Richman, J A; Rospenda, K M; Nawyn, S J; Flaherty, J A; Fendrich, M; Drum, M L; Johnson, T P
This study hypothesized that interpersonal workplace stressors involving sexual harassment and generalized workplace abuse are highly prevalent and significantly linked with mental health outcomes including symptomatic distress, the use and abuse of alcohol, and other drug use. Employees in 4 university occupational groups (faculty, student, clerical, and service workers; n = 2492) were surveyed by means of a mailed self-report instrument. Cross-tabular and ordinary least squares and logistic regression analyses examined the prevalence of harassment and abuse and their association with mental health status. The data show high rates of harassment and abuse. Among faculty, females were subjected to higher rates; among clerical and service workers, males were subjected to higher rates. Male and female clerical and service workers experienced higher levels of particularly severe mistreatment. Generalized abuse was more prevalent than harassment for all groups. Both harassment and abuse were significantly linked to most mental health outcomes for men and women. Interpersonally abusive workplace dynamics constitute a significant public health problem that merits increased intervention and prevention strategies.
Cheng, Ching-Yu; Li, Qing
Postpartum mothers experience certain physical health conditions that may affect their quality of life, future health, and health of their children. Yet, the physical health of postpartum mothers is relatively neglected in both research and practice. The purpose of this review is to describe the general health status and prevalence of common physical health conditions of postpartum mothers. The review followed standard procedures for integrative literature reviews. Twenty-two articles were reviewed from searches in scientific databases, reference lists, and an up-to-date survey. Three tables were designed to answer review questions. In general, postpartum mothers self-rate their health as good. They experience certain physical conditions such as fatigue/physical exhaustion, sleep-related problems, pain, sex-related concerns, hemorrhoids/constipation, and breast problems. Despite a limited number of studies, the findings provide a glimpse of the presence of a number of physical health conditions experienced by women in the 2 years postpartum. In the articles reviewed, physical health conditions and postpartum period were poorly defined, no standard scales existed, and the administration of surveys varied widely in time. Those disparities prevented systematic comparisons of results and made it difficult to gain a coherent understanding of the physical health conditions of postpartum mothers. More longitudinal research is needed that focuses on the etiology, predictors, and management of the health conditions most prevalent among postpartum mothers. Instruments are needed that target a broader range of physical conditions in respect to type and severity.
Meyboom-de Jong Betty
Full Text Available Abstract Background Schizophrenia patients frequently develop somatic co-morbidity. Core tasks for GPs are the prevention and diagnosis of somatic diseases and the provision of care for patients with chronic diseases. Schizophrenia patients experience difficulties in recognizing and coping with their physical problems; however GPs have neither specific management policies nor guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of somatic co-morbidity in schizophrenia patients. This paper systematically reviews the prevalence and treatment of somatic co-morbidity in schizophrenia patients in general practice. Methods The MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO data-bases and the Cochrane Library were searched and original research articles on somatic diseases of schizophrenia patients and their treatment in the primary care setting were selected. Results The results of this search show that the incidence of a wide range of diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, the metabolic syndrome, coronary heart diseases, and COPD is significantly higher in schizophrenia patients than in the normal population. The health of schizophrenic patients is less than optimal in several areas, partly due to their inadequate help-seeking behaviour. Current GP management of such patients appears not to take this fact into account. However, when schizophrenic patients seek the GP's help, they value the care provided. Conclusion Schizophrenia patients are at risk of undetected somatic co-morbidity. They present physical complaints at a late, more serious stage. GPs should take this into account by adopting proactive behaviour. The development of a set of guidelines with a clear description of the GP's responsibilities would facilitate the desired changes in the management of somatic diseases in these patients.
Oud, Marian J T; Meyboom-de Jong, Betty
Schizophrenia patients frequently develop somatic co-morbidity. Core tasks for GPs are the prevention and diagnosis of somatic diseases and the provision of care for patients with chronic diseases. Schizophrenia patients experience difficulties in recognizing and coping with their physical problems; however GPs have neither specific management policies nor guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of somatic co-morbidity in schizophrenia patients. This paper systematically reviews the prevalence and treatment of somatic co-morbidity in schizophrenia patients in general practice. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO data-bases and the Cochrane Library were searched and original research articles on somatic diseases of schizophrenia patients and their treatment in the primary care setting were selected. The results of this search show that the incidence of a wide range of diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, the metabolic syndrome, coronary heart diseases, and COPD is significantly higher in schizophrenia patients than in the normal population. The health of schizophrenic patients is less than optimal in several areas, partly due to their inadequate help-seeking behaviour. Current GP management of such patients appears not to take this fact into account. However, when schizophrenic patients seek the GP's help, they value the care provided. Schizophrenia patients are at risk of undetected somatic co-morbidity. They present physical complaints at a late, more serious stage. GPs should take this into account by adopting proactive behaviour. The development of a set of guidelines with a clear description of the GP's responsibilities would facilitate the desired changes in the management of somatic diseases in these patients.
Lee, E; Lee, Y-H; Kim, W; Kho, H-S
The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, severity, and relationships between xerostomia and its related symptoms in individuals who attended hospital for general health examinations. Participants included 883 men and 618 women aged between 30 and 60 years. History of symptoms during the previous 6 months, current symptoms, and severity of current symptoms were evaluated using a questionnaire that included questions about xerostomia, burning mouth, taste disturbance, and oral malodor. The prevalence of xerostomia and its related symptoms was 60.2%; the prevalence of oral malodor was 52.3%, xerostomia 33.0%, burning mouth 13.6%, and taste disturbance 12.5%. Men in their 30s and women in their 60s showed significantly higher prevalence and greater severity of xerostomia, burning mouth, and taste disturbance compared with their counterparts. The prevalence of xerostomia, burning mouth, and taste disturbance, and the severity of xerostomia increased significantly with age in women. The prevalence and severity of these four symptoms were significantly related and the association was the highest between burning mouth and taste disturbance. In conclusion, xerostomia and its related symptoms were highly prevalent at all ages. The prevalence and severity of these symptoms were closely related. Copyright © 2013 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hay, Jennifer L; Gold, Geoffrey S; Baser, Raymond E; Hricak, Hedvig; Dauer, Lawrence T
In recent years, there have been dramatic increases in medical imaging use and increasing media attention to increased exposure to ionizing radiation in the United States. Patient perspectives on medical imaging radiation (MIR) use is understudied, but could guide primary care discussions. This study examines prevalence of worry about the health harms from MIR in the US general population. This cross-sectional study used the 2012-2013 Health Information National Trends Survey conducted by the National Cancer Institute. A nationally representative sample (N = 3532) was drawn from the US general population to observe prevalence of worry about MIR as well as potential covariates, including demographic, medical, and psychological factors, health information-seeking, physician trust in providing cancer information, and cancer fatalism. About 65% of the sample population reported experiencing at least some worry about MIR. Univariable and multivariable logistic regressions indicate higher rates of MIR worry among women, racial/ethnic minorities, those with lower educational attainment, foreign-born Americans, those who self-report poorer health, and those with a personal history of cancer. Lower trust in cancer information from physicians and greater attention to cancer information from popular media were each associated with higher rates of worry about health harms of MIR. An accurate assessment of public worry about MIR will aid primary care providers' efforts to understand patient responses to medical imaging and identify addressable knowledge gaps regarding benefits and risks of medical imaging. These data may improve risk communication regarding medical imaging among referring primary care physicians, radiologists, and patients. © The Author(s) 2016.
Full Text Available Marco D DiBonaventura,1 Alesia Sadosky,2 Kristen Concialdi,1 Markay Hopps,2 Ian Kudel,1 Bruce Parsons,2 Joseph C Cappelleri,3 Patrick Hlavacek,2 Andrea H Alexander,2 Brett R Stacey,4 John D Markman,5 John T Farrar6 1Health Outcomes Practice, Kantar Health, 2Pfizer Inc, New York, NY, 3Pfizer Inc, Groton, CT, 4University of Washington, Seattle, WA, 5University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY, 6University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, US Background: The prevalence of neuropathic pain (NeP has been estimated within specific health conditions; however, there are no published data on its broad prevalence in the US. The current exploratory study addresses this gap using the validated PainDetect questionnaire as a screener for probable NeP in a general-population health survey conducted with a multimodal recruitment strategy to maximize demographic representativeness. Materials and methods: Adult respondents were recruited from a combination of Internet panels, telephone lists, address lists, mall-based interviews, and store-receipt invitations using a random stratified-sampling framework, with strata defined by age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Older persons and minorities were oversampled to improve prevalence estimates. Results were weighted to match the total adult US population using US Census data. Demographic information was collected, and respondents who experienced physical pain in the past 12 months completed the PainDetect and provided additional pain history. A cutoff score of 19 or greater on the PainDetect was used to define probable NeP. Results: A total of 24,925 respondents (average response rate 2.5% provided demographic data (52.2% female, mean age 51.5 years; 15,751 respondents reported pain (63.7%, of which 2,548 (15.7%, 95% confidence interval 14.9%–16.5% had probable NeP based on the PainDetect, which was 10% (95% confidence interval 9.5%–10.5% of all respondents. Among
Vildósola, H; Colichón, A; Bardales, F; Serván, J C
A seroepidemiological assessment for Hepatitis B was performed in 199 workers, apparently healthy, of Hospital de Apoyo Iquitos of them were health care workers (representing 29.96% of health workers) and 42 were administrative personnel (22.82% of hospital's administrative personnel). We evaluated the HBsAg and anti-HBc IgG total by the microelisa technique. The total prevalence of HBsAg carriers was 3.36% and 20.1% of the anti-HBc; in the health group the 3.89% had HBsAg and the 16.88% anti-HBc, while the administrative group presented 2.38% of HBsAg and 26.19% the anti-HBc. There was no significative statistical difference between both groups. There was not either in the presence of the different studied epidemiological variables. We presume that it can exist a common epidemilogical factor which would conditioned a similarity of risk for infection in the health personnel as well the administrative personnel and even in the general population. If this find in other Amazon cities is confirmed, we could conclude that this represents a epidemilogical characteristic of the intermediate endemicity urban areas.
Di Lonardo, Anna; Donfrancesco, Chiara; Palmieri, Luigi; Vanuzzo, Diego; Giampaoli, Simona
High blood pressure (BP) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The urgency of the problem was underlined by the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Action Plan for the prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases, which recommends a 25% relative reduction in the prevalence of raised BP by 2020. A surveillance system represents a useful tool to monitor BP in the general population. Since 1980s, the National Institute of Health has conducted several surveys of the adult general population, measuring cardiovascular risk factors by standardized procedures and methods. To describe mean BP levels and high BP prevalence from 1978 to 2012 by sex and quinquennia of age. Data were derived from the following three studies: (i) Risk Factors and Life Expectancy (RIFLE), conducted between 1978 and 2002 in 13 Italian regions (>70,000 persons); (ii) Osservatorio Epidemiologico Cardiovascolare (OEC), conducted between 1998-2002 in the general population from all Italian regions (>9000 persons); and (iii) Osservatorio Epidemiologico Cardiovascolare/Health Examination Survey (OEC/HES), conducted between 2008-2012 in the general population from all Italian regions (>9000 persons). A significant decrease in mean systolic and diastolic BP levels and prevalence of high BP from 1978 to 2012 was observed both in men and women. BP and high BP increased by age classes in all considered periods. BP awareness and control also improved. Our data suggest that BP control could be achieved by 2020, as recommended by WHO.
Full Text Available Introduction Teachers are one of the groups that in addition to teaching the students can have a role in control and identification of child abuse and violence in schools. Certainly, before doing any action and choose an approach to reduce misbehavior, we should be aware of situation, how and prevalence of child abuse in schools. The present study aims to investigate the prevalence and types of child abuse among teachers and its relationship with demographic characteristics and general health in teachers whom teaching in primary schools. Materials and Methods This was a cross-sectional study on 350 female and male students and 82 teachers that performed with a multi-stage sampling method. The tools for data gathering included: questionnaire of teachers' personal and job characteristics (12 questions, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ (28 questions, and standard questionnaire of Conflict Tactics Scale. Data were analyzed by the statistical tests of independent t-test, Mann–Whitney, chi-square, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA, with SPSS version 16. Results Results of statistical analysis revealed that there wasn’t a significant association between general health and physical abuse. But there was a significant association between general health, emotional abuse and neglect. So that their general health score was higher (more score was not associated with better general health, the emotional abuse and neglect were also higher. Conclusions According to the results, it is suggested to design and implement some programs for prevention and reduction of violence in schools of our country and education of violence prevention methods should be part of school curriculum.
Maske, Ulrike E; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G; Seiffert, Ingeburg; Jacobi, Frank; Hapke, Ulfert
Objective: To determine the prevalence and comorbid mental disorders of self-reported diagnosis of burnout syndrome in the general population of Germany. Methods: In the German Health Interview and Examination Survey (DEGS1) self-reported diagnosis of a burnout syndrome made by a physician or psychotherapist was assessed in a standardized interview (N = 7987). For N = 4483 mental disorders were determined with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Weighted lifetime and 12-month prevalences were calculated. Results: Lifetime prevalence of diagnosed burnout syndrome was 4.2 % (women 5.2 %, men 3.3 %), 12-month prevalence was 1.5 % (women 1.9 %, men 1.1 %). Highest prevalences were found in 40 - 59 year olds, in people with middle and high socio-economic status and in women with low and men with high social support. Among the 12-month cases, 70.9 % had at least one DSM-IV disorder. Associations were found for the diagnosis of burnout syndrome with somatoform, affective and anxiety disorders. Conclusion: The diagnosis of burnout syndrome is less frequently given and reported than expected. People with a burnout diagnosis often have a manifest mental disorder. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Whittamore, Kathy H; Goldberg, Sarah E; Gladman, John R F; Bradshaw, Lucy E; Jones, Rob G; Harwood, Rowan H
This paper aimed to measure the prevalence and outcomes of delirium for patients over 70 admitted to a general hospital for acute medical care and to assess the validity of the Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98 (DRS-R-98) in this setting. Prospective study in a British acute general hospital providing sole emergency medical services for its locality. We screened consecutive patients over 70 with an unplanned emergency hospital admission and recruited a cohort of 249 patients likely to have mental health problems. They were assessed for health status at baseline and followed over 6 months. A sub-sample of 93 participants was assessed clinically for delirium. 27% (95% confidence interval (CI) 23-31) of all older medical patients admitted to hospital had DRS-diagnosed delirium, and 41% (95% CI 37-45) had dementia (including 19% with co-morbid delirium and dementia). Compared with clinician diagnosis, DRS-R-98 sensitivity was at least 0.75, specificity 0.71. Compared with reversible cognitive impairment, sensitivity was at least 0.50, specificity 0.67. DRS-diagnosed delirium was associated with cognitive impairment, mood, behavioural and psychological symptoms, activities of daily living, and number of drugs prescribed, supporting construct validity. Of those with DRS-diagnosed delirium, 37% died within 6 months (relative risk 1.4, 95% CI 0.97-2.2), 43% had reversible cognitive impairment, but only 25% had clinically important recovery in activities of daily living. Behavioural and psychological symptoms were common and mostly resolved, but new symptoms frequently developed. Delirium is common. Some, but not all, features are reversible. DRS-R-98 has reasonable validity in populations where co-morbid dementia is prevalent. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Bertelsen, Mette; Jensen, Hanne; Bregnhøj, Jesper F
of this study was to examine the prevalence and diagnostic spectrum of generalized retinal dystrophy in the Danish population. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional study with data from the Danish Retinitis Pigmentosa Registry that comprises all patients in Denmark with generalized retinal......PURPOSE: Generalized retinal dystrophy is a frequent cause of visual impairment and blindness in younger individuals and a subject of new clinical intervention trials. Nonetheless, there are few nation-wide population-based epidemiological data of generalized retinal dystrophy. The purpose...... and chorioretinal dystrophies from the 19th century to the present. Among 3076 registered cases, the primary diagnosis of generalized retinal dystrophy was assessed by chart review, including fundus photographs and electroretinograms. Demographic data on the Danish population were retrieved from Statistics Denmark...
Rambaldi, A; Todisco, N; Gluud, C
The Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST) and the response to a question about heavy alcohol consumption were used to assess the prevalence of alcohol problems in consecutive patients (77 males and 46 females) consulting a general practitioner in an urban area in the South of Italy (Castellam...... as a screening question in order to detect alcohol problems and give advice regarding reduction of alcohol consumption....
Sex differences in the prevalence and detection of depressive and anxiety disorders in general health care settings - Report from the World Health Organization collaborative study on Psychological Problems in General Health Care
Gater, R; Tansella, M; Korten, A; Tiemens, BG; Mavreas, VG; Olatawura, MO
Background: Understanding the relevance of biological and social factors to sex differences in the prevalence and detection of depressive and anxiety disorders has been impaired by the lack of standardized research methods across cultures. Method: Prevalence rates of depressive and anxiety disorders
Cullen, W; Kearney, Y; Bury, G
Fatigue is an important symptom in general practice due to its association with physical, psychological and social problems. To determine the prevalence of fatigue as an unsolicited symptom during general practice consultations. A random sample of GPs practising in Ireland was invited to provide data on consultations held over one day. Data were recorded on the presence of fatigue as a main or supporting symptom, social and demographic characteristics. Data were recorded by 89 GPs on 1,428 consultations. The prevalence of fatigue was 25%. It was the main reason for attending the doctor in 6.5% and a secondary reason in 19%. Sixty-two per cent of patients were female and 48% were eligible for free GP services. The mean age was 47.1 years. The presence of fatigue was associated with: attending a female GP, being female, attending a GP who had been qualified for fewer years and attending the GP frequently. The prevalence of fatigue reported in this study is over three times higher than that reported in earlier work. Doctor characteristics appear to be as important as patient characteristics in determining fatigue.
Fleming, D.; Schellevis, F.; Linden, M. van der; Westert, G.
General practice-based morbidity surveys have been conducted in the Netherlands and in England and Wales primarily to estimate disease prevalence and examine health inequalities. We have compared disease prevalence in general practice reported in the second Dutch Natinal Survey of General Practice
Full Text Available BackgroundWe investigated the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control rate of hypertension in Korean adults with diabetes using nationally representative data.MethodsUsing data of 5,105 adults from the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2011 (4,389 nondiabetes mellitus [non-DM], 242 newly diagnosed with DM (new-DM, and 474 previously diagnosed with DM (known-DM, we analyzed the prevalence of hypertension (mean systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg, diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg, or use of antihypertensive medication and control rate of hypertension (blood pressure [BP] <130/80 mm Hg.ResultsThe prevalence of hypertension in diabetic adults was 54.6% (44.4% in new-DM and 62.6% in known-DM, P<0.0001 and P<0.0001, respectively compared with non-DM adults (26.2%. Compared to non-DM, awareness (85.7%, P<0.001 and treatment (97.0%, P=0.020 rates were higher in known-DM, whereas no differences were found between new-DM and non-DM. Control rate among all hypertensive subjects was lower in new-DM (14.9%, compared to non-DM (35.1%, P<0.001 and known-DM (33.3%, P=0.004. Control rate among treated subjects was also lower in new-DM (25.2%, compared to non-DM (68.4%, P<0.0001 and known-DM (39.9%, P<0.0001.ConclusionHigher prevalence and low control rate of hypertension in adults with diabetes suggest that stringent efforts are needed to control BP in patients with diabetes, particularly in newly diagnosed diabetic patients.
Tillasman, N. S.; Saragih, R. H.; Umar, N.
Sepsis is a severe bacterial infection whose treatment still varies in preference. However, for more than 60 years, antibiotics have been regarded as the panacea, as long as they are used wisely and timely. Antibiotic resistance has escalated in recent years, resulting in an accelerating global health security emergency, that is rapidly outpacing available treatment options. In January 2014, the new mandatory health insurance scheme (JKN) was introduced, whose treatments must comply with National Formulary (FORNAS) policy. We aimed to systematically review the prevalence of antibiotic resistance to FORNAS policy’s preferential treatments in adult septic patients who had been in the non-surgical wards. Based on an overall view, 76 out of 90 kinds of antibiotics which had undergone antibiotic susceptibility test (AST) had alarming resistance rate and preferential antibiotics in the current JKN scheme may have become ineffective.
... needs to stay healthy. You can start by learning these general health terms. Find more definitions on Fitness | General Health | Minerals | Nutrition | Vitamins Basal Body Temperature Basal body temperature is your temperature at rest ...
Full Text Available Research Question: What is the sickness prevalence in the slums of a metropolitan city? Objectives: To estimate the morbidity prevalence with reference to a socio-economic and demographic perspective of the slum population of Delhi. Study Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted and data were collected by a two-stage random sampling method. In the first stage, slum locations were selected and in the second stage households were selected. Participants: Data were collected from 1049 households consisting of 5358 individuals′ information. Results: The overall morbidity prevalence is 15.4%. It is 14.7 and 16.3% for males and females, respectively but the differences are not statistically significant. The reported higher morbidity prevalence and the illiteracy status are significantly associated. Diseases of the respiratory system appear to be very high among slum dwellers. Conclusion: From this study, it can be concluded that the number of years of staying in the slum area, presence of a separate kitchen, type of house, it being Pucca or Kuccha, types of toilet pits or open defecation are the important environmental factors for the reports of higher morbidity patterns from the slum area.
Background. The prevalence of malnutrition, an important contributor to childhood mortality, is poorly described in hospitalised South African (SA) children, many of whom are HIV-exposed or HIV-infected. Objectives. To describe the prevalence of malnutrition in infants and children <14 years of age admitted to a general ...
Hoogenveen, Rudolf; Westert, Gert; Dijkgraaf, Marcel; Schellevis, François; de Bakker, Dinny
This paper describes how to estimate the prevalence of chronic diseases in a population using data from contact registrations in general practice with a limited time length. Instead of using only total numbers of observed patients adjusted for the length of the observation period, we propose the use
Thyssen, J P; Linneberg, A; Menné, T
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of sensitization to fragrance mix (FM) I and Myroxylon pereirae (MP, balsam of Peru) has decreased in recent years among Danish women with dermatitis. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated whether the decrease could be confirmed among women in the general population. Furt...... supported a recent decrease in the prevalence of FM I and MP sensitization in Denmark. The study also showed that fragrance sensitization was associated with self-reported cosmetic dermatitis and use of health care related to cosmetic dermatitis....
Witt, Andreas; Brown, Rebecca C; Plener, Paul L; Brähler, Elmar; Fegert, Jörg M
Child maltreatment and its consequences are considered a major public health problem. So far, there is only one study from Germany reporting prevalence rates on different types of maltreatment. A representative sample of the German general population was examined for experiences of child maltreatment using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) between September and November 2016. A total of 2510 (53.3% female) participants between 14 and 94 years (M = 48.8 years) were enrolled. Besides the CTQ, a range of sociodemographic information was collected. The interrelatedness of different types of maltreatment was examined using configuration analysis and predictors for maltreatment were identified by performing binary logistic regression analyses. Overall, 2.6% (f: 3.9%, m: 1.2%) of all participants reported severe emotional abuse, 3.3% (f: 3.4%, m: 3.3%) severe physical abuse, 2.3% (f: 3.7%, m: 0.7%) severe sexual abuse, 7.1% (f: 8.1%, m: 5.9%) severe emotional neglect and 9% (f: 9.2%, m: 8.9%) severe physical neglect. Women were more likely to report at least moderate sexual and emotional abuse than men. The largest difference between age groups was reported for physical neglect, with participants aged over 70 years reporting the highest rates. Participants who reported childhood maltreatment were more likely to be unemployed or have lower educational outcomes. The most common combination of maltreatment types were physical and emotional neglect, all five types of maltreatment combined and physical and emotional neglect and physical abuse combined. Child maltreatment, especially physical neglect is common in the German population. Women seem to be at greater risk for sexual and emotional abuse than men. Knowledge about different types of maltreatment based on the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) can help to put findings of future studies into an epidemiological and societal context.
Frantzeskou, Elpida; Jensen, Olaf; Linos, Athena
Background Studies have shown that fishermen have a higher mortality from cardiovascular diseases, cancer and accidents. The majority of cardiovascular disease is caused by external risk factors such as the diet, tobacco, alcohol and lack of physical activity. The purpose of this paper...... was to review the available information on the prevalence of these preventable risk factors in order to strengthen the preventive strategies. Methods A search for the last decade was done via Medline, Google and Google Scholar with the keywords "diet, tobacco, alcohol, physical exercise, overweight....... Of the Danish fishermen 25%-, 34% and 37% were obese in the 18-24, 25-44 and 45-64 years age groups. Conclusion Health risk factors among fishermen need to be highlighted and further investigated as they represent occupational risks of major impact to chronic diseases prevalence with projections to quality...
Frost, R Brock; Farrer, Thomas J; Primosch, Mark; Hedges, Dawson W
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant public-health concern. To understand the extent of TBI, it is important to assess the prevalence of TBI in the general population. However, the prevalence of TBI in the general population can be difficult to measure because of differing definitions of TBI, differing TBI severity levels, and underreporting of sport-related TBI. Additionally, prevalence reports vary from study to study. In this present study, we used meta-analytic methods to estimate the prevalence of TBI in the adult general population. Across 15 studies, all originating from developed countries, which included 25,134 adults, 12% had a history of TBI. Men had more than twice the odds of having had a TBI than did women, suggesting that male gender is a risk factor for TBI. The adverse behavioral, cognitive and psychiatric effects associated with TBI coupled with the high prevalence of TBI identified in this study indicate that TBI is a considerable public and personal-health problem. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Pakriev, Sergei; Kovalev, Juri; Mozhaev, Mikhail
There are a lot of studies on depressive disorders in a general hospital done across the world, but no data from Russia on this subject was found in international psychiatric journals or MEDLINE. to determine the prevalence of depressive disorders in medical inpatients in Izhevsk, the capital of the Udmurt Republic, a region in Russia, and to identify associated factors. A sample of 323 adult medical inpatients was composed. The Russian version of the MINI 5.0.0 was used. The prevalence of lifetime and current depressive disorders was 30% and 20.7%, respectively. Depression was more common in women, widowed or divorced, retired or disabled, with low income and bad family relationships, and among respondents with a chronic somatic illness. Depression had a high comorbidity with organic mental and anxiety disorders. Only 40.3% of the individuals with depression had referred for psychiatric consultations, most of them being treated with fluvoxamine. Prevalence of depression was substantial but consistent with other studies. Taking into consideration associated factors, physicians can improve recognition and treatment of depression in medical inpatients.
Franco S, Mireya; Villarreal R, Enrique; Vargas D, Emma R; Martínez G, Lidia; Galicia R, Liliana
Social representations are value systems. Social stereotypes are a social consensus of traits associated with a specific group. Stereotypes about older subjects, generally have negative connotations. To assess the prevalence of negative stereotypes towards older subjects among health care personnel. A questionnaire about stereotypes towards old age, with Likert type questions that included health, social motivations and personality-character domains, was applied to 52 doctors, 12 residents, 80 general nurses, 36 auxiliary nurses, four social workers and 10 medical assistants, working at a general hospital. The mean age of the professionals who answered the questionnaire was 38 years (95% confidence intervals (CI) 37-39 years) and 78% were women. The prevalence of a Global negative stereotype was 65.0%(95% CI: 59.5-70.5). The figure for the health domain was 64.5% (IC95%; 59.0-70.0), for the social motivation domain was 60%(5%CI: 54.3-65.7) and for the character personality domain was 64% (95%CI: 58.4-69.6). There is a high prevalence of a negative stereotype towards old age among health care personnel.
... Source Code The Surgeon General's Family Health History Initiative To help focus attention on the importance of ... health campaign, called the Surgeon General's Family History Initiative, to encourage all American families to learn more ...
Mamo, C; Farina, E; Cicio, R; Fanì, M
The aim of the study was to obtain local estimates of the prevalence of anxiety and dysthymic disorders among attendees of primary care at local level, useful to pursue a better management of the health care services. The study was conducted in the Health District no. 2 of Turin (industrial town in northwest Italy). The criteria for identification of cases were based on the drugs prescriptions made by general practitioners (GPs), selected in order to assure high specificity. The study involved 86 physicians (with 87,885 attendees). As expected, the crude and standardized prevalences were higher in women (anxiety: 2.9% vs 1.3% in men; dysthymia: 3.8% vs 1.7% in men), with a peak in women aged over 75 yrs (anxiety: 4.8%; dysthymia: 6.2%). In comparison to male GPs, female GPs had an higher prevalence of patients with anxious disorders, whereas the prevalences of dysthymia were similar. Despite the discussed limitations, the used methodology allows to obtain sufficiently reliable estimates of prevalence of common mental disorders at local level, providing informations useful for organizing the primary care in the Health district.
Shewale, Akhilesh H; Gattani, Deepti R; Bhatia, Nidhi; Mahajan, Rupali; Saravanan, S P
Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN). It was also found that no prevalence studies have been carried out in few North and North Eastern states and Union Territories of India. Due to non-availability of same age groups in selected studies an overall prevalence rate could not be obtained. However, it was observed that few areas of states like West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh and Assam have reported a prevalence rate of periodontal disease of more than 85% in their general population. The data from the present systematic review calls for a combined initiative from the Government of India and Dental council of India to have a nationwide multicentric prevalence studies to obtain the true prevalence rate of periodontal disease in India and interventions should be provided for the same to maintain the oral health and quality of life of the affected population.
Maske, Ulrike E; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G; Seiffert, Ingeburg; Jacobi, Frank; Hapke, Ulfert
To determine the prevalence and comorbid mental disorders of self-reported diagnosis of burnout syndrome in the general population of Germany. In the German Health Interview and Examination Survey (DEGS1) self-reported diagnosis of a burnout syndrome made by a physician or psychotherapist was assessed in a standardized interview (N = 7987). For N = 4483 mental disorders were determined with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Weighted lifetime and 12-month prevalences were calculated. Lifetime prevalence of diagnosed burnout syndrome was 4.2 % (women 5.2 %, men 3.3 %), 12-month prevalence was 1.5 % (women 1.9 %, men 1.1 %). Highest prevalences were found in 40 - 59 year olds, in people with middle and high socio economic status and in women with low and men with high social support. Among the 12-month cases, 70.9 % had at least one DSM-IV disorder. Associations were found for the diagnosis of burnout syndrome with somatoform, affective and anxiety disorders. The diagnosis of burnout syndrome is less frequently given and reported than expected. People with a burnout diagnosis often have a manifest mental disorder. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Tchente, Charlotte Nguefack; Tsakeu, Eveline Ngouadjeu Dongho; Nguea, Arlette Géraldine; Njamen, Théophile Nana; Ekane, Gregory Halle; Priso, Eugene Belley
Anemia is a public health problem, prevalent among children and women of childbearing age. Our study aims to determine the prevalence and factors associated with anemia in pregnant women at Douala General Hospital. We conducted a cross sectional study from July 2012 to July 2013. All consenting pregnant women attending antenatal consultation and having undergone complete blood count (CBC) were included in the study. Sociodemographic characteristics, individual's obstetrical history and the results of the CBC were recorded on a pre tested data collection sheet. Anemia was defined according to the WHO criteria. After some descriptive statistics, we performed a bivariate analysis using the Chi-square test and Fisher exact probability test in order to determine the factors associated with anemia. P value prevalence was 39,8%. The average age was 29,89±4,835 years. The mean hemoglobin level was 10.93 ± 1.23. Normochromic normocytic anemia (53,3%) was prevalent. Anaemia was severe in 2,4% of cases. Anemia in pregnancy was significantly associated with a personal history of chronic diseases (P = 0.02) and of anemia in a previous pregnancy (P = 0.003). Anemia was more frequently observed during the 3rd trimester (P = 0.04) and breastfeeding played a protective role (P = 0.02). The prevalence of anemia during pregnancy remains high. A better management of chronic diseases in pregnant women and of postpartum follow-up is necessary to treat anemia before a subsequent pregnancy.
Kuntsche, E.N.; Kuntsche, S.; Thrul, J.; Gmel, G.
Objective: Binge drinking (also called heavy episodic drinking, risky single-occasion drinking etc.) is a major public health problem. This paper provides an overview of recently published evidence concerning the definition and measurement, prevalence rates, health impact, demographic and
Kieffer, J.M.; Hoogstraten, J.
The aim of this work was to assess the association among oral health, general health, and quality of life (QoL). The Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-49) and the RAND-36 were distributed amongst 118 psychology freshmen. Additionally, two single items self-rated general health (SRGH) and self-rated
Kieffer, Jacobien M; Hoogstraten, Johan
The aim of this work was to assess the association among oral health, general health, and quality of life (QoL). The Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-49) and the RAND-36 were distributed amongst 118 psychology freshmen. Additionally, two single items self-rated general health (SRGH) and self-rated oral health (SROH) - were administered. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests were used to evaluate differences between SRGH and SROH categories, regarding OHIP subscale scores and RAND subscale scores. More than 75% of the subjects rated their oral and general health as good. Mean OHIP scores and RAND scores indicated a relatively good oral- and general health-related QoL respectively. The correlation between oral and general health was weak. Significant differences were found between SRGH categories regarding RAND subscale scores, except for the 'role emotional' and 'mental health' subscales. Significant differences were also found between SROH categories regarding OHIP subscale scores, except for the 'psychological disability' subscale. However, no significant differences were found between SRGH categories regarding OHIP subscale scores, or between SROH categories regarding RAND subscale scores. The findings suggest that oral health, general health, and QoL have different determinants. Furthermore, oral health and general health appear to be mostly unrelated in this seemingly healthy population. It is proposed that if no apparent disease is present, oral and general health must be regarded as separate constructs.
Bouwstra, Hylco; Dijk-Stigter, Geerteke R.; Grooten, Hedwig M. J.; Janssen-Plas, Femke E. M.; Koopmans, Alice J.; Mulder, Christien D.; van Belle, Ans; Hadders-Algra, Mijna
Background: The quality of general movements (GMs) is a sensitive tool to measure neurodevelopmental condition in early infancy. No information is available on prevalence rates of abnormal GMs in the general population. Objective: To assess the prevalence of abnormal GMs in the general population of
Relton, Clare; Cooper, Katy; Viksveen, Petter; Fibert, Philippa; Thomas, Kate
To systematically review surveys of 12-month prevalence of homeopathy use by the general population worldwide. Studies were identified via database searches to October 2015. Study quality was assessed using a six-item tool. All estimates were in the context of a survey which also reported prevalence of any complementary and alternative medicine use. A total of 36 surveys were included. Of these, 67% met four of six quality criteria. Twelve-month prevalence of treatment by a homeopath was reported in 24 surveys of adults (median 1.5%, range 0.2-8.2%). Estimates for children were similar to those for adults. Rates in the USA, UK, Australia and Canada all ranged from 0.2% to 2.9% and remained stable over the years surveyed (1986-2012). Twelve-month prevalence of all use of homeopathy (purchase of over-the-counter homeopathic medicines and treatment by a homeopath) was reported in 10 surveys of adults (median 3.9%, range 0.7-9.8%) while a further 11 surveys which did not define the type of homeopathy use reported similar data. Rates in the USA and Australia ranged from 1.7% to 4.4% and remained stable over the years surveyed. The highest use was reported by a survey in Switzerland where homeopathy is covered by mandatory health insurance. This review summarises 12-month prevalence of homeopathy use from surveys conducted in eleven countries (USA, UK, Australia, Israel, Canada, Switzerland, Norway, Germany, South Korea, Japan and Singapore). Each year a small but significant percentage of these general populations use homeopathy. This includes visits to homeopaths as well as purchase of over-the-counter homeopathic medicines. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Yu, Wei; Singh, Shikha Satendra; Calhoun, Shawna; Zhang, Hui; Zhao, Xiahong; Yang, Fengchi
Limited published research has quantified the Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) prevalence and its burden in China. This study aimed to fill in the knowledge gap and to evaluate the burden of GAD among adults in urban China. This study utilized existing data from the China National Health and Wellness Survey (NHWS) 2012-2013. Prevalence of self-reported diagnosed and undiagnosed GAD was estimated. Diagnosed and undiagnosed GAD respondents were compared with non-anxious respondents in terms of health-related quality of life (HRQoL), resource utilization, and work productivity and activity impairment using multivariate generalized linear models. A multivariate logistic model assessed the risk factors for GAD. The prevalence of undiagnosed/diagnosed GAD was 5.3% in urban China with only 0.5% of GAD respondents reporting a diagnosis. Compared with non-anxious respondents, both diagnosed and undiagnosed GAD respondents had significantly lower HRQoL, more work productivity and activity impairment, and greater healthcare resource utilization in the past six months. Age, gender, marital status, income level, insurance status, smoking, drinking and exercise behaviors, and comorbidity burdens were significantly associated with GAD. This was a patient-reported study; data are therefore subject to recall bias. The survey was limited to respondents in urban China; therefore, these results focused on urban China and may be under- or over-estimating GAD prevalence in China. Causal inferences cannot be made given the cross-sectional nature of the study. GAD may be substantially under-diagnosed in urban China. More healthcare resources should be invested to alleviate the burden of GAD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Rajput, Mamta; Saini, Sushma Kumari
Constipation is a frequent health problem leading to great discomfort to the person and affects his or her quality of life. It is considered to be highly prevalent in the general population, but there is little data supporting the findings. This study was undertaken with an objective to assess the prevalence of constipation and its associated factors among the general population of Dadu Majra Colony, UT, Chandigarh, India. A total of 505 individuals were interviewed through structured questionnaire based on ROME II criteria for constipation. Results revealed that the prevalence of self-reported constipation within the last 1 year was 24.8% whereas 16.8% of participants had constipation according to the Rome II criteria. Most of the subjects (83%) were within the age group of 18-59 years with mean age (years) of 38.64 ± 15.57. Constipation was significantly more frequent in females than in males (20% vs. 13%) and in nonworking population than in working population (20% vs. 12%). Poor dietary habits, lesser fluid intake per day, and lesser physical activity were found to be significant factors leading to the constipation. About 18% of constipated subjects reported physicians' consultation, whereas 8% reported the use of laxatives to relieve their constipation.
Introduction: Emergency department is one of the high-risk areas, where violence against health care workers (HCWs) is a prevalent and serious problem. Violence has negative effects on HCWs, and therefore on the quality of care provided in emergency department. This study aimed to determine the prevalence, types, ...
Aims: Determination of the prevalence and distribution of depression among health workers at tertiary level of health care delivery in Enugu South East Nigeria. Settings and Design: A cross‑sectional descriptive survey of depression in health workers at tertiary level. Subjects and Methods: By proportional quota sampling, ...
de Jonge, P; Huyse, FJ; Slaets, JPJ; Sollner, W; Stiefel, FC
Objective: Lack of operationalization of the biopsychosocial model hinders its effective application to the increasingly prevalent problems of comorbidities in clinical presentations. Here, we describe the INTERMED, an instrument to assess biopsychosocial case complexity in general health care, and
Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation of optimism with mental health and the affectivity of optimism training on mental health and its components on Yazd University students. Materials and Methods: Fifty new students of the 2008-2009 academic years were randomly selected. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28 and the optimism scale were completed by them. Thirty persons of these students, who had the highest psychological problems based on the general health questionnaire, were divided into two case and control groups through random assignment. The case group was trained for one month, in two 90-minute sessions per week. Pre-tests and follow-up tests were performed in both groups.Results: The results of Pearson correlation coefficients showed that optimism had a negative and significant relationship with mental health, anxiety, social function, and depression scores (p0.005. Multivariate analysis of covariance showed that optimism training had significant impact on mental health and its components in the case group, compared with the control group (p< 0.0001.Conclusion: In general, the findings of this research suggest the relationship between optimism and mental health and the effectiveness of optimism training on mental health. This method can be used to treat and prevent mental health problems.
Kruschinski, Carsten; Wiese, Birgitt; Dierks, Marie-Luise; Hummers-Pradier, Eva; Schneider, Nils; Junius-Walker, Ulrike
To investigate what a geriatric assessment in general practice adds towards previous findings of prevalence, location, impact and the dyadic doctor-patient perception of pain in this age group. Cross-sectional study. Consecutive patients aged 70 and over underwent a comprehensive geriatric assessment in general practice that included a basic pain assessment (severity, sites and impact). Patients with pain and their doctors then independently rated its importance. Pain was correlated with further findings from the assessment, such as overall health, physical impairments, everyday function, falls, mood, health related lifestyle, social circumstances, using bivariate and multivariate statistics. Patient-doctor agreement on the importance of pain was calculated using kappa statistics. 219 out of 297 patients (73.7 %) reported pain at any location. Pain was generally located at multiple sites. It was most often present at the knee (33.9%), the lumbar spine (33.5%) as well as the hip (13.8%) and correlated with specific impairments such as restrictions of daily living (knee) or sleep problems (spine). Patients with pain and their physicians poorly agreed on the importance of the pain problem. A basic pain assessment can identify older patients with pain in general practice. It has resulted in a high prevalence exceeding that determined by encounters in consultations. It has been shown that a geriatric assessment provides an opportunity to address pain in a way that is adapted to older patients' needs - addressing all sites, its specific impact on life, and the patients' perceived importance of pain. Since there is little doctor-patient agreement, this seems a valuable strategy to optimize concrete treatment decisions and patient centered care. This study is registered in the German Clinical Trial Register ( DRKS00000792 ).
Baker, Emma; Lester, Laurence H; Bentley, Rebecca; Beer, Andrew
Housing is a central component of productive, healthy, and meaningful lives, and a principle social determinant of health and well-being. Surprisingly, though, evidence on the ways that housing influences health in Australia is poorly developed. This stems largely from the fact that the majority of the population are accommodated in good quality housing. The dominance of a "good housing paradigm" means that households living in poor quality and unhealthy housing are doubly disadvantaged-by the quality of their housing and because policy makers in Australia do not acknowledge the health effects of housing. In this article, we examine the relationship between health outcomes and quality of housing. We base our analysis on data from the Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey, a panel dataset that is representative across Australia. We find a sizeable, policy-important, and to date under-acknowledged cohort of Australians whose health is influenced by poor-condition dwellings.
Ranta, Klaus; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Rantanen, Päivi; Marttunen, Mauri
Few studies have investigated the epidemiology of social phobia (SP) among early to middle adolescents, at the time of suggested mean onset of the disorder. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence, comorbidity, individual and familial correlates, and service use associated with SP among Finnish 12-17-year-old adolescents in general population. A sample of 784 adolescents was screened with the Social Phobia Inventory, and a sub-sample (n=350) was interviewed with a semi-structured clinical interview to identify SP, sub-clinical SP (SSP), and a range of other axis I DSM-IV disorders. Individual and familial correlates, and service use associated with SP were also inquired. We found a 12-month prevalence of 3.2% for SP, and 4.6% for SSP. The prevalence rose and the gender ratio shifted to female preponderance as age increased. SP was frequently comorbid with other anxiety disorders (41%) and depressive disorders (41%). Adolescents with SP/SSP were impaired in their academic and global functioning, and reported more parental psychiatric treatment contacts. Two thirds (68%) of adolescents with SP reported having been bullied by peers. Only one fifth of adolescents with non-comorbid SP had been in contact with a mental health professional. We conclude that adolescent SP is a relatively frequent, undertreated and highly comorbid condition, associated with educational impairment, depression and anxiety in parents, and peer victimization. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Full Text Available Background: Health literacy is an increasingly important public health concern. However, little is known about the health literacy of general public in China. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of low health literacy and demographic associations in Shanghai, China. Methods: This study was a community-based cross-sectional health survey utilizing a multi-stage random sampling design. The sample consisted of 1360 individuals aged 15–69 years with the total community-dwelling Chinese as the sample frame. Health literacy was measured by a questionnaire developed on the basis of a national health literacy manual released by the Chinese Ministry of Health. Multiple logistic regression models were used to identify whether common socio-demographic features were associated with health literacy level. Results: The prevalence of low health literacy was 84.49% (95% CI, 82.56% to 86.41%. The prevalence of low health literacy was negatively associated with the level of education, occupation, and annual household income, but was not associated with gender, age, or the presence of non-communicable chronic disease. Conclusions: Simplifying health services, enhancing health education, and promoting interventions to improve health literacy in high-risk populations should be considered as part of the strategies in the making of health policy in China.
BACKGROUND: Health care workers (HCWs) are prone to occupational accidents and injuries such as needle pricks in the course of their day to day activities in the health care setting. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of needle sticks and other occupational exposures among HCWs in a Nigerian tertiary hospital.
Holm, Astrid Ledgaard; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Robinson, Kirstine Magtengaard
Tobacco smoking is among the leading risk factors for chronic disease and early death in developed countries, including Denmark, where smoking causes 14% of the disease burden. In Denmark, many public health interventions, including smoking prevention, are undertaken by the municipalities......, but models to estimate potential health effects of local interventions are lacking. The aim of the current study was to model the effects of decreased smoking prevalence in Copenhagen, Denmark. Methods: The DYNAMO-HIA model was applied to the population of Copenhagen, by using health survey data and data......, and cessation and re-initiation rates among adults, which reduced the smoking prevalence to 4% by 2025, would have large beneficial effects on incidence and prevalence of smoking-related diseases and mortality. Health benefits could also be obtained through interventions targeting only cessation or re...
de Ridder, Denise; Kroese, Floor; Evers, Catharine; Adriaanse, Marieke; Gillebaart, Marleen
To discuss healthy diet from a psychological perspective by considering definitions of healthy diet in terms of consumer understanding; the health effects of specific dietary elements in terms of overweight and (chronic) illness; the prevalence of healthy diet; the psychological and environmental determinants of healthy diet; and the psychological interventions that have been designed to promote healthy diet. A systematic review of the psychological literature on healthy diet. Our findings suggest that consumers have a relatively poor understanding of a healthy diet. The literature also demonstrates that there is poor evidence on the health protective effects of single foods or nutrients. We further show that low SES is the single consistent risk factor for not adhering to a healthy diet. Our review of the literature on determinants demonstrates that intentions, habits, self-regulatory skills, and the social and physical environment are the most important determinants of a healthy diet, which are in turn amenable to change by intervention strategies with varying levels of effectiveness. Educational interventions generally show a limited effect on practising a healthy diet whereas interventions targeting habitual behaviour and/or the physical environment seem more promising. In view of the large number of people who are concerned about their diets and make attempts to change their dietary patterns, we conclude that it is crucial to gain a better understanding of both the automatic and environmental influences that are responsible for people not acting upon their good intentions for diet change.
Guo, Cheng; Tomson, Göran; Keller, Christina; Söderqvist, Fredrik
Studies investigating the prevalence of positive mental health and its correlates are still scarce compared to the studies on mental disorders, although there is growing interest of assessing positive mental health in adolescents. So far, no other study examining the prevalence and determinants of positive mental health in Chinese adolescents has been found. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and correlates of positive mental health in Chinese adolescents. This cross-sectional study used a questionnaire including Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF) and items regarding multiple aspects of adolescent life. The sample involved a total of 5399 students from grade 8 and 10 in Weifang, China. Multivariate Logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the associations between potential indicators regarding socio-economic situations, life style, social support and school life and positive mental health and calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. More than half (57.4%) of the participants were diagnosed as flourishing. The correlated factors of positive mental health in regression models included gender, perceived family economy, the occurrence of sibling(s), satisfaction of self-appearance, physical activity, sleep quality, stress, social trust, desire to learn, support from teachers and parents as well as whether being bullied at school (OR ranging from 1.23 to 2.75). The Hosmer-Lemeshow p-value for the final regression model (0.45) indicated adequate model fit. This study gives the first overview on prevalence and correlates of positive mental health in Chinese adolescents. The prevalence of positive mental health in Chinese adolescents is higher than reported in most of the previous studies also using MHC-SF. Our findings suggest that adolescents with advantageous socio-economic situations, life style, social support and school life are experiencing better positive mental health than others.
Houwing, Sjoerd; Hagenzieker, Marjan; Mathijssen, René
by means of roadside surveys and the prevalence of drugs in injury accidents was estimated by means of hospital surveys of seriously injured and/or killed drivers. Accident risk estimates for drug driving were assessed by relating the prevalence of drugs among the general driving population...... to the prevalence among seriously injured and/or killed drivers, by relating medication records to accident data and by relating substance use among accidentinvolved drivers to accident culpability....
Cheng, Hua-Ming, E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Medical Imaging, Chi-Mei Medical Center, No. 901, Chung Hwa Road, Yong-Kang, Tainan 710, Taiwan (China); Chang, Pau-Yang, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Medical Imaging, Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital, No. 707, Section 3, Chung Yang Road, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Chiang, Kuo-Hsien, E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Medical Imaging, Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital, No. 707, Section 3, Chung Yang Road, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Huang, Hsin-Wen, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Mennonite Christian Hospital, 44 Min-chuan Road, Hualien 970, Taiwan (China); Lee, Chau-Chin, E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Medical Imaging, Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital, No. 707, Section 3, Chung Yang Road, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China)
Background: To evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of paratracheal air cysts and their association with emphysema and gender in a general population using low-dose computed tomography scanning of the chest. Materials and methods: We retrospectively enrolled a total of 924 patients (584 women, 340 men; mean age, 59.73 years; range, 37–89 years) who had received low-dose computed tomography scanning for health examination during the period January 1, 2010 to June 30, 2010. Computed tomographic images were evaluated for the presence of paratracheal air cysts. If paratracheal air cysts were identified, the lungs were reconstructed as a three-dimensional model on a commercial workstation. An emphysema index, an objective quantification of the extent of emphysematous changes on CT imaging, was defined as the percentage area of lung with attenuation values below −950 Hounsfield units. Results: A total of 60 patients with paratracheal air cysts were included in this study (estimated prevalence, 6.5%; 12 men, 48 women; mean age, 59.85; range 45–89 years). Emphysema index differed significantly between genders (P < 0.0001). The prevalence of paratracheal air cysts in men was significantly lower than that in women (P = 0.005); however, the emphysema index in patients of both genders showed no evidence of emphysema. The majority (95%) of paratracheal air cysts were at the level of the seventh cervical to the second thoracic vertebrae. Conclusion: The presence of paratracheal air cysts is a common condition in general populations and should not be misdiagnosed as abnormal paratracheal free air. Paratracheal air cysts are more common in woman than in man. In our study, there is no patient with paratracheal air cysts has CT evidence of emphysema.
Cheng, Hua-Ming; Chang, Pau-Yang; Chiang, Kuo-Hsien; Huang, Hsin-Wen; Lee, Chau-Chin
Background: To evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of paratracheal air cysts and their association with emphysema and gender in a general population using low-dose computed tomography scanning of the chest. Materials and methods: We retrospectively enrolled a total of 924 patients (584 women, 340 men; mean age, 59.73 years; range, 37–89 years) who had received low-dose computed tomography scanning for health examination during the period January 1, 2010 to June 30, 2010. Computed tomographic images were evaluated for the presence of paratracheal air cysts. If paratracheal air cysts were identified, the lungs were reconstructed as a three-dimensional model on a commercial workstation. An emphysema index, an objective quantification of the extent of emphysematous changes on CT imaging, was defined as the percentage area of lung with attenuation values below −950 Hounsfield units. Results: A total of 60 patients with paratracheal air cysts were included in this study (estimated prevalence, 6.5%; 12 men, 48 women; mean age, 59.85; range 45–89 years). Emphysema index differed significantly between genders (P < 0.0001). The prevalence of paratracheal air cysts in men was significantly lower than that in women (P = 0.005); however, the emphysema index in patients of both genders showed no evidence of emphysema. The majority (95%) of paratracheal air cysts were at the level of the seventh cervical to the second thoracic vertebrae. Conclusion: The presence of paratracheal air cysts is a common condition in general populations and should not be misdiagnosed as abnormal paratracheal free air. Paratracheal air cysts are more common in woman than in man. In our study, there is no patient with paratracheal air cysts has CT evidence of emphysema
Pessinaba, S; Mbaye, A; Yabéta, G A D; Harouna, H; Sib, A E; Kane, A D; Bodian, M; Ndiaye, M B; Mbaye-Ndour, M; Niang, K; Diagne-Sow, D; Diack, B; Kane, M; Diao, M; Mathieu, J-B S; Kane, A
Cardiovascular diseases are becoming with their risk factors a real health problem in Africa. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in the general population in Saint-Louis, Senegal. This is a cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical made in May 2010, in the Senegalese aged 15, residing in the city of Saint-Louis, Senegal. A systematic random sampling and stratified cluster has been achieved. Cardiovascular risk factors for research were: hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, smoking, obesity, physical inactivity and metabolic syndrome. The survey involved 1424 individuals with 983 women (69%). The average age was 43.4±17.8years. The prevalence of risk factors was: hypertension (46%), diabetes (10.4%), total cholesterol (36.3%), hyperLDLcholesterol (20.6%), obesity (body mass index≥30kg/m(2)) (23%), abdominal obesity (48.7% according to International Diabetes Federation and 33.2% according to National Cholesterol Education Program) physical inactivity (64.7%), smoking (5.8%) and metabolic syndrome (15.7%). There was predominance in women of risk factors except for smoking and diabetes. The overall cardiovascular risk was high in 24.9% according to the Framingham model, 28.8% (European Society of Hypertension) and 6.1% (SCORE). This survey found a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in a general population in Senegal, predominant in women. This should lead to better develop a strategy to prevent cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Martínez-Pérez, Borja; de la Torre-Díez, Isabel; López-Coronado, Miguel
New possibilities for mHealth have arisen by means of the latest advances in mobile communications and technologies. With more than 1 billion smartphones and 100 million tablets around the world, these devices can be a valuable tool in health care management. Every aid for health care is welcome and necessary as shown by the more than 50 million estimated deaths caused by illnesses or health conditions in 2008. Some of these conditions have additional importance depending on their prevalence. To study the existing applications for mobile devices exclusively dedicated to the eight most prevalent health conditions by the latest update (2004) of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) of the World Health Organization (WHO): iron-deficiency anemia, hearing loss, migraine, low vision, asthma, diabetes mellitus, osteoarthritis (OA), and unipolar depressive disorders. Two reviews have been carried out. The first one is a review of mobile applications in published articles retrieved from the following systems: IEEE Xplore, Scopus, ScienceDirect, Web of Knowledge, and PubMed. The second review is carried out by searching the most important commercial app stores: Google play, iTunes, BlackBerry World, Windows Phone Apps+Games, and Nokia's Ovi store. Finally, two applications for each condition, one for each review, were selected for an in-depth analysis. Search queries up to April 2013 located 247 papers and more than 3673 apps related to the most prevalent conditions. The conditions in descending order by the number of applications found in literature are diabetes, asthma, depression, hearing loss, low vision, OA, anemia, and migraine. However when ordered by the number of commercial apps found, the list is diabetes, depression, migraine, asthma, low vision, hearing loss, OA, and anemia. Excluding OA from the former list, the four most prevalent conditions have fewer apps and research than the final four. Several results are extracted from the in-depth analysis: most of the apps
Eller, James D.
The general problem is Native American tribes have high prevalence rates of diabetes. The specific problem is the failure of IHS sites to adopt EHR may cause health care providers to miss critical opportunities to improve screening and triage processes that result in quality improvement. The purpose of the quantitative correlational study was to…
Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Linneberg, Allan; Menné, Torkil
1966 and 2007. The most prevalent contact allergens were nickel, thimerosal, and fragrance mix. The median nickel allergy prevalence was 8.6% (range 0.7-27.8%) and demonstrates that nickel was an important cause of contact allergy in the general population and that it was widespread in both men...
Slieker- ten Hove, Marijke; Pool-Goudzwaard, A.L.; Eijkemans, MJ; Steegers-Theunissen, R. P M; Burger, CW; Vierhout, ME
BACKGROUND: Urinary incontinence (UI) and anal incontinence (AI) are complaints with impact on quality of life (QOL). Few data are available on prevalence of double incontinence (DI) in the general female population. OBJECTIVE: To determine prevalence of UI, AI, and DI, their associations with age,
Slavenburg, S.; Verduyn-Lunel, F.M.; Hermsen, J.T.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Morsche, R.H.M. te; Drenth, J.P.H.
BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) is transmitted by blood-blood contact and this leads to high HCV prevalence in risk populations such as haemophilia patients and intravenous drug users. The prevalence in the general Dutch population is unknown, although it appears to be very low in
Point prevalence surveys (PPS) are increasingly used to examining and compare hospital antibiotic consumption. The aim of this study was to identify the (1) point prevalence of antibiotic use in one regional hospital and (2) compare PPS data from similar regional\\/general hospitals.
Dayoub, Elias; Jena, Anupam B
Although health care professionals may be assumed to make healthier lifestyle choices and have better health outcomes than others because of their greater health literacy, little is known about how actual health outcomes of health care professionals compare with those of the overall population. We analyzed how trends in obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and coronary artery disease prevalence as well as several health behaviors (smoking, alcohol use, and exercise) varied between health care professionals and the general US population from 2002 to 2013, using nationally representative data collected by the National Health Interview Survey. We estimated multivariate logistic regressions of each disease and behavior adjusted for age, race, sex, geographic region, and year. Although rates of obesity, diabetes, and hypertension were lower among health care professionals compared with the overall population, disease was still common among health care professionals and increased over time at a rate similar to that of the overall population. For example, obesity prevalence was lower among health care professionals but increased similarly from 2002 to 2013 (health care professionals, 20.5% in 2002 to 22.1% in 2013; other occupations, 28.4% to 31.7%; P=.64 for difference in trend). Diabetes prevalence was modestly lower among health care professionals but increased at a similar rate (health care professionals, 7.4% in 2005 to 8.6% in 2013; other occupations, 8.7% to 9.9%; P=.67 for difference in trend). Similar patterns were noted in hypertension. Coronary artery disease prevalence declined over time among health care professionals but increased for others. Health care professionals reported better health behaviors than others in smoking and physical activity but not in moderate to heavy alcohol use. Copyright © 2015 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Objective. Several studies have reported a negative relationship between smoking and military performance. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of cigarette smoking and knowledge of its health implications among Nigerian Army personnel. Methods. A descriptive cross-sectional survey of 853 soldiers ...
de Ridder, Denise; Kroese, Floor; Evers, Catharine; Adriaanse, Marieke; Gillebaart, Marleen
Objective: To discuss healthy diet from a psychological perspective by considering definitions of healthy diet in terms of consumer understanding; the health effects of specific dietary elements in terms of overweight and (chronic) illness; the prevalence of healthy diet; the psychological and
Objective. Several studies have reported a negative relationship between smoking and military performance. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of cigarette smoking and knowledge of its health implications among Nigerian Army personnel. Materials and Methods. A descriptive cross-sectional survey of ...
Maternal anaemia is a risk factor for infant iron deficiency anaemia and, if left uncorrected, can be associated with adverse behavioural and cognitive development in children. The prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy is estimated at between 35% and 75% in sub-Saharan Africa. However, the area-specific health problems ...
Veterinary practice and occupational health. An epidemiological study of several professional groups of Dutch veterinarians. I. General physical examination and prevalence of allergy, lung function disorders, and bronchial hyperreactivity.
Elbers, A R; Blaauw, P J; de Vries, M; van Gulick, P J; Smithuis, O L; Gerrits, R P; Tielen, M J
The prevalence of allergy, lung function disorders, and bronchial hyperreactivity was studied in 102 Dutch veterinarians, subdivided into five professional groups (predominantly working with either swine, cattle, poultry, companion animals, or as a non-practitioner). The mean age of the participants was 43 years; 6 participants were females. Twenty-two per cent of the participants were overweight, and relatively more non-practitioners than practitioners were overweight. Approximately 23% of the vets reported complaints of prolonged fatigue. The data suggest a relationship between complaints of prolonged fatigue and a more than average number of daily working hours. Only a small proportion of vets were sensitized against several allergens. There were no significant differences in prevalence of distinct lung function disorders or bronchial hyperreactivity between professional groups. It is hypothesized that the respiratory complaints (chronic coughing, chronic phlegm production, stuffed nose, sneezing) reported by the vets predominantly working in swine and/or poultry practice could be caused by irritation and/or inflammation of the first part of the trachea-bronchial tree that has no measurable and permanent consequences for changes in lung function or increased bronchial hyperreactivity. The results of a skin test against allergens and determination of allergen-specific IgE in blood indicated that the respiratory complaints were probably not related to allergy against the panel of allergens tested.
Zhang, Ying-Xiu; Wang, Zhao-Xia; Zhao, Jin-Shan; Chu, Zun-Hua
Childhood obesity has increased dramatically during the past decades, both in developing and developed countries. The present study examined the prevalence and regional disparities in general and central obesity among children and adolescents in Shandong, China. A total of 30,459 students (15,249 boys and 15,210 girls) aged 7-18years participated in the study. Height, weight and waist circumference (WC) of all subjects were measured, body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) were calculated. The BMI cutoff points recommended by the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) were used to define general obesity. Central obesity was defined as WHtR≥0.5. Both BMI and WHtR were used to define three types of obesity as follows: general obesity only, central obesity only and combined obesity. The overall prevalences of general obesity only, central obesity only and combined obesity were 10.99, 8.47 and 8.70% for boys and 9.47, 5.12 and 3.19% for girls, respectively. The sum of the prevalence of the three types of obesity was 28.16% for boys and 17.78% for girls, boys had higher prevalence of obesity than girls (Pobesity, children and adolescents from urban, coastal and high socioeconomic status (SES) districts showed a higher prevalence of obesity than their counterparts from rural, inland and low SES districts (Pobesity in children and adolescents has become an important public health concern. Results from this study also suggested that the additional measurement of WC (WHtR) is better than BMI alone to identify obese individuals, distinguishing the types of obesity and examining the prevalence of various types of obesity is useful in practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cunha-Cruz, Joana; Wataha, John C; Heaton, Lisa J; Rothen, Marilynn; Sobieraj, Martin; Scott, JoAnna; Berg, Joel
The prevalence of dentin hypersensitivity is uncertain, yet appropriate diagnosis and treatment of dentin hypersensitivity require accurate knowledge regarding its prevalence. The authors conducted a study to estimate the prevalence of dentin hypersensitivity in general dental practices and to investigate associated risk factors. The authors conducted a cross-sectional survey of 787 adult patients from 37 general dental practices within Northwest Practice-based Research Collaborative in Evidence-based DENTistry (PRECEDENT). Dentin hypersensitivity was diagnosed by means of participants' responses to a question regarding pain in their teeth and gingivae, and practitioner-investigators conducted a clinical examination to rule out alternative causes of pain. Participants recorded their pain level on a visual analog scale and the Seattle Scales in response to a one-second air blast. The authors used generalized estimating equation log-linear models to estimate the prevalence and the prevalence ratios. The prevalence of dentin hypersensitivity was 12.3 percent; patients with hypersensitivity had, on average, 3.5 hypersensitive teeth. The prevalence of dentin hypersensitivity was higher among 18- to 44-year olds than among participants 65 years or older; it also was higher in women than in men, in participants with gingival recession than in those without gingival recession and in participants who underwent at-home tooth whitening than in those who did not. Hypersensitivity was not associated with obvious occlusal trauma, noncarious cervical lesions or aggressive toothbrushing habits. One in eight participants from general practices had dentin hypersensitivity, which was a chronic condition causing intermittent, low-level pain. Patients with hypersensitivity were more likely to be younger, to be female and to have a high prevalence of gingival recession and at-home tooth whitening. Given dentin hypersensitivity's prevalence, clinicians should diagnose it only after
López, M; Saavedra, F J; López, A; Laviana, M
To estimate the prevalence of different mental health problems in men serving prison sentences in Andalusia. Descriptive, cross-sectional study of a random sample of 472 men interned in two prisons located in Andalusia. We collected socio-demographic and general criminal and penitentiary data, and we identified mental health problems with two validated instruments for epidemiological research in mental health: the SCID-I interview to diagnose Axis 1 disorders of the DSM-IV and the self-applied questionnaire IPDE to estimate personality disorders. We analyzed the data (proportions and confidence intervals) with the SPSS-18 statistical package. 82.6% of the sample had a history of having suffered some type of mental health problem throughout their life (prevalence-life) and 25.8 have suffered from them in the past month (month prevalence). The most common disorders of the Axis I (DSM-IV) are related to abuse of and dependence on psychoactive substances (prevalence life of 65.9% and month prevalence of 6.6%), with an important but less frequent presence of affective (31.4%-9.3%), anxiety (30.9%-10, 4%) and psychotic disorders (9.5%-3, 4%). As regards personality disorders, the estimated probable prevalence lies between the 56.6% ("5" cutoff point) and the 79.9 ("4" cut-off point). The male inmate population in prisons in Andalucía shows a high prevalence of mental health problems, similar to that found in other Spanish and international prisons, but their care needs should take into account the different pathologies that they present.
Full Text Available Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of different mental health problems in men serving prison sentences in Andalusia. Methods: Descriptive, cross-sectional study of a random sample of 472 men interned in two prisons located in Andalusia. We collected socio-demographic and general criminal and penitentiary data, and we identified mental health problems with two validated instruments for epidemiological research in mental health: the SCID-I interview to diagnose Axis 1 disorders of the DSM-IV and the self-applied questionnaire IPDE to estimate personality disorders. We analyzed the data (proportions and confidence intervals with the SPSS-18 statistical package. Results: 82.6% of the sample had a history of having suffered some type of mental health problem throughout their life (prevalence-life and 25.8 have suffered from them in the past month (month prevalence. The most common disorders of the Axis I (DSM-IV are related to abuse of and dependence on psychoactive substances (prevalence life of 65.9% and month prevalence of 6.6%, with an important but less frequent presence of affective (31.4%-9.3%, anxiety (30.9%-10, 4% and psychotic disorders (9.5%-3, 4%. As regards personality disorders, the estimated probable prevalence lies between the 56.6% ("5" cutoff point and the 79.9 ("4" cut-off point. Conclusions: The male inmate population in prisons in Andalucía shows a high prevalence of mental health problems, similar to that found in other Spanish and international prisons, but their care needs should take into account the different pathologies that they present.
Rotily, Michel; Roze, Stéphane
As national budgets for health care will remain under stress for the foreseeable future, health technology assessment (HTA) aimed at offering guidance to policy-making will have an increasing role to play in optimizing resources. The emergence of new treatment paradigms and health technologies, and the prevalence studies which determine when a disease is a current or future burden for patients and the community are in the roots of the HTA process. Analysing studies on screening test strategies and health care policy, this paper revisits two key concepts in epidemiology, prevalence and incidence, in order to show their major impact upon HTA. Utilization of the predictive values of screening tests that include prevalence in their calculations, and analysing all options for screening strategies are necessary in HTA. Cost-effectiveness analyses and statistical models should include potential externalities, especially the impact of prevention and treatment on infectious disease prevalence. Beyond estimates of cost-effectiveness ratios, decision makers also need to know by how much their annual health care budget is likely to increase or decrease in the years following the emergence of new technologies: hence the importance of incidence- or prevalence-based economic evaluations. As new paradigms are occurring, especially in the field of oncology, with treatments targeted to 'small' groups of patients identified through genetic testing, prevalence data are strongly needed. Precise estimates of disease prevalence, in general populations as well as in risk or targeted groups, will therefore be necessary to improve HTA process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Houwing, Sjoerd; Hagenzieker, Marjan; Mathijssen, René
DRUID (Driving under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol and Medicines) aimed to combat the problem of driving under the influence of psychoactive substances by providing a solid scientific base for European policy makers. It brought together experienced organisations in Europe to assemble...... of offenders and withdrawal of driving licenses (www.druid-project.eu). The main objective of WP2 of DRUID was to assess the situation in Europe regarding the prevalence and risk of the use of illicit drugs, alcohol and psychoactive medicinal drugs by drivers. The main aim of this study was to obtain more...
Bertelsen, Mette; Jensen, Hanne; Larsen, Michael
Abstract Purpose: The aim of the present population-based cross-sectional study was to examine the prevalence and diagnostic spectrum of generalized retinal dystrophy in Danish children. Methods: The Danish Registry for the Blind and Partially Sighted Children comprises all visually impaired......: Of the 1,204,235 Danish children aged 0-17 years on 1 October 2011, 2017 children were registered as visually impaired. Of these, 153 cases were attributed to generalized retinal dystrophy, corresponding to a prevalence of 13 per 100,000 children. The age-specific prevalence increased prominently...... children residing in Denmark aged 0-17 years. Among registered children, the primary diagnosis of generalized retinal dystrophy was assessed by chart review, including fundus photographs and electroretinograms. Age-specific data for live children in Denmark were retrieved from Statistics Denmark. Results...
Yong Hwan Kim
Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetS is a highly prevalent condition that cannot be cured but can be controlled by health management. Health management not only includes regulation of drinking, smoking, and physical activity but also health medical examinations. However, health medical examinations at private medical facilities involve high cost, limiting continuous and regular examination. The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence of MetS and health management behavior according to the number of health medical examinations conducted in 14 years. According to the number of health medical examinations undertaken each year from 1999 to 2012, in 2012, 21,803 visitors (14,511 men and 7,292 women from a health medical examination center at a private medical facility were assigned to low- (3–5 health examinations in 14 years, middle- (6–10 health examinations in 14 years, and high-frequency groups (11–14 health examinations during 14 years. MetS was evaluated according to the criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program and Adult Treatment Panel III and waist circumference was measured according to the standard for Asians by the World Health Organization. Odds ratio (OR was calculated by logistic regression analysis. Blood pressure tended to decrease to 124.5 vs. 123.9 vs. 123.5 in the low-, middle-, and high-frequency groups in men, respectively. In addition, middle- and high-frequency groups demonstrated better total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and systolic blood pressure compared with the low-frequency group. The prevalence of MetS demonstrated no significance before adjusting for variables in men, and high-frequency examinees demonstrated 18% low OR values (0.823, p<0.001 after adjusting for age. OR was 0.868 (p=0.015 when adjusted for age, other socioeconomic factors, and health behavior. In women, the prevalence of MetS demonstrated significantly high OR of 1.205 (p=0.007 and 1.300 (p=0.008 in
Full Text Available This is the first meta-analysis of the pooled prevalence of insomnia in the general population of China. A systematic literature search was conducted via the following databases: PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE and Chinese databases (China National Knowledge Interne (CNKI, WanFang Data and SinoMed. Statistical analyses were performed using the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis program. A total of 17 studies with 115,988 participants met the inclusion criteria for the analysis. The pooled prevalence of insomnia in China was 15.0% (95% Confidence interval [CI]: 12.1%-18.5%. No significant difference was found in the prevalence between genders or across time period. The pooled prevalence of insomnia in population with a mean age of 43.7 years and older (11.6%; 95% CI: 7.5%-17.6% was significantly lower than in those with a mean age younger than 43.7 years (20.4%; 95% CI: 14.2%-28.2%. The prevalence of insomnia was significantly affected by the type of assessment tools (Q = 14.1, P = 0.001. The general population prevalence of insomnia in China is lower than those reported in Western countries but similar to those in Asian countries. Younger Chinese adults appear to suffer from more insomnia than older adults.CRD 42016043620.
Beck, D; Schnabel, P-E
The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of health promotion in German enterprises, differentiated by size, sector, and the companies' business situations. Representative data were analysed from the survey of working conditions in Germany (n=20,000) that was conducted by the Federal Institute for Vocational Education and Training (BIBB) and the Federal Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (BAuA). Thirty-eight percent of interviewed employees confirmed that health promotion activities had been carried out in their company during the last two years. The prevalence varied significantly, depending on the company's size, sector, and business situation. In cases of implementation, a higher percentage of employees participated in micro and small companies than in medium-sized or large companies. With respect to the implementation of health promotion, more advice and support are needed, particularly in micro and small enterprises. There is still a need for health promotion activities which meet the special needs of micro and small enterprises. Furthermore there is still a need to invest in an infrastructure which allows their adequate supply. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart, New York.
Andrews, P; Steultjens, M; Riskowski, J
Chronic widespread pain (CWP) is a significant burden in communities. Understanding the impact of population-dependent (e.g., age, gender) and contextual-dependent (e.g. survey method, region, inequality level) factors have on CWP prevalence may provide a foundation for population-based strategies to address CWP. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to estimate the global prevalence of CWP and evaluate the population and contextual factors associated with CWP. A systematic review of CWP prevalence studies (1990-2017) in the general population was undertaken. Meta-analyses were conducted to determine CWP prevalence, and study population data and contextual factors were evaluated using a meta-regression. Thirty-nine manuscripts met the inclusion criteria. Study CWP prevalence ranged from 1.4% to 24.0%, with CWP prevalence in men ranging from 0.8% to 15.3% and 1.7% to 22.1% in women. Estimated overall CWP prevalence was 9.6% (8.0-11.2%). Meta-regression analyses showed gender, United Nations country development status, and human development index (HDI) influenced CWP prevalence, while survey method, region, methodological and reporting quality, and inequality showed no significant effect on the CWP estimate. Globally CWP affects one in ten individuals within the general population, with women more likely to experience CWP than men. HDI was noted to be the socioeconomic factor related to CWP prevalence, with those in more developed countries having a lower CWP prevalence than those in less developed countries. Most CWP estimates were from developed countries, and CWP estimates from countries with a lower socioeconomic position is needed to further refine the global estimate of CWP. This systematic review and meta-analysis updates the current global CWP prevalence by examining the population-level (e.g. age, gender) and contextual (e.g. country development status; survey style; reporting and methodologic quality) factors associated with CWP prevalence. This analyses
Prevalence of work-related health problems among providers of car battery ... the use of personal protective devices and safety measures should be promoted. Keywords: Prevalence, work-related, battery chargers, occupational health, Nigeria ...
Andersen, Berit; Sokolowski, Ineta; Østergaard, Lars
BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma genitalium has been shown to cause urethritis in men and cervicitis in women and may also be a causative agent in female infertility. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of urogenital M genitalium infection and identify sexual behavioural risk factors in the general...
Diepgen, Thomas L.; Naldi, Luigi; Bruze, Magnus; Cazzaniga, Simone; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise; Elsner, Peter; Goncalo, Margarida; Ofenloch, Robert; Svensson, Ake
Population-based studies on contact allergy to p-phenylenediamine (PPD) are scarce. A cross-sectional study was performed to assess the prevalence of contact allergy to PPD and its risk factors in the general population of 5 European countries. A total of 10,425 subjects were interviewed, and a
Rhodus, N L
Previous studies have documented the occurrence and potential clinical significance of MSMR cysts. Studies also have alluded to a relationship between the MSMR cyst and certain signs or symptoms of disease. We determined the prevalence of MSMR cysts in a general clinic population and identified some important correlations with clinical signs and symptoms.
Olde Nordkamp, Louise R. A.; van Dijk, Nynke; Ganzeboom, Karin S.; Reitsma, Johannes B.; Luitse, Jan S. K.; Dekker, Lukas R. C.; Shen, Win-Kuang; Wieling, Wouter
Objective: We assessed the prevalence and distribution of the different causes of transient loss of consciousness (TLOC) in the emergency department (ED) and chest pain unit (CPU) and estimated the proportion of persons with syncope in the general population who seek medical attention from either
Gianfranco DOMENIGHETTI; Barbara D'AVANZO; Brigitte BISIG
Objectives. To investigate at national level the association between health and the social distress in which the whole employed population is plunged as a consequence of job insecurity. Design. Cross-sectional study. Setting. Switzerland. Subjects. Individuals working full or part time as employees drawn from a random sample (N=2024) of the Swiss general population interviewed by phone. Main outcome measures. Prevalence rates of ten self reported health and health related behaviour indicators...
Rtveladze, Ketevan; Marsh, Tim; Barquera, Simon; Sanchez Romero, Luz Maria; Levy, David; Melendez, Guillermo; Webber, Laura; Kilpi, Fanny; McPherson, Klim; Brown, Martin
Along with other countries having high and low-to-middle income, Mexico has experienced a substantial change in obesity rates. This rapid growth in obesity prevalence has led to high rates of obesity-related diseases and associated health-care costs. Micro-simulation is used to project future BMI trends. Additionally thirteen BMI-related diseases and health-care costs are estimated. The results are simulated for three hypothetical scenarios: no BMI reduction and BMI reductions of 1 % and 5 % across the population. Mexican Health and Nutrition Surveys 1999 and 2000, and Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006. Mexican adults. In 2010, 32 % of men and 26 % of women were normal weight. By 2050, the proportion of normal weight will decrease to 12 % and 9 % for males and females respectively, and more people will be obese than overweight. It is projected that by 2050 there will be 12 million cumulative incidence cases of diabetes and 8 million cumulative incidence cases of heart disease alone. For the thirteen diseases considered, costs of $US 806 million are estimated for 2010, projected to increase to $US 1·2 billion and $US 1·7 billion in 2030 and 2050 respectively. A 1 % reduction in BMI prevalence could save $US 43 million in health-care costs in 2030 and $US 85 million in 2050. Obesity rates are leading to a large health and economic burden. The projected numbers are high and Mexico should implement strong action to tackle obesity. Results presented here will be very helpful in planning and implementing policy interventions.
Borst, Jorien M.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.; Sluiter, Judith K.
A high prevalence of mental health problems (i.e. depression and/or anxiety) has been found in medical students in comparison with the general population. Therefore, the objective was first to study the prevalence and 1-year incidence of symptoms of depression, anxiety and any mental health problems
Despite reductions in prevalence in recent years, tobacco smoking remains one of the main preventable causes of ill-health and premature death worldwide. This paper reviews the extent and nature of harms caused by smoking, the benefits of stopping, patterns of smoking, psychological, pharmacological and social factors that contribute to uptake and maintenance of smoking, the effectiveness of population and individual level interventions aimed at combatting tobacco smoking, and the effectiveness of methods used to reduce the harm caused by continued use of tobacco or nicotine in some form. Smoking behaviour is maintained primarily by the positive and negative reinforcing properties of nicotine delivered rapidly in a way that is affordable and palatable, with the negative health consequences mostly being sufficiently uncertain and distant in time not to create sufficient immediate concern to deter the behaviour. Raising immediate concerns about smoking by tax increases, social marketing and brief advice from health professionals can increase the rate at which smokers try to stop. Providing behavioural and pharmacological support can improve the rate at which those quit attempts succeed. Implementing national programmes containing these components are effective in reducing tobacco smoking prevalence and reducing smoking-related death and disease.
Jiménez-Ruiz, Carlos A; Riesco Miranda, Juan Antonio; Ramos Pinedo, Angela; de Higes Martinez, Eva; Marquez, Francisca Lourdes; Palomo Cobos, Luis; Solano Reina, Segismundo; de Granda Orive, Jose Ignacio; de Lucas Ramos, Pilar
The MPOWER strategy encourages suitable monitoring of the tobacco epidemic among health professionals in all countries. To analyse the prevalence of and attitudes towards tobacco use among Spanish health professionals. A study was conducted based on an online survey. The study population consisted of health professionals (primary care physicians, specialist physicians and nurses). The questionnaire used included questions about tobacco consumption, knowledge of and attitudes towards smoking. The sample size was calculated according to a database with 9,500 e-mail addresses and listings of health centres and hospitals all over Spain. Statistical analysis was done using the SPSS software programme. The study group comprised a total of 612 health professionals: 322 were women (52.6%), 196 were nurses and 416 were physicians. 11.7% of health professionals were smokers (9.6% regular smokers and 2.1% occasional smokers) and 41.3% were ex-smokers. Within the group of daily smokers, differences were observed between the nurses and the physicians: 11.2 versus 8.9% (p = 0.009). Smoking was recognized as a chronic disorder by 58.2% of health professionals, and 54.6% knew that the most effective intervention to help quit is a combination of psychological and pharmacological treatment. 56% of health professionals always asked their patients about their tobacco consumption. 11.7% of Spanish health professionals are smokers. We found that they have low knowledge about strategies to quit smoking and that there is a low level of therapeutic intervention on smokers. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Thyssen, Jacob P; Johansen, Jeanne D; Linneberg, Allan
Numerous studies have investigated the prevalence and risk factors of hand eczema in the general population. These studies are of high value as they tend to be less biased than studies using clinical populations and as they are important for healthcare decision makers when they allocate resources......-year prevalence nearly 10%, whereas the lifetime prevalence reached 15%. Based on seven studies, the median incidence rate of hand eczema was 5.5 cases/1000 person-years (women = 9.6 and men = 4.0). A high incidence rate was associated with female sex, contact allergy, atopic dermatitis, and wet work....... Atopic dermatitis was the single most important risk factor for hand eczema. Hand eczema resulted in medical consultations in 70%, sick leave (> 7 days) in about 20%, and job change in about 10%. Mean sick time was longer among those with allergic hand eczema than those with atopic and irritant hand...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the prevalence of latent tuberculosis infections (LTBI in health care workers (HCW in low-incidence countries especially in hospitals for pulmonary diseases. With Interferon-gamma release assays (IGRA, a new method for diagnosis of LTBI is available which is more specific than the tuberculin skin test (TST. Objectives The study was designed to estimate prevalence of LTBI among 270 HCW in a Hospital of Pulmonary Diseases routinely screened for TB. Methods LTBI was assessed by the QuantiFERON-Gold In Tube (QFT-IT. Information on gender, age, workplace, job title, BCG vaccination and history of both TB and TST were collected using a standardised questionnaire. Adjusted odds ratios for potential risk factors for LTBI were calculated. Results The prevalence of LTBI was 7.2%. In HCW younger than 30 years LTBI prevalence was 3.5% and in those older than 50 years 22%. Physicians and nurses showed a higher prevalence rate than other professions (10.8% to 4.5%. The putative risk factors for LTBI were age (>50 year OR 9.3, 95%CI 2.5–33.7, working as physicians/nurses (OR 3. 95%CI 1.2–10.4 and no previous TST in medical history (OR 4.4, 95%CI 1.01–18.9 when compared to those with a negative TST. Conclusion Prevalence of LTBI assessed by QFT-IT is low, this indicates a low infection risk even in hospitals for pulmonary diseases. No statement can be made regarding the occupational risk as compared to the general population because there are no LTBI prevalence data from Germany available. The higher LTBI prevalence rate in older HCWs might be due to the cohort effect or the longer time at risk.
Mallow, Peter J; Pandya, Bhavik; Horblyuk, Ruslan; Kaplan, Harold S
The primary objective of this study was to quantify the differences in the prevalence rate and costs of hospital medical errors between the general population and an elderly population aged ≥65 years. Methods from an actuarial study of medical errors were modified to identify medical errors in the Premier Hospital Database using data from 2009. Visits with more than four medical errors were removed from the population to avoid over-estimation of cost. Prevalence rates were calculated based on the total number of inpatient visits. There were 3,466,596 total inpatient visits in 2009. Of these, 1,230,836 (36%) occurred in people aged ≥ 65. The prevalence rate was 49 medical errors per 1000 inpatient visits in the general cohort and 79 medical errors per 1000 inpatient visits for the elderly cohort. The top 10 medical errors accounted for more than 80% of the total in the general cohort and the 65+ cohort. The most costly medical error for the general population was postoperative infection ($569,287,000). Pressure ulcers were most costly ($347,166,257) in the elderly population. This study was conducted with a hospital administrative database, and assumptions were necessary to identify medical errors in the database. Further, there was no method to identify errors of omission or misdiagnoses within the database. This study indicates that prevalence of hospital medical errors for the elderly is greater than the general population and the associated cost of medical errors in the elderly population is quite substantial. Hospitals which further focus their attention on medical errors in the elderly population may see a significant reduction in costs due to medical errors as a disproportionate percentage of medical errors occur in this age group.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to systematically review the medical literature for the prevalence of waterpipe tobacco use among the general and specific populations. Methods We electronically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the ISI the Web of Science. We selected studies using a two-stage duplicate and independent screening process. We included cohort studies and cross sectional studies assessing the prevalence of use of waterpipe in either the general population or a specific population of interest. Two reviewers used a standardized and pilot tested form to collect data from each eligible study using a duplicate and independent screening process. We stratified the data analysis by country and by age group. The study was not restricted to a specific context. Results Of a total of 38 studies, only 4 were national surveys; the rest assessed specific populations. The highest prevalence of current waterpipe smoking was among school students across countries: the United States, especially among Arab Americans (12%-15% the Arabic Gulf region (9%-16%, Estonia (21%, and Lebanon (25%. Similarly, the prevalence of current waterpipe smoking among university students was high in the Arabic Gulf region (6%, the United Kingdom (8%, the United States (10%, Syria (15%, Lebanon (28%, and Pakistan (33%. The prevalence of current waterpipe smoking among adults was the following: Pakistan (6%, Arabic Gulf region (4%-12%, Australia (11% in Arab speaking adults, Syria (9%-12%, and Lebanon (15%. Group waterpipe smoking was high in Lebanon (5%, and Egypt (11%-15%. In Lebanon, 5%-6% pregnant women reported smoking waterpipe during pregnancy. The studies were all cross-sectional and varied by how they reported waterpipe smoking. Conclusion While very few national surveys have been conducted, the prevalence of waterpipe smoking appears to be alarmingly high among school students and university students in Middle Eastern countries and among groups of
Tesfa Dejenie Habtewold
Full Text Available Background. The emotional consequences of diabetes have been scrutinized by a number of investigative teams and there are varying reports about the association of depression with type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, there is limited data about this in Ethiopia. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of comorbid depression among type 2 diabetic outpatients. Methods and Materials. Institution based cross-sectional study design was conducted on a random sample of 276 type 2 diabetic outpatients from Black Lion General Specialized Hospital. Systematic random sampling technique was used to get these individual patients from 920 type 2 diabetic outpatients who have an appointment during the data collection period. Patients’ depression status was measured using Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ 9. Result. Totally 264 type 2 diabetic outpatients were interviewed with a response rate of 95.6%. The prevalence of depression among type 2 diabetic outpatients was 13%. Based on PHQ 9 score, 28.4% (75 fulfilled the criteria for mild depression, 12.1% (32 for moderate depression, 2.7% (7 for moderately severe depression, and 1.5% (4 for severe depression. But 45.8% (121 of patients had no clinically significant depression. Conclusion. This study demonstrated that depression is a common comorbid health problem in type 2 diabetic outpatients with a prevalence rate of 13%.
Rospenda, Kathleen M.; Richman, Judith A.; Shannon, Candice A.
This study describes past-year prevalence and effects on mental health and drinking outcomes for harassment and discrimination in the workplace (HDW) in a nationally-representative random-digit dial phone survey conducted in 2003–2004 (n=2,151). HDW measures included experiences and perceptions of sexual harassment and generalized workplace harassment, and perceived harassment or discrimination due to race/ethnicity. Prevalence was examined by sex, race, age, occupation, marital status, and e...
Marks, G B; Nhung, N V; Nguyen, T A; Hoa, N B; Khoa, T H; Son, N V; Phuong, N T B; Tin, D M; Ho, J; Fox, G J
The study was conducted in a randomly selected sample of persons aged 15 years living in Ca Mau Province, southern Viet Nam. To estimate the prevalence of latent tuberculous infection (LTBI) in the general adult population of this province of Viet Nam. The secondary objective was to examine age and sex differences in prevalence. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a cluster-random sample of the population. Clusters were subcommunes. The presence of LTBI was assessed using the QuantiFERON®-TB Gold In-Tube test system. QuantiFERON tests were performed among 1319 persons aged 15 years (77.7% of those selected). The overall prevalence of positive tests was 36.8% (95%CI 33.4-40.3). The prevalence of a positive test was lower in females than in males (31.0% vs. 44.7%, OR 0.57, 95%CI 0.45-0.72, P Viet Nam have evidence of LTBI. Although LTBI prevalence is higher in males, the sex difference is not as great as that for TB notification rates.
Full Text Available Objectives. The objective of this study was to describe the socioeconomic situation of dental health work and work characteristics and to evaluate the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms among dental health workers. Material and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 124 dental health workers and 124 persons in the reference group, matched to dental health workers by gender, were recruited from the workers who worked at the same 17 community hospitals in Nakhon Si Thammarat province, Thailand. Information was collected by using questionnaire. Data analysis comprised descriptive and analytical components. Results and Discussion. 75.8% were female and 24.2% were male dental health workers. 91.9% of subjects had worked >5 years. Most subjects worked for >8 hours per day and worked >6 days per week, at 63.7% and 53.2%, respectively. 100% of subjects worked in public institutions, and 68% also worked in both public and private institutions. Most subjects (52.4% did not exercise. Daily activity, gender, duration of work, hours worked per day, days worked per week, and physical activity were significantly associated with musculoskeletal symptoms at <0.001. Conclusion. The prevention and reduction of MSDs among dentists should include improving their education in dental ergonomics.
Walker, Kate; Sleath, Emma; Tramontano, Carlo
The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and typologies of controlling behaviors within a general population sample. Participants ( N = 427) completed the Revised Controlling Behaviors Scale and the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale. Prevalence of perpetration and victimization of controlling behaviors was relatively high, although the frequency and severity of the behaviors was mainly low level. Five clusters were established based on the use of five types of controlling behaviors: economic, threatening, intimidating, emotional, and isolating. Significant differences were found between the perpetration clusters and (a) minor physical assault, (b) severe physical assault, (c) minor psychological aggression, and (d) severe psychological aggression. Furthermore, significant differences were found between the victimization clusters and (a) physical assault, (b) minor psychological aggression, and (c) severe psychological aggression. It is clear that controlling behaviors are a feature within general population relationships, and further research is required to understand when such behaviors become problematic, and what needs to be done to prevent this from happening.
Jiménez, Emilio L; Barrios, Rocío; Calvo, Juan C; de la Rosa, Maria T; Campillo, José S; Bayona, José C; Bravo, Manuel
The aims of this study were to analyze the association of oral breathing with dental malocclusions and aspects of general health such as acute illnesses, oxygen saturation in blood and its possible implication in the process of nutrition. A prevalence analytic study was carried out. Five dentists explored to children between 6 and 12 years and measured their oxygen saturation. Parents completed a questionnaire of 11 items about general health (colds, ear infections, tonsillitis and taking antibiotics) and the food preferences of their children. At the end, children were classified in oral breathing group (prevalence cases) or nasal breathing group (controls). There were statistical differences between cases (452 children) and controls (752 children) in the facial morphometric measurements. Oral breathing children had statistically less percentage of oxygen saturation than controls (92.3±3.3% versus 96.5±2.3%), took less time to have lunch and preferred less consistent and sugary food. Cases had had more prevalence of pathologies in the last year and of taking the antibiotics. This group also had higher prevalence of allergies compared with controls group (POral breathing is significantly associated with specific dental malocclusions and important aspects of general health such as oxygen saturation and the nutrition. On the same line, oral breathing is related to a significantly higher prevalence of allergies and a significantly more likely getting sick and taking medication.
Pedram, Pardis; Wadden, Danny; Amini, Peyvand; Gulliver, Wayne; Randell, Edward; Cahill, Farrell; Vasdev, Sudesh; Goodridge, Alan; Carter, Jacqueline C.; Zhai, Guangju; Ji, Yunqi; Sun, Guang
Background ?Food addiction? shares a similar neurobiological and behavioral framework with substance addiction. However whether, and to what degree, ?food addiction? contributes to obesity in the general population is unknown. Objectives to assess 1) the prevalence of ?food addiction? in the Newfoundland population; 2) if clinical symptom counts of ?food addiction? were significantly correlated with the body composition measurements; 3) if food addicts were significantly more obese than contr...
Dielissen, Patrick W; Teunissen, Doreth AM; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine LM
Background The focus of Chlamydia trachomatis screening and testing lies more on women than on men. The study aim was to establish by systematic review the prevalence of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in men and women in the general population. Methods Electronic databases and reference lists were searched from 2000 to 2013 using the key words “Chlamydia trachomatis”, “population-based study” and “disease prevalence”. Reference lists were checked. Studies were included in the anal...
Hooff, M.V.; McFarlane, A.C.; Davies, C.E.; Searle, A.K.; Fairweather-Schmidt, A.K.; Verhagen, A.F.; Benassi, H.; Hodson, S.E.
BACKGROUND: The Australian Defence Force (ADF) Mental Health Prevalence and Wellbeing Study (MHPWS) is the first study of mental disorder prevalence in an entire military population. OBJECTIVE: The MHPWS aims to establish mental disorder prevalence, refine current ADF mental health screening
The World Health Organization's Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion has been influential in guiding the development of 'settings' based health promotion. Over the past decade, settings such as schools have flourished and there has been a considerable amount of academic literature produced, including theoretical papers, descriptive studies and evaluations. However, despite its central importance, the health-promoting general practice has received little attention. This paper discusses: the significance of this setting for health promotion; how a health promoting general practice can be created; effective health promotion approaches; the nursing contribution; and some challenges that need to be resolved. In order to become a health promoting general practice, the staff must undertake a commitment to fulfil the following conditions: create a healthy working environment; integrate health promotion into practice activities; and establish alliances with other relevant institutions and groups within the community. The health promoting general practice is the gold standard for health promotion. Settings that have developed have had the support of local, national and European networks. Similar assistance and advocacy will be needed in general practice. This paper recommends that a series of rigorously evaluated, high-quality pilot sites need to be established to identify and address potential difficulties, and to ensure that this innovative approach yields tangible health benefits for local communities. It also suggests that government support is critical to the future development of health promoting general practices. This will be needed both directly and in relation to the capacity and resourcing of public health in general.
Елена Николаевна Никулина; Светлана Ивановна Елгина; Юлия Александровна Липкова; Сергей Викторович Липков
Objective – to determine the main health indicators in preterm newborns. Materials and Methods: Premature newborns and full-term newborns (160 and 1408, respectively) were investigated with clinical, instrumental, and statistical methods. Anthropometric parameters, somatic health, vulvar anatomy were considered to be the main criteria for general health. Results: The indicators of general health (physical development, somatic health, vulvar anatomy) in premature and full-term newborns...
Pushpa S Pudakalkatti
Full Text Available Context/Background: Periodontal disease is a multifactorial disease, in which bacteria play a major role. Capnocytophaga species form a part of human oral flora both in health and disease. They have been implicated as putative periodontal pathogens, and yet, they are less understood members of plaque flora. No studies have been conducted on the association of Capnocytophaga species with periodontal diseases in India. Aim: The aim of this study was to detect the prevalence of Capnocytophaga species in patients with healthy periodontium, gingivitis, and periodontitis using culture method. Methods: Forty patients each with healthy periodontium, gingivitis, and periodontitis were selected. Subgingival plaque samples were collected from all the patients using sterile curettes and transferred to transport medium and sent to the laboratory. The plaque samples were inoculated on blood agar and trypticase-blood-bacitracin-polymyxin agar to grow Capnocytophaga species. Later, Gram-staining and microscopy were done to confirm the presence of Capnocytophaga in each sample. The prevalence of Capnocytophaga species was statistically analyzed using Chi-square test, Kruskal–Wallis analysis of variance, and Mann–Whitney U-test. Results: Capnocytophaga was detected in 21 (52.50% samples out of 40 samples of gingivitis group, 11 (27.50% samples of healthy group, and 12 (30% samples of periodontitis group. Conclusions: Capnocytophaga is more prevalent in gingivitis compared to healthy periodontium and periodontitis. Capnocytophaga has the potential to cause periodontal disease, but as it is less competitive in the periodontal pocket, it is usually overgrown by other rapidly growing bacteria.
Sallim, Adnaan Bin; Sayampanathan, Andrew Arjun; Cuttilan, Amit; Chun-Man Ho, Roger
The overall prevalence of mental health disorders among caregivers of patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) remains unclear. This meta-analysis aims to evaluate the prevalence of various mental health disorders among caregivers of patients with AD globally and to determine factors that predispose to development of the aforementioned, namely gender of caregiver, gender of patient, and caregiver-patient relationship. A total of 17 studies were eligible for systematic review and meta-analysis. A meta-analysis of published work was performed using the random effect model. Data analysis was done with RevMan 5.3. A total of 10,825 caregivers were assessed. The aggregate prevalence of depression among caregivers was 34.0%, anxiety at 43.6%, and use of psychotropic drugs at 27.2%. Meta-analysis revealed the odds of having of depression was 1.53 times higher in female caregivers (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.29-1.83; I(2) = 7%; Z = 4.78; P mental health disorders, particularly depression and anxiety, as compared with the general population and with their counterparts caring for patients with other illnesses. The higher prevalence is mainly observed in female caregivers, caregivers with male care-recipients, and caregivers who have a spousal relationship with care-recipients. Prevalence of anxiety was also notably higher in this cohort but more research needs to be done in this area. Copyright © 2015 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Delnoij, D.; Merode, G. van; Paulus, A.; Groenewegen, P.
Objectives: It is generally assumed that health care systems in which specialist and hospital care is only accessible after referral by a general practitioner (GP) have lower total health care costs. In this study, the following questions were addressed: do health care systems with GPs acting as
Ramírez, Marina R; Otero, Patricia; Blanco, Vanessa; Ontaneda, Mercy P; Díaz, Olga; Vázquez, Fernando L
Although burnout is a widespread phenomenon among healthcare professionals, there are no studies about its prevalence in Ecuador. This study assesses the prevalence of burnout syndrome among Ecuadorian healthcare professionals and examine the relationship with their personal and organizational characteristics. A total of 2404 healthcare professionals (average age 40.0years; 68.4% women) from the capitals of all 24 provinces in Ecuador participated in this study. Trained psychologists assessed the presence of burnout by applying the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Sociodemographic variables, emotional distress, social support and coping styles as well as organizational variables were also collected. Of all healthcare professionals surveyed, 2.6% presented burnout syndrome. By dimensions, 17.2% of the participants presented a high level of emotional exhaustion, 13.5% of depersonalization, and 18.2% had reduced personal accomplishment. Being non-mestizo, being classified as a probable case of mental disorder and using more passive coping were associated with a greater probability of presenting burnout; having >10years of experience was associated with a lower probability of burnout. A significant number of active health professionals suffer from burnout. It is necessary to develop effective psychotherapeutic interventions for those who have the syndrome and to evaluate potential prevention strategies in those who have not yet developed it. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hughes, Frances A; Thom, Katey; Dixon, Robyn
Stalking involves recurrent and persistent unwanted communication or contact that generates fear for safety in the victims. This pilot study evaluated the nature and prevalence of stalking among New Zealand nurses and physicians working in mental health services. An anonymous questionnaire asking respondents to describe their experiences with 12 stalking behaviors was distributed to 895 clinicians. Results indicated that regardless of discipline, women were more likely than men to have experienced one or more stalking behaviors, including receiving unwanted telephone calls, letters, and approaches; receiving personal threats: and being followed, spied on, or subject to surveillance. Women also reported higher levels of fearfulness as a consequence of stalking behaviors. Nearly half of the stalkers were clients; the remaining were former partners, colleagues, or acquaintances. In client-related cases, the majority of respondents told their colleagues and supervisors first, and the majority found them to be the most helpful resource. The results of this pilot study indicate a need for further research focused on the stalking of mental health clinicians in New Zealand and for development of workplace policies for adequate response to the stalking of mental health clinicians.
Corley, Courtney D.; Mihalcea, Rada; Mikler, Armin R.; Sanfilippo, Antonio P.
Recently, human papilloma virus has been implicated to cause several throat and oral cancers and hpv is established to cause most cervical cancers. A human papilloma virus vaccine has been proven successful to reduce infection incidence in FDA clinical trials and it is currently available in the United States. Current intervention policy targets adolescent females for vaccination; however, the expansion of suggested guidelines may extend to other age groups and males as well. This research takes a first step towards automatically predicting personal beliefs, regarding health intervention, on the spread of disease. Using linguistic or statistical approaches, sentiment analysis determines a texts affective content. Self-reported HPV vaccination beliefs published in web and social media are analyzed for affect polarity and leveraged as knowledge inputs to epidemic models. With this in mind, we have developed a discrete-time model to facilitate predicting impact on the reduction of HPV prevalence due to arbitrary age and gender targeted vaccination schemes.
Richters, Juliet; Smith, Anthony M A; de Visser, Richard O; Grulich, Andrew E; Rissel, Christopher E
The results from a telephone survey in 2001-02 of a probability sample of Australian households including 10,173 men aged 16-59 (response rate 69.4%) are used to assess the prevalence of circumcision across social groups in Australia and examine lifetime history of sexually transmissible infection (STI), sexual difficulties in the last year, sexual practices including masturbation, and sexual attitudes. More than half (59%) of the men were circumcised. Circumcision was less common among younger men (32% aged practices at last sexual encounter with a female partner or in masturbation alone. Circumcised men had somewhat more liberal sexual attitudes. Neonatal circumcision was routine in Australia until the 1970s. It appears not to be associated with significant protective or harmful sexual health outcomes. This study provides no evidence about the effects on sexual sensitivity.
Martin, Michael S; Hynes, Katie; Hatcher, Simon; Colman, Ian
While they have important implications for inmates and resourcing of correctional institutions, diagnostic errors are rarely discussed in correctional mental health research. This review seeks to estimate the prevalence of diagnostic errors in prisons and jails and explores potential causes and consequences. Diagnostic errors are defined as discrepancies in an inmate's diagnostic status depending on who is responsible for conducting the assessment and/or the methods used. It is estimated that at least 10% to 15% of all inmates may be incorrectly classified in terms of the presence or absence of a mental illness. Inmate characteristics, relationships with staff, and cognitive errors stemming from the use of heuristics when faced with time constraints are discussed as possible sources of error. A policy example of screening for mental illness at intake to prison is used to illustrate when the risk of diagnostic error might be increased and to explore strategies to mitigate this risk. © The Author(s) 2016.
Gallagher, Robyn; Perry, Lin; Duffield, Christine; Sibbritt, David; Ying Ko, Chih Maggie
To investigate hypertension awareness, prevalence and treatment in nurses. Nurses are the largest health workforce group, currently facing an ageing demographic and the risk of chronic disease such as hypertension. Little is known about hypertension in nurses despite the potential impact on work productivity. A cross-sectional online survey was distributed to nurses and midwives via the professional association and nursing directors. Questions were taken from published longitudinal health studies for blood pressure, hypertension and key sociodemographic and health factors. The participants' (n = 5,041) mean age was 47.99 (SD 11.46) years. The majority knew their blood pressure, more so if they were female, of higher body mass index and aged 45-64 years, but less so if they were smokers. Hypertension prevalence increased with age, peaking at the oldest ages and the majority were treated (anti-hypertensive medication), less so if aged <55 years. Many nurses treated for hypertension had poor blood pressure control, were most often aged 45-54 years and were smokers. Hypertension prevalence is less in nurses than in the general population, however, once diagnosed treatment is not optimized. The potential impact of hypertension on older nurses' work productivity justifies work-based support for risk reduction behaviours. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Rospenda, Kathleen M.; Richman, Judith A.; Shannon, Candice A.
This study describes past-year prevalence and effects on mental health and drinking outcomes for harassment and discrimination in the workplace (HDW) in a nationally representative random digit dial phone survey conducted in 2003-2004 (n = 2,151). HDW measures included experiences and perceptions of sexual harassment (SH) and generalized workplace…
Грузева, Татьяна С; Дуфинец, Василий А; Замкевич, Виктория Б
Harmful alcohol consumption constitutes a significant cause of the global burden of disease, causing more than 200 different diseases, 5.9% of all deaths worldwide, causing substantial medical and social costs, major economic loss, slowing progress towards the strategic goals of human development. to substantiate approaches to the formation of a national strategy to combat the harmful use of alcohol in Ukraine based on the analysis of the prevalence of alcohol consumption and related health and social problems and international experience and recommendations of WHO. The study was based on analysis of the extent and patterns of alcohol consumption in Ukraine, levels, structure and dynamics of morbidity and mortality from diseases associated with alcohol abuse; investigation of preventive activities in primary healthcare, the existing problems and doctors' needs for prevention alcohol abuse, national and international experience on this problem.This work usesbibliosemantic, medical, statistical, sociological, epidemiological methods. The information base are: European Health for All Database (HFA-DB)for 2000-2012,Center of Medical Statistics, Ministry of Health of Ukraine for 2000-2015, questionnaire survey of physicians in primary care, strategic and policy documents of WHO, WHO Regional Office for Europe. In Ukraine, as in most countries in the WHO European Region prevalence of alcohol is high. In the ranking of the WHO European Region Ukraine ranks fifth in alcohol consumption per capita. The structure of consumption of alcoholic drinks is dominated by strong spirits (48%). There has been a negative trend for this indicator from 5.4 liters in 2002 to 15.6 liters in 2012.The dominant pattern of alcohol consumption is characterized by early onset of alcohol consumption, significant frequency, large doses, mostly strong alcohol beverages, with significant share of low-quality alcohol. This factor contributes to high levels of morbidity. A total of546.3 thousandpeople
Al-Rousan, Tala; Rubenstein, Linda; Sieleni, Bruce; Deol, Harbans; Wallace, Robert B
The United States has the highest incarceration rate in the world which has created a public health crisis. Correctional facilities have become a front line for mental health care. Public health research in this setting could inform criminal justice reform. We determined prevalence rates for mental illnesses and related comorbidities among all inmates in a state prison system. Cross-sectional study using the Iowa Corrections Offender Network which contains health records of all inmates in Iowa. The point prevalence of both ICD-9 and DSM-IV codes for mental illnesses, timing of diagnosis and interval between incarceration and mental illness diagnosis were determined. The average inmate (N = 8574) age was 36.7 ± 12.4 years; 17% were ≥50 years. The majority of inmates were men (91%) and white (65%).Obesity was prevalent in 38% of inmates, and 51% had a history of smoking. Almost half of inmates were diagnosed with a mental illness (48%), of whom, 29% had a serious mental illness (41% of all females and 27% of all males), and 26% had a history of a substance use disorder. Females had higher odds of having both a mental illness and substance use disorder. Almost all mental illness diagnoses were first made during incarceration (99%). The mean interval to diagnosis of depression, anxiety, PTSD and personality disorders were 26, 24, 21 and 29 months respectively. Almost 90% of mental illnesses were recognized by the 6 th year of incarceration. The mean interval from incarceration to first diagnosis (recognition) of a substance abuse history was 11 months. There is a substantial burden of mental illness among inmates. Racial, age and gender disparities in mental health care are coupled with a general delay in diagnosis and treatment. A large part of understanding the mental health problem in this country starts at prisons.
Angel M Dzhambov
Full Text Available Introduction: Occupational noise exposure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD are common in the United States, but so far their association has not been explored. Given the neuroimmunological effects of noise, such an association seems plausible. Thus, the present study aimed to explore the association of occupational noise exposure with prevalent COPD in the US general population. Materials and Methods: We used data from the population-based National Health Interview Survey (NHIS 2014. The cross-sectional association of self-reported duration of exposure to very loud noise during participants’ occupational lifetime with self-reported COPD and emphysema was explored using weighted logistic regression. Results and Discussion: The fully adjusted model yielded odds ratio (OR≥15 years = 1.68 [95% confidence interval (CI: 1.28, 2.21] for COPD and OR≥15 years = 1.61 (95% CI: 1.13, 2.30 for emphysema. Race/ethnicity was a significant effect modifier. In sensitivity analysis with cumulative noise exposure based on a job exposure matrix, we found no effect. Conclusion: In conclusion, we found a relationship between self-reported occupational noise exposure and the risk of prevalent COPD in the US general population, but none with objective noise levels. Being the first study on the subject matter, and given the design limitations, these findings are tentative and should be treated with caution.
The 1980s will go into history as a decade of lost opportunities to increase contraceptive prevalence and improve reproductive health worldwide. As the decade closes, 500 million couples still have no access to fertility regulation, there are 30-50 million induced abortions each year, 15 million infant and child deaths (30% of all deaths worldwide), an estimated 250 million new cases of sexually transmitted diseases and 60-80 million infertile couples. One of the major problems is that many policy makers are still unimpressed with the global demographic reality. World population was less than 300 million 1991 years ago. It took some 1500 years to double this number by the time of the voyages of Columbus to America. The first billion was reached at the beginning of the last century and the second in the lifetime of the author, in 1927. Then it took less than 50 years to double this number to 4 billion by 1976. Global population is 5.3 billion today. In view of such figures, it is understandable that, historically, it was this demographic concern that in the 1960s persuaded many governments to support family planning programmes. During the subsequent decades, it was gradually recognized by developing country governments that family planning lowers infant, child and maternal mortality and morbidity and reduces the number of illegal abortions and their health hazards. Today, 52 developing country governments support family planning programmes for the demographic rationale, but 65 for the reproductive health and human rights rationale. Where do we go from here? That will mainly depend on the number of years it will take to reach replacement level of fertility (around 2.1 children per couple) worldwide. If the level is reached in 2010 (the low projection of the United Nations), global population will stabilize by the end of the 21st century at 8 billion; if it is reached in 2035 (medium projection), population will stabilize around 10 billion; however, if it is reached
García-Gallego, A; Morera-Guitart, J
To determine the prevalence and characteristics of multiple sclerosis (EM) in the Marina Alta health district. A descriptive, retrospective study localizing cases (crossed register method). Day of prevalence: 1/05/01. Registers of the area analyzed: hospital admission, Neurology Clinic, Emergency Department of the hospital and Health Centres. The criteria of Poser were used for diagnosis. We analyzed the demographic, clinical and paraclinical aspects of the episodes and treatment (interferon-beta). Male/female ratio: 2.4. Average age: 46.6 years. Prevalence of definite EM: 40.3/100,000. Prevalence of autochthonous cases of EM: 28.7/100,000. Average age at onset: 32.6 years. Average duration of illness: 12.5 years. Commonest clinical form: remitting relapsing (48.1%), followed by progressive relapsing (7%), benign (5.5%) and primary progressive (1.8%). 5.5% died, all with the progressive secondary form. EDSS disability: greater in the progressive secondary form. Magnetic resonance (MR) was the commonest investigation used (84% of the results in concordance and 13% normal). Positive BOC in 70% of cases. We studied 202 episodes. The systems most affected were: sensory and pyramidal. Worsening of EDSS after recovery from the episode: 51.7%. 29% received interferon-beta, with five cases (31%) of major side effects (one psychotic outbursts, three with neutropenia and one generalized allergic reaction). In the Marina Alta the prevalence of EM adjusted for the autochthonous population is in the medium risk zone. The clinical features and course of the disease in our patients are similar to those seen in other national and foreign series. The most worthwhile tests were cranial MR and BOC CSF. Treatment with interferon-beta requires strict control in view of the high frequency of serious side effects seen.
episodes. Conclusions Age, marital status, number of diagnosed chronic non communicable diseases and alcohol consumption were the most important risk factors for depressive episodes. Generally there was lower use of health service for depressive episodes and low educational status was found to be barriers for service use. There is a need to formulate policy for mental health and training of primary health care workers in mental health to early identify and treat cases with depression episodes, so as to decrease prevalence of depression episodes and to improve accessibility of service use.
Al-Thani, Asma; Abdul-Rahim, Hanan; Alabsi, Enas; Bsaisu, Haneen N; Haddad, Pascale; Mumtaz, Ghina R; Abu-Raddad, Laith J
The Arabian Gulf region has limited epidemiological data related to sexually transmitted infections. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among general population women in Doha, Qatar. Endocervical swabs were collected from healthy women attending primary healthcare centres in Doha, June-December 2008. The specimens were tested for C trachomatis by a commercially available PCR-based assay. Data on basic socio-demographic characteristics, medical history and sexual behaviour were obtained using self-administered questionnaires. The prevalence of C trachomatis and of background variables were stratified by nationality, Qatari nationals versus non-Qatari residents. A total of 377 women were enrolled in the study, out of whom 351 (37.9% Qataris, 62.1% non-Qataris) were tested for the presence of C trachomatis in their specimens. The mean age of participants was 41.2 years, and the vast majority (93%, 95% CI 90.3 to 95.7) were married. The mean age at sexual debut was significantly lower among Qatari women compared with non-Qatari women (19.2 vs 22.2 years, respectively pnationals and expatriate residents. The higher prevalence may reflect, in part, the limited access to and use of chlamydia screening and management.
López Pereira, Patricia; Gandarillas Grande, Ana María; Díez Gañán, Lucía; Ordobás Gavín, María
Asthma is an important public health issue. The goal of this study is to analyse the trends in self-reported asthma prevalence in the Madrid Region and its association with socio-demographic and health factors. Data from the "Non-Communicable Disease Risk Factor Surveillance System" in adult population (SIVFRENT-A) 1996-2013 were used. Prevalences and 95% CI were estimated for: current asthma, cumulative prevalence of asthma and asthma attack in the last 12 months, in five periods. Changes in inter-period prevalence were estimated by calculating prevalence ratios (PR) with 95% CI by Poisson regression. The association between asthma prevalence socio-demographic and health variables was evaluated by multivariate logistic regression. Current prevalence of asthma and cumulative prevalence of asthma increased per study period an average of 14%. Asthma attack prevalence in the last 12 months increased an average of 19%. It was associated (statistically significant) to an increase of current prevalence of asthma, cumulative prevalence of asthma and asthma attack prevalence in the last 12 months: being a woman, ORa: 1.55; ORa: 1.35 and ORa: 1.46 respectively; have poor self-perceived health, ORa: 3.09; ORa: 2.63 and ORa: 2.89; and intense physical activity, ORa: 1.48; ORa: 1.32 and ORa: 1.49. In the case of current prevalence of asthma and cumulative prevalence of asthma also be studying, ORa: 1.34 and ORa: 1.46 respectively. Self-reported asthma prevalence increased in the last decades. The prevalence was higher in woman, persons with poor self-perceived health and adults with intense physical activity.
Draminsky Petersen, Hans; Christensen, Maria Elisabeth; Kastrup, Marianne
General health assessment of refugees claiming to have been previously exposed to torture takes place in a psychological atmosphere affected by the difficult situation of the refugee. Thirty-one refugees, mainly from the Middle East and Africa, were assessed as regards their physical and mental...... (P general) health. Reliability was moderate with respect to clinical observation during interview....
Harrison, Glenn W; Jessen, Lasse J; Lau, Morten I; Ross, Don
We study Danish adult gambling behavior with an emphasis on discovering patterns relevant to public health forecasting and economic welfare assessment of policy. Methodological innovations include measurement of formative in addition to reflective constructs, estimation of prospective risk for developing gambling disorder rather than risk of being falsely negatively diagnosed, analysis with attention to sample weights and correction for sample selection bias, estimation of the impact of trigger questions on prevalence estimates and sample characteristics, and distinguishing between total and marginal effects of risk-indicating factors. The most significant novelty in our design is that nobody was excluded on the basis of their response to a 'trigger' or 'gateway' question about previous gambling history. Our sample consists of 8405 adult Danes. We administered the Focal Adult Gambling Screen to all subjects and estimate prospective risk for disordered gambling. We find that 87.6% of the population is indicated for no detectable risk, 5.4% is indicated for early risk, 1.7% is indicated for intermediate risk, 2.6% is indicated for advanced risk, and 2.6% is indicated for disordered gambling. Correcting for sample weights and controlling for sample selection has a significant effect on prevalence rates. Although these estimates of the 'at risk' fraction of the population are significantly higher than conventionally reported, we infer a significant decrease in overall prevalence rates of detectable risk with these corrections, since gambling behavior is positively correlated with the decision to participate in gambling surveys. We also find that imposing a threshold gambling history leads to underestimation of the prevalence of gambling problems.
Caldentey, Clara; Tirado Muñoz, Judit; Ferrer, Tessie; Fonseca Casals, Francina; Rossi, Paola; Mestre-Pintó, Juan Ignacio; Torrens Melich, Marta
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a public health problem worldwide. Several factors have been found to be associated with an increased prevalence of IPV, such as substance use. A cross-sectional study was conducted with the aim of determining the prevalence of IPV among women entering Hospital del Mar (Barcelona) for any medical/surgical reason, and who had a diagnosis of substance use disorder. Secondly, it was intended to psychometrically validate the Spanish version of the Hurt, Insulted, Threatened with Harm, Screamed (HITS) questionnaire. All patients were assessed by two IPV questionnaires, the Composite Abuse Scale (CAS) and HITS. Out of 52 patients interviewed, 46 answered both questionnaires. According to the CAS questionnaire, 23 patients (50%) experienced IPV at some point in their lives and 11 (23.9%) in the last year. Cannabis consumption was also associated with an increased severity of IPV (95% CI 3.5-28.9, p = .013).According to the HITS questionnaire, there was a prevalence of 39.1% (18 patients) in the last 12 months. HITS had a specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 78% relative to the CAS questionnaire. A cut-off score x∈ [6.7], derived through ROC analysis, correctly discriminated 91% of the victims and 100% of the non-victims. The results obtained showed that the prevalence of IPV was very high among women who suffered from more than one substance use disorder. Therefore, it is highly recommended to systematically screen for IPV victimization by putting the HITS questionnaire into practice.
Marais, A; de Villiers, P J; Möller, A T; Stein, D J
It has been suggested that domestic violence is not only highly prevalent and associated with significant morbidity, but that it is also overlooked by medical practitioners. Despite this, few studies have focused on domestic violence in the South African setting, so that there is a paucity of data here on its prevalence, phenomenology, and associated psychopathology. Sixteen general practitioners from the South African Sentinel Practitioner Research Network (SASPREN) screened all their female patients aged 18 years or older for a 3-month period (N = 1,050). A sociodemographic questionnaire was completed, and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression were assessed, both in subjects with a history of domestic violence and in a control group without such a history. 21.5% of patients reported a history of domestic violence at screening. Patients and controls did not differ significantly in terms of age or race. However, patients with a history of domestic violence were significantly more likely to be married, not to have begun a high-school education, and to be working outside the home. Both PTSD and major depression were significantly more common in patients with a history of domestic violence (35.3% and 48.2%, respectively) than in controls (2.6% and 11.4%, respectively). Compared with other patients reporting domestic violence, those with either PTSD or major depression were subjected to more violence and were more likely to report a suicide attempt. In a large, diverse population of adult female patients presenting to a range of general practitioners in South Africa, there was a high prevalence of reported domestic violence. A significant association was found between domestic violence and both PTSD and major depression, with these diagnoses indicative of increased severity of abuse and increased morbidity. Routine screening by medical practitioners of all female patients for a history of domestic violence seems warranted, and patients
Bezemer, Karlijn D B; Smink, Beitske E; van Maanen, Rianne; Verschraagen, Miranda; de Gier, Johan J
The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of psychotropic medicines in drivers suspected of driving under the influence of medicinal and illicit drugs in The Netherlands and to compare the prevalence of selected impairing medicines with the use of these medicines in the general Dutch
Dotterud, Lars Kåre
This study investigated the prevalence of contact sensitization in a general adult population and the relationship between the history of metal dermatitis and sensitization to metal allergens. A cross-sectional population study using patch tests and a questionnaire was conducted among adults in Tromsø, Northern Norway. A random sample of 830 participants aged 18-75 years were invited to participate in the patch testing and completed a 1-page self-administered questionnaire. Of the adults, 531 (64%) were actually TRUE tested (using a standardized, ready-to-apply patch test system) and completed the self-administered questionnaire about ear piercing, metal reactions, skin reactions to different allergens, atopic dermatitis, eczema, cooking equipment and diet. The study showed that nickel (19.2%; women 31.1% and men 5.0%), fragrance mix (3.4%) and cobalt (1.7%) were the most prevalent allergens causing contact sensitization. For all other allergens, less than 1.1% tested positive. Eighty-four (45.2%) subjects with a positive history of metal dermatitis had negative patch tests. Contact sensitization was found frequently in this general adult population, especially to nickel and perfumes with a predominance among females. An eczematous reaction caused by cheap earrings seemed to be the best indicator for metal sensitivity.
Pérez-Perdomo, R; Pérez-Cardona, C; Rodríguez-Lugo, L
The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in persons covered by a health insurance company. The medical claims of persons insured with Triple S Health Insurance Co. of Puerto Rico, whose main diagnosis was diabetes (ICD9-250.0-9), were selected for analysis. Prevalence and medical utilization rates were estimated. General characteristics and services utilization were compared by age and sex using the chi-square distribution. Overall prevalence was 4.73%. Prevalence in the male population (5.07%) was higher than that of females (4.43%) in all age groups, but the difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The proportion of diabetic cases was larger in the > 60 age group. 64% of the cases had 1 or more visits to a physician office, 2% were hospitalized, and almost 3% had emergency room visits. 29% of the cases had insulin prescriptions while 59% had oral prescriptions. The younger age group (diabetes in this group was lower than the prevalence reported in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. This may be partially explained by the fact that the study group did not represent the composition of the Puerto Rican population. Prevalence studies using other groups will be helpful to determine the prevalence of diabetes in Puerto Rico.
Atallah, Nora; Khalifa, Mohamed; El Metwally, Ashraf; Househ, Mowafa
Mobile health (mHealth) applications provide new methods of engagement with patients and can help patients manage their mental health condition. The main objective of this study is to explore the prevalence of the use of mobile health applications for mental health patients in Saudi Arabia. A total of 376 participants with depression and/or anxiety completed an online survey distributed by social networks which asked questions relating to mobile phone ownership, uses of health applications, and utilization patterns to track mental health related issues. Approximately, 46% of the participants reported running one or two healthcare related applications on their mobile phones. In all age groups, 64% of the participants used their mobile phones to access information related to their own health. Also, 64% of the participants expressed interest in using their own mobile phones to track and follow the progression of their depression and/or anxiety. Developing mobile health applications for Saudi mental health patients is needed since it can offer opportunities for patients, researchers, caregivers, and legislators to work together to improve the state of mental health care in Saudi Arabia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Conclusion: Results indicated that dental caries prevalence among school children in Qatar has reached critical levels, and is influenced by socio-demographic factors. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth values obtained in this study were the second highest detected in the Eastern Mediterranean region.
Tan, J; Schöfer, H; Araviiskaia, E; Audibert, F; Kerrouche, N; Berg, M
There is an unmet need for general population-based epidemiological data on rosacea based on contemporary diagnostic criteria and validated population survey methodology. To evaluate the prevalence of rosacea in the general population of Germany and Russia. General population screening was conducted in 9-10 cities per country to ensure adequate geographic representation. In Part I of this two-phase study, screening of a representative sample of the general population (every fifth person or every fifth door using a fixed-step procedure on a random route sample) was expedited with use of a questionnaire and algorithm based on current diagnostic criteria for rosacea. Of the subjects that screened positive in the initial phase, a randomly selected sample (every third subject) t`hen underwent diagnostic confirmation by a dermatologist in Part II. A total of 3052 and 3013 subjects (aged 18-65 years) were screened in Germany and Russia respectively. Rosacea prevalence was 12.3% [95%CI, 10.2-14.4] in Germany and 5.0% [95%CI, 2.8-7.2] in Russia. The profile of subjects with rosacea (75% women; mean age of 40 years; mainly skin phototype II or III, majority of subjects with sensitive facial skin) and subtype distribution were similar. Overall, 18% of subjects diagnosed with rosacea were aged 18-30 years. Over 80% were not previously diagnosed. Within the previous year, 47.5% of subjects had received no rosacea care and 23.7% had received topical and/or systemic drugs. Over one-third (35% Germany, 43% Russia) of rosacea subjects reported a moderate to severe adverse impact on quality of life. Rosacea is highly prevalent in Germany (12.3%) and Russia (5.0%). The demographic profile of rosacea subjects was similar between countries and the majority were previously undiagnosed. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.
Holvoet, Lien; Huys, Wim; Coppens, Violette; Seeuws, Jantien; Goethals, Kris; Morrens, Manuel
Abstract: Background Bondage and discipline, dominance and submission, and sadism and masochism (BDSM) is gaining popularity through the mainstream media. Nevertheless, very little is known about the prevalence of BDSM-related fantasies and activities in the general population. Aim To determine the prevalence of BDSM fantasies and behavioral involvement in four different age groups of the general population in Belgium. Methods By use of a cross-sectional survey questionnaire, the level of int...
Objective. To determine the attitudes of South African general practitioners (GPs) to national health insurance (NHI), social health insurance (SHI) and other related health system reforms. Design. A national survey using postal questionnaires and telephonic follow-up of non-responders. Setting. GPs throughout South Africa.
D. Mch1tyre. Objective. To determine general practitioners' attitudes to national health insurance (NHI) and to capitation as a ... GPs who approved the introduction of NHI varied depending ... Health Economics Unit, Department of Community Health, University .... in Table I. They were then asked a series of closed questions.
Chatziioannidis, Ilias; Bascialla, Francesca Giuseppina; Chatzivalsama, Panagiota; Vouzas, Fotios; Mitsiakos, Georgios
Objectives The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence, to report barriers and mental health impact of bullying behaviours and to analyse whether psychological support at work could affect victims of bullying in the healthcare workplace. Design Self-administered questionnaire survey. Setting 20 in total neonatal intensive care units in 17 hospitals in Greece. Participants 398 healthcare professionals (doctors, nurses). Main outcome measures The questionnaire included information on demographic data, Negative Act Questionnaire-Revised (NAQ-R) behaviour scale, data on sources of bullying, perpetrators profile, causal factors, actions taken and reasons for not reporting bullying, psychological support and 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) scores to investigate psychological distress. Results Prevalence of bullying measured by the NAQ-R was 53.1% for doctors and 53.6% for nurses. Victims of bullying differed from non-bullied in terms of gender and job experience, among demographic data. Crude NAQ-R score was found higher for female, young and inexperienced employees. Of those respondents who experienced bullying 44.9% self-labelled themselves as victims. Witnessing bullying of others was found 83.2%. Perpetrators were mainly females 45–64 years old, most likely being a supervisor/senior colleague. Common reasons for not reporting bullying was self-dealing and fear of consequences. Bullying was attributed to personality trait and management. Those who were bullied, self-labelled as a victim and witnessed bullying of others had higher GHQ-12 score. Moreover, psychological support at work had a favour effect on victims of bullying. Conclusions Prevalence of bullying and witnessing were found extremely high, while half of victims did not consider themselves as sufferers. The mental health impact on victims and witnesses was severe and support at work was necessary to ensure good mental health status among employees. PMID:29478015
Chatziioannidis, Ilias; Bascialla, Francesca Giuseppina; Chatzivalsama, Panagiota; Vouzas, Fotios; Mitsiakos, Georgios
The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence, to report barriers and mental health impact of bullying behaviours and to analyse whether psychological support at work could affect victims of bullying in the healthcare workplace. Self-administered questionnaire survey. 20 in total neonatal intensive care units in 17 hospitals in Greece. 398 healthcare professionals (doctors, nurses). The questionnaire included information on demographic data, Negative Act Questionnaire-Revised (NAQ-R) behaviour scale, data on sources of bullying, perpetrators profile, causal factors, actions taken and reasons for not reporting bullying, psychological support and 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) scores to investigate psychological distress. Prevalence of bullying measured by the NAQ-R was 53.1% for doctors and 53.6% for nurses. Victims of bullying differed from non-bullied in terms of gender and job experience, among demographic data. Crude NAQ-R score was found higher for female, young and inexperienced employees. Of those respondents who experienced bullying 44.9% self-labelled themselves as victims. Witnessing bullying of others was found 83.2%. Perpetrators were mainly females 45-64 years old, most likely being a supervisor/senior colleague. Common reasons for not reporting bullying was self-dealing and fear of consequences. Bullying was attributed to personality trait and management. Those who were bullied, self-labelled as a victim and witnessed bullying of others had higher GHQ-12 score. Moreover, psychological support at work had a favour effect on victims of bullying. Prevalence of bullying and witnessing were found extremely high, while half of victims did not consider themselves as sufferers. The mental health impact on victims and witnesses was severe and support at work was necessary to ensure good mental health status among employees. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights
Pedram, Pardis; Wadden, Danny; Amini, Peyvand; Gulliver, Wayne; Randell, Edward; Cahill, Farrell; Vasdev, Sudesh; Goodridge, Alan; Carter, Jacqueline C; Zhai, Guangju; Ji, Yunqi; Sun, Guang
'Food addiction' shares a similar neurobiological and behavioral framework with substance addiction. However whether, and to what degree, 'food addiction' contributes to obesity in the general population is unknown. to assess 1) the prevalence of 'food addiction' in the Newfoundland population; 2) if clinical symptom counts of 'food addiction' were significantly correlated with the body composition measurements; 3) if food addicts were significantly more obese than controls, and 4) if macronutrient intakes are associated with 'food addiction'. A total of 652 adults (415 women, 237 men) recruited from the general population participated in this study. Obesity was evaluated by Body Mass Index (BMI) and Body Fat percentage measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. 'Food addiction' was assessed using the Yale Food Addiction Scale and macronutrient intake was determined from the Willet Food Frequency Questionnaire. The prevalence of 'food addiction' was 5.4% (6.7% in females and 3.0% in males) and increased with obesity status. The clinical symptom counts of 'food addiction' were positively correlated with all body composition measurements across the entire sample (pObesity measurements were significantly higher in food addicts than controls; Food addicts were 11.7 (kg) heavier, 4.6 BMI units higher, and had 8.2% more body fat and 8.5% more trunk fat. Furthermore, food addicts consumed more calories from fat and protein compared with controls. Our results demonstrated that 'food addiction' contributes to severity of obesity and body composition measurements from normal weight to obese individuals in the general population with higher rate in women as compared to men.
Negussie, Abel; Getie, Andarge; Manaye, Elias; Tekle, Tamrat
Traumatic injuries continue to be an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the developing world. Despite the high burden of injury in Ethiopia, the occurrence and health impact have not received due attention. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence and outcome of injury among patients visiting the Emergency Department (ED) of Yirgalem General Hospital, southern Ethiopia. A facility-based prospective cross sectional study was conducted from March, 27 - April, 30/2017. The final calculated sample size was 353 and all eligible trauma patients who visited the ED of Yirgalem General Hospital during the study period were included in the study. Data was collected using a checklist which was adapted from the WHO injury surveillance guideline. The data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 19. A total of 346 patients, who visited the ED during the study period, participated in the study and of them, 171 (49.4%) were injury cases. Unintentional injuries accounted 123 (71.9%) of the total injuries and the age group ≤24 years (48.2%) was the most commonly affected age group. More than half (51.4%) of unintentional injury cases were due to Road Traffic Injuries (RTIs) and 48 (28%) of the cases were attributed to interpersonal violence (assault). The majority of patients, 97 (56.7%), had a minor or superficial injury (like bruises and minor cuts), 44 (25.7%) had a moderate injury and 16 (9.3%) had severe type of injury requiring intensive medical/surgical management; and RTIs accounted for 11 (68%) of all severe injuries. The prevalence of injury was considerably high in Yirgalem General Hospital. Road Traffic Injuries (RTIs) accounted for the majority of severe injury cases; therefore, appropriate prevention strategies should be strengthened and implemented against RTIs. We also suggest that children and young adults should be educated in schools and work environments to prevent injuries/accidents.
J I Eze
Full Text Available Surveillance of animal diseases provides information essential for the protection of animal health and ultimately public health. The voluntary pig health schemes, implemented in the United Kingdom, are integrated systems which capture information on different macroscopic disease conditions detected in slaughtered pigs. Many of these conditions have been associated with a reduction in performance traits and consequent increases in production costs. The schemes are the Wholesome Pigs Scotland in Scotland, the BPEX Pig Health Scheme in England and Wales and the Pig Regen Ltd. health and welfare checks done in Northern Ireland. This report set out to compare the prevalence of four respiratory conditions (enzootic pneumonia-like lesions, pleurisy, pleuropneumonia lesions and abscesses in the lung assessed by these three Pig Health Schemes. The seasonal variations and year trends associated with the conditions in each scheme are presented. The paper also highlights the differences in prevalence for each condition across these schemes and areas where further research is needed. A general increase in the prevalence of enzootic pneumonia like lesions was observed in Scotland, England and Wales since 2009, while a general decrease was observed in Northern Ireland over the years of the scheme. Pleurisy prevalence has increased since 2010 in all three schemes, whilst pleuropneumonia has been decreasing. Prevalence of abscesses in the lung has decreased in England, Wales and Northern Ireland but has increased in Scotland. This analysis highlights the value of surveillance schemes based on abattoir pathology monitoring of four respiratory lesions. The outputs at scheme level have significant value as indicators of endemic and emerging disease, and for producers and herd veterinarians in planning and evaluating herd health control programs when comparing individual farm results with national averages.
Eze, J I; Correia-Gomes, C; Borobia-Belsué, J; Tucker, A W; Sparrow, D; Strachan, D W; Gunn, G J
Surveillance of animal diseases provides information essential for the protection of animal health and ultimately public health. The voluntary pig health schemes, implemented in the United Kingdom, are integrated systems which capture information on different macroscopic disease conditions detected in slaughtered pigs. Many of these conditions have been associated with a reduction in performance traits and consequent increases in production costs. The schemes are the Wholesome Pigs Scotland in Scotland, the BPEX Pig Health Scheme in England and Wales and the Pig Regen Ltd. health and welfare checks done in Northern Ireland. This report set out to compare the prevalence of four respiratory conditions (enzootic pneumonia-like lesions, pleurisy, pleuropneumonia lesions and abscesses in the lung) assessed by these three Pig Health Schemes. The seasonal variations and year trends associated with the conditions in each scheme are presented. The paper also highlights the differences in prevalence for each condition across these schemes and areas where further research is needed. A general increase in the prevalence of enzootic pneumonia like lesions was observed in Scotland, England and Wales since 2009, while a general decrease was observed in Northern Ireland over the years of the scheme. Pleurisy prevalence has increased since 2010 in all three schemes, whilst pleuropneumonia has been decreasing. Prevalence of abscesses in the lung has decreased in England, Wales and Northern Ireland but has increased in Scotland. This analysis highlights the value of surveillance schemes based on abattoir pathology monitoring of four respiratory lesions. The outputs at scheme level have significant value as indicators of endemic and emerging disease, and for producers and herd veterinarians in planning and evaluating herd health control programs when comparing individual farm results with national averages.
Oza-Frank, Reena; Ali, Mohammed K.; Vaccarino, Viola; Narayan, K.M. Venkat
OBJECTIVE To compare diabetes prevalence among Asian Americans by World Health Organization and U.S. BMI classifications. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Data on Asian American adults (n = 7,414) from the National Health Interview Survey for 1997–2005 were analyzed. Diabetes prevalence was estimated across weight and ethnic group strata. RESULTS Regardless of BMI classification, Asian Indians and Filipinos had the highest prevalence of overweight (34–47 and 35–47%, respectively, compared with 20–...
Nielsen, Cathrine Wildenschild; Kjøller, Mette; Sabroe, Svend
The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of the increasing prevalence of obesity on the development of health care utilization in Denmark in the period 1987-2005.......The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of the increasing prevalence of obesity on the development of health care utilization in Denmark in the period 1987-2005....
Sepehrmanesh Z.1 PhD,
Full Text Available Aims General practitioners have an essential role in patient care and are exposed to high levels of job stress. General practitioners’ mental health has effects on their functional abilities and medical managements.This study was carried out to evaluate the mental health of general practitioners in emergency wards in KashanUniversity of Medical Sciences, Iran. Materials & Methods In this cross-sectional study, all of General practitioners in emergency wards (n=87 were studied. The survey instruments includedtwo questionnaires: 1-demographic variables and 2- General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16 software and Chi square, Fisher exactand Mann-Whitney statistical tests. Findings The mean age of general practitioners was 36.11±5.67 years; 89.7% of them were married; 60.3% were male. 41% of the total general practitioners had mental health problems. The mean score of GHQ was 22.56±9.24. There were significant relationships between mental health and each age, employment situation, and number of children (p0.05. Conclusion The majority of employed general practitioners in emergency rooms do not have proper mental health statuses.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES This study aims to investigate health disparities between lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB adults and the general population in Korea, where there is low public acceptance of sexual minorities and a lack of research on the health of sexual minorities. METHODS The research team conducted a nationwide survey of 2,335 Korean LGB adults in 2016. Using the dataset, we estimated the age-standardized prevalence ratios (SPRs for poor self-rated health, musculoskeletal pain, depressive symptoms, suicidal behaviors, smoking, and hazardous drinking. We then compared the SPRs of the LGB adults and the general population which participated in three different nationally representative surveys in Korea. SPRs were estimated for each of the four groups (i.e., gay men, bisexual men, lesbians, and bisexual women. RESULTS Korean LGB adults exhibited a statistically significantly higher prevalence of depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation and attempts, and musculoskeletal pain than the general population. Lesbian and bisexual women had a higher risk of poor self-rated health and smoking than the general women population, whereas gay and bisexual men showed no differences with the general men population. Higher prevalence of hazardous drinking was observed among lesbians, gay men, and bisexual women compared to the general population, but was not observed in bisexual men. CONCLUSIONS The findings suggest that LGB adults have poorer health conditions compared to the general population in Korea. These results suggest that interventions are needed to address the health disparities of Korean LGB adults.
Yi, Horim; Lee, Hyemin; Park, Jooyoung; Choi, Bokyoung; Kim, Seung-Sup
This study aims to investigate health disparities between lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults and the general population in Korea, where there is low public acceptance of sexual minorities and a lack of research on the health of sexual minorities. The research team conducted a nationwide survey of 2,335 Korean LGB adults in 2016. Using the dataset, we estimated the age-standardized prevalence ratios (SPRs) for poor self-rated health, musculoskeletal pain, depressive symptoms, suicidal behaviors, smoking, and hazardous drinking. We then compared the SPRs of the LGB adults and the general population which participated in three different nationally representative surveys in Korea. SPRs were estimated for each of the four groups (i.e., gay men, bisexual men, lesbians, and bisexual women). Korean LGB adults exhibited a statistically significantly higher prevalence of depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation and attempts, and musculoskeletal pain than the general population. Lesbian and bisexual women had a higher risk of poor self-rated health and smoking than the general women population, whereas gay and bisexual men showed no differences with the general men population. Higher prevalence of hazardous drinking was observed among lesbians, gay men, and bisexual women compared to the general population, but was not observed in bisexual men. The findings suggest that LGB adults have poorer health conditions compared to the general population in Korea. These results suggest that interventions are needed to address the health disparities of Korean LGB adults.
Renate B. Schnabel
Full Text Available Background-There are marked sex differences in cardiovascular disease [CVD] manifestation. It is largely unknown how the distribution of CVD risk factors or intermediate phenotypes explain sex-specific differences.Methods and Results-In 5000 individuals of the population-based Gutenberg Health Study, mean age 55±11 years, 51% males, we examined sex-specific associations of classical CVD risk factors with intima-media thickness, ankle-brachial index, flow-mediated dilation, peripheral arterial tonometry, echocardiographic and electrocardiographic variables. Intermediate cardiovascular phenotypes were related to prevalent CVD (coronary artery disease, heart failure, stroke, myocardial infarction, lower extremity artery disease [LEAD] N=561.We observed differential distributions of CVD risk factors with a higher risk factor burden in men. Manifest coronary artery disease, stroke, myocardial infarction and LEAD were more frequent in men; the proportion of heart failure was higher in women. Intermediate phenotypes showed clear sex differences with more beneficial values in women. Fairly linear changes towards less beneficial values with age were observed in both sexes. In multivariable-adjusted regression analyses age, systolic blood pressure and body mass index were consistently associated with intermediate phenotypes in both sexes with different ranking according to random forests, maximum model R² 0.43. Risk factor-adjusted associations with prevalent CVD showed some differences by sex. No interactions by menopausal status were observed. Conclusions-In a population-based cohort we observed sex differences in risk factors and a broad range of intermediate phenotypes of noninvasive cardiovascular structure and function. Their relation to prevalent CVD differed markedly. Our results indicate the need of future investigations to understand sex differences in CVD manifestation.
MacPherson Douglas W
Full Text Available Abstract Currently, migrants and other mobile individuals, such as migrant workers and asylum seekers, are an expanding global population of growing social, demographic and political importance. Disparities often exist between a migrant population's place of origin and its destination, particularly with relation to health determinants. The effects of those disparities can be observed at both individual and population levels. Migration across health and disease disparities influences the epidemiology of certain diseases globally and in nations receiving migrants. While specific disease-based outcomes may vary between migrant group and location, general epidemiological principles may be applied to any situation where numbers of individuals move between differences in disease prevalence. Traditionally, migration health activities have been designed for national application and lack an integrated international perspective. Present and future health challenges related to migration may be more effectively addressed through collaborative global undertakings. This paper reviews the epidemiological relationships resulting from health disparities bridged by migration and describes the growing role of migration and population mobility in global disease epidemiology. The implications for national and international health policy and program planning are presented.
Gushulak, Brian D; MacPherson, Douglas W
Currently, migrants and other mobile individuals, such as migrant workers and asylum seekers, are an expanding global population of growing social, demographic and political importance. Disparities often exist between a migrant population's place of origin and its destination, particularly with relation to health determinants. The effects of those disparities can be observed at both individual and population levels. Migration across health and disease disparities influences the epidemiology of certain diseases globally and in nations receiving migrants. While specific disease-based outcomes may vary between migrant group and location, general epidemiological principles may be applied to any situation where numbers of individuals move between differences in disease prevalence. Traditionally, migration health activities have been designed for national application and lack an integrated international perspective. Present and future health challenges related to migration may be more effectively addressed through collaborative global undertakings. This paper reviews the epidemiological relationships resulting from health disparities bridged by migration and describes the growing role of migration and population mobility in global disease epidemiology. The implications for national and international health policy and program planning are presented. PMID:16674820
Ramos, Luiz Roberto; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Gomes, Grace Angélica de Oliveira; Bracco, Mário M; Florindo, Alex Antonio; Mielke, Gregore Iven; Parra, Diana C; Lobelo, Felipe; Simoes, Eduardo J; Hallal, Pedro Curi
OBJECTIVE Assessment of prevalence of health promotion programs in primary health care units within Brazil’s health system. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study based on telephone interviews with managers of primary care units. Of a total 42,486 primary health care units listed in the Brazilian Unified Health System directory, 1,600 were randomly selected. Care units from all five Brazilian macroregions were selected proportionally to the number of units in each region. We examined whether any of the following five different types of health promotion programs was available: physical activity; smoking cessation; cessation of alcohol and illicit drug use; healthy eating; and healthy environment. Information was collected on the kinds of activities offered and the status of implementation of the Family Health Strategy at the units. RESULTS Most units (62.0%) reported having in place three health promotion programs or more and only 3.0% reported having none. Healthy environment (77.0%) and healthy eating (72.0%) programs were the most widely available; smoking and alcohol use cessation were reported in 54.0% and 42.0% of the units. Physical activity programs were offered in less than 40.0% of the units and their availability varied greatly nationwide, from 51.0% in the Southeast to as low as 21.0% in the North. The Family Health Strategy was implemented in most units (61.0%); however, they did not offer more health promotion programs than others did. CONCLUSIONS Our study showed that most primary care units have in place health promotion programs. Public policies are needed to strengthen primary care services and improve training of health providers to meet the goals of the agenda for health promotion in Brazil. PMID:25372175
Wolfram, Christian; Höhn, René; Kottler, Ulrike; Wild, Philipp; Blettner, Maria; Bühren, Jens; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Mirshahi, Alireza
To study the distribution of refractive errors among adults of European descent. Population-based eye study in Germany with 15010 participants aged 35-74 years. The study participants underwent a detailed ophthalmic examination according to a standardised protocol. Refractive error was determined by an automatic refraction device (Humphrey HARK 599) without cycloplegia. Definitions for the analysis were myopia +0.5 D, astigmatism >0.5 cylinder D and anisometropia >1.0 D difference in the spherical equivalent between the eyes. Exclusion criterion was previous cataract or refractive surgery. 13959 subjects were eligible. Refractive errors ranged from -21.5 to +13.88 D. Myopia was present in 35.1% of this study sample, hyperopia in 31.8%, astigmatism in 32.3% and anisometropia in 13.5%. The prevalence of myopia decreased, while the prevalence of hyperopia, astigmatism and anisometropia increased with age. 3.5% of the study sample had no refractive correction for their ametropia. Refractive errors affect the majority of the population. The Gutenberg Health Study sample contains more myopes than other study cohorts in adult populations. Our findings do not support the hypothesis of a generally lower prevalence of myopia among adults in Europe as compared with East Asia.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and the affecting factors of dysmenorrhea and its effects on overall comfort among female university students. This was a cross-sectional study. The research was carried out between October and November 2013 at a university in Ankara. This study was conducted with 200 female students. The data were analyzed using frequencies, means, SD, χ(2) tests, independent t tests and analysis of variance. Data were collected using an interview questionnaire, the visual analog scale (VAS) and the General Comfort Questionnaire. The mean age of students in this study group was 20.85 ± 2.15 years. The prevalence of dysmenorrhea in the students was 84%. The mean severity of pain was 5.78 ± 2.45 on the VAS. The present study found that 45.8% of female students experienced moderate menstrual pain and the most common co-occurring symptoms were irritability (34.6%) and fatigue (21.5%). One-fourth of the students with dysmenorrhea consulted the advice of a physician and the most commonly used methods for pain were analgesics (69%), heat application (56.5%), and rest (71.4%). Family history of dysmenorrhea, education about menstruation, and frequency of menstrual cycle were identified as important factors in the development of dysmenorrhea (p dysmenorrhea (2.57 ± 0.25) was lower than that of students without the condition (2.65 ± 0.23). Also, use of the methods for management of dysmenorrhea was found to increase students' general comfort levels. Therefore, it is important for nurses to educate and advise adolescents and young women about dysmenorrhea. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Arun Kumar Agnihotri
prevalence of hypertension and related risk factors and to assess the level of awareness of hypertensive ... blood pressure, weight and height were carried out and body mass indices were .... primary and secondary education) which was.
Jeffery, Diana D; Bulathsinhala, Lakmini; Kroc, Michelle; Dorris, Joseph
We compared prevalence, health care utilization, and costs over time for nonelderly adults diagnosed with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) in relation to timing of federal approvals for FMS drugs. We used military health care claims from October 2006 to September 2010. Retrospective, multiple-year comparisons were conducted using trend analyses, and time series regression-based generalized linear models. Over 5 years, FMS prevalence rates increased from 0.307% to 0.522%, whereas IBS and CFS prevalence rates remained stable. The largest increase in FMS prevalence occurred between 2007 and 2008. Health care utilization was higher for FMS cases compared to IBS and CFS cases. Over 5 years, the total cost for FMS-related care increased $163.2 million, whereas IBS costs increased $14.9 million and CFS cost increased $3.7 million. Between 2006 and 2010, total pharmacy cost for FMS cases increased from $55 million ($3,641/person) to $96.3 million ($3,557/person). Although cause and effect cannot be established, the advent of federally approved drugs for FMS in concert with pharmaceutical industry marketing of these drugs coincide with the observed changes in prevalence, health care utilization, and costs of FMS relative to IBS and CFS. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.
Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Oliveira, Martha Regina de; Moura, Erly Catarina de; Silva, Sara Araújo; Zouain, Cláudia Soares; Santos, Fausto Pereira Dos; Morais Neto, Otaliba Libanio de; Penna, Gerson de Oliveira
This article aims at estimating the prevalence of adults engaging in protective and risk health behaviors among members of private health insurance plans. It was used a random sample of individuals over the age of 18 living in the Brazilian state capitals collected on 28,640 telephone interviews in 2008. The results showed that among males there was a high prevalence of the following risk factors: tobacco, overweight, low fruit and vegetable consumption, high meat with fat consumption and alcohol drinking. Among females we found a high prevalence of high blood pressure, diabetes, dyslipidemia and osteoporosis. Men were generally more physically active and women consumed more fruit and vegetables. As more educated males were lower was the prevalence of tobacco, high blood pressure, but also a higher prevalence of overweight, consumption of meat with fat, dyslipidemia and lower number of yearly check-ups done. For females, tobacco smoking, overweight, obesity, decreasing with schooling, and consumption of fruit and vegetables, physical activity, mammography and PAP test, increased with schooling. The health insurance user population constitutes about 26% of Brazilian people and the current study aims to accumulate evidence for health promotion actions by this public.
Brandt, Carl Joakim; Søgaard, Gabrielle Isidora; Clemensen, Jane
BACKGROUND: Wearables, fitness apps, and patient home monitoring devices are used increasingly by patients and other individuals with lifestyle challenges. All Danish general practitioners (GPs) use digital health records and electronic health (eHealth) consultations on a daily basis, but how...... they perceive the increasing demand for lifestyle advice and whether they see eHealth as part of their lifestyle support should be explored further. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore GPs' perspectives on eHealth devices and apps and the use of eHealth in supporting healthy lifestyle behavior...... or in partnership with 1 to 4 colleagues and all use electronic patient health records for prescription, referral, and asynchronous electronic consultations. We performed qualitative, semistructured, individual in-depth interviews with the GPs in their own office about how they used eHealth and mHealth devices...
Veale, Jaimie; Watson, Ryan J; Adjei, Jones; Saewyc, Elizabeth
While little research has been conducted into the reproductive experiences of transgender people, available evidence suggests that like cisgender people, most transgender people endorse a desire for these experiences. This study explores the pregnancy experiences and related health factors among transgender and gender-diverse 14-25 year olds using a national Canadian sample ( N = 923). Results indicated that 26 (5%) transgender youth reported a pregnancy experience in the past and the prevalence among 14-18 year olds was comparable to population-based estimates using the same question in the British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey. Transgender youth with a history of pregnancy involvement reported a diverse range of gender identities, and this group did not differ from the remainder of the sample on general mental health, social supports, and living in felt gender. This group did report over six times greater likelihood of having been diagnosed with a sexually transmitted infection by a doctor (19%), but did they not differ in reported contraception use during last sexual intercourse. These findings suggest that pregnancy involvement is an issue that should not be overlooked by health professionals working with transgender youth and that this group has particular sexual health needs.
Stephan, Sharon H.; Connors, Elizabeth H.
Due to under-identification of student mental health problems and limited specialty mental health providers in schools, school nurses are often faced with identifying and addressing student mental health needs. This exploratory study assessed prevalence and types of student mental health problems encountered by school nurses, as well as their…
Diepgen, T. L.; Ofenloch, R.; Bruze, M.; Cazzaniga, S.; Coenraads, P. J.; Elsner, P.; Goncalo, M.; Svensson, A.; Naldi, L.
Background Contact allergy to fragrances is assessed mostly in clinical populations of patients. Studies in the general population are scarce and vary in their methodology across countries. Objectives To determine the prevalence of fragrance contact allergy in the European general population and to
Full Text Available Background: Nursing is one of the stressful jobs that affect nurse's general health. The aim of this study was assessment relationship between Spiritual intelligence, Hardiness and General health among nurses in the hospital of Bushehr in 1388. Methods: Cross- sectional study designed and 125 nurses who have been working in different wards of the hospital enrolled in the study. Data was collected using Spiritual intelligence, Hardiness, General health and characteristics demographic questionnaires. Correlation, t-test, ANOVA, Tukey and regression analysis was applied using SPSS-16 soft ware. Results: The results showed there was significant relationship between spiritual intelligence and hardiness (P<0.005, spiritual intelligence and General health (P<0.005, hardiness and General health (P<0.001. Among the demographic characteristics including age, gender, working section, marital status, job experiences, and education only working section showed significantly correlated with patience (P<0.005. Conclusion: Improvement of spiritual intelligence and reinforcement of hardiness could help to increase the general health of nurses.
Horst, Orapin V; Cunha-Cruz, Joana; Zhou, Lingmei; Manning, Walter; Mancl, Lloyd; DeRouen, Timothy A
This study aimed to measure prevalence of pain in the orofacial regions and determine association with demographics, treatment history, and oral health conditions in dental patients visiting clinics in the Northwest Practice-based REsearch Collaborative in Evidence-based DENTistry (PRECEDENT) research network. Data were recorded in a survey with systematic random sampling of patients (n = 1,668, 18 to 93 years old, 56% female) visiting 100 general dentists in the Northwest PRECEDENT research network. Prevalence ratios (PR) of orofacial pain by each variable were estimated by generalized estimating equations for Poisson regression. The prevalence of orofacial pain during the past year was 16.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 13.4-18.9), of which the most prevalent pain locations were dentoalveolar (9.1%; 95% CI, 7.0-11.2) and musculoligamentous tissues (6.6%; 95% CI, 4.5-8.7). Other locations included soft tissues (0.5%; 95% CI, 0.2-0.8) and nonspecific areas (0.6%; 95% CI, 0.2-1.0). The prevalence of dentoalveolar but not musculoligamentous pain decreased with age. When comparing the 18- to 29-year-old patients, dentoalveolar pain decreased significantly in 45- to 64-year-old patients (PR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.4-0.9) and in those 65 years or older (PR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3-0.9). Sex significantly affected the prevalence of musculoligamentous but not dentoalveolar pain. Women (PR, 3.2; 95% CI, 2.0-5.1) were more likely to have musculoligamentous pain. The prevalence of dentoalveolar and musculoligamentous pain did not vary significantly by ethnicity. Dentoalveolar pain was reported more frequently in patients who did not receive dental maintenance (PR, 2.9; 95% CI, 2.1-4.2) and those visiting community-based public health clinics (PR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.2-3.7). One in 6 patients visiting a general dentist had experienced orofacial pain during the past year. Dentoalveolar and musculoligamentous pains were the most prevalent types of pain. Pain in the muscles and
Primary health eye care knowledge among general practitioners working in the Cape Town metropole. M Van Zyl, N Fernandes, G Rogers, N Du Toit. Abstract. Aim: The main purpose of this study was to determine whether general practitioners (GPs) in the Cape Town metropole have sufficient knowledge to diagnose and ...
Tulika G. Mahanta
Conclusion: High prevalence of modifiable risk factors like tobacco consumption, high salt intake and high prevalence of hypertension indicates the need for early implementation of preventive actions in this population.
Other diseases that affect the oral cavity include, but not limited to caries, infections of the gum and jaws, malformations, benign and malignant tumours, as well as diabetes. The general dental practitioner therefore has very important duties. These include early recognition and diagnosis of oral health problems, oral health ...
The 1986 "Le General de Sanidad" (Sanitary General Regulations) has been studied using the method of the "Topología del Discurso" in order to elucidate what are the thoughts of the lawmakers. The law protects not only the population of catastrophes as it happened with the choleric epidemic of the XIX century, but considers a new concept a sanitary wealth should be provided to the individuals. Together with this new concept there are new ones such as equality and universalization of the sanitary assistence that would be keys of the aim of the lawmakers: to coordinate all the State resources in the reform of the spanish sanity. This includes the integration of the Universities. This can help in the understanding of the dificulties in the development and aplication of the Law present reality.
Prasai Dixit, Lonim; Shakya, Ajay; Shrestha, Manash; Shrestha, Ayush
-olds school children who participated in the survey reported having suffered from oral pain. Further, the need for treatment of decayed teeth was reported at 100%. About 76% children perceived teeth as an important component of general health and 75% reported it was required to eat. A total 93% children never visited a dentist or a health care service. Out of 56% children reporting cleaning their teeth daily, only 24% reported brushing their teeth twice daily. About 86% of the children reported using toothbrush and toothpaste to clean their teeth. Although 61% children reported to have received oral health education, 82% children did not know about fluoride and its benefit on dental health. About 50% children reported bacteria as the main cause of tooth decay and 23% as not brushing teeth for gingivitis. Frequency of sugar exposure was low; 75% of children reported eating sugar rich food once daily. Caries prevalence of 5-6 -year- old Chepang school children is above the recommended target set by FDI/WHO. The study reported 31% schoolchildren aged 8-16-year old suffered oral pain and decayed component constituted almost the entire dmft/DMFT index. The brushing habit was reportedly low with only 24% of the children brushing twice daily. A nationwide scientifically proven, cost effective school based interventions is needed for prevention and control of caries in schoolchildren in Nepal.
Lejoyeux, Michel; Mathieu, Karine; Embouazza, Houcine; Huet, Françoise; Lequen, Valérie
Compulsive buying is defined by the presence of repetitive impulsive and excessive buying, leading to personal and family distress. The objective of this study is to assess the prevalence of compulsive buying among "normal consumers" and to describe the specificities in the buying style of compulsive buyers. We tried to answer several questions. (1) Does compulsive buying occur more often during sales or periods of sales campaigns? (2) Is compulsive buying more impulsive and unplanned than normal buying? (3) Are compulsive buyers more "affectively" involved in their purchases (preference for specific brands they have a narcissistic relationship with, tendency to consider purchases as exceptional special occasions)? (4)Do women who buy compulsively use shopping Web sites and the Internet in general more than controls? We interviewed 200 women successively entering Les Galeries Lafayette, a famous Parisian department store. We diagnosed compulsive buying with standardized criteria and a specific rating scale. All subjects answered an additional questionnaire assessing their buying behavior. We also rated their duration of connection to the Web, the number of e-mails sent and received, and the time spent speaking on a cellular phone. Prevalence of compulsive buying was 32.5%. The proportion of married women was lower among compulsive buyers (66%) than in controls (85%). Compulsive buyers do not seek sales more than controls. Their decision to buy is more often made during their stay in the shop (48% vs 24%, chi(2) = 117, P vs 23.1%, P = .006). They have a higher tendency to use items less than expected (23.4% vs 14.4% in the control group, P vs 2.5%, P = .04) and consider more often their purchases as personally gratifying (44% vs 23%, P online shopping sites are longer and more frequent. They spend significantly more time than controls speaking on their cellular phones.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The early diagnosis of atherosclerotic disease is essential for developing preventive strategies in populations at high risk and acting when the disease is still asymptomatic. A low ankle-arm index is a good marker of vascular events and may be diminished without presenting symptomatology (silent peripheral arterial disease. The aim of the study is to know the prevalence and associated risk factors of peripheral arterial disease in the general population. Methods We performed a cross-sectional, multicentre, population-based study in 3786 individuals >49 years, randomly selected in 28 primary care centres in Barcelona (Spain. Peripheral arterial disease was evaluated using the ankle-arm index. Values Results The prevalence (95% confidence interval of peripheral arterial disease was 7.6% (6.7-8.4, (males 10.2% (9.2-11.2, females 5.3% (4.6-6.0; p Multivariate analysis showed the following risk factors: male sex [odds ratio (OR 1.62; 95% confidence interval 1.01-2.59]; age OR 2.00 per 10 years (1.64-2.44; inability to perform physical activity [OR 1.77 (1.17-2.68 for mild limitation to OR 7.08 (2.61-19.16 for breathless performing any activity]; smoking [OR 2.19 (1.34-3.58 for former smokers and OR 3.83 (2.23-6.58 for current smokers]; hypertension OR 1.85 (1.29-2.65; diabetes OR 2.01 (1.42-2.83; previous cardiovascular disease OR 2.19 (1.52-3.15; hypercholesterolemia OR 1.55 (1.11-2.18; hypertriglyceridemia OR 1.55 (1.10-2.19. Body mass index ≥25 Kg/m2 OR 0.57 (0.38-0.87 and walking >7 hours/week OR 0.67 (0.49-0.94 were found as protector factors. Conclusions The prevalence of peripheral arterial disease is low, higher in males and increases with age in both sexes. In addition to previously described risk factors we found a protector effect in physical exercise and overweight.
Robertson, Charles M; Klingensmith, Mary E; Coopersmith, Craig M
To quantify the prevalence, outcomes, and cost of surgical resident research. General surgery is unique among graduate medical education programs because a large percentage of residents interrupt their clinical training to spend 1 to 3 years performing full-time research. No comprehensive data exists on the scope of this practice. Survey sent to all 239 program directors of general surgery residencies participating in the National Resident Matching Program. Response rate was 200 of 239 (84%). A total of 381 of 1052 trainees (36%) interrupt residency to pursue full-time research. The mean research fellowship length is 1.7 years, with 72% of trainees performing basic science research. A significant association was found between fellowship length and postresidency activity, with a 14.7% increase in clinical fellowship training and a 15.2% decrease in private practice positions for each year of full-time research (P < 0.0001). Program directors at 31% of programs reported increased clinical duties for research fellows as a result of Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education work hour regulations for clinical residents, whereas a further 10% of programs are currently considering such changes. It costs $41.5 million to pay the 634 trainees who perform research fellowships each year, the majority of which is paid for by departmental funds (40%) and institutional training grants (24%). Interrupting residency to perform a research fellowship is a common and costly practice among general surgery residents. Although performing a research fellowship is associated with clinical fellowship training after residency, it is unclear to what extent this practice leads to the development of surgical investigators after postgraduate training.
Tarzia, Laura; Maxwell, Sarah; Valpied, Jodie; Novy, Kitty; Quake, Rebecca; Hegarty, Kelsey
Sexual violence (SV) against adult women is prevalent and associated with a range of mental health issues. General practitioners could potentially have a role in responding, however, there is little information to help guide them. Data around prevalence of all forms of adult SV (not just rape) is inconsistent, particularly in clinical samples, and the links between other forms of SV and mental health issues are not well supported. This study aimed to address these gaps in the knowledge base. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in Australian general practice clinics. Two hundred and thirty adult women completed an anonymous iPad survey while waiting to see the doctor. More than half the sample had experienced at least one incident of adult SV. Most commonly, women reported public harassment or flashing, unwanted groping and being coerced into sex. Women who had experienced adult SV were more likely to experience anxiety than women who had not, even after controlling for other factors. Women who had experienced adult SV were more likely to feel down, depressed or hopeless than women who had not; however, this association disappeared after controlling for childhood sexual abuse. The findings support the association between SV and poor mental health, even when 'lesser' incidents have occurred. Implications for public health: General practitioners should consider an experience of SV as a possible factor in otherwise unexplained anxiety and depressive symptoms in female patients. © 2017 The Authors.
Senthil, Arasi; Anandh, Balasubramanian; Jayachandran, Palsamy; Thangavel, Gurusamy; Josephin, Diana; Yamini, Ravindran; Kalpana, Balakrishnan
Health care workers (HCWs) are exposed to occupational related health hazards. Measuring worker perception and the prevalence of these hazards can help facilitate better risk management for HCWs, as these workers are envisaged to be the first point of contact, especially in resource poor settings. To describe the perception of occupational health hazards and self-reported exposure prevalence among HCWs in Southern India. We used cross sectional design with stratified random sampling of HCWs from different levels of health facilities and categories in a randomly selected district in Southern India. Data on perception and exposure prevalence were collected using a structured interview schedule developed by occupational health experts and administered by trained investigators. A total of 482 HCWs participated. Thirty nine percent did not recognize work-related health hazards, but reported exposure to at least one hazard upon further probing. Among the 81·5% who reported exposure to biological hazard, 93·9% had direct skin contact with infectious materials. Among HCWs reporting needle stick injury, 70·5% had at least one in the previous three months. Ergonomic hazards included lifting heavy objects (42%) and standing for long hours (37%). Psychological hazards included negative feelings (20·3%) and verbal or physical abuse during work (20·5%). More than a third of HCWs failed to recognize work-related health hazards. Despite training in handling infectious materials, HCWs reported direct skin contact with infectious materials and needle stick injuries. RESULTS indicate the need for training oriented toward behavioral change and provision of occupational health services.
Full Text Available Accidental needle-stick injuries (NSIs are a hazard for health-care workers and general public health. Orthopaedic surgeons may be more prone to NSIs due to the prevalence of bone spikes in the operative field and the use of sharp orthopaedic instruments such as drills, saws and wires. A hospital-based cross sectional study was conducted in the orthopedic wards of Melaka General Hospital. The prevalence of NSIs was 32 (20.9% and majority of it occurred during assisting in operation theatre 13(37.4%. Among them six (18.8% were specialist, 12(37.5% medical officer, 10 (31.2% house officer and four staff nurses (12.5%. Among the respondents 142 (92.8% had been immunized against Hepatitis B and 148 (96.7% participants had knowledge regarding universal precaution. The incidence of NSI among health care workers at orthopaedics ward was not any higher in comparison with the similar studies and it was found out that the prevalence was more in junior doctors compared with specialist and staff nurses and it was statistically significant.
DE HERT, MARC; CORRELL, CHRISTOPH U.; BOBES, JULIO; CETKOVICH-BAKMAS, MARCELO; COHEN, DAN; ASAI, ITSUO; DETRAUX, JOHAN; GAUTAM, SHIV; MÖLLER, HANS-JURGEN; NDETEI, DAVID M.; NEWCOMER, JOHN W.; UWAKWE, RICHARD; LEUCHT, STEFAN
The lifespan of people with severe mental illness (SMI) is shorter compared to the general population. This excess mortality is mainly due to physical illness. We report prevalence rates of different physical illnesses as well as important individual lifestyle choices, side effects of psychotropic treatment and disparities in health care access, utilization and provision that contribute to these poor physical health outcomes. We searched MEDLINE (1966 – August 2010) combining the MeSH terms of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder with the different MeSH terms of general physical disease categories to select pertinent reviews and additional relevant studies through cross-referencing to identify prevalence figures and factors contributing to the excess morbidity and mortality rates. Nutritional and metabolic diseases, cardiovascular diseases, viral diseases, respiratory tract diseases, musculoskeletal diseases, sexual dysfunction, pregnancy complications, stomatognathic diseases, and possibly obesity-related cancers are, compared to the general population, more prevalent among people with SMI. It seems that lifestyle as well as treatment specific factors account for much of the increased risk for most of these physical diseases. Moreover, there is sufficient evidence that people with SMI are less likely to receive standard levels of care for most of these diseases. Lifestyle factors, relatively easy to measure, are barely considered for screening; baseline testing of numerous important physical parameters is insufficiently performed. Besides modifiable lifestyle factors and side effects of psychotropic medications, access to and quality of health care remains to be improved for individuals with SMI. PMID:21379357
Thomas, Steve; Jenkins, Rachel; Burch, Tony; Calamos Nasir, Laura; Fisher, Brian; Giotaki, Gina; Gnani, Shamini; Hertel, Lise; Marks, Marina; Mathers, Nigel; Millington-Sanders, Catherine; Morris, David; Ruprah-Shah, Baljeet; Stange, Kurt; Thomas, Paul; White, Robert; Wright, Fiona
This paper calls for the routine integration of mental health promotion and prevention into UK General Practice in order to reduce the burden of mental and physical disorders and the ensuing pressure on General Practice. The proposals & the resulting document (https://ethicscharity.files.wordpress.com/2015/09/rcgp_keymsg_150925_v5.pdf) arise from an expert 'Think Tank' convened by the London Journal of Primary Care, Educational Trust for Health Improvement through Cognitive Strategies (ETHICS Foundation) and the Royal College of General Practitioners. It makes 12 recommendations for General Practice: (1) Mental health promotion and prevention are too important to wait. (2) Work with your community to map risk factors, resources and assets. (3) Good health care, medicine and best practice are biopsychosocial rather than purely physical. (4) Integrate mental health promotion and prevention into your daily work. (5) Boost resilience in your community through approaches such as community development. (6) Identify people at increased risk of mental disorder for support and screening. (7) Support early intervention for people of all ages with signs of illness. (8) Maintain your biopsychosocial skills. (9) Ensure good communication, interdisciplinary team working and inter-sectoral working with other staff, teams and agencies. (10) Lead by example, taking action to promote the resilience of the general practice workforce. (11) Ensure mental health is appropriately included in the strategic agenda for your 'cluster' of General Practices, at the Clinical Commissioning Groups, and the Health and Wellbeing Board. (12) Be aware of national mental health strategies and localise them, including action to destigmatise mental illness within the context of community development.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Chronic heart failure (CHF is one of the most important public health concerns in the industrialized world having increasing incidence and prevalence. Although there are several studies describing the prevalence of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFREF and heart failure with normal ejection fraction (HFNEF in selected populations, there are few data regarding the prevalence and the determinants of symptomatic heart failure in the general population. METHODS: Cross-sectional data of a population-based German sample (1,779 subjects aged 45-83 years were analyzed to determine the prevalence and determinants of chronic SHF and HFNEF defined according to the European Society of Cardiology using symptoms, echocardiography and serum NT-proBNP. Prevalence was age-standardized to the German population as of December 31st, 2005. RESULTS: The overall age-standardized prevalence of symptomatic CHF was 7.7% (95%CI 6.0-9.8 for men and 9.0% (95%CI 7.0-11.5 for women. The prevalence of CHF strongly increased with age from 3.0% among 45-54- year-old subjects to 22.0% among 75-83- year-old subjects. Symptomatic HFREF could be shown in 48% (n = 78, symptomatic HFNEF in 52% (n = 85 of subjects with CHF. The age-standardized prevalence of HFREF was 3.8 % (95%CI 2.4-5.8 for women and 4.6 % (95%CI 3.6-6.3 for men. The age-standardized prevalence of HFNEF for women and men was 5.1 % (95%CI 3.8-7.0 and 3.0 % (95%CI 2.1-4.5, respectively. Persons with CHF were more likely to have hypertension (PR = 3.4; 95%CI 1.6-7.3 or to have had a previous myocardial infarction (PR = 2.5, 95%CI 1.8-3.5. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of symptomatic CHF appears high in this population compared with other studies. While more women were affected by HFNEF than men, more male subjects suffered from HFREF. The high prevalence of symptomatic CHF seems likely to be mainly due to the high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in this population.
Brink-Muinen, A. van den; Bensing, J.M.; Kerssens, J.J.
Objectives: differences were investigated between general practitioners providing women's health care (4 women) and general practitioners providing regular health care (8 women and 8 men). Expectations were formulated on the basis of the principles of women's health care and literature about gender
Lee, Mi Hwa; Cho, Pyong Kon [Dept. of Radiological Science, Catholic University of Daegu, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Duck Moon [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Daegu Health College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)
Gallstone is the most common disease of the biliary system. Korean has experienced an increase in the percentage of cholesterol gallstones. The major risk factors associated with cholesterol gallstones are age, gender as well as obesity. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of gallstones in the last three years and evaluate the associated risk factors in the population who underwent health screening. The study population consisted of 2,484 males and 2,212 females who visited the health promotion center in Dalseogu, Daegu in Korea from January 2011 to December 2013. Each participant in the study had their biliary system gallbladder examined using ultrasonography. Classified as underweight, normal weight or overweight using the population of obese according to the body mass index, and classified according to mood diagnosis of diabetes presented by the American Diabetes Association. Fasting blood glucose and number of liver function, the divided the control group by referring to the normal liver function values used herein. The geological map, I was classified as NCEP APT Ⅲ. A showed of total 148 people were found to have gallstones. The prevalence of sex among 148 patients (3.15%) 84 men (1.79%) and 64 women (1.36%) which shows significantly there is little difference. 1.84% 40 years and below, 3.38% 40's showed age prevalence was 4.66% in 50's and above. In addition, Total-cholesterol was at the most in 52 people, LDL-cholesterol in 398 people, Triglyceride in 36 people, HDL-cholesterol in 19 people. The abnormal group, was created from the total-cholesterol categories from a physical examination of a subject that has been found to be gallstones in the gallbladder. A result of conducting the univariate analysis shows the prevalence of gallstones, a correlation that is meaningful. The logistic regression analysis of multiple ages was chosen to show risk factors age independent cholelithiasis. In spite of the conclusion, gallstones are not
Lee, Mi Hwa; Cho, Pyong Kon; Kwon, Duck Moon
Gallstone is the most common disease of the biliary system. Korean has experienced an increase in the percentage of cholesterol gallstones. The major risk factors associated with cholesterol gallstones are age, gender as well as obesity. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of gallstones in the last three years and evaluate the associated risk factors in the population who underwent health screening. The study population consisted of 2,484 males and 2,212 females who visited the health promotion center in Dalseogu, Daegu in Korea from January 2011 to December 2013. Each participant in the study had their biliary system gallbladder examined using ultrasonography. Classified as underweight, normal weight or overweight using the population of obese according to the body mass index, and classified according to mood diagnosis of diabetes presented by the American Diabetes Association. Fasting blood glucose and number of liver function, the divided the control group by referring to the normal liver function values used herein. The geological map, I was classified as NCEP APT Ⅲ. A showed of total 148 people were found to have gallstones. The prevalence of sex among 148 patients (3.15%) 84 men (1.79%) and 64 women (1.36%) which shows significantly there is little difference. 1.84% 40 years and below, 3.38% 40's showed age prevalence was 4.66% in 50's and above. In addition, Total-cholesterol was at the most in 52 people, LDL-cholesterol in 398 people, Triglyceride in 36 people, HDL-cholesterol in 19 people. The abnormal group, was created from the total-cholesterol categories from a physical examination of a subject that has been found to be gallstones in the gallbladder. A result of conducting the univariate analysis shows the prevalence of gallstones, a correlation that is meaningful. The logistic regression analysis of multiple ages was chosen to show risk factors age independent cholelithiasis. In spite of the conclusion, gallstones are not
Fekadu, Daniel; Alem, Atalay; Hagglof, Bruno
Background: Child labor refers to a state when a child is involved in exploitative economical activities that are mentally, physically, and socially hazardous. There are no prevalence studies on the magnitude of psychiatric disorders among child laborers. Methods: A cross-sectional population survey was conducted in Addis Ababa using the…
Full Text Available in developing countries for multiple purposes, which include drinking, recreation and agriculture. The current study investigated the prevalence and potential health risks of enteropathogenic bacteria (Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella dysenteriae and Vibrio...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The 2011 BRFSS data reflects a change in weighting methodology (raking) and the addition of cell phone only respondents. Shifts in observed prevalence from 2010 to...
Pomeranz, Jennifer L; Brownell, Kelly D
Obesity in the United States exacts a heavy health and financial toll, requiring new approaches to address this public health crisis. State attorneys general have been underutilized in efforts to formulate and implement food and obesity policy solutions. Their authority lies at the intersection of law and public policy, creating unique opportunities unavailable to other officials and government entities. Attorneys general have a broad range of authority over matters specifically relevant to obesity and nutrition policy, including parens patriae (parent of the country) authority, protecting consumer interests, enacting and supporting rules and regulations, working together across states, engaging in consumer education, and drafting opinions and amicus briefs. Significant room exists for greater attorney general involvement in formulating and championing solutions to public health problems such as obesity.
Imai, Hirohisa; Nakao, Hiroyuki; Nakagi, Yoshihiko; Niwata, Satoko; Sugioka, Yoshihiko; Itoh, Toshihiro; Yoshida, Takahiko
The Community Health Act came into effect in 1997 in Japan. This act altered the work system for public health nurses (PHNs) in public health centers (PHCs) nationwide from region-specific to service-specific work. Such major changes to working environment in the new system seem to be exposing PHNs to various types of stress. The present study examined whether prevalence of burnout is higher among PHNs in charge of mental health services (psychiatric PHNs) than among PHNs in charge of other services (non-psychiatric PHNs), and whether attributes of emergency mental health care systems in communities are associated with increased prevalence of burnout. A questionnaire including the Pines burnout scale for measuring burnout was mailed to 525 psychiatric PHNs and 525 non-psychiatric PHNs. The 785 respondents included in the final analysis comprised 396 psychiatric PHNs and 389 non-psychiatric PHNs. Prevalence of burnout was significantly higher for psychiatric PHNs (59.2%) than for non-psychiatric PHNs (51.5%). When prevalence of burnout in each group was analyzed in relation to question responses regarding emergency service and patient referral systems, prevalence of burnout for psychiatric PHNs displayed significant correlations to frequency of cases requiring overtime emergency services, difficulties referring patients, and a feeling of "restriction". Prevalence of burnout is high among psychiatric PHNs, and inadequate emergency mental health service systems contribute to burnout among these nurses. Countermeasures for preventing such burnout should be taken as soon as possible.
Full Text Available To estimate the prevalence of common chronic conditions and multimorbidity among patients at GP encounters and among people in the Australian population. To assess the extent to which use of each individual patient's GP attendance over the previous year, instead of the average for their age-sex group, affects the precision of national population prevalence estimates of diagnosed chronic conditions.A sub-study (between November 2012 and March 2016 of the Bettering the Evaluation and Care of Health program, a continuous national study of GP activity. Each of 1,449 GPs provided data for about 30 consecutive patients (total 43,501 indicating for each, number of GP attendances in previous year and all diagnosed chronic conditions, using their knowledge of the patient, patient self-report, and patient's health record.Hypertension (26.5% was the most prevalent diagnosed chronic condition among patients surveyed, followed by osteoarthritis (22.7%, hyperlipidaemia (16.6%, depression (16.3%, anxiety (11.9%, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GORD (11.3%, chronic back pain (9.7% and Type 2 diabetes (9.6%. After adjustment, we estimated population prevalence of hypertension as 12.4%, 9.5% osteoarthritis, 8.2% hyperlipidaemia, 8.0% depression, 5.8% anxiety and 5.2% asthma. Estimates were significantly lower than those derived using the previous method. About half (51.6% the patients at GP encounters had two or more diagnosed chronic conditions and over one third (37.4% had three or more. Population estimates were: 25.7% had two or more diagnosed chronic conditions and 15.8% had three or more.Of the three approaches we have tested to date, this study provides the most accurate method for estimation of population prevalence of chronic conditions using the GP as an expert interviewer, by adjusting for each patient's reported attendance.
Sjödin, Anders Mikael
of Article 13.1 claims except for claims put on hold by the European Commission, and has evaluated additional health claim applications submitted pursuant to Articles 13.5, 14 and also 19. In addition, comments received from stakeholders indicate that general issues that are common to all health claims need...... based on the experience gained to date with the evaluation of health claims, and it may be further updated, as appropriate, when additional issues are addressed.......The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) asked the Panel on Dietetic Products Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) to update the General guidance for stakeholders on the evaluation of Article 13.1, 13.5 and 14 health claims published in March 2011. Since then, the NDA Panel has completed the evaluation...
Rospenda, Kathleen M; Richman, Judith A; Shannon, Candice A
This study describes past-year prevalence and effects on mental health and drinking outcomes for harassment and discrimination in the workplace (HDW) in a nationally representative random digit dial phone survey conducted in 2003-2004 (n = 2,151). HDW measures included experiences and perceptions of sexual harassment (SH) and generalized workplace harassment (GWH), and perceived harassment or discrimination because of race or ethnicity. Prevalence was examined by sex, race, age, occupation, marital status, and education. Effects of HDW were assessed controlling for demo-graphics and job and life stressors. Experiencing multiple types of HDW was common. SH was more prevalent among women, and Blacks and those of other or mixed race or ethnicity experienced the highest levels of HDW overall. HDW variables explained additional variance in problem drinking and mental health beyond life and job stressors, particularly for women. This study demonstrates that HDW is a prevalent problem associated with poor mental health and problem drinking in the U.S. workforce.
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and the related factors of pelvic organ prolapse (POP in a female population to whom health care services are offered. Materials and Methods: 1354 of the 3000 women admitted to the outpatient clinic between June 2008 and December 2008 were enrolled as they accepted to participate to the study. 34 of these patients with a history of previous hysterectomy and/or any kind of pelvic reconstructive surgery were excluded. Baseline characteristics, as well as medical and obstetric history of the patients were recorded. All women underwent vaginal examination to determine the degree of prolapse by pelvic organ prolapse quantification (POPQ system. POP-Q stages ≥2 were defined as prolapse. Women with and without prolapse were compared. Regression analysis was used in order to determine the independent predictors. Results: Prolapse (stage ≥2 was detected in 358 patients (27.1%. Patients with prolapse were found to be significantly older and heavier. They had a higher waist to hip ratio and had a higher parity. Compared to women without prolapse, cesarean rate was significantly lower in women with prolapse (10.6% vs. 20.8%; p<0.001, and the mean birth weight of the babies of the women with prolapse was significantly higher (3584±574 vs. 3490±389 g, p=0.004. Prevalence of prolapse was found to be decreased as the level of education increased. Waist to hip ratio (OR: 46.2, CI: 3.3-655, p=0.005, parity (OR: 1.5, CI: 1.3-1.7, p<0.001, vaginal delivery (OR: 1.5, CI: 0.3-0.8, p=0.005, and menopausal status (OR: 1.2, CI: 1.1-1.4, p=0.005 were found to be independent predictors of development of POP. Conclusion: In the present study, POP was found to be associated with waist to hip ratio, parity, vaginal delivery, and menopausal status.
Cooper, C. L.; Rout, U.; Faragher, B.
OBJECTIVE--To identify sources of job stress associated with high levels of job dissatisfaction and negative mental wellbeing among general practitioners in England. DESIGN--Multivariate analysis of large database of general practitioners compiled from results of confidential questionnaire survey. Data obtained on independent variables of job stress, demographic factors, and personality. Dependent variables were mental health, job satisfaction, alcohol consumption, and smoking. SETTING--Natio...
Mao, Xuanxia; Shen, Xiuhua; Tang, Wenjing; Zhao, Ye; Wu, Fan; Zhu, Zhenni; Tang, Qingya; Cai, Wei
To assess the prevalence of vegetarians in the whole Shanghai population, and to know the vegetarians' brief and behavior on diet, nutrition and health. First, a multi-staged, stratified, clustered random sampling design was used. A total representative sample of 4 004 Shanghai resident subjects were asked if they were vegetarians and what type of vegetarian they were by a well-designed questionnaire. Second, from ten vegetarian restaurants located in Shanghai. 473 adult vegetarians completed a questionnaire about vegetarian status, among whom 274 vegetarians completed a detailed questionnaire about their brief and behaviors on diet, nutrition and health status. Of 4 004 subjects, 0.77% were vegetarians (0.45% were lacto-vegetarians and 0. 12% were vegans). The average age was 65. 0 years. 74. 2% of the vegetarians were female. Of 473 vegetarians, 70. 2% of the vegetarians had college or higher education. Compared to vegans, lacto-ovo-vegetarians were significantly younger and had higher educational level. The main reasons for choosing a vegetarian lifestyle were religion (49. 3%) and health (31. 3%). Furthermore, more vegan tend to be Buddhist. Vegetarians were more concerned about their health (209/274, 76. 5%) , the consumption of balance diets (183/274, 66. 8%). Comparing with lacto-ovo-vegetarians (58. 3%) more vegans (70. 4%) believed in that vegetarian diet is a kind of healthy dietary pattern and will not have any nutrients deficiency (P = 0. 037). Vegetarians consumed more healthy foods (e. g.,whole grains, vegetables, soy products, and nuts) than the general population (P < 0. 01). Only 5. 8% of the vegetarians took dietary supplements. 0. 77% of population in Shanghai was vegetarian. The two main reasons for adopting a vegetarian lifestyle were religion and health. The vegetarians tend to have more nutrition knowledge, better attitude and behavior on health. However, most of the vegetarians had not realized the nutrient deficiency risk of vegetarian
Kandelman, Daniel; Petersen, Poul Erik; Ueda, Hiroshi
The purpose of this report is to review the interrelationship between poor oral health conditions of older people and general health. The impact of poor oral health on quality of life (QOL) is analyzed, and the implications for public health intervention and oral health care are discussed. Findings...... from the current research may lead to the following conclusions: The available scientific evidence is particularly strong for a direct relationship between diabetes and periodontal disease; the direct relationship between periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease is less convincing. General...... and associated oral health conditions have a direct influence on elder people's QOL and lifestyle. The growing number of elderly people challenges health authorities in most countries. The evidence on oral health-general health relationships is particularly important to WHO in its effort to strengthen integrated...
Rosenthal, Meredith; Milstein, Arnold
Despite widespread publicity of consumer-directed health plans, little is known about their prevalence and the extent to which their designs adequately reflect and support consumerism. We examined three types of consumer-directed health plans: health reimbursement accounts (HRAs), premium-tiered, and point-of-care tiered benefit plans. We sought to measure the extent to which these plans had diffused, as well as to provide a critical look at the ways in which these plans support consumerism. Consumerism in this context refers to efforts to enable informed consumer choice and consumers' involvement in managing their health. We also wished to determine whether mainstream health plans-health maintenance organization (HMO), point of service (POS), and preferred provider organization (PPO) models-were being influenced by consumerism. Our study uses national survey data collected by Mercer Human Resource Consulting from 680 national and regional commercial health benefit plans on HMO, PPO, POS, and consumer-directed products. We defined consumer-directed products as health benefit plans that provided (1) consumer incentives to select more economical health care options, including self-care and no care, and (2) information and support to inform such selections. We asked health plans that offered consumer-directed products about 2003 enrollment, basic design features, and the availability of decision support. We also asked mainstream health plans about their activities that supported consumerism (e.g., proactive outreach to inform or influence enrollee behavior, such as self-management or preventive care, reminders sent to patients with identified medical conditions.) We analyzed survey responses for all four product lines in order to identify those plans that offer health reimbursement accounts (HRAs), premium-tiered, or point-of-care tiered models as well as efforts of mainstream health plans to engage informed consumer decision making. The majority of enrollees in
van Meel, D; de Vrij, J H; Kunst, A E; Mackenbach, J P
The aim of this study was to determine whether the austerely living Trappist and Benedictine monks have a lower prevalence of a number of risk factors and health problems than the general Dutch population. A written questionnaire was submitted to monks of 7 monasteries. The response was 67 per cent (134 monks). The data were compared with data from the national Health Interview Survey of 1989, which used an almost identical questionnaire. Adjustment was made for differences in age and education. Monks consume less alcohol and tobacco and have a more austere diet. Their average Quetelet index is lower. The prevalence of cardiovascular disease is lower. On the other hand, monks more often report a number of other chronic diseases, physical complaints, and problems with activities of daily life. They more often have contact with general practitioners and with consultants. The lower prevalence of a number of risk factors among monks reflects their austere way of life. It is not certain whether the lower prevalence of cardiovascular diseases can be attributed to this way of life. The fact that, in general, health problems are more prevalent among monks suggests that changes in lifestyle do not necessarily lead to compression of morbidity.
Diepgen, T L; Ofenloch, R; Bruze, M; Cazzaniga, S; Coenraads, P J; Elsner, P; Goncalo, M; Svensson, Å; Naldi, L
Contact allergy to fragrances is assessed mostly in clinical populations of patients. Studies in the general population are scarce and vary in their methodology across countries. To determine the prevalence of fragrance contact allergy in the European general population and to assess the clinical relevance of positive patch test reactions to different fragrances. In five European countries (Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal and Sweden) a random sample from the general population aged 18-74 years was drawn. In total, 12 377 subjects were interviewed in this cross-sectional study and a random sample (n = 3119) was patch tested using the TRUE Test and Finn Chamber techniques. Patch test procedures were harmonized by mandatory training before the study and monitoring during the study. The highest prevalence for contact allergy of 2·6% [95% confidence interval (CI) 2·1-3·2] was found for fragrance mix (FM) I in petrolatum, with a high content of atranol and chloratranol, followed by 1·9% (95% CI 1·5-2·4) for FM II in petrolatum. The conservatively estimated prevalence of fragrance contact allergy was 1·9% (95% CI 1·5-2·5). This is defined as the existence of a positive patch test to FM I or FM II; any of their individual materials; Myroxylon pereirae; sesquiterpene lactones or 3- and 4-hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde that show clinical relevance, defined conservatively as lifetime avoidance of scented products and an itchy skin rash lasting > 3 days in a lifetime. Using the reported lifetime prevalence of any contact dermatitis instead of the lifetime prevalence of any itchy skin rash, the prevalence is 0·8% (95% CI 0·5-1·2). The prevalence rates of contact allergy to fragrances in women are about twice those in men. This study helps to identify targets for prevention of fragrance allergy. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.
Ollivier, Y; Saraux, A; Le Goff, P
To evaluate the influence of lifestyle factors on the prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by comparing Roman Catholic nuns and the general female population. RA prevalence in the general population was evaluated using a standardized telephone survey in 1857 homes taken at random. Individuals who reported an inflammatory joint disease were contacted by a rheumatologist of our unit, missing data were collected from the general practitioner or rheumatologist with the patient's permission, and if necessary a physical examination was done by a rheumatologist. The 9 largest Roman Catholic nun communities in Brittany were screened using the same standardized questionnaire administered face-to-face; nuns who reported an inflammatory joint disease were interviewed and examined by rheumatologists. In both populations, RA was diagnosed when (1) the rheumatologist of our unit who interviewed the patient considered the RA classification criteria positive and (2) the rheumatologist who examined the patient gave a diagnosis of RA independently from RA classification criteria. Data were available for 1706 adult females in the general population and 721 nuns. Of the 20 nuns who reported RA or polyarthritis, 11 received a diagnosis of RA (prevalence 1.52%). The prevalences adjustedfor the French population after 40 years were 1.66% (95% confidence interval, 0.84-2.44) and 1.33 (0.27-2.40) among the nuns and the general female population, respectively. Although our nun population was too small for definite conclusions, we found no evidence of a difference in RA prevalence among nuns and the general female population in Brittany.
Fernandes Antunes, Adelio; Xu, Ke; James, Chris D; Saksena, Priyanka; Van de Maele, Nathalie; Carrin, Guy; Evans, David B
There has been recent controversy about whether aid directed specifically to health has caused recipient governments to reallocate their own funds to non-health areas. At the same time, general budget support (GBS) has been increasing. GBS allows governments to set their own priorities, but little is known about how these additional resources are subsequently used. This paper uses cross-country panel data to assess the impact of GBS programmes on health spending in low-income and middle-income countries, using dynamic panel techniques to estimate unbiased coefficients in the presence of serial correlation. We found no clear evidence that GBS had any impact, positive or negative, on government health spending derived from domestic sources. GBS also had no observed impact on total government health spending from all sources (external as well as domestic). In contrast, health-specific aid was associated with a decline in health expenditures from domestic sources, but there was not a full substitution effect. That is, despite this observed fungibility, health-specific aid still increases total government health spending from all sources. Finally, increases in total government expenditure led to substantial increases in domestic government health expenditures. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Background Administrative databases are widely available and have been extensively used to provide estimates of chronic disease prevalence for the purpose of surveillance of both geographical and temporal trends. There are, however, other sources of data available, such as medical records from primary care and national surveys. In this paper we compare disease prevalence estimates obtained from these three different data sources. Methods Data from general practitioners (GP) and administrative transactions for health services were collected from five Italian regions (Veneto, Emilia Romagna, Tuscany, Marche and Sicily) belonging to all the three macroareas of the country (North, Center, South). Crude prevalence estimates were calculated by data source and region for diabetes, ischaemic heart disease, heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). For diabetes and COPD, prevalence estimates were also obtained from a national health survey. When necessary, estimates were adjusted for completeness of data ascertainment. Results Crude prevalence estimates of diabetes in administrative databases (range: from 4.8% to 7.1%) were lower than corresponding GP (6.2%-8.5%) and survey-based estimates (5.1%-7.5%). Geographical trends were similar in the three sources and estimates based on treatment were the same, while estimates adjusted for completeness of ascertainment (6.1%-8.8%) were slightly higher. For ischaemic heart disease administrative and GP data sources were fairly consistent, with prevalence ranging from 3.7% to 4.7% and from 3.3% to 4.9%, respectively. In the case of heart failure administrative estimates were consistently higher than GPs’ estimates in all five regions, the highest difference being 1.4% vs 1.1%. For COPD the estimates from administrative data, ranging from 3.1% to 5.2%, fell into the confidence interval of the Survey estimates in four regions, but failed to detect the higher prevalence in the most Southern region (4.0% in
Olsen, E M; Petersen, J; Skovgaard, A M; Weile, B; Jørgensen, T; Wright, C M
Background Failure to thrive (FTT) in early childhood is associated with subsequent developmental delay and is recognised to reflect relative undernutrition. Although the concept of FTT is widely used, no consensus exists regarding a specific definition, and it is unclear to what extent different anthropometric definitions concur. Objective To compare the prevalence and concurrence of different anthropometric criteria for FTT and test the sensitivity and positive predictive values of these in detecting children with “significant undernutrition”, defined as the combination of slow conditional weight gain and low body mass index (BMI). Methods Seven criteria of FTT, including low weight for age, low BMI, low conditional weight gain and Waterlow's criterion for wasting, were applied to a birth cohort of 6090 Danish infants. The criteria were compared in two age groups: 2–6 and 6–11 months of life. Results 27% of infants met one or more criteria in at least one of the two age groups. The concurrence among the criteria was generally poor, with most children identified by only one criterion. Positive predictive values of different criteria ranged from 1% to 58%. Most single criteria identified either less than half the cases of significant undernutrition (found in 3%) or included far too many, thus having a low positive predictive value. Children with low weight for height tended to be relatively tall. Conclusions No single measurement on its own seems to be adequate for identifying nutritional growth delay. Further longitudinal population studies are needed to investigate the discriminating power of different criteria in detecting significant undernutrition and subsequent outcomes. PMID:16531456
Background: Having knowledge about health issues is necessary for making informed decisions related to practicing lifestyles conducive to good health. The aim of this study was to identify socio-demographic, behavioural and clinical covariates of knowledge related to the cause and prevention of oral diseases among ...
Oct 11, 2007 ... of the expectant women did not deliver at a health facility ... health service utilization for childbirth such as education5-8, maternal age 3,6, parity6,8, economic status7, cultural factors and beliefs, lack of skilled staff at primary.
Cinar, Ayse Basak
Inequalities in oral and general health have been rising globally; WHO calls for adoption of an integrated approach to their promotion as both share common risk factors. However, research about this issue among children is scarce. Based on the associations of such a research found in common for a...... to adopt healthy lifestyles, both in economically developing and developed countries. This book should be especially useful to researchers, professionals in dentistry and medicine, policy makers, and anyone else involved in provision of better health to community....... Turkish and Finnish children, this book underlies that oral health is turning out to be part of the global health culture, regardless of cultural differences and different oral health care systems. The book, further, by most recent literature, provides a review of 'Significance of Oral Health, Concept......Inequalities in oral and general health have been rising globally; WHO calls for adoption of an integrated approach to their promotion as both share common risk factors. However, research about this issue among children is scarce. Based on the associations of such a research found in common for all...
Full Text Available Background: Internet is a neutral tool on its own. However, excessive use of internet poses the risk of being addicted to it. This study was performed to investigate the association between general health and internet addiction.Materials and Methods: In this descriptive study a total number of 375 students (189 female and 186 male were randomly selected from Sistan and Baluchestan University between 2007 to 2008. Using the internet addiction test (IAT, the students were divided into two groups: ordinary users and addicted users of internet. The general health questionnaire (GHQ was used to compare these two groups. The SPSS software and t test were used to analyze the data and P<0.01 was significant.Results: The general health of internet-addicted users in comparison with ordinary users was at a higher risk (P<0.01. But the difference between two groups in general health and disorders of social function were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Depression and anxiety were common in internet addicted users and it was correlated to the amount of time that they were allocating to it.
Purpose: There is little information about the reliability and validity of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) in Ghana. This study sought to examine the reliability and factor structure of the GHQ-12 in Ghanaian adolescents. Methods: High school students (N = 770) completed the GHQ-12 and the Adolescent ...
R. Khonde Kumbu
Full Text Available Background. Schistosomiasis is a public health problem in Democratic Republic of the Congo but estimates of its prevalence vary widely. The aim of this study was to determine prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infection and associated risk factors among children in 4 health areas of Kisantu health zone. Methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 4 health areas of Kisantu health zone. 388 children randomly selected were screened for S. mansoni using Kato Katz technique and the sociodemographic data was collected. Data were entered and encoded using software EpiData version 3.1. Analysis was performed using SPSS version 21 software. Results. The prevalence of S. mansoni was 26.5% (103; almost two-thirds (63 (61.2% had light infection intensity. A significant association was found between S. mansoni infection and age (p=0.005, educational level (p=0.001, and practices of swimming/bathing (p<0.001 and using water from river/lake/stream for domestic use (p<0.001. Kipasa health area had high prevalence of schistosomiasis (64.6% (64/99; 95% CI 54.4–74.0 compared to other health areas. Conclusion. Schistosoma mansoni infection still remains a public health problem in these areas. There is a need to promote health education and promote behavioral changes in children towards schistosomiasis.
Yamada, Hiroko; Takahashi, Kazuaki; Lim, Olline; Svay, Somana; Chuon, Channarena; Hok, Sirany; Do, Son Huy; Fujimoto, Mayumi; Akita, Tomoyuki; Goto, Noboru; Katayama, Keiko; Arai, Masahiro; Tanaka, Junko
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a growing public health problem in many countries. In this study, we investigated HEV seroprevalence among the general population in the Siem Reap province, Cambodia, and performed HEV genetic analysis with the aim to develop an HEV prevention strategy. This seroepidemiological cross-sectional study conducted from 2010 to 2014 included 868 participants from four different locations in Siem Reap province, Cambodia. They answered questionnaires and provided blood samples for the analysis of hepatitis virus infections. Among the participants (360 men and 508 women; age range, 7-90 years), the prevalence of anti-HEV IgG was 18.4% (95% confidence interval: 15.9-21.0); HEV RNA was detected in two participants (0.23%) and was classified as genotype 3 and 4. Full-length genome of the genotype 4 isolate, CVS-Sie10, was sequenced; it contained 7,222 nucleotides and three ORFs and demonstrated high sequence identity with the swine China isolates swGX40 (95.57%), SS19 (94.37%), and swDQ (91.94%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that men, elderly people, and house workers were risk groups significantly associated with the positivity for anti-HEV IgG. This is the first report on the detection of HEV genotype 4 in humans in Cambodia and on the complete genome sequence of HEV genotype 4 from this country. Our study demonstrates that new HEV infection cases occur frequently among the general population in Cambodia, and effective preventive measures are required.
Full Text Available Hepatitis E virus (HEV is a growing public health problem in many countries. In this study, we investigated HEV seroprevalence among the general population in the Siem Reap province, Cambodia, and performed HEV genetic analysis with the aim to develop an HEV prevention strategy. This seroepidemiological cross-sectional study conducted from 2010 to 2014 included 868 participants from four different locations in Siem Reap province, Cambodia. They answered questionnaires and provided blood samples for the analysis of hepatitis virus infections. Among the participants (360 men and 508 women; age range, 7-90 years, the prevalence of anti-HEV IgG was 18.4% (95% confidence interval: 15.9-21.0; HEV RNA was detected in two participants (0.23% and was classified as genotype 3 and 4. Full-length genome of the genotype 4 isolate, CVS-Sie10, was sequenced; it contained 7,222 nucleotides and three ORFs and demonstrated high sequence identity with the swine China isolates swGX40 (95.57%, SS19 (94.37%, and swDQ (91.94%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that men, elderly people, and house workers were risk groups significantly associated with the positivity for anti-HEV IgG. This is the first report on the detection of HEV genotype 4 in humans in Cambodia and on the complete genome sequence of HEV genotype 4 from this country. Our study demonstrates that new HEV infection cases occur frequently among the general population in Cambodia, and effective preventive measures are required.
Siow, T R; Soh, I P; Sreedharan, S; Das De, S; Tan, P P; Seow, A; Lun, K C
The Internet is an increasingly popular source of healthcare information. This study describes the prevalence of health surfers in Singapore and their health-surfing patterns. It also assesses their confidence in online health information and the impact the Internet has on health-seeking behaviour. A cross-sectional survey using a standardised questionnaire was carried out among residents aged 13 to 55 years in 1852 units in Bishan North. These units were selected by single-stage simple random cluster sampling method. The household response rate was 51% (n = 950) and the individual response rate was 69% (n = 1646). Responding and non-responding households were similar in terms of ethnicity and housing type. Of the responders, 62.9% surfed the Internet and 37.7% have surfed for health information. Health surfers tended to be younger (20 to 39 years) and have higher education status. Indians were also more likely than other ethnic groups to surf for health. Professional health-related sites comprised the majority (68%) of sites visited, and the most common search keywords concern chronic degenerative diseases, e.g. hypertension. The top preferred sources of health information were doctors (25.9%), the Internet (25.3%) and the traditional mass media (20.5%). Almost half (45.1%) considered online health information trustworthy if it was from a professional source or if the website displayed the source, while 10.6% trusted the information if it concurred with the doctors' advice. The vast majority (91.7%) had taken some action in response to the information. The Internet is being used as an accessible source of health information by a substantial proportion of the lay public. While this can facilitate greater partnership in healthcare, it underlines the need for doctors to be pro-active in the practice of evidence-based medicine, and for guidelines to enable patients to use this tool in a discerning manner.
Al-Thani, Mohamed Hamad; Al-Thani, Al Anoud Mohammed; Cheema, Sohaila; Sheikh, Javaid; Mamtani, Ravinder; Lowenfels, Albert B; Al-Chetachi, Walaa Fattah; Almalki, Badria Ali; Hassan Khalifa, Shamseldin Ali; Haj Bakri, Ahmad Omar; Maisonneuve, Patrick
Objectives To determine optimum measurements for abdominal obesity and to assess the prevalence and determinants of metabolic syndrome in Qatar. Design National health survey. Setting Qatar National STEPwise Survey conducted by the Supreme Council of Health during 2012. Participants 2496 Qatari citizens aged 18–64 representative of the general population. Primary and secondary outcome measures Measure of obesity (body mass index, waist circumference or waist-to-height ratio) that best identified the presence of at least 2 other factors of metabolic syndrome; cut-off values of waist circumference; frequency of metabolic syndrome. Results Waist circumference ≥102 for men and ≥94 cm for women was the best predictor of the presence of other determinants of metabolic syndrome (raised blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol). Using these values, we identified 28% of Qataris with metabolic syndrome, which is considerably lower than the estimate of 37% calculated using the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Restricting the analysis to participants without known elevated blood pressure, elevated blood sugar or diabetes 16.5% would be classified as having metabolic syndrome. In a multivariable logistic regression analysis, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome increased steadily with age (OR=3.40 (95% CI 2.02 to 5.74), OR=5.66 (3.65 to 8.78), OR=10.2 (5.98 to 17.6) and OR=18.2 (7.01 to 47.5) for those in the age group ‘30–39’, ‘40–49’, ‘50–59’, ‘60–64’ vs ‘18–29’; pQatar. Approximately 28% of adult Qatari citizens satisfy the criteria for metabolic syndrome, which increased significantly with age. Education and physical activity were inversely associated with this syndrome. PMID:27601485
Full Text Available Abstract Background Hallux valgus (HV is a foot deformity commonly seen in medical practice, often accompanied by significant functional disability and foot pain. Despite frequent mention in a diverse body of literature, a precise estimate of the prevalence of HV is difficult to ascertain. The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate prevalence of HV in the overall population and evaluate the influence of age and gender. Methods Electronic databases (Medline, Embase, and CINAHL and reference lists of included papers were searched to June 2009 for papers on HV prevalence without language restriction. MeSH terms and keywords were used relating to HV or bunions, prevalence and various synonyms. Included studies were surveys reporting original data for prevalence of HV or bunions in healthy populations of any age group. Surveys reporting prevalence data grouped with other foot deformities and in specific disease groups (e.g. rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes were excluded. Two independent investigators quality rated all included papers on the Epidemiological Appraisal Instrument. Data on raw prevalence, population studied and methodology were extracted. Prevalence proportions and the standard error were calculated, and meta-analysis was performed using a random effects model. Results A total of 78 papers reporting results of 76 surveys (total 496,957 participants were included and grouped by study population for meta-analysis. Pooled prevalence estimates for HV were 23% in adults aged 18-65 years (CI: 16.3 to 29.6 and 35.7% in elderly people aged over 65 years (CI: 29.5 to 42.0. Prevalence increased with age and was higher in females [30% (CI: 22 to 38] compared to males [13% (CI: 9 to 17]. Potential sources of bias were sampling method, study quality and method of HV diagnosis. Conclusions Notwithstanding the wide variation in estimates, it is evident that HV is prevalent; more so in females and with increasing age. Methodological quality
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the smoking prevalence among Mugla School of Health Sciences students, to determine the effects the increasing causes of smoking and their education about adverse health outcome of smoking. A cross-sectional study was performed among Mugla School of Health Sciences students in Mugla University. All students (417 in Mugla School of Health Sciences included in the study. The participation rates was 85.1%. Data were obtained by the self-administered questionnaire without teachers in classes. SPSS 11.0 was used for data analysis, and the differentiation was assessed by Chi-square analysis. P < 0.05 was accepted statistically significant. The prevalence of current smokers was 25.3% among students in Mugla School of Health Sciences. The students stated that the most important factor of smoking initiation was stress (59.2%. The univariable analysis showed that the friends smoking (p: 0.000 , having knowledge about smoking habits of teachers (p: 0.020 , alcohol consumption (p: 0.000, and other smokers out of parent in the home (p: 0.000 was significantly associated with increasing rate of smoking prevalence. The smoking prevalence was quite high (25.3% among Mugla School of Health Sciences students in Mugla University. It is needed to decreasing smoking prevalence among students that antismoking education should be reevaluated, that antismoking campaign should be administered in schools. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(4.000: 267-272
Kato, Noriko; Yanagawa, Toshihiko; Fujiwara, Takeo; Morawska, Alina
The prevalence of mental health problems among children and adolescents is of growing importance. Intervening in children's mental health early in life has been shown to be more effective than trying to resolve these problems when children are older. With respect to prevention activities in community settings, the prevalence of problems should be estimated, and the required level of services should be delivered. The prevalence of children's mental health disorders has been reported for many countries. Preventive intervention has emphasized optimizing the environment. Because parents are the primary influence on their children's development, considerable attention has been placed on the development of parent training to strengthen parenting skills. However, a public-health approach is necessary to confirm that the benefits of parent-training interventions lead to an impact at the societal level. This literature review clarifies that the prevalence of mental health problems is measured at the national level in many countries and that population-level parenting interventions can lower the prevalence of mental health problems among children in the community.
Thyssen, Jacob P; Johansen, Jeanne D; Linneberg, Allan
-year prevalence nearly 10%, whereas the lifetime prevalence reached 15%. Based on seven studies, the median incidence rate of hand eczema was 5.5 cases/1000 person-years (women = 9.6 and men = 4.0). A high incidence rate was associated with female sex, contact allergy, atopic dermatitis, and wet work...... studies should focus on unresolved areas of hand eczema, for example, genetic predisposition....
Farrer, Thomas J; Frost, R Brock; Hedges, Dawson W
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is widespread. Several risk factors are associated with IPV perpetuation, including alcohol use and educational level. The aggression and violence associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI) suggest that brain trauma may also be a risk factor for IPV. To examine the association between TBI and IPV, the authors conducted a meta-analysis of peer-reviewed published studies reporting the prevalence of TBI in IPV perpetrators. The authors compared the frequency of TBI among IPV perpetuators to estimates of TBI in the general population using a single-sample test of proportions. Six studies containing a total of 222 subjects met inclusion criteria. Fifty-three percent (119) of the IPV perpetuators had a history of TBI, a prevalence significantly higher (p < .0001) than estimates of TBI in the general population. The prevalence of TBI among perpetuators of IPV appears significantly higher than the prevalence of TBI in the general population. To the extent that this association is causal, TBI may be a risk factor for interpersonal violence, although comparatively few source studies, lack of standardized information about TBI severity, and the inability to investigate potential confounding variables necessarily limit this conclusion.
Pedro R Gil-Monte
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analizar la prevalencia del síndrome de quemarse por el trabajo (burnout en pediatras de hospitales generales siguiendo criterios de diferentes países. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal, no aleatorio, realizado en Buenos Aires, Argentina, en 2006. La muestra la formaron 123 pediatras que trabajaban en Servicios de Pediatría de hospitales generales, 89 fueron mujeres (72,4% y 34 hombres (27,6%. Los datos fueron recogidos mediante un cuestionario anónimo y autoadministrado. El SQT fue diagnosticado utilizando el Maslach Burnout Inventory, con diferentes criterios para establecer su prevalencia. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia del SQT, varió en función del criterio utilizado: siguiendo los puntos de corte del manual de Estados Unidos, la prevalencia fue del 10,6% de 24,4 % siguiendo los criterios de España, 37,4% siguiendo los criterios de Argentina y considerando los criterios clínicos establecidos en Holanda, el porcentaje fue del 3,2%. CONCLUSIONES: Los niveles de prevalencia variaron significativamente en función de los criterios aplicados debido a influencias transculturales.OBJETIVO: Analisar a prevalência da síndrome do esgotamento profissional (burnout em pediatras de hospitais gerais segundo critérios de diversos países. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, não aleatório, realizado em Buenos Aires, Argentina, em 2006. A amostra foi formada por 123 pediatras que trabalhavam em serviços de pediatria de hospitais gerais, sendo 89 mulheres (72,4% e 34 homens (27,6%. As informações foram coletadas com questionário anônimo e auto-administrado. A síndrome do esgotamento profissional foi diagnosticada utilizando o Maslach Burnout Inventory, com diferentes critérios para estabelecer sua prevalência. RESULTADOS: A prevalência da síndrome do esgotamento profissional variou em função do critério utilizado: seguindo os pontos de corte do manual dos Estados Unidos, a prevalência foi de 10,6%, de 24,4% segundo critérios na Espanha
McGrae McDermott, Mary; Kerwin, Diana R; Liu, Kiang; Martin, Gary J; O'Brien, Erin; Kaplan, Heather; Greenland, Philip
OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of unrecognized lower extremity peripheral arterial disease (PAD) among men and women aged 55 years and older in a general internal medicine (GIM) practice and to identify characteristics and functional performance associated with unrecognized PAD. DESIGN Cross-sectional. SETTING Academic medical center. PARTICIPANTS We identified 143 patients with known PAD from the noninvasive vascular laboratory, and 239 men and women aged 55 and older with no prior PAD history from a GIM practice. Group 1 consisted of patients with PAD consecutively identified from the noninvasive vascular laboratory (n = 143). Group 2 included GIM practice patients found to have an ankle brachial index less than 0.90, consistent with PAD (n = 34). Group 3 consisted of GIM practice patients without PAD (n = 205). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Leg functioning was assessed with the 6-minute walk, 4-meter walking velocity, and Walking Impairment Questionnaire (WIQ). Of GIM practice patients, 14% had unrecognized PAD. Only 44% of patients in Group 2 had exertional leg symptoms. Distances achieved in the 6-minute walk were 1,130, 1,362, and 1,539 feet for Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively, adjusting for age, gender, and race (P < .001). The degree of difficulty walking due to leg symptoms as reported on the WIQ was comparable between Groups 2 and 3 and significantly greater in Group 1 than Group 2. In multiple logistic regression analysis including Groups 2 and 3, current cigarette smoking was associated independently with unrecognized PAD (odds ratio [OR], 6.82; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.55 to 29.93). Aspirin therapy was nearly independently associated with absence of PAD (OR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.12 to 1.12). CONCLUSION Unrecognized PAD is common among men and women aged 55 years and older in GIM practice and is associated with impaired lower extremity functioning. Ankle brachial index screening may be necessary to diagnose unrecognized PAD in a GIM
Full Text Available The study aimed at evaluating the psychometric properties of the German version of the Self- Harm Inventory (SHI and examining the lifetime prevalence and correlates of self-harm in a representative German population sample (N = 2,507; age mean = 48.79, SD = 18.11; range 14 to 94 years; 55.5% women using the SHI. All participants answered the German SHI, the short form of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-15, the ultra-brief Patient Health Questionnaire for Depression and Anxiety (PHQ-4, and provided sociodemographic information. The one-factorial structure of the SHI was replicated using a confirmatory factor analysis. Internal consistency coefficients were sufficient and in line with previous studies. Almost half of the sample (49% acknowledged at least one self-harming behavior over the life-span, most frequently indirect forms of self-harm. The rate of participants who engaged in at least one SHI behavior was higher among men than women (51.6% vs. 46.9%, respectively, χ2 = 5.38, p = 0.020. Higher SHI scores were related to younger age, male gender, living alone, more symptoms of anxiety and depression (PHQ-4, higher impulsivity scores (BIS-15, and suffering from obesity grade 2. Women engaged more often in discreet forms of self-harm than men, e.g., preventing wounds from healing, exercising an injury, starving, and abusing laxatives. In terms of other indirect self-harming behaviors, men admitted more often driving recklessly, being promiscuous and losing a job on purpose, while women reported more frequently engaging in emotionally abusive relationships. With respect to direct self-harm, women were more likely to endorse suicide attempts and cutting, while men admitted more often head-banging. The findings suggest that self-harm constitutes a common problem. Future longitudinal studies are required to examine the natural course, sociodemographic and psychopathological risk factors, as well as possible time-trends of self
Müller, Astrid; Claes, Laurence; Smits, Dirk; Brähler, Elmar; de Zwaan, Martina
The study aimed at evaluating the psychometric properties of the German version of the Self- Harm Inventory (SHI) and examining the lifetime prevalence and correlates of self-harm in a representative German population sample (N = 2,507; age mean = 48.79, SD = 18.11; range 14 to 94 years; 55.5% women) using the SHI. All participants answered the German SHI, the short form of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-15), the ultra-brief Patient Health Questionnaire for Depression and Anxiety (PHQ-4), and provided sociodemographic information. The one-factorial structure of the SHI was replicated using a confirmatory factor analysis. Internal consistency coefficients were sufficient and in line with previous studies. Almost half of the sample (49%) acknowledged at least one self-harming behavior over the life-span, most frequently indirect forms of self-harm. The rate of participants who engaged in at least one SHI behavior was higher among men than women (51.6% vs. 46.9%, respectively, χ2 = 5.38, p = 0.020). Higher SHI scores were related to younger age, male gender, living alone, more symptoms of anxiety and depression (PHQ-4), higher impulsivity scores (BIS-15), and suffering from obesity grade 2. Women engaged more often in discreet forms of self-harm than men, e.g., preventing wounds from healing, exercising an injury, starving, and abusing laxatives. In terms of other indirect self-harming behaviors, men admitted more often driving recklessly, being promiscuous and losing a job on purpose, while women reported more frequently engaging in emotionally abusive relationships. With respect to direct self-harm, women were more likely to endorse suicide attempts and cutting, while men admitted more often head-banging. The findings suggest that self-harm constitutes a common problem. Future longitudinal studies are required to examine the natural course, sociodemographic and psychopathological risk factors, as well as possible time-trends of self-harming behaviors in more
Individuals who had high social capital (OR: 0.69, CI: 0.60, 0.79) were less likely to be physically inactive than those with low social capital. Several sociodemographic (older age, female, higher education and urban residence) and health risk (such as overweight, weak grip strength, functional disability, and low fruit and ...
Nov 11, 2014 ... A structured self‑administered questionnaire including the Zung self‑rating depression scale was used to ... A feeling of sadness over family, living and working conditions was ... effects of depression in the Nigerian health work force are necessary. ... conflicts especially related to welfare of staff, conditions.
This review article discusses the Dietary Guidelines for Americans in support of a total diet approach to achieving diet and health goals, especially as they relate to the obesity epidemic. However, some scientists and organizations have identified one food, food group, or nutrient as the cause of t...
Abd ElHafeez, Samar; Bolignano, Davide; D’Arrigo, Graziella; Dounousi, Evangelia; Tripepi, Giovanni; Zoccali, Carmine
Objectives While increasing attention is paid to the rising prevalence of chronic diseases in Africa, there is little focus on chronic kidney disease (CKD). This systematic review assesses CKD burden among the general population and high-risk groups on the entire African continent. Design, setting and participants We searched Medline and PubMed databases for articles published between 1 January 1995 and 7 April 2017 by sensitive search strategies focusing on CKD surveys at the community level and high-risk groups. In total, 7918 references were evaluated, of which 7766 articles were excluded because they did not meet the inclusion criteria. Thus, 152 studies were included in the final analysis. Outcome measurement The prevalence of CKD in each study group was expressed as a range and pooled prevalence rate of CKD was calculated as a point estimate and 95% CI. No meta-analysis was done. Data were presented for different populations. Results In the community-level studies, based on available medium-quality and high-quality studies, the prevalence of CKD ranged from 2% to 41% (pooled prevalence: 10.1%; 95% CI 9.8% to 10.5%). The prevalence of CKD in the high-risk groups ranged from 1% to 46% (pooled prevalence: 5.6%; 95% CI 5.4% to 5.8%) in patients with HIV (based on available medium-quality and high-quality studies), 11%–90% (pooled prevalence: 24.7%; 95% CI 23.6% to 25.7%) in patients with diabetes (based on all available studies which are of low quality except four of medium quality) and 13%–51% (pooled prevalence: 34.5%; 95 % CI 34.04% to 36%) in patients with hypertension (based on all available studies which are of low quality except two of medium quality). Conclusion In Africa, CKD is a public health problem, mainly attributed to high-risk conditions as hypertension and diabetes. The poor data quality restricts the validity of the findings and draws the attention to the importance of designing future robust studies. PMID:29326180
Abd ElHafeez, Samar; Bolignano, Davide; D'Arrigo, Graziella; Dounousi, Evangelia; Tripepi, Giovanni; Zoccali, Carmine
While increasing attention is paid to the rising prevalence of chronic diseases in Africa, there is little focus on chronic kidney disease (CKD). This systematic review assesses CKD burden among the general population and high-risk groups on the entire African continent. We searched Medline and PubMed databases for articles published between 1 January 1995 and 7 April 2017 by sensitive search strategies focusing on CKD surveys at the community level and high-risk groups. In total, 7918 references were evaluated, of which 7766 articles were excluded because they did not meet the inclusion criteria. Thus, 152 studies were included in the final analysis. The prevalence of CKD in each study group was expressed as a range and pooled prevalence rate of CKD was calculated as a point estimate and 95% CI. No meta-analysis was done. Data were presented for different populations. In the community-level studies, based on available medium-quality and high-quality studies, the prevalence of CKD ranged from 2% to 41% (pooled prevalence: 10.1%; 95% CI 9.8% to 10.5%). The prevalence of CKD in the high-risk groups ranged from 1% to 46% (pooled prevalence: 5.6%; 95% CI 5.4% to 5.8%) in patients with HIV (based on available medium-quality and high-quality studies), 11%-90% (pooled prevalence: 24.7%; 95% CI 23.6% to 25.7%) in patients with diabetes (based on all available studies which are of low quality except four of medium quality) and 13%-51% (pooled prevalence: 34.5%; 95 % CI 34.04% to 36%) in patients with hypertension (based on all available studies which are of low quality except two of medium quality). In Africa, CKD is a public health problem, mainly attributed to high-risk conditions as hypertension and diabetes. The poor data quality restricts the validity of the findings and draws the attention to the importance of designing future robust studies. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights
Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence of psychological disorders among community health centers in Batang Padang district Perak. Material & Methods: To conduct this study survey research method was used, seven community health centers in Batang Padang District, Perak were contacted to collect data from (N=216 respondents, who attended health facilities in Batang Padang District. There is no age limit, no education difference and no other requirement needed. Instrument and Materials: Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21 PRIME Screen and PRIME MD Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ. Results: Data collected from seven health community centers revealed that prevalence of Stress 86%, anxiety 124%, depression 67, psychotic symptoms 16%, somatoform symptoms 52%, panic symptoms 28%, and substance abuse 21%. the higher prevalence was stress and depression among people attending health centers. Conclusion: Results findings indicated that there is significant prevalence of psychological disorder among community health centers. Analysis of the results help us to determine that there is strong need to provide psychological services, awareness and education plan, management and prevention for psychological disorders
Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence of psychological disorders among community health centers in Batang Padang district Perak. Material & Methods: To conduct this study survey research method was used, seven community health centers in Batang Padang District, Perak were contacted to collect data from (N=216 respondents, who attended health facilities in Batang Padang District. There is no age limit, no education difference and no other requirement needed. Instrument and Materials: Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21 PRIME Screen and PRIME MD Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ. Results: Data collected from seven health community centers revealed that prevalence of Stress 86%, anxiety 124%, depression 67, psychotic symptoms 16%, somatoform symptoms 52%, panic symptoms 28%, and substance abuse 21%. the higher prevalence was stress and depression among people attending health centers. Conclusion: Results findings indicated that there is significant prevalence of psychological disorder among community health centers. Analysis of the results help us to determine that there is strong need to provide psychological services, awareness and education plan, management and prevention for psychological disorders
Full Text Available Introduction: The epidemiological investigation was carried out among 228 children selected from two schools of similar socioeconomic strata in and around Chennai city. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 128 visually impaired and 100 normal school going children in the age group of 6-15 years. The examination procedure and criteria were those recommended by W.H.O. in 1997. Results: The mean DMFT/deft was 1.1 and 0.17,0.87 and 0.47 in visually impaired and normal children, respectively. Oral hygiene levels in both groups were: mean value in good category was 0.19 and 0.67, in fair category was 0.22 and 0.1, and in poor category 0.40 and 0.23 in visually impaired children and normal children, respectively. Trauma experienced children were 0.29 and 0.13 in visually impaired children and normal children, respectively. Conclusion: The conclusions drawn from this study were that there was a greater prevalence of dental caries, poorer oral hygiene, and higher incidence of trauma in visually impaired children.
Kerkenaar, Marlies M E; Maier, Manfred; Kutalek, Ruth; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine L M; Ristl, Robin; Pichlhöfer, Otto
Although migrants form a large part of the Austrian population, information about mental health of migrants in Austria is scarce. Therefore, we compared the prevalence of dysphoric disorders (depression and anxiety) and the corresponding utilization of health care services of Eastern European, western and other migrants with the non-migrant population in Austria. We performed a telephone survey on a random sample of the general population of Austria aged 15 years and older (n=3509) between October 2010 and September 2011. Depression and anxiety were measured with the Patient Health Questionnaire-4 and utilization of health care services in the last 4 weeks was inquired. 15.0% of our sample had a migration background. Female migrants from Eastern Europe, first and second generation, had a higher prevalence of dysphoric disorders (29.7% and 33.4% respectively) than Austrian women (15.2%) (p<0.001). The prevalence in the other migrant groups did not differ significantly from the Austrian population. There was no gender difference in dysphoric disorders in the Austrian population. After adjustment for age and chronic diseases, having a dysphoric disorder was associated with a higher utilization of health care services among migrant and Austrian women, but not among men. Because of the explorative nature of the study multiple testing correction was not performed. The reason for health care utilization was not assessed. Mental health of female migrants from Eastern Europe should be studied in more detail; men could be an underserved group, both in migrants and Austrians. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ekmann, Anette; Petersen, Inge; Mänty, Minna Regina
Backgrounds.Fatigue has been shown to predict ischemic heart disease (IHD) and mortality in nonsmoking middle-aged men free of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive value of fatigue for IHD and general health in nondisabled individuals free...... of cardiovascular disease and older than 70 years. METHODS: The study population was drawn from The Longitudinal Study of Aging Danish Twins. In total, 1,696 participants were followed up for 2-10 years by questionnaires and 10-16 years through registries. Kaplan Meier, Cox Proportional Hazard and logistic.......08-2.00) compared with participants without fatigue. CONCLUSION: We concluded that fatigue in nondisabled older adults free of cardiovascular disease is an early predictor for development of subsequent poor general health and IHD....
Brown, Jamie; West, Robert; Beard, Emma; Michie, Susan; Shahab, Lion; McNeill, Ann
E-cigarettes may be effective smoking cessation aids and their use by smokers has been growing rapidly. It is important to observe and assess natural patterns in the use of e-cigarettes whilst experimental data accumulates. This paper reports the prevalence of e-cigarette awareness, beliefs and usage, including brand choice, and characterises the socio-demographic and smoking profile associated with current use, among the general population of smokers and recent ex-smokers. Data were obtained from 3538 current and 579 recent ex-smokers in a cross-sectional online survey of a national sample of smokers in Great Britain in November and December 2012. Differences between current and recent ex-smokers in the prevalence of e-cigarette awareness, beliefs and usage were examined and the socio-demographic and smoking profile associated with current use of e-cigarettes was assessed in a series of simple and multiple logistic regressions. Ninety-three percent of current and recent ex-smokers (n=3841) were aware of e-cigarettes. Approximately a fifth (n=884) were currently using e-cigarettes, whilst just over a third (n=1507) had ever used them. Sixty-seven percent of the sample (n=2758) believed e-cigarettes to be less harmful than cigarettes; however, almost a quarter (n=994) remained unsure. Among both current and recent ex-smokers, the most popular reasons for using were health, cutting down and quitting (each >80%) and 38% used the brand 'E-lites'. Among current smokers who were aware of but had never used e-cigarettes, approximately half (n=1040) were interested in using them in the future. Among current smokers, their use was associated with higher socio-economic status (OR=1.48, 95%CI=1.25-1.75), smoking more cigarettes (OR=1.02, 95%CI=1.01-1.03) and having a past-year quit attempt (OR=2.82, 95%CI=2.38-3.34). There is a near universal awareness of e-cigarettes and their use appears to be common among smokers in Great Britain although a quarter of all smokers are
Steinberg, Tamar; Tamir, Inbal; Zimmerman-Brenner, Sharon; Friling, Michal; Apter, Alan
Tic disorders are common causes of morbidity in Israel but their prevalence in this country needs further study. To assess the prevalence of mental disorders in Israeli youth including tic disorders, as part of the Israel Survey of Mental Health among Adolescents (ISMEHA). The ISMEHA was conducted in a representative sample of 957 adolescents aged 14-17 and their mothers during 2004-2005. We interviewed the adolescents and their mothers in their homes and collected demographic information about the use of services. We also administered a psychiatric interview, the Development and Well-Being Assessment inventory (DAWBA), which included a question on tic disorder. The prevalence of tic disorders was calculated based on the adolescents' and maternal reports. The relationships among demographic data, comorbidity rates, help-seeking behaviors and tic disorder are presented. The prevalence of tics was 1.3% according to maternal reports and 4.4% according to adolescents' reports. The prevalence correlated with externalizing disorders and learning disabilities. A higher prevalence of tics was found in the Arab population compared with Jewish adolescents. The prevalence of tic disorders in Israel, as measured by a direct question in this epidemiological study, and associated comorbidities concurs with previous reports. The complexities of prevalence estimations, comorbidities, demographic correlates, and help-seeking behaviors are discussed.
Leder, Ron S
History provides common access to technology for both technical and non technical persons and for youngsters. Placed in an historical context complex health technology and health care can be more understandable and therefore more accessible to the general public; technical persons can understand past health technology advances to help propel the field. History is a reference for experts disguised as a story that anyone can understand and enjoy. This can be useful and effective at improving self advocate based health care.
Martina de Zwaan
Full Text Available Recently, night eating syndrome (NES was included into the DSM-5 as an example of "Other Specified Feeding and Eating Disorders." The study provides insight into the population prevalence of NES using a large representative German population sample (n = 2,460 with a wide age range (14-85 years. The prevalence of NES was 1.1% using a cut-off on the Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ of 25. A positive screening for NES was positively associated with depression and anxiety, eating disorder psychopathology, and body weight.
The radiation protection office at the general direction of health has the following functions: organisation and relations with decentralized services, legal aspects, relations with the direction of nuclear installation safety, nuclear medicine with licensing, radioactive wastes in relation with ANDRA, environment, trusteeship of OPRI in matter of measurements, dosimetry and epidemiology in relation with the Minister of work and training in radiation protection. (N.C.)
Paulis, Winifred D; Palmer, Millicent; Chondros, Patty; Kauer, Sylvia; van Middelkoop, Marienke; Sanci, Lena A
Literature suggests that overweight and obese young people use healthcare services more often, but this awaits confirmation in primary care. To identify health profiles of underweight, overweight and obese young people attending general practice and compare them to normal-weight youth and also to explore the weight-related health risks of eating and exercise behaviour in the four different weight categories. This study used a cross-sectional design with baseline data from a trial including 683 young people (14-24 years of age) presenting to general practice. Through computer-assisted telephone interviews data were obtained on number and type of health complaints and consultations, emotional distress, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and eating and exercise behaviour. General practitioners (GPs) were consulted more often by overweight (incidence rate ratio (IRR): 1.28, 95% CI (1.04 to 1.57)) and obese youth (IRR: 1.54, 95% CI (1.21 to 1.97), but not for different health problems compared with normal-weight youth. The reason for presentation was seldom a weight issue. Obese youth reported lower physical HRQoL. Obese and underweight youth were less likely to be satisfied with their eating behaviour than their normal-weight peers. Exercise levels were low in the entire cohort. Our study highlights the need for effective weight management given that overweight and obese youth consult their GP more often. Since young people do not present with weight issues, it becomes important for GPs to find ways to initiate the discussion about weight, healthy eating and exercise with youth. ISRCTN16059206. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Full Text Available Bulimia nervosa is a serious and complex health problem encountered by many professionals, including general practitioners and dentists. The aim of the study was to describe the problem of bulimia (its prevalence, symptoms, special situations, treatment, with particular emphasis on the aspect of the oral health. The paper presents the causes and factors contributing to the disease, diagnostic criteria, the onset and the possible course of the disease, dental and oral mucosa pathologies due to bulimia as well as other comorbidities (including diabetes. The paper is of descriptive nature. The research method was based on the analysis of the available literature on bulimia nervosa supplemented by our own experience. It was concluded based on the analysed sources that appropriate diagnosis and treatment of bulimia nervosa is possible only with the cooperation of many specialists: psychiatrists or paediatric psychiatrists, dentists and general practitioners as well as other doctors if necessary. Psychotherapy is a necessary and integral aspect of treatment. Early treatment onset is essential for good treatment outcomes. Due to the low sense of illness, some patients would never meet a psychiatrist if not for the intervention of a family doctor or a dentist.
Montero, Isabel; Martín-Baena, David; Escribà-Agüir, Vicenta; Ruiz-Pérez, Isabel; Vives-Cases, Carmen; Talavera, Marta
The purpose of this study is to estimate the prevalence of lifetime intimate partner violence (IPV) in older women and to analyze its effect on women's health and Healthcare Services utilization. Women aged 55 years and over (1,676) randomly sampled from Primary Healthcare Services around Spain were included. Lifetime IPV prevalence, types, and duration were calculated. Descriptive and multivariate procedures using logistic and multiple lineal regression models were used. Of the women studied, 29.4% experienced IPV with an average duration of 21 years. Regardless of the type of IPV experienced, abused women showed significantly poorer health and higher healthcare services utilization compared to women who had never been abused. The high prevalence detected long standing duration, negative health impact, and high healthcare services utilization, calling attention to a need for increased efforts aimed at addressing IPV in older women.
Møller Pedersen, Kjeld; Andersen, John Sahl; Søndergaard, Jens
General practice is the corner stone of Danish primary health care. General practitioners (GPs) are similar to family physicians in the United States. On average, all Danes have 6.9 contacts per year with their GP (in-person, telephone, or E-mail consultation). General practice is characterized...... education. The contract is (re)negotiated every 2 years. General practice is embedded in a universal tax-funded health care system in which GP and hospital services are free at the point of use. The current system has evolved over the past century and has shown an ability to adapt flexibly to new challenges...... by 5 key components: (1) a list system, with an average of close to 1600 persons on the list of a typical GP; (2) the GP as gatekeeper and first-line provider in the sense that a referral from a GP is required for most office-based specialists and always for in- and outpatient hospital treatment; (3...
Castro-Camacho, Leonidas; Escobar, Juan Manuel; Sáenz-Moncaleano, Camilo; Delgado-Barrera, Lucía; Aparicio-Turbay, Soraya; Molano, Juan Carlos; Noguera, Efraín
Few individuals have access to mental health services due in part to underdetection. As it is more likely to consult for medical conditions, primary care may be a useful gateway for early detection of mental health problems. Detection of the frequency of mental health problems in four hospital services at the Fundación Santa Fe de Bogotá: Outpatient unit, hospitalization, emergency department, and primary care through a brief detection questionnaire, the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ). Cross-sectional study of patients seen at the four services who answered a Demographic Data Questionnaire and the PHQ together with information gathered about current medical diagnosis, history of visits, and hospitalizations during the last year. 1094 patients seen at the four hospital services between September 2010 and May 2011 were selected at random. A mental health problem was detected in 36.7% of the total sample. Major depressive disorder (7.3%), alcohol abuse (14.4%), and any anxiety disorder (7.7%) showed the highest prevalence with the emergency department showing the highest frequency of detection. The usefulness of a brief detection questionnaire such as the PHQ in hospital settings is demonstrated and implications in the design of mental health programs in the general hospital are discussed. The need to replicate this study in other settings and to undertake further research is outlined. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Veugelers, Rebekka; Benninga, Marc A.; Calis, Elsbeth Ac; Willemsen, Sten P.; Evenhuis, Heleen; Tibboel, Dick; Penning, Corine
AIM Our aim was to study the prevalence and characteristics of constipation in children with profound multiple disabilities, as data in this area are scarce. METHOD A cross-sectional observational study was performed in specialized day-care centres and schools in the Netherlands. The study included
Christensen, Pernille Melia; Thomsen, S F; Rasmussen, N
Respiratory difficulties caused by exercise-induced laryngeal obstructions (EILOs) are reported with increasing frequency. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and symptoms of EILOs and their relation to airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). In total, 556 randomly selected youths...
Veugelers, Rebekka; Benninga, Marc A.; Calis, Elsbeth A. C.; Willemsen, Sten P.; Evenhuis, Heleen; Tibboel, Dick; Penning, Corine
Aim: Our aim was to study the prevalence and characteristics of constipation in children with profound multiple disabilities, as data in this area are scarce. Method: A cross-sectional observational study was performed in specialized day-care centres and schools in the Netherlands. The study included 152 children (81 males, 71 females; mean age 9y…
Ellervik, Christina; Kvetny, Jan; Christensen, Kaj Sparle
to describe the prevalence of antidepressants received by the respondents in the GESUS study and the correspondence to their subjective well-being on the WHO-5 questionnaire. Methods: To evaluate the validity (scalability) of the MDI and the WHO-5 in the GESUS study we performed the non-parametric Mokken...
This paper reviews some general concepts on Planning, especially in public and welfare sectors, stressing those concerning the major flaws in the argentine system of mental health. The author considers the definition of planning levels, and sets forth three: general plan, program and project. The correlative implementation is also considered. The importance of feed-back from adequate evaluation is stressed, emphasizing three aspects: a) evaluation of dynamics, rate and extent of decrease, increase or stagnation; b) assessment of efficacity of factors involved; c) control and stabilization of goals already attained. The necessity to develop a human ecology, encompassing socio-cultural and psycho-social factors is stressed, together with fostering theoretical research and the use of its results by implementation agents. Several differences among prevailing mental health actions are pointed out which allow a distinction between two typical models: clinical and sanitarist. The main differences between them lye on: standard location of working sites, nature of basic actions, field of action, hypothesis for working, including ethiological and ecological assumptions, theoretical and methodological framework. A series of criteria for evaluating sanitary techniques and strategies are set forth, among which: operative procedures, length of treatments, degree of therapeutic concentration, and general pragmatic criteria. The indicators reviewed are: degree of efficacity, covering, degree of perseverance in treatments, cultural barriers between patient and therapist, delegation of functions into special, first-rate sanitary agents, needs for the training of mental health workers. An attempt is made at developping general evaluation criteria for mental health planning, and several indicators are proposed, among which: a) cost/efficacity ratio, including in costs the use of economical, human and physical resources; b) preventive capacities of the community; c) capacities for the
Full Text Available Abstract Background The United States has the highest incarceration rate in the world which has created a public health crisis. Correctional facilities have become a front line for mental health care. Public health research in this setting could inform criminal justice reform. We determined prevalence rates for mental illnesses and related comorbidities among all inmates in a state prison system. Methods Cross-sectional study using the Iowa Corrections Offender Network which contains health records of all inmates in Iowa. The point prevalence of both ICD-9 and DSM-IV codes for mental illnesses, timing of diagnosis and interval between incarceration and mental illness diagnosis were determined. Results The average inmate (N = 8574 age was 36.7 ± 12.4 years; 17% were ≥50 years. The majority of inmates were men (91% and white (65%.Obesity was prevalent in 38% of inmates, and 51% had a history of smoking. Almost half of inmates were diagnosed with a mental illness (48%, of whom, 29% had a serious mental illness (41% of all females and 27% of all males, and 26% had a history of a substance use disorder. Females had higher odds of having both a mental illness and substance use disorder. Almost all mental illness diagnoses were first made during incarceration (99%. The mean interval to diagnosis of depression, anxiety, PTSD and personality disorders were 26, 24, 21 and 29 months respectively. Almost 90% of mental illnesses were recognized by the 6th year of incarceration. The mean interval from incarceration to first diagnosis (recognition of a substance abuse history was 11 months. Conclusions There is a substantial burden of mental illness among inmates. Racial, age and gender disparities in mental health care are coupled with a general delay in diagnosis and treatment. A large part of understanding the mental health problem in this country starts at prisons.
Salve, Harshal; Goswami, Kiran; Nongkynrih, Baridalyne; Sagar, Rajesh; Sreenivas, V
The objective was to estimate the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity amongst patients attending Mobile Health Clinic (MHC) in an urban community in South Delhi. Adult subjects were recruited by systematic random sampling at outpatient MHC. Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorder Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) was used for screening, and Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.) was used for the confirmation of diagnosis of psychiatric disorder of all PHQ-positive and 20% of PHQ-negative patients. Association of selected sociodemographic factors with psychiatric morbidity was also assessed. In total, 350 subjects were recruited, out of which 92 (26.3%) [95% confidence interval (CI) 21.7-31.0] were found to be PHQ positive. M.I.N.I. was administered to 141 subjects (92 PHQ positives and 52 PHQ negatives). Total estimated magnitude of psychiatric morbidity by M.I.N.I. was 25.4% (95% CI 20.9-29.9). Depression (15.7%) was observed to be the most common psychiatric disorder followed by generalized anxiety disorder (11.1%) and phobic disorders (10.1%). Suicidal ideation was reported by 37 (10.6%) patients. Literate status [odds ratio (OR)=0.43] and duration of migration >20 years to study area (OR=1.27) were found to be significantly associated with psychiatric morbidity. In resource-poor country like India, high psychiatric morbidity at MHC justifies the use of MHC for providing outreach mental health services in difficult areas. Copyright Â© 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bijari, Bita; Abassi, Ali
Essential primary health care is delivered through the public health center PHC network by public health workers (Behvarzs). Health workers are exposed to different types of stresses while working. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of burnout and associated factors among rural health workers in the health centers of Birjand University of Medical Sciences. All rural health workers of health centers under the coverage of the Birjand University of Medical Sciences selected through census sampling participated in this cross-sectional study. The Maslach Burnout Inventory, GHQ-12 questionnaire, and demographic questionnaire were completed by the participants. Data were analyzed by SPSS 15 using descriptive statistics, chi-square (χ 2 ), t-test, and ANOVA test. A total of 423 health workers participated in this study, and their mean age was 39 ± 8.4 years. Among the participants, 34.5% had moderate to severe levels of burnout. About 31.4% of the subjects had abnormal scores in emotional exhaustion, 16.8% in depersonalization, and 47% in the personal accomplishment subscales. The rate of abnormal mental health among the participants was 36.68%. The prevalence of mental disorders was 24.5% in subjects with low burnout or without burnout against 60.4% of subjects with moderate or severe burnout (P = 0.001). Age, education level, number of children, and years of employment were found to have a significant association with the burnout level of the participants (P Burnout was prevalent among health workers. Based on the high level of burnout among health workers, reducing job ambiguity/conflict, participating in planning new programs, and improving interaction with health authorities may help them to overcome their job-related pressure and to give a more desirable performance.
Sgaier, S K; Mony, P; Jayakumar, S; McLaughlin, C; Arora, P; Kumar, R; Bhatia, P; Jha, P
To determine the prevalence and correlates of Herpes Simplex Virus-2 (HSV-2) and syphilis infections in the general population in India. 2456 adults were surveyed in Hyderabad, Bangalore and Chandigarh in India. Socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics were obtained through a questionnaire, and a dried blood spot (DBS) was collected from all individuals aged 18 years and over; sexual behaviour was collected from those aged 18-49 years. DBS samples were tested for HSV-2 and syphilis serology. The association between HSV-2 and syphilis infections with socio-demographic and behavioural variables was analysed using multivariable logistic regression. The prevalence of HSV-2 and syphilis was 10.1% and 1.7%, respectively. Geographic differences in HSV-2 prevalence were significant, while for syphilis it was comparable. Urban-rural differences in prevalence were only seen for syphilis. For both infections, the prevalence between males and females was not significantly different. In males and females, HSV-2 prevalence increased significantly with increasing age; for syphilis, a slight trend was seen only in females. In a multivariable analysis, HSV-2 infection in males and females was associated with site, religion and testing positive for syphilis, in addition to reporting ≥ 2 lifetime partners in the previous year among males and being ever married or having had sex with a non-regular partner in the last year among females. The burden and geographic heterogeneity of HSV-2 and syphilis infections in India are significant. A national household and DBS-based sexually transmitted infection (STI) surveillance system would enable monitoring, especially in relation to the HIV epidemic, and planning of evidence-based prevention and treatment programmes.
Barbour, Kamil E; Moss, Susan; Croft, Janet B; Helmick, Charles G; Theis, Kristina A; Brady, Teresa J; Murphy, Louise B; Hootman, Jennifer M; Greenlund, Kurt J; Lu, Hua; Wang, Yan
Doctor-diagnosed arthritis is a common chronic condition affecting an estimated 23% (54 million) of adults in the United States, greatly influencing quality of life and costing approximately $300 billion annually. The geographic variations in arthritis prevalence, health-related characteristics, and management among states and territories are unknown. Therefore, public health professionals need to understand arthritis in their areas to target dissemination of evidence-based interventions that reduce arthritis morbidity. 2015. The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System is an annual, random-digit-dialed landline and cellular telephone survey of noninstitutionalized adults aged ≥18 years residing in the United States. Self-reported data are collected from the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Guam, and Puerto Rico. Unadjusted and age-standardized prevalences of arthritis, arthritis health-related characteristics, and arthritis management were calculated. County-level estimates were calculated using a validated statistical modeling method. In 2015, in the 50 states and the District of Columbia, median age-standardized prevalence of arthritis was 23.0% (range: 17.2%-33.6%). Modeled prevalence of arthritis varied considerably by county (range: 11.2%-42.7%). In 13 states that administered the arthritis management module, among adults with arthritis, the age-standardized median percentage of participation in a self-management education course was 14.5% (range: 9.1%-19.0%), being told by a health care provider to engage in physical activity or exercise was 58.5% (range: 52.3%-61.9%), and being told to lose weight to manage arthritis symptoms (if overweight or obese) was 44.5% (range: 35.1%-53.2%). Respondents with arthritis who lived in the quartile of states with the highest prevalences of arthritis had the highest percentages of negative health-related characteristics (i.e., arthritis-attributable activity limitations, arthritis-attributable severe joint pain
Elflein, Heike M; Fresenius, Susanne; Lamparter, Julia; Pitz, Susanne; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Binder, Harald; Wild, Philipp; Mirshahi, Alireza
Amblyopia is due to insufficient development of the visual system in early childhood and is a major source of lifelong impairment of visual acuity. Too little is known about the prevalence of amblyopia in Germany and the frequency of its various causes. The Gutenberg Health Study of the University of Mainz Faculty of Medicine is an ongoing population-based, prospective, monocentric cohort study with 15 010 participants aged 35 to 74. All participants are examined for the presence of ocular, cardiovascular, neoplastic, metabolic, immunologic, and mental diseases. 3227 participants aged 35 to 44 underwent ophthalmological examination from 2007 to 2012. Amblyopia was defined as impaired visual acuity in the absence of any organic pathology capable of explaining the condition, and in the presence of a known risk factor for amblyopia. Amblyopia, when defined as a visual acuity less than or equal to 0.63, was present in 182 participants (5.6%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.9-6.5%), 120 of whom had a visual acuity less than or equal to 0.5 (3.7%, 95% CI 3.3-5.2%). A narrower definition of amblyopia requiring, in addition, an interocular difference in acuity of at least two lines yielded slightly lower prevalence figures: 5.0% (95% CI 4.2-5.8%) and 3.7% (95% CI 3.1-4.4%), respectively. The causes of amblyopia (visual acuity ≤ 0.63) were anisometropia (different refractive strengths of the two eyes) in 49% of participants, strabismus (a squint) in 23%, both of these factors in 17%, and visual deprivation in 2%. 3 patients (2%) had relative amblyopia due to a traumatic cataract sustained in early childhood. 7% of the participants with amblyopia had binocular amblyopia. This study yielded a prevalence figure of 5.6% for amblyopia in Germany-a higher figure than in other, comparable population-based studies, which have generally yielded figures of ca. 3% for visual acuity ≤ 0.63. The distribution of the causes of amblyopia is similar across studies.
Edna Cunha Vieira
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with metabolic syndrome in the elderly. METHODS: Cross-sectional study, with 133 individuals randomly selected in the Unified Health System in Goiania, Goiás. The following variables were researched: anthropometric (BMI, waist circumference, fat percentage by Dual X-ray absorptiometry, sociodemographic (gender, age, color, income, marital status and years of schooling, lifestyle (physical activity, smoking and risk alcohol consumption and food intake (risk and protective foods. The metabolic syndrome was assessed according to harmonized criteria proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO. The combinations were tested by Poisson regression for confounding factors. RESULTS: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 58.65% (95%CI 49.8 - 67.1, with 60.5% (95%CI 49.01 - 71.18 for females and 55.7% (95%CI 41.33 - 69.53 for males. Hypertension was the most prevalent component of the syndrome in both men, with 80.8% (95%CI 64.5 - 90.4, and women, with 85.2% (95%CI 75.5 - 92.1. After the multivariate analysis, only the excess of weight measured by body mass index (prevalence ratio = 1.66; p < 0.01 remained associated with the metabolic syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in this sample was high, indicating the need for systematic actions by health workers in the control of risk factors through prevention strategies and comprehensive care to the elderly.
Mohammadbeigi, Abolfazl; Valizadeh, Farzaneh; Mirshojaee, Seyede Roqaie; Ahmadli, Robabeh; Mokhtari, Mohsen; Ghaderi, Ebrahim; Ahmadi, Ali; Rezaei, Heshmatollah; Ansari, Hossein
Self-rated health is a brief measure for general health. It is a comprehensive and sensitive index for prediction of health in future. Due to the high internet usage in medical students, the current study designed to evaluate the self-rated health (SRH) in relationship with internet addiction risk factors in medical students. This cross sectional study conducted on 254 students of Qom University of Medical Sciences 2014. Participants selected by two stage sampling method including stratified and simple random sampling. The Young's questionnaire of internet addiction and SRH question used for data collection. Chi-square, t-test, and logistic regression used in data analysis. More than 79.9% of students reported their general health good and very good. The student's mean score of general health was higher than the average. In addition, the prevalence of internet addiction was 28.7%. An inverse significant correlation observed between SRH and internet addiction score (r=-0.198, p=0.002). Using internet for Entertainment, using private Email and chat rooms were the most important predictors of affecting to internet addiction. Moreover, internet addiction is the most predictors of SRH and increased the odds of bad SRH. The good SRH of medical students was higher than general population but in health faculty' students were lower than others. Due to the effect of internet addiction on SRH and increasing trend of internet use in medical students, as well as low age of participants, attention to psychological aspects and the job expectancy in future, can effective on increasing the good SRH.
Skapinakis, Petros; Bellos, Stefanos; Koupidis, Sotirios; Grammatikopoulos, Ilias; Theodorakis, Pavlos N; Mavreas, Venetsanos
No study in Greece has assessed so far the full range of common mental disorders using a representative sample of the population from both mainland and insular regions of the country. The aim of the present paper was to present the results of the first such study. The study was carried out between 2009-2010 in a nationally representative sample of 4894 individuals living in private households in Greece. Common mental disorders in the past week were assessed with the revised Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS-R). We also assessed alcohol use disorders (using AUDIT), smoking and cannabis use. 14% of the population (Male: 11%, Female: 17%) was found to have clinically significant psychiatric morbidity according to the scores on the CIS-R. The prevalence (past seven days) of specific common mental disorders was as follows: Generalized Anxiety Disorder: 4.10% (95% CI: 3.54, 4.65); Depression: 2.90% (2.43, 3.37); Panic Disorder: 1.88% (1.50, 2.26); Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: 1.69% (1.33, 2.05); All Phobias: 2.79% (2.33, 3.26); Mixed anxiety-depression: 2.67% (2.22, 3.12). Harmful alcohol use was reported by 12.69% of the population (11.75, 13.62). Regular smoking was reported by 39.60% of the population (38.22, 40.97) while cannabis use (at least once during the past month) by 2.06% (1.66, 2.46). Clinically significant psychiatric morbidity was positively associated with the following variables: female gender, divorced or widowed family status, low educational status and unemployment. Use of all substances was more common in men compared to women. Common mental disorders were often comorbid, undertreated, and associated with a lower quality of life. The findings of the present study can help in the better planning and development of mental health services in Greece, especially in a time of mental health budget restrictions.
Li, Guo; Jiang, Ronghuan; Guo, Chengjun; Liu, Meiyan; Zhang, Lijun
To explore the prevalence of depression and (or) anxiety disorders among cardiovascular outpatients of tertiary general hospitals of five Chinese cities. A hospital-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in the cardiovascular out-patient departments of 14 tertiary general hospitals in five Chinese cities. The patients aged 18 years and over were recruited consecutively, who were conscious and with informed consent, and can finish the questionnaire independently. All the subjects were screened with Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS). The subjects with HADS score of 8 and over were interviewed and diagnosed by psychiatrists using mini international neuropsychiatric interview (MINI). The physicians made the diagnosis and management without knowing the results of MINI and HADS score. Subjects who refused MINI were defined as the case of loss of follow-up. A total 2 123 subjects were included in the survey. The adjusted prevalence rate of depressive and anxiety disorder was 4.05% (86/2 123), the depressive and/or anxiety disorder was 14.27 % (303/2 123), depressive and anxiety disorder and mixed depressive or anxiety disorder was 14.37% (305/2 123) according to MINI. The adjusted prevalence of lifetime depressive and anxiety disorder was 5.37% (114/2 123), depressive and/or anxiety disorder was 16.91% (359/2 123), depressive and anxiety disorder and mixed depressive-anxiety disorder was 17.00% (361/2 123). There is a high prevalence of depressive and anxiety disorder among cardiovascular outpatients from tertiary general hospitals in China. Therefore, doctors must pay attention to this disorder and try to reduce the impact of this disorder in cardiovascular patients.
Full Text Available Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is an endemic infection in Nigeria. Health care workers (HCWs are at risk of occupational exposures to HBV-infected blood and body fluids. Objective: To determine the prevalence and determinants of HBV vaccine coverage among HCWs in two teaching hospitals in Nigeria. Methods: This cross-sectional study was undertaken in 2011 and 2012 in two teaching hospitals in Jos, North-Central Nigeria, and Yenagoa, South-South Nigeria. A self-administered structured questionnaire was administered to HCWs to obtain socio-demographic data and history of HBV vaccination. Results: Out of 290 HCWs who participated in the study, 185 (64.5% had received at least one dose of HBV vaccine; 105 (36.2% had full coverage of three doses. Professional category and previous training in infection control were independently associated with HBV vaccination. House officers and laboratory scientists were more likely to be unvaccinated than resident doctors, consultant doctors and nurses. Full vaccine coverage was associated with younger age and shorter years of professional experience. Conclusion: We observed a generally low rate of HBV vaccine coverage among HCWs in Nigeria. Establishment of policies on compulsory HBV vaccination of all HCWs in Nigeria is recommended.
Davis, Melinda M; Spurlock, Margaret; Dulacki, Kristen; Meath, Thomas; Li, Hsin-Fang Grace; McCarty, Dennis; Warne, Donald; Wright, Bill; McConnell, K John
Research on urban/rural disparities in alcohol, drug use, and mental health (ADM) conditions is inconsistent. This study describes ADM condition prevalence and access to care across diverse geographies in a predominantly rural state. Multimodal cross-sectional survey in South Dakota from November 2013 to October 2014, with oversampling in rural areas and American Indian reservations. Measures assessed demographic characteristics, ADM condition prevalence using clinical screenings and participant self-report, perceived need for treatment, health service usage, and barriers to obtaining care. We tested for differences among urban, rural, isolated, and reservation geographic areas, controlling for participant age and gender. We analyzed 7,675 surveys (48% response rate). Generally, ADM condition prevalence rates were not significantly different across geographies. However, respondents in isolated and reservation areas were significantly less likely to have access to primary care. Knowledge of treatment options was significantly lower in isolated regions and individuals in reservation areas had significantly lower odds of reporting receipt of all needed care. Across the sample there was substantial discordance between ADM clinical screenings and participant self-reported need; 98.1% of respondents who screened positive for alcohol or drug misuse and 63.8% of respondents who screened positive for a mental health condition did not perceive a need for care. In a predominantly rural state, geographic disparities in ADM conditions are related to differences in access as opposed to prevalence, particularly for individuals in isolated and reservation areas. Educational interventions about ADM condition characteristics may be as important as improving access to care. © 2015 National Rural Health Association.
Tosh, Graeme; Clifton, Andrew V; Xia, Jun; White, Margueritte M
There is currently much focus on provision of general physical health advice to people with serious mental illness and there has been increasing pressure for services to take responsibility for providing this. To review the effects of general physical healthcare advice for people with serious mental illness. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Trials Register (last update search October 2012) which is based on regular searches of CINAHL, BIOSIS, AMED, EMBASE, PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and registries of Clinical Trials. There is no language, date, document type, or publication status limitations for inclusion of records in the register. All randomised clinical trials focusing on general physical health advice for people with serious mental illness.. We extracted data independently. For binary outcomes, we calculated risk ratio (RR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI), on an intention-to-treat basis. For continuous data, we estimated the mean difference (MD) between groups and its 95% CI. We employed a fixed-effect model for analyses. We assessed risk of bias for included studies and created 'Summary of findings' tables using GRADE. Seven studies are now included in this review. For the comparison of physical healthcare advice versus standard care we identified six studies (total n = 964) of limited quality. For measures of quality of life one trial found no difference (n = 54, 1 RCT, MD Lehman scale 0.20, CI -0.47 to 0.87, very low quality of evidence) but another two did for the Quality of Life Medical Outcomes Scale - mental component (n = 487, 2 RCTs, MD 3.70, CI 1.76 to 5.64). There was no difference between groups for the outcome of death (n = 487, 2 RCTs, RR 0.98, CI 0.27 to 3.56, low quality of evidence). For service use two studies presented favourable results for health advice, uptake of ill-health prevention services was significantly greater in the advice group (n = 363, 1 RCT, MD 36.90, CI 33.07 to 40.73) and service use: one or more primary
Morris, Megan A; Meier, Sarah K; Griffin, Joan M; Branda, Megan E; Phelan, Sean M
Communication disabilities, including speech, language and voice disabilities, can significantly impact a person's quality of life, employment and health status. Despite this, little is known about the prevalence and etiology of communication disabilities in the general adult population. To assess the prevalence and etiology of communication disabilities in a nationally representative adult sample. We conducted a cross-sectional study and analyzed the responses of non-institutionalized adults to the Sample Adult Core questionnaire within the 2012 National Health Interview Survey. We used respondents' self-report of having a speech, language or voice disability within the past year and receiving a diagnosis for one of these communication disabilities, as well as the etiology of their communication disability. We additionally examined the responses by subgroups, including sex, age, race and ethnicity, and geographical area. In 2012 approximately 10% of the US adult population reported a communication disability, while only 2% of adults reported receiving a diagnosis. The rates of speech, language and voice disabilities and diagnoses varied across gender, race/ethnicity and geographic groups. The most common response for the etiology of a communication disability was "something else." Improved understanding of population prevalence and etiologies of communication disabilities will assist in appropriately directing rehabilitation and medical services; potentially reducing the burden of communication disabilities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
in society with caries risk due to age- and medication-induced salivary reduction. However, a general disease may not always have a negative influence on dental health. Therefore, a regular individual caries risk assessment is of utmost importance for clinical decision-making and tailoring of recall......Caries is a biofilm-mediated noncommunicable disease fueled by dietary sugar, neglected oral hygiene, and reduced saliva flow. General diseases may influence the oral environment through its pathogenesis, medication, and/or the caring of the condition. Associations between caries and chronic...... diseases are mainly derived from case–control studies with various sample sizes and quality of matching. Few observational studies are available and the majority of all research is conducted in childhood and among older adults. There is an increased caries risk for subjects with obesity, severe asthma...
Abdur Razzaque Sarker MHE, MSS
Full Text Available In Bangladesh, the burden of diarrheal diseases is significant among children <5 years old. The objective of this study is to capture the prevalence of and health care–seeking behavior for childhood diarrheal diseases (CDDs and to identify the factors associated with CDDs at a population level in Bangladesh. We use a logistic regression approach to model careseeking based on individual characteristics. The overall diarrhea prevalence among children <5 years old was found to be 5.71%. Some factors found to significantly influence the health care–seeking pattern were age and sex of the children, nutritional score, age and education of mothers, wealth index, and access to electronic media. The health care service could be improved through working in partnership with public facilities, private health care practitioners, and community-based organizations, so that all strata of the population get equitable access in cases of childhood diarrhoea.
Adar, Adi; Shalitin, Shlomit; Eyal, Ori; Loewenthal, Neta; Pinhas-Hamiel, Orit; Levy, Milana; Dally-Gottfried, Orna; Landau, Zohar; Zung, Amnon; Levy-Khademi, Floris; Zangen, David; Tenenbaum-Rakover, Yardena; Rachmiel, Marianna
The incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) has increased in recent decades, as has the incidence of preterm births (prematurity and early prematurity (prematurity and birth season were compared with the general population birth registry using Pearson Chi-square test. The study population included 1452 T1DM patients, 52.7% males, and 2 138 668 subjects in the general non-T1DM population, 51.2% males. The prevalence of late and early prematurity was similar between groups (6.1% and 2.2% in the T1DM group vs 5.6% and 2.0% in the general non-T1DM group, P = 0.25 and P = 0.38, respectively). OR for prematurity among T1DM patients was 1.15 (0.95-1.39), P = 0.16. No difference in birth season was demonstrated between preterm and term, in T1DM and general non-T1DM populations. Ethiopian descent was more prevalent among T1DM patients compared with the non-T1DM population, in both term and preterm born. This is the largest population-based study, and the first in the Middle East geographical area, indicating that prematurity, including early prematurity, is not associated with T1DM during childhood. The study was registered at https://clinicaltrials.gov/: NCT02929953. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Fulton, Brent D; Scheffler, Richard M; Hinshaw, Stephen P; Levine, Peter; Stone, Susan; Brown, Timothy T; Modrek, Sepideh
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnostic prevalence and medication use vary across U.S. census regions, but little is known about state-level variation. The purpose of this study was to estimate this variation across states and examine whether a state's health care provider characteristics and education policies are associated with this variation. Logistic regression models were estimated with 69,505 children aged four to 17 from the state-stratified and nationally representative 2003 National Survey of Children's Health, conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Diagnostic prevalence was higher in the South (odds ratio [OR]=1.42, p<.001) than in the West; among children with ADHD diagnoses, medication use was higher in the South (OR=1.60, p<.01) and the Midwest (OR=1.53, p<.01) versus the West. On these measures, several states differed from the U.S. averages, including some states that, on the basis of the regional patterns found above, would not be expected to differ: Michigan had a high diagnostic prevalence; Vermont, South Dakota, and Nebraska had low diagnostic prevalences; and Connecticut, New Jersey, and Kentucky had low medication rates. Both diagnosis and medication status were associated with the number, age, and type of physicians within a state, particularly pediatricians. However, state education policies were not significantly associated with either diagnostic prevalence or medication rates. To better understand the association between a state's health care provider characteristics and both diagnostic prevalence and medication use, it may be fruitful to examine the content of provider continuing education programs, including the recommendations of major health professional organization guidelines to treat ADHD.
Sachin R Gedam; Santanu Ghosh; Lipsy Modi; Arvind Goyal; Himanshu Mansharamani
Background: Internet has become an essential part of our daily life, especially among adolescents and youth. It is mainly used for education, entertainment, social networking, and information sharing. Its excessive use among health care providers is becoming a major concern. Aims: The aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence, understand the pattern, and to determine the association between psychopathology and internet addiction among health profession undergraduates. Materials and Meth...
Kutin, Jozica; Russell, Roslyn; Reid, Mike
Economic abuse is a form of domestic violence that has a significant impact on the health and financial wellbeing of victims, but is understudied. This study determined the lifetime prevalence of economic abuse in Australia by age and gender, and the associated risk factors. The 2012 ABS Personal Safety Survey was used, involving a cross-sectional population survey of 17,050 randomly selected adults using face-to-face interviews. The survey-weighted prevalence of economic abuse was calculated and analysed by age and gender. Logistic regression was used to adjust odds ratios for possible confounding between variables. The lifetime prevalence of economic abuse in the whole sample was 11.5%. Women in all age groups were more likely to experience economic abuse (15.7%) compared to men (7.1%). Disability, health and financial stress status were significant markers of economic abuse. For women, financial stress and disability were important markers of economic abuse. However, prevalence rates were influenced by the measures used and victims' awareness of the abuse, which presents a challenge for screening and monitoring. Implications for public health: Social, health and financial services need to be aware of and screen for the warning signs of this largely hidden form of domestic violence. © 2017 The Authors.
Matini, Diana; Ghanbari Jolfaei, Atefeh; Pazouki, Abdolreza; Pishgahroudsari, Mohadeseh; Ehtesham, Mehdi
Severe obesity is highly co-morbid with psychiatric disorders and may have effect on the quality of life. This study aimed to compare severity and prevalence rate of depression, anxiety and eating disorders and quality of life in severe obese patients before and 6 months after the gastric bypass surgery. This was a prospective observational study which conducted at Hazarat Rasool-Akram Hospital in Tehran, 2012. Questionnaires included demographic questions, eating disorder Inventory (EDI), The Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) for quality of life, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders (SCID-I) and Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) and anxiety (HRSA). Participants were interviewed two times, before surgery and six months after, to determine changes of the disorders. Patients with the history of bariatric surgery, individuals younger than 18 year old and those who disagreed to join the study were excluded. In assessing the eating disorder inventory-3rd version (EDI-3), Significant reduction in drive for thinness (DT) (p= 0.010), bulimia (B) (pdepression in HRSD (p= 0.311), prevalence of depression (p= 0.189) and prevalence of general anxiety disorder according to SCID (p=0.167) did not differ significantly, at this period. Although weight loss after bariatric surgery improved the physical component of quality of life, this improvement did not affect the mental aspect of life, depression and anxiety and it seems that these psychopathologies need attention and treatment in addition to weight loss treatments in patients with obesity.
O'Brien, Kathryn; Edwards, Adrian; Hood, Kerenza; Butler, Christopher C
Urinary tract infection (UTI) in children may be associated with long-term complications that could be prevented by prompt treatment. To determine the prevalence of UTI in acutely ill children ≤ 5 years presenting in general practice and to explore patterns of presenting symptoms and urine sampling strategies. Prospective observational study with systematic urine sampling, in general practices in Wales, UK. In total, 1003 children were recruited from 13 general practices between March 2008 and July 2010. The prevalence of UTI was determined and multivariable analysis performed to determine the probability of UTI. Out of 597 (60.0%) children who provided urine samples within 2 days, the prevalence of UTI was 5.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.3% to 8.0%) overall, 7.3% in those UTI (P = 0.64; P = 0.69, respectively). The probability of UTI in children aged ≥3 years without increased urinary frequency or dysuria was 2%. The probability of UTI was ≥5% in all other groups. Urine sampling based purely on GP suspicion would have missed 80% of UTIs, while a sampling strategy based on current guidelines would have missed 50%. Approximately 6% of acutely unwell children presenting to UK general practice met the criteria for a laboratory diagnosis of UTI. This higher than previously recognised prior probability of UTI warrants raised awareness of the condition and suggests clinicians should lower their threshold for urine sampling in young children. The absence of fever or presence of an alternative source of infection, as emphasised in current guidelines, may not rule out UTI in young children with adequate certainty.
Clément, Marie-Ève; Chamberland, Claire; Bouchard, Camil
In Quebec, three population-based surveys have documented the prevalence of psychological aggression, and minor and severe physical violence toward children. This paper aims to present 1) the results of the 2012 survey with regard to the frequency and annual prevalence of violence, and 2) the trends in all three forms of violence between 1999 and 2012 according to children's age. The three independent surveys were all conducted through telephone interviews in 1999, 2004 and 2012 by the Institut de la Statistique du Québec and reached a total sample of 9,646 children living with a mother figure. Psychological aggression, and minor and severe physical violence were measured using the Parent Child Conflict Tactics Scales. The results show that repeated psychological aggression, after having increased between 1999 (48%) and 2004 (53%), slightly decreased in 2012 (49%). Minor physical violence decreased steadily between 1999 and 2012, from 48% to 35%, and severe physical violence remained stable (6%). These three forms of violence varied by the age category of the children. Finally, the results show that the co-occurrence of the use of physical and psychological violence remained high in all three surveys. The results are consistent with trends in North America and are discussed in terms of services to support families.
Tarraf, Hesham; Aydin, Omur; Mungan, Dilsad; Albader, Mohammad; Mahboub, Bassam; Doble, Adam; Lahlou, Aaicha; Tariq, Luqman; Aziz, Fayaz; El Hasnaoui, Abdelkader
Asthma is a common chronic respiratory disease leading to morbidity, mortality and impaired quality of life worldwide. Information on asthma prevalence in the Middle East is fragmented and relatively out-dated. The SNAPSHOT program was conducted to obtain updated information. SNAPSHOT is a cross-sectional epidemiological program carried out in five Middle Eastern countries (Egypt, Turkey, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates, the latter three grouped into a Gulf cluster) to collect data on asthma, allergic rhinitis, benign prostatic hyperplasia and bipolar disorder. The survey was carried out by telephone in a random sample of the adult general population with quotas defined according to country demographics. The analysis presented in this paper focuses on asthma. Subjects were screened for asthma based on criteria from the global Asthma Insights and Reality studies. Current prevalence (last 12 months) was estimated. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to investigate risk factors related to asthma and the association with allergic rhinitis and other co-morbidities. Quality of life was assessed using the three-level EQ-5D questionnaire. 2124 out of the 33,486 subjects enrolled in the SNAPSHOT program fulfilled the criteria for asthma. The adjusted prevalence of asthma ranged from 4.4% [95% CI: 4.0-4.8%] in Turkey, to 6.7% [95% CI: 6.2-7.2%] in Egypt and 7.6% [95% CI: 7.1-8.0%] in the Gulf cluster. Prevalence was higher (p Middle East ranges from 4.4% to 7.6%, which is comparatively lower than the reported prevalence in Europe and North America. Asthma has a negative impact on quality of life, and is associated with high levels of co-morbid diseases, indicating a need for physicians to check for co-morbidities and ensure they are managed correctly in all asthma patients.
Austen, Sally; McGrath, Melissa
Long-distance travel to provide mental health services for deaf people has implications for efficiency, safety, and equality of service. However, uptake of Telemental Health (TMH) has been slow in both deaf and general mental health services. A quantitative study was used to investigate access to TMH and whether staff confidence, experience, or demographics affect TMH use. It was concluded that staff in neither deaf mental health services nor general mental health services had adequate knowledge of or access to TMH. Staff expressed concerns over TMH's appropriateness in their work. Previous use of videoconferencing was assosciated significantly with confidence, but previous use of videophones was not. Neither staff in deaf services nor deaf staff were more experienced with or more confident about videoconferencing, whereas, within deaf services, deaf staff were significantly more confident about videophone use. Training implications are discussed.
Depoorter, Pieter; Van Huffel, Xavier; Diricks, Herman; Imberechts, Hein; Dewulf, Jeroen; Berkvens, Dirk; Uyttendaele, Mieke
The development of an animal health barometer, an instrument to measure the general health of the Belgian livestock population on a yearly basis and to monitor its evolution over time, is described. The elaboration of a set of 13 animal health indicators (AHIs) as the basis for the animal health barometer is discussed. These indicators were weighted by experts - including scientists, policy makers and agro-industrial representatives - to determine their relative weight in the barometer. The result of the barometer is expressed as a comparison with a previous year. Based on the results of the 13 AHIs, it is concluded that general animal health in Belgium shows a positive evolution since 2008. The animal health barometer provides a composite view of the status of livestock health in Belgium and is a tool to communicate in an intelligible, comprehensible manner on aspects of animal health to consumers and professional stakeholders in the animal production and food chain. Together with the food safety barometer (Baert et al., 2011. Food Res. Int. 44, 940) and the plant health barometer (Wilmart et al., 2014. Eur. J. Plant Pathol. doi: 10.1007/s10658-014-0547-x), the animal health barometer is one of the three instruments to provide a holistic view on the overall status of the safety of the food chain in Belgium. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Nyarko, Kwame A; Wehby, George L
Segregation effects may vary between areas (e.g., counties) of low and high low birth weight (LBW; birth (PTB; rates due to interactions with area differences in risks and resources. We assess whether the effects of residential segregation on county-level LBW and PTB rates for African-American infants vary by the prevalence of these conditions. The study sample includes 368 counties of 100,000 or more residents and at least 50 African-American live births in 2000. Residentially segregated counties are identified alternatively by county-level dissimilarity and isolation indices. Quantile regression is used to assess how residential segregation affects the entire distributions of county-level LBW and PTB rates (i.e. by prevalence). Residential segregation increases LBW and PTB rates significantly in areas of low prevalence, but has no such effects for areas of high prevalence. As a sensitivity analysis, we use metropolitan statistical area level data and obtain similar results. Our findings suggest that residential segregation has adverse effects mainly in areas of low prevalence of LBW and preterm birth, which are expected overall to have fewer risk factors and more resources for infant health, but not in high prevalence areas, which are expected to have more risk factors and fewer resources. Residential policies aimed at area resource improvements may be more effective.
Abeje, Tadiye; Negera, Edessa; Kebede, Eshetu; Hailu, Tsegaye; Hassen, Ismaile; Lema, Tsehainesh; Yamuah, Lawrence; Shiguti, Birru; Fenta, Melkamu; Negasa, Megersa; Beyene, Demissew; Bobosha, Kidist; Aseffa, Abraham
Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease of public health importance and one of the leading causes of permanent physical disability. Nevertheless, the drop in prevalence following multidrug therapy has resulted in the neglect of leprosy. The annual incidence of leprosy has remained the same in Ethiopia since decades with more than 76% of the reported new cases coming from Oromia and Amhara Regional States. This study was aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude and skill of general health workers in leprosy control activities at public health facilities in Oromia and Amhara Regional States. A cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2011 to February 2012 at different public health facilities in selected eight zones in Oromia and Amhara Regional States. A multistage sampling method was used to obtain representative samples. High and low endemic zones for leprosy were included in the study in both regional states. Data were collected from general health workers through a structured self-administered questionnaire and at on-site assessment of their performance. Baseline socio-demographic data, health workers' attitude towards leprosy and their knowledge and skill in the management of leprosy were assessed. Bloom's cut off point was used to describe the knowledge and practical skills of the respondents while Likert's scale was used for attitude assessment. A total of 601 general health workers responsible for leprosy control activities at public health facilities were included in knowledge and attitude assessment and 83 of them were subjected to practical evaluation, with on-site observation of how they handle leprosy patients. These included medical doctors (4%), health officers and nurses with Bachelor degree in Science (27%), clinical nurses with diploma (66%) and health assistants (2.8%). The median age of the respondents was 26.0 years and females made up of 45%. Generally the knowledge and skills of the respondents were found to be poor while attitude
Choe, Hyun-Sop; Lee, Seung-Ju; Kim, Chul Sung; Cho, Yong-Hyun
Sexually transmitted infections are diseases provoking a great social and economic burden as well as health-related problems, and with the aging of society and the extension of life expectancy sexually transmitted infections in the elderly have drawn more attention these days. For the management of sexually transmitted infections in this population, basic epidemiological data need to be established. In this study, 1,804 persons from the general population aged over 60 years visiting health examination centers were tested for syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia, and interviewed about the patterns of sexual behavior of elderly people through questionnaires. The prevalence rates of syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia recorded were 0.222% (4/1804), 0 (none), and 0.776% (14/1804), respectively. The results of the survey showed that the sexual life of the elderly people was currently active, and the sexual behavior of chlamydia patients was distinguished in some characteristics from that of the general participants. Political management to prevent sexually transmitted infections needs to be continued in elderly people as it is in other age groups. More detailed follow-up studies are necessary to determine the incidence and prevalence rates of the diseases in the elderly population in future, and the results of this study are considered to be useful as basic data for such studies.
Full Text Available Background: The prevalence ulcerative colitis (UC in RSCM Jakarta in 1991-1995 is 2.5%. The disease affects men and women at similar rates or slightly more common in women than in men. Age of onset follows a bimodal pattern, with a peak at 15-25 years and a smaller one at 55-65 years, although the disease can occur in people of any age. The precise etiology of UC is not well understood. UC is precipitated by a complex interaction of environmental (cigarretes, diet, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug/NSAID, etc, genetic, and immunoregulatory factors. This study aimed to identify the prevalence, profile and risk factor of ulcerative colitis in Dr. Saiful Anwar General Hospital Malang. Method: This is a retrospective survey analysis from medical record which was taken from 2170 patients who underwent colonoscopy in Dr. Saiful Anwar General Hospital Malang from January 2010 to December 2014. Demographic setting (sex, age, clinical features, lifestyle, diagnosis based on colonoscopy were analyzed as the variables. Results: Total patients with UC was 176 patients. The prevalence of UC during 2010-2014 was 8.2% at Dr. Saiful Anwar General Hospital. There was a similar prevalence of sex between male and female patients, in which 95 (53.4% were male and 81 (46.6% were female. The average age of patients with UC was 41,6 years. Most patients were presented with abdominal pain (32.90% and weight loss (42.1%. The diagnosis based on colonoscopy were pancolitis (36%, proctosigmoiditis/proctitis (31.81%, and left-sided colitis (21.9%. The risk factors of UC identified in this study were current smoker, use of NSAIDs/traditional herbs/potion and fiber diet. Majority of ulcerative colitis study samples were non-smoker (75%, not consuming herbal treatment/NSAID (60.22%, and rarely consuming fiber (36.93%. There is a significan correlation between frequency of fiber diet and UC (r = -0.106, p = 0.000. Conclusion: The prevalence of UC was 8.2% in our hospital
Qureshi, T.Z.; Saleem, K.; Zafar, S.
Helicobacter pylori was known as campylobacter pyloridis in the beginning of the twentieth century. Doenges was the first to find this bacterium in the autopsy specimens of stomach using haematoxylin and eosin Stains. In 1940 Freedburg and Baron carried out a study on 35 partial gastrectomy specimens and found spirochetes in 37% after a long search. A major breakthrough occurred with the advent of fibroptic biopsy technique permitting the biopsy of stomach. Then in 1975 Steer and Colin Jones observed gram negative bacilli in 80% of patients with gastric ulcer. The bacterium was closely associated with the surface epithelium, both within and between pits. These microorganisms were poorly stained by haematoxylin and eosin stains but could be seen easily with Warthin Starry silver stain. Later on, a heavy growth of campylobacter like organism was found on non-selective culture media and so the first culture of helicobacter pylori was achieved in April 1982. Since then eight other helicobacter species have been found, one in man and the remainder in other animals including birds. The organism may remain silent for years or produce serious gastric disorders in the beginning. Many studies have been conducted on asymptomatic healthy individuals but its presence in dyspeptic patients has always been ignored and dyspepsia has been treated as a result of over acid production This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of helicobacter pylori (hp) infection in dyspeptic population of Islamabad using /sup 13/C urea breath test, and to find the possible role of water in bug transmission. We have also tried to assess the type of gastric pathology resulted by bacterial colonization in stomach. A total of 278 individuals were studied. Out of these 115 who had serious complaints/symptoms were sent for endoscopy to get the antral biopsy sample. Breath samples of dyspeptic individuals were sent to Isotope Application Division, PINSTECH for /sup 13/C//sup 12/C isotope ratio
Full Text Available Abstract Background Current US surveillance data provide estimates of diabetes using laboratory tests at the national level as well as self-reported data at the state level. Self-reported diabetes prevalence may be biased because respondents may not be aware of their risk status. Our objective was to estimate the prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes by state. Methods We estimated undiagnosed diabetes prevalence as a function of a set of health system and sociodemographic variables using a logistic regression in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003-2006. We applied this relationship to identical variables from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (2003-2007 to estimate state-level prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes by age group and sex. We assumed that those who report being diagnosed with diabetes in both surveys are truly diabetic. Results The prevalence of diabetes in the U.S. was 13.7% among men and 11.7% among women ≥ 30 years. Age-standardized diabetes prevalence was highest in Mississippi, West Virginia, Louisiana, Texas, South Carolina, Alabama, and Georgia (15.8 to 16.6% for men and 12.4 to 14.8% for women. Vermont, Minnesota, Montana, and Colorado had the lowest prevalence (11.0 to 12.2% for men and 7.3 to 8.4% for women. Men in all states had higher diabetes prevalence than women. The absolute prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes, as a percent of total population, was highest in New Mexico, Texas, Florida, and California (3.5 to 3.7 percentage points and lowest in Montana, Oklahoma, Oregon, Alaska, Vermont, Utah, Washington, and Hawaii (2.1 to 3 percentage points. Among those with no established diabetes diagnosis, being obese, being Hispanic, not having insurance and being ≥ 60 years old were significantly associated with a higher risk of having undiagnosed diabetes. Conclusion Diabetes prevalence is highest in the Southern and Appalachian states and lowest in the Midwest and the Northeast
Materials and methods: A total of 552 patients who visited Outpatient Department of Jaipur Dental College, Jaipur, were studied. Complete information regarding presence of smoking and other forms of tobacco was recorded in case history proforma and any of tobacco-related oral lesions among these patients were examined. Results: In age group of 0.05 in 12.84% subjects, oral cancer was reported in 33 patients (p-value = 0.001 whereas smoker′s palate in 25 patients and OSMF being the most common. Awareness level about ill effects of tobacco was 51.10 %. Conclusion: High incidence of tobacco usage in smokeless form is seen in Jaipur population especially in adolescents. There were no significant findings found between males and females. Of all lesion examined, OSMF was found to be more prevalent. Therefore, it is important to take immediate steps to curb the habit.
Christensen, Pernille Melia; Thomsen, S F; Rasmussen, N
Respiratory difficulties caused by exercise-induced laryngeal obstructions (EILOs) are reported with increasing frequency. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and symptoms of EILOs and their relation to airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). In total, 556 randomly selected youths...... in Copenhagen aged 14-24 years were invited over a 2-year period. The study included a mailed questionnaire and two visits: day 1 (an interview-based questionnaire, methacholine bronchial provocation test and physical exertion test); and day 2 [an exercise test with continuous laryngoscopic recordings (CLE test......)]. The diagnosis of EILOs was based on the CLE test. In total, 237 answered the mailed questionnaire and 150 participated on day 1 whereof 98 participated on day 2 also. AHR was verified in 23 (4.1% of invitees) and EILOs in 42 (7.5% of invitees). Co-morbidity was verified in 6 cases (26.1% of verified AHR cases...
Harris, J; Crawshaw, J G; Millership, S
There are very few recent studies of the incidence and prevalence of head lice in the UK. A population-based questionnaire survey was carried out in a district health authority area. Two hundred and four of 235 primary schools (87%) agreed to participate. A total of 21,556 of 43,889 (49%) questionnaires were returned by parents. Overall 438 children had head lice at the time of the survey, giving a prevalence of 2.03%; 8,059 had had lice at some time in the last year giving an annual incidence of 37.4%.
Kim, Seung-Ryong; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Gu, Na-Yeong; Kim, Yong-Suk; Hong, Yeon-Chul; Ryu, Jae-Sook
Trichomoniasis is the most common curable sexually-transmitted infection (STI) worldwide. There are few reports on the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis in Korea. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of trichomoniasis by PCR in Guri city, Korea. All adult women who visited Hanyang University Guri Hospital for health screening within the National Health Care Service were invited to participate in the study, and 424 women were enrolled between March and June 2011. PCR was used to detect Trichomonas vaginalis using primers based on a repetitive sequence cloned from T. vaginalis (TV-E650). Fourteen women (3.3%) were found to have T. vaginalis. All were over 50, and they were significantly older on average than the 410 Trichomonas-negative women (mean ages 63.4 vs 55.3 years). It seems that T. vaginalis infection is not rare in women receiving health screening, especially among those over 50.
Stanley, James; Cormack, Donna M.
Objectives Racism is an important health determinant that contributes to ethnic health inequities. This study sought to describe New Zealand adults’ reported recent experiences of racism over a 10 year period. It also sought to examine the association between recent experience of racism and a range of negative health and wellbeing measures. Methods The study utilised previously collected data from multiple cross-sectional national surveys (New Zealand Health Surveys 2002/03, 2006/07, 2011/12; and General Social Surveys 2008, 2010, 2012) to provide prevalence estimates of reported experience of racism (in the last 12 months) by major ethnic groupings in New Zealand. Meta-analytical techniques were used to provide improved estimates of the association between recent experience of racism and negative health from multivariable models, for the total cohorts and stratified by ethnicity. Results Reported recent experience of racism was highest among Asian participants followed by Māori and Pacific peoples, with Europeans reporting the lowest experience of racism. Among Asian participants, reported experience of racism was higher for those born overseas compared to those born in New Zealand. Recent experience of racism appeared to be declining for most groups over the time period examined. Experience of racism in the last 12 months was consistently associated with negative measures of health and wellbeing (SF-12 physical and mental health component scores, self-rated health, overall life satisfaction). While exposure to racism was more common in the non-European ethnic groups, the impact of recent exposure to racism on health was similar across ethnic groups, with the exception of SF-12 physical health. Conclusions The higher experience of racism among non-European groups remains an issue in New Zealand and its potential effects on health may contribute to ethnic health inequities. Ongoing focus and monitoring of racism as a determinant of health is required to inform
Gupta, Priya; Zhao, Di; Guallar, Eliseo; Ko, Fang; Boland, Michael V.; Friedman, David S.
Purpose To estimate the prevalence of glaucoma in the US population based on optic nerve head photography, to estimate the prevalence of glaucoma awareness, and to identify demographic and ocular risk factors for being unaware of having glaucoma. Methods The study included 5746 men and women 40 years of age and older participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005–2008. Each participant had 45° photographs of the macula and optic disc of both eyes. Fundus photographs were first graded by a reading center, and those with a cup-to-disc ratio (CDR) ≥ 0.6 were regraded by three glaucoma specialists to determine the presence or absence of glaucoma. Analyses were performed using NHANES weights to account for the complex multistage probability sampling design. Results The estimated overall prevalence of glaucoma in the US civilian, noninstitutionalized population 40 years of age and older was 2.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7%–2.6%). Glaucoma affected 2.9 million individuals, including 1.4 million women; 1.5 million men; 2.3 million people 60 years of age and older; and 0.9 million blacks, Mexican Americans, and people of other races. The prevalence of glaucoma was highest in non-Hispanic blacks, followed by non-Hispanic whites, Mexican Americans, and others. Over half of participants with glaucoma were unaware that they had the disease. Conclusions The prevalence of glaucoma based on optic nerve fundus photography assessment in the general US population 40 years of age and older was 2.1%. Approximately half of glaucoma cases were previously undiagnosed. Studies to determine whether and how to identify undiagnosed glaucoma are an important next step. PMID:27168366
Gill, Roopan; Stewart, Donna E
despite goals for gender equity in South Asia, the relationship between gender-sensitive policies and the empowerment of women is complex and requires an analysis of how policies align with a broad set of social, cultural, political, and economic indicators that relate to women's health. through a review of four documents under the umbrella of the World Health Organization and the United Nations, a list of 17 gender-sensitive policy and 17 general health indicators was generated with a focus on health, education, economic, and political empowerment and violence against women. A series of policy documents and international and national databases that are accessible in the public domain were the major tools used to find supporting documentation to address women's health outcomes in Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. all five South Asian countries had several gender-sensitive policies that were measurable by indicators that contribute to health. Examination of political and economic status, birth sex ratios, human trafficking, illiteracy rates, maternal mortality rates, contraception prevalence, fertility rates, knowledge of HIV/AIDS prevention, access to skilled birth attendants, and microfinance show that large gender inequities still prevail despite the presence of gender-sensitive policies. in many cases, the presence of gender-sensitive policies did not reflect the realization of gender equity over a wide range of indicators. Although the economic, political, social, and cultural climates of the five countries may differ, the integration of women's needs into the formulation, implementation, and monitoring of policies is a universal necessity to achieve positive outcomes. 2011 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Larsen, Lone Marie; Ledderer, Loni; Jarbol, Dorte E
Background. Because of the increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity in childhood in the Western world, focus on the management in general practice has also increased. Objective. To explore the experiences of general practitioners (GPs) and practice nurses participating in a randomised...... controlled trial (RCT) comparing two management programmes in general practice for children who are overweight or obese. Methods. Three focus groups with GPs and nurses participating in the RCT. Transcribed data were analysed using systematic text condensation followed by thematic analysis. Results. Health...... to addressing overweight in children. However, increasing awareness of obesity in childhood and its consequences in society was considered helpful to reach an understanding of the articulations concerning how best to address the issue. Conclusions. Health professionals in general practice recognised...
Mekonnen, Daniel; Gebre-Selassie, Solomon; Fantaw, Surafel; Hunegnaw, Andualem; Mihret, Adane
The overall prevalence of HBV in Ethiopia varies from 4.7-16.8% for Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and 70-76.38% for at least one marker positive. Patients suffering from type I Diabetes Mellitus (DM) incur high risk of infection with hepatotropic viruses because of frequent hospitalization and blood tests. A comparative cross sectional study was conducted at Woldiya General Hospital using 108 consented study populations from Diabetes and 108 non diabetes control groups during the period November 2010 - January 2011. VISITECT HBsAg rapid test kit and Humastat 80 chemistry analyzer were used. Multivariate logistic regression was used to see the association of HBV with clinical history of participants and Sociodemographic variables. All tests were two-sided with α-level of 0.05 and 80% power. Prevalence of HBsAg was equal between diabetic and non diabetic individuals, 3.7% indicating that there was no difference between the two groups. Only history of invasive procedures and chronic liver disease showed association with HBsAg seropositivity. In this study a positive relation was not indicated between HBV and Diabetes and the prevalence of HBsAg was equal between diabetic and non diabetic individuals.
Williams, Ellen P; Mesidor, Marie; Winters, Karen; Dubbert, Patricia M; Wyatt, Sharon B
This review considers a variety of perspectives on overweight and obesity (OW/obesity), including measurement and classification; prevalence and changes in prevalence in recent years; genetic, biological, medical, individual, and social correlates of OW/obesity; and treatment approaches. Despite increased attention, OW/obesity is escalating in prevalence worldwide, and the causes are exceedingly complex. A range of innovative studies, including basic research on gut microflora, dietary composition, pharmacologic interventions, and surgical procedures, is generating findings with potential for future prevention and treatment of OW/obesity. Social system changes such as school programs and the awareness of the roles of personal, family, health provider, and cultural experiences related to OW/obesity have also gained traction for vital prevention and treatment efforts over the past decade.
Cheung, Li C; Pan, Qing; Hyun, Noorie; Schiffman, Mark; Fetterman, Barbara; Castle, Philip E; Lorey, Thomas; Katki, Hormuzd A
For cost-effectiveness and efficiency, many large-scale general-purpose cohort studies are being assembled within large health-care providers who use electronic health records. Two key features of such data are that incident disease is interval-censored between irregular visits and there can be pre-existing (prevalent) disease. Because prevalent disease is not always immediately diagnosed, some disease diagnosed at later visits are actually undiagnosed prevalent disease. We consider prevalent disease as a point mass at time zero for clinical applications where there is no interest in time of prevalent disease onset. We demonstrate that the naive Kaplan-Meier cumulative risk estimator underestimates risks at early time points and overestimates later risks. We propose a general family of mixture models for undiagnosed prevalent disease and interval-censored incident disease that we call prevalence-incidence models. Parameters for parametric prevalence-incidence models, such as the logistic regression and Weibull survival (logistic-Weibull) model, are estimated by direct likelihood maximization or by EM algorithm. Non-parametric methods are proposed to calculate cumulative risks for cases without covariates. We compare naive Kaplan-Meier, logistic-Weibull, and non-parametric estimates of cumulative risk in the cervical cancer screening program at Kaiser Permanente Northern California. Kaplan-Meier provided poor estimates while the logistic-Weibull model was a close fit to the non-parametric. Our findings support our use of logistic-Weibull models to develop the risk estimates that underlie current US risk-based cervical cancer screening guidelines. Published 2017. This article has been contributed to by US Government employees and their work is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2017. This article has been contributed to by US Government employees and their work is in the public domain in the USA.
Whitehead, Brenda R; Bergeman, C S
Because subjective health reports are a primary source of health information in a number of medical and research-based contexts, much research has been devoted to establishing the extent to which these self-reports of health correspond to health information from more objective sources. One of the key factors considered in this area is trait affect, with most studies emphasizing the impact of negative affect (negative emotions) over positive affect (positive emotions), and focusing on high-arousal affect (e.g., anger, excitement) over moderate- or low-arousal affect (e.g., relaxed, depressed). The present study examines the impact of both Positive and Negative Affect (PA/NA)-measured by items of both high and low arousal-on the correspondence between objective health information and subjective health reports. Another limitation of existing literature in the area is the focus on samples suffering from a particular diagnosis or on specific symptom reports; here, these effects are investigated in a sample of community-dwelling older adults representing a broader spectrum of health. 153 older adults (Mage = 71.2) took surveys assessing Perceived Health and Affect and underwent an objective physical health assessment. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate the extent to which the relationship between Objective Health and Perceived Health was moderated by PA or NA, which would indicate the presence of affective health bias. Results reveal a significant moderation effect for NA, but not for PA; PA appeared to serve a more mediational function, indicating that NA and PA operate on health perceptions in distinct ways. These findings provide evidence that in our high-functioning, community-dwelling sample of older adults, a) affective health bias is present within a general health context, and not only within specific symptom or diagnostic categories; and b) that both PA and NA play important roles in the process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights
Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Pérez-Rodrigo, Carmen; Alberdi-Aresti, Goiuri; Ramos-Carrera, Natalia; Lázaro-Masedo, Sonia
According to the 2013 analysis of the Institute of Health Metrics, high body mass index values are the most important risk factor for disease in Spain. Consequently, we describe the prevalence of total obesity and abdominal obesity in the Spanish adult population (25-64 years) for 2014-2015. The sample was taken from the ENPE study, a cross-sectional study with a representative sample of the noninstitutionalized population (n = 6800) carried out between May 2014 and May 2015. This analysis refers to the population between age 25 and 64 years (n = 3966). The anthropometric measurements were performed by trained observers at participants' homes according to standard international protocols. Body mass index ≥ 25 was defined as overweight and ≥ 30 as obesity. Abdominal obesity was classified as waist > 102 cm in men and > 88 cm in women. The estimated prevalence of overweight in the Spanish adult population (25-64 years) was 39.3% 95% confidence interval [95%CI], 35.7%-42.9%). The prevalence of general obesity was 21.6% (95%CI, 19.0%-24.2%) and, more specifically, was 22.8% (95%CI, 20.6%-25.0%) among men and 20.5% (95%CI, 18.5%-22.5%) among women, and rose with age. The prevalence of abdominal obesity was estimated at 33.4% (95%CI, 31.1%-35.7%) and was higher among women (43.3%; 95%CI, 41.1%-45.8%) than among men (23.3%; 95%CI, 20.9%-25.5%), and also rose with age. The prevalence of general obesity and abdominal obesity in Spain is high, although the distribution differs according to autonomous community. A comparison with earlier data reveals a considerable increase in overweight, indicating the need for routine monitoring and comprehensive initiatives. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Denny, Simon; Farrant, Bridget; Utter, Jennifer; Fleming, Theresa; Bullen, Pat; Peiris-John, Roshini; Clark, Terryann
Despite numerous calls to improve training in adolescent health, there is little known about the prevalence or effectiveness of specialized training in adolescent health. A two-stage random sampling cluster design was used to collect nationally representative data from 8,500 students from 91 high schools. Student data were linked to data from a survey of school health clinicians from participating schools on their level of training in youth health. Multilevel models accounting for demographic characteristics of students were used to estimate the association between nurses and physicians training in youth health and health outcomes among students. Almost all nurses and physicians reported some training in youth health, either having attended lectures or study days in youth health (n = 60, 80%) or completed postgraduate papers in youth health (n = 13, 17.3%). Students in schools where the nurses and physicians had received postgraduate training in youth health were less likely than students from schools with clinicians having attended lectures or study days in youth health to report emotional and behavior difficulties (11.8 vs. 12.7, p = .002) and binge drinking (19.6% vs. 24.9%, p = .03). There were no significant associations between depressive symptoms, suicide risk, cigarette, marijuana, contraception use, or motor vehicle risk behaviors among students and level of training among clinicians in their schools' health service. Postgraduate training in youth health among nurses and physicians in school health services is associated with fewer students reporting mental health difficulties and binge alcohol use. These findings support specialized training in youth health for clinicians working predominantly with young people. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Background Research examining mental health in violence-affected youth in representative samples is rare. Using data from the nationally representative German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) this study reports on gender-specific prevalence rates and associations of a broad range of internalizing and externalizing mental health problems: emotional problems, conduct problems, ADHD, disordered eating, somatic pain and substance use in youth variously affected by violence. While internalizing is generally more common in girls and externalizing in boys, observations of prior non-normative studies suggest reverse associations once an individual is affected by violence. The occurrence of such “gender cross-over effects” is therefore examined in a representative sample. Methods The sample consisted of 6,813 adolescents aged 11 to 17 from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS): Applying multivariate logistic regression analyses, associations between each type of violence history and mental health indicator were determined for perpetrators, victims, and perpetrating victims of youth violence. Moderating effects of gender were examined by using product term interaction. Results Victim status was associated primarily with internalizing problems, while perpetrators were more prone to externalizing problems. Perpetrating victims stood out with respect to the number and strength of risk associations with all investigated mental health indicators. However, the risk profiles of all violence-affected youth included both internalizing and externalizing mental health problems. Gender cross-over effects were found for girls and boys: despite lower overall prevalence, girls affected by violence were at far higher risk for conduct problems and illicit drug use; by contrast, somatic pain, although generally lower in males, was positively associated with perpetrator status and perpetrating
Chan, Wing Cheuk; Papaconstantinou, Dean; Lee, Mildred; Telfer, Kendra; Jo, Emmanuel; Drury, Paul L; Tobias, Martin
To validate the New Zealand Ministry of Health (MoH) Virtual Diabetes Register (VDR) using longitudinal laboratory results and to develop an improved algorithm for estimating diabetes prevalence at a population level. The assigned diabetes status of individuals based on the 2014 version of the MoH VDR is compared to the diabetes status based on the laboratory results stored in the Auckland regional laboratory result repository (TestSafe) using the New Zealand diabetes diagnostic criteria. The existing VDR algorithm is refined by reviewing the sensitivity and positive predictive value of the each of the VDR algorithm rules individually and as a combination. The diabetes prevalence estimate based on the original 2014 MoH VDR was 17% higher (n = 108,505) than the corresponding TestSafe prevalence estimate (n = 92,707). Compared to the diabetes prevalence based on TestSafe, the original VDR has a sensitivity of 89%, specificity of 96%, positive predictive value of 76% and negative predictive value of 98%. The modified VDR algorithm has improved the positive predictive value by 6.1% and the specificity by 1.4% with modest reductions in sensitivity of 2.2% and negative predictive value of 0.3%. At an aggregated level the overall diabetes prevalence estimated by the modified VDR is 5.7% higher than the corresponding estimate based on TestSafe. The Ministry of Health Virtual Diabetes Register algorithm has been refined to provide a more accurate diabetes prevalence estimate at a population level. The comparison highlights the potential value of a national population long term condition register constructed from both laboratory results and administrative data. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Veugelers, Rebekka; Benninga, Marc A; Calis, Elsbeth A C; Willemsen, Sten P; Evenhuis, Heleen; Tibboel, Dick; Penning, Corine
Our aim was to study the prevalence and characteristics of constipation in children with profound multiple disabilities, as data in this area are scarce. A cross-sectional observational study was performed in specialized day-care centres and schools in the Netherlands. The study included 152 children (81 males, 71 females; mean age 9 y 6 mo, SD 4 y 6 mo). Intellectual disability ranged from moderate (7%) to profound (52%) in all participants who also had severe motor disabilities (83% classified at Gross Motor Function Classification System level V). We collected data on defaecation characteristics, food and fluid intake, and laxative consumption using standardized bowel diaries and interviews. Constipation was defined as (1) scybalous, pebble-like, hard stools in over a quarter of defaecations in combination with a defaecation frequency of less than three times per week during a 2-week study period; (2) large stools palpable on abdominal examination; or (3) laxative use or manual disimpaction of faeces. Of the studied population, 57% were constipated and 55% used laxatives, 27% of whom showed symptoms of constipation. Daily intakes of water and fibre were below the required standards in 87% and 53% of participants respectively, without a proven relation to constipation. Constipation is a common problem in children with severe disabilities. Laxative use is high but dosing is frequently inadequate to prevent symptoms.
Full Text Available Human hepatitis E virus (HHEV spreads early in life among the population in areas endemic for genotype 1 and infects mainly adults in areas endemic for genotype 3, where it would be responsible for about 10% of cases of suspected acute viral hepatitis of unknown etiology and for a number of subclinical, unrecognized infections. The overall prevalence of antibody to HHEV is high in most of the former areas and low in most of the later ones, but wide regional differences have been recorded in both cases. “Hot spots” of HHEV infection would exist for both types of strains in particular regions or among particular populations of the world. Studies on pork derivatives, shellfish bivalves, and vegetables for HHEV contamination at the sale point need to be extended for evaluating the impact of the agent on food safety, and the meaning of the finding of HHEV genotype 1 genomes in urban sewage from developed countries should be established through active surveillance. Consensus about technical issues in regard to anti-HEV testing would improve the knowledge of the HHEV epidemiology. Studies in particular regions and populations, and introduction of molecular diagnosis in the clinical setting as a routine tool, would also be required.
Cengiz Han ACIKEL
Full Text Available The aim of this study was determine smoking prevalence and the factors which effect smoking behavior, among Health Noncommissioned Officers College, that in Gulhane Military Medical Academy. This cross-sectional study was performed at February 2004. Population of study has been defined as, the students continue education in Health Noncommissioned Officers College on 2003-04 period. In our study we found that, 50.3% of students have used cigarette in any period of their life, and the prevalence of students who declare smoking one or more cigarette every day is 44.9%. Affect of friends (58.3%, and pleasure (47.2% is 1st and 2nd reasons start smoking. Price is the most effective factor of cigarette availability. In our study, economic reasons are reported as 2nd reason of give up smoking (56.3% after health counter effect (71.3%. The prevalence of smoking among Health Noncommissioned Officers College students is quite high than other studies, which performed in high schools and colleges in our country. Intention of give up smoking is hopeful, but results aren?t satisfying. This situation shows the importance and need of effective give up smoking programs for adolescents. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2004; 3(8.000: 178-185
Street, Amy E; Stafford, Jane; Mahan, Clare M; Hendricks, Ann
The current investigation identified the gender-specific prevalence of sexual harassment and assault experienced during U.S. military service and the negative mental and physical health correlates of these experiences in a sample of former reservists. We surveyed a stratified random sample of 3,946 former reservists about their experiences during military service and their current health, including depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, somatic symptoms, and medical conditions. Prevalence estimates and confidence intervals of sexual harassment and assault were calculated. A series of logistic regressions identified associations with health symptoms and conditions. Both men and women had a substantial prevalence of military sexual harassment and assault. As expected, higher proportions of female reservists reported sexual harassment (60.0% vs 27.2% for males) and sexual assault (13.1% vs 1.6% for males). For both men and women, these experiences were associated with deleterious mental and physical health conditions, with sexual assault demonstrating stronger associations than other types of sexual harassment in most cases. This investigation is the first to document high instances of these experiences among reservists. These data provide further evidence that experiences of sexual harassment and assault during military service have significant implications for the healthcare needs of military veterans.
Norton, Pedro; Costa, Viviana; Teixeira, Joel; Azevedo, Ana; Roma-Torres, António; Amaro, Joana; Cunha, Liliana
Bullying is defined as systematic exposure to humiliation as well as hostile and violent behaviors against one or more individuals. These behaviors are a serious, growing problem, which affects a significant proportion of health care professionals. To support the hospital's risk management policy, a cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of bullying in this institution and identify the determinants of bullying. Bullying was measured using the Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised, Portuguese version (NAQ-R), a self-administered tool. The questionnaire was made available in digital format on the hospital's internal network (Intranet) and in hard copy; questionnaires were returned via nonidentified internal mail addressed to the occupational health unit or deposited in suggestion boxes located throughout the hospital. Multiple questionnaire delivery methods guaranteed data anonymity and confidentiality. The prevalence of bullying in this hospital was 8% (95% confidence interval [CI] = [6.2, 10.2]). Reported bullying was predominantly vertical and more frequently occurring among nurses, clerical staff, and health care assistants (12.5%, 7.6%, 6.4%, respectively; p = .005). After adjusting for gender, age, occupation, type of contract, and work schedule, only type of contract was significantly associated with bullying in the workplace; the risk of bullying was twice as high among government employees compared to workers with indefinite duration employment contracts ( p = .038). This study identified a high prevalence of bullying among health professionals; hence a program to prevent and control this phenomenon was implemented in this institution.
Ireland, J L; Wylie, C E; Collins, S N; Verheyen, K L P; Newton, J R
This study aimed to describe the provision of preventive health care and owner-reported disease prevalence in horses and ponies within Great Britain (GB), and to assess geographical variations in health care provision. A cross-sectional survey was conducted, using a postal questionnaire administered to a random sample of veterinary-registered owners of horses and ponies in GB (n=797). The majority of animals received regular preventive health care: 95.6% had regular hoof care; 71.3% were vaccinated for both influenza and tetanus and median time since last anthelmintic administration was 8.7 weeks. Thirty-one percent of owners indicated their animal was overweight/obese. A new health problem within the previous 7 days was reported for 7.4% of animals, 59.3% of which were veterinary-diagnosed. Thirty-two percent of animals were reported to have a long-term/recurrent condition, of which osteoarthritis (13.9%) was the most prevalent. Obesity, musculoskeletal disorders, and dermatological conditions were the most prevalent conditions affecting veterinary-registered horses/ponies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
de Andrade, Fabíola Bof; Lebrão, Maria Lúcia; Santos, Jair Lício Ferreira; da Cruz Teixeira, Doralice Severo; de Oliveira Duarte, Yeda Aparecida
To assess the impact of oral health on quality of life in elderly Brazilians and to evaluate its association with clinical oral health measures and socioeconomic and general health factors. Cross-sectional study. Population-based cohort study on health, well-being, and aging. Eight hundred fifty-seven participants representing 588,384 community-dwelling elderly adults from the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Self-perceived impact of oral health on quality of life was measured using the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI), with scores categorized as good, moderate, or poor, indicating low, moderate, and high degrees of negative impact on quality of life, respectively. Nearly half of the individuals had good GOHAI scores (44.7% of overall sample, 45.9% of dentate participants, and 43.4% of edentulous participants). In the overall sample, those with poor self-rated general health and a need for dental prostheses were more likely to have poor and moderate GOHAI scores. Individuals with depression were significantly more likely to have poor GOHAI scores. No socioeconomic variables were related to the outcome, except self-perception of sufficient income, which was a protective factor against a poor GOHAI score in dentate participants. Moderate and high degrees of negative impact of oral health on quality of life were associated with general health and clinical oral health measures, independent of socioeconomic factors. © 2012, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2012, The American Geriatrics Society.
Holvoet, Lien; Huys, Wim; Coppens, Violette; Seeuws, Jantien; Goethals, Kris; Morrens, Manuel
Bondage and discipline, dominance and submission, and sadism and masochism (BDSM) is gaining popularity through the mainstream media. Nevertheless, very little is known about the prevalence of BDSM-related fantasies and activities in the general population. To determine the prevalence of BDSM fantasies and behavioral involvement in four different age groups of the general population in Belgium. By use of a cross-sectional survey questionnaire, the level of interest in several BDSM-related activities was investigated in a sample representative of the general Belgian population (N = 1,027). The questionnaire evaluated interest in 54 BDSM activities and 14 fetishes. Self-identification as BDSM practitioner, situational context of BDSM practice, age at awareness of these interests, and transparency to others were queried. Individual item scores and summary scores on four BDSM categories were included in the analyses. A high interest in BDSM-related activities in the general population was found because 46.8% of the total sample had ever performed at least one BDSM-related activity and an additional 22% indicated having (had) fantasies about it. Interestingly, 12.5% of the total population indicated performing at least one BDSM-related activity on a regular basis. When asked whether they saw themselves as being interested in BDSM, 26% stated this to be the case and 7.6% self-identified as BDSM practitioners. Interests in dominant and submissive activities were comparable and, remarkably, were highly intercorrelated. BDSM and fetish interests were significantly higher in men than in women. The older group (48-65 years) had significantly lower BDSM scores compared with their younger peers. Of participants with a BDSM interest, 61.4% became aware of it before 25 years of age. There is a high level of interest in BDSM in the general population, which strongly argues against stigmatization and pathologic characterization of these interests. This is the first thorough study
Borrelli, Belinda; Bartlett, Yvonne Kiera; Tooley, Erin; Armitage, Christopher J; Wearden, Alison
Both mHealth and eHealth interventions for smoking cessation are rapidly being developed and tested. There are no data on use of mHealth and eHealth technologies by smokers in general or by smokers who are not motivated to quit smoking. The aims of our study were to (1) assess technology use (eg, texting, social media, Internet) among smokers in the United States and United Kingdom, (2) examine whether technology use differs between smokers who are motivated to quit and smokers who are not motivated to quit, (3) examine previous use of technology to assist with smoking cessation, and (4) examine future intentions to use technology to assist with smoking cessation. Participants were 1000 adult smokers (54.90%, 549/1000 female; mean age 43.9, SD 15.5 years; US: n=500, UK: n=500) who were recruited via online representative sampling strategies. Data were collected online and included demographics, smoking history, and frequency and patterns of technology use. Among smokers in general, there was a high prevalence of mobile and smartphone ownership, sending and receiving texts, downloading and using apps, using Facebook, and visiting health-related websites. Smokers who were unmotivated to quit were significantly less likely to own a smartphone or handheld device that connects to the Internet than smokers motivated to quit. There was a significantly lower prevalence of sending text messages among US smokers unmotivated to quit (78.2%, 179/229) versus smokers motivated to quit (95.0%, 229/241), but no significant differences between the UK groups (motivated: 96.4%, 239/248; unmotivated: 94.9%, 223/235). Smokers unmotivated to quit in both countries were significantly less likely to use a handheld device to read email, play games, browse the Web, or visit health-related websites versus smokers motivated to quit. US smokers had a high prevalence of app downloads regardless of motivation to quit, but UK smokers who were motivated to quit had greater prevalence of app
Armour, Brian S; Courtney-Long, Elizabeth; Campbell, Vincent A; Wethington, Holly R
Obesity is associated with adverse health outcomes in people with and without disabilities; however, little is known about disability prevalence among people who are obese. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and type of disability among obese adults in the United States. We analyzed pooled data from sample adult modules of the 2003-2009 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) to obtain national prevalence estimates of disability, disability type, and obesity by using 30 questions that screened for activity limitations, vision and hearing impairment, and cognitive, movement, and emotional difficulties. We stratified disability prevalence by category of body mass index (BMI, measured as kg/m(2)): underweight, less than 18.5; normal weight, 18.5 to 24.9; overweight, 25.0 to 29.9; and obese, 30.0 or higher. Among the 25.3% of adult men and 24.6% of women in our pooled sample who were obese, 35.2% and 46.9%, respectively, reported a disability. In contrast, 26.7% of men and 26.8% women of normal weight reported a disability. Disability was much higher among obese women than among obese men (46.9% vs 35.2%, P < .001). Movement difficulties were the most common disabilities among obese men and women, affecting 25.3% of men and 37.9% of women. This research contributes to the literature on obesity by including disability as a demographic in characterizing people by body mass index. Because of the high prevalence of disability among those who are obese, public health programs should consider the needs of those with disabilities when designing obesity prevention and treatment programs.
Ryu, Euijung; Takahashi, Paul Y; Olson, Janet E; Hathcock, Matthew A; Novotny, Paul J; Pathak, Jyotishman; Bielinski, Suzette J; Cerhan, James R; Sloan, Jeff A
Deficits in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) may be associated with worse patient experiences, outcomes and even survival. While there exists evidence to identify risk factors associated with deficits in HRQOL among patients with individual medical conditions such as cancer, it is less well established in more general populations without attention to specific illnesses. This study used patients with a wide range of medical conditions to identify contributors with the greatest influence on HRQOL deficits. Self-perceived general health and depressive symptoms were assessed using data from 21,736 Mayo Clinic Biobank (MCB) participants. Each domain was dichotomized into categories related to poor health: deficit (poor/fair for general health and ≥3 for PHQ-2 depressive symptoms) or non-deficit. Logistic regression models were used to test the association of commonly collected demographic characteristics and disease burden with each HRQOL domain, adjusting for age and gender. Gradient boosting machine (GBM) models were applied to quantify the relative influence of contributors on each HRQOL domain. The prevalence of participants with a deficit was 9.5 % for perception of general health and 4.6 % for depressive symptoms. For both groups, disease burden had the strongest influence for deficit in HRQOL (63 % for general health and 42 % for depressive symptoms). For depressive symptoms, age was equally influential. The prevalence of a deficit in general health increased slightly with age for males, but remained stable across age for females. Deficit in depressive symptoms was inversely associated with age. For both HRQOL domains, risk of a deficit was associated with higher disease burden, lower levels of education, no alcohol consumption, smoking, and obesity. Subjects with deficits were less likely to report that they were currently working for pay than those without a deficit; this association was stronger among males than females. Comorbid health burden has the
Full Text Available Background: Psychiatric disorders including anxiety, depression, somatization, obsessive compulsive, and bipolar disorders are recognized as causing the biggest burden of disease worldwide. Aim: In this study, we aimed to assess the prevalence and burden of common mental disorders at Primary Health Care Centers (PHCC using the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WHO-CIDI in the Qatari population, aged 18-65 who attended Primary Health Care (PHC settings. Design: A prospective cross-sectional study conducted during November 2011 to October 2012. Setting: Primary Health Care Centers of the Supreme Council of Health, Qatar. Subjects: A total of 2,000 Qatari subjects aged 18-65 years were approached; 1475 (73.3% agreed to participate. Methods: Prevalence and severity of International Classification of Disease-10 disorders were assessed with the WHO-CIDI (Version 3.0. Results: Of the 1475 participants, 830 (56.3% were females and 645 (43.7% was males. One-third were aged 35-49 years 558 (37.8%. The three most common disorders were major depression disorders (18.31%, any anxiety disorders (17.3%, any mood disorders (16.95%, followed by separation anxiety disorders (15.25%, personality disorder (14.1%. In the present study, prevalence in women was significantly higher than men for the most common psychiatric disorders, specifically generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social phobia, specific phobias, obsessive compulsive disorders, posttraumatic disorder, somatization, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, dysthymia, and oppositional defiant disorder. Of the total 20% had only one psychiatric diagnosis and 12% had two disorders, 9.7% respondents with three diagnoses, and finally 4.3% of respondents had four or more diagnoses. Conclusion: One-fifth of all adults who attended the PHCC (20% had at least one psychiatric diagnosis. The CIDI is a useful instrument for psychiatric diagnosis in community
Arbus, C; Hergueta, T; Duburcq, A; Saleh, A; Le Guern, M-E; Robert, P; Camus, V
Adjustment disorder with anxiety (AjD-A) is a common cause of severe anxiety symptoms, but little is known about its prevalence in old age. This cross-sectional study examined the prevalence of AjD-A in outpatients over the age of 60 who consecutively consulted 34 general practitioners and 22 psychiatrists during a 2-week period. The diagnosis of AjD-A was obtained using the optional module for diagnostic of adjustment disorder of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). The study procedure also explored comorbid psychiatric conditions and documented recent past stressful life events, as well as social disability and current pharmacological and non-pharmacological management. Overall, 3651 consecutive subjects were screened (2937 in primary care and 714 in mental health care). The prevalence rate of AjD-A was 3.7% (n=136). Up to 39% (n=53) of AjD-A subjects had a comorbid psychiatric condition, mostly of the anxious type. The most frequently stressful life event reported to be associated with the onset of AjD-A was personal illness or health problem (29%). More than 50% of the AjD-A patients were markedly to extremely disabled by their symptoms. Compared to patients who consulted psychiatrists, patients who were seen by primary care physicians were older, had obtained lower scores at the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, benefited less frequently from non-pharmacological management and received benzodiazepines more frequently. AjD-A appears to be a significantly disabling cause of anxiety symptoms in community dwelling elderly persons, in particular those presenting personal health related problems. Improvement of early diagnosis and non-pharmacological management of AjD-A would contribute to limit risks of benzodiazepine overuse, particularly in primary care settings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Wheeler, Benedict W; Lovell, Rebecca; Higgins, Sahran L; White, Mathew P; Alcock, Ian; Osborne, Nicholas J; Husk, Kerryn; Sabel, Clive E; Depledge, Michael H
Many studies suggest that exposure to natural environments ('greenspace') enhances human health and wellbeing. Benefits potentially arise via several mechanisms including stress reduction, opportunity and motivation for physical activity, and reduced air pollution exposure. However, the evidence is mixed and sometimes inconclusive. One explanation may be that "greenspace" is typically treated as a homogenous environment type. However, recent research has revealed that different types and qualities of natural environments may influence health and wellbeing to different extents. This ecological study explores this issue further using data on land cover type, bird species richness, water quality and protected or designated status to create small-area environmental indicators across Great Britain. Associations between these indicators and age/sex standardised prevalence of both good and bad health from the 2011 Census were assessed using linear regression models. Models were adjusted for indicators of socio-economic deprivation and rurality, and also investigated effect modification by these contextual characteristics. Positive associations were observed between good health prevalence and the density of the greenspace types, "broadleaf woodland", "arable and horticulture", "improved grassland", "saltwater" and "coastal", after adjusting for potential confounders. Inverse associations with bad health prevalence were observed for the same greenspace types, with the exception of "saltwater". Land cover diversity and density of protected/designated areas were also associated with good and bad health in the predicted manner. Bird species richness (an indicator of local biodiversity) was only associated with good health prevalence. Surface water quality, an indicator of general local environmental condition, was associated with good and bad health prevalence contrary to the manner expected, with poorer water quality associated with better population health. Effect
Chen, Wen-Ching; Hwu, Hai-Gwo; Kung, Shou-Mei; Chiu, Hsien-Jane; Wang, Jung-Der
Workplace violence, a possible cause of job stress, has recently become an important concern in occupational health. This study determined the prevalence of workplace violence and its risk factors for employees at a psychiatric hospital in Taiwan. A questionnaire developed by ILO/ICN/WHO/PSI was first translated and validated. It was then used to survey the prevalence of workplace violence in the last 12 months experienced by all nursing aides, nurses, and clerks at the hospital. Multiple logistic regression models were constructed to discover the determinants of violence. A total of 222 out of 231 surveyed workers completed a valid questionnaire. The one-year prevalence rates of physical violence (PV), verbal abuse, bullying/mobbing, sexual harassment, and racial harassment were 35.1, 50.9, 15.8, 9.5, and 4.5%, respectively. The prevalence of PV at this hospital was higher than that reported by other countries for the health sector. A high anxiety level was associated with the occurrence of PV. These results need to be corroborated by future investigation. A training program may be required for high risk groups to reduce workplace violence.
DiGiacomo, Daniel V; Tennyson, Christina A; Green, Peter H; Demmer, Ryan T
Clinical inference suggests the prevalence of non-celiac gluten sensitivity is substantially higher than that of celiac disease in the USA. Unfortunately, there are currently no data supporting these claims. The authors analyzed nationally representative data to estimate the prevalence of adherence to a gluten-free diet among participants without celiac disease and also to characterize the demographics and general health status of these participants. The Continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2009-2010 enrolled 7762 individuals representing the civilian, non-institutionalized, US population free of celiac disease. Participants responded to interviewer administered questionnaires regarding current adherence to a gluten-free diet. Prevalence estimates were computed using SAS survey procedures. There were 49 individuals who reported current adherence to a gluten-free diet reflecting a weighted prevalence of 0.548% (95% CI 0.206-0.889). The prevalence of a gluten-free diet was higher in females (0.58%) than males (0.37%), although this was not statistically significant (p = 0.34). Participants reporting a gluten-free diet were older (46.6 vs. 40.5 years, p = 0.005), had higher high-density lipoprotein, lower iron and lower body mass index. The estimated national prevalence of non-celiac gluten sensitivity is 0.548%, approximately half that of celiac disease. Future studies are merited in order to better understand the population burden of non-celiac gluten sensitivity.
Juma, Omar Ali; Enumah, Zachary Obinna; Wheatley, Hannah; Rafiq, Mohamed Yunus; Shekalaghe, Seif; Ali, Ali; Mgonia, Shishira; Abdulla, Salim
Malnutrition has long been associated with poverty, poor diet and inadequate access to health care, and it remains a key global health issue that both stems from and contributes to ill-health, with 50 % of childhood deaths due to underlying undernutrition. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of malnutrition among children under-five seen at Bagamoyo District Hospital (BDH) and three rural health facilities ranging between 25 and 55 km from Bagamoyo: Kiwangwa, Fukayosi, and Yombo. A total of 63,237 children under-five presenting to Bagamoyo District Hospital and the three rural health facilities participated in the study. Anthropometric measures of age, height/length and weight and measurements of mid-upper arm circumference were obtained and compared with reference anthropometric indices to assess nutritional status for patients presenting to the hospital and health facilities. Overall proportion of stunting, underweight and wasting was 8.37, 5.74 and 1.41 % respectively. Boys were significantly more stunted, under weight and wasted than girls (p-value Children aged 24-59 months were more underweight than 6-23 months (p-value = Children from rural areas experienced increased rates of stunting, underweight and wasting than children in urban areas (p-value malnutrition remains a problem within Tanzania; however our data suggests that the population presenting to BDH and rural health facilities presented with decreased rates of malnutrition compared to the general population. Hospital and facility attending populations of under-five children in and around Bagamoyo suffer moderately high rates of malnutrition. Current nutrition programs focus on education for at risk children and referral to regional hospitals for malnourished children. Even though the general population has even greater malnutrition than the population presenting at the hospital, in areas of high malnutrition, hospital-based interventions should also be considered as
Mako, Robsan Sayo
Master in International Social Welfare and Health Policy Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major public health problem with the burden of the disease distributed unevenly. The prevalence of the disease is higher among South Asian immigrants in comparison to the prevalence among the population of the host countries. Studies from Norway, UK and beyond indicate that there is ethnic inequality in the prevalence of T2DM. In order to find out the reason for this high prevalence of T2DM, this ...
Full Text Available School-aged children suffer the most from schistosomiasis infection in sub Saharan Africa due to poverty and limited sanitary conditions. Mapping of disease burden is recommended and there is a need of updating prevalence data which is as old as 20 years in the Democratic Republic of Congo. An epidemiological and parasitological study was carried out in 2011 in the health zone of Kasansa. Six health areas (HA were included in the study. In each health area, one primary school was selected. School-aged children were screened for S. mansoni infection using parallel Kato-Katz and direct microscopy techniques. A total of 335 school-aged children were screened. The average prevalence was 82.7% and ranged between 59.5-94.9%. Four of the six HAs had a prevalence level over 91%. Of all infected children, about half 112 (43.2% had light parasite density. These results demonstrate that Schistosoma mansoni infection is a bigger problem than anticipated and there is an urgent need to implement effective control measures.
Kwak, Hyun-Jung; Moon, Ji-Yong; Choi, Vo-Won; Kim, Tae-Hyung; Sohn, Jang-Won; Yoon, Ho-Joo; Shin, Dong-Ho; Park, Sung-Soo; Kim, Sang-Heon
Bronchiectasis is one of the common chronic respiratory diseases and associated with respiratory morbidity and mortality. However, neither its prevalence nor its etiology is well-defined. We aimed to estimate the prevalence and risk factors of bronchiectasis in adults. In a retrospective study, we analyzed radiologic findings on chest computed tomography (CT) images performed as part of a health-screening program. From January to December 2008, 1,409 (24.6%) of 5,727 participants in the screening program of a health promotion center at a university hospital underwent chest CT scans based on the subject's decision. Bronchiectasis was diagnosed, if there was abnormal bronchial dilatation in any area of both lungs on chest CT. Respiratory symptoms, smoking status, and past medical history were also analyzed to define clinical characteristics and risk factors of bronchiectasis. Of 1,409 patients (aged 23-86 years), who were screened for respiratory diseases using chest CT for one year in a health promotion center, 129 patients (9.1%) were diagnosed with bronchiectasis. The prevalence of bronchiectasis was higher in females than in males (11.5% vs. 7.9%, p=0.022) and increased with age. Respiratory symptoms were reported in 53.7% of subjects. Previous history of tuberculosis (TB) (odds ratio (OR) 4.61, 95% confidence interval (Cl) 2.39-8.88, p=0.001) and age (OR 2.49, 95% Cl 1.56-3.98, p=0.001) were significantly associated with bronchiectasis. This retrospective analysis of chest CT findings in health screening examinees revealed a very high prevalence of bronchiectasis in adults. Previous TB infection is one of the major causes of bronchiectasis. (author)
Magill, Shelley S.; Edwards, Jonathan R.; Bamberg, Wendy; Beldavs, Zintars G.; Dumyati, Ghinwa; Kainer, Marion A.; Lynfield, Ruth; Maloney, Meghan; McAllister-Hollod, Laura; Nadle, Joelle; Ray, Susan M.; Thompson, Deborah L.; Wilson, Lucy E.; Fridkin, Scott K.
BACKGROUND Currently, no single U.S. surveillance system can provide estimates of the burden of all types of health care–associated infections across acute care patient populations. We conducted a prevalence survey in 10 geographically diverse states to determine the prevalence of health care–associated infections in acute care hospitals and generate updated estimates of the national burden of such infections. METHODS We defined health care–associated infections with the use of National Healthcare Safety Network criteria. One-day surveys of randomly selected inpatients were performed in participating hospitals. Hospital personnel collected demographic and limited clinical data. Trained data collectors reviewed medical records retrospectively to identify health care–associated infections active at the time of the survey. Survey data and 2010 Nationwide Inpatient Sample data, stratified according to patient age and length of hospital stay, were used to estimate the total numbers of health care–associated infections and of inpatients with such infections in U.S. acute care hospitals in 2011. RESULTS Surveys were conducted in 183 hospitals. Of 11,282 patients, 452 had 1 or more health care–associated infections (4.0%; 95% confidence interval, 3.7 to 4.4). Of 504 such infections, the most common types were pneumonia (21.8%), surgical-site infections (21.8%), and gastrointestinal infections (17.1%). Clostridium difficile was the most commonly reported pathogen (causing 12.1% of health care–associated infections). Device-associated infections (i.e., central-catheter–associated bloodstream infection, catheter-associated urinary tract infection, and ventilator-associated pneumonia), which have traditionally been the focus of programs to prevent health care–associated infections, accounted for 25.6% of such infections. We estimated that there were 648,000 patients with 721,800 health care–associated infections in U.S. acute care hospitals in 2011
Jo, Hee Bum; Lee, Jun Kyu; Choi, Min Young; Han, In Woong; Choi, Han Seok; Kang, Hyoun Woo; Kim, Jae Hak; Lim, Yun Jeong; Koh, Moon Soo; Lee, Jin Ho
Gallbladder polyps (GBP) are a common clinical finding that can express malignant potential. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether vegetarianism protects against GBP, together with other putative risk factors. A retrospective, cross-sectional study was conducted with subjects who received a health check-up from July 2005 to December 2011. Korean Buddhist priests, who are obligatory vegetarians by religious belief, were identified as vegetarians (vegetarian group) and compared with a non-vegetarian control group sampled from those coming for health check-ups at the same institution. Out of 18,483 subjects, GBP were found in 810 (4.4%). Al though GBP tended to be less common in the vegetarian group (23 [3.5%] out of 666) than in control group (787 [4.4%] out of 17,817), the difference was insignificant statistically (p=0.233). By logistic regression, old age (OR=1.61, 95% CI=1.1 9-2.26 for 30-39 years; OR=1.47, 95% CI=1.08-1.98 for 40-49 years), male gender (OR=1.51, 95% CI=1.31-1.75), high BMI (OR=1.18, 95% CI=1.00-1.39 for ≥ 23.0 kg/m(2) and vegetarianism.
Sareen, Jitender; Cox, Brian J; Afifi, Tracie O; Stein, Murray B; Belik, Shay-Lee; Meadows, Graham; Asmundson, Gordon J G
Although military personnel are trained for combat and peacekeeping operations, accumulating evidence indicates that deployment-related exposure to traumatic events is associated with mental health problems and mental health service use. To examine the relationships between combat and peacekeeping operations and the prevalence of mental disorders, self-perceived need for mental health care, mental health service use, and suicidality. Cross-sectional, population-based survey. Canadian military. A total of 8441 currently active military personnel (aged 16-54 years). The DSM-IV mental disorders (major depressive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social phobia, and alcohol dependence) were assessed using the World Mental Health version of the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview, a fully structured lay-administered psychiatric interview. The survey included validated measures of self-perceived need for mental health treatment, mental health service use, and suicidal ideation. Lifetime exposure to peacekeeping and combat operations and witnessing atrocities or massacres (ie, mutilated bodies or mass killings) were assessed. The prevalences of any past-year mental disorder assessed in the survey and self-perceived need for care were 14.9% and 23.2%, respectively. Most individuals meeting the criteria for a mental disorder diagnosis did not use any mental health services. Deployment to combat operations and witnessing atrocities were associated with increased prevalence of mental disorders and perceived need for care. After adjusting for the effects of exposure to combat and witnessing atrocities, deployment to peacekeeping operations was not associated with increased prevalence of mental disorders. This is the first study to use a representative sample of active military personnel to examine the relationship between deployment-related experiences and mental health problems. It provides
Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T; Ramakrishnareddy, N; Rahman, Mahbubur; Mir, Imtiyaz Ali
Health professionals play an important role in providing advice to their patients about tobacco prevention and cessation. Health professionals who use tobacco may be deterred from providing cessation advice and counselling to their patients. We aimed to provide prevalence estimates of tobacco use among student health professionals and describe their attitudes towards tobacco cessation training. Country-wise aggregate data from the Global Health Professions Student Survey on 'c urrent cigarette smoking' (smoking cigarettes on 1 or more days during the past 30 days), and ' curren t use of tobacco products other than cigarettes' (chewing tobacco, snuff, bidis, cigars or pipes, 1 or more days during the past 30 days) were analysed. For each WHO region, we estimated mean prevalence rates of tobacco use weighted by the population of the sampling frame and aggregate proportions for ' health professionals' role' and ' cessation training' indicators using ' metaprop ' command on Stata V.11. A total of 107 527 student health professionals participated in 236 surveys done in four health profession disciplines spanning 70 countries with response rates ranging from 40% to 100%. Overall, prevalence of smoking was highest in European countries (20% medical and 40% dental students) and the Americas (13% pharmacy to 23% dental students). Other tobacco use was higher in eastern Mediterranean (10%-23%) and European countries (7%-13%). In most WHO regions, ≥70% of the students agreed that health professionals are role models, and have a role in advising about smoking cessation to their patients and the public. Only ≤33% of all student health professionals in most WHO regions (except 80% dental students in the Eastern Mediterranean region) had received formal training on smoking cessation approaches and ≥80% of all students agreed that they should receive formal cessation training. Tobacco control should take place together with medical educators to discourage tobacco use among
Signal, T Leigh; Paine, Sarah-Jane; Sweeney, Bronwyn; Priston, Monique; Muller, Diane; Smith, Alexander; Lee, Kathryn A; Huthwaite, Mark; Reid, Papaarangi; Gander, Philippa
To compare the prevalence of self-reported abnormal sleep duration and excessive daytime sleepiness in pregnancy among Māori (indigenous New Zealanders) and non-Māori women versus the general population, and to examine the influence of socio-demographic factors. Self-reported total sleep time (TST) in 24-hrs, Epworth Sleepiness Scale scores and socio-demographic information were obtained from nullipara and multipara women aged 20-46 yrs at 35-37 weeks pregnant (358 Māori and 717 non-Māori), and women in the general population (381 Māori and 577 non-Māori). After controlling for ethnicity, age, socio-economic status, and employment status, pregnant women average 30 min less TST than women in the general population. The distribution of TST was also greater in pregnant women, who were 3 times more likely to be short sleepers (≤6 h) and 1.9 times more likely to be long sleepers (>9 h). In addition, pregnant women were 1.8 times more likely to report excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). Pregnant women >30 years of age experienced greater age-related declines in TST. Identifying as Māori, being unemployed, and working at night increased the likelihood of reporting abnormal sleep duration across all women population in this study. EDS also more likely occurred among Māori women and women who worked at night. Pregnancy increases the prevalence of abnormal sleep duration and EDS, which are also higher among Māori than non-Māori women and those who do night work. Health professionals responsible for the care of pregnant women need to be well-educated about the importance of sleep and discuss sleep issues with the women they care for. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Acker, Warren W; Plasek, Joseph M; Blumenthal, Kimberly G; Lai, Kenneth H; Topaz, Maxim; Seger, Diane L; Goss, Foster R; Slight, Sarah P; Bates, David W; Zhou, Li
Food allergy prevalence is reported to be increasing, but epidemiological data using patients' electronic health records (EHRs) remain sparse. We sought to determine the prevalence of food allergy and intolerance documented in the EHR allergy module. Using allergy data from a large health care organization's EHR between 2000 and 2013, we determined the prevalence of food allergy and intolerance by sex, racial/ethnic group, and allergen group. We examined the prevalence of reactions that were potentially IgE-mediated and anaphylactic. Data were validated using radioallergosorbent test and ImmunoCAP results, when available, for patients with reported peanut allergy. Among 2.7 million patients, we identified 97,482 patients (3.6%) with 1 or more food allergies or intolerances (mean, 1.4 ± 0.1). The prevalence of food allergy and intolerance was higher in females (4.2% vs 2.9%; P food allergen groups were shellfish (0.9%), fruit or vegetable (0.7%), dairy (0.5%), and peanut (0.5%). Of the 103,659 identified reactions to foods, 48.1% were potentially IgE-mediated (affecting 50.8% of food allergy or intolerance patients) and 15.9% were anaphylactic. About 20% of patients with reported peanut allergy had a radioallergosorbent test/ImmunoCAP performed, of which 57.3% had an IgE level of grade 3 or higher. Our findings are consistent with previously validated methods for studying food allergy, suggesting that the EHR's allergy module has the potential to be used for clinical and epidemiological research. The spectrum of severity observed with food allergy highlights the critical need for more allergy evaluations. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. All rights reserved.
Yun, Young Ho; Sim, Jin Ah; Park, Eun-Gee; Park, June Dong; Noh, Dong-Young
To perform a comparison between health behaviors and health status of employees with those of the general population, to evaluate the association between employee health behaviors, health status, and absenteeism. Cross-sectional study enrolled 2433 employees from 16 Korean companies in 2014, and recruited 1000 general population randomly in 2012. The distribution of employee health behaviors, health status, and association with absenteeism were assessed. Employees had significantly worse health status and low rates of health behaviors maintenance compared with the general population. Multiple logistic regression model revealed that regular exercise, smoking cessation, work life balance, proactive living, religious practice, and good physical health status were associated with lower absenteeism. Maintaining health behaviors and having good health status were associated with less absenteeism. This study suggests investment of multidimensional health approach in workplace health and wellness (WHW) programs.
exposure to blood borne pathogens poses a serious risk to health care workers (HCW), since the transmission of viral hepatitis B and C to health care workers has became of worldwide concern. hepatitis B and C viruses are the most frequent occupational disease in health care service workers, HCW are defined as persons (doctors, nurses, employees, students, contractors, attending clinicians, public-safety workers, or volunteers) whose activities involve contact with patients or with blood or other body fluids from patients in a health - care, laboratory, or public-safety setting . the potential exists for blood and body fluid exposure to other workers, and the same principle of exposure management could be applied to other setting.in the united states, the prevalence of HBV and HCV among HCWs range between (6-30%) and (2.7-10%) respectively . in spain HBV prevalence is 11.6% and HCV is 28.8%. while in taiwan 16.7% of HCWs were seropositive to HBsAG and 12.7% were seropositive for HCV. In Egypt, screening of 1485 HCWs in the Ministry of health hospitals, 35% were exposed to needle sticks
Full Text Available This general population-based study examined associations between violence and mental health, musculoskeletal pain, and early disability pension. The prevalence and consequences of good vs. poor adjustment (resilience vs. vulnerability following encounters with violence were also examined. Data were based on the sixth wave of the "Tromsø Study" (N = 12,981; 65.7% response rate, 53.4% women, M-age = 57.5 years, SD-age = 12.7 years. Self-reported data on psychological (threats and physical violence (beaten/kicked, mental health (anxiety/depression, musculoskeletal pain (MSP, and granting of disability pension (DP were collected. Men suffered more violent events during childhood than women did, and vice versa during adulthood. Psychological violence implied poorer mental health and slightly more MSP than physical violence. The risk of MSP was highest for violence occurring during childhood in women and during the last year for men. A dose-response relationship between an increasing number of violent encounters and poorer health was observed. About 58% of individuals reported no negative impact of violence (hence, resilience group, whereas 42% considered themselves as more vulnerable following encounters with violence. Regression analyses indicated comparable mental health but slightly more MSP in the resilience group compared to the unexposed group, whereas the vulnerable group had significantly worse health overall and a higher risk of early granting of DP. Resilience is not an all-or-nothing matter, as physical ailments may characterize individuals adapting well following encounters with violence.
Burton, Wayne N; Chen, Chin-Yu; Schultz, Alyssa B; Edington, Dee W
To investigate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in an employed population and its association with health risks, health perception, illness days, work limitation (presenteeism), and short-term disability (STD). Five thousand five hundred twelve employees of a financial services company responded to an on-site health risk appraisal which included measured waist circumference and biometric results. The metabolic syndrome criteria were based on the 2005 AHA/NHLBI scientific statement on the diagnosis and management of metabolic syndrome. Perceived health, illness days, and presenteeism were self-reported; STD days were obtained from claims data. In this employee population (61% women, average age 41 years), 22.6% met the criteria for metabolic syndrome and were more likely to report more health risks, poorer health perception, and more absent days due to illness. There was no clear association with presenteeism or STD incidence. However, as the number of metabolic risk factors increased, there was an increase in STD incidence, decrease in health perception, and increase in illness days. No association was found with number of metabolic risk factors and presenteeism. Metabolic syndrome was associated with poor perceived health, increased illness days, and an increased trend of STD incidence. Worksite health promotion programs could be useful in helping employees and employers to identify metabolic syndrome risks and take steps to reduce risk and potential productivity losses.
Dawood, Omar T; Hassali, Mohamed A; Saleem, Fahad; Ibrahim, Inas R; Abdulameer, Aseel H; Jasim, Hanan H
Patients' behaviour in making decisions regarding health is currently changing from passive recipients to recipients who play an active role in taking action to control their health and taking self-care initiatives. This study was conducted to evaluate the health seeking behaviour among general public and its associated factors; and to evaluate the medicine taking behaviour in public and the practice of self-medication. A cross-sectional study was undertaken among general public in Penang Island, Malaysia. A convenience sampling of 888 participants successfully completed the survey. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed among the residents in the north east of Penang Island. This study showed that most of the participants chose to consult the physician when they experience any health problems (66.7%), followed by self-medication (20.9%). The first action for consulting the physician was significantly predicted by Malay respondents and retired people (OR 3.05, 95% CI 1.04-8.89). The prevalence of self-medication was 54%. The practice of self-medication was significantly associated with Chinese participants, educated people, people with alone living status and people with more self-care orientation. Increasing the awareness of the public about the rational choice of getting medical assistance is a very important issue to control their health. A health education program is needed to increase the awareness about the use of medicines among the general public and to enable them to make the right decisions relating to health problems.
Full Text Available To describe patterns of transmissible infections, chronic illnesses, socio-demographic characteristics and risk behaviors in Mexico City prisons, including in comparison to the general population, to identify those currently needing healthcare and inform policy.A cross-sectional study among 17,000 prisoners at 4 Mexico City prisons (June to December 2010. Participation was voluntary, confidential and based on informed consent. Participants were tested for HIV, Hepatitis B & C, syphilis, hypertension, obesity, and, if at risk, glucose and cholesterol. A subset completed a questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics and risk behaviors. Positive results were delivered with counseling and treatment or referral.76.8% (15,517/20,196 of men and 92.9% (1,779/1,914 of women participated. Complete data sets were available for 98.8%. The following prevalence data were established for transmissible infections: HIV 0.7%; syphilis: Anti-TP+/VDRL+ 2.0%; Hepatitis B: HBcAb 2.8%, HBsAg 0.15%; Anti-HCV 3.2%. Obesity: 9.5% men, 33.8% women. Compared with national age- and sex-matched data, the relative prevalence was greater for HIV and syphilis among women, HIV and Hepatitis C in men, and all infections in younger participants. Obesity prevalence was similar for women and lower among male participants. The prevalence of previously diagnosed diabetes and hypertension was lower. Questionnaire data (1,934 men, 520 women demonstrated lower educational levels, increased smoking and substance use compared to national data. High levels of non-sterile tattooing, physical abuse and histories of sexual violence were found.The study identified that health screening is acceptable to Mexico City prisoners and feasible on a large-scale. It demonstrated higher prevalence of HIV and other infections compared to national data, though low rates compared to international data. Individual participants benefited from earlier diagnosis, treatment and support. The data collected
Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio; González, Andrea; Servan-Mori, Edson; Beynon, Fenella; Juarez-Figueroa, Luis; Conde-Glez, Carlos J; Gras, Nathalie; Sierra-Madero, Juan; Lopez-Ridaura, Ruy; Volkow, Patricia; Bertozzi, Stefano M
To describe patterns of transmissible infections, chronic illnesses, socio-demographic characteristics and risk behaviors in Mexico City prisons, including in comparison to the general population, to identify those currently needing healthcare and inform policy. A cross-sectional study among 17,000 prisoners at 4 Mexico City prisons (June to December 2010). Participation was voluntary, confidential and based on informed consent. Participants were tested for HIV, Hepatitis B & C, syphilis, hypertension, obesity, and, if at risk, glucose and cholesterol. A subset completed a questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics and risk behaviors. Positive results were delivered with counseling and treatment or referral. 76.8% (15,517/20,196) of men and 92.9% (1,779/1,914) of women participated. Complete data sets were available for 98.8%. The following prevalence data were established for transmissible infections: HIV 0.7%; syphilis: Anti-TP+/VDRL+ 2.0%; Hepatitis B: HBcAb 2.8%, HBsAg 0.15%; Anti-HCV 3.2%. Obesity: 9.5% men, 33.8% women. Compared with national age- and sex-matched data, the relative prevalence was greater for HIV and syphilis among women, HIV and Hepatitis C in men, and all infections in younger participants. Obesity prevalence was similar for women and lower among male participants. The prevalence of previously diagnosed diabetes and hypertension was lower. Questionnaire data (1,934 men, 520 women) demonstrated lower educational levels, increased smoking and substance use compared to national data. High levels of non-sterile tattooing, physical abuse and histories of sexual violence were found. The study identified that health screening is acceptable to Mexico City prisoners and feasible on a large-scale. It demonstrated higher prevalence of HIV and other infections compared to national data, though low rates compared to international data. Individual participants benefited from earlier diagnosis, treatment and support. The data collected will also
In the era of an ageing population, young adults on medical wards are quite rare, as only 12% of young adults report a long-term illness or disability. However, mental health problems remain prevalent in the younger population. In a recent report, mental health and obesity were listed as the most common problems in young adults. Teams set up specifically for the needs of younger adults, such as early intervention in psychosis services are shown to work better than traditional care and have also proven to be cost effective. On the medical wards, younger patients may elicit strong emotions in staff, who often feel protective and may identify strongly with the young patient's suffering. In order to provide holistic care for young adults, general physicians need to recognise common presentations of mental illness in young adults such as depression, deliberate self-harm, eating disorders and substance misuse. Apart from treating illness, health promotion is particularly important for young adults. © 2015 Royal College of Physicians.
Carslake, R J; Hill, K E; Sjölander, K; Hii, S F; Prattley, D; Acke, E
To determine the prevalence of selected canine vector-borne diseases (Leishmania infantum, Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi and Dirofilaria immitis) and endo- and ectoparasites in Samoan dogs presenting for surgical sterilisation and to report on the general health management of the dogs. This study was a prospective serological cross-sectional survey. Management data were obtained for 242 dogs by interview with their owners. Blood samples were collected from 237 dogs and screened for the canine vector-borne diseases using point-of-care qualitative ELISA assays. Anaplasma spp. positive samples were screened by PCR and sequenced for species identification. Rectal faecal samples were collected from 204 dogs for faecal flotation and immunofluorescent antibody tests were performed for Giardia and Cryptosporidium spp. on a subset of 93 faecal samples. The skin and coat of 221 dogs were examined for presence of ectoparasites. The D. immitis antigen was detected in 46.8% (111/237) of dogs. Seroprevalence of Anaplasma spp. was 8.4% (20/237); A. platys was confirmed by PCR. Prevalence of hookworm was 92.6% (185/205) and Giardia was 29.0% (27/93). Ectoparasites were detected on 210/221 (95.0%) of dogs examined and 228/242 dogs (94.2%) had previously never received any preventative medication. There was a very high prevalence of D. immitis, hookworm and external parasites in Samoan dogs, and prophylactic medication is rarely administered. This is the first report confirming A. platys in Samoa and the South Pacific islands. The public health implications of poor management of the dogs should be considered and investigated further. © 2017 Australian Veterinary Association.
Bo Kyung Koo
Full Text Available The incidence and prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and related macrovascular complications in Korea were estimated using the Health Insurance Review and Assessment (HIRA database from 2007-2011, which covers the claim data of 97.0% of the Korean population.T2DM, coronary artery disease (CAD, cerebrovascular disease (CVD, and peripheral artery disease (PAD were defined according to ICD-10 codes. We used the Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System codes provided by HIRA to identify associated procedures or surgeries. When calculating incidence, we excluded cases with preexisting T2DM within two years before the index year. A Poisson distribution was assumed when calculating 95% confidence intervals for prevalence and incidence rates.The prevalence of T2DM in Korean adults aged 20-89 years was 6.1-6.9% and the annual incidence rates of T2DM ranged from 9.5-9.8/1,000 person-year (PY during the study period. The incidence rates of T2DM in men and women aged 20-49 years showed decreasing patterns from 2009 to 2011 (P<0.001; by contrast, the incidence in subjects aged 70-79 years showed increased patterns from 2009 to 2011 (P<0.001. The incidence rates of CAD and CVD in patients newly diagnosed with T2DM were 18.84/1,000 PY and 11.32/1,000 PY, respectively, in the year of diagnosis. Among newly diagnosed individuals with T2DM who were undergoing treatment for PAD, 14.6% underwent angioplasty for CAD during the same period.Our study measured the national incidences of T2DM, CAD, CVD, and PAD, which are of great concern for public health. We also confirmed the relatively higher risk of CAD and CVD newly detected T2DM patients compared to the general population in Korea.
Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Aulí, Javier; Tamayo Martínez, Nathalie; Gil, Fabián; Garzón, Daniel; Casas, Germán
The 2015 National Mental Health Survey aimed to expand our knowledge about the real mental state of children in Colombia, taking into account the fact that most mental disorders in adults begin during childhood or adolescence. It is essential to have an improved knowledge of the magnitude of this issue and to design timely interventions that reduce long term complications. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of the disorders in the last 12 months and 30 days according to the DSM-IV, as well as to collect data about social and demographic variables. The structured Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC-P), which provides DSM-IV diagnoses, was applied to carers of non-institutionalised children between 7 and 11 years old. The disorders evaluated included: major depressive disorder, dysthymia, generalised anxiety disorder, separation anxiety disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in its three kinds (mixed, inattentive, and hyperactive), oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder. The instrumentation was computer-assisted. Prevalences of the disorders are present both in the last 30 days and in the last 12 months. In general, there is a prevalence of any of the disorders of 3% (95% CI, 2.2-4.0) in the last 30 days, and 4.7% (95% CI, 3.6-6.2) in the last 12 months. When evaluated individually, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is the most frequent disorder, with a prevalence of 2.3% and 3.0% in the last 30 days and the last 12 months, respectively. In addition, the disorders that are known to frequently begin during childhood are the most common disorders in the age group studied, with a prevalence of 2.5% in the last 30 days and 3.2% in the last year. The 2015 National Mental Health Survey provides precise information about the real mental situation in children between the ages of 7 and 11 years in Colombia, compared with past epidemiological studies in the country, which were restricted to specific populations. By
Luiz Fábio Machado Barbosa
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify factors related to smoking among health workers of the National Health System in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.METHODS: A cross-sectional study based on a survey conducted between September 2008 and January 2009 with a stratified sample. Data on sociodemographic, health, employment, and work characteristics were analyzed. Poisson regression models with robust variance and estimation of unadjusted and adjusted prevalence ratios were used to establish associations at a 5% significance level for inclusion in the final model.RESULTS: In 1,759 questionnaires analyzed, in which the question related to smoking was answered, the overall prevalence of smoking was 15.7%. Reasonable relationship between requirements and available resources remained negatively correlated to smoking in the final model (PR = 0.75; 95%CI 0.58 - 0.96. The variables that remained positively associated with smoking were being male (PR = 1.75; 95%CI 1.36 - 2.25 and the following positions: community health workers (PR = 2.98; 95%CI 1.76 - 5.05, professionals involved in monitoring (PR = 3.86; 95%CI 1.63 - 5.01, administrative and other general services workers (PR = 2.47; 95%CI 1.51 - 4.05; technical mid-level workers (PR = 2.23; 95%CI 1.31 - 3.78, including nurses and practical nurses (PR = 2.07; 95%CI 1.18 - 3.64.CONCLUSION: Specific occupational subgroups were identified and should be prioritized in smoking cessation and prevention programs.
Introduction Extant studies universally document a positive gradient between socioeconomic status (SES) and health. A notable exception is the apparent concentration of HIV/AIDS among wealthier individuals. This paper uses data from the Demographic Health Surveys and AIDS Indicator Surveys to examine socioeconomic inequalities in HIV/AIDS prevalence in 24 sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries, the region that accounts for two-thirds of the global HIV/AIDS burden. Methods The relative and generalized concentration indices (RC and GC) were used to quantify wealth-based socioeconomic inequalities in HIV/AIDS prevalence for the total adult population (aged 15-49), for men and women, and in urban and rural areas in each country. Further, we decomposed the RC and GC indices to identify the determinants of socioeconomic inequalities in HIV/AIDS prevalence in each country. Results Our findings demonstrated that HIV/AIDS was concentrated among higher SES individuals in the majority of SSA countries. Swaziland and Senegal were the only countries in the region where HIV/AIDS was concentrated among individuals living in poorer households. Stratified analyses by gender showed HIV/AIDS was generally concentrated among wealthier men and women. In some countries, including Kenya, Lesotho Uganda, and Zambia, HIV/AIDS was concentrated among the poor in urban areas but among wealthier adults in rural areas. Decomposition analyses indicated that, besides wealth itself (median = 49%, interquartile range [IQR] = 90%), urban residence (median = 54%, IQR = 81%) was the most important factor contributing to the concentration of HIV/AIDS among wealthier participants in SSA countries. Conclusions Further work is needed to understand the mechanisms explaining the concentration of HIV/AIDS among wealthier individuals and urban residents in SSA. Higher prevalence of HIV/AIDS could be indicative of better care and survival among wealthier individuals and urban adults, or reflect
of mental health needs of America's youth, with 1 ... health services to children and adolescents in the primary ... Conclusion: The establishment of the Pediatric residency with a dedicated curriculum to address mental health ... However, there are few young patients being evaluated ... mental health care without stigma.
Banerjee, Souvik; Roland, Carl L; Willke, Richard; Mardekian, Jack; Garrison, Louis P
Prescription opioids are among the most effective analgesics to treat moderate to severe pain; however, little is known about the use of prescription opioids in children, particularly those receiving an extended-release formulation for the treatment of chronic pain. In this retrospective study, the authors determined the prevalence of prescription opioid use among 7-17-year-old children and associated comorbid health conditions from 2010 to 2013 using Truven Health MarketScan (MarketScan) and Optum Clinformatics DataMart (Optum). The primary end points were prevalence of using any prescription opioids, using only prescription short-acting opioids (SAOs), and at least one prescription of a long-acting opioid (LAO). The prevalence of prescription opioid use among children is non-negligible and has been trending downwards: 6.90% in 2010 and 5.93% in 2013 using MarketScan and a similar trend using Optum: 5.47% in 2010 and 4.51% in 2013. Very few children had claims for LAOs, with only 0.04% (4979 children) in MarketScan and 0.03% (1117 children) in Optum. Given the very small number of children, primarily in the 12-17 age group, who are prescribed LAOs, there is a need to focus on a better understanding of the patterns of SAO use in children.
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study evaluates onychophagia or nail biting (NB prevalence and association with mental health of a community sample of children from Shiraz, Iran. Findings The parents of 743 primary school children, selected by random sampling, reported NB behavior of their children and themselves. Children's mental health problem was assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ. 22.3% (95% CI: 19.3 to 25.3 of children had NB behavior in the last three months (girls: 20.1% (95% CI: 15.9 to 24.2. The rate in boys was 24.4% (95% CI: 20.1 to 28.7. 36.8% of the children with NB had at least one family member with nail biting. Older age was associated with a higher prevalence of NB while a higher score on the prosocial score was associated with a lower prevalence of NB. Conclusions NB is a very common behavior in both genders in children and their family members. Children with NB have less prosocial ability than those without it.
Rushna Ghazi Abdulwahid
Full Text Available Anemia in pregnancy is a major public health problem, especially in developing countries. Nutritional anemia is the most common type of anemia worldwide and mainly includes iron, folic acid, vitamin B12 and vitamin C deficiencies. Iron deficiency contributes to half of the burden of anemia globally. The objectives of this study were to find out the prevalence and severity of anemia among pregnant women. A descriptive study was conducted on 600 pregnant women, during the period October 2015 to November 2016 at four primary health care centers in Erbil city. Data gathered through interview with study sample and filling questionnaire format and reviewing their antenatal records. Blood hemoglobin level was measured to assess the severity of anemia. Chi-square test and regression were used to analyze the data. Prevalence of anemia was 46.2%, and 67.1% of the anemic women had mild anemia. There was a significant association of severity of anemia with wife education and occupation, smoking, the number of abortions and cesarean section, ante partum hemorrhage, taking tablets of iron and folic acid per month. The study concluded that prevalence of anemia considered high in Erbil city, the highest percentage had mild anemia.
Scott, David; Burke, Karena; Williams, Susan; Happell, Brenda; Canoy, Doreen; Ronan, Kevin
To compare chronic physical health disorder prevalence amongst Australian adults with and without mental illness. Total n=1,716 participants (58% female) with a mean age of 52 ± 13 years (range: 18 to 89 years) completed an online survey of Australian adults in 2010. Outcome measures including prevalence of chronic physical conditions and self-reported body mass index (BMI) in n=387 (23%) with a self-reported mental illness diagnosis were compared to respondents without mental illness. A significantly higher proportion of participants with mental illness were obese (BMI ≥ 30; 31 vs 24%, p=0.005). Adjusted odds ratios (OR) for coronary heart disease, diabetes, chronic bronchitis or emphysema, asthma, irritable bowel syndrome, and food allergies or intolerances (OR range: 1.54-3.19) demonstrated that chronic physical disorders were significantly more common in participants with a mental illness. Australian adults with a diagnosis for mental illness have a significantly increased likelihood of demonstrating chronic physical health disorders compared to persons without mental illness. Health professionals must be alert to the increased likelihood of comorbid chronic physical disorders in persons with a mental illness and should consider the adoption of holistic approaches when treating those with either a mental or physical illness. © 2012 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2012 Public Health Association of Australia.
Pas, L Willemijn; Boot, Cécile R L; van der Beek, Allard J; Proper, Karin I
The main objective was to determine the prevalence of implementation of mental health measures aimed at the prevention of high workload (workload measures) and the promotion of work engagement (engagement measures) in companies and sectors. Additionally, its associations with sickness absence was explored. Cross-sectional survey. An internet-based survey among 12,894 company representatives in the Netherlands. Descriptive analyses were performed to determine the prevalence, and differences between sectors were tested using Chi-squared tests. ANOVA was performed to examine the association between companies with or without mental health measures and sickness absence rates. 32.8% and 21.7% of the companies reported to have implemented 'continuously or often' workload measures and engagement measures, respectively. The sectors 'health care and welfare' and 'education' reported to have implemented measures most often. Having implemented engagement measures was significantly associated with lower sickness absence (4.1% vs 4.5%). Overall, workload measures were more often implemented than engagement measures. Future research is recommended to determine reasons for implementation as well as causality in the association between mental health measures and sickness absence. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically in recent decades. It is an important public health issue as it causes many other chronic health conditions, such as hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, and type II diabetics. Obesity affects life expectancy and even the quality of lives. Eventually, it increases social costs in many ways due to increasing costs of health care and workplace absenteeism. Using the spatial patterns of obesity prevalence as an example; we show how different geographic units can reveal different degrees of detail in results of analysis. We used both census tracts and census block groups as units of geographic analysis. In addition; to reveal how different geographic scales may impact on the analytic results; we applied geographically weighted regression to model the relationships between obesity rates (dependent variable and three independent variables; including education attainment; unemployment rates; and median family income. Though not including an exhaustive list of explanatory variables; this regression model provides an example for revealing the impacts of geographic scales on analysis of health data. With obesity data based on reported heights and weights on driver’s licenses in Summit County, Ohio, we demonstrated that geographically weighted regression reveals varying spatial trends between dependent and independent variables that conventional regression models such as ordinary least squares regression cannot. Most importantly, analyses carried out with different geographic scales do show very different results. With these findings, we suggest that, while possible, smaller geographic units be used to allow better understanding of the studies phenomena.
González-Huezo, M S; Sánchez-Hernández, E; Camacho, M C; Mejia-López, M D; Rebollo-Vargas, J
The prevalence of serum markers of viral hepatitis in health-care workers seems to be similar to that described in the general population, even though this group would appear at increased risk because exposure to potentially infectious material. There is scarce information available in Mexico in this regard. To define the prevalence of serum markers for hepatitis C (anti-HCV antibodies) and hepatitis B (hepatitis B surface antigen, HBsAg) in health-care workers at the Instituto de Seguridad Social del Estado de Mexico y Municipios (ISSEMYM) and to establish the presence of viremia in subjects with positive serum markers. Health-care workers from ISSEMyM with unknown hepatitis serologic status participated voluntarily in this trial. They completed a written questionnaire detailing potential risk factors for viral hepatitis and provided a blood sample. A total of 374 health-care workers were included. Seven subjects (1.8%) were positive, 5 for anti-HCV antibodies (1.3%) and 2 for HBsAg (0.5%). None of these subjects had detectable serum HCV RNA or HBV DNA on further testing. The frequency of positive serum markers for viral hepatitis in this group of healthcare workers is similar to the estimated prevalence among the general population in Mexico. No case of active infection defined by positive viremia was encountered in this group of subjects.
Zhong, B L; Liu, T B; Chan, S S M; Jin, D; Hu, C Y; Dai, J; Chiu, H F K
Rural-to-urban migrant workers are a large marginalised population in urban China. Prevalence estimates of common mental health problems (CMHPs) in previous studies varied widely and very few studies have investigated migration-related factors of CMHPs in migrant workers. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of CMHPs among Chinese migrant workers. A random sample of 3031 migrant workers of ten manufacturing factories in Shenzhen, China, completed a standardised questionnaire containing socio-demographic and migration-related variables and the Chinese 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). A GHQ-12 score of three or higher was used to denote the presence of CMHPs. The prevalence of CMHPs was 34.4% in Chinese migrant workers. In multiple logistic regression, risk factors for CMHPs included being 16-25 years old (odd ratio [OR] 1.65, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.28, 2.12), being 26-35 years old (OR 1.36, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.75), low monthly income (OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.04, 1.92), poor living condition (OR: 1.76, 95% CI: 1.22, 2.54), physical illness in the past 2 weeks (OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.43, 2.05), having worked in many cities (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.03, 1.74), infrequently visiting hometown (OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.22, 1.99), poor Mandarin proficiency (OR 1.51, 95%CI 1.13, 2.01), a low level of perceived benefits of migration (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.14, 1.55) and working more than 8 h/day (OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.14, 1.70). CMHPs are very prevalent among Chinese migrant workers. Given the large number of Chinese migrant workers, there is an urgent need to address the mental health burden of China's migrant worker population.
Sauer, Kristin; Kemper, Claudia; Glaeske, Gerd
Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a chronic pain condition impacting on quality of life, causing physical and psychological impairment resulting in limited participation in professional and social life. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence, recommended pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions of FMS, patients' characteristics and to compare findings to current research. About 1.6 Mio patients of a German statutory health insurance company (GEK) in 2007 were analyzed for: (a) the prevalence of FMS (ICD-10: M79.7); (b) and comorbid depression (ICD-10: F32/33); (c) the recommended pharmacological and non-pharmacological intervention rates; (d) and characteristics of patients associated with being prescribed recommended interventions. The (a) standardized prevalence of FMS in 2007 was 0.05% in men and 0.4% in women. (b) 51.9% of the patients with prevalent FMS had a comorbid depression in 2007 (88.2% female). (c) 66% of FMS patients received the recommended pharmacological treatment, 59% physical therapy, 6.1% cognitive-behavioural therapy and 3.4% a combination of these (multi-component therapy, MCT). (d) One year increase in age was associated with a 3% decrease in the predicted odds of receiving MCT (95%, CI 0.95-0.99). The current data indicate an FMS-prevalence that differs from epidemiological surveys and screenings, probably due to methodological differences. Especially females with comorbid depression are affected. The likelihood of receiving MCT is not associated with gender, but with younger age. Yet, the findings seem to indicate insufficient and inadequate treatment, but FMS warrants more research. Copyright Â© 2010 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The global burden of the major vascular diseases is projected to rise and to remain the dominant non-communicable disease cluster well into the twenty first century. The Department of Health in England has developed the NHS Health Check service as a policy initiative to reduce population vascular disease risk. The aims of this study were to monitor population changes in cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors over the first year of the new service and to assess the value of tailored lifestyle support, including motivational interview with ongoing support and referral to other services. Methods Randomised trial comparing NHS Health Check service only with NHS Health Check service plus additional lifestyle support in Stoke on Trent, England. Thirty eight general practices and 601 (365 usual care, 236 additional lifestyle support patients were recruited and randomised independently between September 2009 and February 2010. Changes in population CVD risk between baseline and one year follow-up were compared, using intention-to-treat analysis. The primary outcome was the Framingham 10 year CVD risk score. Secondary outcomes included individual modifiable risk measures and prevalence of individual risk categories. Additional lifestyle support included referral to a lifestyle coach and free sessions as needed for: weight management, physical activity, cook and eat and positive thinking. Results Average population CVD risk decreased from 32.9% to 29.4% (p Conclusions The NHS Health Check service in Stoke on Trent resulted in significant reduction in estimated population CVD risk. There was no evidence of further benefit of the additional lifestyle support services in terms of absolute CVD risk reduction.
Cassidy J David
Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the role of prior occupational low back injury in future episodes of low back pain and disability in the general population. We conducted a study to determine if a lifetime history of work-related low back injury is associated with prevalent severity-graded low back pain, depressive symptoms, or both, in the general population. Methods We used data from the Saskatchewan Health and Back Pain Survey – a population-based cross-sectional survey mailed to a random, stratified sample of 2,184 Saskatchewan adults 20 to 69 years of age in 1995. Information on the main independent variable was gathered by asking respondents whether they had ever injured their low back at work. Our outcomes, the 6-month period prevalence of severity-graded low back pain and depressive symptoms during the past week, were measured with valid and reliable questionnaires. The associations between prior work-related low back injury and our outcomes were estimated through multinomial and binary multivariable logistic regression with adjustment for age, gender, and other important covariates. Results Fifty-five percent of the eligible population participated. Of the 1,086 participants who responded to the question about the main independent variable, 38.0% reported a history of work-related low back injury. A history of work-related low back injury was positively associated with low intensity/low disability low back pain (OR, 3.66; 95%CI, 2.48–5.42, with high intensity/low disability low back pain (OR, 4.03; 95%CI, 2.41–6.76, and with high disability low back pain (OR, 6.76; 95%CI, 3.80–12.01. No association was found between a history of work-related low back injury and depression (OR, 0.85; 95%CI, 0.55–1.30. Conclusion Our analysis shows an association between past occupational low back injury and increasing severity of prevalent low back pain, but not depression. These results suggest that past work-related low back injury
Zinzow, Heidi M.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Resnick, Heidi; Hanson, Rochelle; Smith, Daniel; Saunders, Benjamin; Kilpatrick, Dean
Background: Although research suggests that witnessed violence is linked to adverse mental health outcomes among adolescents, little is known about its prevalence or its significance in predicting psychiatric symptoms beyond the contribution of co-occurring risk factors. The purpose of this study was to identify the national prevalence of…
Adrian, Molly; Charlesworth-Attie, Sarah; Vander Stoep, Ann; McCauley, Elizabeth; Becker, Linda
The purpose of this study is to estimate the proportion of adolescents meeting Healthy People 2020 health behavior recommendations for the prevention of chronic disease and to determine the association between mental health status (depression and/or conduct problems) and the likelihood of meeting these recommendations. The data used for this study are from the 2010 Washington State Healthy Youth Survey. Descriptive statistics and linear regression were utilized to estimate the proportion of adolescents meeting recommendations and associations between youth mental health status indicators and health-promoting behaviors. A small minority (5.8 %) of youth met all six recommendations in domains of tobacco abstinence, substance use abstinence, daily physical activity, breakfast consumption, weight below obese levels, and adequate sleep, though most (84.3 %) met at least three. At the aggregate level, the proportion of Washington State youth who met Healthy People 2020 guidelines exceeded targets, with the exception of substance use abstinence. A minority of youth reported guideline levels of daily physical activity (23.3 %) and sleep (39.8 %). Mental health status was strongly associated with the number of health-promoting behaviors adolescents endorsed. Interventions to increase the adoption of sleep hygiene and exercise habits should be added to an integrative positive youth development framework within school-, community-, and primary care-based adolescent health initiatives. Attention to adolescent mental health and shared risk factors may be critical for reducing barriers to healthy behavior.
Mamdouh, H M; Ismail, H M; Kharboush, I F; Tawfik, M M; El Sharkawy, O G; Abdel-Baky, M; Sallam, H N
We conducted a cross-sectional survey to determine the prevalence of, and factors affecting, spousal violence among 3271 ever-married women attending 12 randomly selected family health centres in Alexandria Governorate. More than three-quarters of the participants (77%) reported experiencing spousal violence during their marital life. Emotional violence was the most common type reported (71.0%), followed by physical (50.3%), economic (40.8%) and sexual (37.1%) violence. The study confirms the high prevalence of spousal violence across all socioeconomic strata. Logistic regression analysis indicated large family size, divorce or separation, low educational attainment of husband, smoking habit and drug use in husband, husband's psychological status and history of exposure to physical violence during adolescence were associated with spousal violence. This high rate of spousal violence highlights the urgent need for government and civil society to address the issue, which hinders progress toward Egypt's development goals.
Daneshmandi, Hadi; Choobineh, Alireza; Ghaem, Haleh; Karimi, Mehran
Excessive sitting behavior is a risk factor for many adverse health outcomes. This study aimed to survey the prevalence of sitting behavior and its adverse effects among Iranian office workers. This cross-sectional study included 447 Iranian office workers. A two-part questionnaire was used as the data collection tool. The first part surveyed the demographic characteristics and general health of the respondents, while the second part contained the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ) to assess symptoms. Statistical analyses were performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software using Mann-Whitney U and Chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression analysis. The respondents spent an average of 6.29 hours of an 8-hour working shift in a sitting position. The results showed that 48.8% of the participants did not feel comfortable with their workstations and 73.6% felt exhausted during the workday. Additionally, 6.3% suffered from hypertension, and 11.2% of them reported hyperlipidemia. The results of the NMQ showed that neck (53.5%), lower back (53.2%) and shoulder (51.6%) symptoms were the most prevalent problem among office workers. Based upon a multiple logistic regression, only sex had a significant association with prolonged sitting behavior (odds ratio = 3.084). Our results indicated that long sitting times were associated with exhaustion during the working day, decreased job satisfaction, hypertension, and musculoskeletal disorder symptoms in the shoulders, lower back, thighs, and knees of office workers. Sitting behavior had adverse effects on office workers. Active workstations are therefore recommended to improve working conditions.
Elena M. Magwene
Full Text Available Background. Self-rated health (SRH shows strong associations with measures of health and well-being. Increasingly, studies have used self-rated mental health (SRMH as a predictor of various outcomes, independently or together with SRH. Research has not firmly established if and how these two constructs differ. We sought to characterize the relationship between SRH and SRMH, and to determine how this relationship differed across subgroups defined by sociodemographic and health-related characteristics.Design and methods. We analyzed data from the 2012 CAHPS Medicare Advantage Survey. SRH and SRMH ratings were crosstabulated to determine the distribution of responses across response categories. The expected joint probability distribution was computed and compared to the observed distribution. A constructed variable indicated whether SRMH was better, the same, or worse than SRH. We analyzed the distribution of this variable across various subgroups defined by sociodemographic and health-related factors. Results. A total of 114,905 Medicare Advantage beneficiaries responded to both the SRH and SRMH questions. Both in general and within all subgroups, SRMH was usually rated as better than SRH, and rarely as worse. Conclusions. Within a large group of Medicare recipients, the overwhelming trend was for recipients to rate their mental health as at least as good as their overall health, regardless of any sociodemographic and health-related factors. This finding of a shifted distribution encourages caution in the analytic use of selfrated mental health, particularly the use of both SRH and SRMH for adjustment. Additional research is needed to help clarify the complex relationship between these variables.
Axmon, Anna; Ahlström, Gerd; Höglund, Peter
Diabetes mellitus and hypertension are risk factors for cardiovascular disease, which is the most common cause of death in the world. People with intellectual disability (ID) have been reported to have high rates of both these disorders. The aim of this study was to describe and compare prevalence ratios of diabetes mellitus and hypertension between older adults with ID and their age peers in the general population, and to describe and compare treatment patterns in these two groups. This is a Swedish register-based study, in which we established a cohort of people aged 55+ years and who had received support for those with ID in 2012 (n = 7936). We also established a same-sized referent cohort from the general population matched by sex and year of birth. Information on diagnoses of diabetes mellitus and hypertension, and prescription of drugs for these disorders, were collected from national registers for the period 2006-2012. The two cohorts were compared using generalized linear models (GLM). People with ID were 20% more likely than the general population to have a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, and 26% more likely to have prescription of drugs for diabetes mellitus. People in the general population were 81% more likely to have a diagnosis of hypertension, and 9% more likely to have a prescription of drugs for hypertension. Among those with diabetes, ID was associated with higher occurrence of prescription of insulin combination drugs and sulfonylureas, but lower occurrence of prescription of dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP) 4-inhibitors and exenatide/liraglutide. Among those with hypertension, ID was associated with higher occurrence of prescription of diuretics, but lower occurrence of prescription of calcium channel blockers and angiotensin II antagonists. Treatment regimens among people with ID tended to include older types of medication compared with what was prescribed in the general population. To ensure that this is medically appropriate and not due to
Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus and hypertension are risk factors for cardiovascular disease, which is the most common cause of death in the world. People with intellectual disability (ID have been reported to have high rates of both these disorders. The aim of this study was to describe and compare prevalence ratios of diabetes mellitus and hypertension between older adults with ID and their age peers in the general population, and to describe and compare treatment patterns in these two groups. Methods This is a Swedish register-based study, in which we established a cohort of people aged 55+ years and who had received support for those with ID in 2012 (n = 7936. We also established a same-sized referent cohort from the general population matched by sex and year of birth. Information on diagnoses of diabetes mellitus and hypertension, and prescription of drugs for these disorders, were collected from national registers for the period 2006–2012. The two cohorts were compared using generalized linear models (GLM. Results People with ID were 20% more likely than the general population to have a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, and 26% more likely to have prescription of drugs for diabetes mellitus. People in the general population were 81% more likely to have a diagnosis of hypertension, and 9% more likely to have a prescription of drugs for hypertension. Among those with diabetes, ID was associated with higher occurrence of prescription of insulin combination drugs and sulfonylureas, but lower occurrence of prescription of dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP 4-inhibitors and exenatide/liraglutide. Among those with hypertension, ID was associated with higher occurrence of prescription of diuretics, but lower occurrence of prescription of calcium channel blockers and angiotensin II antagonists. Conclusions Treatment regimens among people with ID tended to include older types of medication compared with what was prescribed in the general
Stommel, Manfred; Schoenborn, Charlotte A
When examining health risks associated with the BMI, investigators often rely on the customary BMI thresholds of the 1995 World Health Organization report. However, within-interval variations in morbidity and mortality can be substantial, and the thresholds do not necessarily correspond to identifiable risk increases. Comparing the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart disease (CHD), asthma, and arthritis among non-Hispanic whites, blacks, East Asians and Hispanics, we examine differences in the BMI-health-risk relationships for small BMI increments. The analysis is based on 11 years of data of the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), with a sample size of 337,375 for the combined 1997-2007 Sample Adult. The analysis uses multivariate logistic regression models, employing a nonparametric approach to modeling the BMI-health-risk relationship, while relying on narrowly defined BMI categories. Rising BMI levels are associated with higher levels of chronic disease burdens in four major racial and ethnic groups, even after adjusting for many socio-demographic characteristics and three important health-related behaviors (smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption). For all population groups, except East Asians, a modestly higher disease risk was noted for persons with a BMI ethnic groups regardless of BMI levels, the evidence presented here does not support the notion that the BMI-health-risk profile of East Asians and others warrants race-specific BMI cutoff points.
Aug 19, 2017 ... sity medical school and other factors in practi- tioners' attitudes to .... grated (less fragmented) public sector health service. However ..... more in touch with the reality of underprivileged com- munities .... health as a human right.
Full Text Available The paper outlines methods of forming health culture in the content of education as a theoretical-methodological area aimed at fostering a positive attitude, sustained motivation for health and personal responsibility for its preservation.
Mathieson, C M; Faris, P D; Stam, H J; Egger, L A
This study investigated the prevalence of drug use among a Canadian college sample and the covariation of drug taking and other health-related behaviours. A representative sample of students at a community college in Alberta were interviewed using telephone surveys, mail-in questionnaires and face-to-face interviews. Data was collected on drug, alcohol and caffeine use, cigarette smoking, eating habits, sleep habits and exercise. While use of illicit drugs did not appear to be widespread, alcohol appeared to be a primary substance abuse problem for a minority of subjects. Factor analysis indicated that the various health habits did not form one dimension of health-related behaviours. Four separate factors emerged: abusive drinking, eating habits, a drug use factor (caffeine intake, smoking, cannabis and hallucinogen use), and exercise levels. Findings are discussed in terms of their implications for future research, treatment and intervention.
Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the pattern of mouthwash use and to investigate the associated factors in general population.Material and Methods: An Adult Dental Health Survey was conducted on 3,022 residents of Grampian region of Scotland (adjusted participation rate 58.2%. Participants received a questionnaire consisting of questions on oral health and behavioural factors.Results: The majority of participants (38.1% have never used mouthwash, 17.5% used mouthwash less than once a month, 19.4% used mouthwash once every few days and 25.1% used mouthwash daily.Prevalence of use decreased with age (P < 0.001. Woman were more likely to use mouthwash than men (P = 0.004. Mouthwash use decreased with decrease in the level of deprivation (P < 0.001. Never-smokers were less likely to use mouthwash (40.3% compared to smokers (53.1% or those who stopped smoking (46.5% (P < 0.001. Mouthwash was used by smaller proportion of people drinking alcohol on daily basis (36.6%, than by abstainers (42.2% (P = 0.012.There was a positive relationship between flossing or brushing pattern and mouthwash use (P < 0.001. There was statistically significant relationship between mouthwash use and reasons for the last dental visit (P = 0.009.When compared to healthy individuals, mouthwash was used by higher proportion of people reporting that they had gum disease (P = 0.001, ulcers (P = 0.001, oral infections or swelling (P = 0.002 or other problems (P = 0.025.Conclusions: Mouthwash use in general population is associated with socio-demographic, health and behavioural factors.
Gaio, Vânia; Antunes, Liliana; Namorado, Sónia; Barreto, Marta; Gil, Ana; Kyslaya, Irina; Rodrigues, Ana Paula; Santos, Ana; Bøhler, Linn; Castilho, Emília; Vargas, Patrícia; do Carmo, Isabel; Nunes, Baltazar; Dias, Carlos Matias
Obesity is recognised as a serious public health issue, due to its associated morbidity and mortality. This study aimed at estimating the prevalence of overweight and obesity in the Portuguese population through direct measurements obtained by the 1st National Health Examination Survey (INSEF 2015) and to identify its associated sociodemographic factors. INSEF was a nationally representative cross-sectional prevalence study conducted on 4911 Portuguese adults aged 25-74 years, in 2015. Height and weight were measured according to the European Health Examination Survey procedures. Poisson regression was used to estimate the adjusted prevalence ratios of overweight and obesity according to age, marital status, occupational activity, education, urbanization of living area and smoking status. Overall prevalences of overweight and obesity were 39.1% and 28.6%, respectively. The prevalence of overweight was higher among men (45.5% vs 33.2%) while the prevalence of obesity was higher among women (32% vs 25%). The sociodemographic factors associated with overweight and obesity were age, marital status and education. Smoking status was associated with overweight and obesity but only in women. INSEF suggests that a high prevalences of overweight and obesity are found in older individuals, married, with lower education levels and non-smoking women. Public health interventions are urgently required for obesity prevention, namely throughout health literacy strategies. Copyright © 2017 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Schuttelaar, M.-L.; Ofenloch, R.; Bruze, M.; Cazzaniga, S.; Elsner, P.; Gonçalo, M.; Naldi, L.; Svensson, Å.; Diepgen, T.
Sensitization to metals is assessed mostly in clinical populations. Studies in the general population are scarce. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of metal sensitization in the general population and to determine risk factors for nickel sensitization. In five European countries (the
Full Text Available Background. Atopic allergy is effected by a number of environmental exposures, such as dry air and time spent outdoors, but there are few estimates of the prevalence in populations from sub-arctic areas. Objective. To determine the prevalence and severity of symptoms of food, inhalation and skin-related allergens and coeliac disease (CD in the sub-arctic region of Sweden. To study the correlation between self-reported allergy and allergy test results. To estimate the heritability of these estimates. Study design. The study was conducted in Karesuando and Soppero in Northern Sweden as part of the Northern Sweden Population Health Study (n=1,068. We used a questionnaire for self-reported allergy and CD status and measured inhalation-related allergens using Phadiatop, food-related allergens using the F×5 assay and IgA and IgG antibodies against tissue transglutaminase (anti-tTG to indicate prevalence of CD. Results. The prevalence of self-reported allergy was very high, with 42.3% reporting mild to severe allergy. Inhalation-related allergy was reported in 26.7%, food-related allergy in 24.9% and skin-related allergy in 2.4% of the participants. Of inhalation-related allergy, 11.0% reported reactions against fur and 14.6% against pollen/grass. Among food-related reactions, 14.9% reported milk (protein and lactose as the cause. The IgE measurements showed that 18.4% had elevated values for inhalation allergens and 11.7% for food allergens. Self-reported allergies and symptoms were positively correlated (p<0.01 with age- and sex-corrected inhalation allergens. Allergy prevalence was inversely correlated with age and number of hours spent outdoors. High levels of IgA and IgG anti-tTG antibodies, CD-related allergens, were found in 1.4 and 0.6% of participants, respectively. All allergens were found to be significantly (p<3e–10 heritable, with estimated heritabilities ranging from 0.34 (F×5 to 0.65 (IgA. Conclusions. Self-reported allergy
Management of health institutions, like many other endeavours, is regulated by law. There is therefore the need for health managers to familiarise themselves with the laws affecting their institutions. The health manager must know the functions, powers and limitations of different statutory or established organs within his ...
Krogsbøll, Lasse T; Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl; Grønhøj Larsen, Christian
General health checks are common elements of health care in some countries. These aim to detect disease and risk factors for disease with the purpose of reducing morbidity and mortality. Most of the commonly used screening tests offered in general health checks have been incompletely studied. Als......, screening leads to increased use of diagnostic and therapeutic interventions, which can be harmful as well as beneficial. It is, therefore, important to assess whether general health checks do more good than harm....
Jiang, Han; Petersen, Poul Erik; Peng, Bin
cigarette smoking at least once, while 41% reported having tasted alcohol drinks. Multivariate regression analyses showed that perceived dental health status and needs were associated with gender, age, unhealthy lifestyles, poor school performance, and socio-economic status. The establishment of school...
Mediano Stoltze, Fernanda; Barker, Joshua O; Kanter, Rebecca; Corvalán, Camila; Reyes, Marcela; Taillie, Lindsey Smith; Dillman Carpentier, Francesca R
Front-of-package (FOP) marketing strategies of a wide variety of beverages were catalogued to examine the prevalence of each strategy prior to a sweeping Chilean restriction of child-directed marketing aimed at reducing obesity-related disease among Chile's youth. Photographs of 1005 beverage packages were quantitatively content-analysed to code whether a variety of child-directed, health-oriented and other marketing strategies (e.g. sales promotions) were present on each product's FOP. Strategies were then analysed based on beverages' product category, total sugar, energy and tax status (beverages with added sugars are taxed at different rates). Photographs were taken in six urban supermarkets in Santiago, Chile, representing five different supermarket chains. Beverages using child-directed characters or nature/fruit references were higher in total sugar and beverages with child-directed characters or childhood/family references were higher in energy than beverages without these respective strategies. Of the beverages taxed at the highest rate (greatest amount of added sugars), 49 % used nutrition and health appeals and 80 % used nature or fruit appeals. Plain waters and plain milks were less likely than other selected product categories to use health-oriented appeals or multiple FOP strategies in combination. FOP marketing on beverages varied according to the nutritional quality of the product, with heavier use of health-oriented and child-directed strategies in less healthy products. Marketing activities warrant continued observation to evaluate how industry responds to new marketing restrictions as these restrictions are evaluated in the light of existing taxes and other regulatory efforts to improve diets and reduce obesity-related disease.
Full Text Available Introduction: Few studies have considered the factors independently associated with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS and/or fibromyalgia (FM or considered the impact of these conditions on health status using population-based data. Methods: We used data from the nationally representative 2010 Canadian Community Health Survey (n= 59 101 to describe self-reported health professional-diagnosed CFS and/or FM, and their associations with 6 health status indicators. Results: In 2010, diagnosed CFS and FM are reported by 1.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3%–1.6% and 1.5% (1.4%–1.7%, respectively, of the Canadian household population aged 12 years and over, with comorbid CFS and FM affecting 0.3% (0.3%–0.4% of that population. Prevalent CFS and/or FM were more common among women, adults aged 40 years and over, those with lowest income, and those with certain risk factors for chronic disease (i.e. obesity, physical inactivity and smoking. After controlling for differences between the groups, people with CFS and/or FM reported poorer health status than those with neither condition on 5 indicators of health status, but not on the measure of fair/poor mental health. Having both CFS and FM and having multiple comorbid conditions was associated with poorer health status. Conclusion: Co-occurrence of CFS and FM and having other chronic conditions were strongly related to poorer health status and accounted for much of the differences in health status. Understanding factors contributing to improved quality of life in people with CFS and/or FM, particularly in those with both conditions and other comorbidities, may be an important area for future research.
Viviane Tannuri Ferreira Lima Falcão; Marcelino Leite de Miranda; Roseane Maria Cavalcanti Silva
The high prevalence of overweight and obesity is presented, currently, as one of the most important problems of public health. Objective: first to calculate the prevalence of obesity and overweight in the adolescent college students of the campus of health and sciences of the University of PE; to identify them according to: sex, age, monthly familiar income and life style. Methods: epidemiologic study and description, quantitative transversal line with characteristics. The population who took...
Sachin R Gedam
Full Text Available Background: Internet has become an essential part of our daily life, especially among adolescents and youth. It is mainly used for education, entertainment, social networking, and information sharing. Its excessive use among health care providers is becoming a major concern. Aims: The aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence, understand the pattern, and to determine the association between psychopathology and internet addiction among health profession undergraduates. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 846 students of various faculties from Deemed University. Students were assessed with semi-structured data, Internet Addiction Test and Mental Health Inventory, after giving them brief instructions. Students were classified into normal students and addicted students for comparison. Results: The total prevalence of internet addiction was 19.85%, with moderate and severe addiction being 19.5% and 0.4%, respectively. Internet addiction was associated with gender, computer ownership, preferred time of internet use, login status, and mode of internet access (P < 0.05. It was also associated with anxiety, depression, loss of emotional/behavioral control, emotional ties, life satisfaction, psychological distress, and lower psychological well-being (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Significant association was found between psychopathology and internet addiction. Male gender, login status, emotional ties, and psychological distress were found to be important predictors of internet addiction among students. Hence, these parameters should be taken into consideration while promoting awareness of problematic internet use and educating students regarding healthy internet use.
Singletary, Joanne H.; Bartle, Craig L.; Svirydzenka, Nadzeya; Suter-Giorgini, Nicola M.; Cashmore, Annette M.; Dogra, Nisha
Objectives: Increased recognition of the need for health education in schools has seen advances in health literacy in recent years. Most of these have focussed on physical health, whereas education about mental health is generally lacking and focussed on tackling stigma rather than promoting good mental health. This study evaluated a pilot…
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Literature suggests that good quality health care access can have a positive impact on the health of people with serious mental illness (SMI, but literature relating to patterns of access by this group is equivocal. AIM: This study was designed to explore health care access patterns in a group of people with SMI and to compare them with a general New Zealand population group, in order for health providers to understand how they might contribute to positive health outcomes for this group. METHODS: The study surveyed 404 mental health consumers aged 18-65 years receiving care from one district health board in Auckland about their patterns of health care access. Results were compared with those from the New Zealand Health Survey of the general population. RESULTS: Findings suggest that the SMI consumer respondents had poorer physical health than the general population respondents, accessed health care services in more complex ways and were more particular about who they accessed for their care than the general population respondents. There was some concern from SMI consumers around discrimination from health care providers. The study also suggested that some proactive management with SMI consumers for conditions such as metabolic syndrome was occurring within the health care community. DISCUSSION: The first point of access for SMI consumers with general health problems is not always the family general practitioner and so other health professionals may sometimes need to consider the mental and physical health of such consumers in a wider context than their own specialism.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES Complex and diverse factors are related to reproductive health (RH behavior among adolescents according to the social and cultural context of each countries. This study examined the prevalence of active RH and factors related to active RH behavior among Indonesian adolescents. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1,040 of students who were selected through a multi-stage random sampling technique. A self-administered questionnaire was developed, including the World Health Organization Illustrative Questionnaire for Interview-Surveys with Young People, pubertal development scale, and sexual activity scale, modified in accordance to the Indonesian context. The data were analyzed using descriptive and comparative statistics, as well as logistic regression analyses. RESULTS The prevalence of active RH behavior were more higher in boys (56.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 50.6% to 62.6% than in girls (43.7%; 95% CI, 37.6% to 49.8%. Negative attitudes towards RH were a factor related to active RH behavior in both boys and girls. Smoking and kind relationship envisioned before marriage (pacaran [courtship] and nikah siri [non-registered marriage] were factors related to active RH behavior in boys; whereas the absence of access to information on substance abuse was an additional factor in girls. Moreover, an interaction was found between access to information on development and smoking (boys and attitudes on RH (girls as independent variables associated with active RH behavior. CONCLUSIONS Sex education for adolescents in Indonesia, particularly in the context of a health promotion program, should be developed based on prevalent social, cultural, and religious values to prevent active RH behavior. Such programs should focus on the kind of relationship envisioned before marriage and smoking for boys and access to information on subtance abuse for girls.
da Silva, Luciana; Kupek, Emil; Peres, Karen G
The aim of this study was to investigate the associated factors of changes in symptoms of xerostomia (SOX) in adults aged 20-59. A prospective population-based study was conducted in 2009 (n = 1720) and 2012 (n = 1222) in the urban area of Florianópolis, SC, Brazil. Information on SOX was collected in both years together with age, family income, years of schooling, smoking habit, alcohol consumption, changes in the body mass index (BMI; kg/m²), medicine use, self-reported diagnosis of chronic diseases, change in hypertension status and in the use and need for dentures, and number of remaining teeth. Associated factors with changes in SOX were investigated using multinomial logistic regression, considering those who had never reported this symptom as the reference. Prevalence of regular SOX was equal to 3.8% (95% CI: 2.9-5.1) and irregular (one period only) equal to 12.2% (95% CI: 10.2-14.5). Age, smoking habit, medicine use, self-reported diagnosis of depression, and weight gain increased the probability of regular SOX, whereas highest schooling level was associated with lower probability of this symptom. General and psychosocial health influenced the number of episodes of xerostomia symptoms, calling for multidisciplinary actions to prevent common risk behaviors for oral and general diseases. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Wong, Eunice C; Fulton, Brad R; Derose, Kathryn P
This study assessed the prevalence of and factors associated with congregation-based programming in support of people with mental illness. To estimate the proportion of congregations that provide mental health programming, this study reports analyses of survey responses from the 2012 National Congregations Study, a nationally representative survey of religious congregations in the United States (N=1,327). The analysis used multivariate logistic regression to identify congregational characteristics associated with the provision of mental health programming. Nearly one in four U.S. congregations (23%) provided some type of programming to support people with mental illness. Approximately 31% of all attendees belonged to a congregation that provided mental health programming. Congregational characteristics associated with providing mental health programming included having more members and having members with higher incomes, employing staff for social service programs, and providing health-focused programs. Other significant predictors included engaging with the surrounding community (that is, conducting community needs assessments and hosting speakers from social service organizations) and being located in a predominantly African-American community. Greater coordination between mental health providers and congregations with programs that support people with mental illness could foster more integrated and holistic care, which in turn may lead to improved recovery outcomes.
Cancela Carral, José María; Ayán Pérez, Carlos
Future education and health professionals will be responsible for promoting physical activity and correct eating habits among the general population. This work aims to describe the prevalence and the degree of correlation between physical level and eating disorders in a sample made of nursing, physiotherapy and education female students. A total of 258 female students doing university courses during the academic year 2009-2010 at the University of Vigo (Pontevedra's Campus) and who were registered in nursing (87), physiotherapy (73) and education (98) took part in this transversal descriptive study. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire and the Eating Attitude Test were used to assess the prevalence of physical activity and eating disturbed attitudes respectively. The data showed that 63 (64,7%) of nursing students and 63 (72,1%) of education students reported the higher physical inactivity values, while 19 (19.4%) and 13 (15,3%) of them were likely to suffer from eating disorders respectively. Significant differences were found between the academic degree and the physical activity level of the sample (chi²=10,265; Sig.students (OR= 3,58; IC 95%= 1,29-9,93; Sig.students. There is a chance that the performance of intense physical activity could be related to inadequate eating habits.
The objectives of this study are to assess: (a) the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among new patients attending rheumatology outpatient departments, (b) the age profile of these low vitamin D patients and (c) whether any diagnostic category had a particularly high number of vitamin D-deficient patients. All new patients seen consecutively in general rheumatology clinics between January to June 2007 inclusive were eligible to partake in this study, and 231 out of 264 consented to do so. Parathyroid hormone, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, creatinine, calcium, phosphate, albumin and alkaline phosphatase levels were measured. We defined vitamin D deficiency as <\\/=53 nmol\\/l and severe deficiency as <\\/=25 nmol\\/l. Overall, 70% of 231 patients had vitamin D deficiency, and 26% had severe deficiency. Sixty-five percent of patients aged >\\/=65 and 78% of patients aged <\\/=30 years had low vitamin D levels. Vitamin D deficiency in each diagnostic category was as follows: (a) inflammatory joint diseases\\/connective tissue diseases (IJD\\/CTD), 69%; (b) soft tissue rheumatism, 77%; (c) osteoarthritis, 62%; (d) non-specific musculoskeletal back pain, 75% and (e) osteoporosis, 71%. Seasonal variation of vitamin D levels was noted in all diagnostic groups apart from IJD\\/CTD group, where the degree of vitamin D deficiency persisted from late winter to peak summer. Very high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was noted in all diagnostic categories (p = 0.006), and it was independent of age (p = 0.297). The results suggest vitamin D deficiency as a possible modifiable risk factor in different rheumatologic conditions, and its role in IJD\\/CTD warrants further attention.
Johansson, Henrik; Norlander, Katarina; Berglund, Lars; Janson, Christer; Malinovschi, Andrei; Nordvall, Lennart; Nordang, Leif; Emtner, Margareta
Exercise-induced respiratory symptoms are common among adolescents. Exercise is a known stimulus for transient narrowing of the airways, such as exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) and exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO). Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of EIB and EILO in a general population of adolescents. In this cross-sectional study, a questionnaire on exercise-induced dyspnoea was sent to all adolescents born in 1997 and 1998 in Uppsala, Sweden (n=3838). A random subsample of 146 adolescents (99 with self-reported exercise-induced dyspnoea and 47 without this condition) underwent standardised treadmill exercise tests for EIB and EILO. The exercise test for EIB was performed while breathing dry air; a positive test was defined as a decrease of ≥10% in FEV1 from baseline. EILO was investigated using continuous laryngoscopy during exercise. The estimated prevalence of EIB and EILO in the total population was 19.2% and 5.7%, respectively. No gender differences were found. In adolescents with exercise-induced dyspnoea, 39.8% had EIB, 6% had EILO and 4.8% had both conditions. In this group, significantly more boys than girls had neither EIB nor EILO (64.7% vs 38.8%; p=0.026). There were no significant differences in body mass index, lung function, diagnosed asthma or medication between the participants with exercise-induced dyspnoea who had or did not have a positive EIB or EILO test result. Both EIB and EILO are common causes of exercise-induced dyspnoea in adolescents. EILO is equally common among girls and boys and can coexist with EIB. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Grøvle, Lars; Haugen, Anne J; Ihlebaek, Camilla M; Keller, Anne; Natvig, Bård; Brox, Jens I; Grotle, Margreth
Chronic nonspecific low back pain is accompanied by high rates of comorbid mental and physical conditions. The aims of this study were to investigate if patients with specific back pain, that is, sciatica caused by lumbar herniation, report higher rates of subjective health complaints (SHCs) than the general population and if there is an association between change in sciatica symptoms and change in SHCs over a 12-month period. A multicenter cohort study of 466 sciatica patients was conducted with follow-up at 3 months and 1 year. Comorbid SHCs were measured by 27 items of the SHC inventory. Odds ratios (ORs) for each SHC were calculated with comparison to a general population sample (n=928) by logistic regression. The SHC number was calculated by summing all complaints present. At baseline, the ORs for reporting SHCs for the sciatica patients were significantly elevated in 15 of the 27 items with a mean (S.D.) SHC number of 7.5 (4.4), compared to 5.2 (4.4) in the general population (Psciatica, the SHC number was reduced to normal levels. Among those with persisting or worsening sciatica, the number increased to a level almost double that of the general population. Compared to the general population, the prevalence of subjective health complaints in sciatica is increased. During follow-up, the number of health complaints increased in patients with persisting or worsening sciatica. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Introduction: Vaginits is probably the most common infection in women during their reproductive years, resulting in 5-10 million health-care visits a year, worldwide. Vulvovaginal candidiasis (vvc is the second-most common form of vaginitis in the United States, which is associated with use of oral contraceptives containing high levels of estrogen and hormonal therapies. Midwives play an important role not only in the assessment and management of vaginal infections, but also in educating women about vaginal health. Recognizing risk factors associated with infections are the key to vaginal health.The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of Candidal vaginitis in women referring to Tabriz health centers. Methods: This was a cross sectional study carried out on 1000 women aged 15-49 years who were selected by multiple random method. A sample of vaginal discharge was taken from the posterior fornix of the cervix and from the vaginal wall using sterile cotton swabs. The mycelium was observed by microscopic examination of a wet mount of the secretions. Another sample was taken for culturing in Agar sabura and transported to the laboratory. In addition, questionnaires with personal and reproductive information were completed. Data was analyzed by using SPSS version 15 and chi-square and, t student statistical tests were used for analysis. Results : This investigation indicated that prevalence of candidiasis was 25.2%. There was no meaningful statistical relationship between age, marriage age, occupation, education status, body mass index, day of menstruation cycle and abortion history with candidal vaginitis (p>.05,but a statistically significant relationship was observed between number of deliveries, vaginal Ph with candidiasis. Also, there was a reverse statistical relationship between OCP, DMPA methods and candidiasis. Conclusion: Midwives and other health professionals have an important role to play by giving more
Burney, P.; Summers, C.; Chinn, S.; Hooper, R.; van Ree, R.; Lidholm, J.
Background: Reports of adverse reactions to foods are increasing, but there is limited information on the comparative prevalence of sensitization to food allergens using standardized methods. Methods: Sera from the 'random sample' of young adults seen during the second phase of the European
Badve, Siddharth A; Bhojraj, Shekhar; Nene, Abhay; Raut, Abhijit; Ramakanthan, Ravi
A cross-sectional clinico-radiologic evaluation of occipito-atlantoaxial (OC1C2) region of 2 population groups. Determine the prevalence of OC1C2 osteoarthritis in porters involved in carrying loads on the head and general male population. Describe its clinico-radiologic manifestations. In addition to age, head loading is a known cause of degeneration affecting the occipito-cervical region. The impact of head loading in the population aged between third and sixth decade is unknown. Head loading is a common custom in the developing countries. Study group (n = 107) included randomly selected male porters from railway stations who underwent computed tomography (CT) study of the OC1C2 region, plain radiographs of the cervical spine and detailed clinical examination. Control group (n = 107) included randomly selected male patients undergoing CT scan study for diseases of paranasal sinuses with coincidental screening of OC1C2 region along with clinical assessment. The data were analyzed using SPSS 15 software. Mean age for study group was 32.6 years and controls was 34.6 years (P = 0.156). In the study group, duration of occupational exposure was 10.9 (+/-8.7) years; 81.3% porters being symptomatic with an age of 33.4 (+/-9.6) years. Radiologic prevalence of OC1C2 osteoarthritis in study group was 91.6% and in control group was 6.8%; age of affected individuals was 33.4 (+/-9.3) and 47.9 (+/-8.0) years, respectively. Most common complaint was suboccipital neck pain (69.7%); while the CT finding was decreased joint space with sclerosis and irregularity of the margins (81.3%). No statistically significant association was found between presence of radiologic changes and symptoms. Age, duration of occupational exposure and its relationship with various clinico-radiologic manifestations was studied. This condition has significant prevalence in porters, beginning at an early age. Diagnosis is based on the clinico-radiologic presentation. CT is the investigation of choice
Robertson, Charles M.; Klingensmith, Mary E.; Coopersmith, Craig M.
Structured Abstract Objective To quantify the prevalence, outcomes, and cost of surgical resident research. Summary Background Data General surgery is unique among graduate medical education programs because a large percentage of residents interrupt their clinical training to spend 1-3 years performing full-time research. No comprehensive data exists on the scope of this practice. Methods Survey sent to all 239 program directors of general surgery residencies participating in the National Resident Matching Program. Results Response rate was 200/239 (84%). A total of 381 out of 1052 trainees (36%) interrupt residency to pursue full-time research. The mean research fellowship length is 1.7 years, with 72% of trainees performing basic science research. A significant association was found between fellowship length and post-residency activity, with a 14.7% increase in clinical fellowship training and a 15.2% decrease in private practice positions for each year of full-time research (p<0.0001). Program directors at 31% of programs reported increased clinical duties for research fellows as a result of ACGME work hour regulations for clinical residents, while a further 10% of programs are currently considering such changes. It costs $41.5 million to pay the 634 trainees who perform research fellowships each year, the majority of which is paid for by departmental funds (40%) and institutional training grants (24%). Conclusions Interrupting residency to perform a research fellowship is a common and costly practice among general surgery residents. While performing a research fellowship is associated with clinical fellowship training after residency, it is unclear to what extent this practice leads to the development of surgical investigators after post-graduate training. PMID:19106692
Vila-Rigat, Rosa; Panadès Valls, Rafael; Hernandez Huet, Enric; Sivecas Maristany, Joan; Blanché Prat, Xavier; Muñoz-Ortiz, Laura; Torán Monserrat, Pere; Rabell Santacana, Ventura
To determine the prevalence of occupational asthma (OA) and work-exacerbated asthma (WEA) among asthmatic patients diagnosed in Primary Health Care (PHC). To analyze the impact at PHC level caused by under-diagnosis and inappropriate referral of OA. A descriptive, cross-sectional multicenter study in patients aged between 16 and 64years diagnosed with asthma, according to their medical record; all were working or had worked, and were assigned to one of 16 PHC centers in a healthcare district. Based on the responses to the questionnaire completed at the study visit, which included a thorough review of the subject's entire working history, patients were classified into three categories by an expert in occupational asthma: OA, WEA or common asthma (CA). Three hundred and sixty-eight patients completed the questionnaire. The prevalence of OA was 18.2% (25% in men and 14.6% in women, P=.046), and 54 patients (14.7%) were classified as WEA. The proportion of patients with work-related asthma (WRA) was therefore 32.9%. Asthmatic patients with WRA took more sick leave than CA patients (P<.001). A high prevalence of WRA was found, mostly treated in PHC. Under-diagnosis of WRA is widespread in PHC. Copyright © 2014 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Gómez-Pérez, Francisco J; Rull, Juan; Villalpando, Salvador; Barquera, Simón; Rojas, Rosalba
To describe the prevalence of lipid abnormalities found in the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANut 2006). Information was obtained from 4 040 subjects aged 20 to 69 years, studied after a 9- to 12-hour fast. Median lipid concentrations were: cholesterol 198.5 mg/dl, triglycerides 139.6 mg/dl, HDL-cholesterol 39.0 mg/dl, non-HDL-cholesterol 159.5 mg/dl and LDL-cholesterol 131.5 mg/dl. The most frequent abnormality was HDL-cholesterol below 40 mg/dl with a prevalence of 60.5% (95%CI 58.2-62.8%). Hypercholesterolemia (> 200 mg/dl) had a frequency of abnormality of 43.6% (95%CI 41.4-46.0%). Only 8.6% of the hypercholesterolemic subjects knew their diagnosis. Hypertriglyceridemia (>or= 150 mg/dl) was observed in 31.5% (IC 95% 29.3-33.9%) of the population. The ENSANUT 2006 data confirm that the prevalence of hypoalphalipoproteinemia and other forms of dyslipidemia in Mexican adults is very high.
In the modern social background of strengthening the nation and its people, woman's health got the attention of Chinese and became one important part in the modernization progress of state and nation, they started the work of women's health education, publicized women's health knowledge and nursery methods through many ways and carried out midwifery education.In the name of "health", woman's body gradually be socialized and internationalized. Meanwhile, Chinese women also gradually got rid of their own discipline of the state and society, began to seek their own liberation, became one important part of China's modernization.
Su, Meifang; Fu, Chaowei; Li, Songtao; Ying, Xuhua; He, Na; Jiang, Qingwu
To examine the prevalence of hyperlipidemia and its related factors in adults in rural Yuhuan, China. A cross-sectional study was carried out as a baseline study of Rural Yuhuan Health Population Cohort in all communities in Yuhuan County, Zhejiang Province, China. A total of 118,571 subjects aged 35 years old or above participated in this study. The trained health/medical workers collected the general information, health conditions and so on by the face-to-face interview. Totally, 5 ml blood samples were taken. Hyperlipidemia was defined as blood triglyceride > or = 1.70 mmol/L and/or total cholesterols > or = 5.18 mmol/L. SPSS 16.0 was used for statistical analysis. Data of the fifth China population census 2000 was used as the standard population. Among 118,571 eligible subjects, the averages of blood triglyceride and total cholesterols were (1.71 +/- 14.42) mmol/L and (5.48 +/- 40.25 ) mmol/L, respectively, and there was a statistical difference in gender on blood triglyceride (t = 4.163, P education levels, smoking, alcohol consumption and body mass index were significantly related to hyperlipidemia. Hyperlipidemia, especial hypercholesterolemia, was common in adults aged 35 years old or above living in rural China.
Arias, Francisco; Szerman, Nestor; Vega, Pablo; Mesias, Beatriz; Basurte, Ignacio; Morant, Consuelo; Ochoa, Enriqueta; Poyo, Félix; Babín, Francisco
The objective was to quantify the prevalence of dual diagnosis and to evaluate the characteristics of these patients from community mental health and substance misuse services in Madrid. The sample consisted of 837 outpatients from Madrid, 208 from mental health services and 629 from substance misuse services. We used the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and Personality Disorder Questionnaire (PDQ4+) to evaluate disorders from axis I and II. It was considered that 517 (61.8%) patients had dual pathology (current diagnoses of axis I or II disorders and an addictive disorder): 36,1% in mental health services and 70,3% in substance misuse services. There were fewer males amongst the dual patients and it was also found that they had a worse employment situation, along with higher figures of alcohol and cannabis dependence than addicts without dual diagnoses (n=194). When comparing them with patients with mental disorder diagnoses only, excluding substance use disorder (n=126), there were differences in all socio-demographic characteristics analyzed, and dual patients were associated with diagnoses of bipolar disorder, agoraphobia, generalized anxiety disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and had more suicide risk and different personality disorders. Thus, dual pathology is higher in patients who are in treatment and have differential characteristics (higher suicide risk, worse employment situation) that suggest greater severity that could be of help in the planning of care resource policies for these patients.
Jarahi, Lida; Asadi, Reza; Hakimi, Hamid Reza
In women's health, literacy determines their participation in self and family health promotion. Low health literacy is as barrier for understanding medical recommendations, disease prevention and health care. To assess women's health literacy and relative factors in Mashhad (Iran). Women referring to healthcare centers in Mashhad in 2012 and 2013, participated in this cross-sectional study by stratified sampling method. The validated Persian version of Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine-revised questionnaire was used. Vocabulary comprehension and reading scores of health literacy was assessed. Comparisons were done in demographic subgroups by ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis, Pearson correlation coefficient, and Chi-Square tests. In total, 250 women with a mean age of 32.1±10.23 years and the mean education level of 10.58±3.67 years were studied. The mean reading score was 11.58±2.51 and the mean vocabulary comprehension score was 17.24±4.73. Participants' health literacy score had positive correlation with age and education, and significant difference in health literacy scores between occupational groups was seen. Housewives' health literacy scores were lower than others (pliteracy was a common problem amongst younger women, especially among women who had less education. These women are at risk of early marriage and child bearing and require more health care. Health care professionals should use effective methods for easier transfer recommendation, also, producing medical information booklets, texts, and videos for different community subgroups through public media or even in cyberspace with clear and common words consisting of essential information.
Sansone, Valerio; Bonora, Cristina; Boria, Paola; Meroni, Roberto
Shoulder disorders in the occupational environment have been widely studied, but the quality of research and methodology applied vary. Little has been done to ascertain whether shoulder pain in female repetitive workers is due to any verifiable pathology, or to compare findings with the general population. Therefore, we decided to evaluate the prevalence of self-reported shoulder pain in a group of female supermarket cashiers and in the general female population using a standardized questionnaire. Shoulder pain prevalence was then compared to imaging findings in order to assess specific and non-specific pain prevalence. 196 cashiers and 302 controls filled in a standardized shoulder questionnaire and underwent an imaging examination of a shoulder. The prevalence of shoulder pain was significantly higher in the group of cashiers (46.4%) than in the general population (25.5%) (OR = 1.821; 95% CI: 1.426-2.325). Specific pain prevalence was higher among the controls (19.5%) than among the cashiers (13.2%). The more frequent reports of shoulder pain in the supermarket cashiers are not correlated with a higher prevalence of imaging abnormalities. The causes of these more frequent complaints should be probably sought in the psycho-social and occupational environment.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study investigates the prevalence of symptoms of shift work disorder in a sample of nurses, and its association to individual, health and work variables. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated three different shift work disorder assessment procedures all based on current diagnostic criteria and employing symptom based questions. Crude and adjusted logistic regression analyses were performed with symptoms of shift work disorder as the dependent variable. Participants (n = 1968 reported age, gender, work schedule, commuting time, weekly work hours, children in household, number of nights and number of shifts separated by less than 11 hours worked the last year, use of bright light therapy, melatonin and sleep medication, and completed the Bergen Insomnia Scale, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Global Sleep Assessment Questionnaire, Diurnal Scale, Revised Circadian Type Inventory, Dispositional Resilience (Hardiness Scale--Revised, Fatigue Questionnaire, questions about alcohol and caffeine consumption, as well as the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Prevalence rates of symptoms of shift work disorder varied from 32.4-37.6% depending on the assessment method and from 4.8-44.3% depending on the work schedule. Associations were found between symptoms of shift work disorder and age, gender, circadian type, night work, number of shifts separated by less than 11 hours and number of nights worked the last year, insomnia and anxiety. The different assessment procedures yielded similar results (prevalence and logistic regression analyses. The prevalence of symptoms indicative of shift work disorder was high. We argue that three symptom-based questions used in the present study adequately assess shift work disorder in epidemiological studies.
Ferrite, Silvia; Mactaggart, Islay; Kuper, Hannah; Oye, Joseph; Polack, Sarah
To estimate the prevalence and causes of hearing impairment in Fundong Health District, North-West Cameroon. We selected 51 clusters of 80 people (all ages) through probability proportionate to size sampling. Initial hearing screening was undertaken through an otoacoustic emission (OAE) test. Participants aged 4+ years who failed this test in both ears or for whom an OAE reading could not be taken underwent a manual pure-tone audiometry (PTA) screening. Cases of hearing impairment were defined as those with pure-tone average ≥41 dBHL in adults and ≥35 dBHL in children in the better ear, or children under age 4 who failed the OAE test in both ears. Each case with hearing loss was examined by an ear, nose and throat nurse who indicated the main likely cause. We examined 3567 (86.9%) of 4104 eligible people. The overall prevalence of hearing impairment was 3.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.8-4.6). The prevalence was low in people aged 0-17 (1.1%, 0.7-1.8%) and 18-49 (1.1%, 0.5-2.6%) and then rose sharply in people aged 50+ (14.8%, 11.7-19.1%). Among cases, the majority were classified as moderate (76%), followed by severe (15%) and profound (9%). More than one-third of cases of hearing impairment were classified as unknown (37%) or conductive (37%) causes, while sensorineural causes were less common (26%). Prevalence of hearing impairment in North-West Cameroon is in line with the WHO estimate for sub-Saharan Africa. The majority of cases with known causes are treatable, with impacted wax playing a major role. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Raum, Philipp; Lamparter, Julia; Ponto, Katharina A; Peto, Tunde; Hoehn, René; Schulz, Andreas; Schneider, Astrid; Wild, Philipp S; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Mirshahi, Alireza
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of blindness in people of working age. The purpose of this paper is to report the prevalence and cardiovascular associations of diabetic retinopathy and maculopathy (DMac) in Germany. The Gutenberg Health Study (GHS) is a population-based study with 15,010 participants aged between 35 at 74 years from the city of Mainz and the district of Mainz-Bingen. We determined the weighted prevalence of DR and DMac by assessing fundus photographs of persons with diabetes from the GHS data base. Diabetes was defined as HbA1c ≥ 6.5%, known diagnosis diabetes mellitus or known diabetes medication. Furthermore, we analysed the association between DR and cardiovascular risk factors and diseases. Overall, 7.5% (1,124/15,010) of the GHS cohort had diabetes. Of these, 27.7% were unaware of their disease and thus were newly diagnosed by their participation in the GHS. The prevalence of DR and DMac was 21.7% and 2.3%, respectively among patients with diabetes. Vision-threatening disease was present in 5% of the diabetic cohort. In the multivariable analysis DR (all types) was associated with age (Odds Ratio [95% confidence interval]: 0.97 [0.955-0.992]; p = 0.006) arterial hypertension (1.90 [1.190-3.044]; p = 0.0072) and vision-threatening DR with obesity (3.29 [1.504-7.206]; p = 0.0029). DR (all stages) and vision-threatening DR were associated with duration of diabetes (1.09 [1.068-1.114]; pdiabetic retinal disease in Germany [corrected].Prevalence of DR was lower in the GHS compared to East-Asian studies. Associations were found with age, arterial hypertension, obesity, and duration of diabetes mellitus.
Jae Hee Ahn
Full Text Available BackgroundDiabetic nephropathy is a leading cause of end stage renal disease and is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. It manifests as albuminuria or impaired glomerular filtration rate (GFR, and the prevalence of diabetic nephropathy varies with ethnicity. The prevalence of diabetic nephropathy and its determinants in Korean adults have not previously been studied at the national level. This cross-sectional study was undertaken to ascertain the prevalence and determinants of albuminuria and chronic kidney disease (CKD in Korean patients with diabetes.MethodsThe Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V, conducted in 2011, was used to define albuminuria (n=4,652, and the dataset of KNHANES IV-V (2008-2011 was used to define CKD (n=21,521. Selected samples were weighted to represent the entire civilian population in Korea. Albuminuria was defined as a spot urine albumin/creatinine ratio >30 mg/g. CKD was defined as a GFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2.ResultsAmong subjects with diabetes, 26.7% had albuminuria, and 8.6% had CKD. Diabetes was associated with an approximate 2.5-fold increased risk of albuminuria, with virtually no difference between new-onset and previously diagnosed diabetes. Only systolic blood pressure was significantly associated with albuminuria, and old age, high serum triglyceride levels, and previous cardiovascular disease (CVD were related with CKD in subjects with diabetes.ConclusionKorean subjects with diabetes had a higher prevalence of albuminuria and CKD than those without diabetes. Blood pressure was associated with albuminuria, and age, triglyceride level, and previous CVD were independent determinants of CKD in subjects with diabetes.
Background: Recognition of mental health problems among children continues to be a diagnostic challenge especially in resource poor countries where integration of such services within the primary health care framework has not been fully successfully. Objective: To document the prevailing mental services among ...
Background: Healthy literacy has been shown to improve health care access and adherence to Tuberculosis (TB) treatment. Still it remains largely unstudied in many high risks, underserved and low literacy African populations. This study aims to bridge the existing knowledge gap by assessing health literacy among ...
Full Text Available Background. There are very few studies that had a sample size sufficient to explore the association between factors related to low back pain in a representative sample of the Iranian population. Objective. To examine the relationship between sociodemographic factors, smoking, obesity, and low back pain in Iranian people. Methods. We used Iranian adults respondents (n=25307 from the National Health Survey. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by using logistic regression. Results. The prevalence of low back pain was found in 29.3% of the studied sample. High age, female sex, being married, obesity, low-economic index, being smoker, in a rural residence, and low educational attainment, all increased the odds of low back pain. Conclusions. Our findings add to the evidence on the importance of obesity in relation to low back pain. These results can be used as a basis to reinforce health programs to prevent obesity.
Zanatta, Aline Bedin; Lucca, Sergio Roberto de
To identify the prevalence of Burnout Syndrome in medical professionals, nurses and nursing technicians working in an Onco-Hematological Pediatric Hospital in São Paulo. An exploratory, descriptive study with cross-sectional design and quantitative approach, with a sample of 188 health professionals. Data were collected using two self-report instruments: the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI-HSS) which is a biosocial data form, and a non-participant observation guide. High depersonalization for nurses (29.8%), low job performance for physicians (27.8%), and of nursing technicians (25.5%). High scores were identified in at least two domains of Burnout in 19.2% of nurses, 16.8% of nursing technicians, and 16.6% of doctors. Health professionals are highly vulnerable to each of the dimensions of Burnout syndrome - namely emotional exhaustion, alienation, and low job performance/satisfaction- in the hospital work.
Aline Bedin Zanatta
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To identify the prevalence of Burnout Syndrome in medical professionals, nurses and nursing technicians working in an Onco-Hematological Pediatric Hospital in São Paulo. METHOD An exploratory, descriptive study with cross-sectional design and quantitative approach, with a sample of 188 health professionals. Data were collected using two self-report instruments: the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI-HSS which is a biosocial data form, and a non-participant observation guide. RESULTS High depersonalization for nurses (29.8%, low job performance for physicians (27.8%, and of nursing technicians (25.5%. High scores were identified in at least two domains of Burnout in 19.2% of nurses, 16.8% of nursing technicians, and 16.6% of doctors. CONCLUSION Health professionals are highly vulnerable to each of the dimensions of Burnout syndrome - namely emotional exhaustion, alienation, and low job performance/satisfaction- in the hospital work.
Full Text Available Background Cigarette smoking is a common problem among teenagers. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Cigarette Smoking among Teen Boys in Marivan city, based on Health Belief Model. Materials and Methods A cluster randomized sample of 470 male students with16.2±2.5 from 6 secondary schools of Marivan city- Iran, completed a self-report and questionnaire consisting of Health Belief Model constructs Data was analyzed by Chi-square and independent t-test, using SPSS-16. Results The rate of smoking the cigarette among students was 21/470 (4.7%. The experience of smoking in the last 30 days and throughout life reported 6.4% and 34.7% respectively. Significant differences between smokers and nonsmokers were found for perceived benefits (P
Keel, Stuart; Xie, Jing; Foreman, Joshua; Taylor, Hugh R; Dirani, Mohamed
To determine the prevalence of vision loss due to ocular trauma in Australia. The National Eye Health Survey (NEHS) is a population-based cross-sectional study that examined 3098 non-Indigenous Australians (aged 50-98 years) and 1738 Indigenous Australians (aged 40-92 years) living in 30 randomly selected sites, stratified by remoteness. An eye was considered to have vision loss due to trauma if the best-corrected visual acuity was worse than 6/12 and the main cause was attributed to ocular trauma. This determination was made by two independent ophthalmologists and any disagreements were adjudicated by a third senior ophthalmologist. The sampling weight adjusted prevalence of vision loss due to ocular trauma in non-Indigenous Australians aged 50 years and older and Indigenous Australians aged 40 years and over was 0.24% (95%CI: 0.10, 0.52) and 0.79% (95%CI: 0.56, 1.13), respectively. Trauma was attributed as an underlying cause of bilateral vision loss in one Indigenous participant, with all other cases being monocular. Males displayed a higher prevalence of vision loss from ocular trauma than females in both the non-Indigenous (0.47% vs. 1.25%, p=0.03) and Indigenous populations (0.12% vs. 0.38%, p=0.02). After multivariate adjustments, residing in Very Remote geographical areas was associated with higher odds of vision loss from ocular trauma. We estimate that 2.4 per 1000 non-Indigenous and 7.9 per 1000 Indigenous Australian adults have monocular vision loss due to a previous severe ocular trauma. Our findings indicate that males, Indigenous Australians and those residing in Very Remote communities may benefit from targeted health promotion to improve awareness of trauma prevention strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available There is very limited evidence on the health consequences of human trafficking. This systematic review reports on studies investigating the prevalence and risk of violence while trafficked and the prevalence and risk of physical, mental, and sexual health problems, including HIV, among trafficked people.We conducted a systematic review comprising a search of Medline, PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, and Web of Science, hand searches of reference lists of included articles, citation tracking, and expert recommendations. We included peer-reviewed papers reporting on the prevalence or risk of violence while trafficked and/or on the prevalence or risk of any measure of physical, mental, or sexual health among trafficked people. Two reviewers independently screened papers for eligibility and appraised the quality of included studies. The search identified 19 eligible studies, all of which reported on trafficked women and girls only and focused primarily on trafficking for sexual exploitation. The review suggests a high prevalence of violence and of mental distress among women and girls trafficked for sexual exploitation. The random effects pooled prevalence of diagnosed HIV was 31.9% (95% CI 21.3%-42.4% in studies of women accessing post-trafficking support in India and Nepal, but the estimate was associated with high heterogeneity (I² = 83.7%. Infection prevalence may be related as much to prevalence rates in women's areas of origin or exploitation as to the characteristics of their experience. Findings are limited by the methodological weaknesses of primary studies and their poor comparability and generalisability.Although limited, existing evidence suggests that trafficking for sexual exploitation is associated with violence and a range of serious health problems. Further research is needed on the health of trafficked men, individuals trafficked for other forms of exploitation, and effective health intervention approaches.
Oram, Siân; Stöckl, Heidi; Busza, Joanna; Howard, Louise M; Zimmerman, Cathy
There is very limited evidence on the health consequences of human trafficking. This systematic review reports on studies investigating the prevalence and risk of violence while trafficked and the prevalence and risk of physical, mental, and sexual health problems, including HIV, among trafficked people. We conducted a systematic review comprising a search of Medline, PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, and Web of Science, hand searches of reference lists of included articles, citation tracking, and expert recommendations. We included peer-reviewed papers reporting on the prevalence or risk of violence while trafficked and/or on the prevalence or risk of any measure of physical, mental, or sexual health among trafficked people. Two reviewers independently screened papers for eligibility and appraised the quality of included studies. The search identified 19 eligible studies, all of which reported on trafficked women and girls only and focused primarily on trafficking for sexual exploitation. The review suggests a high prevalence of violence and of mental distress among women and girls trafficked for sexual exploitation. The random effects pooled prevalence of diagnosed HIV was 31.9% (95% CI 21.3%-42.4%) in studies of women accessing post-trafficking support in India and Nepal, but the estimate was associated with high heterogeneity (I² = 83.7%). Infection prevalence may be related as much to prevalence rates in women's areas of origin or exploitation as to the characteristics of their experience. Findings are limited by the methodological weaknesses of primary studies and their poor comparability and generalisability. Although limited, existing evidence suggests that trafficking for sexual exploitation is associated with violence and a range of serious health problems. Further research is needed on the health of trafficked men, individuals trafficked for other forms of exploitation, and effective health intervention approaches.
Dafny, Leemore S; Hendel, Igal; Marone, Victoria; Ody, Christopher
Anecdotal reports and systematic research highlight the prevalence of narrow-network plans on the Affordable Care Act's health insurance Marketplaces. At the same time, Marketplace premiums in the period 2014-16 were much lower than projected by the Congressional Budget Office in 2009. Using detailed data on the breadth of both hospital and physician networks, we studied the prevalence of narrow networks and quantified the association between network breadth and premiums. Controlling for many potentially confounding factors, we found that a plan with narrow physician and hospital networks was 16 percent cheaper than a plan with broad networks for both, and that narrowing the breadth of just one type of network was associated with a 6-9 percent decrease in premiums. Narrow-network plans also have a sizable impact on federal outlays, as they depress the premium of the second-lowest-price silver plan, to which subsidy amounts are linked. Holding all else constant, we estimate that federal subsidies would have been 10.8 percent higher in 2014 had Marketplaces required all plans to offer broad provider networks. Narrow networks are a promising source of potential savings for other segments of the commercial insurance market. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.
LUIZA GOMES SANTOS
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To identify the prevalence and distribution of cases of self-reported spinal disorders by persons who are 18 years or older living in Brazil according to sociodemographic variables. Methods: We used the Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde (PNS, national health research, developed by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE in partnership with the Ministry of Health. The data obtained from the website of IBGE System of Automatic Recovery - SIDRA were analyzed using the SPSS Statistics software version 20.0, IBM. Results: In Brazil 19% of the adult population report chronic spinal pain, 15.26% (± 4.56 men and 20.08% (+/- 4.11 women. After the age of 60, the prevalence is higher. Regarding skin color 18.26% (± 3.53 are white, 17.27% (± 6.65 are black and 17.93% (± 4.05 are brown, with no statistical difference. As for education, 23.55% (±5.70 had low or absent schooling (p < 0.001. The southern region of Brazil has the highest percentage (23.3% of adults with chronic problems in the spine, and the state with the highest percentage is Paraná, with 26%. Conclusions: The results showed that there is a relationship between spinal pain and sociodemographic characteristics, pointing to the southern region as the most affected by spinal disorders when compared to other regions of the country.
Farbstein, Ilana; Mansbach-Kleinfeld, Ivonne; Levinson, Daphna; Goodman, Robert; Levav, Itzhak; Vograft, Itzik; Kanaaneh, Rasim; Ponizovsky, Alexander M; Brent, David A; Apter, Alan
The development of epidemiological instruments has enabled the assessment of mental disorders in youth in countries that plan policy according to evidence-based principles. The Israel Survey of Mental Health among Adolescents (ISMEHA) was conducted in 2004-2005 in a representative sample of 957 adolescents aged 14-17 and their mothers. The aims of this study were to estimate prevalence rates of internalizing and externalizing mental disorders and their socio-demographic and health correlates. Disorders were ascertained with the Development and Well-Being Assessment inventory and verified by child psychiatrists. The prevalence rates were 11.7%, 8.1% and 4.8% for any disorder, internalizing disorders and externalizing disorders, respectively. Distinct risk factors were associated with the different types of disorders: internalizing disorders were associated with female gender, chronic medical conditions and being cared for by a welfare agency. Risk factors for externalizing disorders were male gender, having divorced or single parents, being an only child or having only one sibling. Learning disability was associated with both types of disorders. The risk and protective factors related to internalizing and externalizing disorders are interpreted within the framework of family composition in this multicultural society.
Glehn, Mateus De Paula von; Sá, Lana Cristina Evangelista Ferreira; Silva, Hian Delfino Ferreira da; Machado, Eleuza Rodrigues
Trichomonas vaginalis is considered the most prevalent curable sexually transmitted infection, and its occurrence exceeds that of gonococcal and chlamydia infections. This parasite has been identified as responsible for the increased risk of transmission of HIV and has also been associated with prostate and cervical cancer. Many carriers of T. vaginalis are asymptomatic and, when experiencing a health problem, they most often have nonspecific symptoms. The aim of this research was to estimate the presence of T. vaginalis and the associated factors in women of childbearing age at a primary health care clinic in the Federal District of Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted with consecutive sampling of an outpatient population of women of childbearing age (excluding minors and pregnant women). The women answered a questionnaire and were examined. After vaginal pH measurement and whiff testing, a vaginal secretion sample was obtained for inoculation in TYM, a specific T. vaginalis culture medium. The presence of T. vaginalis was identified in 16% of the sample. Fewer lifetime sexual partners and consistent condom use were identified as factors of protection against the infection. Complaints of dyspareunia were proportionally higher among women with positive cultures for T. vaginalis. The prevalence of T. vaginalis infection was high in the sample studied. The infection was positively associated with the number of lifetime sexual partners, and consistent condom use was a protective factor. Vaginal complaints were more common among women with T. vaginalis, but only dyspareunia had significant association.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Anaemia in pregnancy has serious adverse effects on the health of the mother and the developing foetus. OBJECTIVES The study aims to estimate the prevalence of anaemia in pregnant woman attending the Nagaon Primary Health Centre (PHC in Barpeta district, Assam. METHODS A cross-sectional study was carried out from 1 April, 2014 to 1 May, 2014. 100 pregnant women attending Nagaon PHC were interviewed using a predesigned and pretested interview schedule followed by a short clinical examination for pallor and laboratory estimation of haemoglobin. Sahli’s (Acid Haematin method was used for haemoglobin estimation. Haemoglobin level below the cut-off 11 g/dL was used to label a pregnant woman as anaemic and further classified as mild (10-10.9 g/dL, moderate anaemia (7-9.9 g/dL and severe anaemia (<7 g/dL. RESULTS 77% women were suffering from anaemia. Out of these, 57 %were mildly anaemic and 20% were moderately anaemic. Women of younger age groups, greater parity, a gap less than 3 years between subsequent pregnancies, less education and practising Hinduism had a greater prevalence of anaemia. CONCLUSION Awareness about the serious consequences that anaemia can lead to and advocacy of a proper iron-rich diet, regular intake of IFA tablets and purification of water to prevent infestation by parasites can help in reduction of anaemia.
Dauwerse, L.; Stolper, M.M.; Widdershoven, G.; Molewijk, A.C.
The attention for Moral case deliberation (MCD) has increased over the past years. Previous research on MCD is often written from the perspective of MCD experts or MCD participants and we lack a more distant view to the role of MCD in Dutch health care institutions in general. The purpose of this
Abramson, David; Stehling-Ariza, Tasha; Garfield, Richard; Redlener, Irwin
Catastrophic disasters often are associated with massive structural, economic, and population devastation; less understood are the long-term mental health consequences. This study measures the prevalence and predictors of mental health distress and disability of hurricane survivors over an extended period of recovery in a postdisaster setting. A representative sample of 1077 displaced or greatly affected households was drawn in 2006 using a stratified cluster sampling of federally subsidized emergency housing settings in Louisiana and Mississippi, and of Mississippi census tracts designated as having experienced major damage from Hurricane Katrina in 2005. Two rounds of data collection were conducted: a baseline face-to-face interview at 6 to 12 months post-Katrina, and a telephone follow-up at 20 to 23 months after the disaster. Mental health disability was measured using the Medical Outcome Study Short Form 12, version 2 mental component summary score. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted examining socioeconomic, demographic, situational, and attitudinal factors associated with mental health distress and disability. More than half of the cohort at both baseline and follow-up reported significant mental health distress. Self-reported poor health and safety concerns were persistently associated with poorer mental health. Nearly 2 years after the disaster, the greatest predictors of poor mental health included situational characteristics such as greater numbers of children in a household and attitudinal characteristics such as fatalistic sentiments and poor self-efficacy. Informal social support networks were associated significantly with better mental health status. Housing and economic circumstances were not independently associated with poorer mental health. Mental health distress and disability are pervasive issues among the US Gulf Coast adults and children who experienced long-term displacement or other serious effects as a result of Hurricanes
Ishikawa, H.; Kawakami, N.; Kessler, R. C.
Background The aim of this study is to estimate the lifetime and 12-month prevalence, severity, and treatment of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th ed. (DSM-IV) mental disorders in Japan based on the final data set of the World Mental Health Japan Survey conducted in 2002–2006. Methods Face-to-face household interviews of 4,130 respondents who were randomly selected from Japanese-speaking residents aged 20 years or older were conducted from 2002 to 2006 in 11 community populations in Japan (overall response rate, 56%). The World Mental Health version of the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI), a fully structured lay administered psychiatric diagnostic interview, was used for diagnostic assessment. Results Lifetime/12-month prevalence of any DSM-IV common mental disorders in Japan was estimated to be 20.3/7.6%. Rank-order of four classes of mental disorders was anxiety disorders (8.1/4.9%), substance disorders (7.4/1.0%), mood disorders (6.5/2.3%), and impulse control disorders (2.0/0.7%). The most common individual disorders were alcohol abuse/dependence (7.3/0.9%), major depressive disorder (6.1/2.2%), specific phobia (3.4/2.3%), and generalized anxiety disorder (2.6/1.3%). While the lifetime prevalence of any mental disorder was greater for males and the middle-aged, the persistence (proportion of 12-month cases among lifetime cases) of any mental disorder was greater for females and younger respondents. Among those with any 12-month disorder, 15.3% were classified as severe, 44.1% moderate, and 40.6% mild. Although a strong association between severity and service use was found, only 21.9% of respondents with any 12-month disorder sought treatment within the last 12 months; only 37.0% of severe cases received medical care. The mental health specialty sector was the most common resource used in Japan. Although the prevalence of mental disorders were quite low, mental disorders were the second
Compulsory treatment of severe mental disorder can seem complicated even to psychiatrists. This article attempts to explain the current legal framework as it applies in common clinical situations in a general medical context.
Mohammed, Faiza; Musa, Abdulbasit; Amano, Abdella
Unintended pregnancy is among the major public health problems that predispose women to maternal death and illness mainly through unsafe abortion and poor maternity care. The level of unintended pregnancy is high in developing countries. Hence, the purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence of unintended pregnancy and the associated factors among pregnant woman attending antenatal care at Gelemso General Hospital, East Ethiopia. A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted from January 10 to April 13, 2015 among women who had attended antenatal care at Gelemso General Hospital. A systematic random sampling technique was used to select a sample of 413 participants. Data were collected via face-to-face interview using a structured and pre-tested questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were made to check the associations among the variables and to control the confounding factors. Out of the 413 pregnancies, 112 (27.1 %) were unintended of which 90(21.9 %) were mistimed, and 22(5.2 %) were unwanted. Multivariate analysis revealed that single, divorced/widowed marital statuses, having more than 2 children, and having no awareness of contraception were significantly associated with unintended pregnancy. Over a quarter of women had an unintended pregnancy, a rate which is lower than previously reported. Designing and implementing strategies that address contraceptive needs of unmarried, divorced and widowed women, creating awareness of contraceptives at community level and reinforcing postnatal contraceptive counseling to all mothers giving birth at health institution is recommended to reduce the rate of the unintended pregnancy among parous women.
Omar Ali Juma
Full Text Available Abstract Background Malnutrition has long been associated with poverty, poor diet and inadequate access to health care, and it remains a key global health issue that both stems from and contributes to ill-health, with 50 % of childhood deaths due to underlying undernutrition. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of malnutrition among children under-five seen at Bagamoyo District Hospital (BDH and three rural health facilities ranging between 25 and 55 km from Bagamoyo: Kiwangwa, Fukayosi, and Yombo. Methods A total of 63,237 children under-five presenting to Bagamoyo District Hospital and the three rural health facilities participated in the study. Anthropometric measures of age, height/length and weight and measurements of mid-upper arm circumference were obtained and compared with reference anthropometric indices to assess nutritional status for patients presenting to the hospital and health facilities. Results Overall proportion of stunting, underweight and wasting was 8.37, 5.74 and 1.41 % respectively. Boys were significantly more stunted, under weight and wasted than girls (p-value < 0.05. Children aged 24–59 months were more underweight than 6–23 months (p-value = <0.0001. But, there was no statistical significance difference between the age groups for stunting and wasting. Children from rural areas experienced increased rates of stunting, underweight and wasting than children in urban areas (p-value < 0.05. The results of this study concur with other studies that malnutrition remains a problem within Tanzania; however our data suggests that the population presenting to BDH and rural health facilities presented with decreased rates of malnutrition compared to the general population. Conclusions Hospital and facility attending populations of under-five children in and around Bagamoyo suffer moderately high rates of malnutrition. Current nutrition programs focus on education for at risk children and
... Alison Davis NIH's National Institute of General Medical Sciences celebrates 45 years of Discovery for Health The National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) is the NIH institute that primarily supports ...
Dartell, Myassa Arkam; Rasch, Vibeke; Kahesa, Crispin
The aim of the Prevention of Cervical Cancer in Tanzania (PROTECT) study is to assess the prevalence of oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) and to determine the type distribution among women in the general population according to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status, in preparation for a po......The aim of the Prevention of Cervical Cancer in Tanzania (PROTECT) study is to assess the prevalence of oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) and to determine the type distribution among women in the general population according to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status, in preparation...
Gani, Linsey; Reddy, Saripalli K; Alsuwaigh, Rayan; Khoo, Joan; King, Thomas F J
This study aims at assessing the gap in secondary fracture prevention at a regional general hospital setting in Singapore. Male patients have significantly lower rate of being investigated and treated for osteoporosis than their female counterparts. Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in our population. Secondary fracture prevention services are not routine in Singapore; we seek to assess the treatment gap that exists in the lack of diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis in fragility fracture patients. We performed a retrospective analysis of all admissions for fragility fractures between December 2013 and December 2014. Demographic data, rates of BMD performance, serum vitamin D investigation and calcium and vitamin D supplementation as well as antiresorptive initiation 1 year post admission were analysed. There were 125 fragility fractures in patients below 65 and 615 fractures in older patients. There was a slightly higher proportion of males in the younger population, whereas females predominated in the older population. Median vitamin D levels were low in both younger (19.1 μg/L) and older (22.0 μg/L) groups, but supplementation was lower in younger patients (4.8 versus 16.6%, p = 0.003). Rate of BMD performance was lower in younger patients (34.4 versus 64.6%, p Singapore. Male osteoporosis remains inadequately investigated and treated in both age groups.
Maraz, Aniko; Eisinger, Andrea; Hende, Borbála; Urbán, Róbert; Paksi, Borbála; Kun, Bernadette; Kökönyei, Gyöngyi; Griffiths, Mark D; Demetrovics, Zsolt
Due to the problems of measurement and the lack of nationally representative data, the extent of compulsive buying behaviour (CBB) is relatively unknown. The validity of three different instruments was tested: Edwards Compulsive Buying Scale (ECBS; Edwards, E.A., 1993. Development of a new scale for measuring compulsive buying behaviour. Financial Counseling and Planning. 4, 67-85), Questionnaire About Buying Behavior (QABB; Lejoyeux, M., Ades, J., 1994. Les achats pathologiques: une addiction comportementale. Neuro-Psy. 9, 25-32.) and Richmond Compulsive Buying Scale (RCBS; Ridgway, N.M., Kukar-Kinney, M., Monroe, K.B., 2008. An expanded conceptualization and a new measure of compulsive buying. Journal of Consumer Research. 35, 622-639.) using two independent samples. One was nationally representative of the Hungarian population (N=2710) while the other comprised shopping mall customers (N=1447). As a result, a new, four-factor solution for the ECBS was developed (Edwards Compulsive Buying Scale Revised (ECBS-R)), and confirmed the other two measures. Additionally, cut-off scores were defined for all measures. Results showed that the prevalence of CBB is 1.85% (with QABB) in the general population but significantly higher in shopping mall customers (8.7% with ECBS-R, 13.3% with QABB and 2.5% with RCBS-R). Conclusively, due to the diversity of content, each measure identifies a somewhat different CBB group. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Schuttelaar, Marie L A; Ofenloch, Robert F; Bruze, Magnus; Cazzaniga, Simone; Elsner, Peter; Gonçalo, Margarida; Naldi, Luigi; Svensson, Åke; Diepgen, Thomas L
Studies on sensitization to metals in the general population are scarce. To determine the prevalence of sensitization to metals in the general population, and factors associated with nickel sensitization. In 5 European countries (The Netherlands, Germany, Italy, Portugal and Sweden), a random sample (N = 3119) from the general population (aged 18-74 years) was patch tested and interviewed by use of a questionnaire on exposure to metals, piercing, and jewellery. Overall, the age-standardized prevalences of sensitization to nickel, cobalt and chromium were, respectively, 14.5%, 2.1%, and 0.8%. The highest prevalence of nickel sensitization was seen in Portugal (18.5%) and the lowest (8.3%) in Sweden. The prevalence of cobalt sensitization varied between 3.8% (The Netherlands) and 0.9% (Italy), and the prevalence of chromium sensitization varied between 1.3% (Portugal) and 0.2% (Sweden). Significant associations were observed between nickel allergy and female sex (odds ratio [OR] 5.19; 95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 3.99-6.74), past piercing use (OR 3.86; 95%CI: 2.85-5.24), and currently having ≥3 piercings (OR 5.58; 95%CI: 4.02-7.76). The prevalence of sensitization to metals in the European general population was high, mostly because of nickel. The lowest prevalence of contact allergy to nickel and chromium observed in Sweden supports the effectiveness of long-standing regulation. © 2018 The Authors. Contact Dermatitis published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Verhaak, P.F.M.; Dijk, M. van; Walstock, D.; Zwaanswijk, M.
Background: Child and adolescent mental health problems are frequently not identified and properly treated within general practice. Politicians in the Netherlands are promoting more primary healthcare treatment for mental health problems. The current study aims to evaluate an integrated primary
Tran, Thach; La, Buoi thi; Kriitmaa, Kelsi; Rosenthal, Doreen; Tran, Tuan
Abstract Objective To establish the prevalence of common perinatal mental disorders their determinants, and their association with preventive health care use among women in one rural and one urban province in northern Viet Nam. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of cohorts of pregnant women and mothers of infants recruited systematically in 10 randomly-selected communes. The women participated in psychiatrist-administered structured clinical interviews and separate structured interviews to assess sociodemographic factors, reproductive health, the intimate partner relationship, family violence and the use of preventive and psychiatric health care. Associations between these variables and perinatal mental disorders were explored through univariate analyses and multivariable logistic regression. Findings Among women eligible for the study (392), 364 (93%) were recruited. Of these, 29.9% (95% confidence interval, CI: 25.20–34.70) were diagnosed with a common perinatal mental disorder (CPMD). The frequency of such disorders during pregnancy and in the postpartum period was the same. Their prevalence was higher among women in rural provinces (odds ratio, OR: 2.17; 95% CI: 1.19–3.93); exposed to intimate partner violence (OR: 2.11; 95% CI: 1.12–3.96); fearful of other family members (OR: 3.36; 95% CI: 1.05–10.71) or exposed to coincidental life adversity (OR: 4.40; 95% CI: 2.44–7.93). Fewer women with a CPMD used iron supplements than women without a CPMD, but the results were not statistically significant (P = 0.05). None of the women studied had ever received mental health care. Conclusion Perinatal depression and anxiety are prevalent in women in northern Viet Nam. These conditions are predominantly determined by social factors, including rural residence, poverty and exposure to family violence. At present the needs of women with common perinatal mental disorders are unrecognized and not attended to and their participation in essential
Savolainen, J. (Jarno)
Abstract Dental diseases such as dental caries and periodontal disease could well be seen as being behaviour-related. The high prevalence of periodontal disease in the Finnish adult population mirrors the need for improving oral health behaviours in a comprehensive manner. Thus far, scant attention has been drawn to the underlying psycho-social factors that could, in part, explain oral health and oral health behaviours. Deficiencies in oral health behaviour may also be indicative of an ind...
Lamb, Julie D; Johnstone, Erica B; Rousseau, Julie-Anne; Jones, Christopher L; Pasch, Lauri A; Cedars, Marcelle I; Huddleston, Heather G
The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence and predictors of physical activity in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and to explore the potential health benefits that are associated with physical activity in this population. This was a cross-sectional assessment of 150 women with PCOS. Active women (those who met Department of Health and Human Services [DHHS] guidelines for exercise) were compared with inactive women with regards to demographic and psychosocial variables and health characteristics. Fifty-nine percent (88/150 women) met the DHHS guidelines for physical activity. Active women were more likely than inactive women to be nulliparous (64.1% vs 40.0%; P = .04) and white (71.6% vs 42.6%; P = .0004). Inactive women were more likely to have mild depression (adjusted odds ratio, 2.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-4.79; P = .048). Women with PCOS who met the DHHS guidelines for physical activity were more likely to enjoy a variety of health benefits. Our findings identify several groups that are at risk for inadequate physical activity. Copyright © 2011. Published by Mosby, Inc.
Minassian, D C; Owens, D R; Reidy, A
To address the absence from the public health ophthalmology literature of age- and sex-specific prevalence and related resource use for diabetic macular oedema (DMO) in England, UK. Calculation of age- and sex-specific rates from primary source clinical data, and application to the demographic structure of England to estimate the number of cases affected by DMO. A public health commissioner and provider of social care perspective was adopted in a standard cost of illness study. The number of people with diabetes in England in 2010 was estimated at 2,342,951 of which 2,334,550 were aged ≥ 12 years. An estimated 166,325 (7.12%) had DMO in one or both eyes, and of these, 64,725 individuals had clinically significant DMO reducing the visual acuity to poorer than 6/6 in at least one eye. The overall health and social care costs in 2010, on the pathway from screening to rehabilitation and care in the home, are estimated at £116,296,038. The outcomes of this study should alert public health commissioners and clinical providers to the burden of DMO. The methods employed should also encourage the use of clinical ophthalmic data at the interface between local population and hospital-based recording systems.
Gearing, Robin E; MacKenzie, Michael J; Schwalbe, Craig S; Brewer, Kathryne B; Ibrahim, Rawan W
This study aimed to establish the prevalence rates of mental health and behavioral problems of Arab youths residing in Jordanian care centers due to family disintegration, maltreatment, or abandonment and to examine how functioning varies by child characteristics and placement history. Child Behavior Checklist and case history data were collected for 70 youths across four Jordanian care centers. Approximately 53% of the adolescents were identified as experiencing mental health problems, and 43% and 46% had high internalizing and externalizing scores, respectively. Ordinary least-squares regression models examining mental health functioning showed that male gender, care entry because of maltreatment, time in care, and transfers were the most significant predictors of problems. Paralleling international research, this study found high levels of mental health needs among institutionalized youths. The impact of transfers on functioning is particularly worrisome, given the standard practice of transferring youths to another facility when they reach age 12. Improving the institutional care model by requiring fewer transfers and offering family-based community alternatives may ameliorate risks of developing mental and behavioral problems.
Full Text Available Background The risk of occupationally acquired tuberculosis (TB remains a concern, even now that the infection has been under control to a great extent. Objectives The aim of this study was to ascertain the prevalence of latent TB infection and pulmonary TB, and to assess the risk factors for TB, among health care workers in Hamadan. Patients and Methods Tuberculin skin test was performed on 245 health care workers, in two educational hospitals. The reaction was considered as "positive" if the induration diameter was ≥ 10 mm. Individuals with a positive test > than 15 mm were encouraged to seek further medical evaluation, including a chest-x-ray and a smear and sputum culture of the sputum for acid-fast bacilli, in those with radiographic changes indicating TB. Results Out of 245 health-care workers included in this study, 92 (38% had positive tuberculin test. There was a significant association between aging and tuberculin positivity. There was also a significant association between the length of employment and tuberculin positivity. Ward attendants had higher rates of positive test results, compared with other occupational groups. Conclusions It was concluded that latent TB infection is common among health-care workers in the studied region. Age, occupational group and employment length were found to be strongly associated with tuberculin positivity.
Velden, J. van der; Abrahamse, H.P.H.; Donker, G.; Steen, J. van der; Sonsbeek, J.L.A. van; Bos, G.A.M. van den
This study examines the concurrent validity of a list of chronic conditions used in health interview surveys. The results regarding the prevalence of chronic diseases from three health interview surveys, carried out in The Netherlands during the 1980s, were compared. In addition, the results for
C. M. Kayombo
Full Text Available Aim. To assess self-reported halitosis, oral hygiene practices, oral health conditions, general health problems, sociodemographic factors, and behavioural and psychological characteristics among workers in Ilala and Temeke municipals. Materials and Methods. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study. Four hundred workers were recruited using a self-administered structured questionnaire. Results. Self-reported tooth brushing practice was 100%, tongue cleaning 58.5%, dental flossing 4.3%, gum bleeding on tooth brushing 79.3%, presence of hard deposits on teeth 32%, mobile teeth 15.3%, and self-reported halitosis (SRH 48.5%. Tea users were 95%, coffee users 75.8%, smokers 21%, and alcohol consumers 47%. The SRH was significantly associated with bleeding gums, hard deposits, and mobile and malaligned teeth. Tongue cleaning and regular change of toothbrush were associated with low prevalence of SRH (P<0.001. Higher occurrence of SRH was significantly related to low education and smoking. Conclusion. Self-reported halitosis was prevalent among workers and was significantly associated with bleeding gums, hard dental deposits, mobile teeth, and smoking. All participants brushed their teeth and cleaned the tongue regularly but use of dental floss was extremely low. Oral health education and health promotion are recommended.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To examine smoking prevalence, attitudes, knowledge and behaviours/beliefs among Health Professional School students according to the Global Health Professional Student Survey (GHPSS approach. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in Catania University Medical Schools. The GHPSS questionnaires were self-administered. Logistic regression model was performed. The level of significance was p < 0.05. RESULTS: 422 students answered to the questionnaire. Prevalence of current smokers was 38.2%. 94.3% of the total sample believe that health professionals should receive specific training to quit smoking, but only 21.3% of the sample received it during the study courses. CONCLUSIONS: Given the high prevalence of smokers among health professionals and their key role both as advisers and behavioral models, our results highlight the importance of focusing attention on smoking cessation training addressed to them.
Liang, Bryan A; Mackey, Timothy K
Direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA), linked to inappropriate medication use and higher health care expenditures, is the fastest growing form of pharmaceutical marketing. DTCA is legal only in the United States and New Zealand. However, the advent of online interactive social media "Web 2.0" technologies-that is, eDTCA 2.0-may circumvent DTCA legal proscriptions. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of DTCA of leading pharmaceutical company presence and drug product marketing in online interactive social media technologies (eDTCA 2.0). We conducted a descriptive study of the prevalence of eDTCA 2.0 marketing in the top 10 global pharmaceutical corporations and 10 highest grossing drugs of 2009. All pharmaceutical companies reviewed (10/10, 100%) have a presence in eDTCA 2.0 on Facebook, Twitter/Friendster, sponsored blogs, and really simple syndication (RSS) feeds. In addition, 80% (8/10) have dedicated YouTube channels, and 80% (8/10) developed health care communication-related mobile applications. For reviewed drugs, 90% (9/10) have dedicated websites, 70% (7/10) have dedicated Facebook pages, 90% (9/10) have health communications-related Twitter and Friendster traffic, and 80% (8/10) have DTCA television advertisements on YouTube. We also found 90% (9/10) of these drugs had a non-corporate eDTCA 2.0 marketing presence by illegal online drug sellers. Pharmaceutical companies use eDTCA 2.0 to market themselves and their top-selling drugs. eDTCA 2.0 is also used by illicit online drug sellers. Regulators worldwide must take into account the current eDTCA 2.0 presence when attempting to reach policy and safety goals.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Natural health products (NHP use may have implications with respect to adverse effects, drug interactions and adherence yet the prevalence of NHP use by patients with acute cardiovascular disease and the best method to ascertain this information is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To identify the best method to ascertain information on NHP, and the prevalence of use in a population with acute cardiovascular disease. METHODS: Structured interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of consecutive patients admitted with acute cardiovascular disease to the University of Alberta Hospital during January 2009. NHP use was explored using structured and open-ended questions based on Health Canada's definition of NHP. The medical record was reviewed, and documentation of NHP use by physicians, nurses, and pharmacists, compared against the gold-standard structured interview. RESULTS: 88 patients were interviewed (mean age 62 years, standard deviation [SD 14]; 80% male; 41% admitted for acute coronary syndromes. Common co-morbidities included hypertension (59%, diabetes (26% and renal impairment (19%. NHP use was common (78% of patients and 75% of NHP users reported daily use. The category of NHP most commonly used was vitamins and minerals (73% followed by herbal products (20%, traditional medicines including Chinese medicines (9%, homeopathic preparations (1% and other products including amino acids, essential fatty acids and probiotics (35%. In a multivariable model, only older age was associated with increased NHP use (OR 1.5 per age decile [95%CI 1.03 to 2.2]. When compared to the interview, the highest rate of NHP documentation was the pharmacist history (41%. NHP were documented in 22% of patients by the physician and 19% by the nurse. CONCLUSIONS: NHP use is common in patients admitted with acute cardiovascular disease. However, health professionals do not commonly identify NHP as part of the medication profile despite its potential importance
Liang, Bryan A
Background Direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA), linked to inappropriate medication use and higher health care expenditures, is the fastest growing form of pharmaceutical marketing. DTCA is legal only in the United States and New Zealand. However, the advent of online interactive social media “Web 2.0” technologies—that is, eDTCA 2.0—may circumvent DTCA legal proscriptions. Objective The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of DTCA of leading pharmaceutical company presence and drug product marketing in online interactive social media technologies (eDTCA 2.0). Methods We conducted a descriptive study of the prevalence of eDTCA 2.0 marketing in the top 10 global pharmaceutical corporations and 10 highest grossing drugs of 2009. Results All pharmaceutical companies reviewed (10/10, 100%) have a presence in eDTCA 2.0 on Facebook, Twitter/Friendster, sponsored blogs, and really simple syndication (RSS) feeds. In addition, 80% (8/10) have dedicated YouTube channels, and 80% (8/10) developed health care communication-related mobile applications. For reviewed drugs, 90% (9/10) have dedicated websites, 70% (7/10) have dedicated Facebook pages, 90% (9/10) have health communications-related Twitter and Friendster traffic, and 80% (8/10) have DTCA television advertisements on YouTube. We also found 90% (9/10) of these drugs had a non-corporate eDTCA 2.0 marketing presence by illegal online drug sellers. Conclusion Pharmaceutical companies use eDTCA 2.0 to market themselves and their top-selling drugs. eDTCA 2.0 is also used by illicit online drug sellers. Regulators worldwide must take into account the current eDTCA 2.0 presence when attempting to reach policy and safety goals. PMID:21880574
Nakajima, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Yoshifumi; Tasaki, Hiroshi; Iwami, Taro; Tsuchiya, Naoki
Health maintenance and improvement of humans, artifacts, and nature are pressing requirements considering the problems human beings have faced. In this article, the health management technology is proposed by centering cause-effect structure. The important aspect of the technology is evolvement through human-machine collaboration in response to changes of target systems. One of the reasons why the cause-effect structure is centered in the technology is its feature of transparency to humans by instinct point of view. The notion has been spreaded over wide application areas such as quality control, energy management, and healthcare. Some experiments were conducted to prove effectiveness of the technology in the article.
Juliana dos Santos Müller
Full Text Available Quality of life is an indicator of how well one perceives that he/she is functioning physically and mentally. The aim of this paper is to determine the health-related quality of life (HRQOL of artisanal fisherwomen/shellfish gatherers from the Saubara municipality in Bahia, Brazil in comparison to the general population. A structured questionnaire was administered to a sample of 209 artisanal fisherwomen selected at random. The HRQOL questionnaire, known as the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey version 1 (SF-36v01, was also used, having been translated and verified cross-culturally for the Brazilian population. Sociodemographic, lifestyle and comorbidity information was also collected. Chronic diseases and indicators of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs were self-reported. The study population consisted primarily of individuals between 30 and 45 years of age (78%, of self-classified races black or brown (96.2%, with no more than an elementary school education (77% and married (64.6%. In all the SF-36v01 dimensions, the values in the sample were lower than in the general population of Brazil, which was used as the reference population. In the “Physical Health” domain (Physical Functioning; Physical Role Limitations; Bodily Pain; General Health Perception a tendency toward a lower health-related quality of life was observed among those who were older, had a lower education level, and had a prevalence of MSDs, hypertension or arthritis. The interference of health conditions linked to the fisherwomen’s work activities may contribute to lower HRQOL in all analyzed aspects, in comparison to the general population. In light of these findings, public health policies must consider these informal workers who contribute greatly to Brazil’s economy and food system.
... evidence (including evidence from well-designed studies conducted in a manner which is consistent with... sold in a restaurant or in other establishments in which food that is ready for immediate human... food for which a health claim is made in accordance with § 101.9; for restaurant foods, in accordance...
Petersen, Poul Erik; Jiang, Han; Peng, Bin
distributions, regression analyses and factor analyses. RESULTS: Oral health-related behaviours among adolescents were associated with socioeconomic status of parents, school performance and peer relationships. The odds of a dental visit was 0.63 in adolescents of poorly educated parents and the corresponding...
... for any part of the contract work shall require any laborer or mechanic employed in the performance of the contract to work in surroundings or under working conditions which are unsanitary, hazardous, or dangerous to his health or safety. (b) Accident prevention responsibilities. (1) It shall be the...
May 10, 2010 ... A significant percentage of patients seen at the primary health care level (district ... (GPs) are forced to rely on the knowledge acquired from their limited .... accurate in screening patients for diabetic retinopathy.4. In this study ...
Borst, Jorien M; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W; Sluiter, Judith K
A high prevalence of mental health problems (i.e. depression and/or anxiety) has been found in medical students in comparison with the general population. Therefore, the objective was first to study the prevalence and 1-year incidence of symptoms of depression, anxiety and any mental health problems among Dutch medical students and, second, to study which study-related and personal factors present a risk of these mental health problems. A 1-year prospective longitudinal study was performed among medical students of two medical faculties in the Netherlands (n=951). Health problems and study-related and personal factors were measured with an online questionnaire. Mental health problems were assessed by depression and/or anxiety symptoms (BSI-DEP and BSI-ANG). Univariate and multivariate hierarchical logistic regression analyses were performed to examine which of the study-related and personal factors predict mental health problems. At follow-up, 36%, 28% and 48% of the medical students reported symptoms of depression, anxiety and mental health problems, respectively. The incidence between 2010 and 2011 for depression was 20%, 17% for anxiety and 25% for mental health problems. Students who are worried about their own health during medical education are at an increased risk of future mental health problems (OR 2.0 [1.3-2.9], p=0.00). Excessive drinking behavior is a protective factor in this study (OR 0.7 [0.5-0.9], p=0.02). This study shows that only two out of nine factors are significantly associated with mental health problems among Dutch medical students, one risk factor and one protective factor.
Full Text Available There is a considerable burden of hepatitis C in Europe related to the lack of prompt diagnosis. We aimed to estimate the prevalence and related risk factors of HCV infections by the stages of liver fibrosis, using non-invasive methods, to understand testing needs in Poland.A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012-2016 adopting a stratified random sampling of primary health care units followed by systematic sampling of patients within each unit. Study participants filled a questionnaire and donated blood for laboratory HCV testing. Additionally, the results of liver function tests and platelet count were collected to calculate APRI and FIB-4 scores. Cases were classified according to the level of fibrosis: 'significant fibrosis' (APRI≥0.7 or FIB4≥1.45 and 'no significant fibrosis' (APRI<0.7 and FIB4<1.45.Of 21 875 study participants, 102 were HCV-RNA positive. Prevalence of HCV infections and significant fibrosis was estimated at 0.47% (95% CI 0.38% - 0.57% and 0.12% (0.08% - 0.17%, respectively. Cases with significant fibrosis accounted for 51.6% (33.4%-69.9% in men and 34.4% (17.3%-51.4% in women. There was no correlation between the HCV prevalence and age. Blood transfusion prior to 1992 strongly predicted significant fibrosis as did the history of injecting drug use (IDU and ever having an HCV-infected sexual partner in men and caesarean sections in women. Factors associated with HCV infection without significant fibrosis were tattooing in men and younger age in women. We acknowledge limited possibility to study the associations between IDU and ever having HCV-infected sexual partner, given small sample sizes for these exposures.As no clear birth cohort affected by HCV could be identified, risk factor-based screening in the general population should be considered, taking into account the association between the increased risk of liver fibrosis and the history of transfusion prior to 1992 and caesarean sections.
Masterson, Elizabeth A; Themann, Christa L; Calvert, Geoffrey M
The purpose was to estimate the prevalence of hearing loss for noise-exposed U.S. workers within the Health Care and Social Assistance (HSA) sector. Audiograms for 1.4 million workers (8702 within HSA) from 2003 to 2012 were examined. Prevalences and adjusted risks for hearing loss as compared with a reference industry were estimated for the HSA sector and all industries combined. While the overall HSA sector prevalence for hearing loss was 19%, the prevalences in the Medical Laboratories subsector and the Offices of All Other Miscellaneous Health Practitioners subsector were 31% and 24%, respectively. The Child Day Care Services subsector had a 52% higher risk than the reference industry. High-risk industries for hearing loss exist within the HSA sector. Further work is needed to identify the sources of noise exposure and protect worker hearing.
Salvador González, Betlem; Rodríguez Pascual, Mercedes; Ruipérez Guijarro, Laura; Ferré González, Antonia; Cunillera Puertolas, Oriol; Rodríguez Latre, Luisa M
To determine the prevalence of chronic kidney disease and associated risk factors in subjects over 60 years of age, as well as its staging by determining the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Cross-sectional observational study. Primary Health Care. Patients≥60 years of age who were seen in 40 Primary Health Care centres with serum creatinine measured in a central laboratory between January 1 and December 31, 2010. kidney transplant, home care. Social-demographic and anthropometric data, cardiovascular risk factors, and diseases established according to electronic clinical records. Serum creatinine was measured using standardised Jaffe kinetic method, and GFR estimated with MDRD-4-IDMS and CKD-EPI. A total of 97,665 subjects (57.3% women, median age 70.0 years [Q1: 65.0, Q3: 77.0]). GFR-MDRD prevalence<60=15.1% (16.6% in women, 13.2% in men; P<.001) and increased with age. Multivariate analysis showed a positive association between GFR-MDRD<60 and age (OR=1.74; 95% CI 1.70 to 1.77), hypertension (OR=2.18; 95% CI 2.08 to 2.30), heart failure (OR=2.03; 95% CI 1.83 to 2.25), atrial fibrillation (OR=1.57; 95% CI 1.41 to 1.76), ischaemic heart disease (OR=1.40; 95% CI 1.30 to 1.50), peripheral arterial disease (OR=1.31; 95% CI 1.09 to 1.57), dyslipidaemia (OR=1.28; 95% CI 1.23 to 1.33), diabetes (OR=1.26; 95% CI 1.17 to 1.34), and stroke (OR=1.17; 95% CI 1.09 to 1.25). The GFR-CKD-EPI model showed an increase in OR with age and male sex, that became significant as a chronic kidney disease risk factor. Chronic kidney disease has considerable prevalence in subjects≥60 years seen in Primary Health Care, more in women, and increasing with age. Hypertension, more than diabetes, was the main associated cardiovascular risk factor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Moi, Asgjerd L; Nilsen, Roy M
The aim of the study was to explore pathways leading to self-perceived general health and overall quality of life in burn patients. Data on burn-specific health, generic health, overall quality of life, injury characteristics and socio-demographics were obtained from 95 adult burn patients 47.0 (23.8) [mean (SD)] months after injury. A theoretical path model was established based on the concepts of Wilson and Cleary's model on health-related quality of life , and the proposed model was examined by structural equation modelling. Two main paths were identified, one leading to general health perception and the other leading to overall quality of life. Together, direct and indirect paths explained 63% of the variance of perceived general health and 43% of the variance in overall quality of life. The total effects of the SF-36 domain Vitality on perceived general health and overall quality of life were 0.62 and 0.66, respectively. No statistically significant path could be revealed between general health perception and overall quality of life. The results indicate that self-perceived general health and overall quality of life are related but distinct constructs. Moreover, vitality seems to be an important factor for the perception of both general health and overall quality of life in burned adults. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.
Fiona Judd; Leon Piterman; Grant Blashki; Hui Yang
The Journal presents the Column of Case Studies of Mental Health in General Practice;with aca-demic support from Australian eXperts in general practice,psychology and psychiatry from Monash University and the University of Mel-bourne. The Columnˊs purpose is to respond to the increasing need for the development of mental health services in China. Through study and analysis of mental health cases,we hope to improve understanding of mental illnesses in Chinese primary health settings,and to build capaci-ty amongst community health professionals in managing mental illnesses and psychological problems in general practice. A patient - centred whole - person approach in general practice is the best way to maintain and improve the physical and mental health of residents. Our hope is that these case studies will lead the new wave of general practice and mental health service development both in practice and research. A num-ber of Australian eXperts from the disciplines of general practice,mental health and psychiatry will contribute to the Column. Professor Blash-ki,Professor Judd and Professor Piterman are authors of the teXt General Practice Psychiatry;the Chinese version of the book to be published in 2014. The Journal cases are helping to prepare for the translation and publication of a Chinese version of the book in China. We believe Chi-nese mental health in primary health care will reach new heights under this international cooperation.
Arreskov, Anne Beiter; Graungaard, Anette Hauskov; Nielsen, Kirsten Lykke
the paper using the method of critical appraisal. Session content The didactic method used in the workshop is mostly small group activities with eight participants and two tutors in each group. The participants will receive two scientific papers: the BMJ-version of the Cochrane review about general health......Abstract title: Benefits and harms of general health checks - lifelong learning in general practice: how to read and use scientific literature Objectives After this workshop the participants will know the basics of how to read a systematic literature review and interpret a meta-analysis and be able......, assesses, and implements methods of diagnosis and treatment on the basis of the best available current research, clinical expertise, and combines this with the needs and preferences of the patient, is termed evidence-based medicine. By learning and practising the principles of evidence-based medicine, GPs...
Schiller, Jeannine S.
Preventing and ameliorating chronic conditions has long been a priority in the United States; however, the increasing recognition that people often have multiple chronic conditions (MCC) has added a layer of complexity with which to contend. The objective of this study was to present the prevalence of MCC and the most common MCC dyads/triads by selected demographic characteristics. We used respondent-reported data from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) to study the US adult civilian noninstitutionalized population aged 18 years or older (n = 27,157). We categorized adults as having 0 to 1, 2 to 3, or 4 or more of the following chronic conditions: hypertension, coronary heart disease, stroke, diabetes, cancer, arthritis, hepatitis, weak or failing kidneys, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or current asthma. We then generated descriptive estimates and tested for significant differences. Twenty-six percent of adults have MCC; the prevalence of MCC has increased from 21.8% in 2001 to 26.0% in 2010. The prevalence of MCC significantly increased with age, was significantly higher among women than men and among non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black adults than Hispanic adults. The most common dyad identified was arthritis and hypertension, and the combination of arthritis, hypertension, and diabetes was the most common triad. The findings of this study contribute information to the field of MCC research. The NHIS can be used to identify population subgroups most likely to have MCC and potentially lead to clinical guidelines for people with more common MCC combinations. PMID:23618545
Hao, Wei; Su, Zhonghua; Liu, Binglun; Zhang, Kui; Yang, Hanqing; Chen, Shaozhong; Biao, Meizi; Cui, Chun
To understand drinking patterns, health status related to drinking and the level of unrecorded alcoholic beverage consumption for the general population living in five areas of China in 2001. By cluster sampling, 24992 community residents aged 15 years or older were interviewed by trained psychiatrists using structured questionnaires provided by WHO. The 1-year drinking rate was 59.0%, and the point prevalence rate of dependence was 3.8%. The average annual consumption of pure alcohol was 4.47 l. The 1-year morbidity from gastritis/ulcer in the whole sample was 7.9%, which associated nonlinearly to alcohol intake, and heart disease and cerebral infarction/cerebral haemorrhage showed V-shaped curve relationships. The rate of alcohol use was higher in men than in women, and the annual alcohol consumption per capita was higher than that in the 1990s in the selected areas. Alcohol consumption plays a role in the development of alcohol-related physical diseases.
Lundström, Sebastian; Reichenberg, Abraham; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Lichtenstein, Paul; Gillberg, Christopher
To compare the annual prevalence of the autism symptom phenotype and of registered diagnoses for autism spectrum disorder during a 10 year period in children. Population based study. Child and Adolescent Twin Study and national patient register, Sweden. 19, 993 twins (190 with autism spectrum disorder) and all children (n=1,078,975; 4620 with autism spectrum disorder) born in Sweden over a 10 year period from 1993 to 2002. Annual prevalence of the autism symptom phenotype (that is, symptoms on which the diagnostic criteria are based) assessed by a validated parental telephone interview (the Autism-Tics, ADHD and other Comorbidities inventory), and annual prevalence of reported diagnoses of autism spectrum disorder in the national patient register. The annual prevalence of the autism symptom phenotype was stable during the 10 year period (P=0.87 for linear time trend). In contrast, there was a monotonic significant increase in prevalence of registered diagnoses of autism spectrum disorder in the national patient register (Pautism symptom phenotype has remained stable in children in Sweden while the official prevalence for registered, clinically diagnosed, autism spectrum disorder has increased substantially. This suggests that administrative changes, affecting the registered prevalence, rather than secular factors affecting the pathogenesis, are important for the increase in reported prevalence of autism spectrum disorder. © Lundström et al 2015.
Matsumoto, Koichiro; Seki, Nanae; Fukuyama, Satoru; Moriwaki, Atsushi; Kan-o, Keiko; Matsunaga, Yuko; Noda, Naotaka; Yoshida, Makoto; Koto, Hiroshi; Takata, Shohei; Nakanishi, Yoichi; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Inoue, Hiromasa
Elucidating the prevalence of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is important for designing a public health strategy. Recent studies have discriminated a phenotype of COPD with variable airflow limitation (COPD-VAL) associated with asthma-COPD overlap syndrome. Its prevalence remains uncertain. The age and occupational distributions in the town of Hisayama and in Japan are nearly identical. Each disease's prevalence was estimated for the town's residents. In 2008, town residents (≥ 40 years) were solicited to participate in a health checkup. Individuals with abnormal spirometry (forced expiratory volume in 1s/forced vital capacity [FEV1/FVC]fashion reviewed their medical records, including bronchodilator reversibility. Individuals with airflow limitation were classified as having asthma, COPD, COPD-VAL, or other diseases. The prevalence of each disease was then estimated. A total of 2100 residents (43.4% of residents in the age group) completed spirometry. In 455 residents with abnormal spirometry, 190 residents had further evaluations, and the medical records of 174 residents were reviewed. The prevalence of asthma with airflow limitation, COPD, and COPD-VAL, were 2.0%, 8.4%, and 0.9%, respectively. The prevalence of COPD and COPD-VAL were higher in men and smokers than in women and never-smokers. The prevalence of COPD, but not COPD-VAL or asthma, increased with age. The prevalence of asthma with airflow limitation, COPD, and COPD-VAL were estimated in a population of residents (≥ 40 years) in Hisayama. Copyright © 2014 The Japanese Respiratory Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Zubrick, Stephen R; Hafekost, Jennifer; Johnson, Sarah E; Lawrence, David; Saw, Suzy; Sawyer, Michael; Ainley, John; Buckingham, William J
To (1) estimate the lifetime and 12-month prevalence of self-harm without suicide intent in young people aged 12-17 years, (2) describe the co-morbidity of these behaviours with mental illness and (3) describe their co-variation with key social and demographic variables. A nationally representative random sample of households with children aged 4-17 years recruited in 2013-2014. The survey response rate was 55% with 6310 parents and carers of eligible households participating. In addition, 2967 (89%) of young people aged 11-17 completed a self-report questionnaire with 2653 of the 12- to 17-year-olds completing questions about self-harm behaviour. In any 12-month period, about 8% of all 12- to 17-year-olds (an estimated 137,000 12- to 17-year-olds) report engaging in self-harming behaviour without suicide intent. This prevalence increases with age to 11.6% in 16- to 17-year-olds. Eighteen percent (18.8%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = [14.5, 23.0]) of all 12- to 17-year-old young people with any mental health disorder measured by parent or carer report said that they had engaged in self-harm in the past 12 months. Among young people who were measured by self-report and met criteria for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders' major depressive disorder almost half (46.6%; 95% CI = [40.0, 53.1]) also reported that they had engaged in self-harm in the past 12 months. Suicide risk among those who self-harm is significantly elevated relative to the general population. The demonstrated higher risks in these young people for continued harm or possible death support the need for ongoing initiatives to reduce self-harm through mental health promotion, improved mental health literacy and continuing mental health reform to ensure services are accessible to, and meet the needs of families and young persons. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.
Full Text Available Background: Patients’ behaviour in making decisions regarding health is currently changing from passive recipients to recipients who play an active role in taking action to control their health and taking self-care initiatives. Objectives: This study was conducted to evaluate the health seeking behaviour among general public and its associated factors; and to evaluate the medicine taking behaviour in public and the practice of self-medication. Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken among general public in Penang Island, Malaysia. A convenience sampling of 888 participants successfully completed the survey. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed among the residents in the north east of Penang Island. Results: This study showed that most of the participants chose to consult the physician when they experience any health problems (66.7%, followed by self-medication (20.9%. The first action for consulting the physician was significantly predicted by Malay respondents and retired people (OR 3.05, 95% CI 1.04-8.89. The prevalence of self-medication was 54%. The practice of self-medication was significantly associated with Chinese participants, educated people, people with alone living status and people with more self-care orientation. Conclusion: Increasing the awareness of the public about the rational choice of getting medical assistance is a very important issue to control their health. A health education program is needed to increase the awareness about the use of medicines among the general public and to enable them to make the right decisions relating to health problems.
Fute, Mathewos; Mengesha, Zelalem Birhanu; Wakgari, Negash; Tessema, Gizachew Assefa
The rising rate of workplace violence in health care facilities has become a major problem for health care providers including nurses. However, evidences are lacking in Ethiopia particularly in the study area. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence and associated factors of workplace violence among nurses working at health care facilities in Hawassa City Administration, Southern Ethiopia. An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted on 660 randomly selected nurses working at public health facilities in Hawassa City Administration in April 2014. A pre-tested and structured questionnaire was used to collect the data. Data were entered using EPI-Info and exported to SPSS for further analysis. Descriptive statistics were done. Logistic regression analyses were used to see the association between different variables and the outcome variable. Odds ratios with 95% Confidence Interval (CI) were computed to determine the presence and strength of the association. In this study, the prevalence of workplace violence was 29.9% [95% CI: 26.5, 33.5)] of which physical violence accounted for 36 (18.22%), verbal abuse for 172 (89.58%) and sexual harassment for 25 (13.02%). Female sex [AOR=2.00, 95% CI: (1.28, 2.39)], short work experience [AOR=8.86, 95% CI: (3.47, 22.64)], age group of 22-25 [AOR=4.17, 95% CI: (2.46, 7.08)], age group of (26-35) [AOR=1.9, 95% CI (1.16, 3.1)], work in emergency [(AOR=4.28, 95% CI: (1.39, 4.34)] and work in the Inpatient Department [(AOR=2.11, 95% CI: (1.98, 2.64)] were the factors positively associated with workplace violence. A significant proportion of nurses faced violence while providing care at in public health facilities. Being female, younger age, short work experience, and assignment in emergency and inpatient departments were positively associated with workplace violence. Policy makers and stakeholders should focus on workplace violence prevention strategies.
Novotny, Rachel; Oshiro, Caryn Etsuko Shima; Wilkens, Lynne Ross
Pacific Islander, Asian, and mixed-ethnicity children are not described in national nutrition and health surveys. Data on BMI values of 4608 5- to 8-year-old children available from Kaiser Permanente Hawaii electronic medical records in 2010 were analyzed for prevalence of overweight and obesity and for ethnic differences in BMI and risk for overweight and obesity, controlling for age, sex, neighborhood education level, and on a subset (n=2169) that further controlled for maternal education and maternal age. Kaiser Permanente data allow for reporting of multiple ethnicities. Data revealed that 33% of this child population was of mixed ethnic ancestry. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was 32.6% (12.9% overweight and 19.7% obese). However, Samoan children and children of Native Hawaiian, Filipino, and mixed ethnic ancestries had higher levels of overweight and obesity than whites or Asians. Higher neighborhood education level, higher maternal education level, and older maternal age were associated with decreased risk of overweight and obesity, except for children whose mothers were between 21 and 30 years old, who had a higher risk for obesity than those whose mothers were under 20 years of age (odds ratio=1.34). Populations of mixed ethnicities in the Pacific region deserve further study related to healthy body size and acculturation to environment and lifestyle.
Mentzoni, Rune Aune; Brunborg, Geir Scott; Molde, Helge; Myrseth, Helga; Skouverøe, Knut Joachim Mår; Hetland, Jørn; Pallesen, Ståle
A nationwide survey was conducted to investigate the prevalence of video game addiction and problematic video game use and their association with physical and mental health. An initial sample comprising 2,500 individuals was randomly selected from the Norwegian National Registry. A total of 816 (34.0 percent) individuals completed and returned the questionnaire. The majority (56.3 percent) of respondents used video games on a regular basis. The prevalence of video game addiction was estimated to be 0.6 percent, with problematic use of video games reported by 4.1 percent of the sample. Gender (male) and age group (young) were strong predictors for problematic use of video games. A higher proportion of high frequency compared with low frequency players preferred massively multiplayer online role-playing games, although the majority of high frequency players preferred other game types. Problematic use of video games was associated with lower scores on life satisfaction and with elevated levels of anxiety and depression. Video game use was not associated with reported amount of physical exercise.
Rossi, M; Coenraads, PJ; Diepgen, T; Svensson, A; Elsner, P; Gonçalo, Margarida; Bruze, M; Naldi, L
Background/Aims: Data on contact allergy to fragrances in the general population are limited. Data from allergological services suggest that the frequency of contact allergy to fragrances is increasing. The European Dermato-Epidemiology Network (EDEN) Fragrance Study aims to obtain reliable data on the prevalence of contact allergy to fragrances and other sensitizers of the European baseline series, in the general population of different geographical areas of Europe. We report the methodology...
Fouzia F Ozair
Full Text Available Electronic health record (EHR is increasingly being implemented in many developing countries. It is the need of the hour because it improves the quality of health care and is also cost-effective. Technologies can introduce some hazards hence safety of information in the system is a real challenge. Recent news of security breaches has put a question mark on this system. Despite its increased usefulness, and increasing enthusiasm in its adoption, not much attention is being paid to the ethical issues that might arise. Securing EHR with an encrypted password is a probable option. The purpose of this article is to discuss the various ethical issues arising in the use of the EHRs and their possible solutions.
Slieker ten Hove, M.C.; Pool-Goudzwaard, A.L.; Eijkemans, M.J.; Steegers-Theunissen, R. P M; Burger, C.; Vierhout, ME
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: In selected populations, pelvic organ prolapse (POP) was associated with bladder/bowel symptoms, but data on the general female population are lacking. Our aim was to obtain normative data on the prevalence of POP and pelvic floor dysfunction (PFD) symptoms and signs and
Slieker-ten Hove, M.C.; Pool-Goudzwaard, A.; Eijkemans, M.J.; Steegers-Theunissen, R.P.M.; Burger, C.W.; Vierhout, M.E.
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: In selected populations, pelvic organ prolapse (POP) was associated with bladder/bowel symptoms, but data on the general female population are lacking. Our aim was to obtain normative data on the prevalence of POP and pelvic floor dysfunction (PFD) symptoms and signs and
van der Put, C.E.
Background: This study adds to the scarce literature on female adolescent sexual offenders by examining differences between female adolescent sexual and nonsexual violent offenders in the prevalence and impact of dynamic risk and protective factors for general recidivism. Method: The sample
Baxter, Joanne; Kingi, Te Kani; Tapsell, Rees; Durie, Mason; McGee, Magnus A
To describe the prevalence of mental disorders (period prevalence across aggregated disorders, 12 month and lifetime prevalence) among Māori in Te Rau Hinengaro: The New Zealand Mental Health Survey. Te Rau Hinengaro: The New Zealand Mental Health Survey, undertaken between 2003 and 2004, was a nationally representative face-to-face household survey of 12,992 New Zealand adults aged 16 years and over, including 2,595 Māori. Ethnicity was measured using the 2001 New Zealand census ethnicity question. A fully structured diagnostic interview, the World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey Initiative version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3.0), was used to measure disorder. The overall response rate was 73.3%. This paper presents selected findings for the level and pattern of mental disorder prevalence among Māori. Māori lifetime prevalence of any disorder was 50.7%, 12 month prevalence 29.5% and 1 month prevalence 18.3%. The most common 12 month disorders were anxiety (19.4%), mood (11.4%) and substance (8.6%) disorders and the most common lifetime disorders were anxiety (31.3%), substance (26.5%) and mood (24.3%) disorders. Levels of lifetime comorbidity were high with 12 month prevalence showing 16.4% of Māori with one disorder, 7.6% with two disorders and 5.5% with three or more disorders. Twelve-month disorders were more common in Māori females than in males (33.6%vs 24.8%) and in younger age groups: 16-24 years, 33.2%; 25-44 years, 32.9%; 45-64 years, 23.7%; and 65 years and over, 7.9%. Disorder prevalence was greatest among Māori with the lowest equivalized household income and least education. However, differences by urbanicity and region were not significant. Of Māori with any 12 month disorder, 29.6% had serious, 42.6% had moderate and 27.8% had mild disorders. Mental disorders overall and specific disorder groups (anxiety, mood and substance) are common among Māori and measures of severity indicate that disorders
Eyvazlou, Meysam; Zarei, Esmaeil; Rahimi, Azin; Abazari, Malek
Concerns about health problems due to the increasing use of mobile phones are growing. Excessive use of mobile phones can affect the quality of sleep as one of the important issues in the health literature and general health of people. Therefore, this study investigated the relationship between the excessive use of mobile phones and general health and quality of sleep on 450 Occupational Health and Safety (OH&S) students in five universities of medical sciences in the North East of Iran in 2014. To achieve this objective, special questionnaires that included Cell Phone Overuse Scale, Pittsburgh's Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) were used, respectively. In addition to descriptive statistical methods, independent t-test, Pearson correlation, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multiple regression tests were performed. The results revealed that half of the students had a poor level of sleep quality and most of them were considered unhealthy. The Pearson correlation co-efficient indicated a significant association between the excessive use of mobile phones and the total score of general health and the quality of sleep. In addition, the results of the multiple regression showed that the excessive use of mobile phones has a significant relationship between each of the four subscales of general health and the quality of sleep. Furthermore, the results of the multivariate regression indicated that the quality of sleep has a simultaneous effect on each of the four scales of the general health. Overall, a simultaneous study of the effects of the mobile phones on the quality of sleep and the general health could be considered as a trigger to employ some intervention programs to improve their general health status, quality of sleep and consequently educational performance.
Dreyer Gillette, Meredith L; Borner, Kelsey B; Nadler, Cy B; Poppert, Katrina M; Odar Stough, Cathleen; Swinburne Romine, Rebecca; Davis, Ann M
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may be at increased risk for overweight and obesity, but little information is known about correlates of overweight and obesity in this population. This study compared prevalence rates of parent-reported overweight and obesity and specific health behaviors (i.e., parent report of child sleep, family meal patterns, child screen time, and child physical activity) among children with ASD (N = more than 900 [weighted to represent 690,000; age 10-17]) compared with children without ASD using data from a nationally representative sample. Additionally, the relationship between specific health behaviors (i.e., child sleep, family meals, screen time, and physical activity) and weight status was examined in the ASD population. Data were from the National Survey of Children's Health 2011-2012. Results indicate that children with ASD were more likely to be obese but not more likely to be overweight than non-ASD youth. Children with ASD engaged in physical activity less than children without ASD, but no differences were found on sleep, most measures of screen time, and mealtimes. However, parent perceived poorer sleep was associated with increased weight status, and fewer family meals were associated with normal weight status among children with ASD.
Full Text Available Background: Migraine is a neurological disease that the etiology, several factors affect its onset or its exacerbation. One of the factors affecting disease is psychological factors such as defense mechanisms, resiliency, and general health. This study assessed the relationship between general health, resiliency, and general defense mechanisms, and also predicts the general health of people with migraine headaches that have a high resiliency and use mature defense mechanisms. Material and Methods: 50 women with migraine headache in the city of Bushehr using defense mechanisms, resiliency, and general health questionnaires were studied. For statistical analysis, Pearson correlation and multiple regression tests were used by SPSS 17 software. Results: The results showed that most of the defense mechanisms of migraine sufferers are Immature and Neuroticism. There is significant negative correlation between the deterioration of general health and resiliency as well as the mature defense mechanism (p=0/003, and also there is a significant positive correlation between this deterioration with neuroticism (p=0/040 and immature defense mechanisms (p=0/041. On the other hand there is significant negative correlation between resiliencies with immature (p=0/009 and neuroticism defense mechanisms (p=0/04, and also with mature defense mechanism has a significant positive correlation (p=0/003. Also, as more people use the mature defense mechanism, their deterioration of general health will be reduced, but this relationship will be stronger with the presence of resiliency. So migraine people use the mature defense mechanisms with high resiliency will have more favorable general health (less deterioration of general health. Conclusion: This study showed that migraine patients use the mature defense mechanisms with high resiliency will have more favorable general health (less deterioration of general health.
Lustig, Daniel C.; Strauser, David R.
Access to health insurance is one of the critical aspects of securing employment for people with disabilities. This study investigated whether vocational rehabilitation consumers secured employment with an employer who offered health insurance at similar rates to workers in the general population. In general, the results show that vocational…
Magnée, T.; Beurs, D. de; Verhaak, P.
Background & Aim: It seems cost-effective to provide mental health care to patient with mild mental problems in general practices instead of in specialized care, but general practitioners (GPs) often lack time or expertise. Since 2008, Dutch GPs have been collaborating with nurses with mental health
Zwaanswijk, M.; Dijk, C.E. van; Verheij, R.A.
Background: Because most children and adolescents visit their general practitioner (GP) regularly, general practice is a useful setting in which child and adolescent mental health problems can be identified, treated or referred to specialised care. Measures to strengthen Dutch primary mental health
The aim of this thesis was to monitor mental health care in Dutch general practices in recent years. In 2014, a reform of the Dutch mental health care system was introduced. Since this reform, general practitioners (GPs) are expected to only refer patients with a (suspected) psychiatric disorder or
Muhammad Zuhaib Khan
Full Text Available Background. Blood-borne viral infections like viral hepatitis are highly prevalent in Pakistan. There is also a potential threat of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV spread in the country. Health care workers (HCWs are a high risk population for acquiring such viral infections and potential spread to the patients. This study aimed to determine the frequency of three blood-borne viruses: HCV, HBV, and HIV in HCWs of district Malakand in northern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK province of Pakistan. Moreover, risk factors and preventive behaviors among HCWs were investigated in detail. Materials and Methods. Prevalence was investigated using serological assays followed by real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR based characterization. A total of 626 health care workers working at 17 different health care units, belonging to 6 different job categories, were included in this study. Results. HIV was not detected in the HCWs while rate of prevalence of HCV and HBV was far less (0.8 % and 0.64 %, resp. as compared to general population (4.7%–38%. The majority of HCWs were aware of the mode of spread of these viruses and associated risk factors. Needle stick injury was found to be the most important risk factor for possible acquisition of these infections.
Koohpaei, Alireza; Khandan, Mohammad; Gaeeni, Mahdi; Momenyan, Somayeh
In a healthy organization, psychological health and physical health are as important as production and productivity; and healthy workers have higher productivity. Regarding lack of information about workers' general health profile in Qom Province, this study aimed to assess and compare the staffs' general health and its components among different workplaces in 2014. In a cross-sectional study, 2,276 employees working at 46 industries and organizations completed a standardized General Health Questionnaire (GHQ 28) and a demographic questionnaire. Data were analyzed using t-test, ANOVA, and Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient by IBM SPSS version 20. The mean age of the participants was 32.22 (±7.55) years. Seventy-nine point four percent of participants were married and the rest were single. Highest and lowest scores belonged to social dysfunction and depression, respectively. Also, total score of staffs' general health was 17.87 ± 10.93. The results showed that, in spite of the non-relationship between general health score difference among married and single personnel (p > 0.05), there was a significant difference between men and women and among organizations and industries with regards to general health score (p creativity in the workplaces are at risk. Altogether, the general health score in the studied population was suitable in its entirety.
Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases are the number one cause of death globally. They account for approximately 17 million deaths in the world each year (1.Of these deaths, complications of high blood pressure account for more than nine million, including about half of all deaths from heart disease and stroke(2.The number of adults with hypertension in 2025 was predicted to increase by about 60% to a total of 1•56 billion (1•54–1•58 billion(3. In India too, overall morbidity and mortality from non-communicable diseases (NCDs is rising rapidly which will have severe impact on the already frail economy (4. Many studies done in different settings in India have shown that the prevalence of hypertension ranges from as high as 20-50 percent in both rural and urban population (Table 1 (5. Contradictory to the earlier reports that the prevalence of hypertension is low in rural areas, the recent studies have shown that the rural-urban differences have largely disappeared and the hypertension and other risk factors for cardiovascular diseases are only equal or slightly greater in the rural population (6. A recent study done by the authors in a rural population in Tamilnadu found that 27.2% of adults between 18 to 60 years have hypertension (7. Also the studies show that more than 50% of the men and women above 60 years old are hypertensive in rural South India (8. This observation has major repercussion on India’s health system and health expenditure in the context of improved life expectancy and a significant increase in the proportion of people living in the age group of 60 years and above in India.
Full Text Available Background: With the development of economy and urbanization, methods of child-feeding have significantly changed in China over the past three decades. However, little is known about breastfeeding in China since 2009. This study aims to update information on the prevalence of breastfeeding in China. Methods: Data were obtained from the first Health Service Household Interview Survey of Hunan Province, China. Of 24,282 respondents, 1659 were aged five years or younger. We ran multivariable logistic regression to examine the impact of urban/rural setting, gender, age and household income per capita on the use of breastfeeding. Results: A total of 79.4% of children aged 5 years or