However, the proportions of L. scutellare in southern areas, including endemic provinces such as Jeollabuk-Do (34.3%, Jeollanam-Do (49.0%, and Gyeongsangnam-Do (88%, were relatively higher than in central Korean regions where L. pallidum was predominant. In autumn, the ratio of L. scutellare increased to 42% while the ratio of L. pallidum decreased. The geographical distribution map of the L. scutellare chigger index was identical to the incidence pattern of scrub typhus, whereas those of overall mites and L. pallidum showed no relationship with case incidence patterns. Distribution mapping analysis shows an identical geographical distribution of L. scutellare and epidemic incidence of scrub typhus in South Korea. L. pallidum could be another vector at all other parts of the Korean peninsula, including the eastern and northern regions that have a low level of scrub typhus incidence.

  4. Local knowledge, use pattern and geographical distribution of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popoola, Jacob O; Obembe, Olawole O

    2013-11-25

    All parts of Moringa oleifera are medicinally valuable with overlapping uses in treating myriads of ailments and diseases including body pains and weakness, fever, asthma, cough, blood pressure, arthritis, diabetes, epilepsy, wound, and skin infection. Moringa also has robust ability to challenge terminal diseases such as HIV/AIDs infections, chronic anemia, cancer, malaria and hemorrhage. The present study was to obtain ethnobotanical information on the use and local knowledge variation, geographical distribution, and to collect different landraces of Moringa oleifera from the different agro-ecological regions in Nigeria, for further studies. Ethnobotanical data were collected through face to face interviews, semi structured questionnaires and discussions with selected people who had knowledge about the plant. The fidelity level (FL %) and use value for different use categories of Moringa oleifera and its parts were estimated. The variation in ethnobotanical knowledge was evaluated by comparing the mean use value among ethnic, gender and age groups using sample T test. Garmi GPS was used to determine the locations (latitude and longitude) and height in different areas to assess the geographical spread of the species. Seven (7) categories of use (Food, medicine, fodder, fencing, firewood, gum and coagulant) were recorded for Moringa oleifera. Food and medicinal uses showed highest fidelity level while the leaves and the seeds were the plant parts most utilized for the same purposes. There were significant differences among the ethnic, gender and age groups regarding the ethno-botanical use value. The geographical distribution pattern shows that the Moringa oleifera is well distributed in all ecological zones of Nigeria, well adapted to the varied climatic conditions and gaining unprecedented awareness among the people. Though considered an introduced species, Moringa oleifera has found wide acceptance, recognition and usefulness among the various ethnicities in the

  5. Mapping and Modelling the Geographical Distribution and Environmental Limits of Podoconiosis in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Deribe, Kebede; Cano, Jorge; Newport, Melanie J.; Golding, Nick; Pullan, Rachel L.; Sime, Heven; Gebretsadik, Abeba; Assefa, Ashenafi; Kebede, Amha; Hailu, Asrat; Rebollo, Maria P.; Shafi, Oumer; Bockarie, Moses J.; Aseffa, Abraham; Hay, Simon I.

    2015-01-01

    Background\\ud \\ud Ethiopia is assumed to have the highest burden of podoconiosis globally, but the geographical distribution and environmental limits and correlates are yet to be fully investigated. In this paper we use data from a nationwide survey to address these issues.\\ud \\ud Methodology\\ud \\ud Our analyses are based on data arising from the integrated mapping of podoconiosis and lymphatic filariasis (LF) conducted in 2013, supplemented by data from an earlier mapping of LF in western Et...

  6. Analysis Of Educational Services Distribution-Based Geographic Information System GIS

    OpenAIRE

    Waleed Lagrab; Noura AKNIN

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This study analyzes the spatial distribution of kindergarten facilities in the study area based on the Geographic Information Systems GIS in order to test an efficiency of GIS technology to redistribute the existing kindergarten and choose the best location in the future and applying the standard criteria for selecting the suitable locations for kindergarten. To achieve this goal the data and information are collected via interviews and comprehensive statistics on the education facil...

  7. Andean Condor (Vultur gryphus) in Ecuador: Geographic Distribution, Population Size and Extinction Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveda-Rodríguez, Adrián; Vargas, Félix Hernán; Kohn, Sebastián; Zapata-Ríos, Galo

    2016-01-01

    The Andean Condor (Vultur gryphus) in Ecuador is classified as Critically Endangered. Before 2015, standardized and systematic estimates of geographic distribution, population size and structure were not available for this species, hampering the assessment of its current status and hindering the design and implementation of effective conservation actions. In this study, we performed the first quantitative assessment of geographic distribution, population size and population viability of Andean Condor in Ecuador. We used a methodological approach that included an ecological niche model to study geographic distribution, a simultaneous survey of 70 roosting sites to estimate population size and a population viability analysis (PVA) for the next 100 years. Geographic distribution in the form of extent of occurrence was 49 725 km2. During a two-day census, 93 Andean Condors were recorded and a population of 94 to 102 individuals was estimated. In this population, adult-to-immature ratio was 1:0.5. In the modeled PVA scenarios, the probability of extinction, mean time to extinction and minimum population size varied from zero to 100%, 63 years and 193 individuals, respectively. Habitat loss is the greatest threat to the conservation of Andean Condor populations in Ecuador. Population size reduction in scenarios that included habitat loss began within the first 15 years of this threat. Population reinforcement had no effects on the recovery of Andean Condor populations given the current status of the species in Ecuador. The population size estimate presented in this study is the lower than those reported previously in other countries where the species occur. The inferences derived from the population viability analysis have implications for Condor management in Ecuador. This study highlights the need to redirect efforts from captive breeding and population reinforcement to habitat conservation.

  8. Geographic distribution and conservation status of Caiman latirostris (Crocodylia, Alligatoridae in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Borteiro

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Populations of Caiman latirostris are known to occur in Uruguay but their geographic distribution remains uncertain. This work presents anupdate of the species distribution and conservation status in Uruguay. Surveys conducted by the authors confirmed the presence of this species in the previously known distribution range of northwestern Uruguay, where it seems to be widespread and relatively abundant in contrast to earlier reports. We report new localities for C. latirostris, most relevant being those of the Cebollatí and Tacuarí Rivers, and the Pelotas, India Muerta and San Miguel stream basins, which significantly expand its distribution through important wetlands in the eastern part of the country. The overall distribution is coincident with different landscape types, where lagoons, artificial impoundments, livestock waterholes, rivers, streams, creeks and marshes are inhabited by caiman. Illegal non-commercial hunting was detected all over the country.

  9. Hospital distribution in a metropolitan city: assessment by a geographical information system grid modelling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Soo Lee

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Grid models were used to assess urban hospital distribution in Seoul, the capital of South Korea. A geographical information system (GIS based analytical model was developed and applied to assess the situation in a metropolitan area with a population exceeding 10 million. Secondary data for this analysis were obtained from multiple sources: the Korean Statistical Information Service, the Korean Hospital Association and the Statistical Geographical Information System. A grid of cells measuring 1 × 1 km was superimposed on the city map and a set of variables related to population, economy, mobility and housing were identified and measured for each cell. Socio-demographic variables were included to reflect the characteristics of each area. Analytical models were then developed using GIS software with the number of hospitals as the dependent variable. Applying multiple linear regression and geographically weighted regression models, three factors (highway and major arterial road areas; number of subway entrances; and row house areas were statistically significant in explaining the variance of hospital distribution for each cell. The overall results show that GIS is a useful tool for analysing and understanding location strategies. This approach appears a useful source of information for decision-makers concerned with the distribution of hospitals and other health care centres in a city.

  10. FEATURES OF THE GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF TERRESTRIAL MOLLUSCS IN THE CAUCASUS

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    M. Z. Magomedova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. High population, high proliferation rates, a large species diversity, low mobility and small ability to overcome geographic barriers, ease of collecting material and sensitive response to changes in the external environment makes this group a convenient object of biogeographic and ecological research. Methods. The inventory of Caucasian ground malacofauna made it possible to make a complete list of species; their characteristics were determined by the geographical distribution of major natural regions of the Caucasus. Results. The comparative analysis of the geographical distribution of terrestrial molluscs on key areas of the Caucasus showed that among the 352 species belonging to 140 genera of 36 families, most richly represented Western Caucasus, which accounts for 51% or 181 species from 80 genera of 20 families, while the share of Armenian, Eastern and Central Caucasus accounts for 35-37%. Talysh, in turn, is characterized by the presence of only 11% of the species composition of the Caucasian land mollusc. Caucasus limited in distribution among the analyzed species is 72% or 255 species belonging to 104 genera of 24 families. Conclusion. The results prove the species diversity of the different regions of theCaucasus and could serve as the basis to reconsider the possible ways of formation of fauna of the region discussed. 

  11. [Analysis of the geographical distribution of cases of leprosy. Rio de Janeiro, 2001-2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracie, Renata; Peixoto, Julia Novaes de Barros; Soares, Fabiane Bertoni Dos Reis; Hacker, Mariana de Andrea Vilas-Boas

    2017-05-01

    Studies have demonstrated that the geographical distribution of leprosy is related to different socioeconomic factors. This article aims to study the geographical distribution of leprosy in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The cases of leprosy reported in the 2001-2012 period were mapped according to municipality. Epidemiological and socioeconomic indicators were calculated. The ArcMap program was used for the construction of maps and Earth View to calculate the Bayesian rate. It was observed that leprosy is presented in hyper-endemic levels especially in the metropolitan area. However, there is also a reduction of the detection rate in the most recent study period. In municipalities in the metropolitan region and the north western region detection in children under 15 is high, indicating an active transmission situation. In municipalities in the south-central region and especially in the coastal region, there was a high proportion of cases diagnosed with level II disability, reflecting late diagnosis. There was no linear correlation between socioeconomic indicators and leprosy rate. These results contribute to the analysis of the geographical distribution of leprosy, important for the identification of areas for resource allocation, aiming to control and eliminate the disease.

  12. Prevalence and Distribution of Neurological Disease in a Neurology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uche

    Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research – January 2011 – Vol. 1 N0.1. >>>63<<<. Prevalence and Distribution of Neurological Disease in a. Neurology Clinic in Enugu, Nigeria. Onwuekwe IO* and Ezeala-Adikaibe B*. *Neurology Unit, Department of Medicine,. University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, ...

  13. Geographic distribution of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus collected from used tires in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higa, Yukiko; Yen, Nguyen Thi; Kawada, Hitoshi; Son, Tran Hai; Hoa, Nguyen Thuy; Takagi, Masahiro

    2010-03-01

    The spatial distribution of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in environmental and geographical zones, e.g., urban-rural, coastal-mountainous, and north-south, was investigated throughout Vietnam. Immature stages were collected from used tires along roads. The effects of regions, seasons, and the degree of urbanization on the density and the frequency were statistically analyzed. Aedes aegypti predominated in the southern and central regions, while Ae. albopictus predominated in the northern region, which may be related to climatic conditions (temperature and rainfall). Larval collection from used tires may be suitable to assess rapidly the current distribution of dengue mosquitoes for estimating health risks and implementing vector control measures.

  14. PlanetLab Europe as Geographically-Distributed Testbed for Software Development and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Komosny

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyse the use of PlanetLab Europe for development and evaluation of geographically-oriented Internet services. PlanetLab is a global research network with the main purpose to support development of new Internet services and protocols. PlanetLab is divided into several branches; one of them is PlanetLab Europe. PlanetLab Europe consists of about 350 nodes at 150 geographically different sites. The nodes are accessible by remote login, and the users can run their software on the nodes. In the paper, we study the PlanetLab's properties that are significant for its use as a geographically distributed testbed. This includes node position accuracy, services availability and stability. We find a considerable number of location inaccuracies and a number of services that cannot be considered as reliable. Based on the results we propose a simple approach to nodes selection in testbeds for geographically-oriented Internet services development and evaluation.

  15. Factors Influence on Geographic Distribution of Physicians in Selected Countries: A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Ashkan Nasiripour

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the most important inequalities of providing health services is misdistribution of human resources, especially physicians. Many factors contribute to the distribution of physicians in different regions. The present study was aimed to explore the effective factors in distributing physicians in different countries. Methods: This study is a systematic review, in which the data were gathered through literature review, online searches in multiple databases and relevant organizations’ websites. Later, the collected data were classified using content analysis method, and consequently, they were illustrated in comparative matrix. Results: The factors that influence the dispersion of the physicians are divided into 4 main groups. Firstly, Geographic and Demographic factors of the region such as, population, age, gender and climate. Secondly, Health factors of the region and the country such as, the number of hospitals, health centers and health indicators. Thirdly, Economic, Social and Political factors of the region such as, economic growth, culture and believes. And finally, the factors related to physicians' characteristics and motivation such as, age, gender and the compensation system. Conclusion: There are different reasons why physicians spread in different countries’ geographical regions. Regarding the unequal distribution of physicians in Iran, identifying these influential reasons and also the factors affecting the distribution of physicians, and the impact of each one of these, can lead to a fair and equal distribution of resources of the health sector.

  16. Geographic distribution and ecological niche of plague in sub-Saharan Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neerinckx, Simon B; Peterson, Andrew T; Gulinck, Hubert

    2008-01-01

    Background Plague is a rapidly progressing, serious illness in humans that is likely to be fatal if not treated. It remains a public health threat, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. In spite of plague's highly focal nature, a thorough ecological understanding of the general distribution pattern...... of plague across sub-Saharan Africa has not been established to date. In this study, we used human plague data from sub-Saharan Africa for 1970-2007 in an ecological niche modeling framework to explore the potential geographic distribution of plague and its ecological requirements across Africa. Results We...... predict a broad potential distributional area of plague occurrences across sub-Saharan Africa. General tests of model's transferability suggest that our model can anticipate the potential distribution of plague occurrences in Madagascar and northern Africa. However, generality and predictive ability tests...

  17. Inorganic chemical quality of European tap-water: 2. Geographical distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flem, B.; Reimann, C.; Birke, M.; Banks, D.; Filzmoser, P.; Frengstad, B.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • European scale comparison of tap water. • 579 tap water samples have been analyses for more than 60 parameters. • Chemical geographical distribution. • Water treatment processes. • Importance of geology on tap water quality. - Abstract: 579 tap water samples were collected at the European scale and analysed at a single laboratory for more than 60 parameters. This dataset is analysed here in terms of the spatial and national distribution of the analysed inorganic chemical parameters. The distribution of most parameters is controlled by various artificial and natural factors (land use, distribution network, water source and treatment, geographical location and geology). The distribution of nitrate can be interpreted in terms of land use and climate. Water treatment affects the distribution of phosphorus in tap water; especially the policy of adding phosphate to potable water in the UK to suppress plumbosolvency. The distribution of alkalinity, Ca, Mg, Sr and Li appears to reflect both water source (low in surface waters) and the geological contrast between base-poor crystalline rock terrains and carbonate rich sedimentary rock. The Scandinavian nations’ tap water shows the highest concentrations of most of the rare earth elements, probably reflecting their geological availability and mobility in low pH raw water sources. The distribution of fluoride, uranium and arsenic also appear to exhibit geological and source (groundwater versus surface water) controls. Hungary returns several high As results, which may reflect As-rich reducing groundwaters of the Pannonian basin. Much Estonian tap water reflects a very specific hydrochemical environment, namely Palaeozoic near-coastal aquifers, which yield deep, reducing or saline groundwater (possibly influenced by marine intrusion), enriched in Ba, B, Br − , Cl − , Eu, F − , I, Li, K, Mn and Na

  18. Effective environmental factors on geographical distribution of traffic accidents on pedestrians, downtown Tehran city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Ali; Soori, Hamid; Kavousi, Amir; Eshghabadi, Farshid; Nematollahi, Shahrzad; Zeini, Salahdien

    2017-01-01

    In most countries, occurrence of traffic causalities is high in pedestrians. The aim of this study is to geographically analyze the traffic casualties in pedestrians in downtown Tehran city. The study population consisted of traffic injury accidents in pedestrians occurred during 2015 in Tehran city. Data were extracted from offices of traffic police and municipality. For analysis of environmental factors and site of accidents, ordinary least square regression models and geographically weighted regression were used. Fitness and performance of models were checked using the Akaike information criteria, Bayesian information criteria, deviance, and adjusted R 2 . Totally, 514 accidents were included in this study. Of them, site of accidents was arterial streets in 370 (71.9%) cases, collector streets in 133 cases (25.2%), and highways in 11 cases (2.1%). Geographical units of traffic accidents in pedestrians had statistically significant relationship with a number of bus stations, number of crossroads, and recreational areas. Distribution of injury traffic accidents in pedestrians is different in downtown Tehran city. Neighborhoods close to markets are considered as most dangerous neighborhoods for injury traffic accidents. Different environmental factors are involved in determining the distribution of these accidents. The health of pedestrians in Tehran city can be improved by proper traffic management, control of environmental factors, and educational programs.

  19. Behavioral and physiological correlates of the geographic distributions of amphibious sea kraits (Laticauda spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brischoux, François; Tingley, Reid; Shine, Richard; Lillywhite, Harvey B.

    2013-02-01

    The physiological costs of living in seawater likely influenced the secondary evolutionary transitions to marine life in tetrapods. However, these costs are alleviated for species that commute between the land and the sea, because terrestrial habitats can provide frequent access to fresh water. Here, we investigate how differences in the ecology and physiology of three sea krait species (Laticauda spp.) interact to determine their environmental tolerances and geographic distributions. These three species vary in their relative use of terrestrial versus marine environments, and they display concomitant adaptations to life on land versus at sea. A species with relatively high dehydration rates in seawater (Laticauda colubrina) occupied oceanic areas with low mean salinities, whereas a species with comparatively high rates of transcutaneous evaporative water loss on land (Laticauda semifasciata) occupied regions with low mean temperatures. A third taxon (Laticauda laticaudata) was intermediate in both of these traits, and yet occupied the broadest geographic range. Our results suggest that the abilities of sea kraits to acquire fresh water on land and tolerate dehydration at sea determine their environmental tolerances and geographic distributions. This finding supports the notion that speciation patterns within sea kraits have been driven by interspecific variation in the degree of reliance upon terrestrial versus marine habitats. Future studies could usefully examine the effects of osmotic challenges on diversification rates in other secondarily marine tetrapod species.

  20. [Species composition and geographical distribution of threatened fishes in Yunnan Province of Southwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Zhong, Jin-Xin

    2013-05-01

    Based on the related published papers, and by using Geographic Information System (ArcGIS 9.3), this paper analyzed the species composition and geographical distribution of threatened fishes in Yunnan Province of Southwest China. There were 83 threatened species living in the Province, belonging to 5 orders, 13 families, and 47 genera. Cypriniformes was absolutely dominant, with 64 species, followed by Siluriformes, with 16 species. Cyprinidae fishes had 51 species, accounting for 79.7% of Cypriniformes. The most species of Cyprinid fishes were of Barbinae (14 species), Cyprininae (10 species), and Cultrinae (10 species). The threatened fishes could be divided into two zoogeographical regions, i. e., Tibetan Plateau region and Oriental region, and their species composition and geographical distribution were resulted from the historical evolution adapted to the related environments. Whatever in rivers and in lakes, the Cyprinid fishes were both absolutely dominant, occupying 36.1% and 31.3% of the total, respectively. The Cyprinid fishes in rivers were mostly of endangered species, while those in lakes were mostly of vulnerable species. The factors affecting the threatened fishes in the Province were discussed from the two aspects of geodynamic evolution and present situation.

  1. The Current Landscape of US Pediatric Anesthesiologists: Demographic Characteristics and Geographic Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muffly, Matthew K; Muffly, Tyler M; Weterings, Robbie; Singleton, Mark; Honkanen, Anita

    2016-07-01

    There is no comprehensive database of pediatric anesthesiologists, their demographic characteristics, or geographic location in the United States. We endeavored to create a comprehensive database of pediatric anesthesiologists by merging individuals identified as US pediatric anesthesiologists by the American Board of Anesthesiology, National Provider Identifier registry, Healthgrades.com database, and the Society for Pediatric Anesthesia membership list as of November 5, 2015. Professorial rank was accessed via the Association of American Medical Colleges and other online sources. Descriptive statistics characterized pediatric anesthesiologists' demographics. Pediatric anesthesiologists' locations at the city and state level were geocoded and mapped with the use of ArcGIS Desktop 10.1 mapping software (Redlands, CA). We identified 4048 pediatric anesthesiologists in the United States, which is approximately 8.8% of the physician anesthesiology workforce (n = 46,000). The median age of pediatric anesthesiologists was 49 years (interquartile range, 40-57 years), and the majority (56.4%) were men. Approximately two-thirds of identified pediatric anesthesiologists were subspecialty board certified in pediatric anesthesiology, and 33% of pediatric anesthesiologists had an identified academic affiliation. There is substantial heterogeneity in the geographic distribution of pediatric anesthesiologists by state and US Census Division with urban clustering. This description of pediatric anesthesiologists' demographic characteristics and geographic distribution fills an important gap in our understanding of pediatric anesthesia systems of care.

  2. Spatial distribution and influence factors of interprovincial terrestrial physical geographical names in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S.; Wang, Y.; Ju, H.

    2017-12-01

    The interprovincial terrestrial physical geographical entities are the key areas of regional integrated management. Based on toponomy dictionaries and different thematic maps, the attributes and the spatial extent of the interprovincial terrestrial physical geographical names (ITPGN, including terrain ITPGN and water ITPGN) were extracted. The coefficient of variation and Moran's I were combined together to measure the spatial variation and spatial association of ITPGN. The influencing factors of the distribution of ITPGN and the implications for the regional management were further discussed. The results showed that 11325 ITPGN were extracted, including 7082 terrain ITPGN and 4243 water ITPGN. Hunan Province had the largest number of ITPGN in China, and Shanghai had the smallest number. The spatial variance of the terrain ITPGN was larger than that of the water ITPGN, and the ITPGN showed a significant agglomeration phenomenon in the southern part of China. Further analysis showed that the number of ITPGN was positively related with the relative elevation and the population where the relative elevation was lower than 2000m and the population was less than 50 million. But the number of ITPGN showed a negative relationship with the two factors when their values became larger, indicating a large number of unnamed entities existed in complex terrain areas and a decreasing number of terrestrial physical geographical entities in densely populated area. Based on these analysis, we suggest the government take the ITPGN as management units to realize a balance development between different parts of the entities and strengthen the geographical names census and the nomination of unnamed interprovincial physical geographical entities. This study also demonstrated that the methods of literature survey, coefficient of variation and Moran's I can be combined to enhance the understanding of the spatial pattern of ITPGN.

  3. Comparison of the geographical distribution of feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukemia virus infections in the United States of America (2000–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chhetri Bimal K

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV and feline leukemia virus (FeLV have similar risk factors and control measures, infection rates have been speculated to vary in geographic distribution over North America. Since both infections are endemic in North America, it was assumed as a working hypothesis that their geographic distributions were similar. Hence, the purpose of this exploratory analysis was to investigate the comparative geographical distribution of both viral infections. Counts of FIV (n=17,108 and FeLV (n=30,017 positive serology results (FIV antibody and FeLV ELISA were obtained for 48 contiguous states and District of Columbia of the United States of America (US from the IDEXX Laboratories website. The proportional morbidity ratio of FIV to FeLV infection was estimated for each administrative region and its geographic distribution pattern was visualized by a choropleth map. Statistical evidence of an excess in the proportional morbidity ratio from unity was assessed using the spatial scan test under the normal probability model. Results This study revealed distinct spatial distribution patterns in the proportional morbidity ratio suggesting the presence of one or more relevant and geographically varying risk factors. The disease map indicates that there is a higher prevalence of FIV infections in the southern and eastern US compared to FeLV. In contrast, FeLV infections were observed to be more frequent in the western US compared to FIV. The respective excess in proportional morbidity ratio was significant with respect to the spatial scan test (p Conclusions The observed variability in the geographical distribution of the proportional morbidity ratio of FIV to FeLV may be related to the presence of an additional or unique, but yet unknown, spatial risk factor. Putative factors may be geographic variations in specific virus strains and rate of vaccination. Knowledge of these factors and the geographical

  4. Comparison of the geographical distribution of feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukemia virus infections in the United States of America (2000-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhetri, Bimal K; Berke, Olaf; Pearl, David L; Bienzle, Dorothee

    2013-01-05

    Although feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) have similar risk factors and control measures, infection rates have been speculated to vary in geographic distribution over North America. Since both infections are endemic in North America, it was assumed as a working hypothesis that their geographic distributions were similar. Hence, the purpose of this exploratory analysis was to investigate the comparative geographical distribution of both viral infections. Counts of FIV (n=17,108) and FeLV (n=30,017) positive serology results (FIV antibody and FeLV ELISA) were obtained for 48 contiguous states and District of Columbia of the United States of America (US) from the IDEXX Laboratories website. The proportional morbidity ratio of FIV to FeLV infection was estimated for each administrative region and its geographic distribution pattern was visualized by a choropleth map. Statistical evidence of an excess in the proportional morbidity ratio from unity was assessed using the spatial scan test under the normal probability model. This study revealed distinct spatial distribution patterns in the proportional morbidity ratio suggesting the presence of one or more relevant and geographically varying risk factors. The disease map indicates that there is a higher prevalence of FIV infections in the southern and eastern US compared to FeLV. In contrast, FeLV infections were observed to be more frequent in the western US compared to FIV. The respective excess in proportional morbidity ratio was significant with respect to the spatial scan test (p < 0.05). The observed variability in the geographical distribution of the proportional morbidity ratio of FIV to FeLV may be related to the presence of an additional or unique, but yet unknown, spatial risk factor. Putative factors may be geographic variations in specific virus strains and rate of vaccination. Knowledge of these factors and the geographical distributions of these infections can inform

  5. An Ambient Intelligence Framework for the Provision of Geographically Distributed Multimedia Content to Mobility Impaired Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehagias, Dionysios D.; Giakoumis, Dimitris; Tzovaras, Dimitrios; Bekiaris, Evangelos; Wiethoff, Marion

    This chapter presents an ambient intelligence framework whose goal is to facilitate the information needs of mobility impaired users on the move. This framework couples users with geographically distributed services and the corresponding multimedia content, enabling access to context-sensitive information based on user geographic location and the use case under consideration. It provides a multi-modal facility that is realized through a set of mobile devices and user interfaces that address the needs of ten different types of user impairments. The overall ambient intelligence framework enables users who are equipped with mobile devices to access multimedia content in order to undertake activities relevant to one or more of the following domains: transportation, tourism and leisure, personal support services, work, business, education, social relations and community building. User experience is being explored against those activities through a specific usage scenario.

  6. Quantitative Study of the Geographical Distribution of the Authorship of High-Energy Physics Journals

    CERN Document Server

    Krause, Jan; Mele, S

    2007-01-01

    The recent debate on Open Access publishing in High-Energy Physics has exposed the problem of assessing the scienti c production of every country where scholars are active in this discipline. This assessment is complicated by the highly-collaborative cross-border tradition of High-Energy Physics research. We present the results of a quantitative study of the geographical distribution of authors of High-Energy Physics articles, which takes into account cross-border co-authorship by attributing articles to countries on a pro-rata basis. Aggregated data on the share of scienti c results published by each country are presented together with a breakdown for the most popular journals in the eld, and a separation for articles by small groups or large collaborations. Collaborative patterns across large geographic areas are also investigated. Finally, the High-Energy Physics production of each country is compared with some economic indicators.

  7. Review of the geographic distribution of Micrurus decoratus (Jan, 1858 (Serpentes: Elapidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Castellari Gonzalez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Micrurus decoratus (Jan, 1858 is a poorly known species of coral snake, with a controversial history concerning its geographical range. The lack of consensus among researchers, since its original description, is largely due to the reporting of erroneous localities in publications. Herein we present the geographical range for the species based on the review of 184 records from 67 different municipalities in Brazil, including two new records for the state of Espírito Santo, extending its distribution to ca. 300 km northward from the previous northernmost locality. We also comment on doubtful records for the states of Rio Grande do Sul and Bahia, which contain no accurate data. We restrict the occurrence of Micrurus decoratus to the Atlantic Rainforest, with elevation range from 400 up to 1,600 m in the Brazilian states of Santa Catarina, Paraná, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo.

  8. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Lineage 4 comprises globally distributed and geographically restricted sublineages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscolla, Mireia; Liu, Qingyun; Trauner, Andrej; Fenner, Lukas; Rutaihwa, Liliana; Borrell, Sonia; Luo, Tao; Gao, Qian; Kato-Maeda, Midori; Ballif, Marie; Egger, Matthias; Macedo, Rita; Mardassi, Helmi; Moreno, Milagros; Tudo Vilanova, Griselda; Fyfe, Janet; Globan, Maria; Thomas, Jackson; Jamieson, Frances; Guthrie, Jennifer L.; Asante-Poku, Adwoa; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Wampande, Eddie; Ssengooba, Willy; Joloba, Moses; Henry Boom, W.; Basu, Indira; Bower, James; Saraiva, Margarida; Vaconcellos, Sidra E. G.; Suffys, Philip; Koch, Anastasia; Wilkinson, Robert; Gail-Bekker, Linda; Malla, Bijaya; Ley, Serej D.; Beck, Hans-Peter; de Jong, Bouke C.; Toit, Kadri; Sanchez-Padilla, Elisabeth; Bonnet, Maryline; Gil-Brusola, Ana; Frank, Matthias; Penlap Beng, Veronique N.; Eisenach, Kathleen; Alani, Issam; Wangui Ndung’u, Perpetual; Revathi, Gunturu; Gehre, Florian; Akter, Suriya; Ntoumi, Francine; Stewart-Isherwood, Lynsey; Ntinginya, Nyanda E.; Rachow, Andrea; Hoelscher, Michael; Cirillo, Daniela Maria; Skenders, Girts; Hoffner, Sven; Bakonyte, Daiva; Stakenas, Petras; Diel, Roland; Crudu, Valeriu; Moldovan, Olga; Al-Hajoj, Sahal; Otero, Larissa; Barletta, Francesca; Jane Carter, E.; Diero, Lameck; Supply, Philip; Comas, Iñaki; Niemann, Stefan; Gagneux, Sebastien

    2016-01-01

    Generalist and specialist species differ in the breadth of their ecological niche. Little is known about the niche width of obligate human pathogens. Here we analyzed a global collection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Lineage 4 clinical isolates, the most geographically widespread cause of human tuberculosis. We show that Lineage 4 comprises globally distributed and geographically restricted sublineages, suggesting a distinction between generalists and specialists. Population genomic analyses showed that while the majority of human T cell epitopes were conserved in all sublineages, the proportion of variable epitopes was higher in generalists. Our data further support a European origin for the most common generalist sublineage. Hence, the global success of Lineage 4 reflects distinct strategies adopted by different sublineages and the influence of human migration. PMID:27798628

  9. Geographic distribution of hepatitis C virus genotype 6 subtypes in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkarathamrongsin, Srunthron; Praianantathavorn, Kesmanee; Hacharoen, Nisachol; Theamboonlers, Apiradee; Tangkijvanich, Pisit; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Mizokami, Masashi; Poovorawan, Yong

    2010-02-01

    The nucleotide sequence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 6 found mostly in south China and south-east Asia, displays profound genetic diversity. The aim of this study to determine the genetic variability of HCV genotype 6 (HCV-6) in Thailand and locate the subtype distribution of genotype 6 in various geographic areas. Four hundred nineteen anti-HCV positive serum samples were collected from patients residing in - the central part of the country. HCV RNA positive samples based on reverse transcriptase- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of the 5'UTR were amplified with primers specific for the core and NS5B regions. Nucleotide sequences of both regions were analyzed for the genotype by phylogenetic analysis. To determine geographic distribution of HCV-6 subtypes, a search of the international database on subtype distribution in the respective countries was conducted. Among 375 HCV RNA positive samples, 71 had HCV-6 based on phylogenetic analysis of partial core and NS5B regions. The subtype distribution in order of predominance was 6f (56%), 6n (22%), 6i (11%), 6j (10%), and 6e (1%). Among the 13 countries with different subtypes of HCV-6, most sequences have been reported from Vietnam. Subtype 6f was found exclusively in Thailand where five distinct HCV-6 subtypes are circulating. HCV-6, which is endemic in south China and south-east Asia, displays profound genetic diversity and may have evolved over a considerable period of time. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Ecophysiological Traits of Leaves of Three Marsilea Species Distributed in Different Geographical Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Chung Wu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Marsilea, an amphibian fern genus (containing ca. 80 species characterized by their unusual leaves and reproductive structures, is distributed over the five continents. To investigate the adaptation traits of three Marsilea species (M. crenata, M. quadrifolia, and M. schelpiana, distributed in different geographic regions, to terrestrial conditions, we compared morphological features, optical properties and photosynthetic performance of leaflets of the three species grown in terrestrial environment. The results showed that leaflets of the three species had significant differences in some of the ecophysiogical traits. Among the three species, M. quadrifolia (distributed in temperate region where receiving low precipitation had the highest trichome density on its leaflet surface and the highest water use efficiency, M. schelpiana (mainly in southern Africa where accepting high level of solar irradiance had the tallest petiole and the highest leaf dissection index, total stomatal pore area index, PSII electron transport rate and photosaturated photosynthetic rate, M. crenata (mainly in southeastern Asia region where receiving high precipitation and with high humidity had the lowest leaf dissection index and water use efficiency. Accordingly, leaf characteristics of the three Marsilea species reflect the climate pattern of their habitats. The results also suggest that water availability and light intensity are two of the important factors contributing to the geographic distribution of the three species.

  11. Indoor radon concentration data: Its geographic and geologic distribution, an example from the Capital District, NY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.J.; Overeynder, H.M.; Thomas, B.R.

    1995-01-01

    Most studies of the geographic distribution of indoor radon levels are plotted by county or ZIP code. This method is used for the radon potential maps produced by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH). The basis for the mapping is the mean or median indoor radon count for all the data provided by NYSDOH within each geographic area. While testing the indoor radon analyses provided to the authors by CMT Independent Laboratories, we discovered data that deviated markedly from the EPA and NYSDOH means for the Capital District of New York (Albany and surrounding counties). Their screening indoor radon average concentrations in pCi/L, indicate low potential for Schenectady (3.0), Saratoga (3.2), and Albany (3.7) counties; and moderate potential for Rensselaer (6.4) and Columbia (7.0) counties. Our database of over 3,000 analyses contains over 800 records of indoor radon counts above 4 pCi/L (14-47% of each county's analyses), many high enough to be rated as a serious health hazard. In order to obtain greater precision of information, the authors plotted their indoor radon data by street address using MapInfo, a geographic Information System (GIS), and StreetInfo, MapInfo's TIGER address database. We compared the geographic distribution of our data to both the Bedrock Geology and Surficial Geology Maps of New York State. The results show a striking relationship of radon concentrations to bedrock, faults and permeability of surficial material. Data being compiled and mapped by street address by the NYSDOH in Erie County in western New York, confirm our results

  12. Angiostrongylus spp. in the Americas: geographical and chronological distribution of definitive hosts versus disease reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Romina; Robles, Maria Del Rosario; Navone, Graciela T; Diaz, Julia I

    2018-03-01

    Angiostrongyliasis is an infection caused by nematode worms of the genus Angiostrongylus. The adult worms inhabit the pulmonary arteries, heart, bronchioles of the lung, or mesenteric arteries of the caecum of definitive host. Of a total of 23 species of Angiostrongylus cited worldwide, only nine were registered in the American Continent. Two species, A. cantonensis and A. costaricensis, are considered zoonoses when the larvae accidentally parasitise man. In the present study, geographical and chronological distribution of definitive hosts of Angiostrongylus in the Americas is analysed in order to observe their relationship with disease reports. Moreover, the role of different definitive hosts as sentinels and dispersers of infective stages is discussed. The study area includes the Americas. First records of Angiostrongylus spp. in definitive or accidental hosts were compiled from the literature. Data were included in tables and figures and were matched to geographic information systems (GIS). Most geographical records of Angiostrongylus spp. both for definitive and accidental hosts belong to tropical areas, mainly equatorial zone. In relation to those species of human health importance, as A. cantonensis and A. costaricensis, most disease cases indicate a coincidence between the finding of definitive host and disease record. However, in some geographic site there are gaps between report of definitive host and disease record. In many areas, human populations have invaded natural environments and their socioeconomic conditions do not allow adequate medical care. Consequently, many cases for angiostrongyliasis could have gone unreported or unrecognised throughout history and in the nowadays. Moreover, the population expansion and the climatic changes invite to make broader and more complete range of observation on the species that involve possible epidemiological risks. This paper integrates and shows the current distribution of Angiostrongylus species in America

  13. Angiostrongylus spp. in the Americas: geographical and chronological distribution of definitive hosts versus disease reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Romina; Robles, Maria del Rosario; Navone, Graciela T; Diaz, Julia I

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND Angiostrongyliasis is an infection caused by nematode worms of the genus Angiostrongylus. The adult worms inhabit the pulmonary arteries, heart, bronchioles of the lung, or mesenteric arteries of the caecum of definitive host. Of a total of 23 species of Angiostrongylus cited worldwide, only nine were registered in the American Continent. Two species, A. cantonensis and A. costaricensis, are considered zoonoses when the larvae accidentally parasitise man. OBJECTIVES In the present study, geographical and chronological distribution of definitive hosts of Angiostrongylus in the Americas is analysed in order to observe their relationship with disease reports. Moreover, the role of different definitive hosts as sentinels and dispersers of infective stages is discussed. METHODS The study area includes the Americas. First records of Angiostrongylus spp. in definitive or accidental hosts were compiled from the literature. Data were included in tables and figures and were matched to geographic information systems (GIS). FINDINGS Most geographical records of Angiostrongylus spp. both for definitive and accidental hosts belong to tropical areas, mainly equatorial zone. In relation to those species of human health importance, as A. cantonensis and A. costaricensis, most disease cases indicate a coincidence between the finding of definitive host and disease record. However, in some geographic site there are gaps between report of definitive host and disease record. In many areas, human populations have invaded natural environments and their socioeconomic conditions do not allow adequate medical care. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Consequently, many cases for angiostrongyliasis could have gone unreported or unrecognised throughout history and in the nowadays. Moreover, the population expansion and the climatic changes invite to make broader and more complete range of observation on the species that involve possible epidemiological risks. This paper integrates and shows the

  14. Prevalence of hypospadias in the same geographic region as ascertained by three different registries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelson, Paul; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Jensen, Tina Kold

    2007-01-01

    Hypospadias birth prevalence may be increasing with maternal exposure to endocrine disrupters. Yet hypospadias registers are hindered by data quality concerns. We compare the birth prevalence per thousand male births (BP) and ascertainment of hypospadias in the South East of England between 1st J...

  15. Advanced model for expansion of natural gas distribution networks based on geographic information systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez-Rosado, I.J.; Fernandez-Jimenez, L.A.; Garcia-Garrido, E.; Zorzano-Santamaria, P.; Zorzano-Alba, E. [La Rioja Univ., La Rioja (Spain). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Miranda, V.; Montneiro, C. [Porto Univ., Porto (Portugal). Faculty of Engineering]|[Inst. de Engenharia de Sistemas e Computadores do Porto, Porto (Portugal)

    2005-07-01

    An advanced geographic information system (GIS) model of natural gas distribution networks was presented. The raster-based model was developed to evaluate costs associated with the expansion of electrical networks due to increased demand in the La Rioja region of Spain. The model was also used to evaluate costs associated with maintenance and amortization of the already existing distribution network. Expansion costs of the distribution network were modelled in various demand scenarios. The model also considered a variety of technical factors associated with pipeline length and topography. Soil and slope data from previous pipeline projects were used to estimate real costs per unit length of pipeline. It was concluded that results obtained by the model will be used by planners to select zones where expansion is economically feasible. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  16. Integration of Geographical Information Systems and Geophysical Applications with Distributed Computing Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, M. E.; Aktas, M. S.; Aydin, G.; Fox, G. C.; Gadgil, H.; Sayar, A.

    2005-12-01

    We examine the application of Web Service Architectures and Grid-based distributed computing technologies to geophysics and geo-informatics. We are particularly interested in the integration of Geographical Information System (GIS) services with distributed data mining applications. GIS services provide the general purpose framework for building archival data services, real time streaming data services, and map-based visualization services that may be integrated with data mining and other applications through the use of distributed messaging systems and Web Service orchestration tools. Building upon on our previous work in these areas, we present our current research efforts. These include fundamental investigations into increasing XML-based Web service performance, supporting real time data streams, and integrating GIS mapping tools with audio/video collaboration systems for shared display and annotation.

  17. Prevalence of emotional and behavioural problems in Johor Bahru District school children--comparing three geographical areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Y C; Kadir, A B; Jeyarajah, S

    1997-06-01

    This is a cross sectional community study in Johor Bahru District. The aim of this study is to estimate the overall prevalence of emotional and behavioural deviance among the school children in three different geographical areas, and to identify their correlates. This paper presents the findings of phase one of a two-stage procedure involving a total of 589 children aged 10-12 years. Using the cut-off point validated locally, the prevalence of deviance on the parental scale was 40% in the rural school, 30.2% in the agricultural resettlement (Felda) school and 32.3% in the urban school. On the teachers' assessment, the prevalence of deviance was 40.8% in the rural school, 10.8% in the Felda School and 8.9% in the urban school. There was significantly higher prevalence of deviance in the rural school on the teachers' scale. In the rural school, significantly higher prevalence of deviance was found among boys.

  18. Sex and Geographic Differences in the Prevalence of Reported Childhood Motor Disability and Their Trends in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Yen-Cheng

    2018-01-01

    Motor disability (MD) is not uncommon in children, but data at the national level are scarce. As the Taiwan government certifies and registers disabled residents for providing services on a routine basis, the registry provides a unique opportunity for studying MD. Using data from the registry, we calculated the prevalence of MD by age, sex, and geographic area and assessed the changes from 2004 to 2010. We excluded cases under 3 years old because the government discourages the certification at this age. We found that cases between 3 and 17 years old decreased from 8187 to 6022 per year from 2004 to 2010 and the prevalence generally decreased every year in all age groups. There were more boy cases than girl cases every year, and the prevalence rate ratios ranged from 1.26 to 1.39 (p < 0.05 in all years), with a decreasing trend over time (p < 0.01). Rural areas had higher prevalence in all the years, and the prevalence rate ratio decreased from 1.31 to 1.23 (p < 0.05 in all years), with a decreasing trend over time (p < 0.05). Further studies identifying the risk factors contributing to the decreases might help in the prevention of MD in the future. PMID:29850547

  19. Sex and Geographic Differences in the Prevalence of Reported Childhood Motor Disability and Their Trends in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Fang Tsai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Motor disability (MD is not uncommon in children, but data at the national level are scarce. As the Taiwan government certifies and registers disabled residents for providing services on a routine basis, the registry provides a unique opportunity for studying MD. Using data from the registry, we calculated the prevalence of MD by age, sex, and geographic area and assessed the changes from 2004 to 2010. We excluded cases under 3 years old because the government discourages the certification at this age. We found that cases between 3 and 17 years old decreased from 8187 to 6022 per year from 2004 to 2010 and the prevalence generally decreased every year in all age groups. There were more boy cases than girl cases every year, and the prevalence rate ratios ranged from 1.26 to 1.39 (p<0.05 in all years, with a decreasing trend over time (p<0.01. Rural areas had higher prevalence in all the years, and the prevalence rate ratio decreased from 1.31 to 1.23 (p<0.05 in all years, with a decreasing trend over time (p<0.05. Further studies identifying the risk factors contributing to the decreases might help in the prevention of MD in the future.

  20. Geographic Distribution of Teaching Talent in California. Consultant's Report Prepared for the State Committee on Public Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, James; And Others

    The central purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between distribution of teaching talent and geographic location of local school districts of California. School districts were assigned to one of four geographic categories (urban, suburban, rural, or small urban centers). Each category's teaching talent was assessed on six measures…

  1. Cervical HPV prevalence and genotype distribution in immunosuppressed Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roensbo, Mette T; Blaakær, Jan; Skov, Karin

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Women receiving immunosuppressive treatment due to organ transplantation are at increased risk of Human papilloma virus (HPV)-related diseases, including cervical neoplasia. This pilot study aimed to describe the cervical HPV prevalence and genotype distribution in immunosuppressed...... in 2014 had three cervical cytologies performed; one before and two after transplantation. The samples were examined for cytological abnormalities and tested for HPV using Cobas(®) HPV Test and CLART(®) HPV2 Test. RESULTS: Of 94 eligible cases we included 60 RTR and BMTR. The overall prevalence of high......-risk HPV was 15.0 (95% CI; 7.1-26.6) and the prevalence was higher among BMTR (29.4, CI; 10.3-56.0) than in RTR (9.3%, CI; 2.6-22.1) although this was not statistically significant (p=0.10). The distribution of high-risk HPV was broad with HPV 45 as the most common genotype (3.3%). The prevalences of high...

  2. Prevalence and distribution of dental anomalies in orthodontic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montasser, Mona A; Taha, Mahasen

    2012-01-01

    To study the prevalence and distribution of dental anomalies in a sample of orthodontic patients. The dental casts, intraoral photographs, and lateral panoramic and cephalometric radiographs of 509 Egyptian orthodontic patients were studied. Patients were examined for dental anomalies in number, size, shape, position, and structure. The prevalence of each dental anomaly was calculated and compared between sexes. Of the total study sample, 32.6% of the patients had at least one dental anomaly other than agenesis of third molars; 32.1% of females and 33.5% of males had at least one dental anomaly other than agenesis of third molars. The most commonly detected dental anomalies were impaction (12.8%) and ectopic eruption (10.8%). The total prevalence of hypodontia (excluding third molars) and hyperdontia was 2.4% and 2.8%, respectively, with similiar distributions in females and males. Gemination and accessory roots were reported in this study; each of these anomalies was detected in 0.2% of patients. In addition to genetic and racial factors, environmental factors could have more important influence on the prevalence of dental anomalies in every population. Impaction, ectopic eruption, hyperdontia, hypodontia, and microdontia were the most common dental anomalies, while fusion and dentinogenesis imperfecta were absent.

  3. Geographical distribution and eco-adaptability of calligonum l. in tarim basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, N.; Guan, K.; Feng, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Global climate fluctuations have profoundly affected the current distribution patterns and created opportunities and challenges for the survival and development of species. Studies on geographical distribution and eco-adaptability are necessary for both biodiversity conservation and sustainable biological resource utilization. In this study, we focus on five species of Calligonum in Tarim Basin, i.e. Calligonum roborovskii, C. kurlaense, C. yengisaricum, C. juochiangense and C. taklimakanense to confirm the distribution range by carrying out field population survey, along with the studies of herbarium specimen and relevant literature and also to find out the associations between the five species, distribution correlated with climate and soil characteristics through the mean variance analysis and principal component analysis. The results of the study were as follows: (1) C. roborovskii was widely distributed in Tarim Basin, but C. kurlaense, C. yengisaricum, C. juochiangense and C. taklimakanense have narrow distribution. The distribution areas of four latter species were overlapping with that of C. roborovskii showing sympatric distribution. (2) All the five species belonged to the warm and arid zone. The adaptability of C. roborovskii to moisture was higher, that of C. juochiangense and C. taklimakanense which grew in more arid areas than that of C. kurlaense and C. yengisaricum, had stronger drought tolerance. The soil type of the five species main was brown desert soil with high salinity, alkaline, and low content of organic matter in the top soil. (3) Low temperature, moisture factor, salinity and alkalinity were the main reasons leading to the different distribution of the four narrow distributed species. (4) The main factors limiting the distribution range of the five species were high temperature and moisture factor, followed by soil properties. For C. juochiangense and C. taklimakanense, moisture factor was much stronger than temperature. The results of the

  4. Towards a theoretical determination of the geographical probability distribution of meteoroid impacts on Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuluaga, Jorge I.; Sucerquia, Mario

    2018-06-01

    Tunguska and Chelyabinsk impact events occurred inside a geographical area of only 3.4 per cent of the Earth's surface. Although two events hardly constitute a statistically significant demonstration of a geographical pattern of impacts, their spatial coincidence is at least tantalizing. To understand if this concurrence reflects an underlying geographical and/or temporal pattern, we must aim at predicting the spatio-temporal distribution of meteoroid impacts on Earth. For this purpose we designed, implemented, and tested a novel numerical technique, the `Gravitational Ray Tracing' (GRT) designed to compute the relative impact probability (RIP) on the surface of any planet. GRT is inspired by the so-called ray-casting techniques used to render realistic images of complex 3D scenes. In this paper we describe the method and the results of testing it at the time of large impact events. Our findings suggest a non-trivial pattern of impact probabilities at any given time on the Earth. Locations at 60-90° from the apex are more prone to impacts, especially at midnight. Counterintuitively, sites close to apex direction have the lowest RIP, while in the antapex RIP are slightly larger than average. We present here preliminary maps of RIP at the time of Tunguska and Chelyabinsk events and found no evidence of a spatial or temporal pattern, suggesting that their coincidence was fortuitous. We apply the GRT method to compute theoretical RIP at the location and time of 394 large fireballs. Although the predicted spatio-temporal impact distribution matches marginally the observed events, we successfully predict their impact speed distribution.

  5. The impact of pesticide suicide on the geographic distribution of suicide in Taiwan: a spatial analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Shu-Sen

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pesticide self-poisoning is the most commonly used suicide method worldwide, but few studies have investigated the national epidemiology of pesticide suicide in countries where it is a major public health problem. This study aims to investigate geographic variations in pesticide suicide and their impact on the spatial distribution of suicide in Taiwan. Methods Smoothed standardized mortality ratios for pesticide suicide (2002-2009 were mapped across Taiwan's 358 districts (median population aged 15 or above = 27 000, and their associations with the size of agricultural workforce were investigated using Bayesian hierarchical models. Results In 2002-2009 pesticide poisoning was the third most common suicide method in Taiwan, accounting for 13.6% (4913/36 110 of all suicides. Rates were higher in agricultural East and Central Taiwan and lower in major cities. Almost half (47% of all pesticide suicides occurred in areas where only 13% of Taiwan's population lived. The geographic distribution of overall suicides was more similar to that of pesticide suicides than non-pesticide suicides. Rural-urban differences in suicide were mostly due to pesticide suicide. Areas where a higher proportion of people worked in agriculture showed higher pesticide suicide rates (adjusted rate ratio [ARR] per standard deviation increase in the proportion of agricultural workers = 1.58, 95% Credible Interval [CrI] 1.44-1.74 and overall suicide rates (ARR = 1.06, 95% CrI 1.03-1.10 but lower non-pesticide suicide rates (ARR = 0.91, 95% CrI 0.87-0.95. Conclusion Easy access to pesticides appears to influence the geographic distribution of suicide in Taiwan, highlighting the potential benefits of targeted prevention strategies such as restricting access to highly toxic pesticides.

  6. The impact of pesticide suicide on the geographic distribution of suicide in Taiwan: a spatial analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Sen; Lu, Tsung-Hsueh; Sterne, Jonathan Ac; Eddleston, Michael; Lin, Jin-Jia; Gunnell, David

    2012-04-02

    Pesticide self-poisoning is the most commonly used suicide method worldwide, but few studies have investigated the national epidemiology of pesticide suicide in countries where it is a major public health problem. This study aims to investigate geographic variations in pesticide suicide and their impact on the spatial distribution of suicide in Taiwan. Smoothed standardized mortality ratios for pesticide suicide (2002-2009) were mapped across Taiwan's 358 districts (median population aged 15 or above = 27 000), and their associations with the size of agricultural workforce were investigated using Bayesian hierarchical models. In 2002-2009 pesticide poisoning was the third most common suicide method in Taiwan, accounting for 13.6% (4913/36 110) of all suicides. Rates were higher in agricultural East and Central Taiwan and lower in major cities. Almost half (47%) of all pesticide suicides occurred in areas where only 13% of Taiwan's population lived. The geographic distribution of overall suicides was more similar to that of pesticide suicides than non-pesticide suicides. Rural-urban differences in suicide were mostly due to pesticide suicide. Areas where a higher proportion of people worked in agriculture showed higher pesticide suicide rates (adjusted rate ratio [ARR] per standard deviation increase in the proportion of agricultural workers = 1.58, 95% Credible Interval [CrI] 1.44-1.74) and overall suicide rates (ARR = 1.06, 95% CrI 1.03-1.10) but lower non-pesticide suicide rates (ARR = 0.91, 95% CrI 0.87-0.95). Easy access to pesticides appears to influence the geographic distribution of suicide in Taiwan, highlighting the potential benefits of targeted prevention strategies such as restricting access to highly toxic pesticides.

  7. Analysis Of Educational Services Distribution-Based Geographic Information System GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed Lagrab

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study analyzes the spatial distribution of kindergarten facilities in the study area based on the Geographic Information Systems GIS in order to test an efficiency of GIS technology to redistribute the existing kindergarten and choose the best location in the future and applying the standard criteria for selecting the suitable locations for kindergarten. To achieve this goal the data and information are collected via interviews and comprehensive statistics on the education facilities in Mukalla districts in YEMEN which contributed to building a geographic database for the study area. After that the Kindergarten spatial patterns are analyzed in terms of proximity to each other and used near some other land in the surrounding area such as streets highways factories etc. Also measures the concentration dispersion clustering and distribution direction for the kindergarten this study showed the effectiveness of the GIS for spatial data analysis. One of the most important finding that most of the Kindergarten was established in Mukalla city did not take into account the criteria that set by the authorities. Furthermore almost district suffers from a shortage in the number of kindergarten and pattern of distribution of those kindergartens dominated by spatial dispersed.

  8. Geographic distributions and ecology of ornamental Curcuma (Zingiberaceae) in Northeastern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khumkratok, Sutthira; Boongtiang, Kriangsuk; Chutichudet, Prasit; Pramaul, Pairot

    2012-10-01

    The genus Curcuma is a very important economic plant. Members of this genus were used as food, medicine and ornament plants. The objectives of this study were to examine the geographic distributions and ecological conditions in the natural habitats of Curcuma in Northeastern Thailand. Species diversity was examined using the line transect method. Ecological conditions of the species were examined using a sampling plot of 20 x 20 m. A total of five species were found including Curcuma angustifolia Roxb., C. alismatifolia Gagnep., C. gracillima Gagnep., C. parviflora Wall. and C. rhabdota. These species were in an altitudinal range between 290 m and 831 m above sea level. Four species (C. angustifolia, C. alismatifolia, C. gracillima and C. rhabdota) were distributed in open gaps in dry dipterocarp forest. One species, C. parviflora was found in the contact zone between dry dipterocarp and bamboo (Gigantochloa sp.) forest. C. rhabdota was found only in a habitat with high humidity and shading along the Thailand-Lao PDR border. Significant ecological conditions of the natural habitats of these Curcuma species were identified. Altitude is the most important factor when determining the geographic distributions of these Curcuma species in Northeastern Thailand.

  9. Fine scale distribution constrains cadmium accumulation rates in two geographical groups of Franciscana dolphin from Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polizzi, P.S.; Chiodi Boudet, L.N.; Romero, M.B.; Denuncio, P.E.; Rodríguez, D.H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Fine scale distribution of two Argentine stocks constrains the Cd accumulation rates. • Cadmium levels and accumulation patterns were different between geographic groups. • Marine diet has a major influence than the impact degree of origin environment. • Engraulis anchoita is the main Cd vector species in Argentine shelf for Franciscana. • Information is valuable for the conservation of Franciscana, a vulnerable species. -- Abstract: Franciscana dolphin is an endemic cetacean in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean and is classified as Vulnerable A3d by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. Cadmium accumulation was assessed in two geographic groups from Argentina; one inhabits the La Plata River estuary, a high anthropogenic impacted environment, and the other is distributed in marine coastal, with negligible pollution. Despite the environment, marine dolphins showed an increase of renal Cd concentrations since trophic independence; while in estuarine dolphins was from 6 years. This is associated with dietary Argentine anchovy which was absent in the diet of estuarine dolphins, being a trophic vector of cadmium in shelf waters of Argentina. Cluster analysis also showed high levels of cd in association with the presence of anchovy in the stomach. The difference in the fine scale distribution of species influences dietary exposure to Cd and, along with other data, indicates two stocks in Argentina

  10. [Predicting the impact of global warming on the geographical distribution pattern of Quercus variabilis in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yao; Zhang, Xing-wang; Fang, Yan-ming

    2014-12-01

    The geographical distribution of Quercus variabilis in China with its climate characteristics was analyzed based on DIVA-GIS which was also used to estimate the response of future potential distribution to global warming by Bioclim and Domain models. Analysis results showed the geographical distribution of Q. variabilis could be divided into 7 subregions: Henduan Mountains, Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, North China, East China, Liaodong-Shandong Peninsula, Taiwan Island, and Qinling-Daba Mountains. These subregions are across 7 temperature zones, 2 moisture regions and 17 climatic subregions, including 8 climate types. The modern abundance center of Q. variabilis is Qinling, Daba and Funiu mountains. The condition of mean annual temperature 7.5-19.8 degrees C annual precipitation 471-1511 mm, is suitable for Q. variabilis. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC values), of Domain and Boiclim models were 0.910, 0.779; the former predicted that the potential regions of high suitability for Q. variabilis are Qinling, Daba, Funiu, Tongbai, and Dabie mountains, eastern and western Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, hills of southern Jiangsu and Anhui, part of the mountains in North China. Global warming might lead to the shrinking in suitable region and retreating from the south for Q. variabilis.

  11. Enhancing national data to align with policy objectives: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smoking prevalence at finer geographic levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Alyson; Lovett, Ray; Roe, Yvette; Richardson, Alice

    2017-06-05

    Objectives The aim of the study was to assess the utility of national Aboriginal survey data in a regional geospatial analysis of daily smoking prevalence for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians and discuss the appropriateness of this analysis for policy and program impact assessment. Methods Data from the last two Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) national surveys of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Survey 2014-15 (n=7022 adults) and the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey 2012-13 (n=10896 adults), were used to map the prevalence of smoking by Indigenous regions. Results Daily smoking prevalence in 2014-15 at Indigenous regions ranges from 27.1% (95%CI 18.9-35.3) in the Toowoomba region in Queensland to 68.0% (95%CI 58.1-77.9) in the Katherine region in the Northern Territory. The confidence intervals are wide and there is no significant difference in daily smoking prevalence between the two time periods for any region. Conclusion There are significant limitations with analysing national survey data at finer geographical scales. Given the national program for Indigenous tobacco control is a regional model, evaluation requires finer geographical analysis of smoking prevalence to inform public health progress, policy and program effects. Options to improve the data currently collected include increasing national survey sample sizes, implementing a smoking status question in census surveys, investing in current cohort studies focused on this population or implementing localised surveys. What is known about the topic? The last geospatial analysis of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smoking prevalence was undertaken in 1997. Current national survey data have not been analysed geospatially. What does this paper add? This paper provides new insights into the use of national survey data for understanding regional patterns and prevalence levels of smoking

  12. On the geographical distribution of induced time-varying crustal magnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thebault, E.; Hemant, K.; Hulot, G.

    2009-01-01

    A long standing question in geomagnetism is whether the time variation of the induced crustal field is a detectable quantity and, if so, at which spatial wavelengths. We tackle this problem with the help of a forward modeling approach using a vertically integrated susceptibility (VIS) grid...... of the Earth's crust. For spherical harmonic degrees 15-90, we estimate the root mean square of the crustal magnetic field secular variation to amount 0.06-0.12 nT/yr at the terrestrial surface between epochs 1960-2002.5. The geographical distribution of the signal shows absolute values reaching 0.65-1.30 n...

  13. Vascular plants of the Nevada Test Site and Central-Southern Nevada: ecologic and geographic distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beatley, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    The physical environment of the Nevada Test Site and surrounding area is described with regard to physiography, geology, soils, and climate. A discussion of plant associations is given for the Mojave Desert, Transition Desert, and Great Basin Desert. The vegetation of disturbed sites is discussed with regard to introduced species as well as endangered and threatened species. Collections of vascular plants were made during 1959 to 1975. The plants, belonging to 1093 taxa and 98 families are listed together with information concerning ecologic and geographic distributions. Indexes to families, genera, and species are included. (HLW)

  14. Geographical distribution of salmonella infected pig, cattle and sheep herds in Sweden 1993-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skog Lars

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Swedish salmonella control programme covers the entire production chain, from feed to food. All salmonella serotypes are notifiable. On average, less than 20 cases of salmonella in food-producing animals are reported every year. In some situations, the cases would be expected to cluster geographically. The aim of this study was to illustrate the geographic distribution of the salmonella cases detected in pigs, cattle and sheep. Methods Data on all herds with pigs, cattle and sheep found to be infected with salmonella during the time period from 1993 to 2010 were obtained from the Swedish Board of Agriculture. Using the ArcGIS software, various maps were produced of infected herds, stratified on animal species as well as salmonella serotype. Based on ocular inspection of all maps, some were collapsed and some used separately. Data were also examined for temporal trends. Results No geographical clustering was observed for ovine or porcine cases. Cattle herds infected with Salmonella Dublin were mainly located in the southeast region and cattle herds infected with Salmonella Typhimurium in the most southern part of the country. Some seasonal variation was seen in cattle, but available data was not sufficient for further analyses. Conclusions Analyses of data on salmonella infected herds revealed some spatial and temporal patterns for salmonella in cattle. However, despite using 18 years' of data, the number of infected herds was too low for any useful statistical analyses.

  15. Geographic distribution of trauma centers and injury-related mortality in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joshua B; Rosengart, Matthew R; Billiar, Timothy R; Peitzman, Andrew B; Sperry, Jason L

    2016-01-01

    Regionalized trauma care improves outcomes; however, access to care is not uniform across the United States. The objective was to evaluate whether geographic distribution of trauma centers correlates with injury mortality across state trauma systems. Level I or II trauma centers in the contiguous United States were mapped. State-level age-adjusted injury fatality rates per 100,000 people were obtained and evaluated for spatial autocorrelation. Nearest neighbor ratios (NNRs) were generated for each state. A NNR less than 1 indicates clustering, while a NNR greater than 1 indicates dispersion. NNRs were tested for difference from random geographic distribution. Fatality rates and NNRs were examined for correlation. Fatality rates were compared between states with trauma center clustering versus dispersion. Trauma center distribution and population density were evaluated. Spatial-lag regression determined the association between fatality rate and NNR, controlling for state-level demographics, population density, injury severity, trauma system resources, and socioeconomic factors. Fatality rates were spatially autocorrelated (Moran's I = 0.35, p center distribution. Fatality rate and NNR were correlated (ρ = 0.34, p = 0.03). Clustered states had a lower median injury fatality rate compared with dispersed states (56.9 [IQR, 46.5-58.9] vs. 64.9 [IQR, 52.5-77.1]; p = 0.04). Dispersed compared with clustered states had more counties without a trauma center that had higher population density than counties with a trauma center (5.7% vs. 1.2%, p distribution of trauma centers correlates with injury mortality, with more clustered state trauma centers associated with lower fatality rates. This may be a result of access relative to population density. These results may have implications for trauma system planning and require further study to investigate underlying mechanisms. Therapeutic/care management study, level IV.

  16. Temperature effects on gametophyte life-history traits and geographic distribution of two cryptic kelp species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Valeria Oppliger

    Full Text Available A major determinant of the geographic distribution of a species is expected to be its physiological response to changing abiotic variables over its range. The range of a species often corresponds to the geographic extent of temperature regimes the organism can physiologically tolerate. Many species have very distinct life history stages that may exhibit different responses to environmental factors. In this study we emphasized the critical role of the haploid microscopic stage (gametophyte of the life cycle to explain the difference of edge distribution of two related kelp species. Lessonia nigrescens was recently identified as two cryptic species occurring in parapatry along the Chilean coast: one located north and the other south of a biogeographic boundary at latitude 29-30°S. Six life history traits from microscopic stages were identified and estimated under five treatments of temperature in eight locations distributed along the Chilean coast in order to (1 estimate the role of temperature in the present distribution of the two cryptic L. nigrescens species, (2 compare marginal populations to central populations of the two cryptic species. In addition, we created a periodic matrix model to estimate the population growth rate (λ at the five temperature treatments. Differential tolerance to temperature was demonstrated between the two species, with the gametophytes of the Northern species being more tolerant to higher temperatures than gametophytes from the south. Second, the two species exhibited different life history strategies with a shorter haploid phase in the Northern species contrasted with considerable vegetative growth in the Southern species haploid stage. These results provide strong ecological evidence for the differentiation process of the two cryptic species and show local adaptation of the life cycle at the range limits of the distribution. Ecological and evolutionary implications of these findings are discussed.

  17. TNT Maritime Interdiction Operation Experiments: Enabling Radiation Awareness and Geographically Distributed Collaboration for Network-Centric Maritime Interdiction Operations [Preprint

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bordetsky, Alex; Dougan, Arden; Chiann, Foo Y; Kilberg, Andres

    2007-01-01

    ...) comprised of long-haul OFDM networks combined with self-forming wireless mesh links to radiation detection sensors, and real-time radiation awareness collaboration with geographically distributed partners...

  18. Predicting Posttraumatic Stress Symptom Prevalence and Local Distribution after an Earthquake with Scarce Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussaillant, Francisca; Apablaza, Mauricio

    2017-08-01

    After a major earthquake, the assignment of scarce mental health emergency personnel to different geographic areas is crucial to the effective management of the crisis. The scarce information that is available in the aftermath of a disaster may be valuable in helping predict where are the populations that are in most need. The objectives of this study were to derive algorithms to predict posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptom prevalence and local distribution after an earthquake and to test whether there are algorithms that require few input data and are still reasonably predictive. A rich database of PTS symptoms, informed after Chile's 2010 earthquake and tsunami, was used. Several model specifications for the mean and centiles of the distribution of PTS symptoms, together with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) prevalence, were estimated via linear and quantile regressions. The models varied in the set of covariates included. Adjusted R2 for the most liberal specifications (in terms of numbers of covariates included) ranged from 0.62 to 0.74, depending on the outcome. When only including peak ground acceleration (PGA), poverty rate, and household damage in linear and quadratic form, predictive capacity was still good (adjusted R2 from 0.59 to 0.67 were obtained). Information about local poverty, household damage, and PGA can be used as an aid to predict PTS symptom prevalence and local distribution after an earthquake. This can be of help to improve the assignment of mental health personnel to the affected localities. Dussaillant F , Apablaza M . Predicting posttraumatic stress symptom prevalence and local distribution after an earthquake with scarce data. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(4):357-367.

  19. [Potential distribution and geographic characteristics of wild populations of Vanilla planifolia (Orchidaceae) Oaxaca, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Ruiz, Jesús; Herrera-Cabrera, B Edgar; Delgado-Alvarado, Adriana; Salazar-Rojas, Víctor M; Bustamante-Gonzalez, Ángel; Campos-Contreras, Jorge E; Ramírez-Juarez, Javier

    2016-03-01

    Wild specimens of Vanilla planifolia represent a vital part of this resource primary gene pool, and some plants have only been reported in Oaxaca, Mexico. For this reason, we studied its geographical distribution within the state, to locate and describe the ecological characteristics of the areas where they have been found, in order to identify potential areas of establishment. The method comprised four stages: 1) the creation of a database with herbarium records, 2) the construction of the potential distribution based on historical herbarium records for the species, using the model of maximum entropy (MaxEnt) and 22 bioclimatic variables as predictors; 3) an in situ systematic search of individuals, based on herbarium records and areas of potential distribution in 24 municipalities, to determine the habitat current situation and distribution; 4) the description of the environmental factors of potential ecological niches generated by MaxEnt. A review of herbarium collections revealed a total of 18 records of V. planifolia between 1939 and 1998. The systematic search located 28 plants distributed in 12 sites in 95 364 Km(2). The most important variables that determined the model of vanilla potential distribution were: precipitation in the rainy season (61.9 %), soil moisture regime (23.4 %) and precipitation during the four months of highest rainfall (8.1 %). The species potential habitat was found to be distributed in four zones: wet tropics of the Gulf of Mexico, humid temperate, humid tropical, and humid temperate in the Pacific. Precipitation oscillated within the annual ranges of 2 500 to 4 000 mm, with summer rains, and winter precipitation as 5 to 10 % of the total. The moisture regime and predominating climate were udic type I (330 to 365 days of moisture) and hot humid (Am/A(C) m). The plants were located at altitudes of 200 to 1 190 masl, on rough hillsides that generally make up the foothills of mountain systems, with altitudes of 1 300 to 2 500 masl. In

  20. The Prevalence of Mild Cognitive Impairment in Diverse Geographical and Ethnocultural Regions: The COSMIC Collaboration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perminder S Sachdev

    Full Text Available Changes in criteria and differences in populations studied and methodology have produced a wide range of prevalence estimates for mild cognitive impairment (MCI.Uniform criteria were applied to harmonized data from 11 studies from USA, Europe, Asia and Australia, and MCI prevalence estimates determined using three separate definitions of cognitive impairment.The published range of MCI prevalence estimates was 5.0%-36.7%. This was reduced with all cognitive impairment definitions: performance in the bottom 6.681% (3.2%-10.8%; Clinical Dementia Rating of 0.5 (1.8%-14.9%; Mini-Mental State Examination score of 24-27 (2.1%-20.7%. Prevalences using the first definition were 5.9% overall, and increased with age (P < .001 but were unaffected by sex or the main races/ethnicities investigated (Whites and Chinese. Not completing high school increased the likelihood of MCI (P ≤ .01.Applying uniform criteria to harmonized data greatly reduced the variation in MCI prevalence internationally.

  1. Geographic Distribution of Leishmania Species in Ecuador Based on the Cytochrome B Gene Sequence Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hirotomo; Gomez, Eduardo A.; Martini-Robles, Luiggi; Muzzio, Jenny; Velez, Lenin; Calvopiña, Manuel; Romero-Alvarez, Daniel; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Uezato, Hiroshi; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2016-01-01

    A countrywide epidemiological study was performed to elucidate the current geographic distribution of causative species of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Ecuador by using FTA card-spotted samples and smear slides as DNA sources. Putative Leishmania in 165 samples collected from patients with CL in 16 provinces of Ecuador were examined at the species level based on the cytochrome b gene sequence analysis. Of these, 125 samples were successfully identified as Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis, L. (V.) braziliensis, L. (V.) naiffi, L. (V.) lainsoni, and L. (Leishmania) mexicana. Two dominant species, L. (V.) guyanensis and L. (V.) braziliensis, were widely distributed in Pacific coast subtropical and Amazonian tropical areas, respectively. Recently reported L. (V.) naiffi and L. (V.) lainsoni were identified in Amazonian areas, and L. (L.) mexicana was identified in an Andean highland area. Importantly, the present study demonstrated that cases of L. (V.) braziliensis infection are increasing in Pacific coast areas. PMID:27410039

  2. Geographic Distribution of Leishmania Species in Ecuador Based on the Cytochrome B Gene Sequence Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hirotomo; Gomez, Eduardo A; Martini-Robles, Luiggi; Muzzio, Jenny; Velez, Lenin; Calvopiña, Manuel; Romero-Alvarez, Daniel; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Uezato, Hiroshi; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2016-07-01

    A countrywide epidemiological study was performed to elucidate the current geographic distribution of causative species of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Ecuador by using FTA card-spotted samples and smear slides as DNA sources. Putative Leishmania in 165 samples collected from patients with CL in 16 provinces of Ecuador were examined at the species level based on the cytochrome b gene sequence analysis. Of these, 125 samples were successfully identified as Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis, L. (V.) braziliensis, L. (V.) naiffi, L. (V.) lainsoni, and L. (Leishmania) mexicana. Two dominant species, L. (V.) guyanensis and L. (V.) braziliensis, were widely distributed in Pacific coast subtropical and Amazonian tropical areas, respectively. Recently reported L. (V.) naiffi and L. (V.) lainsoni were identified in Amazonian areas, and L. (L.) mexicana was identified in an Andean highland area. Importantly, the present study demonstrated that cases of L. (V.) braziliensis infection are increasing in Pacific coast areas.

  3. Geographic Distribution of Leishmania Species in Ecuador Based on the Cytochrome B Gene Sequence Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotomo Kato

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A countrywide epidemiological study was performed to elucidate the current geographic distribution of causative species of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL in Ecuador by using FTA card-spotted samples and smear slides as DNA sources. Putative Leishmania in 165 samples collected from patients with CL in 16 provinces of Ecuador were examined at the species level based on the cytochrome b gene sequence analysis. Of these, 125 samples were successfully identified as Leishmania (Viannia guyanensis, L. (V. braziliensis, L. (V. naiffi, L. (V. lainsoni, and L. (Leishmania mexicana. Two dominant species, L. (V. guyanensis and L. (V. braziliensis, were widely distributed in Pacific coast subtropical and Amazonian tropical areas, respectively. Recently reported L. (V. naiffi and L. (V. lainsoni were identified in Amazonian areas, and L. (L. mexicana was identified in an Andean highland area. Importantly, the present study demonstrated that cases of L. (V. braziliensis infection are increasing in Pacific coast areas.

  4. Geographic distribution of methyltransferases of Helicobacter pylori: evidence of human host population isolation and migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vítor Jorge MB

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Helicobacter pylori colonizes the human stomach and is associated with gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer. This ubiquitous association between H. pylori and humans is thought to be present since the origin of modern humans. The H. pylori genome encodes for an exceptional number of restriction and modifications (R-M systems. To evaluate if R-M systems are an adequate tool to determine the geographic distribution of H. pylori strains, we typed 221 strains from Africa, America, Asia, and Europe, and evaluated the expression of different 29 methyltransferases. Results Independence tests and logistic regression models revealed that ten R-M systems correlate with geographical localization. The distribution pattern of these methyltransferases may have been originated by co-divergence of regional H. pylori after its human host migrated out of Africa. The expression of specific methyltransferases in the H. pylori population may also reflect the genetic and cultural background of its human host. Methyltransferases common to all strains, M. HhaI and M. NaeI, are likely conserved in H. pylori, and may have been present in the bacteria genome since the human diaspora out of Africa. Conclusion This study indicates that some methyltransferases are useful geomarkers, which allow discrimination of bacterial populations, and that can be added to our tools to investigate human migrations.

  5. Geographic distribution of phlebotomine sandfly species (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Central-West Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Paulo Silva; de Andrade, Andrey José; Sciamarelli, Alan; Raizer, Josué; Menegatti, Jaqueline Aparecida; Hermes, Sandra Cristina Negreli Moreira; de Carvalho, Maria do Socorro Laurentino; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    This study updates the geographic distributions of phlebotomine species in Central-West Brazil and analyses the climatic factors associated with their occurrence. The data were obtained from the entomology services of the state departments of health in Central-West Brazil, scientific collections and a literature review of articles from 1962-2014. Ecological niche models were produced for sandfly species with more than 20 occurrences using the Maxent algorithm and eight climate variables. In all, 2,803 phlebotomine records for 127 species were analysed. Nyssomyia whitmani, Evandromyia lenti and Lutzomyia longipalpis were the species with the greatest number of records and were present in all the biomes in Central-West Brazil. The models, which were produced for 34 species, indicated that the Cerrado areas in the central and western regions of Central-West Brazil were climatically more suitable to sandflies. The variables with the greatest influence on the models were the temperature in the coldest months and the temperature seasonality. The results show that phlebotomine species in Central-West Brazil have different geographical distribution patterns and that climate conditions in essentially the entire region favour the occurrence of at least one Leishmania vector species, highlighting the need to maintain or intensify vector control and surveillance strategies. PMID:26018450

  6. Can administrative health utilisation data provide an accurate diabetes prevalence estimate for a geographical region?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Wing Cheuk; Papaconstantinou, Dean; Lee, Mildred; Telfer, Kendra; Jo, Emmanuel; Drury, Paul L; Tobias, Martin

    2018-05-01

    To validate the New Zealand Ministry of Health (MoH) Virtual Diabetes Register (VDR) using longitudinal laboratory results and to develop an improved algorithm for estimating diabetes prevalence at a population level. The assigned diabetes status of individuals based on the 2014 version of the MoH VDR is compared to the diabetes status based on the laboratory results stored in the Auckland regional laboratory result repository (TestSafe) using the New Zealand diabetes diagnostic criteria. The existing VDR algorithm is refined by reviewing the sensitivity and positive predictive value of the each of the VDR algorithm rules individually and as a combination. The diabetes prevalence estimate based on the original 2014 MoH VDR was 17% higher (n = 108,505) than the corresponding TestSafe prevalence estimate (n = 92,707). Compared to the diabetes prevalence based on TestSafe, the original VDR has a sensitivity of 89%, specificity of 96%, positive predictive value of 76% and negative predictive value of 98%. The modified VDR algorithm has improved the positive predictive value by 6.1% and the specificity by 1.4% with modest reductions in sensitivity of 2.2% and negative predictive value of 0.3%. At an aggregated level the overall diabetes prevalence estimated by the modified VDR is 5.7% higher than the corresponding estimate based on TestSafe. The Ministry of Health Virtual Diabetes Register algorithm has been refined to provide a more accurate diabetes prevalence estimate at a population level. The comparison highlights the potential value of a national population long term condition register constructed from both laboratory results and administrative data. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Geographic Distribution of Trauma Centers and Injury Related Mortality in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joshua B.; Rosengart, Matthew R.; Billiar, Timothy R.; Peitzman, Andrew B.; Sperry, Jason L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Regionalized trauma care improves outcomes; however access to care is not uniform across the US. The objective was to evaluate whether geographic distribution of trauma centers correlates with injury mortality across state trauma systems. Methods Level I/II trauma centers in the contiguous US were mapped. State-level age-adjusted injury fatality rates/100,000people were obtained and evaluated for spatial autocorrelation. Nearest neighbor ratios (NNR) were generated for each state. A NNR1 indicates dispersion. NNR were tested for difference from random geographic distribution. Fatality rates and NNR were examined for correlation. Fatality rates were compared between states with trauma center clustering versus dispersion. Trauma center distribution and population density were evaluated. Spatial-lag regression determined the association between fatality rate and NNR, controlling for state-level demographics, population density, injury severity, trauma system resources, and socioeconomic factors. Results Fatality rates were spatially autocorrelated (Moran's I=0.35, pcenter distribution. Fatality rate and NNR were correlated (ρ=0.34, p=0.03). Clustered states had a lower median injury fatality rate compared to dispersed states (56.9 [IQR 46.5–58.9] versus 64.9 [IQR 52.5–77.1], p=0.04). Dispersed compared to clustered states had more counties without a trauma center that had higher population density than counties with a trauma center (5.7% versus 1.2%, pdistribution of trauma centers correlates with injury mortality, with more clustered state trauma centers associated with lower fatality rates. This may be a result of access relative to population density. These results may have implications for trauma system planning and requires further study to investigate underlying mechanisms PMID:26517780

  8. Age and Geographical Distribution in Families with BRCA1/BRCA2 Mutations in the Slovak Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciernikova Sona

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Molecular diagnostics of hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer is mainly based on detection of BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline mutations in suspected families. The aim of the study was to determine the frequency, age and geographical distribution in 130 Slovak hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC families diagnosed within the years 2000-2004. Mutation screening was performed by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP, heteroduplex analysis (HDA and sequencing of PCR products showing an abnormal migration pattern. Twenty of 130 (15.6% HBOC suspected families were found to carry mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes. The glossary data from the National Cancer Registry of Slovakia (NCRS were compared with the results from HBOC suspected kindreds. Age distribution of breast cancer onset in our study group showed the highest proportion of onset in HBC families within the 5th decade of life, while NCRS reports at least a ten year later onset. These findings confirmed that cases of breast cancer under 50 years of age can be used as one of the principal criteria to assign a family as a hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer kindred. In contrast with unselected ovarian cancer cases, about 75% of all HOC index cases were diagnosed between 40 and 49 years of age. To study the geographical distribution of hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer, Slovakia was divided into three parts. The distribution of HBOC suspected families approximately follows this division, with an increasing number in the western area of the country.

  9. Geographical distribution of soil transmitted helminths and the effects of community type in South Asia and South East Asia - A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary A Silver

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections are among the most prevalent neglected tropical diseases (NTD worldwide. Since the publication of the WHO road map to combat NTD in 2012, there has been a renewed commitment to control STH. In this study, we analysed the geographical distribution and effect of community type on prevalence of hookworm, Trichuris and Ascaris in south Asia and south east Asia.We conducted a systematic review of open-access literature published in PubMed Central and the Global Atlas of Helminth Infection. A total of 4182 articles were available and after applying selection criteria, 174 studies from the region were retained for analysis.Ascaris was the commonest STH identified with an overall prevalence of 18% (95% CI, 14-23% followed by Trichuris (14%, 9-19% and hookworm (12%, 9-15%. Hookworm prevalence was highest in Laos, Vietnam and Cambodia. We found a geographical overlap in countries with high prevalence rates for Trichuris and Ascaris (Malaysia, Philippines, Myanmar, Vietnam and Bangladesh. When the effect of community type was examined, prevalence rates of hookworm was comparable in rural (19%, 14-24% and tribal communities (14%, 10-19%. Tribal communities, however, showed higher prevalence of Trichuris (38%, 18-63% and Ascaris (32%, 23-43% than rural communities (13%, 9-20% and 14%, 9-20% respectively. Considerable between and within country heterogeneity in the distribution of STH (I2 >90% was also noted. When available data from school aged children (SAC were analysed, prevalence of Ascaris (25% 16-31% and Trichuris (22%, 14-34% were higher than among the general population while that of hookworm (10%, 7-16% was comparable.Our analysis showed significant variation in prevalence rates between and within countries in the region. Highlighting the importance of community type in prevalence and species mix, we showed that tribal and rural communities had higher hookworm infections than urban communities and for

  10. Geographical distribution of soil transmitted helminths and the effects of community type in South Asia and South East Asia - A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Zachary A; Kaliappan, Saravanakumar P; Samuel, Prasanna; Venugopal, Srinivasan; Kang, Gagandeep; Sarkar, Rajiv; Ajjampur, Sitara S R

    2018-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are among the most prevalent neglected tropical diseases (NTD) worldwide. Since the publication of the WHO road map to combat NTD in 2012, there has been a renewed commitment to control STH. In this study, we analysed the geographical distribution and effect of community type on prevalence of hookworm, Trichuris and Ascaris in south Asia and south east Asia. We conducted a systematic review of open-access literature published in PubMed Central and the Global Atlas of Helminth Infection. A total of 4182 articles were available and after applying selection criteria, 174 studies from the region were retained for analysis. Ascaris was the commonest STH identified with an overall prevalence of 18% (95% CI, 14-23%) followed by Trichuris (14%, 9-19%) and hookworm (12%, 9-15%). Hookworm prevalence was highest in Laos, Vietnam and Cambodia. We found a geographical overlap in countries with high prevalence rates for Trichuris and Ascaris (Malaysia, Philippines, Myanmar, Vietnam and Bangladesh). When the effect of community type was examined, prevalence rates of hookworm was comparable in rural (19%, 14-24%) and tribal communities (14%, 10-19%). Tribal communities, however, showed higher prevalence of Trichuris (38%, 18-63%) and Ascaris (32%, 23-43%) than rural communities (13%, 9-20% and 14%, 9-20% respectively). Considerable between and within country heterogeneity in the distribution of STH (I2 >90%) was also noted. When available data from school aged children (SAC) were analysed, prevalence of Ascaris (25% 16-31%) and Trichuris (22%, 14-34%) were higher than among the general population while that of hookworm (10%, 7-16%) was comparable. Our analysis showed significant variation in prevalence rates between and within countries in the region. Highlighting the importance of community type in prevalence and species mix, we showed that tribal and rural communities had higher hookworm infections than urban communities and for

  11. The Distribution of Heavy Metal Pollutants in Suez Bay Using Geographic Information System (GIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, H.B.; Mohamed, W.M.

    2017-01-01

    Suez city represents the southern entrance of the Suez Canal. As a result of the rapid development of industrialization and anthropogenic activities of Suez city may be entered containments such as heavy metals through Suez bay boundaries. The geographical information system (Arc GIS 9.1) is used to study the spatial distribution of heavy metals concentrations (Cd, Mn, Fe, Ni, Pb, Cu and Zn) of water samples which were collected in four different sampling sites (I, II, III and IV) from Suez bay. In this study, tabular data representation of the spatial distribution was developed using the inverse distance weighted (IDW) interpolation method. The GIS technique was applied to transfer the information into a final map illustrating the spatial distribution of heavy metals within the studied area. GIS models showed the high concentrations of heavy metals in some sites in the Suez city affecting by their activities. An overall distribution map of heavy metals is observed from GIS special analysis. Site (IV) in Suez City demonstrated the highest polluted are a in the overall distribution map

  12. Geographic distance and ecosystem size determine the distribution of smallest protists in lacustrine ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepère, Cécile; Domaizon, Isabelle; Taïb, Najwa; Mangot, Jean-François; Bronner, Gisèle; Boucher, Delphine; Debroas, Didier

    2013-07-01

    Understanding the spatial distribution of aquatic microbial diversity and the underlying mechanisms causing differences in community composition is a challenging and central goal for ecologists. Recent insights into protistan diversity and ecology are increasing the debate over their spatial distribution. In this study, we investigate the importance of spatial and environmental factors in shaping the small protists community structure in lakes. We analyzed small protists community composition (beta-diversity) and richness (alpha-diversity) at regional scale by different molecular methods targeting the gene coding for 18S rRNA gene (T-RFLP and 454 pyrosequencing). Our results show a distance-decay pattern for rare and dominant taxa and the spatial distribution of the latter followed the prediction of the island biogeography theory. Furthermore, geographic distances between lakes seem to be the main force shaping the protists community composition in the lakes studied here. Finally, the spatial distribution of protists was discussed at the global scale (11 worldwide distributed lakes) by comparing these results with those present in the public database. UniFrac analysis showed 18S rRNA gene OTUs compositions significantly different among most of lakes, and this difference does not seem to be related to the trophic status. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Ecology and geographic distribution of Yersinia enterocolitica among livestock and wildlife in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Junrong; Duan, Ran; Xia, Shengli; Hao, Qiong; Yang, Jinchuan; Xiao, Yuchun; Qiu, Haiyan; Shi, Guoxiang; Wang, Shukun; Gu, Wenpeng; Wang, Chunxiang; Wang, Mingliu; Tian, Kecheng; Luo, Longze; Yang, Meng; Tian, Huaiyu; Wang, Jiazheng; Jing, Huaiqi; Wang, Xin

    2015-07-09

    The results in this study show the prevalence of Yersinia enterocolitica varies in different animal species and regions of China. The highest prevalence is among pigs (12.91%), followed by dogs (9.80%), Ochotona curzoniae (plateau pica) (6.76%), chickens (4.50%), rodents (3.40%), cattle (2.78%) and sheep (0.89%). Pathogenic isolates comprised the majority of the Y. enterocolitica recovered from pigs (73.50%) and dogs (59.44%); whereas the nonpathogenic Y. enterocolitica made up most of poultry and wildlife recovered strains. A correlation analysis comparing the prevalence and geographic factors showed the isolation rate of Y. enterocolitica in pigs and dogs was negatively correlated with elevation (r=-0.50, Penterocolitica carried ail and ystB virulence genes, and one biotype 1A nonpathogenic strain positive with ail, ystB and ystA genes were isolated from Microtus fuscus (Qinghai vole) on plague foci of the Qinghai-Xizang plateau. The PFGE pattern K6GN11C30021 was predominant in pigs (44.25%) and patients (41.18%); K6GN11C30068 was predominant in dogs (40.16%). Animal isolates from the same region shared the same pattern (K6GN11C30021 and K6GN11C30012), indicating they may be from the same clone and arose through cross infection. Moreover, the identical PFGE pattern among local animals and diarrhea patients suggested that the animals may be the source of infections in these areas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Determination of geographic variance in stroke prevalence using Internet search engine analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walcott, Brian P; Nahed, Brian V; Kahle, Kristopher T; Redjal, Navid; Coumans, Jean-Valery

    2011-06-01

    Previous methods to determine stroke prevalence, such as nationwide surveys, are labor-intensive endeavors. Recent advances in search engine query analytics have led to a new metric for disease surveillance to evaluate symptomatic phenomenon, such as influenza. The authors hypothesized that the use of search engine query data can determine the prevalence of stroke. The Google Insights for Search database was accessed to analyze anonymized search engine query data. The authors' search strategy utilized common search queries used when attempting either to identify the signs and symptoms of a stroke or to perform stroke education. The search logic was as follows: (stroke signs + stroke symptoms + mini stroke--heat) from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2010. The relative number of searches performed (the interest level) for this search logic was established for all 50 states and the District of Columbia. A Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient was calculated from the statespecific stroke prevalence data previously reported. Web search engine interest level was available for all 50 states and the District of Columbia over the time period for January 1, 2005-December 31, 2010. The interest level was highest in Alabama and Tennessee (100 and 96, respectively) and lowest in California and Virginia (58 and 53, respectively). The Pearson correlation coefficient (r) was calculated to be 0.47 (p = 0.0005, 2-tailed). Search engine query data analysis allows for the determination of relative stroke prevalence. Further investigation will reveal the reliability of this metric to determine temporal pattern analysis and prevalence in this and other symptomatic diseases.

  15. [Births prevalence of 27 selected congenital anomalies in 7 geographic regions of Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campaña, Hebe; Pawluk, Mariela S; López Camelo, Jorge S

    2010-10-01

    The aim of the present work was to estimate the frequency of 27 birth defects in 7 geographical regions of Argentina. Observational, cross-sectional, descriptive design. A sample of 21,844 new born with birth defects was selected, ascertained from 855,220 births, between 1994 and 2007, in 59 hospitals belonging to the ECLAMC network. In order to identify regions of high frequency a Poisson regression was used, adjusted by different hospitals from the same region. The model included a time variable to detect secular trends and 6 dummy variables for 7 predefined geographical regions: Metropolitana (MET); Pampa (PAM); Centro (CEN); Cuyo (CUY); Noroeste (NOA); Nordeste (NEA) and Patagonia (PAT). High frequencies regional analysis showed the following significant results: PAM: severe hypospadias; CEN: spina bifida, microtia, cleft lip with cleft palate, polycystic kidney, postaxial polydactyly and Down syndrome; CUY: postaxial polydactyly; NOA: omphalocele, gastroschisis, cleft lip without cleft palate, cleft lip with cleft palate, anorectal atresia/stenosis, indeterminate sex, preaxial polydactyly and pectoral agenesis; PAT: cleft lip without cleft palate. Out of the 27 congenital anomalies analyzed, fourteen showed a frequency significatively higher in one or more regions.

  16. Nationwide prevalence of human papillomavirus infection and viral genotype distribution in 37 cities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rong; Guo, Xiao-Lei; Wisman, G Bea A; Schuuring, Ed; Wang, Wen-Feng; Zeng, Zheng-Yu; Zhu, Hong; Wu, Shang-Wei

    2015-07-04

    Type-specific high-risk HPV (hrHPV) infection is related to cervical carcinogenesis. The prevalence of hrHPV infection varies geographically, which might reflect the epidemiological characteristics of cervical cancer among different populations. To establish a foundation for HPV-based screening and vaccination programs in China, we investigated the most recent HPV prevalence and genotypic distributions in different female age groups and geographical regions in China. In 2012, a total of 120,772 liquid-based cytological samples from women enrolled for population- or employee-based cervical screening in 37 Chinese cities were obtained by the Laboratory of Molecular Infectious Diseases of Guangzhou KingMed. A total of 111,131 samples were tested by Hybrid Capture II and the other 9,641 were genotyped using the Tellgenplex™ HPV DNA Assay. The total positive rate for hrHPV was 21.07 %, which ranged from 18.42 % (Nanchang) to 31.94 % (Haikou) and varied by region. The regions of Nanchang, Changsha, Hangzhou, Chengdu, Fuzhou, Guangdong, and Guiyang could be considered the low prevalence regions. Age-specific prevalence showed a "two-peak" pattern, with the youngest age group (15-19 years) presenting the highest hrHPV infection rate (30.55 %), followed by a second peak for the 50-60-year-old group. Overall, the most prevalent genotypes were HPV16 (4.82 %) and HPV52 (4.52 %), followed by HPV58 (2.74 %). Two genotypes HPV6 (4.01 %) and HPV11 (2.29 %) were predominant in the low-risk HPV (lrHPV) type, while the mixed genotypes HPV16 + 52 and HPV52 + 58 were most common in women with multiple infections. This study shows that HPV infection in China has increased to the level of an "HPV-heavy-burden" zone in certain regions, with prevalence varying significantly among different ages and regions. Data from this study represent the most current survey of the nationwide prevalence of HPV infection in China, and can serve as valuable reference to guide nationwide cervical cancer

  17. Understanding the geographic distribution of tropical cyclone formation for applications in climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tory, Kevin J.; Ye, H.; Dare, R. A.

    2018-04-01

    Projections of Tropical cyclone (TC) formation under future climate scenarios are dependent on climate model simulations. However, many models produce unrealistic geographical distributions of TC formation, especially in the north and south Atlantic and eastern south Pacific TC basins. In order to improve confidence in projections it is important to understand the reasons behind these model errors. However, considerable effort is required to analyse the many models used in projection studies. To address this problem, a novel diagnostic is developed that provides compelling insight into why TCs form where they do, using a few summary diagrams. The diagnostic is developed after identifying a relationship between seasonal climatologies of atmospheric variables in 34 years of ECMWF reanalysis data, and TC detection distributions in the same data. Geographic boundaries of TC formation are constructed from four threshold quantities. TCs form where Emanuel's Maximum Potential Intensity, V_{{PI}}, exceeds 40 {ms}^{{ - 1}}, 700 hPa relative humidity, RH_{{700}}, exceeds 40%, and the magnitude of the difference in vector winds between 850 and 200 hPa, V_{{sh}}, is less than 20 {ms}^{{ - 1}}. The equatorial boundary is best defined by a composite quantity containing the ratio of absolute vorticity (η ) to the meridional gradient of absolute vorticity (β ^{*}), rather than η alone. {β ^*} is also identified as a potentially important ingredient for TC genesis indices. A comparison of detected Tropical Depression (TD) and Tropical Storm (TS) climatologies revealed TDs more readily intensify further to TS where {V_{PI}} is elevated and {V_{sh}} is relatively weak. The distributions of each threshold quantity identify the factors that favour and suppress TC formation throughout the tropics in the real world. This information can be used to understand why TC formation is poorly represented in some climate models, and shows potential for understanding anomalous TC formation

  18. Driving forces for changes in geographical distribution of Ixodes ricinus ticks in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medlock Jolyon M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many factors are involved in determining the latitudinal and altitudinal spread of the important tick vector Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae in Europe, as well as in changes in the distribution within its prior endemic zones. This paper builds on published literature and unpublished expert opinion from the VBORNET network with the aim of reviewing the evidence for these changes in Europe and discusses the many climatic, ecological, landscape and anthropogenic drivers. These can be divided into those directly related to climatic change, contributing to an expansion in the tick’s geographic range at extremes of altitude in central Europe, and at extremes of latitude in Scandinavia; those related to changes in the distribution of tick hosts, particularly roe deer and other cervids; other ecological changes such as habitat connectivity and changes in land management; and finally, anthropogenically induced changes. These factors are strongly interlinked and often not well quantified. Although a change in climate plays an important role in certain geographic regions, for much of Europe it is non-climatic factors that are becoming increasingly important. How we manage habitats on a landscape scale, and the changes in the distribution and abundance of tick hosts are important considerations during our assessment and management of the public health risks associated with ticks and tick-borne disease issues in 21st century Europe. Better understanding and mapping of the spread of I. ricinus (and changes in its abundance is, however, essential to assess the risk of the spread of infections transmitted by this vector species. Enhanced tick surveillance with harmonized approaches for comparison of data enabling the follow-up of trends at EU level will improve the messages on risk related to tick-borne diseases to policy makers, other stake holders and to the general public.

  19. Current Knowledge of Leishmania Vectors in Mexico: How Geographic Distributions of Species Relate to Transmission Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Camila; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A.; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; Becker-Fauser, Ingeborg; Martínez-Meyer, Enrique; Peterson, A. Townsend; Sánchez-Cordero, Víctor

    2011-01-01

    Leishmaniases are a group of vector-borne diseases with different clinical manifestations caused by parasites transmitted by sand fly vectors. In Mexico, the sand fly Lutzomyia olmeca olmeca is the only vector proven to transmit the parasite Leishmania mexicana to humans, which causes leishmaniasis. Other vector species with potential medical importance have been obtained, but their geographic distributions and relation to transmission areas have never been assessed. We modeled the ecological niches of nine sand fly species and projected niches to estimate potential distributions by using known occurrences, environmental coverages, and the algorithms GARP and Maxent. All vector species were distributed in areas with known recurrent transmission, except for Lu. diabolica, which appeared to be related only to areas of occasional transmission in northern Mexico. The distribution of Lu. o. olmeca does not overlap with all reported cutaneous leishmaniasis cases, suggesting that Lu. cruciata and Lu. shannoni are likely also involved as primary vectors in those areas. Our study provides useful information of potential risk areas of leishmaniasis transmission in Mexico. PMID:22049037

  20. The geographic distribution of the otolaryngology workforce in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lango, Miriam N; Handorf, Elizabeth; Arjmand, Ellis

    2017-01-01

    To describe the deployment of otolaryngologists and evaluate factors associated with the geographic distribution of otolaryngologists in the United States. Cross-sectional study. The otolaryngology physician supply was defined as the number of otolaryngologists per 100,000 in the hospital referral region (HRR). The otolaryngology physician supply was derived from the American Medical Association Masterfile or from the Medicare Enrollment and Provider Utilization Files. Multiple linear regression tested the association of population, physician, and hospital factors on the supply of Medicare-enrolled otolaryngologists/HRR. Two methods of measuring the otolaryngology workforce were moderately correlated across hospital referral regions (Pearson coefficient 0.513, P = .0001); regardless, the supply of otolaryngology providers varies greatly over different geographic regions. Otolaryngologists concentrate in regions with many other physicians, particularly specialist physicians. The otolaryngology supply also increases with regional population income and education levels. Using AMA-derived data, there was no association between the supply of otolaryngologists and staffed acute-care hospital beds and the presence of an otolaryngology residency-training program. In contrast, the supply of otolaryngology providers enrolled in Medicare independently increases for each HRR by 0.8 per 100,000 for each unit increase in supply of hospital beds (P otolaryngology residency-training program (P = .006), accounting for all other factors. Irrespective of methodology, the supply of otolaryngologists varies widely across geographic regions in the United States. For Medicare beneficiaries, regional hospital factors-including the presence of an otolaryngology residency program-may improve access to otolaryngology services. NA Laryngoscope, 127:95-101, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  1. Diversity, natural history, and geographic distribution of snakes in the Caatinga, Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Thaís B; Nogueira, Cristiano; Marques, Otavio A V

    2014-09-19

    The present study is a synthesis on snake diversity and distribution in the Caatinga region of northeastern Brazil, providing an updated species list and data on natural history and geographic distribution. Our study is based on the careful revision of 7,102 voucher specimens, housed in 17 herpetological collections, complemented by data on taxonomic literature. We recorded a total of 112 snake species in the Caatinga, belonging to nine families: Anomalepididae, Leptotyphlopidae, Typhlopidae, Aniliidae, Boidae, Viperidae, Elapidae, Colubridae, and Dipsadidae. Our list includes at least 13 never recorded species for this region, as well as distribution records for all species known from the Caatinga (including expansion and new records of distribution). The snake assemblage of the Caatinga is complex, sharing species with other continental open areas (38.4%), forested areas (27.7%), and both open and forested areas (32.1%). The richest areas were isolated plateaus, followed by contact areas, semi-arid caatinga, and sandy dunes of the São Franscisco River. We identified 22 Caatinga endemic species with the sandy dunes of São Franscico River showing the highest endemism level (12 species, with six endemic species restricted to the area) followed by semi-arid caatinga, and isolated plateaus (eight endemic species each, and six and three endemic species with restricted distribution to each area, respectively). Most species show relatively restricted ranges in parts of the Caatinga. The snake assemblage in Caatinga includes mainly terrestrial species (38.4%), followed by fossorial/cryptozoic (26.8%), arboreal/semi-arboreal (26.8%), and aquatic/semi-aquatic (7.1%) species. Vertebrates are the most important dietary item (80.4%), with 56.6% of species being generalist consumers of this kind of prey; 24.4% are frog-eaters, 7.8% prey on caecilians/amphisbaenians, 6.7% lizard-eaters, 3.3% mammal-eaters, and 1.1% are fish-eaters. Only 18.7% of the snakes eat invertebrate

  2. Exploring Geographic Variability in Cancer Prevalence in Eastern Morocco: A Retrospective Study over Eight Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elidrissi Errahhali, Manal; Elidrissi Errahhali, Mounia; Abda, Naima; Bellaoui, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Malignant diseases have been believed to be more common in some areas of Eastern Morocco, but until now, cancer patterns have not been reported for this region. In this paper we present for the first time the cancer prevalence analysis in Eastern Morocco. Cross-sectional study carried out among all patients diagnosed and/or treated with cancer at the Hassan II Regional Oncology Center (ROC) since it was established in October 2005 until December 2012. The ROC is the only hospital specialized in cancer care in Eastern Morocco. A total of 8,508 cases of cancer were registered among residents in Eastern Morocco, with a female to male ratio of 2.1. The mean age at diagnosis was 53.9 ± 15.2 years (median age = 53 years). Thus, unlike in Western countries, cancer in Eastern Morocco afflicts younger population. The areas of Eastern Morocco did not differ significantly by mean age at diagnosis (p = 0.061). However, these regions differed significantly by sex ratio (p Morocco was observed, both in males and females (p Morocco differed significantly by cancer prevalence (p Morocco. Our study illustrates substantial differences in cancer patterns between areas of Eastern Morocco. These findings are important for cancer control and highlight the need to develop program aiming at controlling and preventing the spread of major cancer sites in Eastern Morocco, particularly in areas with increased cancer prevalence rates.

  3. Geographic distribution and taxonomic circumscription of populations within Coryphantha section Robustispina (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Marc A; Butterworth, Charles A

    2013-05-01

    Taxonomic circumscription of subspecific taxa within Coryphantha robustispina was evaluated with morphological data and microsatellites. This study was the first to compare adequately sampled morphological and DNA analyses at the population level in the Cactaceae. This comparison was important to test reliability of both methods and to gain a better understanding of phytogeography, evolution, and systematics of the species, knowledge that could prove useful for other taxa as well. Populations of C. robustispina subsp. robustispina are listed as endangered by the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Our primary goal was to explore correlations among geographical distribution, morphology, and genetics of selected populations throughout the range of the species and the outgroup, C. poselgeriana. • Stem characters were measured for 638 individuals among 16 populations. Flower characters were measured for 180 individuals among 12 populations. Ten microsatellite DNA loci were isolated and characterized for 204 individuals among 13 populations. Data were analyzed using various multivariate analyses. • Our results indicated that, within Coryphantha robustispina, there were three morphologically, genetically, and geographically coherent groups represented by the names C. robustispina subsp. robustispina, C. robustispina subsp. uncinata, and C. robustispina subsp. scheeri. For most analyses, distinctions among the three groups were primarily not as great as those between any one of them and the outgroup. • Results suggested that the three subspecific taxa within Coryphantha robustispina are good subspecies but should not be elevated to species rank. The closely aligned results between morphology and microsatellite data support the design and utility of both methods.

  4. Molecular insight into systematics, host associations, life cycles and geographic distribution of the nematode family Rhabdiasidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkach, Vasyl V; Kuzmin, Yuriy; Snyder, Scott D

    2014-04-01

    Rhabdiasidae Railliet, 1915 is a globally distributed group of up to 100 known species of nematodes parasitic in amphibians and reptiles. This work presents the results of a molecular phylogenetic analysis of 36 species of Rhabdiasidae from reptiles and amphibians from six continents. New DNA sequences encompassing partial 18S rDNA, ITS1, 5.8S rDNA, ITS2 and partial 28S rDNA regions of nuclear ribosomal DNA were obtained from 27 species and pre-existing sequences for nine species were incorporated. The broad taxonomic, host and geographical coverage of the specimens allowed us to address long-standing questions in rhabdiasid systematics, evolution, geographic distribution, and patterns of host association. Our analysis demonstrated that rhabdiasids parasitic in snakes are an independent genus sister to the rest of the Rhabdiasidae, a status supported by life cycle data. Based on the combined evidence of molecular phylogeny, morphology and life cycle characteristics, a new genus Serpentirhabdias gen. nov. with the type species Serpentirhabdias elaphe (Sharpilo, 1976) comb. nov. is established. The phylogeny supports the monophyly of Entomelas Travassos, 1930, Pneumonema Johnston, 1916 and the largest genus of the family, Rhabdias Stiles and Hassall, 1905. DNA sequence comparisons demonstrate the presence of more than one species in the previously monotypic Pneumonema from Australian scincid lizards. The distribution of some morphological characters in the genus Rhabdias shows little consistency within the phylogenetic tree topology, in particular the apical structures widely used in rhabdiasid systematics. Our data suggest that some of the characters, while valuable for species differentiation, are not appropriate for differentiation among higher taxa and are of limited phylogenetic utility. Rhabdias is the only genus with a cosmopolitan distribution, but some of the lineages within Rhabdias are distributed on a single continent or a group of adjacent

  5. Virtual Geographic Simulation of Light Distribution within Three-Dimensional Plant Canopy Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyu Tang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Virtual geographic environments (VGEs have been regarded as an important new means of simulating, analyzing, and understanding complex geological processes. Plants and light are major components of the geographic environment. Light is a critical factor that affects ecological systems. In this study, we focused on simulating light transmission and distribution within a three-dimensional plant canopy model. A progressive refinement radiosity algorithm was applied to simulate the transmission and distribution of solar light within a detailed, three-dimensional (3D loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl. canopy model. The canopy was described in three dimensions, and each organ surface was represented by a set of triangular facets. The form factors in radiosity were calculated using a hemi-cube algorithm. We developed a module for simulating the instantaneous light distribution within a virtual canopy, which was integrated into ParaTree. We simulated the distribution of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR within a loquat canopy, and calculated the total PAR intercepted at the whole canopy scale, as well as the mean PAR interception per unit leaf area. The ParaTree-integrated radiosity model simulates the uncollided propagation of direct solar and diffuse sky light and the light-scattering effect of foliage. The PAR captured by the whole canopy based on the radiosity is approximately 9.4% greater than that obtained using ray tracing and TURTLE methods. The latter methods do not account for the scattering among leaves in the canopy in the study, and therefore, the difference might be due to the contribution of light scattering in the foliage. The simulation result is close to Myneni’s findings, in which the light scattering within a canopy is less than 10% of the incident PAR. Our method can be employed for visualizing and analyzing the spatial distribution of light within a canopy, and for estimating the PAR interception at the organ and canopy

  6. Positive identity entry control system with geographically distributed portals and enrollment stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntire, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    A positive identity entry control system using distributed processing to allow reliable geographically separated portals and enrollment stations has been installed and is fully operational at a large area DOE site. Identity verification requires a credential, a memorized number and measurement of a physical characteristic of the user. Additionally, all portal activity is monitored by guards. The portal system is dual redundant such that no single point failure will shut down operations. Each portal site maintains its own subset of the master data base so off-site failure of the central data base manager or its communication links will not significantly affect local portal activity. The system is suitable for installations with large populations requiring access control at several remote sites scattered over a large area

  7. Leishmania in the Old World: 1. The geographical and hostal distribution of L. major zymodemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Blancq, S M; Schnur, L F; Peters, W

    1986-01-01

    135 stocks of Leishmania major from man, reservoir hosts and sandflies were characterized using thin-layer starch-gel electrophoresis of 13 enzymes: MDH, 6PGD, GD, SOD, ASAT, ALAT, PK, PGM, ES, NH, PEPD, MPI, GPI. Homogeneity in this species was demonstrated by identical electrophoretic mobilities in nine enzymes. Polymorphism in four enzymes: 6PGD, GPI, PEPD, ES, gave six zymodemes among the collection. Stocks from sandflies and several species of burrowing rodents were indistinguishable from those from man in the same areas. Stocks of Leishmania from North-West India were identified as L. major. In some foci the distribution of zymodemes has some correlation with the presence of particular rodent reservoir hosts. The enzymic homogeneity of L. major throughout its geographical and host range appears to be correlated with the close association between L. major and sandflies of the subgenus Phlebotomus. The status of L. major as a distinct species is supported.

  8. A Heterogeneous Distributed Virtual Geographic Environment—Potential Application in Spatiotemporal Behavior Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Shen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to their strong immersion and real-time interactivity, helmet-mounted virtual reality (VR devices are becoming increasingly popular. Based on these devices, an immersive virtual geographic environment (VGE provides a promising method for research into crowd behavior in an emergency. However, the current cheaper helmet-mounted VR devices are not popular enough, and will continue to coexist with personal computer (PC-based systems for a long time. Therefore, a heterogeneous distributed virtual geographic environment (HDVGE could be a feasible solution to the heterogeneous problems caused by various types of clients, and support the implementation of spatiotemporal crowd behavior experiments with large numbers of concurrent participants. In this study, we developed an HDVGE framework, and put forward a set of design principles to define the similarities between the real world and the VGE. We discussed the HDVGE architecture, and proposed an abstract interaction layer, a protocol-based interaction algorithm, and an adjusted dead reckoning algorithm to solve the heterogeneous distributed problems. We then implemented an HDVGE prototype system focusing on subway fire evacuation experiments. Two types of clients are considered in the system: PC, and all-in-one VR. Finally, we evaluated the performances of the prototype system and the key algorithms. The results showed that in a low-latency local area network (LAN environment, the prototype system can smoothly support 90 concurrent users consisting of PC and all-in-one VR clients. HDVGE provides a feasible solution for studying not only spatiotemporal crowd behaviors in normal conditions, but also evacuation behaviors in emergency conditions such as fires and earthquakes. HDVGE could also serve as a new means of obtaining observational data about individual and group behavior in support of human geography research.

  9. Temporal, geographic, and host distribution of avian paramyxovirus 1 (Newcastle disease virus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, Kiril M.; Ramey, Andy M.; Qiu, Xueting; Bahl, Justin; Afonso, Claudio L.

    2016-01-01

    Newcastle disease is caused by virulent forms of avian paramyxovirus of serotype 1 (APMV-1) and has global economic importance. The disease reached panzootic proportions within two decades after first being identified in 1926 in the United Kingdom and Indonesia and still remains endemic in many countries across the world. Here we review information on the host, temporal, and geographic distribution of APMV-1 genetic diversity based on the evolutionary systematics of the complete coding region of the fusion gene. Strains of APMV-1 are phylogenetically separated into two classes (class I and class II) and further classified into genotypes based on genetic differences. Class I viruses are genetically less diverse, generally present in wild waterfowl, and are of low virulence. Class II viruses are genetically and phenotypically more diverse, frequently isolated from poultry with occasional spillovers into wild birds, and exhibit a wider range of virulence. Waterfowl, cormorants, and pigeons are natural reservoirs of all APMV-1 pathotypes, except viscerotropic velogenic viruses for which natural reservoirs have not been identified. Genotypes I and II within class II include isolates of high and low virulence, the latter often being used as vaccines. Viruses of genotypes III and IX that emerged decades ago are now isolated rarely, but may be found in domestic and wild birds in China. Containing only virulent viruses and responsible for the majority of recent outbreaks in poultry and wild birds, viruses from genotypes V, VI, and VII, are highly mobile and have been isolated on different continents. Conversely, virulent viruses of genotypes XI (Madagascar), XIII (mainly Southwest Asia), XVI (North America) and XIV, XVII and XVIII (Africa) appear to have a more limited geographic distribution and have been isolated predominantly from poultry.

  10. Temperature responses of some North Atlantic Cladophora species (Chlorophyceae) in relation to their geographic distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambridge, M.; Breeman, A. M.; van Oosterwijk, R.; van den Hoek, C.

    1984-09-01

    The temperature responses for growth and survival have been experimentally tested for 6 species of the green algal genus Cladophora (Chlorophyceae; Cladophorales) (all isolated from Roscoff, Brittany, France, one also from Connecticut, USA), selected from 4 distribution groups, in order to determine which phase in the annual temperature regime might prevent the spread of a species beyond its present latitudinal range on the N. Atlantic coasts. For five species geographic limits could be specifically defined as due to a growth limit in the growing season or to a lethal limit in the adverse season. These species were: (1) C. coelothrix (Amphiatlantic tropical to warm temperate), with a northern boundary on the European coasts formed by a summer growth limit near the 12°C August isotherm. On the American coasts sea temperatures should allow its occurrence further north. (2) C. vagabunda (Amphiatlantic tropical to temperate), with a northern boundary formed by a summer growth limit near the 15°C August isotherm on both sides of the Atlantic. (3) C. dalmatica, as for C. vagabunda. (4) C. hutchinsiae (Mediterranean-Atlantic warm temperate), with a northern boundary formed by a summer growth limit near the 12°C August isotherm, and possibly also a winter lethal limit near the 6°C February isotherm; and a southern boundary formed by a southern lethal limit near the 26°C August isotherm. It is absent from the warm temperate American coast because its lethal limits, 5° and 30°C, are regularly reached there. (5) Preliminary data for C. rupestris (Amphiatlantic temperate), suggest the southeastern boundary on the African coast to be a summer lethal limit near the 26°C August isotherm; the southwestern boundary on the American coast lies on the 20°C August isotherm. For one species, C. albida, the experimental growth and survival range was wider than expected from its geographic distribution, and reasons to account for this are suggested.

  11. Geographically distributed hybrid testing & collaboration between geotechnical centrifuge and structures laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojaghi, Mobin; Martínez, Ignacio Lamata; Dietz, Matt S.; Williams, Martin S.; Blakeborough, Anthony; Crewe, Adam J.; Taylor, Colin A.; Madabhushi, S. P. Gopal; Haigh, Stuart K.

    2018-01-01

    Distributed Hybrid Testing (DHT) is an experimental technique designed to capitalise on advances in modern networking infrastructure to overcome traditional laboratory capacity limitations. By coupling the heterogeneous test apparatus and computational resources of geographically distributed laboratories, DHT provides the means to take on complex, multi-disciplinary challenges with new forms of communication and collaboration. To introduce the opportunity and practicability afforded by DHT, here an exemplar multi-site test is addressed in which a dedicated fibre network and suite of custom software is used to connect the geotechnical centrifuge at the University of Cambridge with a variety of structural dynamics loading apparatus at the University of Oxford and the University of Bristol. While centrifuge time-scaling prevents real-time rates of loading in this test, such experiments may be used to gain valuable insights into physical phenomena, test procedure and accuracy. These and other related experiments have led to the development of the real-time DHT technique and the creation of a flexible framework that aims to facilitate future distributed tests within the UK and beyond. As a further example, a real-time DHT experiment between structural labs using this framework for testing across the Internet is also presented.

  12. Predicting the geographical distribution of two invasive termite species from occurrence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonini, Francesco; Divino, Fabio; Lasinio, Giovanna Jona; Hochmair, Hartwig H; Scheffrahn, Rudolf H

    2014-10-01

    Predicting the potential habitat of species under both current and future climate change scenarios is crucial for monitoring invasive species and understanding a species' response to different environmental conditions. Frequently, the only data available on a species is the location of its occurrence (presence-only data). Using occurrence records only, two models were used to predict the geographical distribution of two destructive invasive termite species, Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann) and Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki. The first model uses a Bayesian linear logistic regression approach adjusted for presence-only data while the second one is the widely used maximum entropy approach (Maxent). Results show that the predicted distributions of both C. gestroi and C. formosanus are strongly linked to urban development. The impact of future scenarios such as climate warming and population growth on the biotic distribution of both termite species was also assessed. Future climate warming seems to affect their projected probability of presence to a lesser extent than population growth. The Bayesian logistic approach outperformed Maxent consistently in all models according to evaluation criteria such as model sensitivity and ecological realism. The importance of further studies for an explicit treatment of residual spatial autocorrelation and a more comprehensive comparison between both statistical approaches is suggested.

  13. Geographic information system-coupling sediment delivery distributed modeling based on observed data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S E; Kang, S H

    2014-01-01

    Spatially distributed sediment delivery (SEDD) models are of great interest in estimating the expected effect of changes on soil erosion and sediment yield. However, they can only be applied if the model can be calibrated using observed data. This paper presents a geographic information system (GIS)-based method to calculate the sediment discharge from basins to coastal areas. For this, an SEDD model, with a sediment rating curve method based on observed data, is proposed and validated. The model proposed here has been developed using the combined application of the revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE) and a spatially distributed sediment delivery ratio, within Model Builder of ArcGIS's software. The model focuses on spatial variability and is useful for estimating the spatial patterns of soil loss and sediment discharge. The model consists of two modules, a soil erosion prediction component and a sediment delivery model. The integrated approach allows for relatively practical and cost-effective estimation of spatially distributed soil erosion and sediment delivery, for gauged or ungauged basins. This paper provides the first attempt at estimating sediment delivery ratio based on observed data in the monsoon region of Korea.

  14. Optimizing Geographic Allotment of Photovoltaic Capacity in a Distributed Generation Setting: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urquhart, B.; Sengupta, M.; Keller, J.

    2012-09-01

    A multi-objective optimization was performed to allocate 2MW of PV among four candidate sites on the island of Lanai such that energy was maximized and variability in the form of ramp rates was minimized. This resulted in an optimal solution set which provides a range of geographic allotment alternatives for the fixed PV capacity. Within the optimal set, a tradeoff between energy produced and variability experienced was found, whereby a decrease in variability always necessitates a simultaneous decrease in energy. A design point within the optimal set was selected for study which decreased extreme ramp rates by over 50% while only decreasing annual energy generation by 3% over the maximum generation allocation. To quantify the allotment mix selected, a metric was developed, called the ramp ratio, which compares ramping magnitude when all capacity is allotted to a single location to the aggregate ramping magnitude in a distributed scenario. The ramp ratio quantifies simultaneously how much smoothing a distributed scenario would experience over single site allotment and how much a single site is being under-utilized for its ability to reduce aggregate variability. This paper creates a framework for use by cities and municipal utilities to reduce variability impacts while planning for high penetration of PV on the distribution grid.

  15. Large-scale geographic variation in distribution and abundance of Australian deep-water kelp forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel M Marzinelli

    Full Text Available Despite the significance of marine habitat-forming organisms, little is known about their large-scale distribution and abundance in deeper waters, where they are difficult to access. Such information is necessary to develop sound conservation and management strategies. Kelps are main habitat-formers in temperate reefs worldwide; however, these habitats are highly sensitive to environmental change. The kelp Ecklonia radiate is the major habitat-forming organism on subtidal reefs in temperate Australia. Here, we provide large-scale ecological data encompassing the latitudinal distribution along the continent of these kelp forests, which is a necessary first step towards quantitative inferences about the effects of climatic change and other stressors on these valuable habitats. We used the Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV facility of Australia's Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS to survey 157,000 m2 of seabed, of which ca 13,000 m2 were used to quantify kelp covers at multiple spatial scales (10-100 m to 100-1,000 km and depths (15-60 m across several regions ca 2-6° latitude apart along the East and West coast of Australia. We investigated the large-scale geographic variation in distribution and abundance of deep-water kelp (>15 m depth and their relationships with physical variables. Kelp cover generally increased with latitude despite great variability at smaller spatial scales. Maximum depth of kelp occurrence was 40-50 m. Kelp latitudinal distribution along the continent was most strongly related to water temperature and substratum availability. This extensive survey data, coupled with ongoing AUV missions, will allow for the detection of long-term shifts in the distribution and abundance of habitat-forming kelp and the organisms they support on a continental scale, and provide information necessary for successful implementation and management of conservation reserves.

  16. Geographic Distribution of Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea along the Kuril Islands in the Western Subarctic Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmei Jing

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Community composition and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA in the ocean were affected by different physicochemical conditions, but their responses to physical barriers (such as a chain of islands were largely unknown. In our study, geographic distribution of the AOA from the surface photic zone to the deep bathypelagic waters in the western subarctic Pacific adjacent to the Kuril Islands was investigated using pyrosequencing based on the ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA gene. Genotypes of clusters A and B dominated in the upper euphotic zone and the deep waters, respectively. Quantitative PCR assays revealed that the occurrence and ammonia-oxidizing activity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA reached their maxima at the depth of 200 m, where a higher diversity and abundance of actively transcribed AOA was observed at the station located in the marginal sea exposed to more terrestrial input. Similar community composition of AOA observed at the two stations adjacent to the Kuril Islands maybe due to water exchange across the Bussol Strait. They distinct from the station located in the western subarctic gyre, where sub-cluster WCAII had a specific distribution in the surface water, and this sub-cluster seemed having a confined distribution in the western Pacific. Habitat-specific groupings of different WCB sub-clusters were observed reflecting the isolated microevolution existed in cluster WCB. The effect of the Kuril Islands on the phylogenetic composition of AOA between the Sea of Okhotsk and the western subarctic Pacific is not obvious, possibly because our sampling stations are near to the Bussol Strait, the main gateway through which water is exchanged between the Sea of Okhotsk and the Pacific. The vertical and horizontal distribution patterns of AOA communities among stations along the Kuril Islands were essentially determined by the in situ prevailing physicochemical gradients along the two dimensions.

  17. Determinants of the geographical distribution of endemic giardiasis in Ontario, Canada: a spatial modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odoi, A; Martin, S W; Michel, P; Holt, J; Middleton, D; Wilson, J

    2004-10-01

    Giardiasis surveillance data as well as drinking water, socioeconomic and land-use data were used in spatial regression models to investigate determinants of the geographic distribution of endemic giardiasis in southern Ontario. Higher giardiasis rates were observed in areas using surface water [rate ratio (RR) 2.36, 95 % CI 1.38-4.05] and in rural areas (RR 1.79, 95 % CI 1.32-2.37). Lower rates were observed in areas using filtered water (RR 0.55, 95 % CI 0.42-0.94) and in those with high median income (RR 0.62, 95 % CI 0.42-0.92). Chlorination of drinking water, cattle density and intensity of manure application on farmland were not significant determinants. The study shows that waterborne transmission plays an important role in giardiasis distribution in southern Ontario and that well-collected routine surveillance data could be useful for investigation of disease determinants and identification of high-risk communities. This information is useful in guiding decisions on control strategies.

  18. Temporal changes in the geographic distribution, elevation, and potential origin of the Martian outflow channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribe, S.; Clifford, S. M.

    1993-01-01

    Observational evidence of outflow channel activity on Mars suggests that water was abundant in the planet's early crust. However, with the decline in the planet's internal heat flow, a freezing front developed within the regolith that propagated downward with time and acted as a thermodynamic sink for crustal H2O. One result of this thermal evolution is that, if the initial inventory of water on Mars was small, the cryosphere may have grown to the point where all the available water was taken up as ground ice. Alternatively, if the inventory of H2O exceeds the current pore volume of the cryosphere, then Mars has always possessed extensive bodies of subpermafrost groundwater. We have investigated the relative age, geographic distribution, elevation, and geologic setting of the outflow channels in an effort to accomplish the following: (1) identify possible modes of origin and evolutionary trends in their formation; (2) gain evidence regarding the duration and spatial distribution of groundwater in the crust; and (3) better constraint estimates of the planetary inventory of H2O.

  19. Geographic Distribution of Chagas Disease Vectors in Brazil Based on Ecological Niche Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Gurgel-Gonçalves

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although Brazil was declared free from Chagas disease transmission by the domestic vector Triatoma infestans, human acute cases are still being registered based on transmission by native triatomine species. For a better understanding of transmission risk, the geographic distribution of Brazilian triatomines was analyzed. Sixteen out of 62 Brazilian species that both occur in >20 municipalities and present synanthropic tendencies were modeled based on their ecological niches. Panstrongylus geniculatus and P. megistus showed broad ecological ranges, but most of the species sort out by the biome in which they are distributed: Rhodnius pictipes and R. robustus in the Amazon; R. neglectus, Triatoma sordida, and T. costalimai in the Cerrado; R. nasutus, P. lutzi, T. brasiliensis, T. pseudomaculata, T. melanocephala, and T. petrocchiae in the Caatinga; T. rubrovaria in the southern pampas; T. tibiamaculata and T. vitticeps in the Atlantic Forest. Although most occurrences were recorded in open areas (Cerrado and Caatinga, our results show that all environmental conditions in the country are favorable to one or more of the species analyzed, such that almost nowhere is Chagas transmission risk negligible.

  20. New data on the ecology and geographic distribution of Saguinus inustus Schwarz, 1951 (Primates, Callitrichidae

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    J. Valsecchi

    Full Text Available Saguinus inustus (Schwarz, 1951 is one of the neotropical primates least studied. The distribution of the species ranges from the north of the Solimões River, between the Negro and Japurá Rivers in Brazil, and Guayabero-Guaviare Rivers in Colombia. Nevertheless, due to the low number of specimens collected from the lower Japurá and lower Negro Rivers areas, the geographic distribution is so far poorly delineated. In this study, field data was composed of sightings and the collection of specimens during a survey of mammal diversity in the Amana Sustainable Development Reserve (ASDR. For this survey, two 40-day expeditions were carried out in 2004. The first one occurred during the flooded season in June and July, and the second was during the peak of the dry season in October. Direct sightings were made through hiking along transects, navigation along water channels with a 30-hp speedboat, and gliding along flooded trails in the forest. New records of S. inustus were made in 11 different localities in ASDR. The study has confirmed the presence of the species in the Amanã area, carrying out the first records of the species in flooded forest habitats.

  1. Interactive analysis of geographically distributed population imaging data collections over light-path data networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lew, Baldur; Botha, Charl P.; Milles, Julien R.; Vrooman, Henri A.; van de Giessen, Martijn; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P. F.

    2015-03-01

    The cohort size required in epidemiological imaging genetics studies often mandates the pooling of data from multiple hospitals. Patient data, however, is subject to strict privacy protection regimes, and physical data storage may be legally restricted to a hospital network. To enable biomarker discovery, fast data access and interactive data exploration must be combined with high-performance computing resources, while respecting privacy regulations. We present a system using fast and inherently secure light-paths to access distributed data, thereby obviating the need for a central data repository. A secure private cloud computing framework facilitates interactive, computationally intensive exploration of this geographically distributed, privacy sensitive data. As a proof of concept, MRI brain imaging data hosted at two remote sites were processed in response to a user command at a third site. The system was able to automatically start virtual machines, run a selected processing pipeline and write results to a user accessible database, while keeping data locally stored in the hospitals. Individual tasks took approximately 50% longer compared to a locally hosted blade server but the cloud infrastructure reduced the total elapsed time by a factor of 40 using 70 virtual machines in the cloud. We demonstrated that the combination light-path and private cloud is a viable means of building an analysis infrastructure for secure data analysis. The system requires further work in the areas of error handling, load balancing and secure support of multiple users.

  2. Mapping and Modelling the Geographical Distribution and Environmental Limits of Podoconiosis in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deribe, Kebede; Cano, Jorge; Newport, Melanie J; Golding, Nick; Pullan, Rachel L; Sime, Heven; Gebretsadik, Abeba; Assefa, Ashenafi; Kebede, Amha; Hailu, Asrat; Rebollo, Maria P; Shafi, Oumer; Bockarie, Moses J; Aseffa, Abraham; Hay, Simon I; Reithinger, Richard; Enquselassie, Fikre; Davey, Gail; Brooker, Simon J

    2015-01-01

    Ethiopia is assumed to have the highest burden of podoconiosis globally, but the geographical distribution and environmental limits and correlates are yet to be fully investigated. In this paper we use data from a nationwide survey to address these issues. Our analyses are based on data arising from the integrated mapping of podoconiosis and lymphatic filariasis (LF) conducted in 2013, supplemented by data from an earlier mapping of LF in western Ethiopia in 2008-2010. The integrated mapping used woreda (district) health offices' reports of podoconiosis and LF to guide selection of survey sites. A suite of environmental and climatic data and boosted regression tree (BRT) modelling was used to investigate environmental limits and predict the probability of podoconiosis occurrence. Data were available for 141,238 individuals from 1,442 communities in 775 districts from all nine regional states and two city administrations of Ethiopia. In 41.9% of surveyed districts no cases of podoconiosis were identified, with all districts in Affar, Dire Dawa, Somali and Gambella regional states lacking the disease. The disease was most common, with lymphoedema positivity rate exceeding 5%, in the central highlands of Ethiopia, in Amhara, Oromia and Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples regional states. BRT modelling indicated that the probability of podoconiosis occurrence increased with increasing altitude, precipitation and silt fraction of soil and decreased with population density and clay content. Based on the BRT model, we estimate that in 2010, 34.9 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 20.2-51.7) million people (i.e. 43.8%; 95% CI: 25.3-64.8% of Ethiopia's national population) lived in areas environmentally suitable for the occurrence of podoconiosis. Podoconiosis is more widespread in Ethiopia than previously estimated, but occurs in distinct geographical regions that are tied to identifiable environmental factors. The resultant maps can be used to guide programme planning

  3. Mapping and Modelling the Geographical Distribution and Environmental Limits of Podoconiosis in Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kebede Deribe

    Full Text Available Ethiopia is assumed to have the highest burden of podoconiosis globally, but the geographical distribution and environmental limits and correlates are yet to be fully investigated. In this paper we use data from a nationwide survey to address these issues.Our analyses are based on data arising from the integrated mapping of podoconiosis and lymphatic filariasis (LF conducted in 2013, supplemented by data from an earlier mapping of LF in western Ethiopia in 2008-2010. The integrated mapping used woreda (district health offices' reports of podoconiosis and LF to guide selection of survey sites. A suite of environmental and climatic data and boosted regression tree (BRT modelling was used to investigate environmental limits and predict the probability of podoconiosis occurrence.Data were available for 141,238 individuals from 1,442 communities in 775 districts from all nine regional states and two city administrations of Ethiopia. In 41.9% of surveyed districts no cases of podoconiosis were identified, with all districts in Affar, Dire Dawa, Somali and Gambella regional states lacking the disease. The disease was most common, with lymphoedema positivity rate exceeding 5%, in the central highlands of Ethiopia, in Amhara, Oromia and Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples regional states. BRT modelling indicated that the probability of podoconiosis occurrence increased with increasing altitude, precipitation and silt fraction of soil and decreased with population density and clay content. Based on the BRT model, we estimate that in 2010, 34.9 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 20.2-51.7 million people (i.e. 43.8%; 95% CI: 25.3-64.8% of Ethiopia's national population lived in areas environmentally suitable for the occurrence of podoconiosis.Podoconiosis is more widespread in Ethiopia than previously estimated, but occurs in distinct geographical regions that are tied to identifiable environmental factors. The resultant maps can be used to guide

  4. Geographical distribution of the red howler monkey (Alouatta seniculus) and yellow fever in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piedrahita-Cortés, Juan; Soler-Tovar, Diego

    2016-02-11

    Colombia is a country with an important diversity of non-human primates, of which the red howler monkey (Alouatta seniculus) stands out because of its distribution and the role it plays in the occurrence of yellow fever.  To describe the geographic co-occurrence of Alouatta seniculus and the reported presence of yellow fever.  We conducted a descriptive study. The reported presence of yellow fever in Colombia was obtained from the reports and bulletins issued by the Instituto Nacional de Salud, and the study by Segura, et al. (2013). The occurrence of A. seniculus was determined based on the data from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility and the Colombian Biodiversity Information System. A map of the occurrence was developed using the DIVA-GIS program, and the ecological niche model under current conditions was created with the Maxent program.  The departments with the highest occurrence of A. seniculus were Antioquia, Meta and Casanare; 69.5% of the departments with reported history of yellow fever had co-occurrence with A. seniculus. The ecological niche model showed that Antioquia, Bolívar, La Guajira, Magdalena, Meta, Santander, Norte de Santander and Vichada had geographical portions with a probability rate nearing to 0.9 (90%).  In 69.5% of the departments with a history of yellow fever there was co-occurrence with A. seniculus, which is relevant because non-human primates play a well-known role as natural reservoirs of the virus, and they might contribute to the occurrence of the yellow fever, which makes them very useful as sentinels.

  5. Capacity of Physiotherapy Workforce Production in Thailand: Public-Private Mix, Secular Trend and Geographic Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewsawang, Sarinee; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Vongsirinavarat, Mantana

    2016-06-01

    In Thailand, the shortage of physiotherapists has been an increasing concern because of increased health burden from demographic and epidemiologic changes. This study aims to analyse the current situation of the physiotherapy workforce production system, secular trend, geographical distribution and comparison of public and private physiotherapy training institutes. Longitudinal data related to production capacity of the physiotherapy institutes were applied. Data from 2008 to 2012 were obtained from all 16 physiotherapy institutes in Thailand. Data during 2000-2007 were also retrieved from annual reports from the Ministry of Education. Descriptive statistics were initially used. Comparison was made between public and private physiotherapy institutes in terms of the number of students admitted and graduated, number of teachers, annual tuition fee, student-teacher ratio and dropout rate within 1 year. Predictive factors for graduation within 4 years were determined using logistic regression. In Thailand, there was an average of 800 physiotherapy graduates per year. New private institutes have been recently established and have steadily increased student admission rates. However, this has resulted in a high student-teacher ratio (median 7.1, inter-quartile range (IQR) 5.9-10.0). The first-year dropout rate in 2012 was 29.1%. Geographically, the majority of the institutes are clustered in the central region. Multivariate analysis revealed significantly lower probability of graduation within 4 years among students admitted to the private institutes and those in non-north-east region. The production capacity of the physiotherapy workforce is below an estimated need. Private physiotherapy institutes need more support to improve the situation of staff shortages and student graduation rates. The non-central regions should be encouraged to produce more physiotherapists. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Identification of geographically distributed sub-populations of Leishmania (Leishmania major by microsatellite analysis

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    Schwenkenbecher Jan

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leishmania (Leishmania major, one of the agents causing cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL in humans, is widely distributed in the Old World where different species of wild rodent and phlebotomine sand fly serve as animal reservoir hosts and vectors, respectively. Despite this, strains of L. (L. major isolated from many different sources over many years have proved to be relatively uniform. To investigate the population structure of the species highly polymorphic microsatellite markers were employed for greater discrimination among it's otherwise closely related strains, an approach applied successfully to other species of Leishmania. Results Multilocus Microsatellite Typing (MLMT based on 10 different microsatellite markers was applied to 106 strains of L. (L. major from different regions where it is endemic. On applying a Bayesian model-based approach, three main populations were identified, corresponding to three separate geographical regions: Central Asia (CA; the Middle East (ME; and Africa (AF. This was congruent with phylogenetic reconstructions based on genetic distances. Re-analysis separated each of the populations into two sub-populations. The two African sub-populations did not correlate well with strains' geographical origin. Strains falling into the sub-populations CA and ME did mostly group according to their place of isolation although some anomalies were seen, probably, owing to human migration. Conclusion The model- and distance-based analyses of the microsatellite data exposed three main populations of L. (L. major, Central Asia, the Middle East and Africa, each of which separated into two sub-populations. This probably correlates with the different species of rodent host.

  7. Genetic diversity and geographic distribution of genetically distinct rabies viruses in the Philippines.

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    Mariko Saito

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rabies continues to be a major public health problem in the Philippines, where 200-300 human cases were reported annually between 2001 and 2011. Understanding the phylogeography of rabies viruses is important for establishing a more effective and feasible control strategy. METHODS: We performed a molecular analysis of rabies viruses in the Philippines using rabied animal brain samples. The samples were collected from 11 of 17 regions, which covered three island groups (Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. Partial nucleoprotein (N gene sequencing was performed on 57 samples and complete glycoprotein (G gene sequencing was performed on 235 samples collected between 2004 and 2010. RESULTS: The Philippine strains of rabies viruses were included in a distinct phylogenetic cluster, previously named Asian 2b, which appeared to have diverged from the Chinese strain named Asian 2a. The Philippine strains were further divided into three major clades, which were found exclusively in different island groups: clades L, V, and M in Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao, respectively. Clade L was subdivided into nine subclades (L1-L9 and clade V was subdivided into two subclades (V1 and V2. With a few exceptions, most strains in each subclade were distributed in specific geographic areas. There were also four strains that were divided into two genogroups but were not classified into any of the three major clades, and all four strains were found in the island group of Luzon. CONCLUSION: We detected three major clades and two distinct genogroups of rabies viruses in the Philippines. Our data suggest that viruses of each clade and subclade evolved independently in each area without frequent introduction into other areas. An important implication of these data is that geographically targeted dog vaccination using the island group approach may effectively control rabies in the Philippines.

  8. Geographical distribution and risk assessment of persistent organic pollutants in golden threads (Nemipterus virgatus) from the northern South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Qing; Sun, Yu-Xin; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Yao, Zi-Wei; Wang, You-Shao; Zhang, Zai-Wang; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2015-10-01

    Fish are often used as good bioindicators to monitor the occurrence of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) on different scales in recent years. Forty-five golden threads (Nemipterus virgatus) were collected from six sampling sites in the northern South China Sea (SCS) to investigate the geographical distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs). Concentrations of PBDEs, PCBs, and DDTs ranged from 1.3-36.0, 2.3-76.5, 8.3-228 ng/g lipid weight, respectively. The highest PBDEs and DDTs concentrations were found in golden threads from Shantou, owing to the intensive electronic waste recycling activities and rapid development of agriculture. Samples from Haikou had the highest levels of PCBs, probably due to the existence of many shipbuilding yards in the past years. The concentrations of PBDEs and PCBs were found in a decreasing trend from east to west and from north to south, while DDTs concentrations had no obvious trend in the distribution. PCBs were the most prevalent contaminants in Xiamen and Yangjiang, while DDTs were the dominant compounds at the other four sampling sites. Different profiles of POPs at each sampling site may attribute to different pollution sources in the northern SCS. Ratios of (DDD + DDE)/DDTs in golden threads suggested the probability of fresh input of DDT in the northern SCS. The estimated daily intakes of PBDEs, PCBs and DDTs were 0.030-0.069, 0.167-0.258 and 0.105-1.88 ng/kg/day, respectively, which were significantly lower than the acceptable daily intake, suggesting that consumption of golden threads from the northern SCS would not subject the residents in the coastal areas of SCS to significant health risk.

  9. Tick parasites of rodents in Romania: host preferences, community structure and geographical distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalca, Andrei D; Dumitrache, Mirabela O; Sándor, Attila D; Magdaş, Cristian; Oltean, Miruna; Györke, Adriana; Matei, Ioana A; Ionică, Angela; D'Amico, Gianluca; Cozma, Vasile; Gherman, Călin M

    2012-11-21

    Ticks are among the most important vectors of zoonotic diseases in temperate regions of Europe, with widespread distribution and high densities, posing an important medical risk. Most ticks feed on a variety of progressively larger hosts, with a large number of small mammal species typically harbouring primarily the immature stages. However, there are certain Ixodidae that characteristically attack micromammals also during their adult stage. Rodents are widespread hosts of ticks, important vectors and competent reservoirs of tick-borne pathogens. Micromammal-tick associations have been poorly studied in Romania, and our manuscript shows the results of a large scale study on tick infestation epidemiology in rodents from Romania. Rodents were caught using snap-traps in a variety of habitats in Romania, between May 2010 and November 2011. Ticks were individually collected from these rodents and identified to species and development stage. Frequency, mean intensity, prevalence and its 95% confidence intervals were calculated using the EpiInfo 2000 software. A p value of Romania for the presence of ticks. Each collected tick was identified to species level and the following epidemiological parameters were calculated: prevalence, mean intensity and mean abundance. The total number of ticks collected from rodents was 483, with eight species identified: Ixodes ricinus, I. redikorzevi, I. apronophorus, I. trianguliceps, I. laguri, Dermacentor marginatus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Haemaphysalis sulcata. The overall prevalence of tick infestation was 29.55%, with a mean intensity of 3.86 and a mean abundance of 1.14. Only two polyspecific infestations were found: I. ricinus + I. redikorzevi and I. ricinus + D. marginatus. Our study showed a relatively high diversity of ticks parasitizing rodents in Romania. The most common tick in rodents was I. ricinus, followed by I. redikorzevi. Certain rodents seem to host a significantly higher number of tick species than others, the

  10. Efficient workload management in geographically distributed data centers leveraging autoregressive models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altomare, Albino; Cesario, Eugenio; Mastroianni, Carlo

    2016-10-01

    The opportunity of using Cloud resources on a pay-as-you-go basis and the availability of powerful data centers and high bandwidth connections are speeding up the success and popularity of Cloud systems, which is making on-demand computing a common practice for enterprises and scientific communities. The reasons for this success include natural business distribution, the need for high availability and disaster tolerance, the sheer size of their computational infrastructure, and/or the desire to provide uniform access times to the infrastructure from widely distributed client sites. Nevertheless, the expansion of large data centers is resulting in a huge rise of electrical power consumed by hardware facilities and cooling systems. The geographical distribution of data centers is becoming an opportunity: the variability of electricity prices, environmental conditions and client requests, both from site to site and with time, makes it possible to intelligently and dynamically (re)distribute the computational workload and achieve as diverse business goals as: the reduction of costs, energy consumption and carbon emissions, the satisfaction of performance constraints, the adherence to Service Level Agreement established with users, etc. This paper proposes an approach that helps to achieve the business goals established by the data center administrators. The workload distribution is driven by a fitness function, evaluated for each data center, which weighs some key parameters related to business objectives, among which, the price of electricity, the carbon emission rate, the balance of load among the data centers etc. For example, the energy costs can be reduced by using a "follow the moon" approach, e.g. by migrating the workload to data centers where the price of electricity is lower at that time. Our approach uses data about historical usage of the data centers and data about environmental conditions to predict, with the help of regressive models, the values of the

  11. Geographical distribution of drinking-water with high iodine level and association between high iodine level in drinking-water and goitre: a Chinese national investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hongmei; Liu, Shoujun; Sun, Dianjun; Zhang, Shubin; Su, Xiaohui; Shen, Yanfeng; Han, Hepeng

    2011-07-01

    Excessive iodine intake can cause thyroid function disorders as can be caused by iodine deficiency. There are many people residing in areas with high iodine levels in drinking-water in China. The main aim of the present study was to map the geographical distribution of drinking-water with high iodine level in China and to determine the relationship between high iodine level in drinking-water and goitre prevalence. Iodine in drinking-water was measured in 1978 towns of eleven provinces in China, with a total of 28,857 water samples. We randomly selected children of 8-10 years old, examined the presence of goitre and measured their urinary iodine in 299 towns of nine provinces. Of the 1978 towns studied, 488 had iodine levels between 150 and 300 μg/l in drinking-water, and in 246 towns, the iodine level was >300 μg/l. These towns are mainly distributed along the original Yellow River flood areas, the second largest river in China. Of the 56 751 children examined, goitre prevalence was 6.3 % in the areas with drinking-water iodine levels of 150-300 μg/l and 11.0 % in the areas with drinking-water iodine >300 μg/l. Goitre prevalence increased with water and urinary iodine levels. For children with urinary iodine >1500 μg/l, goitre prevalence was 3.69 times higher than that for those with urinary iodine levels of 100-199 μg/l. The present study suggests that drinking-water with high iodine levels is distributed in eleven provinces of China. Goitre becomes more prevalent with the increase in iodine level in drinking-water. Therefore, it becomes important to prevent goitre through stopping the provision of iodised salt and providing normal drinking-water iodine through pipelines in these areas in China.

  12. Translocation 1;7 in dyshematopoiesis: possibly induced with a nonrandom geographic distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheres, J.M.; Hustinx, T.W.; Holdrinet, R.S.; Geraedts, J.P.; Hagemeijer, A.; van der Blij-Philipsen, M.

    1984-01-01

    Eight patients with various hematologic disorders had an identical chromosomal aberration in their bone marrow or unstimulated peripheral blood, a translocation t(1;7) interpreted as t(1;7)(p11;p11). The translocation chromosome replaced one normal chromosome number7; therefore, the karyotype of the abnormal cells was trisomic for 1q and monosomic for 7q. Including four cases from the literature, a total of 12 patients (4 women, 8 men) with this translocation are known at the moment. The translocation does not seem to be associated with a specific disorder, but almost all patients had a preleukemic syndrome during some stage of their disease. It is very remarkable that 11 of the 12 patients lived in the Netherlands, and 7 patients had a history of iatrogenic exposure to alkylating agents or irradiation; one patient was a radiation worker and another one had a history of toxic exposure to chloramphenicol. It is suggested, therefore, that the t(1;7) is a possibly induced chromosomal aberration with a clearly nonrandom geographic distribution

  13. Geographic distribution of isolated indigenous societies in Amazonia and the efficacy of indigenous territories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, Dylan C; Walker, Robert S

    2015-01-01

    The headwaters of the Amazon Basin harbor most of the world's last indigenous peoples who have limited contact with encroaching colonists. Knowledge of the geographic distribution of these isolated groups is essential to assist with the development of immediate protections for vulnerable indigenous settlements. We used remote sensing to document the locations of 28 isolated villages within the four Brazilian states of Acre, Amazonas, Roraima, and Rondônia. The sites were confirmed during previous over-flights and by image evidence of thatched-roof houses; they are estimated to host over 1,700 individuals. Locational data were used to train maximum entropy models that identified landscape and anthropogenic features associated with the occurrence of isolated indigenous villages, including elevation, proximity to streams of five different orders, proximity to roads and settlements, proximity to recent deforestation, and vegetation cover type. Isolated villages were identified at mid elevations, within 20 km of the tops of watersheds and at greater distances from existing roads and trails. We further used model results, combined with boundaries of the existing indigenous territory system that is designed to protect indigenous lands, to assess the efficacy of the existing protected area network for isolated peoples. Results indicate that existing indigenous territories encompass all of the villages we identified, and 50% of the areas with high predicted probabilities of isolated village occurrence. Our results are intended to help inform policies that can mitigate against future external threats to isolated peoples.

  14. Geographic distribution of isolated indigenous societies in Amazonia and the efficacy of indigenous territories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan C Kesler

    Full Text Available The headwaters of the Amazon Basin harbor most of the world's last indigenous peoples who have limited contact with encroaching colonists. Knowledge of the geographic distribution of these isolated groups is essential to assist with the development of immediate protections for vulnerable indigenous settlements. We used remote sensing to document the locations of 28 isolated villages within the four Brazilian states of Acre, Amazonas, Roraima, and Rondônia. The sites were confirmed during previous over-flights and by image evidence of thatched-roof houses; they are estimated to host over 1,700 individuals. Locational data were used to train maximum entropy models that identified landscape and anthropogenic features associated with the occurrence of isolated indigenous villages, including elevation, proximity to streams of five different orders, proximity to roads and settlements, proximity to recent deforestation, and vegetation cover type. Isolated villages were identified at mid elevations, within 20 km of the tops of watersheds and at greater distances from existing roads and trails. We further used model results, combined with boundaries of the existing indigenous territory system that is designed to protect indigenous lands, to assess the efficacy of the existing protected area network for isolated peoples. Results indicate that existing indigenous territories encompass all of the villages we identified, and 50% of the areas with high predicted probabilities of isolated village occurrence. Our results are intended to help inform policies that can mitigate against future external threats to isolated peoples.

  15. Ribosomal DNA sequence analysis of different geographically distributed Aloe Vera plants: Comparison with clonally regenerated plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, A.; Sato, Y.; Miwa, Y.; Kabbash, A.; Moustafa, S.; Shimomura, K.; El-Bassuony, A.

    2006-01-01

    A comparison of the sequences in an internally transcribed spacer (ITS) 1 region of rDNA between clonally regenerated A.vera and same species in Japan, USA and Egypt revealed the presence of two types of nucleotide sequences, 252 and 254 bps. Based on the findings in the ITS 1 region, A.vera having 252 and 254 bps clearly showed a stable sequence similarity, suggesting high conversation of the base peak sequence in the ITS 1 region. However, frequent base substitutions in the 252 bps samples leaves that came from callus tissue and micropropagated plants were observed around the regions of nucleotide positions 66, 99 and 199-201. The minor deviation in clonally regenerated A.vera may be due to the stage of regeneration and cell specification in cases of the callus tissue. In the present study, the base peak sequence of the Its 1 region of rDNA was adopted as a molecular marker for differentiating A.vera plants from geographically distributed and clonally regenerated A.vera plants and it was suggested that the base peak substitutions in the ITS 1 region may arise from the different nutritional and environmental factors in cultivation and plant growth stages. (author)

  16. Methylmercury in fish from the South China Sea: geographical distribution and biomagnification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Aijia; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Zhanzhou; Huang, Liangmin; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2013-12-15

    We conducted a large-scale investigation of methylmercury (MeHg) in a total of 628 marine wild fish covering 46 different species collected from the South China Sea between 2008 and 2009. Biological and ecological characteristics such as size (length and wet weight), feeding habit, habitat, and stable isotope (δ(15)N) were examined to explain MeHg bioaccumulation in marine fish and their geographical distribution. MeHg levels in the muscle tissues of the 628 individuals ranged from 0.010 to 1.811 μg/g dry wt. Log10MeHg concentration was significantly related to their length and wet weight. Feeding habit and habitat were the primary factors influencing MeHg bioaccumulation. Demersal fish were more likely to be contaminated with MeHg than the epipelagic and mesopelagic varieties. Linear relationships were obtained between Log10(MeHg) and δ(15)N only for one location, indicating that biomagnification was site-specific. Results from this study suggest that dietary preference and trophic structure were the main factors affecting MeHg bioaccumulation in marine fish from the South China Sea. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Stoneflies (Plecoptera) of the Gunnison Basin: A Geographical Study of Current Versus Historical Distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J.; Townsend, A.; Alexander, K.

    2005-05-01

    We compared the stonefly diversity sampled from 11 selected sites in the Gunnison River Basin over the last three years to the stonefly diversity recorded by Knight (1965) from the same or nearby sites. The 11 sites in this study were chosen from the 22 sites reported by Knight (1965) because they represented mainstem Gunnison River sites that would be predicted to experience the most alteration due to anthropogenic changes such as the construction of impoundments, differences in land use patterns, and effects from the increase in human population of the region. We have been unable to locate ten of the stonefly species that were historically found and we presume that they have gone locally extinct or have become increasingly rare. We have also found six species present today that were not historically reported from Knight (1965). Maps showing current and historical stonefly diversity and distribution have been produced using ArcGIS and analyzed with relevant geographical data to form hypotheses to account for specific changes in the stonefly fauna of the basin.

  18. Geographic distribution and morphometric differentiation of Triatoma nitida usinger 1939 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae in Guatemala

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    Monroy Carlota

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma nitida was found in 14 (0.4% out of 3,726 houses located in six departments across Guatemala, which were surveyed from 1994 to 1998 by the man-hour collection method. Compared to previous information, the distribution of T. nitida in Guatemala has increased from five to nine departments; the species is present in mild climates at altitudes from 960 to 1,500 m. Fourteen percent of the intradomestic T. nitida were infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. The species was often found in conjunction with other triatomines (T. dimidiata and Rhodnius prolixus. The domestic and peridomestic presence of T. nitida in Guatemala was rare, but occasionally this species was colonizing human-made constructions. T. nitida appears to have a low importance as Chagas disease vector in Guatemala, as indicated by its scarce presence in the domestic habitats and defecation patterns. However, it clearly has potential to become a Chagas vector so we recommend an on-going study of the intradomestic presence of T. nitida following the control programs in Guatemala. Morphometric analysis of 47 T. nitida males from three localities showed quantitative differences between the populations, which indicates that geographic distance is an important factor in the structuring of T. nitida populations.

  19. Predicting geographic distributions of Phacellodomus species (Aves: Furnariidae in South America based on ecological niche modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Salete Gurgel Costa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Phacellodomus Reichenbach, 1853, comprises nine species of Furnariids that occur in South America in open and generally dry areas. This study estimated the geographic distributions of Phacellodomus species in South America by ecological niche modeling. Applying maximum entropy method, models were produced for eight species based on six climatic variables and 949 occurrence records. Since highest climatic suitability for Phacellodomus species has been estimated in open and dry areas, the Amazon rainforest areas are not very suitable for these species. Annual precipitation and minimum temperature of the coldest month are the variables that most influence the models. Phacellodomus species occurred in 35 ecoregions of South America. Chaco and Uruguayan savannas were the ecoregions with the highest number of species. Despite the overall connection of Phacellodomus species with dry areas, species such as P. ruber, P. rufifrons, P. ferrugineigula and P. erythrophthalmus occurred in wet forests and wetland ecoregions.

  20. [Geographic distribution and exposure population of drinking water with high concentration of arsenic in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Chen, C

    1997-09-01

    According to the data obtained from the "National Survey on Drinking Water Quality and Waterborne Diseases", the geographic distribution and exposure population of high arsenic drinking water were reported. From the data of more than 28,800 water samples, we found 9.02 million people drinking the water with As concentration of 0.030-0.049 mg/L, 3.34 million people having their water of 0.050-0.099 mg/L and 2.29 million people having water of > 0.1 mg/L. A total of 14.6 million people, about 1.5% of the surveyed population was exposed to As (> 0.030 mg/L) from drinking water. 80% of high-As-drinking water was groundwater. The situation of As in drinking water in provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities were listed. The locations of sampling site where water As exceeded the national standard for drinking water were illustrated.

  1. Monitoring potential geographical distribution of four wild bird species in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, S.; Feng, D.; Xu, B.

    2015-12-01

    The outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) of the H5N1 subtype in wild birds and poultry have caught worldwide attention. To explore the association between wild bird migration and avian influenza virus transmission, we monitored potential geographical distribution of four wild bird species that might carry the avian influenza viruses in China. They are Bar-headed geese (Anser indicus), Ruddy Shelduck (Tadorna ferruginea), Whooper Swan (Cygnus cygnus) and Black-headed Gull (Larus ridibundus). They served as major reservoir of the avian influenza viruses. We used bird watching records with the precise latitude/longitude coordinates from January 2002 to August 2014, and environmental variables with a pixel resolution of 5 km × 5 km from 2002 to 2014. The study utilized maximum entropy (MaxEnt) model based on ecological niche model approaches, and got the following results: 1) MaxEnt model have good discriminatory ability with the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating curve (ROC) of 0.86-0.97; 2) The four wild bird species were estimated to concentrate in the North China Plain, the middle and lower region of the Yangtze River, Qinghai Lake, Tianshan Mountain and Tarim Basin, part of Tibet Plateau, and Hengduan Mountains; 3) Radiation and the minimum temperature were found to provide the most significant information. Our findings will help to understand the spread of avian influenza viruses by wild bird migration in China, which benefits for effective monitoring strategies and prevention measures.

  2. The pollutants from livestock and poultry farming in China-geographic distribution and drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Ling; Hu, Xisheng

    2016-05-01

    Livestock and poultry farming is a major source of agricultural pollution. However, our knowledge of the constraining factors of the geographic distribution of pollutants from livestock and poultry farming is still limited. In this study, using the optimized pollutant generation coefficients, we estimated the annual pollutant productions of eight livestock and poultry species at the provincial level in 2005 and 2013 and their growth rates during the study period in China; using canonical correlation analysis, we also explored the association between the eight pollutant measurements as dependent variables and 14 factors (including resource endowment, developmental level, and economic structure factors) as independent variables. Results indicate that there exist spatial disparity in the distribution of pollutants from livestock and poultry farming across regions, with provinces in the Huang-Huai-Hai region and the southwestern region accounting for approximately 50 % of the total productions in the nation. Cattle, pig, and poultry constitute the primary pollution sources in terms of livestock and poultry farming not only at the national level but also at the province level. While the species constitute and their respective growth rates of the pollutants can be also characterized by spatial disparity across regions, canonical correlation analysis shows that the observed regional patterns of the pollutants can be largely explained by the resource endowment factors (positive effects) and the developmental level factors (negative effects). In addition, we found that the development of livestock and poultry farming is negatively associated with the growing rate of both the resource endowment and the socioeconomic factors. This indicates that there exist different driving patterns in the gross and increment of the pollutant productions. Our research has significant implications for the appropriate environmental protection policy formulation and implementation in livestock

  3. Potential geographic distribution and conservation of Audubon's Shearwater, Puffinus lherminieri in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cecília P.A. Lopes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Audubon's Shearwater (Puffinus lherminieri Lesson 1839 is a tropical seabird occurring mainly between southern Canada and the southeast coast of Brazil. Puffinus lherminieri is considered Critically Endangered on the Brazilian Red List because it only occurs in two known localities, both of which contain very small populations. However, many offshore islands along the Brazilian coast are poorly known and the discovery of new colonies would be of considerable significance for the conservation of this species. The aim of this study was to estimate the potential geographic distribution of Audubon's Shearwater in Brazil, based on ecological niche model (ENM using Maxent algorithm with layers obtained from AquaMaps environmental dataset. The ENM was based on 37 records for reproduction areas in North and South America. The model yielded a very broad potential distribution, covering most of the Atlantic coast ranging from Brazil to the US. When filtered for islands along the Brazilian coast, the model indicates higher levels of environmental suitability near the states of São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Espírito Santo and Bahia. However, P. lherminieri prefers islands in environments with warm saline water. Thus, based on the influence of currents that act on the Brazilian coast we can infer undiscovered colonies are most likely to occur on islands on coast of Bahia, Espírito Santo and extreme north of the Rio de Janeiro. These should be intensively surveyed while the islands south of Cabo Frio should be discarded. The existence of new populations would have profound effects on the conservation status of this enigmatic and rarely seen seabird.

  4. Geographical cost-supply analysis forest biomass for distributed generation in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    2004-01-01

    The article presents a study which uses geographical information system (GIS) to perform cost-supply analysis of wood chips resources for energy production.......The article presents a study which uses geographical information system (GIS) to perform cost-supply analysis of wood chips resources for energy production....

  5. Geographic distribution of ebony leaf monkey Trachypithecus auratus (E. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1812) (Mammalia: Primates: Cercopithecidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, Vincent

    2000-01-01

    As one of the fundamental units of ecology and biogeography, the geographic distribution of the endemic and threatened ebony leaf monkey Trachypithecus auratus (E. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1812) on the islands of Java, Bali, and Lombok (Indonesia) has been assessed. All localities where the species

  6. Geographic Distribution of Maternal Group B Streptococcus Colonization and Infant Death During Birth Hospitalization: Eastern Wisconsin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica J. F. Kram

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Maternal group B Streptococcus (GBS can be transmitted from a colonized mother to newborn during vaginal delivery and may or may not contribute to infant death. This study aimed to explore the geographic distribution and risk factors of maternal GBS colonization and infant death during birth hospitalization. Methods: We retrospectively studied mothers with live birth(s in a large eastern Wisconsin hospital system from 2007 through 2013. Associations between maternal and neonatal variables, GBS colonization and infant death were examined using chi-squared, Mann-Whitney U and t-tests. Multivariable logistic regression models also were developed. Results: Study population (N = 99,305 had a mean age of 28.1 years and prepregnancy body mass index (BMI of 26.7 kg/m2; 64.0% were white, 59.2% married, 39.3% nulliparous and 25.7% cesarean delivery. Mean gestational age was 39.0 weeks. Rate of maternal GBS colonization (22.3% overall was greater in blacks (34.1% vs. 20.1% in whites, P < 0.0001, unmarried women (25.5% vs. 20.0% married, P < 0.0001, women with sexually transmitted or other genital infections (P < 0.0001 and residents of ZIP code group 532XX (P < 0.0001, and was associated with increasing BMI (P < 0.0001. All predictors of colonization were significant on multivariable analysis. Rate of infant death was 5.7 deaths/1,000 live births (n = 558 excluding lethal anomalies and stillbirths and was negatively associated with maternal GBS colonization (P < 0.0001. On multivariable analysis, 532XX ZIP code group, lower gestational age, preterm labor, hyaline membrane disease, normal spontaneous vaginal delivery, hydramnios, oligohydramnios and absence of maternal GBS were associated with infant death. Conclusions: Geographic characteristics were associated with infant death and maternal GBS colonization. Further research is needed to determine if increased surveillance or treatment of mothers colonized with GBS decreases the risk of infant

  7. Indicator 1.07. Number and geographic distribution of forest-associated species at risk of losing genetic variation and locally adapted genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. H. Flather; M. S Knowles; C. H. Sieg

    2011-01-01

    This indicator provides information on the number and distribution of forest-associated species at risk of losing genetic variation across their geographic range. Comparing a species' current geographic distribution with its historic distribution is the basis for identifying those species whose range has contracted significantly. Human activities are accelerating...

  8. Addressing diarrhea prevalence in the West African Middle Belt: social and geographic dimensions in a case study for Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pande, Saket; Keyzer, Michiel A; Arouna, Aminou; Sonneveld, Ben G J S

    2008-04-23

    In West Africa, the Northern Sahelian zone and the coastal areas are densely populated but the Middle Belt in between is in general sparsely settled. Predictions of climate change foresee more frequent drought in the north and more frequent flooding in the coastal areas, while conditions in the Middle Belt will remain moderate. Consequently, the Middle Belt might become a major area for immigration but there may be constraining factors as well, particularly with respect to water availability. As a case study, the paper looks into the capacity of the Middle Belt zone of Benin, known as the Oueme River Basin (ORB), to reduce diarrhea prevalence. In Benin it links to the Millennium Development Goals on child mortality and environmental sustainability that are currently farthest from realization. However, diarrhea prevalence is only in part due to lack of availability of drinking water from a safe source. Social factors such as hygienic practices and poor sanitation are also at play. Furthermore, we consider these factors to possess the properties of a local public good that suffers from under provision and requires collective action, as individual actions to prevent illness are bound to fail as long as others free ride. Combining data from the Demographic Health Survey with various spatial data sets for Benin, we apply mixed effect logit regression to arrive at a spatially explicit assessment of geographical and social determinants of diarrhea prevalence. Starting from an analysis of these factors separately at national level, we identify relevant proxies at household level, estimate a function with geo-referenced independent variables and apply it to evaluate the costs and impacts of improving access to good water in the basin. First, the study confirms the well established stylized fact on the causes of diarrhea that a household with access to clean water and with good hygienic practices will, irrespective of other conditions, not suffer diarrhea very often. Second

  9. Addressing diarrhea prevalence in the West African Middle Belt: social and geographic dimensions in a case study for Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arouna Aminou

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In West Africa, the Northern Sahelian zone and the coastal areas are densely populated but the Middle Belt in between is in general sparsely settled. Predictions of climate change foresee more frequent drought in the north and more frequent flooding in the coastal areas, while conditions in the Middle Belt will remain moderate. Consequently, the Middle Belt might become a major area for immigration but there may be constraining factors as well, particularly with respect to water availability. As a case study, the paper looks into the capacity of the Middle Belt zone of Benin, known as the Oueme River Basin (ORB, to reduce diarrhea prevalence. In Benin it links to the Millennium Development Goals on child mortality and environmental sustainability that are currently farthest from realization. However, diarrhea prevalence is only in part due to lack of availability of drinking water from a safe source. Social factors such as hygienic practices and poor sanitation are also at play. Furthermore, we consider these factors to possess the properties of a local public good that suffers from under provision and requires collective action, as individual actions to prevent illness are bound to fail as long as others free ride. Methods Combining data from the Demographic Health Survey with various spatial data sets for Benin, we apply mixed effect logit regression to arrive at a spatially explicit assessment of geographical and social determinants of diarrhea prevalence. Starting from an analysis of these factors separately at national level, we identify relevant proxies at household level, estimate a function with geo-referenced independent variables and apply it to evaluate the costs and impacts of improving access to good water in the basin. Results First, the study confirms the well established stylized fact on the causes of diarrhea that a household with access to clean water and with good hygienic practices will, irrespective of

  10. Gender and Geographic Differences in the Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Children: Analysis of Data from the National Disability Registry of Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Der-Chung; Tseng, Yen-Cheng; Hou, Yuh-Ming; Guo, How-Ran

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in the world has increased dramatically in the recent decades. However, data at the national level are limited, and geographic differences are seldom evaluated. According to the law, the local governments in Taiwan began to certify disabled residents and provide various services in 1980, and the…

  11. Prevalence and characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes in feces of black beef cattle reared in three geographically distant areas in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Megumi; Iwabuchi, Eriko; Yamamoto, Shiori; Muramatsu, Masatake; Takashima, Ikuo; Hirai, Katsuya

    2014-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes in the feces of black beef cattle reared in geographically distant areas in Japan. We surveyed 130 farms in the following three areas: northern (Hokkaido prefecture), central (Gifu and Mie prefectures), and southern (Oita, Miyazaki, and Kagoshima prefectures) areas and collected 1738 fecal samples. Our data showed the following isolation rate for each area: northern, 11.4% of 651; central, 2.8% of 572; and southern, 2.9% of 515, indicating that the isolation rate in the northern area was significantly higher than that in the central or southern areas (pprevalent serotype (40.5%), followed by 1/2a (36.9%), 4b (21.6%), and 4ab (1.0%). In the northern area, multiple serotypes were isolated from 60% of L. monocytogenes-positive farms. In addition, multiple serotypes were isolated from individual fecal samples from 18 cattle. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) characterization of 239 isolates detected 48 different PFGE types. We found that isolates from northern farms were genetically diverse compared to those from central and southern farms. Five isolates from human clinical cases and three isolates from animal clinical cases were identical to isolates from black beef cattle. Furthermore, the isolates from northern and central farms were characterized to possess epidemic clone II or III markers. We next showed that the isolates were susceptible to penicillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin, gentamicin, kanamycin, streptomycin, erythromycin, vancomycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Taken together, our survey provides crucial data regarding the prevalence and characteristics of L. monocytogenes in black beef cattle farms throughout Japan.

  12. The geographical distribution and habitats of three liver fluke intermediate hosts in South - Africa and the health implications involved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. N. de Kock

    2008-09-01

    persons and authorities were totally unsuccessful. In view of statistics available for elsewhere in the world, it would be unwise to assume that no problems exist in this regard in South Africa. The number of people suffering from fasciolosis was already estimated at 2.4 million in 61 countries in 1995 and another 180 million at risk of becoming infected, with the highest prevalence’s reported from Bolivia, China, Ecuador, Egypt, France, Iran, Peru and Portugal. The results of recent serological assays for the detection of fasciolosis in cattle herds in selected areas in South Africa indicated positive cases from localities that closely correspond to the geographical distribution of the three Lymnaea species in this country. According to reports in the literature, the high prevalence of fasciolosis in livestock in the highlands of Ethiopia couldhave serious health implications for people in the area because they have to use the same water resources. In many rural areas in South Africa local populations also have no other options than to share natural water resources with their livestock. In most instances these water bodies harbour at least one of the Lymnaea species which can maintain the life cycle of fasciola. Under such conditions residents could daily be exposed to the risk of becoming infected. It is a matter of concern that epidemiological research with regard to human fasciolosis is such aneglected subject in South Africa. In our opinion epidemiological surveys should be conducted to determine the prevalence of human fasciolosis in specific areas which could be selected on the basis of using the geographical distribution of the three Linnaean species as guidelines. Efforts should also be made to conduct surveys to update the geographical distribution of the snail intermediate hosts and awareness programmes should be launched in rural areas at risk.

  13. [Epidemiological characteristics and geographical distribution of schistosomiasis and geohelminths, in the State of Sergipe, according to data from the Schistosomiasis Control Program in Sergipe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollemberg, Carla Virginia Vieira; Santos, Cybele Maria Bomfim; Silva, Marília Matos Bezerra Lemos; Souza, Acacia Maria Barros; Silva, Angela Maria da; Almeida, José Antônio Pacheco de; Almeida, Roque Pacheco de; Jesus, Amélia Ribeiro de

    2011-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is endemic in Brazil, with high prevalence in the State of Sergipe, despite the existence of the Schistosomiasis Control Program (PCE). The data from Sergipe's PCE between 2005 and 2008 were surveyed. From the raw information, a database was created on a spreadsheet using the Access software. The frequency and geographic distribution of infections due to Schistosoma mansoni and other intestinal parasites were analyzed. These data were exported to the Spring 5.0.5 software for georeferencing and preparation of thematic maps of the spatial and temporal distribution according to year of evaluation. In 2005, 13.6% (14,471/106,287) of the tests were positive for S. mansoni, 11.2% (16,196/145,069) in 2006, 11.8% (10,220/86,824) in 2007 and 10.6% (8,329/78,859) in 2008. Analysis on the maps showed that there was high prevalence of the disease in Sergipe, and particularly in the municipalities of Ilha das Flores, Santa Rosa de Lima, Santa Luzia do Itanhi and São Cristóvão. Furthermore, we evaluated the association between the frequencies of these parasitic diseases and social and developmental indicators in the different municipalities, according to data from the Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics (IBGE) and the Department of Water Resources (SRH). We found that municipalities with schistosomiasis prevalence higher than 15% had lower coverage of sewage systems (hygiene index) (p = 0.05). Additionally, municipalities with hookworm prevalence higher than 10% had lower educational HDI (p = 0.04). The importance of greater control over environmental risk and educational factors needs to be emphasized in attempts to reduce the prevalence of these parasitic diseases.

  14. Mesoniviruses are mosquito-specific viruses with extensive geographic distribution and host range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilakis, Nikos; Guzman, Hilda; Firth, Cadhla; Forrester, Naomi L; Widen, Steven G; Wood, Thomas G; Rossi, Shannan L; Ghedin, Elodie; Popov, Vsevolov; Blasdell, Kim R; Walker, Peter J; Tesh, Robert B

    2014-05-20

    The family Mesoniviridae (order Nidovirales) comprises of a group of positive-sense, single-stranded RNA ([+]ssRNA) viruses isolated from mosquitoes. Thirteen novel insect-specific virus isolates were obtained from mosquitoes collected in Indonesia, Thailand and the USA. By electron microscopy, the virions appeared as spherical particles with a diameter of ~50 nm. Their 20,129 nt to 20,777 nt genomes consist of positive-sense, single-stranded RNA with a poly-A tail. Four isolates from Houston, Texas, and one isolate from Java, Indonesia, were identified as variants of the species Alphamesonivirus-1 which also includes Nam Dinh virus (NDiV) from Vietnam and Cavally virus (CavV) from Côte d'Ivoire. The eight other isolates were identified as variants of three new mesoniviruses, based on genome organization and pairwise evolutionary distances: Karang Sari virus (KSaV) from Java, Bontag Baru virus (BBaV) from Java and Kalimantan, and Kamphaeng Phet virus (KPhV) from Thailand. In comparison with NDiV, the three new mesoniviruses each contained a long insertion (180 - 588 nt) of unknown function in the 5' region of ORF1a, which accounted for much of the difference in genome size. The insertions contained various short imperfect repeats and may have arisen by recombination or sequence duplication. In summary, based on their genome organizations and phylogenetic relationships, thirteen new viruses were identified as members of the family Mesoniviridae, order Nidovirales. Species demarcation criteria employed previously for mesoniviruses would place five of these isolates in the same species as NDiV and CavV (Alphamesonivirus-1) and the other eight isolates would represent three new mesonivirus species (Alphamesonivirus-5, Alphamesonivirus-6 and Alphamesonivirus-7). The observed spatiotemporal distribution over widespread geographic regions and broad species host range in mosquitoes suggests that mesoniviruses may be common in mosquito populations worldwide.

  15. Methylmercury in fish from the South China Sea: Geographical distribution and biomagnification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Aijia; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Zhanzhou; Huang, Liangmin; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A large-scale investigation of MeHg in 46 species of marine wild fish from South China Sea. • Log 10 MeHg concentration was significantly related to their length and wet weight. • Feeding habit and habitat were the primary factors influencing MeHg bioaccumulation. • Demersal fish were more likely to be contaminated with MeHg than the epipelagic and mesopelagic species. • Biomagnification of MeHg was site-specific. -- Abstract: We conducted a large-scale investigation of methylmercury (MeHg) in a total of 628 marine wild fish covering 46 different species collected from the South China Sea between 2008 and 2009. Biological and ecological characteristics such as size (length and wet weight), feeding habit, habitat, and stable isotope (δ 15 N) were examined to explain MeHg bioaccumulation in marine fish and their geographical distribution. MeHg levels in the muscle tissues of the 628 individuals ranged from 0.010 to 1.811 μg/g dry wt. Log 10 MeHg concentration was significantly related to their length and wet weight. Feeding habit and habitat were the primary factors influencing MeHg bioaccumulation. Demersal fish were more likely to be contaminated with MeHg than the epipelagic and mesopelagic varieties. Linear relationships were obtained between Log 10 (MeHg) and δ 15 N only for one location, indicating that biomagnification was site-specific. Results from this study suggest that dietary preference and trophic structure were the main factors affecting MeHg bioaccumulation in marine fish from the South China Sea

  16. Geographical distribution of complement receptor type 1 variants and their associated disease risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaisa Lucas Sandri

    Full Text Available Pathogens exert selective pressure which may lead to substantial changes in host immune responses. The human complement receptor type 1 (CR1 is an innate immune recognition glycoprotein that regulates the activation of the complement pathway and removes opsonized immune complexes. CR1 genetic variants in exon 29 have been associated with expression levels, C1q or C3b binding and increased susceptibility to several infectious diseases. Five distinct CR1 nucleotide substitutions determine the Knops blood group phenotypes, namely Kna/b, McCa/b, Sl1/Sl2, Sl4/Sl5 and KCAM+/-.CR1 variants were genotyped by direct sequencing in a cohort of 441 healthy individuals from Brazil, Vietnam, India, Republic of Congo and Ghana.The distribution of the CR1 alleles, genotypes and haplotypes differed significantly among geographical settings (p≤0.001. CR1 variants rs17047660A/G (McCa/b and rs17047661A/G (Sl1/Sl2 were exclusively observed to be polymorphic in African populations compared to the groups from Asia and South-America, strongly suggesting that these two SNPs may be subjected to selection. This is further substantiated by a high linkage disequilibrium between the two variants in the Congolese and Ghanaian populations. A total of nine CR1 haplotypes were observed. The CR1*AGAATA haplotype was found more frequently among the Brazilian and Vietnamese study groups; the CR1*AGAATG haplotype was frequent in the Indian and Vietnamese populations, while the CR1*AGAGTG haplotype was frequent among Congolese and Ghanaian individuals.The African populations included in this study might have a selective advantage conferred to immune genes involved in pathogen recognition and signaling, possibly contributing to disease susceptibility or resistance.

  17. Leishmania isoenzyme polymorphisms in Ecuador: Relationships with geographic distribution and clinical presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvopina, Manuel; Armijos, Rodrigo X; Marco, Jorge D; Uezato, Hiroshi; Kato, Hirotomo; Gomez, Eduardo A; Korenaga, Masataka; Barroso, Paola A; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Cooper, Philip J; Nonaka, Shigeo; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2006-01-01

    Background Determinants of the clinical presentation of the leishmaniases are poorly understood but Leishmania species and strain differences are important. To examine the relationship between clinical presentation, species and isoenzyme polymorphisms, 56 Leishmania isolates from distinct presentations of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) from Ecuador were analyzed. Methods Isolates were characterized by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis for polymorphisms of 11 isoenzymes. Patients were infected in four different ecologic regions: highland and lowland jungle of the Pacific coast, Amazonian lowlands and Andean highlands. Results Six Leishmania species constituting 21 zymodemes were identified: L. (Viannia) panamensis (21 isolates, 7 zymodemes), L. (V.) guyanensis (7 isolates, 4 zymodemes), L. (V.) braziliensis (5 isolates, 3 zymodemes), L. (Leishmania) mexicana (11 isolates, 4 zymodemes), L. (L.) amazonensis (10 isolates, 2 zymodemes) and L. (L.) major (2 isolates, 1 zymodeme). L. panamensis was the species most frequently identified in the Pacific region and was associated with several clinical variants of cutaneous disease (CL); eight cases of leishmaniasis recidiva cutis (LRC) found in the Pacific highlands were associated with 3 zymodemes of this species. Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis found only in the Amazonian focus was associated with 3 zymodemes of L. braziliensis. The papular variant of CL, Uta, found in the Andean highlands was related predominantly with a single zymodeme of L. mexicana. Conclusion Our data show a high degree of phenotypic variation within species, and some evidence for associations between specific variants of ATL (i.e. Uta and LRC) and specific Leishmania zymodemes. This study further defines the geographic distribution of Leishmania species and clinical variants of ATL in Ecuador. PMID:16968553

  18. Leishmania isoenzyme polymorphisms in Ecuador: Relationships with geographic distribution and clinical presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimori Tatsuyuki

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Determinants of the clinical presentation of the leishmaniases are poorly understood but Leishmania species and strain differences are important. To examine the relationship between clinical presentation, species and isoenzyme polymorphisms, 56 Leishmania isolates from distinct presentations of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL from Ecuador were analyzed. Methods Isolates were characterized by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis for polymorphisms of 11 isoenzymes. Patients were infected in four different ecologic regions: highland and lowland jungle of the Pacific coast, Amazonian lowlands and Andean highlands. Results Six Leishmania species constituting 21 zymodemes were identified: L. (Viannia panamensis (21 isolates, 7 zymodemes, L. (V. guyanensis (7 isolates, 4 zymodemes, L. (V. braziliensis (5 isolates, 3 zymodemes, L. (Leishmania mexicana (11 isolates, 4 zymodemes, L. (L. amazonensis (10 isolates, 2 zymodemes and L. (L. major (2 isolates, 1 zymodeme. L. panamensis was the species most frequently identified in the Pacific region and was associated with several clinical variants of cutaneous disease (CL; eight cases of leishmaniasis recidiva cutis (LRC found in the Pacific highlands were associated with 3 zymodemes of this species. Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis found only in the Amazonian focus was associated with 3 zymodemes of L. braziliensis. The papular variant of CL, Uta, found in the Andean highlands was related predominantly with a single zymodeme of L. mexicana. Conclusion Our data show a high degree of phenotypic variation within species, and some evidence for associations between specific variants of ATL (i.e. Uta and LRC and specific Leishmania zymodemes. This study further defines the geographic distribution of Leishmania species and clinical variants of ATL in Ecuador.

  19. Species Diversity Distribution Patterns of Chinese Endemic Seed Plants Based on Geographical Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jihong; Ma, Keping; Huang, Jianhua

    2017-01-01

    Based on a great number of literatures, we established the database about the Chinese endemic seed plants and analyzed the compositions, growth form, distribution and angiosperm original families of them within three big natural areas and seven natural regions. The results indicate that the above characters of Chinese endemic plants take on relative rule at the different geographical scales. Among the three big natural areas, Eastern Monsoon area has the highest endemic plants richness, whereas Northwest Dryness area is the lowest. For life forms, herbs dominate. In contrast, the proportion of herbs of Eastern Monsoon area is remarkable under other two areas. Correspondingly the proportions of trees and shrubs are substantially higher than other two. For angiosperm original families, the number is the highest in Eastern Monsoon area, and lowest in Northwest Dryness area. On the other hand, among the seven natural regions, the humid and subtropical zone in Central and Southern China has the highest endemic plants richness, whereas the humid, hemi-humid region and temperate zone in Northeast China has the lowest. For life forms, the proportion of herbs tends to decrease from humid, hemi-humid region and temperate zone in Northeast China to humid and tropical zone in Southern China. Comparably, trees, shrubs and vines or lianas increase with the same directions. This fully represents these characters of Chinese endemic plants vary with latitudinal gradients. Furthermore, as to the number of endemic plants belonging to angiosperm original families, the number is the most in humid and subtropical zone in Center and Southern China, and tropical zone in Southern China in the next place. In contrast, the endemic plant of these two regions relatively is richer than that of The Qinghai-Tibet alpine and cold region. All above results sufficiently reflect that the Chinese endemic plants mainly distribute in Eastern Monsoon area, especially humid and subtropical zone in Center

  20. Geographical distribution of Toxoplasma gondii genotypes in Asia: A link with neighboring continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaichan, P; Mercier, A; Galal, L; Mahittikorn, A; Ariey, F; Morand, S; Boumédiène, F; Udonsom, R; Hamidovic, A; Murat, J B; Sukthana, Y; Dardé, M L

    2017-09-01

    Defining the pattern of genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii is important to understand its worldwide distribution. During the last decades, a large number of studies have been published on Toxoplasma genotypes circulating in Europe, in North and South America. Two continents are still largely unexplored, Africa and, to a less extent, Asia. In this last continent, an increasing number of publications reported genotypes circulating in diverse provinces of China, but very few data are available for other Asian countries. After a systematic database search, 47 papers related to T. gondii genotypes in Asia were analyzed. Genetic characterization of DNA was performed by microsatellite markers, or more usually by a multiplex PCR using 11 PCR-RFLP markers, allowing data comparison to draw a first global picture of the population structure of this parasite throughout Asia. Overall, 390 isolates or DNA extracts were completely typed by PCR-RFLP and/or microsatellite marker methods, revealing 36 different PCR-RFLP or equivalent microsatellite genotypes: 15 genotypes identified by a ToxoDB number and 21 atypical or unique genotypes. The most common genotype found in Asia is the genotype ToxoDB#9 (Chinese 1). The clonal types I, II and II variant, and III were also commonly found in Asia. The geographical distribution of these genotypes across Asia may reflect either a continuum with Europe for the western part of Asia (presence of Type II), or the circulation of strains through animal migration or human activities between Africa and the Southwestern part of Asia (Africa 1 genotype in Turkey or ToxoDB#20 both I Sri-Lanka and in Ethiopia or Egypt). Although there are some indications of a genetic population structure in Southeast Asian countries different from the rest of Asia, more studies in this tropical part of Asia will be necessary for a region which represent as well as Africa one of the missing links of the T. gondii genetic diversity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B

  1. New Insights into the Geographic Distribution of Mycobacterium leprae SNP Genotypes Determined for Isolates from Leprosy Cases Diagnosed in Metropolitan France and French Territories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reibel, Florence; Chauffour, Aurélie; Brossier, Florence; Jarlier, Vincent; Cambau, Emmanuelle; Aubry, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Between 20 and 30 bacteriologically confirmed cases of leprosy are diagnosed each year at the French National Reference Center for mycobacteria. Patients are mainly immigrants from various endemic countries or living in French overseas territories. We aimed at expanding data regarding the geographical distribution of the SNP genotypes of the M. leprae isolates from these patients. Skin biopsies were obtained from 71 leprosy patients diagnosed between January 2009 and December 2013. Data regarding age, sex and place of birth and residence were also collected. Diagnosis of leprosy was confirmed by microscopic detection of acid-fast bacilli and/or amplification by PCR of the M. leprae-specific RLEP region. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), present in the M. leprae genome at positions 14 676, 1 642 875 and 2 935 685, were determined with an efficiency of 94% (67/71). Almost all patients were from countries other than France where leprosy is still prevalent (n = 31) or from French overseas territories (n = 36) where leprosy is not totally eradicated, while only a minority (n = 4) was born in metropolitan France but have lived in other countries. SNP type 1 was predominant (n = 33), followed by type 3 (n = 17), type 4 (n = 11) and type 2 (n = 6). SNP types were concordant with those previously reported as prevalent in the patients' countries of birth. SNP types found in patients born in countries other than France (Comoros, Haiti, Benin, Congo, Sri Lanka) and French overseas territories (French Polynesia, Mayotte and La Réunion) not covered by previous work correlated well with geographical location and history of human settlements. The phylogenic analysis of M. leprae strains isolated in France strongly suggests that French leprosy cases are caused by SNP types that are (a) concordant with the geographic origin or residence of the patients (non-French countries, French overseas territories, metropolitan France) or (b) more likely random in regions where diverse

  2. Changes in the geographical distribution of plant species and climatic variables on the West Cornwall peninsula (South West UK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosanic, Aleksandra; Anderson, Karen; Harrison, Stephan; Turkington, Thea; Bennie, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    Recent climate change has had a major impact on biodiversity and has altered the geographical distribution of vascular plant species. This trend is visible globally; however, more local and regional scale research is needed to improve understanding of the patterns of change and to develop appropriate conservation strategies that can minimise cultural, health, and economic losses at finer scales. Here we describe a method to manually geo-reference botanical records from a historical herbarium to track changes in the geographical distributions of plant species in West Cornwall (South West England) using both historical (pre-1900) and contemporary (post-1900) distribution records. We also assess the use of Ellenberg and climate indicator values as markers of responses to climate and environmental change. Using these techniques we detect a loss in 19 plant species, with 6 species losing more than 50% of their previous range. Statistical analysis showed that Ellenberg (light, moisture, nitrogen) and climate indicator values (mean January temperature, mean July temperature and mean precipitation) could be used as environmental change indicators. Significantly higher percentages of area lost were detected in species with lower January temperatures, July temperatures, light, and nitrogen values, as well as higher annual precipitation and moisture values. This study highlights the importance of historical records in examining the changes in plant species' geographical distributions. We present a method for manual geo-referencing of such records, and demonstrate how using Ellenberg and climate indicator values as environmental and climate change indicators can contribute towards directing appropriate conservation strategies.

  3. Changes in the geographical distribution of plant species and climatic variables on the West Cornwall peninsula (South West UK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosanic, Aleksandra; Anderson, Karen; Harrison, Stephan; Turkington, Thea; Bennie, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    Recent climate change has had a major impact on biodiversity and has altered the geographical distribution of vascular plant species. This trend is visible globally; however, more local and regional scale research is needed to improve understanding of the patterns of change and to develop appropriate conservation strategies that can minimise cultural, health, and economic losses at finer scales. Here we describe a method to manually geo-reference botanical records from a historical herbarium to track changes in the geographical distributions of plant species in West Cornwall (South West England) using both historical (pre-1900) and contemporary (post-1900) distribution records. We also assess the use of Ellenberg and climate indicator values as markers of responses to climate and environmental change. Using these techniques we detect a loss in 19 plant species, with 6 species losing more than 50% of their previous range. Statistical analysis showed that Ellenberg (light, moisture, nitrogen) and climate indicator values (mean January temperature, mean July temperature and mean precipitation) could be used as environmental change indicators. Significantly higher percentages of area lost were detected in species with lower January temperatures, July temperatures, light, and nitrogen values, as well as higher annual precipitation and moisture values. This study highlights the importance of historical records in examining the changes in plant species’ geographical distributions. We present a method for manual geo-referencing of such records, and demonstrate how using Ellenberg and climate indicator values as environmental and climate change indicators can contribute towards directing appropriate conservation strategies. PMID:29401494

  4. Nationwide prevalence of human papillomavirus infection and viral genotype distribution in 37 cities in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Rong; Guo, Xiao-lei; Wisman, G. Bea A.; Schuuring, Ed; Wang, Wen-feng; Zeng, Zheng-yu; Zhu, Hong; Wu, Shang-wei

    2015-01-01

    Background: Type-specific high-risk HPV (hrHPV) infection is related to cervical carcinogenesis. The prevalence of hrHPV infection varies geographically, which might reflect the epidemiological characteristics of cervical cancer among different populations. To establish a foundation for HPV-based

  5. Cost-effective age structure and geographical distribution of boreal forest reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundström, Johanna; Ohman, Karin; Perhans, Karin; Rönnqvist, Mikael; Gustafsson, Lena; Bugman, Harald

    2011-02-01

    1. Forest reserves are established to preserve biodiversity, and to maintain natural functions and processes. Today there is heightened focus on old-growth stages, with less attention given to early successional stages. The biodiversity potential of younger forests has been overlooked, and the cost-effectiveness of incorporating different age classes in reserve networks has not yet been studied.2. We performed a reserve selection analysis in boreal Sweden using the Swedish National Forest Inventory plots. Seventeen structural variables were used as biodiversity indicators, and the cost of protecting each plot as a reserve was assessed using the Heureka system. A goal programming approach was applied, which allowed inclusion of several objectives and avoided a situation in which common indicators affected the result more than rare ones. The model was limited either by budget or area.3. All biodiversity indicators were found in all age classes, with more than half having the highest values in ages ≥ 100 years. Several large-tree indicators and all deadwood indicators had higher values in forests 0-14 years than in forests 15-69 years.4. It was most cost-effective to protect a large proportion of young forests since they generally have a lower net present value compared to older forests, but still contain structures of importance for biodiversity. However, it was more area-effective to protect a large proportion of old forests since they have a higher biodiversity potential per area.5. The geographical distribution of reserves selected with the budget-constrained model was strongly biassed towards the north-western section of boreal Sweden, with a large proportion of young forest, whereas the area-constrained model focussed on the south-eastern section, with dominance by the oldest age class.6.Synthesis and applications. We show that young forests with large amounts of structures important to biodiversity such as dead wood and remnant trees are cheap and cost

  6. Effective environmental factors on geographical distribution of traffic accidents on pedestrians, downtown of Tehran City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Ali; Rahmani, Khaled; Kavousi, Amir; Eshghabadi, Farshid; Nematollahi, Shahrzad; Zainni, Slahedyn; Soori, Hamid

    2018-02-20

    The aim of this study was to geographically analyse the traffic casualties in pedestrians in downtown of Tehran City. Study population consisted of pedestrians who had traffic injury accidents from April 2014 to March 2015 in Tehran City. Data were extracted from the offices of traffic police and municipality. For analysis of environmental factors and site of accidents, Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regression models and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) were used. All pedestrian accidents including 514 accidents were assessed in this study in which the site of accidents included arterial streets in 370 (71.9%) cases, collector streets in 133 cases (25.2%) and highways in 11 cases (2.1%). Geographical units of traffic accidents in pedestrians had statistically significant relationship with the number of bus stations, number of crossroads and recreational areas. Neighbourhoods close to markets are considered as the most dangerous places for injury in traffic accidents.

  7. Multiple sclerosis: a geographical hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlyle, I P

    1997-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis remains a rare neurological disease of unknown aetiology, with a unique distribution, both geographically and historically. Rare in equatorial regions, it becomes increasingly common in higher latitudes; historically, it was first clinically recognized in the early nineteenth century. A hypothesis, based on geographical reasoning, is here proposed: that the disease is the result of a specific vitamin deficiency. Different individuals suffer the deficiency in separate and often unique ways. Evidence to support the hypothesis exists in cultural considerations, in the global distribution of the disease, and in its historical prevalence.

  8. Geographic distribution of ebony leaf monkey Trachypithecus auratus (E. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1812) (Mammalia: Primates: Cercopithecidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Nijman, Vincent

    2000-01-01

    As one of the fundamental units of ecology and biogeography, the geographic distribution of the endemic and threatened ebony leaf monkey Trachypithecus auratus (E. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1812) on the islands of Java, Bali, and Lombok (Indonesia) has been assessed. All localities where the species has been collected are listed, and forty-two areas (each in itself consisting of numerous smaller sites) where the species has been recorded are discussed. The species occurs in a large variety of f...

  9. Geographic Distribution of CT, MRI and PET Devices in Japan: A Longitudinal Analysis Based on National Census Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Masatoshi; Koike, Soichi; Kashima, Saori; Awai, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Japan has the most CT and MRI scanners per unit population in the world; however, the geographic distribution of these technologies is currently unknown. Moreover, nothing is known of the cause-effect relationship between the number of diagnostic imaging devices and their geographic distribution. Data on the number of CT, MRI and PET devices and that of their utilizations in all 1829 municipalities of Japan was generated, based on the Static Survey of Medical Institutions conducted by the government. The inter-municipality equity of the number of devices or utilizations was evaluated with Gini coefficient. Between 2005 and 2011, the number of CT, MRI and PET devices in Japan increased by 47% (8789 to 12945), 19% (5034 to 5990) and 70% (274 to 466), respectively. Gini coefficient of the number of devices was largest for PET and smallest for CT (p for PET-MRI difference geographic distribution of the diagnostic imaging technology in Japan appears to be affected by spatial competition derived from a market force.

  10. Geographic distance and pH drive bacterial distribution in alkaline lake sediments across Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jinbo; Liu, Yongqin; Lin, Xiangui; Zhang, Huayong; Zeng, Jun; Hou, Juzhi; Yang, Yongping; Yao, Tandong; Knight, Rob; Chu, Haiyan

    2012-01-01

    Continent-scale biogeography has been extensively studied in soils and marine systems, but little is known about biogeographical patterns in non-marine sediments. We used barcode pyrosequencing to quantify the effects of local geochemical properties and geographic distance for bacterial community structure and membership, using sediment samples from 15 lakes on the Tibetan Plateau (4–1670 km apart). Bacterial communities were surprisingly diverse, and distinct from soil communities. Four of 26 phyla detected were dominant: Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, albeit 20.2% of sequences were unclassified at the phylum level. As previously observed in acidic soil, pH was the dominant factor influencing alkaline sediment community structure, phylotype richness and phylogenetic diversity. In contrast, archaeal communities were less affected by pH. More geographically distant sites had more dissimilar communities (r = 0.443, P = 0.030). Variance partitioning analysis showed that geographic distance (historical contingencies) contributed more to bacterial community variation (12.2%) than any other factor, although the environmental factors explained more variance when combined (28.9%). Together, our results show that pH is the best predictor of bacterial community structure in alkaline sediments, and confirm that both geographic distance and chemical factors govern bacterial biogeography in lake sediments. PMID:22676420

  11. Spatiotemporal Distribution of U5MR and Their Relationship with Geographic and Socioeconomic Factors in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zeng; Fu, Jingying; Jiang, Dong; Lin, Gang; Dong, Donglin; Yan, Xiaoxi

    2017-11-21

    Epidemiological studies conducted around the world have reported that the under-five mortality rate (U5MR) is closely associated with income and educational attainment. However, geographic elements should also remain a major concern in further improving child health issues, since they often play an important role in the survival environment. This study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between the U5MR, geographic, and socioeconomic factors, and to explore the associated spatial variance of the relationship in China using the geographically weighted regression (GWR) model. The results indicate that the space pattern of a high U5MR had been narrowed notably during the period from 2001 to 2010. Nighttime lights (NL) and the digital elevation model (DEM) both have obvious influences on the U5MR, with the NL having a negative impact and DEM having a positive impact. Additionally, the relationship between the NL and DEM varied over space in China. Moreover, the relevance between U5MR and DEM was narrowed in 2010 compared to 2001, which indicates that the development of economic and medical standards can overcome geographical limits.

  12. Spatiotemporal Distribution of U5MR and Their Relationship with Geographic and Socioeconomic Factors in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies conducted around the world have reported that the under-five mortality rate (U5MR is closely associated with income and educational attainment. However, geographic elements should also remain a major concern in further improving child health issues, since they often play an important role in the survival environment. This study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between the U5MR, geographic, and socioeconomic factors, and to explore the associated spatial variance of the relationship in China using the geographically weighted regression (GWR model. The results indicate that the space pattern of a high U5MR had been narrowed notably during the period from 2001 to 2010. Nighttime lights (NL and the digital elevation model (DEM both have obvious influences on the U5MR, with the NL having a negative impact and DEM having a positive impact. Additionally, the relationship between the NL and DEM varied over space in China. Moreover, the relevance between U5MR and DEM was narrowed in 2010 compared to 2001, which indicates that the development of economic and medical standards can overcome geographical limits.

  13. A revised geographical range for Liolaemus elongates Koslowsky, 1896 (Squamata: Liolaemini in Argentina: review of reported and new-data based distribution with new localities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Minoli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Estimating the effective geographical ranges of species is central to species-oriented conservation and management. In this paper, we review the geographical distribution of Liolaemus elongatus Koslowsky, 1896 with three new records for northern Chubut and southern Río Negro provinces, Argentina. Based on detailed locality records pooled from multiple data sources, including new records obtained for this study, we revise the range of L. elongatus sensu stricto and provide geographical distribution maps comparing the previously recognized range to that proposed herein. Our results show that L. elongatus possesses a much more limited geographic distribution than previously thought, being restricted to areas south of 38°S latitude; the newly proposed range is merely half the species formerly recognized geographical distribution.

  14. Geographical Distribution of Biomass Carbon in Tropical Southeast Asian Forests: A Database; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, S

    2001-01-01

    A database was generated of estimates of geographically referenced carbon densities of forest vegetation in tropical Southeast Asia for 1980. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to incorporate spatial databases of climatic, edaphic, and geomorphological indices and vegetation to estimate potential (i.e., in the absence of human intervention and natural disturbance) carbon densities of forests. The resulting map was then modified to estimate actual 1980 carbon density as a function of population density and climatic zone. The database covers the following 13 countries: Bangladesh, Brunei, Cambodia (Campuchea), India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar (Burma), Nepal, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam. The data sets within this database are provided in three file formats: ARC/INFO(trademark) exported integer grids, ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) files formatted for raster-based GIS software packages, and generic ASCII files with x, y coordinates for use with non-GIS software packages

  15. On statistical methods for analysing the geographical distribution of cancer cases near nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bithell, J.F.; Stone, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper sets out to show that epidemiological methods most commonly used can be improved. When analysing geographical data it is necessary to consider location. The most obvious quantification of location is ranked distance, though other measures which may be more meaningful in relation to aetiology may be substituted. A test based on distance ranks, the ''Poisson maximum test'', depends on the maximum of observed relative risk in regions of increasing size, but with significance level adjusted for selection. Applying this test to data from Sellafield and Sizewell shows that the excess of leukaemia incidence observed at Seascale, near Sellafield, is not an artefact due to data selection by region, and that the excess probably results from a genuine, if as yet unidentified cause (there being little evidence of any other locational association once the Seascale cases have been removed). So far as Sizewell is concerned, geographical proximity to the nuclear power station does not seen particularly important. (author)

  16. Studying Geographical Distribution Map of Weeds of Irrigated Wheat Fields of Ardabil Province

    OpenAIRE

    B Soheili

    2013-01-01

    In order to identify the density and abundance of weeds in irrigated wheat fields of Ardabil Province, 76 samples of irrigated wheat fields based on cultivation area from all counties of Ardabil province for six years (2001-2006) were selected. The genus and species of weeds from each sampling fields and their population indices density, frequency and uniformity of each species were calculated by using Thomas method. Geographic coordinates of field (Latitude, Altitude and Elevation) were the ...

  17. Distribution, incidence, prevalence and default of patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results. The study showed that the majority (38.7%) of patients with diabetes on the public sector register were from the district of eThekwini. Positive correlations were found between the prevalence of diabetes, the mortality rate and the number of defaulters (patients with diabetes who did not return for regular treatment).

  18. Implications of China's future bride shortage for the geographical distribution and social protection needs of never-married men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharygin, Ethan; Ebenstein, Avraham; Das Gupta, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Because sex ratios at birth have risen sharply in China in recent decades, an increasing proportion of men will be unable to find a bride, and will face old age without the support of a wife and children. We project the proportions of never-married men and their geographical distribution in China in the coming decades. Our projections assume that two tendencies in current marriage patterns will persist: that women will continue to migrate to wealthier areas and to prefer men with better prospects. We find that, by 2030, more than 20 per cent of men in China aged 30-39 will never have married, and that the proportion will be especially high among poor men in low-income provinces that are least able to provide social protection programmes. The projected geographic concentration of bachelors could be socially disruptive, and the results suggest a need to expand the coverage and central financing of social protection programmes.

  19. Molecular Identification of Paramecium bursaria Syngens and Studies on Geographic Distribution using Mitochondrial Cytochrome C Oxidase Subunit I (COI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagata, Patrycja; Greczek-Stachura, Magdalena; Tarcz, Sebastian; Rautian, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Paramecium bursaria is composed of five syngens that are morphologically indistinguishable but sexually isolated. The aim of the present study was to confirm by molecular methods (analyses of mitochondrial COI) the identification of P. bursaria syngens originating from different geographical locations. Phylograms constructed using both the neighbor-joining and maximum-likelihood methods based on a comparison of 34 sequences of P. bursaria strains and P. multimicronucleatum, P. caudatum and P.calkinsi strains used as outgroups revealed five clusters which correspond to results obtained previously by mating reaction. Our analysis shows the existence of 24 haplotypes for the COI gene sequence in the studied strains. The interspecies haplotype diversity was Hd = 0.967. We confirmed genetic differentiation between strains of P. bursaria and the occurrence of a correlation between geographical distribution and the correspondent syngen.

  20. Geographic distribution of childhood diabetes and obesity relative to the supply of pediatric endocrinologists in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joyce M; Davis, Matthew M; Menon, Ram K; Freed, Gary L

    2008-03-01

    To determine the geographic distribution of childhood diabetes and obesity relative to the supply of US pediatric endocrinologists. Estimation of observed and "index" ratios of children with diabetes (by region and division) and obesity (body mass index >/=95th % for age and sex) (by region and state) to board-certified pediatric endocrinologists. At the national level, the ratio of children with diabetes to pediatric endocrinologists is 290:1, and the ratio of obese children to pediatric endocrinologists is 17,741:1. Ratios of children with diabetes to pediatric endocrinologists in the Midwest (370:1), South (335:1), and West (367:1) are twice as high as in the Northeast (144:1). Across states, there is up to a 19-fold difference in the observed ratios of obese children to pediatric endocrinologists. Under conditions of equitably distributed endocrinologist supply, variation across states would be mitigated considerably. The distribution of children with diabetes and obesity does not parallel the distribution of pediatric endocrinologists in the United States, due largely to geographic disparities in endocrinologist supply. Given the large burden of obese children to endocrinologists, multidisciplinary models of care delivery are essential for the US health care system to address the needs of children with diabetes and obesity.

  1. Determination of distribution pattern of the heavy metal concentrations in the potable network of Gachsaran by Geographical Information System (GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Paraham

    2013-12-01

    . Methods: In this descriptive, cross-sectional study, samples were taken from11 spots of the drinking water distribution network and tested for concentration of 10 metals by Inductivity Coupled Ions Plasma (ICP method in summer of 2010. The research data were compared with national and international water standards. Then the distribution map of heavy metals concentrations in the drinking water wells of the region was prepared by using the Geographical Information System (GIS software. Data were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results: In all samples, the average concentration of heavy metals were: Arsenic 0.54, Cadmium 0.05, Zinc 55.9, Lead 0.18, Copper .82, Chromium 1.6, Barium 36.5, Selenium0.5, Mercury 0.1 and Silver 0.05 micrograms per liter and was less than the water quality standard. Conclusion: Based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that concentrations of heavy metals in Gachsaran’s drinking water distribution network are not higher than national and international standards and therefore not harmful for people. Key words: Heavy metals, Distribution network, Gachsaran, geographical information system (GIS

  2. Modeling the distribution of Schistosoma mansoni and host snails in Uganda using satellite sensor data and Geographical Information Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensgaard, Anna-Sofie; Jørgensen, A; Kabatereine, N B

    2005-01-01

    The potential value of MODIS satellite sensor data on Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and land surface temperatures (LST) for describing the distribution of the Schistosoma mansoni-"Biomphalaria pfeifferi"/Biomphalaria sudanica parasite-snail system in inland Uganda, were tested...... by developing annual and seasonal composite models, and iteratively analysing for their relationship with parasite and snail distribution. The dry season composite model predicted an endemic area that produced the best fit with the distribution of schools with > or =5% prevalence. NDVI values of 151-174, day...

  3. Geographic variation in migration chronology and winter distribution of midcontinent greater white-fronted geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Craig R.; Nieman, Daniel J.; Alisauskas, Ray T.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Hines, James E.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated spatial and temporal differences in migratory behavior among different breeding groups of midcontinent greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons) using band-recovery data and observations of neck collared geese during migration and winter. Birds from different breeding areas were initially delineated by geographic distance into 6 banding reference areas (BRAs): 1) interior Alaska, 2) North Slope of Alaska, 3) western Northwest Territories (NWT), 4) western Nunavut, 5) central Nunavut, and 6) eastern Nunavut. The banding groups also differed by breeding habitat, with geese from interior Alaska nesting in the boreal forest (taiga), and all other groups breeding in tundra habitats. Geese from interior Alaska migrated earlier during autumn, and were more likely to winter farther south (in Mexico) than geese from other breeding areas. Geese banded in central and eastern Nunavut (Queen Maud Gulf and Inglis River) wintered farther east (in Louisiana) than geese from other breeding areas. Small-scale (within-state) geographic segregation of wintering flocks was evidenced by the recent (post-1990) nearly exclusive use of a new wintering area in north central Texas by geese from interior Alaska. Segregation among BRAs was also apparent in Mexico, where taiga geese were found predominantly in the central Highlands (states of Zacatecas and Durango), whereas tundra geese mostly used states along the Gulf Coast (primarily Tamaulipas). Interior Alaska birds initiated spring migration earlier than geese from other areas, and were more likely than others to stop in the Rainwater Basin of Nebraska, a region where cholera outbreaks periodically kill thousands of geese. Geese from interior Alaska were the first to arrive at spring staging areas in prairie Canada where BRAs exhibited spatial delineation (a longitudinal cline) in relation to breeding areas. Our results show significant geographic and temporal variation among taiga and tundra breeding cohorts during

  4. Prevalence and distribution of principal periodontal pathogens worldwide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rylev, Mette; Kilian, Mogens

    2008-01-01

    putative periodontal pathogens and particular subsets of these species vary between ethnic groups. Few of these differences can, with the limited information available, be directly related to differences in periodontal disease prevalence. Asian populations are regularly colonized with Actinobacillus...... actinomycetemcomitans serotype c with questionable pathogenic potential. Conversely, the JP2 clone of A. actinomycetemcomitans has enhanced virulence and causes significantly higher prevalence of aggressive periodontitis in adolescents whose descent can be traced back to the Mediterranean and Western parts of Africa....... Some genetically distinct types of Porphyromonas gingivalis are more associated with disease than others, but additional work is required to relate this to clinical differences. CONCLUSIONS: Studies that take into account differences linked to the genetics of both patients and potential pathogens...

  5. Gender and geographic differences in the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders in children: analysis of data from the national disability registry of Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Der-Chung; Tseng, Yen-Cheng; Hou, Yuh-Ming; Guo, How-Ran

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in the world has increased dramatically in the recent decades. However, data at the national level are limited, and geographic differences are seldom evaluated. According to the law, the local governments in Taiwan began to certify disabled residents and provide various services in 1980, and the central government maintains a registry of certified cases. The registry started to enroll cases of ASD in 1990, providing a unique opportunity for studying ASD at the national level. Because the government discourages the certification under 3 years of age, we limited our analyses to those who were at least 3 years old. Using the registry data from 2004 to 2010, we calculated the prevalence of ASD by age, gender, and geographic area and assessed the changes over time. From 2004 to 2010, the registered cases between 3 and 17 years old increased from 3995 to 8072 annually, and the prevalence generally increased every year in all age groups (p<0.01). In each year there were more boy cases than girl cases, and the prevalence rate ratio ranged from 5.64:1 to 6.06:1 (p<0.01 in all years), with an increasing trend over time (p<0.01). A higher prevalence was observed in the urban areas over the years, and the prevalence rate ratio ranged from 2.24:1 to 2.72:1 (p<0.01 in all years), with a decreasing trend over time (p<0.01). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of geographic distributions of Irritable Bowel Syndrome with Inflammatory Bowel Disease fail to support common evolutionary roots: Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Inflammatory Bowel Diseases are not related by evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilagyi, Andrew; Xue, Xiaoqing

    2018-01-01

    Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) shares overlapping symptoms and some features of pathogenesis with Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD: Crohn's disease [CD], and Ulcerative Colitis [UC]). Geographic markers such as latitude/sunshine and more recently lactase population distributions are found to be correlated with IBD. As a result of clinical and pathogenic similarities between the 2 conditions, some authorities questioned whether a connection exists between them. We compare IBS directly with IBD, and indirectly with geographic markers associated with IBD, in order to evaluate possible evolutionary links between IBS and IBD. Similar correlations may link IBS as a precursor to IBD and possibly other conditions which are geographically connected with IBD. Data from four systematic reviews on IBD incidence and prevalence, IBS prevalence, and lactase distributions were included. Pearson's correlations were used for comparisons, with IBD values log-transformed because of skewed distribution. The articles provided 18-28 complete set of national data. Direct comparison between IBS and IBD showed no significant correlations (r = -0.14, r = -0.06 for CD and UC prevalence, r = -0.10 for CD incidence). Indirect comparisons also failed to show correlations of IBS with lactase distributions (r = -0.17), sunshine (r = -0.2) or latitude (r = 0.097); however, there was significant correlation between lactase distributions and CD incidence (r = -0.84), prevalence (r = -0.55) and UC prevalence (r = -0.59). Both sunshine (r= -0.53) and latitude (r = 0.58) are also significantly related to CD incidence. It is concluded that IBS and IBD do not follow similar global geographic patterns. This suggests a lack of an evolutionary genetic background coincident with emergence of lactase persistence. As well, vitamin D has no obvious impact on development of IBS. Similarities with IBD may result from sub groups (not yet identified) within the current Rome

  7. Geographic Distribution of Radiologists and Utilization of Teleradiology in Japan: A Longitudinal Analysis Based on National Census Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Masatoshi; Koike, Soichi; Kashima, Saori; Awai, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Japan has the most CT and MRI scanners per unit population in the world, and as these technologies spread, their geographic distribution is becoming equalized. In contrast, the number of radiologists per unit population in Japan is the lowest among OECD countries and their geographic distribution is unknown. Likewise, little is known about the use of teleradiology, which can compensate for the uneven distribution of radiologists. Based on the Survey of Physicians, Dentists and Pharmacists and the Static Survey of Medical Institutions by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, a dataset of radiologists and CT and MRI utilizations in each of Japan's 1811 municipalities was created. The inter-municipality equity of the number of radiologists was evaluated using Gini coefficient. Logistic regression analysis, based on Static Survey data, was performed to evaluate the association between hospital location and teleradiology use. Between 2006 and 2012 the number of radiologists increased by 21.7%, but the Gini coefficient remained unchanged. The number of radiologists per 1,000 CT (MRI) utilizations decreased by 17.9% (1.0%); the number was highest in metropolis and lowest in town/village and the disparity has widened from 1.9 to 2.2 (1.6 to 2.0) times. The number of hospitals and clinics using teleradiology has increased (by 69.6% and 18.1%, respectively). Hospitals located in towns/villages (odds ratio 1.61; 95% confidence interval 1.26-2.07) were more likely to use teleradiology than those in metropolises. Contrary to the CT and MRI distributions, radiologist distribution has not been evened out by the increase in their number; in other words, the distribution of radiologists was not affected by market-derived spatial competition force. As a consequence, the gap of the radiologist shortage between urban and rural areas is increasing. Teleradiology, which is one way to ameliorate this gap, should be encouraged.

  8. Geographic pattern of serum antibody prevalence for Brucella spp. in caribou, grizzly bears, and wolves from Alaska, 1975-1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarnke, Randall L; Ver Hoef, Jay M; DeLong, Robert A

    2006-07-01

    Blood samples were collected from 2,635 caribou (Rangifer tarandus), 1,238 grizzly bears (Ursus arctos), and 930 wolves (Canis lupus) from throughout mainland Alaska during 1975-98. Sera were tested for evidence of exposure to Brucella spp. Serum antibody prevalences were highest in the northwestern region of the state. In any specific area, antibody prevalences for caribou and wolves were of a similar magnitude, whereas antibody prevalence for bears in these same areas were two to three times higher.

  9. Model for Determining Geographical Distribution of Heat Saving Potentials in Danish Building Stock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Petrovic

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the global oil crisis in the 1970s, Denmark has followed a path towards energy independency by continuously improving its energy efficiency and energy conservation. Energy efficiency was mainly tackled by introducing a high number of combined heat and power plants in the system, while energy conservation was predominantly approached by implementing heat saving measures. Today, with the goal of 100% renewable energy within the power and heat sector by the year 2035, reductions in energy demand for space heating and the preparation of domestic hot water remain at the top of the agenda in Denmark. A highly detailed model for determining heat demand, possible heat savings and associated costs in the Danish building stock is presented. Both scheduled and energy-saving renovations until year 2030 have been analyzed. The highly detailed GIS-based heat atlas for Denmark is used as a container for storing data about physical properties for 2.5 million buildings in Denmark. Consequently, the results of the analysis can be represented on a single building level. Under the assumption that buildings with the most profitable heat savings are renovated first, the consequences of heat savings for the economy and energy system have been quantified and geographically referenced. The possibilities for further improvements of the model and the application to other geographical regions have been discussed.

  10. The distribution and habitat preferences of the declining species Orobanche arenaria Borkh at the northern limit of its geographical range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Piwowarczyk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Three new sites of Orobanche arenaria were discovered during floristic investigations in the Wyżyna Małopolska upland in central Poland. The new localities are concentrated in the Ponidzie area (Garb Pińczowski ridge and Niecka Połaniecka basin and form the northern limit of the geographical range of O. arenaria. The paper presents information on the distribution of Orobanche arenaria in Poland, the abundance at the sites and habitats occupied by the species.

  11. Geographic distribution of selected elements in the livers of polar bears from Greenland, Canada and the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rush, Scott A.; Borga, Katrine; Dietz, Rune; Born, Erik W.; Sonne, Christian; Evans, Thomas; Muir, Derek C.G.; Letcher, Robert J.; Norstrom, Ross J.; Fisk, Aaron T.

    2008-01-01

    To assess geographic distributions of elements in the Arctic we compared essential and non-essential elements in the livers of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) collected from five regions within Canada in 2002, in Alaska between 1994 and 1999 and from the northwest and east coasts of Greenland between 1988 and 2000. As, Hg, Pb and Se varied with age, and Co and Zn with gender, which limited spatial comparisons across all populations to Cd, which was highest in Greenland bears. Collectively, geographic relationships appeared similar to past studies with little change in concentration over time in Canada and Greenland for most elements; Hg and Se were higher in some Canadian populations in 2002 as compared to 1982 and 1984. Concentrations of most elements in the polar bears did not exceed toxicity thresholds, although Cd and Hg exceeded levels correlated with the formation of hepatic lesions in laboratory animals. - Geographical trends were observed for a number of elements in livers, including mercury, of polar bears collected across Alaska, Canada and Greenland and were similar to those observed in the early 1980s

  12. Geographical distribution and surveillance of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chinikar, Sadegh; Ghiasi, Seyed Mojtaba; Moradi, Maryam

    2010-01-01

    . Since 2000, we have shown the disease to be prevalent in 23 out of 30 provinces of Iran. Among those, Sistan-va-Baluchistan, Isfahan, Fars, Tehran, Khorasan, and Khuzestan demonstrated the highest infection, respectively. Notably, Sistan-va-Baluchistan province, southeast of Iran, has the highest...... of the disease has ranged variably in different provinces of Iran. More pathogenesis and phylogenetic studies should therefore be investigated to clarify these differences....

  13. Spatial distribution and risk factors of influenza in Jiangsu province, China, based on geographical information system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Cheng Zhang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Influenza poses a constant, heavy burden on society. Recent research has focused on ecological factors associated with influenza incidence and has also studied influenza with respect to its geographic spread at different scales. This research explores the temporal and spatial parameters of influenza and identifies factors influencing its transmission. A spatial autocorrelation analysis, a spatial-temporal cluster analysis and a spatial regression analysis of influenza rates, carried out in Jiangsu province from 2004 to 2011, found that influenza rates to be spatially dependent in 2004, 2005, 2006 and 2008. South-western districts consistently revealed hotspots of high-incidence influenza. The regression analysis indicates that railways, rivers and lakes are important predictive environmental variables for influenza risk. A better understanding of the epidemic pattern and ecological factors associated with pandemic influenza should benefit public health officials with respect to prevention and controlling measures during future epidemics.

  14. The distribution of the prevalence of ocular chlamydial infection in communities where trachoma is disappearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M. Lietman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical models predict that the prevalence of infection in different communities where an infectious disease is disappearing should approach a geometric distribution. Trachoma programs offer an opportunity to test this hypothesis, as the World Health Organization (WHO has targeted trachoma to be eliminated as a public health concern by the year 2020. We assess the distribution of the community prevalence of childhood ocular chlamydia infection from periodic, cross-sectional surveys in two areas of Ethiopia. These surveys were taken in a controlled setting, where infection was documented to be disappearing over time. For both sets of surveys, the geometric distribution had the most parsimonious fit of the distributions tested, and goodness-of-fit testing was consistent with the prevalence of each community being drawn from a geometric distribution. When infection is disappearing, the single sufficient parameter describing a geometric distribution captures much of the distributional information found from examining every community. The relatively heavy tail of the geometric suggests that the presence of an occasional high-prevalence community is to be expected, and does not necessarily reflect a transmission hot spot or program failure. A single cross-sectional survey can reveal which direction a program is heading. A geometric distribution of the prevalence of infection across communities may be an encouraging sign, consistent with a disease on its way to eradication.

  15. Gender and geographic differences in the prevalence of intellectual disability in children: analysis of data from the national disability registry of Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Der-Chung; Tseng, Yen-Cheng; Hou, Yuh-Ming; Guo, How-Ran

    2012-01-01

    Intellectual disability (ID) is not uncommon in children, but data at the national level are limited, especially those on geographic differences. On the basis of the Disabled Welfare Law, Taiwan began to certify disabled residents and provide various services in 1980. All the cases are registered, and the registry provides a rare opportunity for studying ID at the national level. Using the data from 2004 to 2010, we calculated the prevalence of ID in children by age, gender, and geographic area and assessed the changes over time. We limited analyses to children at least 3 years of age, because certification before 3 years old is discouraged by the government. We found that from 2004 to 2010, the registered cases between 3 and 17 years old ranged from 20,531 to 23,547, and the prevalence of ID increased constantly from 4.40/1000 to 5.79/1000 (p<0.01), which generally increased every year in all age groups (p<0.01). In each year there were more boy cases than girl cases, and the boy-to-girl ratio generally decreased with age (p<0.01 for chi-square test for trend in all years). The prevalence rate ratio ranged from 1.33 to 1.37 (p<0.01 in all years), and the changes in the rate ratio were small over the years. We observed a higher prevalence in the rural areas over the years, and the prevalence rate ratio ranged from 1.34 to 1.43 (p<0.01 in all years), with an increasing trend over time (p<0.01). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. What influences national and foreign physicians' geographic distribution? An analysis of medical doctors' residence location in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Giuliano; Ferrinho, Paulo; de Sousa, Bruno; Conceição, Cláudia

    2012-07-02

    The debate over physicians' geographical distribution has attracted the attention of the economic and public health literature over the last forty years. Nonetheless, it is still to date unclear what influences physicians' location, and whether foreign physicians contribute to fill the geographical gaps left by national doctors in any given country. The present research sets out to investigate the current distribution of national and international physicians in Portugal, with the objective to understand its determinants and provide an evidence base for policy-makers to identify policies to influence it. A cross-sectional study of physicians currently registered in Portugal was conducted to describe the population and explore the association of physician residence patterns with relevant personal and municipality characteristics. Data from the Portuguese Medical Council on physicians' residence and characteristics were analysed, as well as data from the National Institute of Statistics on municipalities' population, living standards and health care network. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, negative binomial and logistic regression modelling were applied to determine: (a) municipality characteristics predicting Portuguese and International physicians' geographical distribution, and; (b) doctors' characteristics that could increase the odds of residing outside the country's metropolitan areas. There were 39,473 physicians in Portugal in 2008, 51.1% of whom male, and 40.2% between 41 and 55 years of age. They were predominantly Portuguese (90.5%), with Spanish, Brazilian and African nationalities also represented. Population, Population's Purchasing Power, Nurses per capita and Municipality Development Index (MDI) were the municipality characteristics displaying the strongest association with national physicians' location. For foreign physicians, the MDI was not statistically significant, while municipalities' foreign population applying for residence

  17. What influences national and foreign physicians’ geographic distribution? An analysis of medical doctors’ residence location in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russo Giuliano

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The debate over physicians’ geographical distribution has attracted the attention of the economic and public health literature over the last forty years. Nonetheless, it is still to date unclear what influences physicians’ location, and whether foreign physicians contribute to fill the geographical gaps left by national doctors in any given country. The present research sets out to investigate the current distribution of national and international physicians in Portugal, with the objective to understand its determinants and provide an evidence base for policy-makers to identify policies to influence it. Methods A cross-sectional study of physicians currently registered in Portugal was conducted to describe the population and explore the association of physician residence patterns with relevant personal and municipality characteristics. Data from the Portuguese Medical Council on physicians’ residence and characteristics were analysed, as well as data from the National Institute of Statistics on municipalities’ population, living standards and health care network. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, negative binomial and logistic regression modelling were applied to determine: (a municipality characteristics predicting Portuguese and International physicians’ geographical distribution, and; (b doctors’ characteristics that could increase the odds of residing outside the country’s metropolitan areas. Results There were 39,473 physicians in Portugal in 2008, 51.1% of whom male, and 40.2% between 41 and 55 years of age. They were predominantly Portuguese (90.5%, with Spanish, Brazilian and African nationalities also represented. Population, Population’s Purchasing Power, Nurses per capita and Municipality Development Index (MDI were the municipality characteristics displaying the strongest association with national physicians’ location. For foreign physicians, the MDI was not statistically significant

  18. Geographical variation in the distribution of different calanid species in the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Stephen, R.

    at a few stations in the northern Arabian Sea. N. robustior was found to inhabit the equatorial and southern region, and N. tonsus was distributed in the southern provinces especially in the South African waters. Calanoides carinatus the copepod which...

  19. Investigation of selection bias in the association of race with prevalent atrial fibrillation in a national cohort study: REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Evan L; Soliman, Elsayed Z; Pulley, LeaVonne; Safford, Monika M; Howard, George; Howard, Virginia J

    2016-08-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is diagnosed more commonly in whites than blacks in the United States. In epidemiologic studies, selection bias could induce a noncausal positive association of white race with prevalent AF if voluntary enrollment was influenced by both race and AF status. We investigated whether nonrandom enrollment biased the association of race with prevalent self-reported AF in the US-based REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke Study (REGARDS). REGARDS had a two-stage enrollment process, allowing us to compare 30,183 fully enrolled REGARDS participants with 12,828 people who completed the first-stage telephone survey but did not complete the second-stage in-home visit to finalize their REGARDS enrollment (telephone-only participants). REGARDS enrollment was higher among whites (77.1%) than among blacks (62.3%) but did not differ by self-reported AF status. The prevalence of AF was 8.45% in whites and 5.86% in blacks adjusted for age, sex, income, education, and perceived general health. The adjusted white/black prevalence ratio of self-reported AF was 1.43 (95% CI, 1.32-1.56) among REGARDS participants and 1.38 (1.22-1.55) among telephone-only participants. These findings suggest that selection bias is not a viable explanation for the higher prevalence of self-reported AF among whites in population studies such as REGARDS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Prevalence and distribution of malaria, Pfcrt , Pfmdr 1 Genes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at evaluating the distribution of malaria, Plasmodium falciparum resistant chloroquine transporter (Pfrct), and Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistant (Pfmdr 1) mutant genes amongst residents of Benin metropolis, was carried out during the period between October 2008 and April 2010. Seven hundred ...

  1. Spatial distribution of dengue disease in municipality of Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte, using the Geographic Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Narcísio Bessa Júnior

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The dengue viral infection is one of the most relevant vector-borne diseases in the world. The disease can manifest in a variety of forms, from asymptomatic to a condition of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF. The last reported cases in Brazil correspond to 80% of the cases reported in the Americas, which emphasizes the magnitude of the problem. This study was conducted using Geographic Information System (GIS techniques, in order to evaluate the spatial distribution of the disease in the urban area of Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte. In the period between 2001 and 2007, 867 new cases were listed. About 85.7% of the addresses were georeferenced, with a larger number of cases, 14.8%, in the neighborhoods of Santo Antônio and Santa Delmira (north region, and 11.7% in the neighborhoods of Conjunto Vingt-Rosado and Alto de São Manoel (east region. There were 18 confirmed cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever associated with regions with the highest incidence of classic cases of the disease. The use of Geographic Information System (GIS proved a great benefit for better visualization of the endemic, especially in elucidating the actual distribution of dengue cases in the county and providing an effective tool for planning the monitoring of the disease at a local level.

  2. Geographic variability in elevation and topographic constraints on the distribution of native and nonnative trout in the Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Dana R.; Dunham, Jason B.; Hockman-Wert, David

    2014-01-01

    Understanding local and geographic factors influencing species distributions is a prerequisite for conservation planning. Our objective in this study was to model local and geographic variability in elevations occupied by native and nonnative trout in the northwestern Great Basin, USA. To this end, we analyzed a large existing data set of trout presence (5,156 observations) to evaluate two fundamental factors influencing occupied elevations: climate-related gradients in geography and local constraints imposed by topography. We applied quantile regression to model upstream and downstream distribution elevation limits for each trout species commonly found in the region (two native and two nonnative species). With these models in hand, we simulated an upstream shift in elevation limits of trout distributions to evaluate potential consequences of habitat loss. Downstream elevation limits were inversely associated with latitude, reflecting regional gradients in temperature. Upstream limits were positively related to maximum stream elevation as expected. Downstream elevation limits were constrained topographically by valley bottom elevations in northern streams but not in southern streams, where limits began well above valley bottoms. Elevation limits were similar among species. Upstream shifts in elevation limits for trout would lead to more habitat loss in the north than in the south, a result attributable to differences in topography. Because downstream distributions of trout in the north extend into valley bottoms with reduced topographic relief, trout in more northerly latitudes are more likely to experience habitat loss associated with an upstream shift in lower elevation limits. By applying quantile regression to relatively simple information (species presence, elevation, geography, topography), we were able to identify elevation limits for trout in the Great Basin and explore the effects of potential shifts in these limits that could occur in response to changing

  3. The geographical distribution of grey wolves (Canis lupus) in China: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Ma, Ya-Ping; Zhou, Qi-Jun; Zhang, Ya-Ping; Savolaimen, Peter; Wang, Guo-Dong

    2016-11-18

    The grey wolf ( Canis lupus ) is one of the most widely distributed terrestrial mammals, and its distribution and ecology in Europe and North America are largely well described. However, the distribution of grey wolf in southern China is still highly controversial. Several well-known western literatures stated that there are no grey wolves in southern China, while the presence of grey wolf across China has been indicated in A Guide to the Mammals of China , published by Princeton University Press. It is essential to solve this discrepancy since dogs may have originated from grey wolfs in southern China. Therefore, we systematically investigated Chinese literatures about wild animal surveys and identified more than 100 articles and books that included information of the distribution of grey wolves in China. We also surveyed the collections of three Chinese natural museums and found 26 grey wolf skins specimens collected across China. Moreover, we investigated the fossil records of wolf in China and identified 25 archaeological sites with wolf remains including south China. In conclusion, with the comprehensive summary of Chinese literatures, museum specimens and fossil records, we demonstrate that grey wolves does distribute across all parts of the Chinese mainland, including the most southern parts of China.

  4. The distribution of ocular Chlamydia prevalence across Tanzanian communities where trachoma is declining.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman A Rahman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical models predict an exponential distribution of infection prevalence across communities where a disease is disappearing. Trachoma control programs offer an opportunity to test this hypothesis, as the World Health Organization has targeted trachoma for elimination as a public health concern by the year 2020. Local programs may benefit if a single survey could reveal whether infection was headed towards elimination. Using data from a previously-published 2009 survey, we test the hypothesis that Chlamydia trachomatis prevalence across 75 Tanzanian communities where trachoma had been documented to be disappearing is exponentially distributed.We fit multiple continuous distributions to the Tanzanian data and found the exponential gave the best approximation. Model selection by Akaike Information Criteria (AICc suggested the exponential distribution had the most parsimonious fit to the data. Those distributions which do not include the exponential as a special or limiting case had much lower likelihoods of fitting the observed data. 95% confidence intervals for shape parameter estimates of those distributions which do include the exponential as a special or limiting case were consistent with the exponential. Lastly, goodness-of-fit testing was unable to reject the hypothesis that the prevalence data came from an exponential distribution.Models correctly predict that infection prevalence across communities where a disease is disappearing is best described by an exponential distribution. In Tanzanian communities where local control efforts had reduced the clinical signs of trachoma by 80% over 10 years, an exponential distribution gave the best fit to prevalence data. An exponential distribution has a relatively heavy tail, thus occasional high-prevalence communities are to be expected even when infection is disappearing. A single cross-sectional survey may be able to reveal whether elimination efforts are on-track.

  5. The distribution of ocular Chlamydia prevalence across Tanzanian communities where trachoma is declining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Salman A; West, Sheila K; Mkocha, Harran; Munoz, Beatriz; Porco, Travis C; Keenan, Jeremy D; Lietman, Thomas M

    2015-03-01

    Mathematical models predict an exponential distribution of infection prevalence across communities where a disease is disappearing. Trachoma control programs offer an opportunity to test this hypothesis, as the World Health Organization has targeted trachoma for elimination as a public health concern by the year 2020. Local programs may benefit if a single survey could reveal whether infection was headed towards elimination. Using data from a previously-published 2009 survey, we test the hypothesis that Chlamydia trachomatis prevalence across 75 Tanzanian communities where trachoma had been documented to be disappearing is exponentially distributed. We fit multiple continuous distributions to the Tanzanian data and found the exponential gave the best approximation. Model selection by Akaike Information Criteria (AICc) suggested the exponential distribution had the most parsimonious fit to the data. Those distributions which do not include the exponential as a special or limiting case had much lower likelihoods of fitting the observed data. 95% confidence intervals for shape parameter estimates of those distributions which do include the exponential as a special or limiting case were consistent with the exponential. Lastly, goodness-of-fit testing was unable to reject the hypothesis that the prevalence data came from an exponential distribution. Models correctly predict that infection prevalence across communities where a disease is disappearing is best described by an exponential distribution. In Tanzanian communities where local control efforts had reduced the clinical signs of trachoma by 80% over 10 years, an exponential distribution gave the best fit to prevalence data. An exponential distribution has a relatively heavy tail, thus occasional high-prevalence communities are to be expected even when infection is disappearing. A single cross-sectional survey may be able to reveal whether elimination efforts are on-track.

  6. Ring distributions leading to species formation: a global topographic analysis of geographic barriers associated with ring species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monahan William B

    2012-03-01

    relative importance of features that define barriers, (ii can be replicated using any kind of continuously distributed environmental variable, and (iii generates spatially explicit hypotheses of geographic species formation. The methods developed here - combined with study of the geographical ecology and genetics of taxa in their environments - should enable recognition of ring species phenomena throughout the world.

  7. Ring distributions leading to species formation: a global topographic analysis of geographic barriers associated with ring species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, William B; Pereira, Ricardo J; Wake, David B

    2012-03-12

    In the mid 20th century, Ernst Mayr and Theodosius Dobzhansky championed the significance of circular overlaps or ring species as the perfect demonstration of speciation, yet in the over 50 years since, only a handful of such taxa are known. We developed a topographic model to evaluate whether the geographic barriers that favor processes leading to ring species are common or rare, and to predict where other candidate ring barriers might be found. Of the 952,147 geographic barriers identified on the planet, only about 1% are topographically similar to barriers associated with known ring taxa, with most of the likely candidates occurring in under-studied parts of the world (for example, marine environments, tropical latitudes). Predicted barriers separate into two distinct categories: (i) single cohesive barriers (barriers - formed by groups of barriers (each 184,000 to 1.7 million km2) in close geographic proximity (totaling 1.9 to 2.3 million km2) - associated with taxa that differentiate at larger spatial scales (birds: Phylloscopus trochiloides and Larus (sp. argentatus and fuscus)). When evaluated globally, we find a large number of cohesive barriers that are topographically similar to those associated with known ring taxa. Yet, compared to cohesive barriers, an order of magnitude fewer composite barriers are similar to those that favor ring divergence in species with higher dispersal. While these findings confirm that the topographic conditions that favor evolutionary processes leading to ring speciation are, in fact, rare, they also suggest that many understudied natural systems could provide valuable demonstrations of continuous divergence towards the formation of new species. Distinct advantages of the model are that it (i) requires no a priori information on the relative importance of features that define barriers, (ii) can be replicated using any kind of continuously distributed environmental variable, and (iii) generates spatially explicit hypotheses of

  8. Optimum aggregation of geographically distributed flexible resources in strategic smart-grid/microgrid locations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattarai, Bishnu P.; Myers, Kurt S.; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2017-01-01

    This study determines optimum aggregation areas for a given distribution network considering spatial distribution of loads and costs of aggregation. An elitist genetic algorithm combined with a hierarchical clustering and a Thevenin network reduction is implemented to compute strategic locations...... operational decisions by understanding during which time of the day will be in need of flexibility, from which specific area, and in which amount, but also enables the flexibilities stemming from small distributed resources to be traded in various power/energy markets. A combination of central and local...... aggregation scheme where a central aggregator enables market participation, while local aggregators materialize the accepted bids, is implemented to realize this concept. The effectiveness of the proposed method is evaluated by comparing network performances with and without aggregation. For a given network...

  9. Wind and load forecast error model for multiple geographically distributed forecasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Reyes-Spindola, Jorge F.; Samaan, Nader; Diao, Ruisheng; Hafen, Ryan P. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    2010-07-01

    The impact of wind and load forecast errors on power grid operations is frequently evaluated by conducting multi-variant studies, where these errors are simulated repeatedly as random processes based on their known statistical characteristics. To simulate these errors correctly, we need to reflect their distributions (which do not necessarily follow a known distribution law), standard deviations. auto- and cross-correlations. For instance, load and wind forecast errors can be closely correlated in different zones of the system. This paper introduces a new methodology for generating multiple cross-correlated random processes to produce forecast error time-domain curves based on a transition probability matrix computed from an empirical error distribution function. The matrix will be used to generate new error time series with statistical features similar to observed errors. We present the derivation of the method and some experimental results obtained by generating new error forecasts together with their statistics. (orig.)

  10. Fauna and Geographical Distribution of Scorpions in Ilam Province, South Western Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifinia, Narges; Gowhari, Iman; Hoseiny-Rad, Manijeh; Aivazi, Ali Ashraf

    2017-06-01

    Scorpions' stings and their own mortalities place them among the most important health and medical problems. The dreadful features and especially their poisonous stings are considered a major cause of human stress and abhorrence/phobia. The current study aimed to study the scorpion fauna of Ilam Province, south western Iran in order to manage scorpionism related problems. In this field-laboratory investigation during March 2014 to February 2015, different parts of Ilam Province were surveyed. Nine sampling parts were selected based on geographical situation, scorpionism reports, weather, flora, and local data. Capturing scorpion was done employing a black light, and a long forceps from dusk to midnight. The collected scorpions were placed to 70% ethyl alcohol. All specimens were determined based on the valid taxonomic keys, furthermore their sexes were studied. Out of the 391 collected scorpions, 11 species were identified as follows: Hottentotta saulcyi , Mesobuthus eupeus , Compsobuthus matthiesseni , Razianus zarudnyi , Hemiscorpius lepturus , Androctonus crassicauda , Orthochirus iranus , Odontobuthus bidentatus , Buthacus macrocentrus , Scorpio maurus , and Polisius persicus . Eleven species of Buthidae, Scorpionidae and Hemiscorpiidae families from high risk areas were identified. Despite the low surface of the province, such different species reveals a diverse scorpion fauna that, in turn, shows good and suitable habits of scorpions, as considered by health staff.

  11. An historical and geographic data set on the distribution of macroinvertebrates in Italian mountain lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Boggero

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Macroinvertebrates play a key role in freshwater food webs, acting as major links between organic matter resources, primary consumers (such as bacteria, and secondary consumers (e.g.fish, amphibians, birds, and reptiles. In this paper we present a data set encompassing all geographic and historical data available on macroinvertebrates of the Italian mountain lakes from 1902 to 2016. The data set, divided per Italian mountain range (Alps and Apennines and administrative region, covers more than a century of studies of many foreign and Italian scientists. The data set includes 2372 records and shows macroinvertebrate occurrence data in 176 Alpine and in 13 Apennine lakes, of which 178 of natural origin, 5 reservoirs, and 6 artificially extended. The data set lists 605 taxa, updated on the basis of their current taxonomic position. Only 353 taxa are identified at species level, highlighting the still poorly investigated biodiversity of Italian mountain lake macroinvertebrates. Since they function as key elements to characterize lake ecological status, our data set emphasizes the huge taxonomic effort that still has to be undertaken to fully characterize these ecosystems. The data set is available in csv (comma-separated values format.

  12. Epidemiology of multiple sclerosis in U.S. veterans: 1. Race, sex, and geographic distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtzke, J F; Beebe, G W; Norman, J E

    1979-09-01

    Five thousand three hundred five World War II and Korean conflict veterans who have been compensated by the Veterans Administration for multiple sclerosis (MS) were matched to controls on the basis of age, date of entry into military service, and branch of service. Case/control ratios for white males, white females, and black males were 1.04, 1.86, and 0.45, respectively. The coterminous 48 states, divided into three tiers on the basis of latitude, exhibited the well-known north-south gradient in risk: For all races and both sexes, case/control ratios were 1.41, 1.00, and 0.53 for the North, Middle, and South tiers. Both white females and black males showed this same north-to-south variation in risk. The case/control ratio for males of races other than black or white was 0.23, with possible deficits in risk for American Indians and Japanese-Americans. Filipinos and Hawaiian Japanese were significantly low-risk groups. These findings suggest that both a racial and a possibly genetic predisposition, as well as a geographically determined differential exposure to an environmental agent, are related to the risk of MS.

  13. Studying Geographical Distribution Map of Weeds of Irrigated Wheat Fields of Ardabil Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Soheili

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify the density and abundance of weeds in irrigated wheat fields of Ardabil Province, 76 samples of irrigated wheat fields based on cultivation area from all counties of Ardabil province for six years (2001-2006 were selected. The genus and species of weeds from each sampling fields and their population indices density, frequency and uniformity of each species were calculated by using Thomas method. Geographic coordinates of field (Latitude, Altitude and Elevation were the main coverage and were determined by using GPS. These data were used for producing weed maps using GIS in irrigated wheat fields of Ardabil province. Results showed that bedstraw (Galium tricurnatum, Fumitory(Fumaria vaillantiand wildradish (Raphanus raphanistrum were dominant broad leaf weed species and wild oats (Avena fatua, rye (Secale cereal and mouse foxtail(Alopecurus myosuroides dominant grassy weeds species in irrigated wheat fields of Ardabil province. Bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis, Canada thistle(Cirsium arvenseand Acroptilon repens were the most important disturbing plants prior to harvesting in irrigated wheat fields of Ardabil province.

  14. A Tabu Search WSN Deployment Method for Monitoring Geographically Irregular Distributed Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we address the Wireless Sensor Network (WSN deployment issue. We assume that the observed area is characterized by the geographical irregularity of the sensed events. Formally, we consider that each point in the deployment area is associated a differentiated detection probability threshold, which must be satisfied by our deployment method. Our resulting WSN deployment problem is formulated as a Multi-Objectives Optimization problem, which seeks to reduce the gap between the generated events detection probabilities and the required thresholds while minimizing the number of deployed sensors. To overcome the computational complexity of an exact resolution, we propose an original pseudo-random approach based on the Tabu Search heuristic. Simulations show that our proposal achieves better performances than several other approaches proposed in the literature. In the last part of this paper, we generalize the deployment problem by including the wireless communication network connectivity constraint. Thus, we extend our proposal to ensure that the resulting WSN topology is connected even if a sensor communication range takes small values.

  15. A Tabu Search WSN Deployment Method for Monitoring Geographically Irregular Distributed Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitsaadi, Nadjib; Achir, Nadjib; Boussetta, Khaled; Pujolle, Guy

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we address the Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) deployment issue. We assume that the observed area is characterized by the geographical irregularity of the sensed events. Formally, we consider that each point in the deployment area is associated a differentiated detection probability threshold, which must be satisfied by our deployment method. Our resulting WSN deployment problem is formulated as a Multi-Objectives Optimization problem, which seeks to reduce the gap between the generated events detection probabilities and the required thresholds while minimizing the number of deployed sensors. To overcome the computational complexity of an exact resolution, we propose an original pseudo-random approach based on the Tabu Search heuristic. Simulations show that our proposal achieves better performances than several other approaches proposed in the literature. In the last part of this paper, we generalize the deployment problem by including the wireless communication network connectivity constraint. Thus, we extend our proposal to ensure that the resulting WSN topology is connected even if a sensor communication range takes small values.

  16. Maxent modeling for predicting the potential geographical distribution of two peony species under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Keliang; Yao, Linjun; Meng, Jiasong; Tao, Jun

    2018-09-01

    Paeonia (Paeoniaceae), an economically important plant genus, includes many popular ornamentals and medicinal plant species used in traditional Chinese medicine. Little is known about the properties of the habitat distribution and the important eco-environmental factors shaping the suitability. Based on high-resolution environmental data for current and future climate scenarios, we modeled the present and future suitable habitat for P. delavayi and P. rockii by Maxent, evaluated the importance of environmental factors in shaping their distribution, and identified distribution shifts under climate change scenarios. The results showed that the moderate and high suitable areas for P. delavayi and P. rockii encompassed ca. 4.46×10 5 km 2 and 1.89×10 5 km 2 , respectively. Temperature seasonality and isothermality were identified as the most critical factors shaping P. delavayi distribution, and UVB-4 and annual precipitation were identified as the most critical for shaping P. rockii distribution. Under the scenario with a low concentration of greenhouse gas emissions (RCP2.6), the range of both species increased as global warming intensified; however, under the scenario with higher concentrations of emissions (RCP8.5), the suitable habitat range of P. delavayi decreased while P. rockii increased. Overall, our prediction showed that a shift in distribution of suitable habitat to higher elevations would gradually become more significant. The information gained from this study should provide a useful reference for implementing long-term conservation and management strategies for these species. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Geographical distribution of present day Poaceae as evidence for the origin of African floras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. D. Clayton

    1983-11-01

    Full Text Available The major tribes and sub-families of grasses occupy worldwide latitudinal belts, which can be related to an evolutionary sequence of climatic adaptations. However, genera tend to be confined to individual continents, suggesting that grasses do not easily cross the oceans, and that the worldwide distribution of the family may have been achieved when the continents were closer together. Species distributions are likewise strongly influenced by the effect of climatic adaptation and continental isolation, but they show a number of aberrations. These are probably a legacy of climatic disturbance during the Pleistocene.

  18. Geographical distribution of protozoan and metazoan parasites of farmed Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L.) (Perciformes: Cichlidae) in Yucatán, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes-Trujillo, Amelia; Velázquez-Abunader, Iván; Torres-Irineo, Edgar; Romero, David; Vidal-Martínez, Víctor Manuel

    2016-02-03

    In Yucatán State, southern México, as in many other parts of the world where tilapia has been introduced for aquaculture, the deficient application of management measures has led to the establishment of non-native parasites. The aims of this study were to describe the geographical distribution of protozoan and helminth parasites of farmed Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L.) throughout the Yucatán and to examine the potential statistical associations of the prevalence and mean abundance of these parasites with management and environmental variables. All 29 Nile tilapia farms currently operating in Yucatán were surveyed. Maps were created to describe the geographical location of the parasites infecting Nile tilapia at each farm. We evaluated the statistical associations of management and environmental variables with the mean abundance values of each parasite species using a multivariate redundancy analysis (RDA) and generalized additive models (GAM). We also used Ripley's K to determine whether there were significant clusters of the mean abundance of particular parasite species in specific regions of the Yucatán State. A total of 580 O. niloticus were examined, and 11 species of parasites were recorded. Cichlidogyrus sclerosus was the most frequent and abundant parasite at all 29 farms, whereas Gyrodactylus cichlidarum was found in 26 of the 29 farms. The RDA showed that the most important predictors were the concentration of nitrites and ammonium and the water exchange rate. The GAM showed the significant effect of the tank capacity, no use of quarantine area and no use of prophylactic treatments on the mean abundance of G. cichlidarum. The geographical distribution patterns of the mean abundance of most parasite species exhibited clustering near to the coast of Yucatán. Two groups of farms were distinguished: (i) farms with medium to high technology, where the most frequent and abundant parasite was G. cichlidarum, and (ii) farms with low technology

  19. Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and variation in risk factors across four geographically diverse resource-limited settings in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaganath, Devan; Miranda, J Jaime; Gilman, Robert H; Wise, Robert A; Diette, Gregory B; Miele, Catherine H; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Checkley, William

    2015-03-18

    It is unclear how geographic and social diversity affects the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We sought to characterize the prevalence of COPD and identify risk factors across four settings in Peru with varying degrees of urbanization, altitude, and biomass fuel use. We collected sociodemographics, clinical history, and post-bronchodilator spirometry in a randomly selected, age-, sex- and site-stratified, population-based sample of 2,957 adults aged ≥35 years (median age was 54.8 years and 49.3% were men) from four resource-poor settings: Lima, Tumbes, urban and rural Puno. We defined COPD as a post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC Peru was not uniform and, unlike other settings, was not predominantly explained by tobacco smoking. This study emphasizes the role of biomass fuel use, and highlights pulmonary tuberculosis as an often neglected risk factor in endemic areas.

  20. Distribution and geographical variation of the White-tailed Hawk (Buteo albicaudatus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voous, K.H.

    1968-01-01

    The present knowledge on infraspecific variation, distribution, and migration of the White-tailed Hawk ( Buteo albicaudatus Vieillot) is critically reviewed. In practically every aspect knowledge is highly inadequate. Size variation (tables I—IV) is in accordance with Bergmann’s Phenomenon, but does

  1. Environmental Justice and the Spatial Distribution of Outdoor Recreation sites: an Applications of Geographic Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Tarrant; H. Ken Cordell

    1999-01-01

    This study examines the spatial distribution of outdoor recreation sites and their proximity to census block groups (CBGs), in order to determine potential socio-economic inequities. It is framed within the context of environmental justice. Information from the Southern Appalachian Assessment database was applied to a case study of the Chattahoochee National Forest in...

  2. Geographical distribution of radiation risk unaccountable by direct exposure dose in hiroshima A-bomb victims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonda, Tetsuji; Satoh, Kenichi; Ohani, Keiko

    2012-01-01

    Death risks due to solid cancer were estimated from region to region where the A-bomb survivors had been actually exposed, to visualize the risk distribution on the map, which resulting in risk regional difference that had been unaccountable by direct exposure dose estimation. Analysis was performed with 3 hazard models of the previous one, + direct exposed dose as a confounding factor and, further, + spatial distance from the explosion point. Subjects were 37,382 A-bomb survivors at Jan. 1, 1970 with known positional coordinate at explosion, followed until Dec. 31, 2009, whose endpoint was set by 4,371 deaths due to cancer except leukemia, cancers of thyroid and breast. Confounding factors in the previous hazard model were sex, age at the exposure, dose and shielding. With the previous model, risk distribution was observed in a concentric circular region around the hypocenter and in an additional west to northwestern suburbs. The latter risk distribution was also seen with the second model in the same region, where dose decreased with -7 powers of the distance. When adjusted with -3 powers of the distance with the third model, the actual risk distribution was found best fitted, indicating the presence of distance-dependent risk. It was suggested that the region exposed to additional dose possibly derived from fallout had been the actual black rainfall area as those regions agreed with each other. (T.T.)

  3. Distribution and geographic variation of the Ameivas of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heatwole, Harold; Torres, Frank

    1967-01-01

    The broad outlines of the taxonomy and distribution of the Antillean ameivas have been sketched by BARBOUR & NOBLE (1915). Two principal ancestral stocks were recognized: (1) One gave rise to the Ameiva ameiva group whose center of origin and dispersal was northeastern South America, and which

  4. Hosts, seasonality and geographic distribution of the South African tortoise tick, Amblyomma marmoreum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.G. Horak

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The tortoise tick Amblyomma marmoreum was collected from large numbers of reptiles and other animals during the course of numerous surveys conducted in South Africa. A total of 1 229 ticks, of which 550 were adults, were recovered from 309 reptiles belonging to 13 species, with leopard tortoises, Geochelone pardalis being the most heavily infested. The 269 birds sampled harboured 4 901 larvae, 217 nymphs and no adult ticks, and the prevalence of infestation was greatest on hel meted guinea fowls, Numida meleagris. Only two larvae were recovered from 610 rodents, including 31 spring hares, Pedetes capensis, whereas 1 144 other small mammals yielded 1 835 immature ticks, of which 1 655 were collected from 623 scrub hares, Lepus saxatilis. The 213 carnivores examined harboured 2 459 ticks of which none were adult. A single adult tick and 6 684 larvae and 62 nymphs were recovered from 656 large herbivores, and a total of 4 081 immature ticks and three adults were collected from 1 543 domestic animals and 194 humans. Adult male and female A. marmoreum were most numerous on reptiles during January and February, and larvae during March. The largest numbers of larvae were present on domestic cattle and helmeted guineafowls in the Eastern Cape Province during March or April respectively, whereas larvae were most numerous on helmeted guineafowls, scrub hares and the vegetation in north-eastern Mpumalanga Province during May. In both provinces nymphs were most numerous between October and December. Amblyomma marmoreum appears to be most prevalent in the western regions of the Western and Eastern Cape and Free State provinces, and the north-eastern regions of the Northern Cape, KwaZulu- Natal, Mpumulanga and Limpopo provinces.

  5. Mapping the Global Potential Geographical Distribution of Black Locust (Robinia Pseudoacacia L. Using Herbarium Data and a Maximum Entropy Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqing Li

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L. is a tree species of high economic and ecological value, but is also considered to be highly invasive. Understanding the global potential distribution and ecological characteristics of this species is a prerequisite for its practical exploitation as a resource. Here, a maximum entropy modeling (MaxEnt was used to simulate the potential distribution of this species around the world, and the dominant climatic factors affecting its distribution were selected by using a jackknife test and the regularized gain change during each iteration of the training algorithm. The results show that the MaxEnt model performs better than random, with an average test AUC value of 0.9165 (±0.0088. The coldness index, annual mean temperature and warmth index were the most important climatic factors affecting the species distribution, explaining 65.79% of the variability in the geographical distribution. Species response curves showed unimodal relationships with the annual mean temperature and warmth index, whereas there was a linear relationship with the coldness index. The dominant climatic conditions in the core of the black locust distribution are a coldness index of −9.8 °C–0 °C, an annual mean temperature of 5.8 °C–14.5 °C, a warmth index of 66 °C–168 °C and an annual precipitation of 508–1867 mm. The potential distribution of black locust is located mainly in the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, France, the Netherlands, Belgium, Italy, Switzerland, Australia, New Zealand, China, Japan, South Korea, South Africa, Chile and Argentina. The predictive map of black locust, climatic thresholds and species response curves can provide globally applicable guidelines and valuable information for policymakers and planners involved in the introduction, planting and invasion control of this species around the world.

  6. Potential distribution of the endangered endemic lizard Liolaemus lutzae Mertens, 1938 (Liolaemidae: are there other suitable areas for a geographically restricted species?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GR. Winck

    Full Text Available In this study we attempted to access further information on the geographical distribution of the endangered lizard Liolaemus lutzae, estimating its potential distribution through the maximum entropy algorithm. For this purpose, we related its points of occurrence with matrices of environmental variables. After examining the correlation between environmental matrices, we selected 10 for model construction. The main variables influencing the current geographic distribution of L. lutzae were the diurnal temperature range and altitude. The species endemism seemed to be a consequence of a reduction of the original distribution area. Alternatively, the resulting model may reflect the geographic distribution of an ancestral lineage, since the model selected areas of occurrence of the two other species of Liolaemus from Brazil (L. arambarensis and L. occipitalis, all living in sand dune habitats and having psamophilic habits. Due to the high loss rate of habitat occupied by the species, the conservation and recovery of the remaining areas affected by human actions is essential.

  7. Geographic distribution of the tortoises and freshwater turtles of Colombia and their representation in the protected area network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forero Medina, German; Yusti Munoz, Ana Paola; Castano Mora, Olga V

    2014-01-01

    Colombia has a remarkable diversity of tortoises and freshwater turtles. However, a considerable portion of these species is threatened, and for others there is not enough information to make an adequate evaluation of their conservation status. This study is a first approximation to the quantitative evaluation of the geographic distribution of Colombia's non-marine chelonians. Based on records of occurrence for each species, we evaluated the geographic distribution using statistical models (maxent), hydrological basins, and the extent of occurrence and area of occupancy. Based on the presence data and the models, we studied the representation of each species in national natural parks (NNP), which correspond to the most rigorous conservation category of IUCN classification in Colombia, and other types of protected areas such as private reserves. We generated distribution models and estimated the area (km"2) for 25 out of 27 species in the country. This information will be valuable for updating and evaluating the threat categories at the national level. The areas with the highest species richness correspond to the riverine ecosystems of the Amazon and Orinoco River Basins and the Caribbean Region, particularly the Western Caribbean. This region is a top priority not only because of its richness but also because of the presence of endemics and its high level of threat. Only 56 % of the species have confirmed records within national parks. A greater portion could be present in these areas according to the statistical models, but only ten of those species would have more than 10 % of their ranges within a park's boundary. Although the resulting models have certain limitations due to the nature of the data and analyses, they can be a starting point for research on the occurrence of turtles in NNP. Endemic species are poorly represented in protected areas, both in NNP and in other categories. Thus, protected areas that can assure the persistence of their populations are

  8. Geographical ecology of the palms (Arecaceae): determinants of diversity and distributions across spatial scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiserhardt, Wolf L.; Svenning, J.-C.; Kissling, W. Daniel

    2011-01-01

    , and dispersal again at all scales. For species richness, climate and dispersal appear to be important at continental to global scales, soil at landscape and broader scales, and topography at landscape and finer scales. Some scale–predictor combinations have not been studied or deserve further attention, e......Background The palm family occurs in all tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Palms are of high ecological and economical importance, and display complex spatial patterns of species distributions and diversity. Scope This review summarizes empirical evidence for factors that determine...... palm species distributions, community composition and species richness such as the abiotic environment (climate, soil chemistry, hydrology and topography), the biotic environment (vegetation structure and species interactions) and dispersal. The importance of contemporary vs. historical impacts...

  9. Geographic distribution of habitat, development, and population growth rates of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Collado, José; Isabel López-Arroyo, J; Robles-García, Pedro L; Márquez-Santos, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is an introduced pest in Mexico and a vector of huanglongbing, a lethal citrus disease. Estimations of the habitat distribution and population growth rates of D. citri are required to establish regional and areawide management strategies and can be used as a pest risk analysis tools. In this study, the habitat distribution of D. citri in Mexico was computed with MaxEnt, an inductive, machine-learning program that uses bioclimatic layers and point location data. Geographic distributions of development and population growth rates were determined by fitting a temperature-dependent, nonlinear model and projecting the rates over the target area, using the annual mean temperature as the predictor variable. The results showed that the most suitable regions for habitat of D. citri comprise the Gulf of Mexico states, Yucatán Peninsula, and areas scattered throughout the Pacific coastal states. Less suitable areas occurred in northern and central states. The most important predictor variables were related to temperature. Development and growth rates had a distribution wider than habitat, reaching some of the northern states of México. Habitat, development, and population growth rates were correlated to each other and with the citrus producing area. These relationships indicated that citrus producing states are within the most suitable regions for the occurrence, development, and population growth of D. citri, therefore increasing the risk of huanglongbing dispersion.

  10. Alcohol beverage control, privatization and the geographic distribution of alcohol outlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grubesic Tony H

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With Pennsylvania currently considering a move away from an Alcohol Beverage Control state to a privatized alcohol distribution system, this study uses a spatial analytical approach to examine potential impacts of privatization on the number and spatial distribution of alcohol outlets in the city of Philadelphia over a long time horizon. Methods A suite of geospatial data were acquired for Philadelphia, including 1,964 alcohol outlet locations, 569,928 land parcels, and school, church, hospital, park and playground locations. These data were used as inputs for exploratory spatial analysis to estimate the expected number of outlets that would eventually operate in Philadelphia. Constraints included proximity restrictions (based on current ordinances regulating outlet distribution of at least 200 feet between alcohol outlets and at least 300 feet between outlets and schools, churches, hospitals, parks and playgrounds. Results Findings suggest that current state policies on alcohol outlet distributions in Philadelphia are loosely enforced, with many areas exhibiting extremely high spatial densities of outlets that violate existing proximity restrictions. The spatial model indicates that an additional 1,115 outlets could open in Philadelphia if privatization was to occur and current proximity ordinances were maintained. Conclusions The study reveals that spatial analytical approaches can function as an excellent tool for contingency-based “what-if” analysis, providing an objective snapshot of potential policy outcomes prior to implementation. In this case, the likely outcome is a tremendous increase in alcohol outlets in Philadelphia, with concomitant negative health, crime and quality of life outcomes that accompany such an increase.

  11. Predictions of potential geographical distribution and quality of Schisandra sphenanthera under climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanlong Guo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Climate change will significantly affect plant distribution as well as the quality of medicinal plants. Although numerous studies have analyzed the effect of climate change on future habitats of plants through species distribution models (SDMs, few of them have incorporated the change of effective content of medicinal plants. Schisandra sphenanthera Rehd. et Wils. is an endangered traditional Chinese medical plant which is mainly located in the Qinling Mountains. Combining fuzzy theory and a maximum entropy model, we obtained current spatial distribution of quality assessment for S. spenanthera. Moreover, the future quality and distribution of S. spenanthera were also projected for the periods 2020s, 2050s and 2080s under three different climate change scenarios (SRES-A1B, SRES-A2 and SRES-B1 emission scenarios described in the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES of IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The results showed that the moderately suitable habitat of S. sphenanthera under all climate change scenarios remained relatively stable in the study area. The highly suitable habitat of S. sphenanthera would gradually decrease in the future and a higher decline rate of the highly suitable habitat area would occur under climate change scenarios SRES-A1B and SRES-A2. The result suggested that in the study area, there would be no more highly suitable habitat areas for S. sphenanthera when the annual mean temperature exceeds 20 °C or its annual precipitation exceeds 1,200 mm. Our results will be influential in the future ecological conservation and management of S. sphenanthera and can be taken as a reference for habitat suitability assessment research for other medicinal plants.

  12. Improved Predictions of the Geographic Distribution of Invasive Plants Using Climatic Niche Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Albores, Jorge E.; Bustamante, Ramiro O.

    2016-01-01

    Climatic niche models for invasive plants are usually constructed with occurrence records taken from literature and collections. Because these data neither discriminate among life-cycle stages of plants (adult or juvenile) nor the origin of individuals (naturally established or man-planted), the resulting models may mispredict the distribution ranges of these species. We propose that more accurate predictions could be obtained by modelling climatic niches with data of naturally established individuals, particularly with occurrence records of juvenile plants because this would restrict the predictions of models to those sites where climatic conditions allow the recruitment of the species. To test this proposal, we focused on the Peruvian peppertree (Schinus molle), a South American species that has largely invaded Mexico. Three climatic niche models were constructed for this species using high-resolution dataset gathered in the field. The first model included all occurrence records, irrespective of the life-cycle stage or origin of peppertrees (generalized niche model). The second model only included occurrence records of naturally established mature individuals (adult niche model), while the third model was constructed with occurrence records of naturally established juvenile plants (regeneration niche model). When models were compared, the generalized climatic niche model predicted the presence of peppertrees in sites located farther beyond the climatic thresholds that naturally established individuals can tolerate, suggesting that human activities influence the distribution of this invasive species. The adult and regeneration climatic niche models concurred in their predictions about the distribution of peppertrees, suggesting that naturally established adult trees only occur in sites where climatic conditions allow the recruitment of juvenile stages. These results support the proposal that climatic niches of invasive plants should be modelled with data of

  13. Geographic conditions for distribution of agriculture and potentials for tourism development on Mokra mountain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Marko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This work considers important natural conditions of distribution of agricultural production, cattle breeding in particular, and also potentials for tourism development on Mokra mountain. Half-nomadic cattle breeding in mountain settlements was highly developed in recent past. It represented the main source of existence for local highlanders. Today it is neglected and in phase of dying out. The mountain disposes with excellent natural potentials for ecological and mountain tourism, but these potentials are unused.

  14. [Current status of the knowledge on Moroccan anophelines (Diptera: Culicidae): systematic, geographical distribution and vectorial competence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraj, C; Ouahabi, S; Adlaoui, E; Elaouad, R

    2010-10-01

    This bibliographical study, based on published works, ministry of Health Reports, exploitation of the database relative to the entomological surveillance conducted in the framework of the National Malaria Control Program, as well as unpublished results obtained within the framework of the European project "Emerging disease in a changing European environment", summarizes and completes with new data current knowledge on the systematics, the distribution and the vectorial competence of moroccan anophelines. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Geographic distribution of soluble salts, exchangeable sodium and calcium carbonate in the Caribbean Region of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulido, Carlos E

    2000-01-01

    A research was carried out to establish the distribution of soluble salts, exchangeable sodium and calcium carbonate in the soils of the Caribbean Region. The results show that 28,3% (3.506.033 ha) of the soils have problems related to salinity. The soils of the arid and semiarid zones and those belonging to the sea plain are affected severely by soluble salts, exchangeable sodium and calcium carbonate

  16. Geographic asymmetries of the Viking auroral distribution: Implications for ionospheric coordinate systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hearn, D.J.; Elphinstone, R.D.; Murphree, J.S.; Cogger, L.L.

    1993-01-01

    Viking images of the auroral distribution have been used to investigate the relevance of various ionospheric coordinate systems. An important aspect of the large-scale auroral shape is its dependence on the asymmetries of the Earth's internal field. Model predictions of where the aurora occurs, using the equatorial plane's volume current density, agree with observations and imply that the internal field plays a more important role that generally believed. Historically, the belief that the internal field has only small effects seems to stem from the widespread use of the corrected geomagnetic and invariant coordinate systems. These systems involve the mapping of field lines and have advantages in statistical studies and comparisons; less sophisticated systems such as the eccentric dipole coordinate system should be used in individual studies and in studies involving differentiation or integration of some observational parameters. Observations of the auraoral distribution are give to illustrate the universal time, tilt angle, and Kp variability in different coordinate systems and demonstrate that the dominant variability of the aurora is due to internal field asymmetries. A new set of coordinate systems are briefly developed as examples of how to incorporate external field models into studies of auraoral images. It is proposed that the one of these coordinate systems can be used as a test of how well an external field model can match observed auroral distributions. 19 refs., 1 tab

  17. Hierarchical Distributed-Lag Models: Exploring Varying Geographic Scale and Magnitude in Associations Between the Built Environment and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Jonggyu; Sanchez-Vaznaugh, Emma V; Sánchez, Brisa N

    2016-03-15

    It is well known that associations between features of the built environment and health depend on the geographic scale used to construct environmental attributes. In the built environment literature, it has long been argued that geographic scales may vary across study locations. However, this hypothesized variation has not been systematically examined due to a lack of available statistical methods. We propose a hierarchical distributed-lag model (HDLM) for estimating the underlying overall shape of food environment-health associations as a function of distance from locations of interest. This method enables indirect assessment of relevant geographic scales and captures area-level heterogeneity in the magnitudes of associations, along with relevant distances within areas. The proposed model was used to systematically examine area-level variation in the association between availability of convenience stores around schools and children's weights. For this case study, body mass index (weight kg)/height (m)2) z scores (BMIz) for 7th grade children collected via California's 2001-2009 FitnessGram testing program were linked to a commercial database that contained locations of food outlets statewide. Findings suggested that convenience store availability may influence BMIz only in some places and at varying distances from schools. Future research should examine localized environmental or policy differences that may explain the heterogeneity in convenience store-BMIz associations. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Assessing the Groundwater Concentrations and Geographical Distribution of Arsenic in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, J.; Liu, F.

    2015-12-01

    understanding of the correlations, we can predict whether an area is suffering from arsenic laden groundwater without actual field testing. We use R and ArcGIS to conduct the statistical and geographical analysis in this project.

  19. Aspects of benthic decapod diversity and distribution from rocky nearshore habitat at geographically widely dispersed sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Pohle

    Full Text Available Relationships of diversity, distribution and abundance of benthic decapods in intertidal and shallow subtidal waters to 10 m depth are explored based on data obtained using a standardized protocol of globally-distributed samples. Results indicate that decapod species richness overall is low within the nearshore, typically ranging from one to six taxa per site (mean = 4.5. Regionally the Gulf of Alaska decapod crustacean community structure was distinguishable by depth, multivariate analysis indicating increasing change with depth, where assemblages of the high and mid tide, low tide and 1 m, and 5 and 10 m strata formed three distinct groups. Univariate analysis showed species richness increasing from the high intertidal zone to 1 m subtidally, with distinct depth preferences among the 23 species. A similar depth trend but with peak richness at 5 m was observed when all global data were combined. Analysis of latitudinal trends, confined by data limitations, was equivocal on a global scale. While significant latitudinal differences existed in community structure among ecoregions, a semi-linear trend in changing community structure from the Arctic to lower latitudes did not hold when including tropical results. Among boreal regions the Canadian Atlantic was relatively species poor compared to the Gulf of Alaska, whereas the Caribbean and Sea of Japan appeared to be species hot spots. While species poor, samples from the Canadian Atlantic were the most diverse at the higher infraordinal level. Linking 11 environmental variables available for all sites to the best fit family-based biotic pattern showed a significant relationship, with the single best explanatory variable being the level of organic pollution and the best combination overall being organic pollution and primary productivity. While data limitations restrict conclusions in a global context, results are seen as a first-cut contribution useful in generating discussion and more in

  20. Geographically determined Interactions of Distributed Generation, Consumption and the Transmission Network in the Case of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    2002-01-01

    In the past decade, Denmark has dramatically increased the share of distributed power generation from wind power and decentralised co-generation of heat and power (DCHP). This trend will conti-nue, with the consequence that the power transmission network will face capacity problems in the future....... At some times electricity has to be exported to neighbouring countries at market prices pro-bably lower than the costs of generation. To match production and consumption in the future, and at the same time maintain a good economy, alternative regulation instruments have to be found. These could consist...... electricity markets....

  1. Original Article. Geographic distribution of Fusarium culmorum chemotypes associated with wheat crown rot in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matny Oadi N.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium crown rot (FCR is an important disease of wheat and other grains that has had a significant impact on cereal crop production worldwide. Fusarium species associated with FCR can also produce powerful trichothecenes mycotoxins that pose a considerable health risk to humans and animals that consume infected grains. In this study we examined Fusarium species of wheat from different regions of Iraq that showed FCR symptoms. Twenty-nine isolates were collected overall, and the marker gene translation elongation factor 1 alpha (TEF-1α was sequenced in order to determine their taxonomic identities. All isolates were determined to be F. culmorum, and primers targeting tri-cluster genes were used in order to further characterize isolates into specific trichothecene chemotype strains. Five of the 29 isolates were determined to be the nivalenol (NIV chemotype, while the rest of the isolates recovered were the deoxynivalenol (DON chemotype. All DON-type isolates produced 3Ac-DON, while the 15Ac-DON-type was not detected. The majority of the NIV-type isolates originated from wheat growing regions in the mid-latitudes of Iraq, while the DON-type isolates were recovered from areas distributed broadly across the country. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to report on the distribution of specific F. culmorum chemotypes from FCR diseased wheat in Iraq.

  2. Association between Aquilaria distribution, geographic characteristics, edaphic factors and water availability in natural tropical rainforest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shyful Azizi Abdul Rahman; Khairuddin Abdul Rahim; Ahsanulkhaliqin Abdul Wahab; Mohd Fajri Osman; Chong Saw Peng

    2006-01-01

    Oud or gaharu is a fragrant resin produced from Aquilaria trees as a response to injury, wounding and/or a fungal infection. Proliferation of Aquilaria under plantation system is essential to ensure continuous supply of gaharu. Even though the plantation of Aquilaria is aggressively conducted nowadays, there are still lack of details information and knowledge in terms of plant agronomy and oleoresin production. Understanding of plant, soil, water and environment relationship in natural habitat is important in order to provide guidelines and strategies for growers to adopt new agroforestry approaches that can lead to the best management practices for Aquilaria plantation. A study on soil physical and chemical characteristics, topographic condition, soil moisture and climate has been carried out to investigate the plant distribution pattern and resin production potential of 178 stand of Aquilaria in MINT Tech-Park tertiary forest and Gunung Tebu Forest Reserve. Result show that Aquilaria distributions concentrate at slope areas of gradient between 10 degrees to 15 degrees, the soil type is the stony low fertility sandy loam to sandy clay and this area receives a high density of rainfall which is more than 2500 mm/year. For the potential of resin production analysis, slope with high gradient show a significant potential of resin production probably due to the plant stress condition factors

  3. [Geographical distribution and indicators entomologic of sinantropic triatomines captured in the State of Goiás].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Antônio Wilson Soares; da Silva, Ionizete Garcia

    2007-01-01

    The geographic distribution of triatomines in Goiás and entomological indicators in the home environment are presented: home infestation, home triatomine density and vector infection by Trypanosoma cruzi. The indicators studied were from triatomines captured inside and outside homes in 201 municipalities in the State of Goiás, Brazil, between 2000 and 2003. A total of 249,868 home units were investigated and 51,570 triatomines were captured, and 335 specimens were found to be infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. Infestation outside the home was significantly greater than infestation inside the home for the species Triatoma sordida, followed by Panstrongylus megistus. The contrary was observed with the species Rhodnius neglectus, Panstrongylus geniculatus and Triatoma pseudomaculata (p<0.018). There was no significant difference between infestations inside and outside the home for the species Panstrongylus diasi, Triatoma costalimai and Triatoma williami. Only one specimen of Triatoma infestans was captured in the year 2000.

  4. Accidental hazardous material releases with human impacts in the United States: exploration of geographical distribution and temporal trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengul, Hatice; Santella, Nicholas; Steinberg, Laura J; Chermak, Christina

    2010-09-01

    To investigate the circumstances and geographic and temporal distributions of hazardous material releases and resulting human impacts in the United States. Releases with fatalities, injuries, and evacuations were identified from reports to the National Response Center between 1990 and 2008, correcting for data quality issues identified in previous studies. From more than 550,000 reports, 861 deaths, 16,348 injuries and 741,427 evacuations were identified. Injuries from releases of chemicals at fixed facilities and natural gas from pipelines have decreased whereas evacuations from petroleum releases at fixed facilities have increased. Results confirm recent advances in chemical and pipeline safety and suggest directions for further improvement including targeted training and inspections and adoption of inherently safer design principles.

  5. Assessing the status and trend of bat populations across broad geographic regions with dynamic distribution models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodhouse, Thomas J.; Ormsbee, Patricia C.; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Vierling, Lee A.; Szewczak, Joseph M.; Vierling, Kerri T.

    2012-01-01

    Bats face unprecedented threats from habitat loss, climate change, disease, and wind power development, and populations of many species are in decline. A better ability to quantify bat population status and trend is urgently needed in order to develop effective conservation strategies. We used a Bayesian autoregressive approach to develop dynamic distribution models for Myotis lucifugus, the little brown bat, across a large portion of northwestern USA, using a four-year detection history matrix obtained from a regional monitoring program. This widespread and abundant species has experienced precipitous local population declines in northeastern USA resulting from the novel disease white-nose syndrome, and is facing likely range-wide declines. Our models were temporally dynamic and accounted for imperfect detection. Drawing on species–energy theory, we included measures of net primary productivity (NPP) and forest cover in models, predicting that M. lucifugus occurrence probabilities would covary positively along those gradients.

  6. Toxocariasis in Carnivora from Argentinean Patagonia: Species molecular identification, hosts, and geographical distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Vega

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Twenty four specimens of seven species belonging to the families Felidae, Mustelidae, and Canidae were obtained in Lanín and Nahuel Huapi National Parks from March 1996 to April 2016. Specimens were processed by necropsy in order to contribute to the knowledge of toxocariasis in wild carnivores of Argentinean Patagonia. The only Puma concolor and the seven Leopardus geoffroyi were positive for Toxocara cati. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP of the ITS-1 region from larval and adult DNA was carried out to confirm parasite species identification. This is the first molecular determination of T. cati from wild felids in Argentina and the study also fill gaps about the spatial distribution and hosts for Toxocara cati. Keywords: Toxocara cati, Puma concolor, Leopardus geoffroyi, Molecular identification, Argentina

  7. Supply-cost curves for geographically distributed renewable-energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izquierdo, Salvador; Dopazo, Cesar; Fueyo, Norberto

    2010-01-01

    The supply-cost curves of renewable-energy sources are an essential tool to synthesize and analyze large-scale energy-policy scenarios, both in the short and long terms. Here, we suggest and test a parametrization of such curves that allows their representation for modeling purposes with a minimal set of information. In essence, an economic potential is defined based on the mode of the marginal supply-cost curves; and, using this definition, a normalized log-normal distribution function is used to model these curves. The feasibility of this proposal is assessed with data from a GIS-based analysis of solar, wind and biomass technologies in Spain. The best agreement is achieved for solar energy.

  8. Geographical distribution and evolution of deaths in hospitals in Spain, 1996-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Puente, A; García Alegría, J

    2018-05-05

    The location where death occurs varies widely among societies. The aim of this study was to describe the evolution in the hospital mortality rate (HMR) in Spain over the course of 20years and its distribution by province during a more recent period and to explore its relationship with potential explanatory variables. This was an ecological study. The population mortality rates were obtained from the Natural Population Movement (Movimiento Natural de la Población), and the hospital mortality rates were obtained from the Specialised Care Information System (Sistema de Información en Atención Especializada), which includes information from all hospitals in Spain. We calculated the mortality rates for patients who were not surveyed and the HMR at the national level between 1996 and 2015 and for provinces between 2013 and 2015. The relationship between the provincial distribution of HMR and various demographic, socioeconomic and healthcare variables were analysed through simple and multiple linear regression. The HMR in Spain increased from 49% in 1996 to 56% in 2007, having remained stable from 1996 to 2015. The variation among provinces was 40% to 70%. The multivariate analysis showed a higher HMR in the less rural provinces and in those with a larger availability of hospital beds. There is considerable provincial heterogeneity in Spain in terms of the probability of dying in hospital or at home. This result could be partly explained by demographics (percentage of rural population) and the healthcare structure (number of hospital beds per population). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  9. Context Dependency of a Marine Defensive Symbiosis over a Wide Geographic Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopanik, N.; Linneman, J.; Mathew, M.

    2016-02-01

    The invasive, temperate marine bryozoan Bugula neritina possesses an uncultured, vertically-transmitted bacterial symbiont that produces natural products known as bryostatins. These unpalatable polyketides protect the host larvae from predation. In the western Atlantic, two host genotypes were thought to be restricted to differing latitudes based on the presence of the defensive symbiont: undefended aposymbiotic Type N animals were found at high latitudes, while defended symbiotic Type S colonies were found at low latitudes, where predation pressure is higher. We found that the host genotypes are more widespread than previously thought, but that the symbiont appeared to be restricted to hosts at lower latitudes, regardless of host phylotype, leading to the question of what factors are involved in restricting the symbiont's range. We performed reciprocal transplant experiments of symbiotic and antibiotic-cured hosts, and measured host growth, a proxy for fitness. Our data indicate that possession of the symbiont appears to present a physiological cost to the host. This cost may be more pronounced at higher latitudes where the benefit of symbiosis is less apparent. In addition, preliminary evidence suggests that symbiont titer in a Type S colony from North Carolina transplanted to Virginia is reduced over a period of nearly 4 months. Taken together, these results suggest that a combination of factors may play a role in the distribution of the defensive symbiont: (i) hosts that possess the symbiont are outcompeted by aposymbiotic conspecifics at high latitude and reduced levels of predation pressure; and (ii) symbiont growth may be inhibited or sanctioned by the host at high latitudes. As defensive symbiosis is an important trait in marine habitats, understanding factors that affect the distribution of both the host and symbiont are necessary to fully appreciate the ecological impact of symbiosis.

  10. Geographic distribution of risk of death due to homicide in Puerto Rico, 2001-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala-Zegarra, Diego E; López-Charneco, Magdalena; Garcia-Rivera, Enid J; Concha-Eastman, Alberto; Rodriguez, José F; Conte-Miller, María

    2012-11-01

    To raise awareness of the impact of homicides in Puerto Rico based on the findings of the spatial and temporal distribution of homicides and the use of firearms, by age and gender, using reports of interpersonal violent deaths from the Institute of Forensic Science (IFS) headquartered in San Juan, Puerto Rico. This was a descriptive study of all homicide incidents in Puerto Rico reported by the IFS for the period 2001-2010. For each of the 8 542 cases, data analyzed included age, sex, municipality of incident, date of death, and mechanism. Crude sex- and age-specific mortality rates for Puerto Rico and for each municipality per year and for the 10-year period were calculated. Cumulative rate and cumulative risks were estimated and defined as lifetime risk. The relative distribution of cumulative rates for each municipality was categorized into quartiles of highest to lowest risk and displayed as a map. The risk of homicide death among males is 13 times greater than among females. The highest rates were observed among males 20-24 years of age (198.4 homicides per 100 000). In any given year, firearms were used in at least 80% of homicides. The average lifetime risk of homicide death for males is 1 in 34. Young adult males with access to firearms are at greatest risk of homicide in Puerto Rico. Also, highly urbanized municipalities are at highest risk; however, certain non-urban municipalities along the coast also have a very high homicide risk. Top priorities should be applying the WHO "ecological model" for violent injury prevention and establishing a surveillance system that will assist in identifying the role that socioeconomics, illegal firearms trade, and drug trafficking are playing.

  11. Geographic distribution of lung and stomach cancers in England and Wales over 50 years: changing and unchanging patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swerdlow, A J; dos Santos Silva, I

    1991-05-01

    The distribution of cancers of the lung and stomach in the counties of England and Wales in 1968-81 was mapped, and compared to the distribution in the country in 1921-30 described by Stocks. The high risk of stomach cancer in North Wales noted by Stocks was found still to exist in each sex, although its disparity from the rest of the country has diminished. In general the geographic distribution of stomach cancer in both periods has paralleled that of post-neonatal mortality, at the same time and earlier, as an index of general poverty, but postneonatal mortality in North Wales has not been exceptionally high. In 1921-30 the highest risk of lung cancer was in and around London. In the modern data this was still true for older women, but for men and women under 45 years of age, and to a lesser extent for older men, the pattern has changed greatly; the epidemic has moved north, and highest risk is now in Northumberland and Durham. This spread appears to have occurred earlier for men than for women, and for urban than for rural areas, occurring latest of all for women in rural areas. Regional disparity has also increased, especially in males: risks in the northern regions are now over twice those in much of Wales and the South.

  12. Human migration, railways and the geographic distribution of leprosy in Rio Grande do Norte State – Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Mauricio Lisboa; Dupnik, Kathryn Margaret; Nobre, Paulo José Lisboa; De Souza, Márcia Célia Freitas; Dűppre, Nádia Cristina; Sarno, Euzenir Nunes; Jerŏnimo, Selma Maria Bezerra

    2016-01-01

    Summary Introduction Leprosy is a public health problem in Brazil where 31,044 new cases were detected in 2013. Rio Grande do Norte is a small Brazilian state with a rate of leprosy lower than other areas in the same region, for unknown reasons. Objectives We present here a review based on the analysis of a database of registered leprosy cases in Rio Grande do Norte state, comparing leprosy's geographic distribution among municipalities with local socio-economic and public health indicators and with historical documents about human migration in this Brazilian region. Results The current distribution of leprosy in Rio Grande do Norte did not show correlation with socio-economic or public health indicators at the municipal level, but it appears related to economically emerging municipalities 100 years ago, with spread facilitated by railroads and train stations. Drought-related migratory movements which occurred from this state to leprosy endemic areas within the same period may be involved in the introduction of leprosy and with its present distribution within Rio Grande do Norte. Conclusions Leprosy may disseminate slowly, over many decades in certain circumstances, such as in small cities with few cases. This is a very unusual situation currently and a unique opportunity for epidemiologic studies of leprosy as an emerging disease. PMID:26964429

  13. The geographical co-distribution and socio-ecological drivers of childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Z; Hu, W; Tong, S

    2015-04-01

    SUMMARY This study aimed to explore the spatio-temporal patterns, geographical co-distribution, and socio-ecological drivers of childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea in Queensland. A Bayesian conditional autoregressive model was used to quantify the impacts of socio-ecological factors on both childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea at a postal area level. A distinct seasonality of childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea was found. Childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea were mainly distributed in the northwest of Queensland. Mount Isa city was the high-risk cluster where childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea co-distributed. Emergency department visits (EDVs) for pneumonia increased by 3% per 10-mm increase in monthly average rainfall in wet seasons. By comparison, a 10-mm increase in monthly average rainfall may cause an increase of 4% in EDVs for diarrhoea. Monthly average temperature was negatively associated with EDVs for childhood diarrhoea in wet seasons. Low socioeconomic index for areas (SEIFA) was associated with high EDVs for childhood pneumonia. Future pneumonia and diarrhoea prevention and control measures in Queensland should focus more on Mount Isa.

  14. Estimation of the prevalence and distribution of HPV genotypes and identification of related risk factors among Turkish women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Kulhan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study : The present study aims to estimate the prevalence and distribution of HPV genotypes and identify related risk factors among Turkish women. Material and methods : 11 624 Turkish women attending our gynaecological clinic and expressing a desire for access to cervical cancer screening were assessed during the years 2014–2016. Cervical specimens were collected and transported using the HC2 HPV DNA Collection Device (consisting of a cervical brush and digene Specimen Transport Medium. Results : Among these 11 624 individuals, positive HPV test results were obtained for 325 (2.79%, and negative results were observed for 11 299 (97.2%. The vast majority of patients were between the 3rd and 5th decades and the mean age of the patients was 44 ±9.12 (range 27–66. Among the HPV-positive women, 205 were positive for a single HPV type (205/325 = 63.1% of HPV infections; 205/11624 = 1.76% of all samples and 120 were positive for multiple types (120/325 = 36.9% of HPV infections; 120/11624 = 1.03% of all samples. The four most prevalent high-risk types were HPV 16, 31, 51 and 52, with frequencies of 11.25%, 7.83%, 6.06% and 3.16%, respectively. Conclusions : There appears to be geographic variation in the distribution of HPV genotypes. In this study, the four most prevalent high-risk types were HPV 16, 31, 51 and 52, with frequencies of 11.25%, 7.83%, 6.06% and 3.16%, respectively.

  15. Geographical variations in the prevalence and management of cardiovascular risk factors in outpatients with CAD: Data from the contemporary CLARIFY registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Roberto; Ford, Ian; Greenlaw, Nicola; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Tendera, Michal; Abergel, Hélène; Fox, Kim; Hu, Dayi; Shalnova, Svetlana; Steg, Ph Gabriel

    2015-08-01

    To determine the current prevalence and control of major cardiovascular risk factors in stable CAD outpatients worldwide. We analysed variations in cardiovascular risk factors in stable CAD outpatients from CLARIFY, a 5-year observational longitudinal cohort study, in seven geographical zones (Western/Central Europe; Canada/South Africa/Australia/UK; Eastern Europe; Central/South America; Middle East; East Asia; and India). Patient presentation (N=32,954, mean age 64.2 years, 78% male) varied between zones, as did prevalence of risk factors (all p Asia) to 42% (Middle East), raised blood pressure from 28% (Central/South America and East Asia) to 48% (Eastern Europe), raised LDL cholesterol from 24% (Canada/South Africa/Australia/UK) to 65% (Eastern Europe), elevated heart rate (≥70 bpm) from 38% (Western/Central Europe) to 78% (India), diabetes from 17% (Eastern Europe) to 60% (Middle East), and smoking from 6% (Central/South America) to 19% (Eastern Europe). Aspirin and lipid-lowering drugs were widely used everywhere (≥84% and ≥88%, respectively). Rates of risk factor control varied geographically (all p Asia), controlled LDL cholesterol and dyslipidaemia from 32% (Eastern Europe) to 75% (Canada/South Africa/Australia/UK), heart rate <70 bpm from 22% (India) to 62% (Western/Central Europe), and heart rate ≤60 bpm in angina patients from 2% (India) to 29% (Canada/South Africa/Australia/UK and Central/South America). Prevalence and control of major cardiovascular risk factors in stable CAD vary markedly worldwide. Many stable CAD outpatients are being treated suboptimally. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  16. Geographic variation in the age- and gender-specific prevalence and incidence of epilepsy: analysis of Taiwanese National Health Insurance-based data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Chuan; Chen, Li-Sheng; Yen, Ming-Fang; Chen, Hsiu-Hsi; Liou, Horng-Huei

    2012-02-01

    We studied geographic variation in age- and gender-specific prevalence and incidence of epilepsy in four different areas of Taiwan. By using large-scale, National Health Insurance (NHI)-based data from 2000-2003 in Taiwan, we identified 131,287 patients diagnosed with epilepsy (ICD code 345) receiving at least of one of 11 antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Information on age, gender, and location were also collected. The multivariable Poisson regression analysis was used to assess the heterogeneity of the morbidity of epilepsy in different regions. External data validation was also performed to assess the accuracy of capturing epilepsy cases through our NHI data set. The age-adjusted prevalence and incidence of epilepsy were 5.85 (per 1,000) between 2000 and 2003 and 97 (per 100,000 person-years) during the follow-up time from 2001 to 2003 in Taiwan. The sensitivity and specificity of ICD-9 coding for epilepsy in the NHI data set were 83.91% and 99.83%, respectively, resulting in a slight overestimation. Male patients had a higher probability of having epilepsy than did females. East Taiwan had significantly higher prevalence and incidence than did other areas. The age-specific incidence pattern in east Taiwan was atypical in that it revealed clustering in young and middle-aged groups. Our study demonstrated geographic variation in epidemiologic patterns of epilepsy within Taiwan. The findings are informative and provide insight into the clinical management of epilepsy based on consideration of different target groups in different areas. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2011 International League Against Epilepsy.

  17. Allelic Diversity and Geographical Distribution of the Gene Encoding Plasmodium falciparum Merozoite Surface Protein-3 in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawaswong, Vorthon; Simpalipan, Phumin; Siripoon, Napaporn; Harnyuttanakorn, Pongchai; Pattaradilokrat, Sittiporn

    2015-04-01

    Merozoite surface proteins (MSPs) of malaria parasites play critical roles during the erythrocyte invasion and so are potential candidates for malaria vaccine development. However, because MSPs are often under strong immune selection, they can exhibit extensive genetic diversity. The gene encoding the merozoite surface protein-3 (MSP-3) of Plasmodium falciparum displays 2 allelic types, K1 and 3D7. In Thailand, the allelic frequency of the P. falciparum msp-3 gene was evaluated in a single P. falciparum population in Tak at the Thailand and Myanmar border. However, no study has yet looked at the extent of genetic diversity of the msp-3 gene in P. falciparum populations in other localities. Here, we genotyped the msp-3 alleles of 63 P. falciparum samples collected from 5 geographical populations along the borders of Thailand with 3 neighboring countries (Myanmar, Laos, and Cambodia). Our study indicated that the K1 and 3D7 alleles coexisted, but at different proportions in different Thai P. falciparum populations. K1 was more prevalent in populations at the Thailand-Myanmar and Thailand-Cambodia borders, whilst 3D7 was more prevalent at the Thailand-Laos border. Global analysis of the msp-3 allele frequencies revealed that proportions of K1 and 3D7 alleles of msp-3 also varied in different continents, suggesting the divergence of malaria parasite populations. In conclusion, the variation in the msp-3 allelic patterns of P. falciparum in Thailand provides fundamental knowledge for inferring the P. falciparum population structure and for the best design of msp-3 based malaria vaccines.

  18. [Geographic distribution of birds in the Sierra Madre Oriental of San Luis Potosi, Mexico: a regional analysis of conservation status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahagún Sánchez, Francisco Javier; Navarro, Jaime Castro; Reyes Hernández, Humberto

    2013-06-01

    The Sierra Madre Oriental region in the mexican state of San Luis Potosi is a relevant place for bird conservation at a country level. Therefore the main goal of this study was to analyze the geographic patterns of distribution and the conservation current state of the birds, to support the needs to expand the conservation areas in the future. Data was collected from various databases of zoological museums and collections, and field sampling methods conducted from January 2009 to May 2011. Potential distributions were modeled for 284 species using GARP software and then a map was developed to determine areas with favorable environmental characteristics for the distribution of species richness. Finally, the importance of conservation areas for the potential distribution of birds in the region was evaluated. A total of 359 species were recorded of which 71.4% are permanent residents, 19% are winter migrants and 4% are summer residents. From this total, 41 species were endemic, 47 were species at risk and 149 were neotropical migrants. The largest species richness correspond to oak forests, cloud forests, and tropical moist forests located at altitudes from 100m to 1 500m. Their potential distribution was concentrated towards the center and Southeast of the study area. Only 10% of areas with a high potential conservation was included in areas of priority for bird conservation (AICA) and just 3% of all potential areas were under some governmental category of protection. However, no conservation area has a management plan currently applied and monitored. The information generated is important for the development of management proposals for birds conservation in the region.

  19. [Prediction and spatial distribution of recruitment trees of natural secondary forest based on geographically weighted Poisson model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling Yu; Liu, Zhao Gang

    2017-12-01

    Based on the data collected from 108 permanent plots of the forest resources survey in Maoershan Experimental Forest Farm during 2004-2016, this study investigated the spatial distribution of recruitment trees in natural secondary forest by global Poisson regression and geographically weighted Poisson regression (GWPR) with four bandwidths of 2.5, 5, 10 and 15 km. The simulation effects of the 5 regressions and the factors influencing the recruitment trees in stands were analyzed, a description was given to the spatial autocorrelation of the regression residuals on global and local levels using Moran's I. The results showed that the spatial distribution of the number of natural secondary forest recruitment was significantly influenced by stands and topographic factors, especially average DBH. The GWPR model with small scale (2.5 km) had high accuracy of model fitting, a large range of model parameter estimates was generated, and the localized spatial distribution effect of the model parameters was obtained. The GWPR model at small scale (2.5 and 5 km) had produced a small range of model residuals, and the stability of the model was improved. The global spatial auto-correlation of the GWPR model residual at the small scale (2.5 km) was the lowe-st, and the local spatial auto-correlation was significantly reduced, in which an ideal spatial distribution pattern of small clusters with different observations was formed. The local model at small scale (2.5 km) was much better than the global model in the simulation effect on the spatial distribution of recruitment tree number.

  20. Prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica , Giardia lamblia , and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The intestinal protozoa Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, and Cryptosporidium spp. are the causative agents of giardiasis, amebiasis, and cryptosporidiosis, respectively. Adequate knowledge of the geographical distribution of parasites and the demographic variables that influence their prevalence is ...

  1. Photosynthetic pathways and the geographical distribution of grasses in South West Africa/Namibia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, R.P.; Vogel, J.C.; Fuls, A.

    1980-01-01

    Analysis of floristic lists for South West Africa/Namibia shows that, throughout the territory, more than 95% of the grass species occurring in any given area display the C 4 photosynthetic pathway. Exceptions are areas in the north-east and southwest where between 5% and 18% of the grass species are of the C 3 type. The south-western district of Luderitz falls within the winter rainfall area and it is only here that temperate C 3 genera are found. The C 3 species in the north-east belong to tropical groups. Most of the South West African C 3 grasses grow in specialized habitats and are either hydrophytes or sciophytes. Subdivision of the C 4 grasses into the three subtypes of the C 4 pathway reveals distinctive distributional trends. Malate formers or NADP-me species clearly become more abundant with increasing rainfall, whereas the aspartate formers show the opposite tendency. However, within the aspartate forming group the results show that it is specifically the NAD-me type of species which dominate in areas of very low precipitation, notably in the Namib and pre-Namib areas where rainfall is less than 200 mm/yr. The PEP-ck species form a group intermediate between the malate formers and the NAD-me grasses, especially as far as their water requirements are concerned [af

  2. Geographic distribution and host plants of Raoiella indica and associated mite species in northern Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez, Carlos; de Moraes, Gilberto J

    2013-05-01

    The red palm mite (RPM), Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), is an invasive pest in the New World, where it is currently considered a serious threat to coconut and banana crops. It was first reported from northern Venezuela in 2007. To determine its current distribution in this country, surveys were carried out from October 2008 to April 2010 on coconut (Cocos nucifera L.), banana (Musa spp.), ornamental plants and weeds in northern Venezuela. Higher population levels of RPM were registered on commercial coconut farms in Falcón and Sucre states but also on other plant species naturally growing along the coastal line in Anzoategui, Aragua, Carabobo, Monagas and Nueva Esparta states. Out of 34 botanical species evaluated, all RPM stages were observed only on eight arecaceous, one musaceous and one streliziaceous species, indicating that the pest developed and reproduced only on these plants. Mite specimens found on weeds were considered spurious events, as immature stages of the pest were never found on these. Amblyseius largoensis (Muma) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) was the most frequent predatory mite associated with RPM in all sampling sites. The results indicate that RPM has spread to extensive areas of northern Venezuela since its initial detection in Güiria, Sucre state. Considering the report of this pest mite in northern Brazil in the late 2009, additional samplings in southern Venezuela should be carried out, to evaluate the possible presence of RPM also in that region.

  3. The characterization and geographical distribution of the genes responsible for vernalization requirement in Chinese bread wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qing-Ming; Zhou, Rong-Hua; Gao, Li-Feng; Zhao, Guang-Yao; Jia, Ji-Zeng

    2009-04-01

    The frequency and distribution of the major vernalization requirement genes and their effects on growth habits were studied. Of the 551 bread wheat genotypes tested, seven allelic combinations of the three Vrn-1 genes were found to be responsible for the spring habit, three for the facultative habit and one for the winter habit. The three Vrn-1 genes behaved additively with the dominant allele of Vrn-A1 exerting the strongest effect. The allele combinations of the facultative genotypes and the discovery of spring genotypes with "winter" allele of Vrn-1 implied the presence of as yet unidentified alleles/genes for vernalization response. The dominant alleles of the three Vrn-1 genes were found in all ten ecological regions where wheat is cultivated in China, with Vrn-D1 as the most common allele in nine and Vrn-A1 in one. The combination of vrn-A1vrn-B1Vrn-D1 was the predominant genotype in seven of the regions. Compared with landraces, improved varieties contain a higher proportion of the spring type. This was attributed by a higher frequency of the dominant Vrn-A1 and Vrn-B1 alleles in the latter. Correlations between Vrn-1 allelic constitutions and heading date, spike length, plant type as well as cold tolerance were established.

  4. Photosynthetic pathways and the geographical distribution of grasses in South West Africa/Namibia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, R P [Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Pretoria (South Africa). Botanical Research Institute; Vogel, J C; Fuls, A [Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria (South Africa). National Physical Research Lab.

    1980-07-01

    Analysis of floristic lists for South West Africa/Namibia shows that, throughout the territory, more than 95% of the grass species occurring in any given area display the C/sub 4/ photosynthetic pathway. Exceptions are areas in the north-east and southwest where between 5% and 18% of the grass species are of the C/sub 3/ type. The south-western district of Luderitz falls within the winter rainfall area and it is only here that temperate C/sub 3/ genera are found. The C/sub 3/ species in the north-east belong to tropical groups. Most of the South West African C/sub 3/ grasses grow in specialized habitats and are either hydrophytes or sciophytes. Subdivision of the C/sub 4/ grasses into the three subtypes of the C/sub 4/ pathway reveals distinctive distributional trends. Malate formers or NADP-me species clearly become more abundant with increasing rainfall, whereas the aspartate formers show the opposite tendency. However, within the aspartate forming group the results show that it is specifically the NAD-me type of species which dominate in areas of very low precipitation, notably in the Namib and pre-Namib areas where rainfall is less than 200 mm/yr. The PEP-ck species form a group intermediate between the malate formers and the NAD-me grasses, especially as far as their water requirements are concerned.

  5. Identification, Geographical Distribution and Hosts of Subterranean Termites in the United Arab Emirates Arid Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Kaakeh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Six termite species, belonging to five genera and three families (Hodotermitidae, Rhinotermitidae and Termitidae were identified in the United Arab Emirates (UAE. Termite species recorded were the harvester termites Anacanthotermes ochraceus (Burmeister and Anacanthotermes ubachi (Navas, the sand termite Psammotermes hypostoma (Desneux and the small waxy termites Microcerotermes diversus (Silvestri, Heterotermes aethiopicus (Sjostedt, and Microtermes najdensis (Harris. Except for a previous record of H. aethiopicus, the other five species were recorded for the first time in the UAE. All species were subterranean in habitat and reach wood sources through earthen gallery systems. Termites were available in areas with varied conditions of climate, vegetation and soil types. Termites showed host preference for dead, living, or decaying plant materials and non-cellulose materials. The dominant termite species recorded was A. ochraceus, followed by P. hypostoma and M. diversus. The distributions of the six termite species varied in each of the seven Emirates. All species were present in the two largest Emirates of Abu Dhabi and Dubai.

  6. Decline in HIV prevalence among young women in Zambia: national-level estimates of trends mask geographical and socio-demographic differences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nkomba Kayeyi

    Full Text Available A decline in HIV incidence has been reported in Zambia and a number of other sub-Saharan countries. The trend of HIV prevalence among young people is a good marker of HIV incidence. In this study, different data sources are used to examine geographical and sub-population group differentials in HIV prevalence trends among men and women aged 15-24 years in Zambia.We analysed ANC data for women aged 15-24 years from 22 sentinel sites consistently covered in the period 1994-2008, and HIV data for young men and women aged 15-24 years from the ZDHS 2001/2 and 2007. In addition, we systematically reviewed peer-reviewed articles that have reported findings on HIV prevalence and incidence among young people.Overall trends of the ANC surveillance data indicated a substantial HIV prevalence decline among young women in both urban and rural areas. However, provincial declines differed substantially, i.e. between 10% and 68% among urban women, and from stability to 86% among rural women. Prevalence declines were steeper among those with the highest educational attainments than among the least educated. The ZDHS data indicated a significant reduction in prevalence between the two survey rounds among young women only. Provincial-level ZDHS changes were difficult to assess because the sample sizes were small. ANC-based trend patterns were consistent with those observed in PMTCT-based data (2002-2006, whereas population-based surveys in a selected urban community (1995-2003 suggested that the ANC-based data underestimated the prevalence declines in the general populations of both young both men and women.The overall HIV prevalence declined substantially among young women in Zambia and this is interpreted as indicating a decline in HIV incidence. It is noteworthy that overall national trends masked substantial differences by place and by educational attainment, demonstrating critical limitations in the current focus on overall country-level trends in

  7. Potential geographic distribution of atmospheric nitrogen deposition from intensive livestock production in North Carolina, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costanza, Jennifer K.; Marcinko, Sarah E.; Goewert, Ann E.; Mitchell, Charles E.

    2008-01-01

    To examine the consequences of increased spatial aggregation of livestock production facilities, we estimated the annual production of nitrogen in livestock waste in North Carolina, USA, and analyzed the potential distribution of atmospheric nitrogen deposition from confined animal feeding operations ('CAFO') lagoons. North Carolina is a national center for industrial livestock production. Livestock is increasingly being raised in CAFOs, where waste is frequently held, essentially untreated, in open-air lagoons. Reduced nitrogen in lagoons is volatilized as ammonia (NH 3 ), transported atmospherically, and deposited to other ecosystems. The Albemarle-Pamlico Sound, NC, is representative of nitrogen-sensitive coastal waters, and is a major component of the second largest estuarine complex in the U.S. We used GIS to model the area of water in the Sound within deposition range of CAFOs. We also evaluated the number of lagoons within deposition range of each 1 km 2 grid cell of the state. We considered multiple scenarios of atmospheric transport by varying distance and directionality. Modeled nitrogen deposition rates were particularly elevated for the Coastal Plain. This pattern matches empirical data, suggesting that observed regional patterns of reduced nitrogen deposition can be largely explained by two factors: limited atmospheric transport distance, and spatial aggregation of CAFOs. Under our medium-distance scenario, a small portion (roughly 22%) of livestock production facilities contributes disproportionately to atmospheric deposition of nitrogen to the Albemarle-Pamlico Sound. Furthermore, we estimated that between 14-37% of the state receives 50% of the state's atmospheric nitrogen deposition from CAFO lagoons. The estimated total emission from livestock is 134,000 t NH 3 yr -1 , 73% of which originates from the Coastal Plain. Stronger waste management and emission standards for CAFOs, particularly those on the Coastal Plain nearest to sensitive water bodies

  8. Geographical and genospecies distribution of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato DNA detected in humans in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kerry L; Leydet, Brian F; Threlkeld, Clifford

    2014-05-01

    The present study investigated the cause of illness in human patients primarily in the southern USA with suspected Lyme disease based on erythema migrans-like skin lesions and/or symptoms consistent with early localized or late disseminated Lyme borreliosis. The study also included some patients from other states throughout the USA. Several PCR assays specific for either members of the genus Borrelia or only for Lyme group Borrelia spp. (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato), and DNA sequence analysis, were used to identify Borrelia spp. DNA in blood and skin biopsy samples from human patients. B. burgdorferi sensu lato DNA was found in both blood and skin biopsy samples from patients residing in the southern states and elsewhere in the USA, but no evidence of DNA from other Borrelia spp. was detected. Based on phylogenetic analysis of partial flagellin (flaB) gene sequences, strains that clustered separately with B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia americana or Borrelia andersonii were associated with Lyme disease-like signs and symptoms in patients from the southern states, as well as from some other areas of the country. Strains most similar to B. burgdorferi sensu stricto and B. americana were found most commonly and appeared to be widely distributed among patients residing throughout the USA. The study findings suggest that human cases of Lyme disease in the southern USA may be more common than previously recognized and may also be caused by more than one species of B. burgdorferi sensu lato. This study provides further evidence that B. burgdorferi sensu stricto is not the only species associated with signs and/or symptoms consistent with Lyme borreliosis in the USA.

  9. Geographic distribution of the mid-continent population of sandhill cranes and related management applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapu, Gary L.; Brandt, David A.; Jones, Kenneth L.; Johnson, Douglas H.

    2011-01-01

    The Mid-continent Population (MCP) of sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) is widely hunted in North America and is separated into the Gulf Coast Subpopulation and Western Subpopulation for management purposes. Effective harvest management of the MCP requires detailed knowledge of breeding distribution of subspecies and subpopulations, chronology of their use of fall staging areas and wintering grounds, and exposure to and harvest from hunting. To address these information needs, we tagged 153 sandhill cranes with Platform Transmitting Terminals (PTTs) during 22 February–12 April 1998–2003 in the Central and North Platte River valleys of south-central Nebraska. We monitored PTT-tagged sandhill cranes, hereafter tagged cranes, from their arrival to departure from breeding grounds, during their fall migration, and throughout winter using the Argos satellite tracking system. The tracking effort yielded 74,041 useable locations over 49,350 tag days; median duration of tracking of individual cranes was 352 days and 73 cranes were tracked >12 months. Genetic sequencing of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from blood samples taken from each of our random sample of tagged cranes indicated 64% were G. c. canadensis and 34% were Grus canadensis tabida. Tagged cranes during the breeding season settled in northern temperate, subarctic, and arctic North America (U.S. [23%, n = 35], Canada [57%, n = 87]) and arctic regions of northeast Asia (Russia [20%, n = 31]). Distribution of tagged cranes by breeding affiliation was as follows: Western Alaska–Siberia (WA–S, 42 ± 4% [SE]), northern Canada–Nunavut (NC–N, 21 ± 4%), west-central Canada–Alaska (WC–A, 23 ± 4%) and East-central Canada–Minnesota (EC–M, 14 ± 3%). All tagged cranes returned to the same breeding affiliation used during the previous year with a median distance of 1.60 km (range: 0.08–7.7 km, n = 53) separating sites used in year 1 and year 2. Fall staging occurred

  10. Prevalence and intraoral distribution of Candida albicans in Sjögren's syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Tapper-Jones, L; Aldred, M; Walker, D M

    1980-01-01

    An imprint culture technique has been employed to study the prevalence and intraoral distribution of Candida albicans in 16 patients with Sjögren's syndrome and in 16 healthy controls matched for age, sex, and dental status. The prevalence and intraoral density of C. albicans was found to be significantly higher at almost all sites in the Sjögren's patients than in the controls. The distribution of candida was also altered, being significantly higher in the floor of the mouth and anterior lab...

  11. A Geographic Information Systems (GIS)-based analysis of modern South African rodent distributions, habitat use, and environmental tolerances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Timothy L; Lewis, Patrick J; Thies, Monte L; Williams, Justin K

    2012-11-01

    GOALS OF THIS STUDY WERE TO: (1) develop distributional maps of modern rodent genera throughout the countries of South Africa, Lesotho, and Swaziland by georeferencing museum specimens; (2) assess habitat preferences for genera by cross-referencing locality position with South African vegetation; and (3) identify mean annual precipitation and temperature range where the genera are located. Conterminous South Africa including the countries of Lesotho and Swaziland Digital databases of rodent museum specimens housed in the Ditsong National Museum of Natural History, South Africa (DM), and the Division of Mammals, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, United States (NMNH), were acquired and then sorted into a subset of specimens with associated coordinate data. The coordinate data were then used to develop distributional maps for the rodent genera present within the study area. Percent habitat occupation and descriptive statistics for six climatic variables were then determined for each genus by cross-referencing locality positions with vegetation and climatic maps. This report presents a series of maps illustrating the distribution of 35 rodent genera based on 19,471 geo-referenced specimens obtained from two major collections. Inferred habitat use by taxon is provided for both locality and specimen percent occurrence at three hierarchical habitat levels: biome, bioregion, and vegetation unit. Descriptive statistics for six climatic variables are also provided for each genus based on locality and specimen percent incidence. As rodent faunas are commonly used in paleoenvironmental reconstructions, an accurate assessment of rodent environmental tolerance ranges is necessary before confidence can be placed in an actualistic model. While the data presented here represent only a subset of the modern geographic distributions for many of the taxa examined, a wide range of environmental regimes are observed, suggesting that more research is necessary

  12. A Geographic Information Systems (GIS)-based analysis of modern South African rodent distributions, habitat use, and environmental tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Timothy L; Lewis, Patrick J; Thies, Monte L; Williams, Justin K

    2012-01-01

    Goals of this study were to: (1) develop distributional maps of modern rodent genera throughout the countries of South Africa, Lesotho, and Swaziland by georeferencing museum specimens; (2) assess habitat preferences for genera by cross-referencing locality position with South African vegetation; and (3) identify mean annual precipitation and temperature range where the genera are located. Conterminous South Africa including the countries of Lesotho and Swaziland Digital databases of rodent museum specimens housed in the Ditsong National Museum of Natural History, South Africa (DM), and the Division of Mammals, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, United States (NMNH), were acquired and then sorted into a subset of specimens with associated coordinate data. The coordinate data were then used to develop distributional maps for the rodent genera present within the study area. Percent habitat occupation and descriptive statistics for six climatic variables were then determined for each genus by cross-referencing locality positions with vegetation and climatic maps. This report presents a series of maps illustrating the distribution of 35 rodent genera based on 19,471 geo-referenced specimens obtained from two major collections. Inferred habitat use by taxon is provided for both locality and specimen percent occurrence at three hierarchical habitat levels: biome, bioregion, and vegetation unit. Descriptive statistics for six climatic variables are also provided for each genus based on locality and specimen percent incidence. As rodent faunas are commonly used in paleoenvironmental reconstructions, an accurate assessment of rodent environmental tolerance ranges is necessary before confidence can be placed in an actualistic model. While the data presented here represent only a subset of the modern geographic distributions for many of the taxa examined, a wide range of environmental regimes are observed, suggesting that more research is necessary

  13. Geographical distribution of the annual mean radon concentrations in primary schools of Southern Serbia – application of geostatistical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossew, P.; Žunić, Z.S.; Stojanovska, Z.; Tollefsen, T.; Carpentieri, C.; Veselinović, N.; Komatina, S.; Vaupotič, J.; Simović, R.D.; Antignani, S.; Bochicchio, F.

    2014-01-01

    Between 2008 and 2011 a survey of radon ( 222 Rn) was performed in schools of several districts of Southern Serbia. Some results have been published previously (Žunić et al., 2010; Carpentieri et al., 2011; Žunić et al., 2013). This article concentrates on the geographical distribution of the measured Rn concentrations. Applying geostatistical methods we generate “school radon maps” of expected concentrations and of estimated probabilities that a concentration threshold is exceeded. The resulting maps show a clearly structured spatial pattern which appears related to the geological background. In particular in areas with vulcanite and granitoid rocks, elevated radon (Rn) concentrations can be expected. The “school radon map” can therefore be considered as proxy to a map of the geogenic radon potential, and allows identification of radon-prone areas, i.e. areas in which higher Rn radon concentrations can be expected for natural reasons. It must be stressed that the “radon hazard”, or potential risk, estimated this way, has to be distinguished from the actual radon risk, which is a function of exposure. This in turn may require (depending on the target variable which is supposed to measure risk) considering demographic and sociological reality, i.e. population density, distribution of building styles and living habits. -- Highlights: • A map of Rn concentrations in primary schools of Southern Serbia. • Application of geostatistical methods. • Correlation with geology found. • Can serve as proxy to identify radon prone areas

  14. Geographical distribution and profile of medical doctors in public sector hospitals of the Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntuli, Samuel T; Maboya, Edwin

    2017-09-27

    The shortage and unequal distribution of medical doctors in low- and middle-income countries continues to be a public health concern. To establish the geographical distribution and demographic profile of medical doctors in public sector hospitals of the Limpopo Province, South Africa. The PERSAL system was used to obtain information on the number of medical doctors employed in public sector hospitals of the Limpopo Province. Data were exported from PERSAL's database and then analysed using STATA version 9.0. The mean age of the 887 medical doctors was 40.1 ± 11.2 years (range 24-79 years). Sixty per cent of the doctors were male, 66% were aged ≤ 45 years and 84% were African. Most of the doctors (86%) were medical officers, of which 55% had < 5 years working experience. Overall, the doctor-to-population ratio for the five districts in the province was 16.4/100 000, with Capricorn (33.7/100 000) and Waterberg (20.2/100 000) recording the highest ratios. A large proportion (43%) of medical officers are employed in the Capricorn District, of which 71% were practising at the tertiary hospital. This study demonstrated a shortage and maldistribution of medical doctors in the public sector hospitals of the Limpopo Province. This has a potentially negative effect on the delivery of an appropriate and efficient healthcare service to the population and requires urgent attention.

  15. Climate change effects on the geographic distribution of specialist tree species of the Brazilian tropical dry forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, P M S; Silva, J O; Eisenlohr, P V; Schaefer, C E G R

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the ecological niche models (ENMs) for three specialist trees (Anadenanthera colubrina, Aspidosperma pyrifolium and Myracrodruon urundeuva) in seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs) in Brazil, considering present and future pessimist scenarios (2080) of climate change. These three species exhibit typical deciduousness and are widely distributed by SDTF in South America, being important in studies of the historical and evolutionary processes experienced by this ecosystem. The modeling of the potential geographic distribution of species was done by the method of maximum entropy (Maxent).We verified a general expansion of suitable areas for occurrence of the three species in future (c.a., 18%), although there was reduction of areas with high environmental suitability in Caatinga region. Precipitation of wettest quarter and temperature seasonality were the predictor variables that most contributed to our models. Climatic changes can provide more severe and longer dry season with increasing temperature and tree mortality in tropics. On this scenario, areas currently occupied by rainforest and savannas could become more suitable for occurrence of the SDTF specialist trees, whereas regions occupied by Caatinga could not support the future level of unsustainable (e.g., aridity). Long-term multidisciplinary studies are necessary to make reliable predictions of the plant's adaptation strategies and responses to climate changes in dry forest at community level. Based on the high deforestation rate, endemism and threat, public policies to minimize the effects of climate change on the biodiversity found within SDTFs must be undertaken rapidly.

  16. Geographical distribution patterns of iodine in drinking-water and its associations with geological factors in Shandong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jie; Zhang, Zhijie; Hu, Yi; Bian, Jianchao; Jiang, Wen; Wang, Xiaoming; Sun, Liqian; Jiang, Qingwu

    2014-05-19

    County-based spatial distribution characteristics and the related geological factors for iodine in drinking-water were studied in Shandong Province (China). Spatial autocorrelation analysis and spatial scan statistic were applied to analyze the spatial characteristics. Generalized linear models (GLMs) and geographically weighted regression (GWR) studies were conducted to explore the relationship between water iodine level and its related geological factors. The spatial distribution of iodine in drinking-water was significantly heterogeneous in Shandong Province (Moran's I = 0.52, Z = 7.4, p water were identified in the south-western and north-western parts of Shandong Province by the purely spatial scan statistic approach. Both GLMs and GWR indicated a significantly global association between iodine in drinking-water and geological factors. Furthermore, GWR showed obviously spatial variability across the study region. Soil type and distance to Yellow River were statistically significant at most areas of Shandong Province, confirming the hypothesis that the Yellow River causes iodine deposits in Shandong Province. Our results suggested that the more effective regional monitoring plan and water improvement strategies should be strengthened targeting at the cluster areas based on the characteristics of geological factors and the spatial variability of local relationships between iodine in drinking-water and geological factors.

  17. Geographic distribution and mortality risk factors during the cholera outbreak in a rural region of Haiti, 2010-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Laure Page

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2010 and 2011, Haiti was heavily affected by a large cholera outbreak that spread throughout the country. Although national health structure-based cholera surveillance was rapidly initiated, a substantial number of community cases might have been missed, particularly in remote areas. We conducted a community-based survey in a large rural, mountainous area across four districts of the Nord department including areas with good versus poor accessibility by road, and rapid versus delayed response to the outbreak to document the true cholera burden and assess geographic distribution and risk factors for cholera mortality.A two-stage, household-based cluster survey was conducted in 138 clusters of 23 households in four districts of the Nord Department from April 22nd to May 13th 2011. A total of 3,187 households and 16,900 individuals were included in the survey, of whom 2,034 (12.0% reported at least one episode of watery diarrhea since the beginning of the outbreak. The two more remote districts, Borgne and Pilate were most affected with attack rates up to 16.2%, and case fatality rates up to 15.2% as compared to the two more accessible districts. Care seeking was also less frequent in the more remote areas with as low as 61.6% of reported patients seeking care. Living in remote areas was found as a risk factor for mortality together with older age, greater severity of illness and not seeking care.These results highlight important geographical disparities and demonstrate that the epidemic caused the highest burden both in terms of cases and deaths in the most remote areas, where up to 5% of the population may have died during the first months of the epidemic. Adapted strategies are needed to rapidly provide treatment as well as prevention measures in remote communities.

  18. COMPOSITION AND FEATURES OF GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF FAUNA OF ORIBATID MITES (ACARIFORMES, ORIBATIDA IN THE TETHYS DESERT-STEPPE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Abdurakhmanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim is to identify the similarities and differences of fauna of oribatid mites (Acariformes, Oribatida in the Tethys desert-steppe region and analyze geographic relationships of the studied area.Methods. For the research, we used the materials collected for 5 years (2008-13 by the members of the stuff of the Department of Biology and Biodiversity (Grikurova A.A. in the territory of the Republic of Dagestan. In addition, we referred to personal collections and publications including" Catalogue of oribatid mites of the Caucasus" by Shtanchaeva U.Ya., Subias L.S. To analyze the similarities of fauna of the Tethys region we made a comprehensive analysis based on Jaccard similarity coefficient.Results. As a result of the research we gave the composition of fauna, held a brief overview on oribatid mites and their resettlement and migration. In Tethys region, we identified 381 genera of oribatid uniting 1506 species, one third of which is endemic (501 species. Despite the fact that the fauna of the oribatid in the Caucasus is studied unevenly, the greatest variety of species is observed here. The smallest amount of diversity compared with the Caucasian species is observed in the Mediterranean countries and Central Asia, which shows the peculiarities of the genesis and geographic distribution.Conclusion. The dendrogram of similarity of the oribatid mites genera in the Tethys region demonstrates the tremendous role of coastal and island ecosystems of the Tethys Ocean, followed by the enrichment of the diversity as well as independent species shaping.

  19. Description of the male of Eburella pinima Martins and notes on the geographical distribution of Eburodacrys aenigma Galileo & Martins and Eburodacrys lanei Zajciw (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Botero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Description of the male of Eburella pinima Martins and notes on the geographical distribution of Eburodacrys aenigma Galileo & Martins and Eburodacrys lanei Zajciw (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae. The male of Eburella pinima Martins, 1997 is described and illustrated for the first time. Information on Eburodacrys aenigma Galileo & Martins, 2006, previously known only from the female holotype, which lacked locality label, is herein complemented. This species is recorded from Brazil and the male is depicted for the first time. The geographical distribution of Eburodacrys lanei Zajciw, 1958 is further restricted here as some previous records are confirmed to result from misidentifications of E. aenigma.

  20. Modeling the geographic distribution of Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae) in the contiguous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Micah; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Monaghan, Andrew J.; Eisen, Rebecca J.

    2016-01-01

    In addition to serving as vectors of several other human pathogens, the black-legged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say, and western black-legged tick, Ixodes pacificus Cooley and Kohls, are the primary vectors of the spirochete (Borrelia burgdorferi ) that causes Lyme disease, the most common vector-borne disease in the United States. Over the past two decades, the geographic range of I. pacificus has changed modestly while, in contrast, the I. scapularis range has expanded substantially, which likely contributes to the concurrent expansion in the distribution of human Lyme disease cases in the Northeastern, North-Central and Mid-Atlantic states. Identifying counties that contain suitable habitat for these ticks that have not yet reported established vector populations can aid in targeting limited vector surveillance resources to areas where tick invasion and potential human risk are likely to occur. We used county-level vector distribution information and ensemble modeling to map the potential distribution of I. scapularis and I. pacificus in the contiguous United States as a function of climate, elevation, and forest cover. Results show that I. pacificus is currently present within much of the range classified by our model as suitable for establishment. In contrast, environmental conditions are suitable for I. scapularis to continue expanding its range into northwestern Minnesota, central and northern Michigan, within the Ohio River Valley, and inland from the southeastern and Gulf coasts. Overall, our ensemble models show suitable habitat for I. scapularis in 441 eastern counties and for I. pacificus in 11 western counties where surveillance records have not yet supported classification of the counties as established.

  1. Mapping the Distribution and Flora of the Weeds in Canola Fields of Gorgan Township by Geographic Information System (GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sahar jannati ataie

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oil seeds are the second world’s food supply after cereals. These crops are grown primarily for the oil contained in the seeds. The major world sources of edible seed oils are soybeans, sunflowers, canola, cotton and peanuts. Canola is one of the most important plants in the world that has great importance. The plant belongs to the Brassica genus, the botanical family that includes cauliflower and cabbages. Weeds are one of the major problems in canola production that reduce yield and its quality. In general, one of the most important factors in development of management plans is information about the weed’s flora and geographic distribution. Knowledge of weed flora enables one to use the required herbicide and formulate other suitable management strategies. It is also useful in exploiting abundant weeds as a cover crop or pasture and for other economic uses. The geographic information system has the proper use in weed science and management of agricultural information and their analysis. In this study, distribution and flora of the weeds in canola fields of Gorgan Township investigated by Geographic Information System. Material and Methods: Crop sampling was conducted during May and June 2014, in 58 canola fields in Gorgan Township (Golestan province and the weed species were sampled and detected using a W method and by specific formula of density, frequency, uniformity, and abundance of each weed species was calculated. Also, geographic coordinates of fields (latitude, altitude and elevation were determined by using GPS model Garmin map 60. After collecting data, in order to create a database of weed distribution, the data was transferred from GPS to ArcGIS 9/3.1 software. From all information obtained, consistently a database with location was created and after separation of data based on present or absence of weeds on fields, distribution maps were produced. Results and Discussion: The results showed that there are 35 weed

  2. Geographical differences in food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartra, Joan; García-Moral, Alba; Enrique, Ernesto

    2016-06-01

    Food allergy represents a health problem worldwide and leads to life-threatening reactions and even impairs quality of life. Epidemiological data during the past decades is very heterogeneous because of the use of different diagnostic procedures, and most studies have only been performed in specific geographical areas. The aim of this article is to review the available data on the geographical distribution of food allergies at the food source and molecular level and to link food allergy patterns to the aeroallergen influence in each area. Systematic reviews, meta-analysis, studies performed within the EuroPrevall Project and EAACI position papers regarding food allergy were analysed. The prevalence of food allergy sensitization differs between geographical areas, probably as a consequence of differences among populations, their habits and the influence of the cross-reactivity of aeroallergens and other sources of allergens. Geographical differences in food allergy are clearly evident at the allergenic molecular level, which seems to be directly influenced by the aeroallergens of each region and associated with specific clinical patterns.

  3. Interspecific geographic distribution and variation of the pathogens Nosema bombi and Crithidia species in United States bumble bee populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, Nils; Huang, Wei-Fone; Strange, James P; Cameron, Sydney A; Griswold, Terry L; Lozier, Jeffrey D; Solter, Leellen F

    2012-02-01

    Several bumble bee (Bombus) species in North America have undergone range reductions and rapid declines in relative abundance. Pathogens have been suggested as causal factors, however, baseline data on pathogen distributions in a large number of bumble bee species have not been available to test this hypothesis. In a nationwide survey of the US, nearly 10,000 specimens of 36 bumble bee species collected at 284 sites were evaluated for the presence and prevalence of two known Bombus pathogens, the microsporidium Nosema bombi and trypanosomes in the genus Crithidia. Prevalence of Crithidia was ≤10% for all host species examined but was recorded from 21% of surveyed sites. Crithidia was isolated from 15 of the 36 Bombus species screened, and were most commonly recovered from Bombus bifarius, Bombus bimaculatus, Bombus impatiens and Bombus mixtus. Nosema bombi was isolated from 22 of the 36 US Bombus species collected. Only one species with more than 50 sampled bees, Bombus appositus, was free of the pathogen; whereas, prevalence was highest in Bombus occidentalis and Bombus pensylvanicus, two species that are reportedly undergoing population declines in North America. A variant of a tetranucleotide repeat in the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of the N. bombi rRNA gene, thus far not reported from European isolates, was isolated from ten US Bombus hosts, appearing in varying ratios in different host species. Given the genetic similarity of the rRNA gene of N. bombi sampled in Europe and North America to date, the presence of a unique isolate in US bumble could reveal one or more native North American strains and indicate that N. bombi is enzootic across the Holarctic Region, exhibiting some genetic isolation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Ticks: Geographic Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ticks that bite humans How ticks spread disease Diseases transmitted by ticks Trends in tickborne diseases Tickborne diseases ... Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID) Division of Vector-Borne Diseases (DVBD) Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch ...

  5. Temporal and geographical distributions of epilithic sodium dodecyl sulfate-degrading bacteria in a polluted South Wales river

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D.J.; Day, M.J.; Russell, N.J.; White, G.F.

    1988-02-01

    Epilithic bacteria were isolated nonselectively from riverbed stones and examined by gel zymography for their ability to produce alkylsulfatase (AS) enzymes and thus to metabolize alkyl sulfate surfactants such as sodium dodecyl sulfate. The percentages of AS+ isolates from stone epilithon at five sites from the source to the river mouth were measured on five sampling days spread over 1 year. The results showed that (i) the prevalence of epilithic AS+ strains (as a percentage of all isolates) was much higher at polluted sites than at the source; (ii) when averaged over the whole river, percentages of AS+ strains were significantly higher at the end of summer compared with either the preceding or the following winter; (iii) analysis of site-sampling time interactions indicated that water quality factors (e.g., biochemical oxygen demand and dissolved oxygen concentration) rather than climatic factors determined the distributions of epilithic AS+ isolates; (iv) constitutive strains were the most prevalent (7.2% of all isolates), with smaller numbers of isolates with inducible (4.5%) and repressible (1.7%) enzymes.

  6. Changes in the geographical distribution and abundance of the tick Ixodes ricinus during the past 30 years in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaenson Thomas GT

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ixodes ricinus is the main vector in Europe of human-pathogenic Lyme borreliosis (LB spirochaetes, the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV and other pathogens of humans and domesticated mammals. The results of a previous 1994 questionnaire, directed at people living in Central and North Sweden (Svealand and Norrland and aiming to gather information about tick exposure for humans and domestic animals, suggested that Ixodes ricinus ticks had become more widespread in Central Sweden and the southern part of North Sweden from the early 1980s to the early 1990s. To investigate whether the expansion of the tick's northern geographical range and the increasing abundance of ticks in Sweden were still occurring, in 2009 we performed a follow-up survey 16 years after the initial study. Methods A questionnaire similar to the one used in the 1994 study was published in Swedish magazines aimed at dog owners, home owners, and hunters. The questionnaire was published together with a popular science article about the tick's biology and role as a pathogen vector in Sweden. The magazines were selected to get information from people familiar with ticks and who spend time in areas where ticks might be present. Results Analyses of data from both surveys revealed that during the near 30-year period from the early 1980s to 2008, I. ricinus has expanded its distribution range northwards. In the early 1990s ticks were found in new areas along the northern coastline of the Baltic Sea, while in the 2009 study, ticks were reported for the first time from many locations in North Sweden. This included locations as far north as 66°N and places in the interior part of North Sweden. During this 16-year period the tick's range in Sweden was estimated to have increased by 9.9%. Most of the range expansion occurred in North Sweden (north of 60°N where the tick's coverage area doubled from 12.5% in the early 1990s to 26.8% in 2008. Moreover, according to the

  7. Changes in the geographical distribution and abundance of the tick Ixodes ricinus during the past 30 years in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaenson, Thomas G T; Jaenson, David G E; Eisen, Lars; Petersson, Erik; Lindgren, Elisabet

    2012-01-10

    Ixodes ricinus is the main vector in Europe of human-pathogenic Lyme borreliosis (LB) spirochaetes, the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and other pathogens of humans and domesticated mammals. The results of a previous 1994 questionnaire, directed at people living in Central and North Sweden (Svealand and Norrland) and aiming to gather information about tick exposure for humans and domestic animals, suggested that Ixodes ricinus ticks had become more widespread in Central Sweden and the southern part of North Sweden from the early 1980s to the early 1990s. To investigate whether the expansion of the tick's northern geographical range and the increasing abundance of ticks in Sweden were still occurring, in 2009 we performed a follow-up survey 16 years after the initial study. A questionnaire similar to the one used in the 1994 study was published in Swedish magazines aimed at dog owners, home owners, and hunters. The questionnaire was published together with a popular science article about the tick's biology and role as a pathogen vector in Sweden. The magazines were selected to get information from people familiar with ticks and who spend time in areas where ticks might be present. Analyses of data from both surveys revealed that during the near 30-year period from the early 1980s to 2008, I. ricinus has expanded its distribution range northwards. In the early 1990s ticks were found in new areas along the northern coastline of the Baltic Sea, while in the 2009 study, ticks were reported for the first time from many locations in North Sweden. This included locations as far north as 66°N and places in the interior part of North Sweden. During this 16-year period the tick's range in Sweden was estimated to have increased by 9.9%. Most of the range expansion occurred in North Sweden (north of 60°N) where the tick's coverage area doubled from 12.5% in the early 1990s to 26.8% in 2008. Moreover, according to the respondents, the abundance of ticks had increased

  8. [Analysis on the exposure level and geographic distribution trend of toxicological indicators in rural drinking water, Shandong Province, in 2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, F; Lyu, S P; Kong, F L; Yang, X T; Zhou, J Y

    2017-09-06

    Objective: To analyze the exposure level and the geographical distribution trend of toxicological indicators of rural drinking water in Shandong Province. Methods: The drawing method was used to randomly select no less than 60% villages and towns from 137 counties (cities, districts) of 17 cities in Shandong Province in 2015, and then 1-3 rural centralized water supply units were selected according to the circumstance of rural centralized water supply units in each village and town. In total, 735 villages and towns, 1 473 rural centralized water supply units were selected, and 1 473 water samples were collected. The water treatment process, water supply population and other circumstances of the rural centralized water supply units were investigated, the water quality was monitored, the content of toxicological indicators of drinking water in different areas was compared, and the trend surface isogram of excessive toxicological indicators was drawn. Results: The qualified rate of toxicological indicators in 1 473 water samples was 83.64% ( n =1 232). The main toxicological indicators that affected the qualified rate of toxicological indicators of drinking water in rural areas in Shandong Province were nitrate and fluoride. The excessive rate of fluoride was 5.70% ( n =84) and the exposed population was 1 736 709 (4.22%). The excessive rate of nitrate (as nitrogen) was 12.29% ( n =181) and the exposed population was 1 393 612 (3.39%). The P (5)0 content of fluoride in the eastern, middle and western regions was 0.24, 0.29 and 0.59 mg/L, respective;which was higher in the western region than in the east and the middle regions ( P 0.05). The P (50) content of nitrate (as nitrogen) in the eastern, middle and western regions was 8.00, 7.48, and 2.00 mg/L, which was higher in the eastern and middle regions than in the west region ( P 0.05). The trend surface isogram of nitrate and fluoride content showed that the content of nitrate (as nitrogen) in rural drinking water in

  9. The geographic distribution of strontium isotopes in Danish surface waters - A base for provenance studies in archaeology, hydrology and agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frei, Karin M.; Frei, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Strontium isotope data of 192 surface waters from Denmark. → Geographic baseline distribution of bio-available fractions. → Applicable for provenance studies within archaeology, geology, agriculture and hydrology. → Proposal of a band of strontium isotope values to characterize 'local' Danish signatures. - Abstract: In this paper Sr isotope signatures are reported for 192 surface water (lakes/ponds and rivers/creeks) samples from within Denmark and an isotope distribution map is presented that may serve as a base for provenance applications, including archaeological migration studies, ground water - surface water - seawater interaction/contamination monitoring, and potentially for agricultural applications, including cases of authenticity proof for particular food products. The Sr isotopic compositions of surface waters range from 87 Sr/ 86 Sr = 0.7078 to 0.7125 (average 0.7096 ± 0.0016; 2σ). This average value lies above the range of 87 Sr/ 86 Sr values between 0.7078 and 0.7082 expected from Late Cretaceous to Early Tertiary (Oligocene) limestones which form the dominant bedrock type in a NW-SE trending belt in Denmark. The elevated 87 Sr/ 86 Sr signatures >∼0.7095 are explained by additions to the surface waters of radiogenic Sr predominantly derived from the near-surface weathering and wash-out of Quarternary glaciogenic tills and soils deposited and formed during and after the last two ice age stages (Saale and Weichsel). The Sr isotopic compositions and concentrations of the surface waters can, therefore, best be modeled by a two-component mixing involving carbonaceous bedrock and glaciogenic cover sediments as the two predominant Sr sources. A feasibility study for using Sr isotopic compositions of surface waters as a proxy for bio-available Sr signatures was conducted in a representative test area on Zealand (Land of Legends, Lejre) where there is no use and application of commercial fertilizers. It is demonstrated that

  10. Extent of mangrove nursery habitats determines the geographic distribution of a coral reef fish in a South-Pacific archipelago.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christelle Paillon

    Full Text Available Understanding the drivers of species' geographic distribution has fundamental implications for the management of biodiversity. For coral reef fishes, mangroves have long been recognized as important nursery habitats sustaining biodiversity in the Western Atlantic but there is still debate about their role in the Indo-Pacific. Here, we combined LA-ICP-MS otolith microchemistry, underwater visual censuses (UVC and mangrove cartography to estimate the importance of mangroves for the Indo-Pacific coral reef fish Lutjanus fulviflamma in the archipelago of New Caledonia. Otolith elemental compositions allowed high discrimination of mangroves and reefs with 83.8% and 98.7% correct classification, respectively. Reefs were characterized by higher concentrations of Rb and Sr and mangroves by higher concentrations of Ba, Cr, Mn and Sn. All adult L. fulviflamma collected on reefs presented a mangrove signature during their juvenile stage with 85% inhabiting mangrove for their entire juvenile life (about 1 year. The analysis of 2942 UVC revealed that the species was absent from isolated islands of the New Caledonian archipelago where mangroves were absent. Furthermore, strong positive correlations existed between the abundance of L. fulviflamma and the area of mangrove (r = 0.84 for occurrence, 0.93 for density and 0.89 for biomass. These results indicate that mangrove forest is an obligatory juvenile habitat for L. fulviflamma in New Caledonia and emphasize the potential importance of mangroves for Indo-Pacific coral reef fishes.

  11. Investigation on the geographical distribution and life form of plant species in sub alpine zone Karsanak region, Shahrekord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahanbakhsh Pairanj

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in rangelands of Karsanak, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province, which is regarded as one of the rich rangelands. Phytogeographically, this region is located in Irano-Turanian (zone of sub alpine. Endemic and rare plants were identified and geographical distribution and life form of identified plant species were investigated as well. Overall, 100 species from 17 families were identified from which 20 percent of identified species was endemic element of Irano-Turanian region. Results indicated that 75.7 percent of identified plants belonged to the Irano-Turanian and only 3 and 2 percent belonged to Euro-Siberian and Mediterranean regions respectively. The reason of high percentage of Irano-Turanian elements is probably the long distance of this region from other regions. Similarities of Irano-Turanian and Mediterranean were included 6.1 percent of identified plants and Irano-Turanian and Euro-Siberian included 2 percent. Results of life forms showed hemichryptophytes including 60 percent of life forms which indicate the cold and mountainous weather.

  12. Geographical distribution of radioactive nuclides released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident in eastern Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Masanobu; Umetsu, Kohei; Sugimoto, Miyabi; Yamaguchi, Yuta; Yamazaki, Hideo; Nakagawa, Ryota

    2013-01-01

    The geographical distribution of radioactive nuclides released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident in metropolitan areas located in eastern Japan was investigated. The radioactive contamination of environmental samples, including soil and biological materials, was analyzed. The concentrations of 131 I, 134 Cs, and 137 Cs in the soil samples collected from Fukushima City were 122000, 11500 and 14000 Bq/kg on 19th March 2011 and 129000, 11000 and 13700 Bq/kg on 26th March 2011, for the three nuclides respectively. The concentrations of 131 I, 134 Cs and 137 Cs in the soil samples collected from March-June 2011 from study sites ranged from 240 to 101000, 28 to 26200, and 14 to 33700 Bq/kg, respectively. In Higashiosaka City, it began to detect those radioactive nuclides in the atmospheric airborne dust from 25th March. Radioactive fission products 95 Zr- 95 Nb were detected on 18th April 2011. Biological samples collected from Tokyo Bay were studied. The maximum concentrations of 134 Cs and 137 Cs detected in the biological samples were 12.2 and 19.2 Bq/kg, which were measured in goby. 131 I was not detected in the biological samples however, trace amounts of the short half-life nuclide 110m Ag were found in the shellfish samples. (author)

  13. Latitude, sunshine, and human lactase phenotype distributions may contribute to geographic patterns of modern disease: the inflammatory bowel disease model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szilagyi A

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Andrew Szilagyi,1 Henry Leighton,2 Barry Burstein,3 Xiaoqing Xue41Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Jewish General Hospital, 2Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, 3Department of Medicine, Jewish General Hospital, 4Department of Emergency Medicine, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, QC, CanadaAbstract: Countries with high lactase nonpersistence (LNP or low lactase persistence (LP populations have lower rates of some “western” diseases, mimicking the effects of sunshine and latitude. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, ie, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, is putatively also influenced by sunshine. Recent availability of worldwide IBD rates and lactase distributions allows more extensive comparisons. The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent to which modern day lactase distributions interact with latitude, sunshine exposure, and IBD rates. National IBD rates, national distributions of LP/LNP, and population-weighted average national annual ultraviolet B exposure were obtained, estimated, or calculated from the literature. Negative binomial analysis was used to assess the relationship between the three parameters and IBD rates. Analyses for 55 countries were grouped in three geographic domains, ie, global, Europe, and non-Europe. In Europe, both latitude and ultraviolet B exposure correlate well with LP/LNP and IBD. In non-Europe, latitude and ultraviolet B exposure correlate weakly with LP/LNP, but the latter retains a more robust correlation with IBD. In univariate analysis, latitude, ultraviolet B exposure, and LP/LNP all had significant relationships with IBD. Multivariate analysis showed that lactase distributions provided the best model of fit for IBD. The model of IBD reveals the evolutionary effects of the human lactase divide, and suggests that latitude, ultraviolet B exposure, and LP/LNP mimic each other because LP/LNP follows latitudinal directions toward the equator

  14. The Prevalence and Distribution of Vitreoretinal Interface Abnormalities among Urban Community Population in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to identify the prevalence and distribution of vitreoretinal interface abnormalities (VIAs among urban community population in Shenyang, China. According to the WHO criteria, a cross-sectional study was carried out among 304 Type 2 diabetes (T2D patients and 304 people without diabetes as control over 45 years old. The presence of VIAs was determined by standardized grading of macular optical coherence tomography (Optovue OCT; Optovue, Inc., Fremont, CA scans and two-field fundus photographs in at least one eye. For both men and women, high prevalence of VIAs (70.79% was observed among over 65-years-old T2D patients. Prevalence of VIAs was observed to be high among T2D patients in all age groups compared to normal subjects. Prevalence of VIAs increased with age in all subjects. Prevalence of components of VIAs was epiretinal membrane (ERM 11.43%, posterior vitreous detachment (PVD 17.76%, vitreomacular traction syndrome (VMT 5.67%, macular cysts/macular edema (MC/ME 4.61%, full-thickness macular hole (FTMH 0.82%, and partial thickness macular hole (PTMH 0.74% in any eye, respectively. ERM and MC/ME were more prevalent in T2D in both males and females. The results highlight the need for early detection using OCT and approaches for the prevention of VIAs of diabetes in urban community.

  15. Degenerative inter-vertebral disc disease osteochondrosis intervertebralis in Europe: prevalence, geographic variation and radiological correlates in men and women aged 50 and over.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbrecht, Gabriele; Felsenberg, Dieter; Ganswindt, Melanie; Lunt, Mark; Kaptoge, Stephen K; Abendroth, Klaus; Aroso Dias, Antonio; Bhalla, Ashok K; Cannata Andia, Jorge; Dequeker, Jan; Eastell, Richard; Hoszowski, Krzysztof; Lyritis, George; Masaryk, Pavol; van Meurs, Joyce; Miazgowski, Tomasz; Nuti, Ranuccio; Poór, Gyula; Redlund-Johnell, Inga; Reid, David M; Schatz, Helmut; Todd, Christopher J; Woolf, Anthony D; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Javaid, Muhammad K; Cooper, Cyrus; Silman, Alan J; O'Neill, Terence W; Reeve, Jonathan

    2017-07-01

    To assess the prevalences across Europe of radiological indices of degenerative inter-vertebral disc disease (DDD); and to quantify their associations with, age, sex, physical anthropometry, areal BMD (aBMD) and change in aBMD with time. In the population-based European Prospective Osteoporosis Study, 27 age-stratified samples of men and women from across the continent aged 50+ years had standardized lateral radiographs of the lumbar and thoracic spine to evaluate the severity of DDD, using the Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) scale. Measurements of anterior, mid-body and posterior vertebral heights on all assessed vertebrae from T4 to L4 were used to generate indices of end-plate curvature. Images from 10 132 participants (56% female, mean age 63.9 years) passed quality checks. Overall, 47% of men and women had DDD grade 3 or more in the lumbar spine and 36% in both thoracic and lumbar spine. Risk ratios for DDD grades 3 and 4, adjusted for age and anthropometric determinants, varied across a three-fold range between centres, yet prevalences were highly correlated in men and women. DDD was associated with flattened, non-ovoid inter-vertebral disc spaces. KL grade 4 and loss of inter-vertebral disc space were associated with higher spine aBMD. KL grades 3 and 4 are often used clinically to categorize radiological DDD. Highly variable European prevalences of radiologically defined DDD grades 3+ along with the large effects of age may have growing and geographically unequal health and economic impacts as the population ages. These data encourage further studies of potential genetic and environmental causes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  16. Degenerative Inter-Vertebral Disc Disease (Osteochondrosis Intervertebralis) in Europe: Prevalence, Geographic Variation, and Radiological Correlates in Men and Women Aged 50 and Over

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbrecht, Gabriele; Felsenberg, Dieter; Ganswindt, Melanie; Lunt, Mark; Kaptoge, Stephen K; Abendroth, Klaus; Aroso Dias, Antonio; Bhalla, Ashok K; Cannata Andia, Jorge; Dequeker, Jan; Eastell, Richard; Hoszowski, Krysztoff; Lyritis, George; Masaryk, Pavol; van Meurs, Joyce; Miazgowski, Tomasz; Nuti, Ranuccio; Poór, Gyula; Redlund-Johnell, Inga; Reid, David M; Schatz, Helmut; Todd, Christopher J; Woolf, Anthony D; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Javaid, Muhammad K; Cooper, Cyrus; Silman, Alan J; O’Neill, Terence W; Reeve, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To assess the prevalence across Europe of radiological indices of degenerative inter-vertebral disc disease (DDD); and to quantify their associations with, age, sex, physical anthropometry, areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and change in aBMD with time. Methods In the population-based European Prospective Osteoporosis Study 27 age-stratified samples of men and women from across the continent aged 50+ had standardized lateral radiographs of the lumbar and thoracic spine to evaluate the severity of DDD, using the Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) scale. Measurements of anterior, mid-body and posterior vertebral heights on all assessed vertebrae from T4 to L4 were used to generate indices of end-plate curvature. Results Images from 10,132 participants (56% female, mean age 63.9 years) passed quality checks. Overall, 47% of men and women had DDD grade 3 or more in the lumbar spine and 36% in both thoracic and lumbar spine. Risk ratios for DDD grades 3 and 4, adjusted for age and anthropometric determinants, varied across a three-fold range between centres, yet prevalences were highly correlated in men and women. DDD was associated with flattened, non-ovoid inter-vertebral disc spaces. KL grade 4 and loss of inter-vertebral disc space were associated with higher spine aBMD. Discussion KL Grades 3 and 4 are often used clinically to categorise radiological DDD. Highly variable European prevalences of radiologically-defined DDD Grades 3+ along with the large effects of age may have growing and geographically unequal health and economic impacts as the population ages. These data encourage further studies of potential genetic and environmental causes. PMID:28398504

  17. The prevalence and distribution of Fusarium species in Norwegian cereals: a survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosiak, B.; Torp, M.; Skjerve, E.

    2003-01-01

    the regions. A total of 695 grain samples were analysed. The amount of Fusarium infection varied with cereal species and region of origin. The most frequently isolated Fusarium spp. from all samples were F. avenaceum, F. poae, F. tricinctum and F. culmorum. Other important toxigenic Fusarium spp. were F......In the period 1994-1996 a post-harvest survey was conducted in wheat, barley and oats to assess the occurrence and geographic distribution of Fusarium species in Norwegian cereals. The number of samples investigated was adjusted proportionally to the production of each cereal species within...... and F. culmorum demonstrated in this study , corresponded to previously reported DON-distribution, although DON seems to be produced by different species in different regions. Distribution of the isolated Fusarium species and comparison between cereals and locations are discussed....

  18. An Analysis of the Geographic Distribution of Recently Graduated Dentists from the University of Western Australia: The World's Most Isolated Dental School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurbuxani, Amit; Kruger, Estie; Tennant, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the geographic distribution of all new dentists who graduated over a period of six years. Perth, the capital city of Western Australia, is one of the world's most isolated cities, with a population of approximately 1.6 million people, situated over 2000km from its nearest next major capital…

  19. An emendation of the generic diagnosis of the monotypic Glanitaenia (Cestoda: Proteocephalidae), with notes on the geographical distribution of G-osculata, a parasite of invasive wels catfish

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    de Chambrier, A.; Scholz, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 123, č. 1 (2016), s. 1-9 ISSN 0035-418X R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Cestoda * Glanitaenia osculata * morphology * redescription * freshwater fish * geographical distribution * Europe Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.380, year: 2016

  20. Modeling species’ realized climatic niche space and predicting their response to global warming for several western forest species with small geographic distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus V. Warwell; Gerald E. Rehfeldt; Nicholas L. Crookston

    2010-01-01

    The Random Forests multiple regression tree was used to develop an empirically based bioclimatic model of the presence-absence of species occupying small geographic distributions in western North America. The species assessed were subalpine larch (Larix lyallii), smooth Arizona cypress (Cupressus arizonica ssp. glabra...

  1. Unraveling Salt Tolerance Mechanisms in Halophytes: A Comparative Study on Four Mediterranean Limonium Species with Different Geographic Distribution Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Al Hassan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We have performed an extensive study on the responses to salt stress in four related Limonium halophytes with different geographic distribution patterns, during seed germination and early vegetative growth. The aims of the work were twofold: to establish the basis for the different chorology of these species, and to identify relevant mechanisms of salt tolerance dependent on the control of ion transport and osmolyte accumulation. Seeds were germinated in vitro, in the presence of increasing NaCl concentrations, and subjected to “recovery of germination” tests; germination percentages and velocity were determined to establish the relative tolerance and competitiveness of the four Limonium taxa. Salt treatments were also applied to young plants, by 1-month irrigation with NaCl up to 800 mM; then, growth parameters, levels of monovalent and divalent ions (in roots and leaves, and leaf contents of photosynthetic pigments and common osmolytes were determined in control and stressed plants of the four species. Seed germination is the most salt-sensitive developmental phase in Limonium. The different germination behavior of the investigated species appears to be responsible for their geographical range size: L. narbonense and L. virgatum, widespread throughout the Mediterranean, are the most tolerant and the most competitive at higher soil salinities; the endemic L. santapolense and L. girardianum are the most sensitive and more competitive only at lower salinities. During early vegetative growth, all taxa showed a strong tolerance to salt stress, although slightly higher in L. virgatum and L. santapolense. Salt tolerance is based on the efficient transport of Na+ and Cl− to the leaves and on the accumulation of fructose and proline for osmotic adjustment. Despite some species-specific quantitative differences, the accumulation patterns of the different ions were similar in all species, not explaining differences in tolerance, except for the

  2. Development of peptide-based lineage-specific serology for chronic Chagas disease: geographical and clinical distribution of epitope recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapan Bhattacharyya

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chagas disease, caused by infection with the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, remains a serious public health issue in Latin America. Genetically diverse, the species is sub-divided into six lineages, known as TcI-TcVI, which have disparate geographical and ecological distributions. TcII, TcV, and TcVI are associated with severe human disease in the Southern Cone countries, whereas TcI is associated with cardiomyopathy north of the Amazon. T. cruzi persists as a chronic infection, with cardiac and/or gastrointestinal symptoms developing years or decades after initial infection. Identifying an individual's history of T. cruzi lineage infection directly by genotyping of the parasite is complicated by the low parasitaemia and sequestration in the host tissues. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have applied here serology against lineage-specific epitopes of the T. cruzi surface antigen TSSA, as an indirect approach to allow identification of infecting lineage. Chagasic sera from chronic patients from a range of endemic countries were tested by ELISA against synthetic peptides representing lineage-specific TSSA epitopes bound to avidin-coated ELISA plates via a biotin labelled polyethylene glycol-glycine spacer to increase rotation and ensure each amino acid side chain could freely interact with their antibodies. 79/113 (70% of samples from Brazil, Bolivia, and Argentina recognised the TSSA epitope common to lineages TcII/TcV/TcVI. Comparison with clinical information showed that a higher proportion of Brazilian TSSApep-II/V/VI responders had ECG abnormalities than non-responders (38% vs 17%; p<0.0001. Among northern chagasic sera 4/20 (20% from Ecuador reacted with this peptide; 1/12 Venezuelan and 1/34 Colombian samples reacted with TSSApep-IV. In addition, a proposed TcI-specific epitope, described elsewhere, was demonstrated here to be highly conserved across lineages and therefore not applicable to lineage-specific serology. CONCLUSIONS

  3. Development of peptide-based lineage-specific serology for chronic Chagas disease: geographical and clinical distribution of epitope recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Tapan; Falconar, Andrew K; Luquetti, Alejandro O; Costales, Jaime A; Grijalva, Mario J; Lewis, Michael D; Messenger, Louisa A; Tran, Trang T; Ramirez, Juan-David; Guhl, Felipe; Carrasco, Hernan J; Diosque, Patricio; Garcia, Lineth; Litvinov, Sergey V; Miles, Michael A

    2014-05-01

    Chagas disease, caused by infection with the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, remains a serious public health issue in Latin America. Genetically diverse, the species is sub-divided into six lineages, known as TcI-TcVI, which have disparate geographical and ecological distributions. TcII, TcV, and TcVI are associated with severe human disease in the Southern Cone countries, whereas TcI is associated with cardiomyopathy north of the Amazon. T. cruzi persists as a chronic infection, with cardiac and/or gastrointestinal symptoms developing years or decades after initial infection. Identifying an individual's history of T. cruzi lineage infection directly by genotyping of the parasite is complicated by the low parasitaemia and sequestration in the host tissues. We have applied here serology against lineage-specific epitopes of the T. cruzi surface antigen TSSA, as an indirect approach to allow identification of infecting lineage. Chagasic sera from chronic patients from a range of endemic countries were tested by ELISA against synthetic peptides representing lineage-specific TSSA epitopes bound to avidin-coated ELISA plates via a biotin labelled polyethylene glycol-glycine spacer to increase rotation and ensure each amino acid side chain could freely interact with their antibodies. 79/113 (70%) of samples from Brazil, Bolivia, and Argentina recognised the TSSA epitope common to lineages TcII/TcV/TcVI. Comparison with clinical information showed that a higher proportion of Brazilian TSSApep-II/V/VI responders had ECG abnormalities than non-responders (38% vs 17%; p<0.0001). Among northern chagasic sera 4/20 (20%) from Ecuador reacted with this peptide; 1/12 Venezuelan and 1/34 Colombian samples reacted with TSSApep-IV. In addition, a proposed TcI-specific epitope, described elsewhere, was demonstrated here to be highly conserved across lineages and therefore not applicable to lineage-specific serology. These results demonstrate the considerable potential for synthetic

  4. Prevalence and distribution of Eimeria species in broiler chicken farms of different capacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Györke, Adriana; Pop, Loredana; Cozma, Vasile

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a survey in broiler farms from Romania to establish prevalence and distribution of Eimeria species using single PCR assay. We found Eimeria spp. in 21 (91%) out of 23 flocks, and in 11 (92%) out of 12 farms. Four species of Eimeria were identified: E. acervulina (21/23; 91%), E. tenella (14/23; 61%), E. maxima (5/23; 22%) and E. praecox (3/23; 13%). Infection with a single species (E. acervulina) was detected in 6 (26%) infected flocks originated from large farms. Mixed infections were found in 15 (65%) flocks and the most prevalent combination was E. acervulina + E. tenella (8/23; 35%). Four flocks (17%) harboured mixed infection with E. acervulina + E. tenella + E. maxima. E. acervulina was significantly more prevalent in flocks that received ionophores as anticoccidial feed additives. PMID:24309007

  5. Prevalence and distribution of colonic diverticula assessed with CT colonography (CTC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Cecco, Carlo Nicola [University of Rome ' ' Sapienza' ' - Polo Pontino, Department of Radiological Sciences, Oncology and Pathology, Latina (Italy); Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Charleston, SC (United States); Ciolina, Maria; Rengo, Marco; Bellini, Davide; Muscogiuri, Giuseppe; Iafrate, Franco; Laghi, Andrea [University of Rome ' ' Sapienza' ' - Polo Pontino, Department of Radiological Sciences, Oncology and Pathology, Latina (Italy); Annibale, Bruno [University of Rome ' ' Sapienza' ' - Sant' Andrea Hospital, Department of Digestive and Liver Disease, Rome (Italy); Maruotti, Antonello [University ' ' Roma Tre' ' , Department of Public Institutions, Economy and Society, Rome (Italy); University of Southampton, Southampton Statistical Sciences Research Institute and School of Mathematics, Southampton (United Kingdom); Saba, Luca [Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria di Cagliari, Department of Radiology, Cagliari (Italy)

    2016-03-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of colonic diverticula according to age, gender, distribution, disease extension and symptoms with CT colonography (CTC). The study population included 1091 consecutive patients who underwent CTC. Patients with diverticula were retrospectively stratified according to age, gender, clinical symptoms and colonic segment involvement. Extension of colonic diverticula was evaluated using a three-point quantitative scale. Using this data, a multivariate regression analysis was applied to investigate the existence of any correlation among variables. Colonic diverticula were observed in 561 patients (240 men, mean age 68 ± 12 years). Symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease (SUDD) was present in 47.4 % of cases. In 25.6 % of patients ≤40 years, at least one diverticulum in the colon was observed. Prevalence of right-sided diverticula in patients >60 years was 14.2 % in caecum and 18.5 % in ascending colon. No significant difference was found between symptomatic and asymptomatic patients regarding diverticula prevalence and extension. No correlation was present between diverticula extension and symptoms. The incidence of colonic diverticula appears to be greater than expected. Right colon diverticula do not appear to be an uncommon finding, with their prevalence increasing with patient age. SUDD does not seem to be related to diverticula distribution and extension. (orig.)

  6. Mastery of fundamental movement skills among children in New South Wales: prevalence and sociodemographic distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okely, A D; Booth, M L

    2004-09-01

    Fundamental movement skills form the foundation for many of the specific motor skills employed in popular sports and leisure activities. Little data exist on the prevalence and socioeconomic distribution of fundamental movement skill mastery among young children in Australia. This study process-assessed performance on six fundamental movement skills in a randomly selected sample of students from Years 1 through 3 in the Sydney metropolitan area of New South Wales. The prevalence and sociodemographic distribution of mastery and near mastery for each skill and each skill component is reported for boys and girls in each school year. The findings revealed that the prevalence of mastery and near mastery of each of fundamental movement skill was generally low. Boys performed significantly better than girls in the run and in the four object-control skills (throw, catch, kick, and strike) whilst girls performed better than boys in the skip. There was no consistent association between prevalence of skill mastery and socio-economic status (SES), with only the kick and vertical jump for boys and catch, dodge, and vertical jump for girls differing across SES tertiles. Based on these results, we recommend that adequate curriculum time, resources, and professional development continue to be devoted to fundamental movement skills in NSW primary schools.

  7. Prevalence and distribution of colonic diverticula assessed with CT colonography (CTC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Cecco, Carlo Nicola; Ciolina, Maria; Rengo, Marco; Bellini, Davide; Muscogiuri, Giuseppe; Iafrate, Franco; Laghi, Andrea; Annibale, Bruno; Maruotti, Antonello; Saba, Luca

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of colonic diverticula according to age, gender, distribution, disease extension and symptoms with CT colonography (CTC). The study population included 1091 consecutive patients who underwent CTC. Patients with diverticula were retrospectively stratified according to age, gender, clinical symptoms and colonic segment involvement. Extension of colonic diverticula was evaluated using a three-point quantitative scale. Using this data, a multivariate regression analysis was applied to investigate the existence of any correlation among variables. Colonic diverticula were observed in 561 patients (240 men, mean age 68 ± 12 years). Symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease (SUDD) was present in 47.4 % of cases. In 25.6 % of patients ≤40 years, at least one diverticulum in the colon was observed. Prevalence of right-sided diverticula in patients >60 years was 14.2 % in caecum and 18.5 % in ascending colon. No significant difference was found between symptomatic and asymptomatic patients regarding diverticula prevalence and extension. No correlation was present between diverticula extension and symptoms. The incidence of colonic diverticula appears to be greater than expected. Right colon diverticula do not appear to be an uncommon finding, with their prevalence increasing with patient age. SUDD does not seem to be related to diverticula distribution and extension. (orig.)

  8. Human papillomavirus prevalence and type-distribution in cervical glandular neoplasias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holl, Katsiaryna; Nowakowski, Andrzej M; Powell, Ned

    2015-01-01

    Cervical glandular neoplasias (CGN) present a challenge for cervical cancer prevention due to their complex histopathology and difficulties in detecting preinvasive stages with current screening practices. Reports of human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and type-distribution in CGN vary, providing...... uncertain evidence to support prophylactic vaccination and HPV screening. This study [108288/108290] assessed HPV prevalence and type-distribution in women diagnosed with cervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS, N = 49), adenosquamous carcinoma (ASC, N = 104), and various adenocarcinoma subtypes (ADC, N = 461...... of CGN are HPV16/18/45-positive, the incorporation of prophylactic vaccination and HPV testing in cervical cancer screening are important prevention strategies. Our results suggest that special attention should be given to certain rarer ADC subtypes as most appear to be unrelated to HPV....

  9. Prevalence and intraoral distribution of Candida albicans in Sjögren's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapper-Jones, L; Aldred, M; Walker, D M

    1980-03-01

    An imprint culture technique has been employed to study the prevalence and intraoral distribution of Candida albicans in 16 patients with Sjögren's syndrome and in 16 healthy controls matched for age, sex, and dental status. The prevalence and intraoral density of C. albicans was found to be significantly higher at almost all sites in the Sjögren's patients than in the controls. The distribution of candida was also altered, being significantly higher in the floor of the mouth and anterior labial sulcus in the Sjögren's group. There was an approximate inverse relationship between candida populations and rate of salivary flow. Mean candida densities were found to be significantly higher in those Sjögren's patients with detectable serum rheumatoid factor in the serum. However, patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome had significantly higher mean candida densities compared with patients with secondary Sjögren's syndrome.

  10. Forecasting the regional distribution and sufficiency of physicians in Japan with a coupled system dynamics-geographic information system model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Tomoki; Fujiwara, Kensuke; Ohba, Hisateru; Suzuki, Teppei; Ogasawara, Katsuhiko

    2017-09-12

    In Japan, the shortage of physicians has been recognized as a major medical issue. In our previous study, we reported that the absolute shortage will be resolved in the long term, but maldistribution among specialties will persist. To address regional shortage, several Japanese medical schools increased existing quota and established "regional quotas." This study aims to assist policy makers in designing effective policies; we built a model for forecasting physician numbers by region to evaluate future physician supply-demand balances. For our case study, we selected Hokkaido Prefecture in Japan, a region displaying disparities in healthcare services availability between urban and rural areas. We combined a system dynamics (SD) model with geographic information system (GIS) technology to analyze the dynamic change in spatial distribution of indicators. For Hokkaido overall and for each secondary medical service area (SMSA) within the prefecture, we analyzed the total number of practicing physicians. For evaluating absolute shortage and maldistribution, we calculated sufficiency levels and Gini coefficient. Our study covered the period 2010-2030 in 5-year increments. According to our forecast, physician shortage in Hokkaido Prefecture will largely be resolved by 2020. Based on current policies, we forecast that four SMSAs in Hokkaido will continue to experience physician shortages past that date, but only one SMSA would still be understaffed in 2030. The results show the possibility that diminishing imbalances between SMSAs would not necessarily mean that regional maldistribution would be eliminated, as seen from the sufficiency levels of the various SMSAs. Urgent steps should be taken to place doctors in areas where our forecasting model predicts that physician shortages could occur in the future.

  11. Genotypic and geographical distribution of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses in mainland China in 1996-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jia-Cong; Xiong, Jun-Yao; Ye, Chao; Chang, Xiao-Bo; Guo, Jin-Chao; Jiang, Cheng-Gang; Zhang, Gui-Hong; Tian, Zhi-Jun; Cai, Xue-Hui; Tong, Guang-Zhi; An, Tong-Qing

    2017-09-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) has caused huge economic losses to Chinese swine industry and remains a major threat since it was first reported in 1996. However, investigations of molecular epidemiological and genetic diversity of PRRS viruses (PRRSVs) in China were limited to a small number of representative strains collected in several areas. Moreover, lineage classifications reported by individual researchers were quite different. In the present study, we sequenced ORF5 sequences of 217 PRRSVs from clinical samples, retrieved all the available ORF5 sequences of PRRSVs isolated in China in 1996-2016 (n=2213) from GenBank, and systematically analyzed corresponding epidemiological data. NA-type PRRSVs in China were classified into five lineages: lineage 1, lineage 3, lineage 5, lineage 8, and lineage 9. Most strains in China belonged to lineage 8 (85.6%), with dominant strains being classified as sublineage 8.3 (78.3%). Importantly, the emerging lineage 1 and lineage 3 strains spread rapidly, and their proportions among circulating PRRSVs have significantly increased in recent years. The geographical distribution of different PRRSV lineages in each province was analyzed and possible inter-province transmission routes were outlined for main lineages and sublineages. To our knowledge, this study is the most comprehensive and extensive phylogeographical analysis of PRRSVs in China since PRRS outbreak in 1996. Our dataset can serve as a canonical standard for PRRSV classification and will help to study genetic evolution of PRRSV. The results of the present study may also improve prevention of PRRS in China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Balanites aegyptiaca (L. Delile: geographical distribution and ethnobotanical knowledge by local populations in the Ferlo (north Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagna, MB.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Balanites aegyptiaca (L. Delile is a species of tropical flora for which the variety aegyptiaca is adapted to Sahelian climate. The species is among those chosen for the restoration of Sahelian ecosystems in the context of the pan-African reforestation project, the Great Green Wall for the Sahara and Sahel Initiative (GGW. This study redefines the distribution range and its ecology and studies its uses in the Ferlo region in the north of Senegal using surveys carried out among the local population. The eco-geographical study shows that the species occupies several Sahel-Saharan regions of Africa and the Middle East. With broad ecological amplitude, it is very resistant to drought and relatively indifferent to the type of soil. Results of the ethno-botanical survey show that local people in the Ferlo region have a wealth of knowledge and expertise on B. aegyptiaca. These surveys also revealed the extent to which local populations rely on the tree for food, fodder, construction and medicine. The fruit and wood are the most highly prized parts of the tree, with the greatest use of the fruit in people's diets. In medicinal terms, B. aegyptiaca is used to treat several affections. Marketing the fruits could be of socio-economic interest for local people, and in particular, for women. This study is particularly opportune since B. aegyptiaca var. aegyptiaca is currently being planted in large numbers within the Great Green Wall for the Sahara and the Sahel Initiative (GGW. It also provides information that could help in better management of this natural resource, adapted both to the hostile Sahelian climate and of great use to Mankind.

  13. Clock gene polymorphism, migratory behaviour and geographic distribution: a comparative study of trans-Saharan migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzi, Gaia; Cecere, Jacopo G; Caprioli, Manuela; Gatti, Emanuele; Gianfranceschi, Luca; Podofillini, Stefano; Possenti, Cristina D; Ambrosini, Roberto; Saino, Nicola; Spina, Fernando; Rubolini, Diego

    2016-12-01

    Migratory behaviour is controlled by endogenous circannual rhythms that are synchronized by external cues, such as photoperiod. Investigations on the genetic basis of circannual rhythmicity in vertebrates have highlighted that variation at candidate 'circadian clock' genes may play a major role in regulating photoperiodic responses and timing of life cycle events, such as reproduction and migration. In this comparative study of 23 trans-Saharan migratory bird species, we investigated the relationships between species-level genetic variation at two candidate genes, Clock and Adcyap1, and species' traits related to migration and geographic distribution, including timing of spring migration across the Mediterranean Sea, migration distance and breeding latitude. Consistently with previous evidence showing latitudinal clines in 'circadian clock' genotype frequencies, Clock allele size increased with breeding latitude across species. However, early- and late-migrating species had similar Clock allele size. Species migrating over longer distances, showing delayed spring migration and smaller phenotypic variance in spring migration timing, had significantly reduced Clock (but not Adcyap1) gene diversity. Phylogenetic confirmatory path analysis suggested that migration date and distance were the most important variables directly affecting Clock gene diversity. Hence, our study supports the hypothesis that Clock allele size increases poleward as a consequence of adaptation to the photoperiodic regime of the breeding areas. Moreover, we show that long-distance migration is associated with lower Clock diversity, coherently with strong stabilizing selection acting on timing of life cycle events in long-distance migratory species, likely resulting from the time constraints imposed by late spring migration. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. [Geographic distribution of perinatal mortality due to congenital malformations in Colombia, 1999-2008: An analysis of vital statistics data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misnaza, Sandra Patricia; Roncancio, Claudia Patricia; Peña, Isabel Cristina; Prieto, Franklin Edwin

    2016-09-01

    During 2012, 13% of the deaths worldwide in children under the age of 28 days were due to congenital malformations. In Colombia, congenital malformations are the second leading cause of infant mortality. Objective: To determine the geographical distribution of extended perinatal mortality due to congenital malformations in Colombia between 1999 and 2008. Materials and methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study. We revised all death certificates issued between 1999 and 2008. We defined perinatal mortality as fetal or non-fetal deaths within the first 28 days after delivery in children with body weight ≥500 grams, and congenital malformations according to ICD-10 diagnostic codes Q000 - Q999. The annual birth projection was used as the denominator. We defined high mortality areas due to congenital malformations as those in the 90th percentile. Results: We recorded 22,361 perinatal deaths due to congenital malformations. The following provinces exceeded the 90th perinatal mortality percentile: Antioquia, Caldas, Risaralda, Huila, Quindío, Bogotá, Valle del Cauca and Guainía. Among the municipalities, the highest perinatal mortality rates were found in Giraldo, Ciudad Bolívar, Riosucio, Liborina, Supía, Alejandría, Sopetrán, San Jerónimo, Santa Fe de Antioquia and Marmato (205.81 and 74.18 per 10.000 live births).The perinatal mortality rate due to malformations of the circulatory system was 28.1 per 10.000 live births, whereas the rates for central nervous system defects and chromosomal abnormalities were 13.7 and 7.0, respectively. The Andean region showed high perinatal mortality rates due to congenital malformations. There is an urgent need to identify possible risk factors of perinatal mortality and implement successive prevention programs in that particular region.

  15. Analysis of Impact of Geographical Environment and Socio-economic Factors on the Spatial Distribution of Kaohsiung Dengue Fever Epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wei-Yin; Wen, Tzai-Hung; Yu, Hwa-Lung

    2013-04-01

    Taiwan is located in subtropical and tropical regions with high temperature and high humidity in the summer. This kind of climatic condition is the hotbed for the propagation and spread of the dengue vector mosquito. Kaohsiung City has been the worst dengue fever epidemic city in Taiwan. During the study period, from January 1998 to December 2011, Taiwan CDC recorded 7071 locally dengue epidemic cases in Kaohsiung City, and the number of imported case is 118. Our research uses Quantile Regression, a spatial infection disease distribution, to analyze the correlation between dengue epidemic and geographic environmental factors and human society factors in Kaohsiung. According to our experiment statistics, agriculture and natural forest have a positive relation to dengue fever(5.5~34.39 and 3.91~15.52). The epidemic will rise when the ratio for agriculture and natural forest increases. Residential ratio has a negative relation for quantile 0.1 to 0.4(-0.005~-0.78), and a positive relation for quantile 0.5 to0.9(0.01~18.0) . The mean income is also a significant factor in social economy field, and it has a negative relation to dengue fever(-0.01~-0.04). Conclusion from our research is that the main factor affecting the degree of dengue fever in predilection area is the residential proportion and the ratio of agriculture and natural forest plays an important role affecting the degree of dengue fever in non predilection area. Moreover, the serious epidemic area located by regression model is the same as the actual condition in Kaohsiung. This model can be used to predict the serious epidemic area of dengue fever and provide some references for the Health Agencies

  16. Prevalence and distribution of selected dental anomalies among saudi children in Abha, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Yassin, Syed M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Dental anomalies are not an unusual finding in routine dental examination. The effect of dental anomalies can lead to functional, esthetic and occlusal problems. The Purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence and distribution of selected developmental dental anomalies in Saudi children. Material and Methods The study was based on clinical examination and Panoramic radiographs of children who visited the Pediatric dentistry clinics at King Khalid University College of Dent...

  17. Prevalence and distribution of soil-borne zoonotic pathogens in Lahore district of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Shabbir, Muhammad Z.; Jamil, Tariq; Ali, Asad A.; Ahmad, Arfan; Naeem, Muhammad; Chaudhary, Muhammad H.; Bilal, Muhammad; Ali, Muhammad A.; Muhammad, Khushi; Yaqub, Tahir; Bano, Asghari; Mirza, Ali I.; Shabbir, Muhammad A. B.; McVey, Walter R.; Patel, Ketan

    2015-01-01

    A multidisciplinary, collaborative project was conducted to determine the prevalence and distribution of soil-borne zoonotic pathogens in Lahore district of Pakistan and ascertain its Public Health Significance. Using a grid-based sampling strategy, soil samples (n = 145) were collected from villages (n = 29, 5 samples/village) and examined for Bacillus anthracis, Burkholderia mallei/pseudomallei, Coxiella burnetii, Francisella tularensis, and Yersinia pestis using real time PCR assays. Chemi...

  18. Effects of Abiotic Factors on the Geographic Distribution of Body Size Variation and Chromosomal Polymorphisms in Two Neotropical Grasshopper Species (Dichroplus: Melanoplinae: Acrididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio J. Bidau

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the effects of abiotic factors on body size in two grasshopper species with large geographical distributions: Dichroplus pratensis and D. vittatus, inhabiting Argentina in diverse natural habitats. Geographical spans for both species provide an opportunity to study the effects of changes in abiotic factors on body size. The analyses of body size distribution in both species revealed a converse Bergmannian pattern: body size is positively correlated with latitude, altitude, and seasonality that influences time available for development and growth. Allen’s rule is also inverted. Morphological variability increases towards the ends of the Bergmannian clines and, in D. pratensis, is related with a central-marginal distribution of chromosomal variants that influence recombination. The converse Bergmannian patterns influence sexual size dimorphism in both species but in different fashions. Body size variation at a microspatial scale in D. pratensis is extremely sensitive to microclimatic clines. We finally compare our results with those for other Orthopteran species.

  19. Prevalence and Distribution of Schistosomiasis in Afder and Gode Zone of Somali Region, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negussu, Nebiyu; Wali, Mohamed; Ejigu, Milion; Debebe, Fikiru; Aden, Sirage; Abdi, Rashid; Mohamed, Yusuf; Deribew, Amare; Deribe, Kebede

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is no recent information about the prevalence and distribution of schistosomiasis in the Somali national regional state of Ethiopia. Ethiopia launched the national integrated neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) Master Plan in June 2013. The Master Plan identified mapping NTDs as a prerequisite for launching control programs. Therefore it is important to understand the prevalence and distribution of schistosomiasis in respective regions. Materials and Methods: From February to March 2011, a cross-sectional survey was done in school-aged children from six districts of Afder Gode zone. Urine samples were collected and examined for ova of Schistosoma haematobium using the sedimentation technique and stool samples were collected and examined for S. mansoni using the Kato-Katz technique. A semistructured questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic characteristics of the participants. Results: Of the 523 children, 513 (98%) of them participated in the study. The prevalence of S. haematobium was 16.0% (95% confidence interval (CI); 12.8-19.2). The rate of the disease was not uniform across the various six communities studied (x2 = 208.8, P region with varying distribution across the districts. According to the World Health Organization, mass drug administration should be considered in some of the districts. PMID:24672176

  20. Human Papilloma Virus: Prevalence, distribution and predictive value to lymphatic metastasis in penile carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aluizio Goncalves da Fonseca

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives To evaluate the prevalence, distribution and association of HPV with histological pattern of worse prognosis of penile cancer, in order to evaluate its predictive value of inguinal metastasis, as well as evaluation of other previous reported prognostic factors. Material and Methods Tumor samples of 82 patients with penile carcinoma were tested in order to establish the prevalence and distribution of genotypic HPV using PCR. HPV status was correlated to histopathological factors and the presence of inguinal mestastasis. The influence of several histological characteristics was also correlated to inguinal disease-free survival. Results Follow-up varied from 1 to 71 months (median 22 months. HPV DNA was identified in 60.9% of sample, with higher prevalence of types 11 and 6 (64% and 32%, respectively. There was no significant correlation of the histological characteristics of worse prognosis of penile cancer with HPV status. Inguinal disease-free survival in 5 years did also not show HPV status influence (p = 0.45. The only independent pathologic factors of inguinal metastasis were: stage T ≥ T1b-T4 (p = 0.02, lymphovascular invasion (p = 0.04 and infiltrative invasion (p = 0.03. conclusions HPV status and distribution had shown no correlation with worse prognosis of histological aspects, or predictive value for lymphatic metastasis in penile carcinoma.

  1. Identification of novel mammalian hosts and Brazilian biome geographic distribution of Trypanosoma cruzi TcIII and TcIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Juliana Helena S; Xavier, Samanta Cristina C; Bilac, Daniele; Lima, Valdirene Santos; Dario, Maria Augusta; Jansen, Ana Maria

    2017-08-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is a parasitic protozoan responsible for Chagas disease. Seven different Discrete Typing Units (DTUs) of T. cruzi are currently identified in nature: TcI-TcVI, and TcBat whose distribution patterns in nature, hosts/reservoirs and eco-epidemiological importance are still little known. Here, we present novel data on the geographic distribution and diversity of mammalian hosts and vectors of T. cruzi DTUs TcIII and TcIV. In this study, we analyzed 61 T. cruzi isolates obtained from 18 species of mammals (five orders) and two Hemiptera genera. Samples were collected from five Brazilian biomes (Pantanal, Caatinga, Cerrado, Atlantic Rainforest, and Amazon) previously characterized as Z3 or mixed infection (TcI-Z3) by mini-exon gene PCR. To identify TcIII and TcIV genotypes, we applied restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis to the PCR-amplified histone 3 gene. DTUs TcIII and TcIV were identified in single and mixed infections from wide dispersion throughout five Brazilian biomes studied, with TcIV being the most common. Pantanal was the biome that displayed the largest number of samples characterized as TcIII and TcIV in single and mixed infections, followed by Atlantic Rainforest and Amazon. Species from the Didelphimorphia order displayed the highest frequency of infection and were found in all five biomes. We report, for the first time, the infection of a species of the Artiodactyla order by DTU TcIII. In addition, we describe new host species: five mammals (marsupials and rodents) and two genera of Hemiptera. Our data indicate that DTUs TcIII and TcIV are more widespread and infect a larger number of mammalian species than previously thought. In addition, they are transmitted in restricted foci and cycles, but in different microhabitats and areas with distinct ecological profiles. Finally, we show that DTUs TcIII and TcIV do not present any specific association with biomes or host species. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Current surveys on the prevalence and distribution of Dirofilaria spp. and Acanthocheilonema reconditum infections in dogs in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionică, Angela Monica; Matei, Ioana Adriana; Mircean, Viorica; Dumitrache, Mirabela Oana; D'Amico, Gianluca; Győrke, Adriana; Pantchev, Nikola; Annoscia, Giada; Albrechtová, Kateřina; Otranto, Domenico; Modrý, David; Mihalca, Andrei Daniel

    2015-03-01

    During the last decades, Dirofilaria spp. infection in European dogs has rapidly spread from historically endemic areas towards eastern and northeastern countries, but little or no information is available from these geographical regions. The present study provides a picture of filarial infections in dogs from Romania and compares two tests for the diagnosis of Dirofilaria immitis. From July 2010 to March 2011, blood samples were collected from 390 dogs from nine counties of Romania and serological SNAP tests were performed for the detection of D. immitis antigen. The remaining blood clots were subsequently used for DNA extraction followed by multiplex PCR for assessing filarioid species diversity (i.e. D. immitis, Dirofilaria repens and Acanthocheilonema reconditum). Based on molecular detection, an overall prevalence of 6.92 % (n = 27; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 4.70-10.03 %) for D. repens, 6.15 % (n = 24; 95 % CI 4.07-9.14 %) for D. immitis and 2.05 % (n = 8; 95 % CI 0.96-4.16 %) for A. reconditum was recorded, with significant variations according to sampling areas. Coinfections of D. immitis and D. repens were recorded in 23.91 % (n = 11) positive dogs. A slightly higher prevalence for D. immitis was detected at the SNAP test (n = 28, 7.17 %; 95 % CI 4.91-10.33 %), but this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.66). However, only 53.57 % (n = 15) of antigen-positive dogs were confirmed by PCR, while other dogs (n = 9) PCR positive for D. immitis were negative at the serology. The present study shows that Dirofilaria species are endemic in the southern and southeastern areas of Romania, This article also provides, for the first time, an epidemiological picture of the distribution of A. reconditum in Romania.

  3. New records and update on the geographic distribution of Clitocybula lignicola (Lj.N. Vassiljeva) E.F. Malysheva & O.V. Morozova (Basidiomycota: Agaricales) in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Shiryaeva, Olga

    2016-01-01

    Clitocybula lignicola is predominantly distributed in the Asian part of Russia. In Europe it was found only in the Urals (Komi Republic, Russia). Two new localities are situated in the northwestern part of Vologda Region (Russia). These are the first records of this species from the East European Plain, as well as the most western ones known in Europe. New records extend the geographic distribution of C. lignicola 1,204 km west of the closest site in the Urals. An updated distribution map for...

  4. Prevalence and distribution of selected dental anomalies among saudi children in Abha, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassin, Syed M

    2016-12-01

    Dental anomalies are not an unusual finding in routine dental examination. The effect of dental anomalies can lead to functional, esthetic and occlusal problems. The Purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence and distribution of selected developmental dental anomalies in Saudi children. The study was based on clinical examination and Panoramic radiographs of children who visited the Pediatric dentistry clinics at King Khalid University College of Dentistry, Saudi Arabia. These patients were examined for dental anomalies in size, shape, number, structure and position. Data collected were entered and analyzed using statistical package for social sciences version. Of the 1252 children (638 Boys, 614 girls) examined, 318 subjects (25.39%) presented with selected dental anomalies. The distribution by gender was 175 boys (27.42%) and 143 girls (23.28%). On intergroup comparison, number anomalies was the most common anomaly with Hypodontia (9.7%) being the most common anomaly in Saudi children, followed by hyperdontia (3.5%). The Prevalence of size anomalies were Microdontia (2.6%) and Macrodontia (1.8%). The prevalence of Shape anomalies were Talon cusp (1.4%), Taurodontism (1.4%), Fusion (0.8%).The prevalence of Positional anomalies were Ectopic eruption (2.3%) and Rotation (0.4%). The prevalence of structural anomalies were Amelogenesis imperfecta (0.3%) Dentinogenesis imperfecta (0.1%). A significant number of children had dental anomaly with Hypodontia being the most common anomaly and Dentinogenesis imperfecta being the rare anomaly in the study. Early detection and management of these anomalies can avoid potential orthodontic and esthetic problems in a child. Key words: Dental anomalies, children, Saudi Arabia.

  5. Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Al-Darwish

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Results indicated that dental caries prevalence among school children in Qatar has reached critical levels, and is influenced by socio-demographic factors. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth values obtained in this study were the second highest detected in the Eastern Mediterranean region.

  6. The geographic distribution of strontium isotopes in Danish surface waters - A base for provenance studies in archaeology, hydrology and agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frei, Karin M., E-mail: kmfrei@hum.ku.dk [Danish National Research Foundation Centre for Textile Research, SAXO Institute, University of Copenhagen, Njalsgade 80, DK-2300 Copenhagen (Denmark); Frei, Robert [Institute of Geography and Geology and Nordic Center for Earth Evolution (NordCEE), University of Copenhagen, Oster Voldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2011-03-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Strontium isotope data of 192 surface waters from Denmark. {yields} Geographic baseline distribution of bio-available fractions. {yields} Applicable for provenance studies within archaeology, geology, agriculture and hydrology. {yields} Proposal of a band of strontium isotope values to characterize 'local' Danish signatures. - Abstract: In this paper Sr isotope signatures are reported for 192 surface water (lakes/ponds and rivers/creeks) samples from within Denmark and an isotope distribution map is presented that may serve as a base for provenance applications, including archaeological migration studies, ground water - surface water - seawater interaction/contamination monitoring, and potentially for agricultural applications, including cases of authenticity proof for particular food products. The Sr isotopic compositions of surface waters range from {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr = 0.7078 to 0.7125 (average 0.7096 {+-} 0.0016; 2{sigma}). This average value lies above the range of {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr values between 0.7078 and 0.7082 expected from Late Cretaceous to Early Tertiary (Oligocene) limestones which form the dominant bedrock type in a NW-SE trending belt in Denmark. The elevated {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr signatures >{approx}0.7095 are explained by additions to the surface waters of radiogenic Sr predominantly derived from the near-surface weathering and wash-out of Quarternary glaciogenic tills and soils deposited and formed during and after the last two ice age stages (Saale and Weichsel). The Sr isotopic compositions and concentrations of the surface waters can, therefore, best be modeled by a two-component mixing involving carbonaceous bedrock and glaciogenic cover sediments as the two predominant Sr sources. A feasibility study for using Sr isotopic compositions of surface waters as a proxy for bio-available Sr signatures was conducted in a representative test area on Zealand (Land of Legends, Lejre) where there is no use

  7. A geographically-restricted but prevalent Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain identified in the West Midlands Region of the UK between 1995 and 2008.

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    Jason T Evans

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe the identification of, and risk factors for, the single most prevalent Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain in the West Midlands region of the UK.Prospective 15-locus MIRU-VNTR genotyping of all M. tuberculosis isolates in the West Midlands between 2004 and 2008 was undertaken. Two retrospective epidemiological investigations were also undertaken using univariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis. The first study of all TB patients in the West Midlands between 2004 and 2008 identified a single prevalent strain in each of the study years (total 155/3,056 (5% isolates. This prevalent MIRU-VNTR profile (32333 2432515314 434443183 remained clustered after typing with an additional 9-loci MIRU-VNTR and spoligotyping. The majority of these patients (122/155, 79% resided in three major cities located within a 40 km radius. From the apparent geographical restriction, we have named this the "Mercian" strain. A multivariate analysis of all TB patients in the West Midlands identified that infection with a Mercian strain was significantly associated with being UK-born (OR =  9.03, 95%CI = 4.56-17.87, p65 years old (OR = 0.25, 95% CI = 0.09-0.67, p < 0.01. A second more detailed investigation analyzed a cohort of 82 patients resident in Wolverhampton between 2003 and 2006. A significant association with being born in the UK remained after a multivariate analysis (OR = 9.68, 95% CI = 2.00-46.78, p < 0.01 and excess alcohol intake and cannabis use (OR = 6.26, 95%CI = 1.45-27.02, p =  .01 were observed as social risk factors for infection.The continued consistent presence of the Mercian strain suggests ongoing community transmission. Whilst significant associations have been found, there may be other common risk factors yet to be identified. Future investigations should focus on targeting the relevant risk groups and elucidating the biological factors that mediate continued transmission of this strain.

  8. Sero-prevalence, risk factors and distribution of sheep and goat pox in Amhara Region, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fentie, Tsegaw; Fenta, Nigusie; Leta, Samson; Molla, Wassie; Ayele, Birhanu; Teshome, Yechale; Nigatu, Seleshe; Assefa, Ashenafi

    2017-12-11

    Sheep pox and goat pox are contagious viral diseases of sheep and goats, respectively. The diseases result in substantial economic losses due to decreased milk and meat production, damage to hides and wool, and possible trade restriction. A study was undertaken in Amhara region of Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study design was used to estimate the sero-prevalence and identify associated risk factors, while retrospective study design was used to assess the temporal and spatial distribution of the disease. A total of 672 serum samples were collected from 30 Kebeles and tested using virus neutralization test. From a total of 672 sera tested, 104 (15.5%) were positive for sheep and goat pox virus antibody; from which 56 (17%) were sheep and 48 (14%) were goats. The diseases were prevalent in all study zones, the highest sero-prevalence was observed in South Gondar (20.9%) and the lowest in North Gondar and West Gojjam zones (11.9% each). From the potential risk factors considered (species, sex, age, agro-ecology and location); only sex and age were significantly associated (p pox is one of the most prevalent and widespread diseases of sheep and goats in the study area. Hence, annual mass vaccination program must be implemented for economic and viable control of sheep and goat pox diseases in the Amhara region in particular and at a national level in general.

  9. Prevalence and distribution of Peste des petits ruminants virus antibodies in various districts of Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swai, Emmanuel Senyael; Kapaga, A; Kivaria, F; Tinuga, D; Joshua, G; Sanka, P

    2009-12-01

    Despite the widespread prevalence of infection with Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) in goats and sheep industry in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, there have been few, if any, structured population-based studies examining the epidemiology of this infection in Tanzania. In this study, we investigated the seroprevalence, and risk factors, of Peste des petitis ruminants(PPR) in sheep and goat flocks from seven different geographical administration authorities (Ngorongoro, Monduli, Longido, Karatu, Mbulu, Siha and Simanjiro) located in Northern Tanzania. Serum samples from 657 and 892 sheep and goats, respectively, corresponding to 91 sheep/goat flocks and 43 villages were collected. Competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA) was used to detect the presence of antibodies in the serum against PPRV. Chi-square analysis and multivariable logistic regression model were used to identify risk factors for PPRV seropositivity. Findings suggested that the sero-positive cases were significantly higher in goats than in sheep (49.5% versus 39.8%; P=0.002). The overall seroprevalence of PPRV infection in small ruminants was 45.8%. Highest seroprevalence (42.6-88.02%) was observed in Mbulu, Siha, Longido, Ngorongoro districts, while antibodies less than 40% to none were found in serum from Monduli, Karatu and Simanjiro, respectively. These findings confirm natural transmission of PPRV under field condition for the first time in Tanzania. Results may be correlated with variations in the sheep and goat husbandry practices within different geographic localities, the uncontrolled movement of animals, the levels of natural immunity and the sharing of grazing field amongst agro and pastoralists.

  10. Prevalence and serotype distribution of nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in China: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Fu, Jinjian; Liang, Zhuoxin; Chen, Jichang

    2017-12-13

    To explore the overall prevalence and serotype distribution of nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae(S. pneumoniae) among healthy children. A search for pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage studies including children published up to July 31th, 2016 was conducted to describe carriage in China. The review also describes antibiotic resistance in and serotypes of S. pneumoniae and assesses the impact of vaccination on carriage in this region. Summary measures for overall prevalence, antibiotic resistance, and serotype distributions extracted from the analyzed data were determined with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using random-effects models. Heterogeneity was assessed using I 2 test statistics. Thirty-seven studies were included in this review, and the majority of studies (64.9%) were located in the pre-introduction period of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in China. The pooled prevalence of S. pneumoniae nasopharyngeal carriage was 21.4% (95% CI: 18.3-24.4%). Carriage was highest in children attending kindergartens [24.5%, (19.7-29.3%)] and decreased with increasing age. Before the introduction of PCV7 into China, the prevalence of S. pneumoniae nasopharyngeal carriage was 25.8% (20.7-30.9%), the pooled carriage of S. pneumoniae sharply dropped into the 14.1% (11.3-16.9%) by PCV7 vaccination period (P China, the penicillin resistance rate in S. pneumoniae isolated from healthy children was 31.9% (21.2-42.6%); however, this rate sharply decreased after the introduction of PCV7 in China [21.6%, (7.4-35.9%)], and the difference between the rates during these two time periods was statistically significant (P value China. PCV7 immunization was found to be associated with reduction of nasopharyngeal colonization of S. pneumoniae. Conjugate vaccination coverage was slightly affected by the introduction of PCV7 into China because of low vaccination rate. The government should implement timely adjusted conjugate vaccination strategies based on

  11. Estimating cyclopoid copepod species richness and geographical distribution (Crustacea across a large hydrographical basin: comparing between samples from water column (plankton and macrophyte stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Perbiche-Neves

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Species richness and geographical distribution of Cyclopoida freshwater copepods were analyzed along the "La Plata" River basin. Ninety-six samples were taken from 24 sampling sites, twelve sites for zooplankton in open waters and twelve sites for zooplankton within macrophyte stands, including reservoirs and lotic stretches. There were, on average, three species per sample in the plankton compared to five per sample in macrophytes. Six species were exclusive to the plankton, 10 to macrophyte stands, and 17 were common to both. Only one species was found in similar proportions in plankton and macrophytes, while five species were widely found in plankton, and thirteen in macrophytes. The distinction between species from open water zooplankton and macrophytes was supported by nonmetric multidimensional analysis. There was no distinct pattern of endemicity within the basin, and double sampling contributes to this result. This lack of sub-regional faunal differentiation is in accordance with other studies that have shown that cyclopoids generally have wide geographical distribution in the Neotropics and that some species there are cosmopolitan. This contrasts with other freshwater copepods such as Calanoida and some Harpacticoida. We conclude that sampling plankton and macrophytes together provided a more accurate estimate of the richness and geographical distribution of these organisms than sampling in either one of those zones alone.

  12. Relative importance of meteorological and geographical factors in the distribution of Fasciola hepatica infestation in farmed sheep in Qinghai province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Hongyu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fasciola hepatica is an important trematode parasite of economic importance that infests sheep and cattle worldwide. We conducted a detailed investigation into the spatial distribution of F. hepatica infestation in farmed sheep in Qinghai (Wutumeiren province, Mainland China. Mathematical modelling was used to assess the inter-relationships between meteorological and geographical factors and the risk of F. hepatica infestation across the province. A capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA test (MM3-SERO was used to detect F. hepatica infestation. A niche model based on the maximum entropy method (MaxEnt was used to estimate the influence of meteorological and geographical factors on the observed spatial distribution of F. hepatica infestation. Results of jackknife analysis indicated that temperature, precipitation, solar radiation, digital elevation and slope were associated with the occurrence of F. hepatica infestation, and that infestation rates were significantly higher among animals from districts with a high percentage of grassland habitat. The findings indicate that meteorological and geographical factors may be important variables affecting the distribution of F. hepatica infestation and should be taken into account in the development of future surveillance and control programmes for fascioliasis.

  13. Prevalence and Genotype Distribution of Pneumocystis jirovecii in Cuban Infants and Toddlers with Whooping Cough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroy-Vaca, Ernesto X.; de Armas, Yaxsier; Illnait-Zaragozí, María T.; Toraño, Gilda; Diaz, Raúl; Vega, Dania; Alvarez-Lam, Ileana; Calderón, Enrique J.

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the prevalence and genotype distribution of Pneumocystis jirovecii obtained from nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs from immunocompetent Cuban infants and toddlers with whooping cough (WC). A total of 163 NP swabs from 163 young Cuban children with WC who were admitted to the respiratory care units at two pediatric centers were studied. The prevalence of the organism was determined by a quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay targeting the P. jirovecii mitochondrial large subunit (mtLSU) rRNA gene. Genotypes were identified by direct sequencing of mtLSU ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) gene amplicons. qPCR detected P. jirovecii DNA in 48/163 (29.4%) samples. mtLSU rDNA sequence analysis revealed the presence of three different genotypes in the population. Genotype 2 was most common (48%), followed in prevalence by genotypes 1 (23%) and 3 (19%); mixed-genotype infections were seen in 10% of the cases. RFLP analysis of DHPS PCR products revealed four genotypes, 18% of which were associated with resistance to sulfa drugs. Only contact with coughers (prevalence ratio [PR], 3.51 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.79 to 6.87]; P = 0.000) and exposure to tobacco smoke (PR, 1.82 [95% CI, 1.14 to 2.92]; P = 0.009) were statistically associated with being colonized by P. jirovecii. The prevalence of P. jirovecii in infants and toddlers with WC and the genotyping results provide evidence that this population represents a potential reservoir and transmission source of P. jirovecii. PMID:24131683

  14. The prevalence, age distribution and comorbidity of personality disorders in Australian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirk, Shae E; Berk, Michael; Pasco, Julie A; Brennan-Olsen, Sharon L; Chanen, Andrew M; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli; Burke, Lisa M; Jackson, Henry J; Hulbert, Carol; A Olsson, Craig; Moran, Paul; Stuart, Amanda L; Williams, Lana J

    2017-02-01

    We aimed to describe the prevalence and age distribution of personality disorders and their comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders in an age-stratified sample of Australian women aged ⩾25 years. Individual personality disorders (paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal, histrionic, narcissistic, borderline, antisocial, avoidant, dependent, obsessive-compulsive), lifetime mood, anxiety, eating and substance misuse disorders were diagnosed utilising validated semi-structured clinical interviews (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders, Research Version, Non-patient Edition and Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders). The prevalence of personality disorders and Clusters were determined from the study population ( n = 768), and standardised to the Australian population using the 2011 Australian Bureau of Statistics census data. Prevalence by age and the association with mood, anxiety, eating and substance misuse disorders was also examined. The overall prevalence of personality disorders in women was 21.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 18.7, 24.9). Cluster C personality disorders (17.5%, 95% CI: 16.0, 18.9) were more common than Cluster A (5.3%, 95% CI: 3.5, 7.0) and Cluster B personality disorders (3.2%, 95% CI: 1.8, 4.6). Of the individual personality disorders, obsessive-compulsive (10.3%, 95% CI: 8.0, 12.6), avoidant (9.3%, 95% CI: 7.1, 11.5), paranoid (3.9%, 95% CI: 3.1, 4.7) and borderline (2.7%, 95% CI: 1.4, 4.0) were among the most prevalent. The prevalence of other personality disorders was low (⩽1.7%). Being younger (25-34 years) was predictive of having any personality disorder (odds ratio: 2.36, 95% CI: 1.18, 4.74), as was being middle-aged (odds ratio: 2.41, 95% CI: 1.23, 4.72). Among the strongest predictors of having any personality disorder was having a lifetime history of psychiatric disorders (odds ratio: 4.29, 95% CI: 2.90, 6.33). Mood and anxiety disorders were the most common comorbid

  15. Geographic Names

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), developed by the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Board of Geographic Names, provides...

  16. Distribution and prevalence of crown rot pathogens affecting wheat crops in southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Moya-Elizondo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Crown rot pathogens are associated with higher losses for wheat crop farmers, but information about the distribution and prevalence of these pathogens in Chile is inadequate. Distribution and prevalence of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. crown rot pathogens were examined in a survey of 48 commercial fields from December 2011 to February 2012 in southern Chile. These fields were located between Collipulli (37°56'00" S; 72°26'39" W and Purranque (40°50'30" S; 73°22'03" W. Severity of crown rot disease was determined through visual assessment of the first internode of 20 tillers obtained from each field. Incidence of crown rot pathogens per field was determined by plating the 20 tillers on Petri plates with 20% potato dextrose agar amended with lactic acid (aPDA medium. Resulting fungal colonies from monoxenic culture were identified by morphological or molecular-assisted identification. Severity of crown rot varied between 11.3% and 80% for individual fields. Culture plate analysis showed 72.2% of stems were infected with some fungus. Fusarium avenaceum, F. graminearum, and F. culmorum, pathogens associated with Fusarium crown rot disease were isolated from 13.5% of tillers. Gaeumannomyces graminis, causal agent of take-all disease in cereals, was isolated from 11.1% of culms. Phaeosphaeria sp., an endophyte and possibly a non-pathogenic fungus, was isolated from 13.9% of tillers. Pathogenic fungi such as Rhizoctonia spp. and Microdochium nivale, other saprophyte, and several unidentified non-sporulating fungi were isolated at frequencies lower than 3% of the total. Fusarium crown rot and take-all were the most prevalent and distributed crown rot diseases present in wheat crops in southern Chile.

  17. Prevalence and spatial distribution of bovine brucellosis in San Luis and La Pampa, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar, M N; Linares, F J; Cosentino, B; Sago, A; La Sala, L; León, E; Duffy, S; Perez, A

    2015-08-15

    Bovine brucellosis (BB) is a zoonotic disease caused by Brucella abortus. BB is endemic in Argentina, where vaccination with Brucella abortus strain 19 is compulsory for 3-to-8 month-old heifers. The objectives of this study were to quantify the prevalence of BB and to identify factors associated with its occurrence, along with the spatial distribution of the disease, in the provinces of La Pampa and San Luis. A two-stage random sampling design was used to sample 8,965 cows (3,513 in La Pampa and 5,452 in San Luis) from 451 farms (187 in La Pampa and 264 in San Luis). Cow and herd prevalence were 1.8 % (95 % CI: 1.3-2.2; n = 157) and 19.7 % (95 % CI: 17.0-22.4; n = 89), respectively. Both cow-level and herd-level prevalence in La Pampa (2.4 and 26.0 %, respectively) were significantly higher than in San Luis (1.4 and 15.5 %, respectively). There were not differences between the proportions of reactive cattle compared to that obtained in a survey conducted in 2005. However, herd prevalence in La Pampa was significantly (P < 0.05) higher compared to that study. Disease was found to be spatially clustered in west La Pampa. The lower the bovine density and the calf/cow ratio, the higher odds of belonging to the cluster. The increase of farm prevalence in the last five years suggests that the disease is spreading and that control measures should be applied in the region. The cluster of infected farms was located in the west region of La Pampa. There, farms have lower animal densities and smaller cow/calf indices compared to the rest of the province. Although western La Pampa has more infected herds, within-farm prevalence was not higher, which suggests that the control program has been relatively successful in controlling the disease at the farm level, and/or that low animal density inherently results in low disease prevalence. Our results provide baseline information on the epidemiology of BB and its potential pattern of transmission in Argentina, which will ultimately

  18. Prevalence and Distribution of Leishmania RNA Virus 1 in Leishmania Parasites from French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginouvès, Marine; Simon, Stéphane; Bourreau, Eliane; Lacoste, Vincent; Ronet, Catherine; Couppié, Pierre; Nacher, Mathieu; Demar, Magalie; Prévot, Ghislaine

    2016-01-01

    In South America, the presence of the Leishmania RNA virus type 1 (LRV1) was described in Leishmania guyanensis and Leishmania braziliensis strains. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence distribution of LRV1 in Leishmania isolates in French Guiana given that, in this French overseas department, most Leishmania infections are due to these parasite species. The presence of the virus was observed in 74% of Leishmania spp. isolates, with a highest presence in the internal areas of the country. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  19. Distribution and prevalence of knemidokoptic mange in Hawai`i `Amakihi on the island of Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudioso, Jacqueline; LaPointe, Dennis; Atkinson, Carter T.; Apelgren, Chloe

    2014-01-01

    Knemidokoptic mange was first observed on two Hawai‘i ‘Amakihi (Hemignathus virens) mist netted in Manuka Natural Area Reserve (NAR) on the Island of Hawai‘i in June 2007. Microscopic examination of skin scrapings from lesions of the infested individuals revealed the scaley-leg mite, Knemidokoptes jamaicensis. Continued surveillance at Manuka NAR (2007-2009) documented a 24% (15/63) prevalence of mange among Hawai‘i ‘Amakihi distributed from coastal habitat to 1,500 m above sea level (asl). From 2012-2014, we conducted an island-wide survey of wild passerine birds from several leeward sites (Manuka NAR, Kahuku Unit of Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park (HAVO), Pu‘u Wa‘awa‘a Forest Bird Sanctuary, and Kipahoehoe NAR) and windward sites (Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge, ‘Ᾱinahou Ranch of HAVO, Malama Ki Forest Reserve, and Keauohana Forest Reserve) to determine the current distribution and host range of knemidokoptic mange. We also determined the prevalence of malaria in Hawai‘i ‘Amakihi populations where mange was present and treated a subset of infested Hawai‘i ‘Amakihi mange with a single, topical dose of moxidectin. We mist netted and examined a total of 1,734 passerines, including 738 Hawai‘i ‘Amakihi. Mange was present in Hawai‘i ‘Amakihi at Manuka NAR (595 and 305 m asl), Kahuku Ranch Unit of HAVO (Glover site: 1,201 m asl and Kipuka Akala site: 1,532 m asl), Malama Ki Forest Reserve and Keauohana Forest Reserve (293 m asl). No other passerine birds (n = 995) were infected. Mange prevalence ranged from a high of 69% (40/58) in Keauohana Forest Reserve to a low of 2% (1/65) in the Kahuku Ranch Unit of HAVO (Kipuka Akala). At Manuka NAR prevalence had decreased from 26% in 2010 to 10% (7/81) in 2012–2014. We found no significant relationship between the prevalence of mange and the prevalence of avian malaria in mesic habitats at Manuka NAR (P = 0.59 (FET, n = 81)), but there was a significant association between the

  20. Olive anthracnose: a yield- and oil quality-degrading disease caused by several species of Colletotrichum that differ in virulence, host preference and geographical distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talhinhas, Pedro; Loureiro, Andreia; Oliveira, Helena

    2018-03-08

    Olive anthracnose causes fruit rot leading to its drop or mummification, resulting in yield losses and the degradation of oil quality. The disease is caused by diverse species of Colletotrichum, mostly clustering in the C. acutatum species complex. Colletotrichum nymphaeae and C. godetiae are the prevalent species in the Northern Hemisphere, whereas C. acutatum sensu stricto is the most frequent species in the Southern Hemisphere, although it is recently and quickly emerging in the Northern Hemisphere. The disease has been reported from all continents, but it attains higher incidence and severity in the west of the Mediterranean Basin, where it is endemic in traditional orchards of susceptible cultivars. The pathogens are able to survive on vegetative organs. On the fruit surface, infections remain quiescent until fruit maturity, when typical anthracnose symptoms develop. Under severe epidemics, defoliation and death of branches can also occur. Pathogen species differ in virulence, although this depends on the cultivar. The selection of resistant cultivars depends strongly on pathogen diversity and environmental conditions, posing added difficulties to breeding efforts. Chemical disease control is normally achieved with copper-based fungicides, although this may be insufficient under highly favourable disease conditions and causes concern because of the presence of fungicide residues in the oil. In areas in which the incidence is high, farmers tend to anticipate harvest, with consequences in yield and oil characteristics. Olive production systems, harvest and post-harvest processing have experienced profound changes in recent years, namely new training systems using specific cultivars, new harvest and processing techniques and new organoleptic market requests. Changes are also occurring in both the geographical distribution of pathogen populations and the taxonomic framework. In addition, stricter rules concerning pesticide use are likely to have a strong impact

  1. Rapid integrated clinical survey to determine prevalence and co-distribution patterns of lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis in a Loa loa co-endemic area: The Angolan experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Brito

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Angola is a priority country for onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis (LF elimination, however, the co-distribution of the filarial parasite Loa loa (loiasis is a significant impediment, due to the risk of severe adverse events (SAEs associated with ivermectin used in mass drug administration (MDA campaigns. Angola has a high risk loiasis zone identified in Bengo Province where alternative interventions may need to be implemented; however, the presence and geographical overlap of the three filarial infections/diseases are not well defined. Therefore, this study conducted a rapid integrated filarial mapping survey based on readily identifiable clinical conditions of each disease in this risk zone to help determine prevalence and co-distribution patterns in a timely manner with limited resources. In total, 2007 individuals from 29 communities in five provincial municipalities were surveyed. Community prevalence estimates were determined by the rapid assessment procedure for loiasis (RAPLOA and rapid epidemiological mapping of onchocerciasis (REMO together with two questions on LF clinical manifestations (presence of lymphoedema, hydrocoele. Overall low levels of endemicity, with different overlapping distributions were found. Loiasis was found in 18 communities with a prevalence of 2.0% (31/1571, which contrasted to previous results defining the area as a high risk zone. Onchocerciasis prevalence was 5.3% (49/922 in eight communities, and LF prevalence was 0.4% for lymphoedema (8/2007 and 2.6% for hydrocoeles (20/761 males in seven and 12 communities respectively. The clinical mapping survey method helped to highlight that all three filarial infections are present in this zone of Bengo Province. However, the significant difference in loiasis prevalence found between the past and this current survey suggests that further studies including serological and parasitological confirmation are required. This will help determine levels

  2. New host, geographical records, and factors affecting the prevalence of helminths infection from synanthropic rodents in Yucatán, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panti-May J. A.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to study the occurrence of helminths in Mus musculus and Rattus rattus from urban, suburban and rural settlements in Yucatán, Mexico; and to analyse the host factors (e.g. sex related to helminths’ distribution. Helminths in a total of 279 rodents were surveyed by visual examination of the liver for metacestodes and faecal examination for helminth eggs using the formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation technique. The cestodes Hydatigera taeniaeformis (metacestodes detected in the liver and Hymenolepis diminuta, and the nematodes Aspiculuris sp., Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Syphacia muris, Syphacia obvelata, and Trichuris muris were identified. In M. musculus, the prevalence of infection with T. muris and H. taeniaeformis was higher in the rural village compared to those in the suburban neighbourhood. For R. rattus, a higher prevalence of infection with H. diminuta was found in the urban site compared to that in the suburban site. This study reports the occurrence of H. diminuta among rodents living in close proximity to humans, representing a potential public health risk. In addition, this survey increases our understanding of dynamic transmission among intestinal helminths recorded in Yucatán, Mexico.

  3. The prevalence and distribution of Argas walkerae (Acari: Argasidae in the eastern region of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa : research communications

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    N. Nyangiwe

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and geographic distribution of the fowl tampan, Argas walkerae Kaiser & Hoogstraal, 1969 was determined in the eastern region of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa by inspecting two fowl houses in the vicinity of each of 72 randomly selected communal cattle dip-tanks. Tampans were collected from 102 (70.8 % of the 144 fowl houses in the neighbourhood of 57 (79.2 % of the 72 selected dip-tanks, and the localities of the collections were mapped. Argas walkerae was present in fowl houses from the warm coastal regions of the Indian Ocean in the south to the cold and mountainous Drakensberg in the north-east of the Province. Taking into account the probable sensitivity of the sampling method, it is estimated that A. walkerae is likely to be present in fowl houses belonging to between 74 and 84 % of communities making use of cattle dip-tanks in the eastern region of the Eastern Cape Province, and that when it is present, between 64 and 75 % of fowl houses will be infested. The geographic distribution of A. walkerae seemed to be more strongly associated with the presence of fowls and fowl houses containing raw or processed wood in their structure than with climate.

  4. Prevalence and distribution of inactivity and weight excess in Spanish scholar children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Rodríguez-Hernández

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This work aims to study the distribution of leisure time physical activity pattern and weight status of Spanish schoolchildren. The sample corresponds to 6,803 school-aged children (3,491 boys and 3,312 girls, who took part in the Spanish National Health Survey 2006, being representative of the Spanish scholar population. It has assessed their pattern of physical activity and weight status through international body mass index cut offs. The relationship between the variables studied has been established through a multinomial logistic regression analysis. Physical inactivity is more prevalent in children that exceed a healthy weight, and there are regional differences in the distribution of a sedentary lifestyle and weight excess, as well as in different age groups and sex. Globally, 49.7% of Spanish schoolchildren have an unhealthy leisure time physical activity pattern, and 28.9% of them exceed the recommended weight for their age.

  5. Vitamin D in Saudi Arabia: Prevalence,distribution and disease associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Daghri, Nasser M

    2018-01-01

    More than 33 years have passed since the first paper highlighting vitamin D deficiency as a public health concern in Saudi Arabia was published in 1983. Despite "early" detection,it wasn't until the year 2010 where the interest in vitamin D research grew exponentially worldwide and was finally visible in Saudi clinical and academic areas. Since then,many landmark studies have been generated with regards to the physiologic functions of vitamin D,both skeletal and extra-skeletal. This review is limited to the prevalence,distribution A systematic review on the prevalence studies done in KSA from 2011 to 2016 was done and revealed that the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (Saudi Arabia among different populations (adults,children and adolescents,newborns and pregnant/lactating women) is 81.0% (Confidence Interval 95% 68.0-90.0),in line with most neighboring Gulf countries. Vitamin D deficiency in KSA has been mostly associated with bone and insulin-resistant diseases but limited data are available to prove causality. In conclusion,there is a need to develop local consensus guidelines that will identify candidates for screening,monitoring and treating those who are at most risk for vitamin D deficiency complications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Prevalence and distribution of canine visceral leishmaniasis antibodies in dogs in Mosul City

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    D.M.T. Jwher

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current study to investigate of visceral leishmaniasis antibodies in blood of dogs. One hundred and fifty six samples of blood of stray and domestic dog blood samples of different ages and sexes and from various regions of Mosul city were collected. The study began from July to August 2010. The area of the study (Mosul city was divided geographically in to two main areas i.e. right and left coasts of Mosul city. Also, another subdivision was followed in which each major areas was divided into six administrative parts, having other residential quarters. A qualitative membrane based immunoassay (rK-39 was followed for detection of antibodies of visceral leishmaniasis. However additional conformation of the parasite was done by blood smears and impressions smears obtained from the liver and spleen of the sacrificed dogs. The finding showed that visceral leishmaniasis antibodies were recovered in the dogs of southern and south eastern parts of Mosul city representing a total infection rate of (14.1%. However, infection rate was higher in the dogs of left coast (16.66% than that in the right coast of Mosul city (11.11%. It can be concluded that high prevalence rate was found in the southern and south eastern parts of Mosul city.

  7. PREVALENCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF PSEUDOGYMNOASCUS DESTRUCTANS IN MICHIGAN BATS SUBMITTED FOR RABIES SURVEILLANCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Samantha L; Lim, Ailam; Melotti, Julie R; O'Brien, Daniel J; Bolin, Steven R

    2017-07-01

    Since 2006, bat populations in North America have suffered devastating mortality from an emerging disease known as white-nose syndrome (WNS). The causal agent of WNS is the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans. In April 2014, WNS was discovered in little brown bats ( Myotis lucifugus ) in Michigan, US, and has since been documented in 12 counties. Because current surveillance for WNS focuses primarily on mine-hibernating species in winter, it is subject to geographic, species, and seasonal bias. To investigate species affected and potential associations of gender, seasonal life cycle, and region with P. destructans prevalence, 1,040 rabies-negative bats were sampled from May 2014 to May 2015 from animals submitted as part of statewide rabies surveillance. The vast majority (96%) of the sample population consisted of big brown bats ( Eptesicus fuscus ), a noncavernicolous species. Two methods were used to detect P. destructans: fluorescence of the muzzle, wing, and tail membranes under ultraviolet light and PCR targeting genomic DNA on wing samples. Only five bats (0.5%), all M. lucifugus , were confirmed positive after nucleic acid sequencing of PCR amplicons. No other species were infected. All infected bats were collected from April to May, coinciding with their emergence from hibernation. As P. destructans and WNS spread westward, novel surveillance streams may provide a useful tool for wildlife management agencies seeking to detect the fungus where winter hibernacula such as caves and mines are absent or otherwise inaccessible.

  8. The Spatial Distribution of Hepatitis C Virus Infections and Associated Determinants--An Application of a Geographically Weighted Poisson Regression for Evidence-Based Screening Interventions in Hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauhl, Boris; Heil, Jeanne; Hoebe, Christian J P A; Schweikart, Jürgen; Krafft, Thomas; Dukers-Muijrers, Nicole H T M

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infections are a major cause for liver diseases. A large proportion of these infections remain hidden to care due to its mostly asymptomatic nature. Population-based screening and screening targeted on behavioural risk groups had not proven to be effective in revealing these hidden infections. Therefore, more practically applicable approaches to target screenings are necessary. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and spatial epidemiological methods may provide a more feasible basis for screening interventions through the identification of hotspots as well as demographic and socio-economic determinants. Analysed data included all HCV tests (n = 23,800) performed in the southern area of the Netherlands between 2002-2008. HCV positivity was defined as a positive immunoblot or polymerase chain reaction test. Population data were matched to the geocoded HCV test data. The spatial scan statistic was applied to detect areas with elevated HCV risk. We applied global regression models to determine associations between population-based determinants and HCV risk. Geographically weighted Poisson regression models were then constructed to determine local differences of the association between HCV risk and population-based determinants. HCV prevalence varied geographically and clustered in urban areas. The main population at risk were middle-aged males, non-western immigrants and divorced persons. Socio-economic determinants consisted of one-person households, persons with low income and mean property value. However, the association between HCV risk and demographic as well as socio-economic determinants displayed strong regional and intra-urban differences. The detection of local hotspots in our study may serve as a basis for prioritization of areas for future targeted interventions. Demographic and socio-economic determinants associated with HCV risk show regional differences underlining that a one-size-fits-all approach even within small geographic

  9. Time variation of the effect of geographical factors on spatial distribution of summer precipitation over the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moliba Bankanza, Jacques Celestin

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 115, 1-2 (2011), s. 51-70 ISSN 0324-6329 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : multivariate regression * precipitation models * summer precipitation * geographic influence * environmental variables * temporal variability * Czech Republic Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 0.364, year: 2011 http://owww.met.hu/download.php?id=2&vol=115&no=1-2&a=4

  10. Geographical and Ethnic Distributions of the MTHFR C677T, A1298C and MTRR A66G Gene Polymorphisms in Chinese Populations: A Meta-Analysis.

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    Xingmin Wang

    Full Text Available The geographical and ethnic distributions of the polymorphic methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR mutations (C677T and A1298C and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR mutation (A66G remain heterogeneous in China. The goal of this study was to estimate the pooled frequencies of the alleles and associated genotypes of these gene polymorphisms among healthy populations in Mainland China.We systematically reviewed published epidemiological studies on the distributions of 3 genetic variants in Chinese healthy populations living in Mainland China through a meta-analysis. The relevant electronic databases were searched. All of the raw data of the eligible citations were extracted. The frequency estimates were stratified by geography, ethnicity and sex.Sixty-six studies were identified with a total of 92277 study participants. The meta-analysis revealed that the frequencies of the MTHFR C677T, A1298C, and MTRR A66G gene polymorphisms varied significantly between different ethnic groups and along geographical gradients. The frequencies of the 677T allele and 677TT genotype increased along the southern-central-northern direction across Mainland China (all Pvalues≤0.001. The frequencies of the 1298C, 1298CC, 66G and 66GG genotypes decreased along the south-central-north direction across the country (all Pvalues≤0.001.Our meta-analysis strongly indicates significant geographical and ethnic variations in the frequencies of the C677T, A1298C, and A66G gene polymorphisms in the folate metabolism pathway among Chinese populations.

  11. Prevalence and distribution of White Spot Syndrome Virus in cultured shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, A; Nandi, S P; Siddique, M A; Sanyal, S K; Sultana, M; Hossain, M A

    2015-02-01

    White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) is a dsDNA virus causing White Spot Syndrome Disease (WSSD) in shrimp with almost 100% morality rate within 3-10 days. In Bangladesh, WSSD is one of the major impediments of shrimp farming. This study first investigated the prevalence and distribution of WSSV in cultured shrimps of the coastal regions in Bangladesh. A total of 60 shrimp samples, collected from the 25 shrimp farms of different coastal regions (Satkhira, Khulna, Bagerhat and Cox's Bazar), were analysed during 2013-2014 by conventional PCR using VP28 and VP664 gene-specific primers; 39 of 60 samples were found WSSV positive. SYBR green real-time PCR using 71-bp amplicon for VP664 gene correlated well with conventional PCR data. The prevalence rates of WSSV among the collected 60 samples were Satkhira 79%, Khulna 50%, Bagerhat 38% and Cox's Bazar 25%. Sequencing of WSSV-positive PCR amplicons of VP28 showed 99% similarity with WSSV NCBI Ref/Seq Sequences. Molecular analysis of the VP28 gene sequences of WSSV revealed that Bangladeshi strains phylogenetically affiliated to the strains belong to India. This work concluded that WSSV infections are widely distributed in the coastal regions cultured shrimp in Bangladesh. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Paraseptal emphysema: Prevalence and distribution on CT and association with interstitial lung abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Tetsuro; Nishino, Mizuki; Zazueta, Oscar E.; Gao, Wei; Dupuis, Josée; Okajima, Yuka; Latourelle, Jeanne C.; Rosas, Ivan O.; Murakami, Takamichi; O’Connor, George T.; Washko, George R.; Hunninghake, Gary M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The prevalence of pure paraseptal emphysema was 3% (85/2633) in the Framingham Heart Study population, predominantly affects the upper lung zone, and contributes to slightly decreased pulmonary function. • There was significant association between paraseptal emphysema and interstitial lung abnormalities, which is a novel finding. • Prevalence of paraseptal emphysema and its impact on pulmonary function could have been underestimated in the previous reports. - Abstract: Objective: To investigate the prevalence and distribution of paraseptal emphysema on chest CT images in the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) population, and assess its impact on pulmonary function. Also pursued was the association with interstitial lung abnormalities. Materials and methods: We assessed 2633 participants in the FHS for paraseptal emphysema on chest CT. Characteristics of the participants, including age, sex, smoking status, clinical symptoms, and results of pulmonary function tests, were compared between those with and without paraseptal emphysema. The association between paraseptal emphysema and interstitial lung abnormalities was investigated. Results: Of the 2633 participants, 86 (3%) had pure paraseptal emphysema (defined as paraseptal emphysema with no other subtypes of emphysema other than paraseptal emphysema or a very few centrilobular emphysema involved) in at least one lung zone. The upper zone of the lungs was almost always involved. Compared to the participants without paraseptal emphysema, those with pure paraseptal emphysema were significantly older, and were more frequently male and smokers (mean 64 years, 71% male, mean 36 pack-years, P < 0.001) and had significantly decreased FEV 1 /FVC% (P = 0.002), and diffusion capacity of carbon monoxide (DLCO) (P = 0.002). There was a significant association between pure paraseptal emphysema and interstitial lung abnormalities (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The prevalence of pure paraseptal emphysema was 3% in the FHS

  13. Prevalence and distribution of selected developmental dental anomalies in an Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Saurabh K; Saxena, Payal; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Deshraj

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of developmental dental anomalies in an Indian population and to statistically analyze the distribution of these anomalies. The study was based on clinical examination, evaluation of dental casts, and panoramic radiographs of 1123 Indian subjects (572 males, 551 females), who visited the outpatient clinic at Government Dental College, Indore between November 2009 and September 2010, after obtaining their informed consent. These patients were examined for the following developmental dental anomalies: shape anomalies (microdontia, talon cusp, dens evaginatus, fusion, taurodontism), number anomalies (hypodontia, oligodontia, anodontia), structural anomalies (amelogenesis imperfecta, dentinogenesis imperfecta) and positional anomalies (ectopic eruption, rotation, impaction). The percentages of these anomalies were assessed for the whole group and compared using statistical analysis. Among the 1123 subjects, a total of 385 individuals (34.28%) presented with the selected developmental dental anomalies. The distribution by sex was 197 males (34.44%), and 188 females (34.06%). Out of the total 1123 individuals, 351 (31.26%) exhibited at least one anomaly, 28 (2.49 %) showed two anomalies and 6 (0.53%) displayed more than two anomalies. P values indicated that the dental anomalies were statistically independent of sex. On intergroup comparison, positional anomalies were significantly most prevalent (P dental anomaly was rotation (10.24%), followed by ectopic eruption (7.93%). The next common group was number anomalies. The most common number anomaly was hypodontia (4.19%), which had a higher frequency than hyperdontia (2.40%). Analyzing the next prevalent group of shape anomalies, microdontia (2.58%) was found to be the most common, followed by taurodontism (2.49%), dens evaginatus (2.40%) and talon cusp (0.97%). Dentinogenesis imperfecta (0.09%) was the rarest, followed by amelogenesis imperfecta (0.27%) and fusion

  14. Predicting the geographic distribution of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) and visceral leishmaniasis in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Paulo Silva de; Sciamarelli, Alan; Batista, Paulo Mira; Ferreira, Ademar Dimas; Nascimento, João; Raizer, Josué; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo

    2013-12-01

    To understand the geographic distribution of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul (MS), Brazil, both the climatic niches of Lutzomyia longipalpis and VL cases were analysed. Distributional data were obtained from 55 of the 79 counties of MS between 2003-2012. Ecological niche models (ENM) of Lu. longipalpis and VL cases were produced using the maximum entropy algorithm based on eight climatic variables. Lu. longipalpis showed a wide distribution in MS. The highest climatic suitability for Lu. longipalpis was observed in southern MS. Temperature seasonality and annual mean precipitation were the variables that most influenced these models. Two areas of high climatic suitability for the occurrence of VL cases were predicted: one near Aquidauana and another encompassing several municipalities in the southeast region of MS. As expected, a large overlap between the models for Lu. longipalpis and VL cases was detected. Northern and northwestern areas of MS were suitable for the occurrence of cases, but did not show high climatic suitability for Lu. longipalpis. ENM of vectors and human cases provided a greater understanding of the geographic distribution of VL in MS, which can be applied to the development of future surveillance strategies.

  15. Prevalence and distribution of avian influenza a(H5N1) virus clade variants in live bird markets of Vietnam, 2011-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Diep T; Bryant, Juliet E; Davis, C Todd; Nguyen, Long V; Pham, Long T; Loth, Leo; Inui, Ken; Nguyen, Tung; Jang, Yunho; To, Thanh L; Nguyen, Tho D; Hoang, Diep T; Do, Hoa T; Nguyen, Trang T; Newman, Scott; Jennifer Siembieda; Pham, Dong V

    2014-12-01

    Active surveillance for avian influenza (Al) viruses in poultry sold at live bird markets (LBMs) was conducted in 44 of 63 provinces throughout Vietnam over two periods from September 2011 to February 2012 and October 2012 to June 2013. The study objectives were to assess the prevalence of avian influenza type A, H5, and H5N1 subtype viruses and characterize the geographical and temporal distribution of H5N1 virus genetic variants across the country. Monthly sampling was conducted in 394 LBMs located in 372 communes. A total of 9790 oropharyngeal swabs from poultry were screened for influenza A virus by real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR Virus isolation was attempted on all positive samples in embryonated chicken eggs, and the HA1 region of each H5 virus isolate was sequenced. Market prevalence of H5 subtype virus was 32.2% (127/394) over the cumulative 15 mo of surveillance. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that clade 1.1 viruses persisted in the south, whereas three genetically distinct subgroups of dade 2.3.2.1 were found simultaneously in northern, central, and southern Vietnam. Clade 2.3.2.1c viruses first appeared in July 2012 and spread rapidly to the center and south of Vietnam in late 2012, where they were predominant among clade 2.3.2.1 viruses and were detected in both active LBM surveillance and poultry outbreaks. Given the overlapping geographic distribution of dade variants and the antigenic divergence previously described for these dades, current AI poultry vaccines used in Vietnam may require bivalent formulations containing representatives of both dade 1.1 and dade 2.3.2.1 viruses.

  16. Geographic Distribution and Temporal Trends of HIV-1 Subtypes through Heterosexual Transmission in China: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Peipei; Li, Jianjun; Fu, Gengfeng; Zhou, Ying; Huan, Xiping; Yang, Haitao

    2017-01-01

    Background: Heterosexual transmission (HST) has become the current predominant transmission pathways of the HIV-1 epidemic in China. The aim of this study was to explore the geographic and dynamic change of HIV-1 subtypes through HST in China from published studies. Methods: Several electronic databases were searched to identify the studies, and the overall prevalence of HIV-1 subtypes was estimated by a meta-analysis method. Subgroup analysis was conducted by study region and time period. Publication bias was evaluated using Egger’s test. The χ2 test was used to evaluate the proportion differences among subgroups. Sensitivity analysis was carried out to assess the stability of the overall prevalence estimates. Results: 42 studies were included in our final analysis. The overall prevalence of CRF01_AE was 46.34% (95% CI: 40.56–52.17%), CRF07_BC was 19.16% (95% CI: 15.02–23.66%), B/B’ was 13.25% (95% CI: 9.68–17.25%), CRF08_BC was 10.61% (95% CI: 7.08–14.70%), and C was 4.29% (95% CI: 1.85–7.48%). In subgroup analysis, the prevalence of CRF01_AE and CRF07_BC increased, while the prevalence of B/B’ decreased over time, whereby the prevalence of CRF07_BC and CRF08_BC have exceeded that of B/B’ since 2010. A significant higher prevalence of CRF01_AE was found in the South provinces, CRF07_BC in East provinces, CRF08_BC and C in Southwest provinces, and B/B’ in North provinces. Conclusions: The HIV-1 prevalent strains have evolved into complicated and diverse subtypes, and the proportion of HIV-1 subtypes through HST has changed constantly in different regions and periods in China. This highlights the urgent need to vigorously strengthen the prevention and control of the HIV-1 epidemic. PMID:28737729

  17. COMPOSITION AND FEATURES OF GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF FAUNA OF ORIBATID MITES (ACARIFORMES, ORIBATIDA) IN THE TETHYS DESERT-STEPPE REGION

    OpenAIRE

    G. M. Abdurakhmanov; E. Z. Davudova; Yu. Yu. Ivanushenko; A. G. Abdurakhmanov

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The aim is to identify the similarities and differences of fauna of oribatid mites (Acariformes, Oribatida) in the Tethys desert-steppe region and analyze geographic relationships of the studied area.Methods. For the research, we used the materials collected for 5 years (2008-13) by the members of the stuff of the Department of Biology and Biodiversity (Grikurova A.A.) in the territory of the Republic of Dagestan. In addition, we referred to personal collections and publications includin...

  18. Using geographical semi-variogram method to quantify the difference between NO2 and PM2.5 spatial distribution characteristics in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Weize; Jia, Haifeng; Li, Zhilin; Tang, Deliang

    2018-08-01

    Urban air pollutant distribution is a concern in environmental and health studies. Particularly, the spatial distribution of NO 2 and PM 2.5 , which represent photochemical smog and haze pollution in urban areas, is of concern. This paper presents a study quantifying the seasonal differences between urban NO 2 and PM 2.5 distributions in Foshan, China. A geographical semi-variogram analysis was conducted to delineate the spatial variation in daily NO 2 and PM 2.5 concentrations. The data were collected from 38 sites in the government-operated monitoring network. The results showed that the total spatial variance of NO 2 is 38.5% higher than that of PM 2.5 . The random spatial variance of NO 2 was 1.6 times than that of PM 2.5 . The nugget effect (i.e., random to total spatial variance ratio) values of NO 2 and PM 2.5 were 29.7 and 20.9%, respectively. This indicates that urban NO 2 distribution was affected by both local and regional influencing factors, while urban PM 2.5 distribution was dominated by regional influencing factors. NO 2 had a larger seasonally averaged spatial autocorrelation distance (48km) than that of PM 2.5 (33km). The spatial range of NO 2 autocorrelation was larger in winter than the other seasons, and PM 2.5 has a smaller range of spatial autocorrelation in winter than the other seasons. Overall, the geographical semi-variogram analysis is a very effective method to enrich the understanding of NO 2 and PM 2.5 distributions. It can provide scientific evidences for the buffering radius selection of spatial predictors for land use regression models. It will also be beneficial for developing the targeted policies and measures to reduce NO 2 and PM 2.5 pollution levels. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Geographical distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in the Norwegian and Russian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, E.; Bernhoft, A.; Riget, F.; Belikov, Stanislav; Boltunov, Andrei N.; Derocher, A.E.; Garner, G.W.; Wiig, O.; Skaare, J.U.

    2003-01-01

    Geographical variation of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) was studied in blood samples from 90 adult female polar bear (Ursus maritimus) from Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Kara Sea, East-Siberian Sea and Chukchi Sea. In all regions, oxychlordane was the dominant OCP. Regional differences in mean levels of HCB, oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor, ??-HCH, ??-HCH and p,p???-DDE were found. The highest levels of oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor and DDE were found in polar bears from Franz Josef Land and Kara Sea. HCB level was lowest in polar bears from Svalbard. Polar bears from Chukchi Sea had the highest level of ??- and ??-HCH. The lowest ??-HCH concentration was found in bears from Kara Sea. In all the bears, ???HCHs was dominated by ??-HCH. The geographical variation in OCP levels and pattern may suggest regional differences in pollution sources and different feeding habits in the different regions. Polar bears from the Western Russian Arctic were exposed to higher levels of chlordanes and p,p???-DDE than polar bears from locations westwards and eastwards from this region. This may imply the presence of a significant pollution source in the Russian Arctic area. The study suggests that the western Russian Arctic is the most contaminated region of the Arctic and warrants further research. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Geographic distribution of dementia mortality: elevated mortality rates for black and white Americans by place of birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glymour, M Maria; Kosheleva, Anna; Wadley, Virginia G; Weiss, Christopher; Manly, Jennifer J

    2011-01-01

    We hypothesized that patterns of elevated stroke mortality among those born in the United States Stroke Belt (SB) states also prevailed for mortality related to all-cause dementia or Alzheimer Disease. Cause-specific mortality (contributing cause of death, including underlying cause cases) rates in 2000 for United States-born African Americans and whites aged 65 to 89 years were calculated by linking national mortality records with population data based on race, sex, age, and birth state or state of residence in 2000. Birth in a SB state (NC, SC, GA, TN, AR, MS, or AL) was cross-classified against SB residence at the 2000 Census. Compared with those who were not born in the SB, odds of all-cause dementia mortality were significantly elevated by 29% for African Americans and 19% for whites born in the SB. These patterns prevailed among individuals who no longer lived in the SB at death. Patterns were similar for Alzheimer Disease-related mortality. Some non-SB states were also associated with significant elevations in dementia-related mortality. Dementia mortality rates follow geographic patterns similar to stroke mortality, with elevated rates among those born in the SB. This suggests important roles for geographically patterned childhood exposures in establishing cognitive reserve.