WorldWideScience

Sample records for prevalence effects page

  1. Poetry Pages. Sound Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fina, Allan de

    1992-01-01

    Explains how elementary teachers can help students understand onomatopoeia, suggesting that they define onomatopoeia, share examples of it, read poems and have students discuss onomatopoeic words, act out common household sounds, write about sound effects, and create choral readings of onomatopoeic poems. Two appropriate poems are included. (SM)

  2. The effect of new links on Google PageRank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avrachenkov, Konstatin; Litvak, Nelli

    2004-01-01

    PageRank is one of the principle criteria according to which Google ranks Web pages. PageRank can be interpreted as a frequency of visiting a Web page by a random surfer and thus it reflects the popularity of a Web page. We study the effect of newly created links on Google PageRank. We discuss to

  3. The effect of new links on Google PageRank

    OpenAIRE

    Avrachenkov, Konstatin; Litvak, Nelli

    2004-01-01

    PageRank is one of the principle criteria according to which Google ranks Web pages. PageRank can be interpreted as a frequency of visiting a Web page by a random surfer and thus it reflects the popularity of a Web page. We study the effect of newly created links on Google PageRank. We discuss to what extend a page can control its PageRank. Using the asymptotic analysis we provide simple conditions that show if new links bring benefits to a Web page and its neighbors in terms of PageRank or t...

  4. Entertainment Pages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druce, Mike

    1981-01-01

    Notes that the planning of an effective entertainment page in a school newspaper must begin by establishing its purpose. Examines all the elements that contribute to the makeup of a good entertainment page. (RL)

  5. A comprehensive analysis of Italian web pages mentioning squalene-based influenza vaccine adjuvants reveals a high prevalence of misinformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panatto, Donatella; Amicizia, Daniela; Arata, Lucia; Lai, Piero Luigi; Gasparini, Roberto

    2017-11-27

    Squalene-based adjuvants have been included in influenza vaccines since 1997. Despite several advantages of adjuvanted seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccines, laypeople's perception of such formulations may be hesitant or even negative under certain circumstances. Moreover, in Italian, the term "squalene" has the same root as such common words as "shark" (squalo), "squalid" and "squalidness" that tend to have negative connotations. This study aimed to quantitatively and qualitatively analyze a representative sample of Italian web pages mentioning squalene-based adjuvants used in influenza vaccines. Every effort was made to limit the subjectivity of judgments. Eighty-four unique web pages were assessed. A high prevalence (47.6%) of pages with negative or ambiguous attitudes toward squalene-based adjuvants was established. Compared with web pages reporting balanced information on squalene-based adjuvants, those categorized as negative/ambiguous had significantly lower odds of belonging to a professional institution [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.12, p = .004], and significantly higher odds of containing pictures (aOR = 1.91, p = .034) and being more readable (aOR = 1.34, p = .006). Some differences in wording between positive/neutral and negative/ambiguous web pages were also observed. The most common scientifically unsound claims concerned safety issues and, in particular, claims linking squalene-based adjuvants to the Gulf War Syndrome and autoimmune disorders. Italian users searching the web for information on vaccine adjuvants have a high likelihood of finding unbalanced and misleading material. Information provided by institutional websites should be not only evidence-based but also carefully targeted towards laypeople. Conversely, authors writing for non-institutional websites should avoid sensationalism and provide their readers with more balanced information.

  6. WebScore: An Effective Page Scoring Approach for Uncertain Web Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaojie Qiao

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available To effectively score pages with uncertainty in web social networks, we first proposed a new concept called transition probability matrix and formally defined the uncertainty in web social networks. Second, we proposed a hybrid page scoring algorithm, called WebScore, based on the PageRank algorithm and three centrality measures including degree, betweenness, and closeness. Particularly,WebScore takes into a full consideration of the uncertainty of web social networks by computing the transition probability from one page to another. The basic idea ofWebScore is to: (1 integrate uncertainty into PageRank in order to accurately rank pages, and (2 apply the centrality measures to calculate the importance of pages in web social networks. In order to verify the performance of WebScore, we developed a web social network analysis system which can partition web pages into distinct groups and score them in an effective fashion. Finally, we conducted extensive experiments on real data and the results show that WebScore is effective at scoring uncertain pages with less time deficiency than PageRank and centrality measures based page scoring algorithms.

  7. Facebook Pages and the Effects of Reputation Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Ciacu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to identify the categories which own the largest number of Facebook pages as well as the Romanian Facebook pages which have the largest number of fans. Another aim of this study is to analyse the categories generating the largest number of fans on their official Facebook pages, the increase of the number of fans in the last month and the Facebook pages generating the biggest feedback among their fans. The data was collected by using Social Media analysis sites, such as www.socialbakers.com and www.facebrands.ro. The study sample comprises 20 Facebook pages with the largest number of fans.

  8. Measuring consistency of web page design and its effects on performance and satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozok, A A; Salvendy, G

    2000-04-01

    This study examines the methods for measuring the consistency levels of web pages and the effect of consistency on the performance and satisfaction of the world-wide web (WWW) user. For clarification, a home page is referred to as a single page that is the default page of a web site on the WWW. A web page refers to a single screen that indicates a specific address on the WWW. This study has tested a series of web pages that were mostly hyperlinked. Therefore, the term 'web page' has been adopted for the nomenclature while referring to the objects of which the features were tested. It was hypothesized that participants would perform better and be more satisfied using web pages that have consistent rather than inconsistent interface design; that the overall consistency level of an interface design would significantly correlate with the three elements of consistency, physical, communicational and conceptual consistency; and that physical and communicational consistencies would interact with each other. The hypotheses were tested in a four-group, between-subject design, with 10 participants in each group. The results partially support the hypothesis regarding error rate, but not regarding satisfaction and performance time. The results also support the hypothesis that each of the three elements of consistency significantly contribute to the overall consistency of a web page, and that physical and communicational consistencies interact with each other, while conceptual consistency does not interact with them.

  9. Bullying - effects, prevalence and strategies for detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr-Gregg, Michael; Manocha, Ramesh

    2011-03-01

    The mental, physical, social and academic consequences of bullying have an enormous impact on human and social capital. This article describes the effects and prevalence of bullying on young people and presents strategies for its detection. Strategies for the facilitation of a multidisciplinary approach to bullying in adolescents are also presented. Given the existing high rate of bullying, assessment should be incorporated into a standard psychosocial screening routine in the general practitioner's clinic. Effective management is a multidisciplinary effort, involving parents, teachers and school officials, the GP, and mental health professionals. Given the variable effectiveness of schools in tackling bullying, GPs play an important role in identifying at risk patients, screening for psychiatric comorbidities, counselling families about the problem, and advocating for bullying prevention in their communities.

  10. Domainwise Web Page Optimization Based On Clustered Query Sessions Using Hybrid Of Trust And ACO For Effective Information Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Suruchi Chawla

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper hybrid of Ant Colony OptimizationACO and trust has been used for domainwise web page optimization in clustered query sessions for effective Information retrieval. The trust of the web page identifies its degree of relevance in satisfying specific information need of the user. The trusted web pages when optimized using pheromone updates in ACO will identify the trusted colonies of web pages which will be relevant to users information need in a given domain. Hence in this paper the hybrid of Trust and ACO has been used on clustered query sessions for identifying more and more relevant number of documents in a given domain in order to better satisfy the information need of the user. Experiment was conducted on the data set of web query sessions to test the effectiveness of the proposed approach in selected three domains Academics Entertainment and Sports and the results confirm the improvement in the precision of search results.

  11. Introduction pages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu E. Sestras

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Pages and Table of Contents Research ArticlesInsulin Requirements in Relation to Insulin Pump Indications in Type 1 DiabetesPDFGabriela GHIMPEŢEANU,\tSilvia Ş. IANCU,\tGabriela ROMAN,\tAnca M. ALIONESCU259-263Comparative Antibacterial Efficacy of Vitellaria paradoxa (Shea Butter Tree Extracts Against Some Clinical Bacterial IsolatesPDFKamoldeen Abiodun AJIJOLAKEWU,\tFola Jose AWARUN264-268A Murine Effort Model for Studying the Influence of Trichinella on Muscular Activity of MicePDFIonut MARIAN,\tCălin Mircea GHERMAN,\tAndrei Daniel MIHALCA269-271Prevalence and Antibiogram of Generic Extended-Spectrum β-Lactam-Resistant Enterobacteria in Healthy PigsPDFIfeoma Chinyere UGWU,\tMadubuike Umunna ANYANWU,\tChidozie Clifford UGWU,\tOgbonna Wilfred UGWUANYI272-280Index of Relative Importance of the Dietary Proportions of Sloth Bear (Melursus ursinus in Semi-Arid RegionPDFTana P. MEWADA281-288Bioaccumulation Potentials of Momordica charantia L. Medicinal Plant Grown in Lead Polluted Soil under Organic Fertilizer AmendmentPDFOjo Michael OSENI,\tOmotola Esther DADA,\tAdekunle Ajayi ADELUSI289-294Induced Chitinase and Chitosanase Activities in Turmeric Plants by Application of β-D-Glucan NanoparticlesPDFSathiyanarayanan ANUSUYA,\tMuthukrishnan SATHIYABAMA295-298Present or Absent? About a Threatened Fern, Asplenium adulterinum Milde, in South-Eastern Carpathians (RomaniaPDFAttila BARTÓK,\tIrina IRIMIA299-307Comparative Root and Stem Anatomy of Four Rare Onobrychis Mill. (Fabaceae Taxa Endemic in TurkeyPDFMehmet TEKİN,\tGülden YILMAZ308-312Propagation of Threatened Nepenthes khasiana: Methods and PrecautionsPDFJibankumar S. KHURAIJAM,\tRup K. ROY313-315Alleviate Seed Ageing Effects in Silybum marianum by Application of Hormone Seed PrimingPDFSeyed Ata SIADAT,\tSeyed Amir MOOSAVI,\tMehran SHARAFIZADEH316-321The Effect of Halopriming and Salicylic Acid on the Germination of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum under Different Cadmium

  12. Prevalence, Causes and Effects of Academic Corruption in Rivers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the prevalence, causes and effects of academic corruption in Rivers State universities, Nigeria. Data were collected from 400 respondents using a 'Prevalence, Causes and Effects of Academic Corruption Questionnaire' (PCEACQ). The data were analyzed using frequency counts and percentages.

  13. Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed E. Mansour

    2013-07-01

    Conclusion: The prevalence of spontaneous bacterial pleuritis in the studied group of patients with hepatic hydrothorax was 14.3%. Patients with advanced liver disease, low pleural fluid protein, or SBP are at risk for spontaneous bacterial pleuritis.

  14. Importance of intrinsic and non-network contribution in PageRank centrality and its effect on PageRank localization

    OpenAIRE

    Deyasi, Krishanu

    2016-01-01

    PageRank centrality is used by Google for ranking web-pages to present search result for a user query. Here, we have shown that PageRank value of a vertex also depends on its intrinsic, non-network contribution. If the intrinsic, non-network contributions of the vertices are proportional to their degrees or zeros, then their PageRank centralities become proportion to their degrees. Some simulations and empirical data are used to support our study. In addition, we have shown that localization ...

  15. Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Al-Darwish

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Results indicated that dental caries prevalence among school children in Qatar has reached critical levels, and is influenced by socio-demographic factors. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth values obtained in this study were the second highest detected in the Eastern Mediterranean region.

  16. Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanesse Scerri

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is a major nosocomial pathogen worldwide. Malta is one of the countries with the highest MRSA prevalence in Europe, as identified from hospital blood cultures [1]. However, community prevalence of MRSA has never previously been investigated. This study aimed at establishing the prevalence of community MRSA nasal colonization in Maltese individuals and identifying the clonal characteristics of the detected isolates. Nasal swabs were collected from 329 healthy individuals who were also asked to complete a brief questionnaire about risk factors commonly associated with MRSA carriage and infection. The swabs were transported and enriched in a nutrient broth supplemented with NaCl. The presence of MRSA was then determined by culturing on MRSA Select chromogenic agar and then confirming by several assays, including catalase, coagulase and PBP2a agglutination tests. The isolates were assayed for antibiotic susceptibilities and typed by microarray analysis to determine the clonal characteristics of each strain. The prevalence of MRSA nasal colonization in the healthy Maltese population was found to be 8.81% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.75–11.87%, much higher than that found in other studies carried out in several countries. No statistical association was found between MRSA carriage and demographics or risk factors; however, this was hindered by the small sample size. Almost all the isolates were fusidic-acid resistant. The majority were found to belong to a local endemic clone (CC5 which seems to be replacing the previously prevalent European clone UK-EMRSA-15 in the country. A new clone (CC50-MRSA-V was also characterized. The presence of such a significant community reservoir of MRSA increases the burdens already faced by the local healthcare system to control the MRSA epidemic. Colonization of MRSA in otherwise healthy individuals may represent a risk for endogenous infection and transmission to

  17. Children's Page

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kids, this page is for you. Learn about everything from how the body works to what happens when you go to the hospital. There are quizzes, games and lots of cool web sites for you to explore. Have fun!

  18. Poor housing quality: Prevalence and health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Emma; Lester, Laurence H; Bentley, Rebecca; Beer, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Housing is a central component of productive, healthy, and meaningful lives, and a principle social determinant of health and well-being. Surprisingly, though, evidence on the ways that housing influences health in Australia is poorly developed. This stems largely from the fact that the majority of the population are accommodated in good quality housing. The dominance of a "good housing paradigm" means that households living in poor quality and unhealthy housing are doubly disadvantaged-by the quality of their housing and because policy makers in Australia do not acknowledge the health effects of housing. In this article, we examine the relationship between health outcomes and quality of housing. We base our analysis on data from the Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey, a panel dataset that is representative across Australia. We find a sizeable, policy-important, and to date under-acknowledged cohort of Australians whose health is influenced by poor-condition dwellings.

  19. Lifetime Prevalence and Socioemotional Effects of Hearing about Community Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpa, Angela; Hurley, Jimmy D.; Shumate, Howard W.; Haden, Sara Chiara

    2006-01-01

    This study extends findings on community violence (CV) exposure in young adults by examining the prevalence, characteristics, and socioemotional effects related to hearing about violence. Surveys of lifetime CV exposure and socioemotional outcomes were completed by 518 male and female undergraduates completed and were divided into groups with…

  20. Prevalence of khat chewing and its effect on academic performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study was intended to assess the prevalence, determinants, and effect of khat use on academic performance of high school students in Sidama Ethiopia. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted from April to June 2015. We used a stratified sampling technique to draw a total of 1,577students.

  1. Prevalence, perceived benefits and effectiveness of herbal medicine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence, perceived benefits and effectiveness of herbal medicine in the management of symptoms of opportunistic fungal infections in HIV/AIDS patients in the Eastern ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... More than one-third (39.6%, 40/101) was reported to be using herbal medicine for treating signs/symptoms of OFIs.

  2. Prevalence and side effects of pediatric home tube feeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krom, Hilde; van Zundert, Suzanne M. C.; Otten, Marie-Anne G. M.; van der Sluijs Veer, Liesbeth; Benninga, Marc Alexander; Kindermann, Angelika

    2018-01-01

    Tube feeding ensures growth, but can have negative effects on health and psychosocial functioning, resulting in health related costs. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of pediatric home tube feeding in the Netherlands and to assess the clinical characteristics of tube fed

  3. Prevalence, Reasons, and Perceived Effects of Khat Chewing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence, Reasons, and Perceived Effects of Khat Chewing Among Students of a College in Gondar Town, Northwestern Ethiopia: A Cross‑sectional Study. ... Among chewers, 83.1% (108/130) reported they faced problem associated to sleep disturbance, 82.3% (107/130) loss of appetite, and 80.8% (105/130) ...

  4. Effects of weed management on the prevalence of pink pineapple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of weed management on the prevalence of pink pineapple mealybugs in Ghana. JW Tachie-Menson, J Sarkodie-Addo, AG Carlson. Abstract. An on-farm experiment was conducted in August 2010 to evaluate the efficacy of various weed management methods used in pineapple cultivation in Ghana in limiting the ...

  5. Hypertension in Adults: Part 1. Prevalence, types, causes and effects

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Siegal_D

    Prevalence, types, causes and effects. Dr Muhammad Ilyas, Specialist Registrar Acute Medicine, St Mary's Hospital Isle of Wight, UK*. * muhammad_ilyas73 AT yahoo.com. Introduction. Arterial hypertension is a common and preventable cardiovascular risk factor, leading to about 1.7 million deaths/year worldwide.

  6. Prevalence of Malnutrition and Effects of Maternal Age, Education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of Malnutrition and Effects of Maternal Age, Education and Occupation Amongst Preschool Children Attending Health Centres in a Semi Urban Area of South Western Nigeria. ... Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine ... Children between the ages of 6-11 months had the highest risk for malnutrition.

  7. Prevalence of Mastitis and Effectiveness of Mastitis Control in Dairy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed prevalence of mastitis and effectiveness of mastitis control in dairy cattle in Mathira constituency. Data regarding occurrence of mastitis, farmers' current practices in mastitis control, and administering a questionnaire to 76 smallholder farmers collected their knowledge about dairy cow mastitis. Quarter ...

  8. Effects of high intensity exercise on isoelectric profiles and SDS-PAGE mobility of erythropoietin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, S; Lüdke, A; Romberg, S; Schänzer, E; Flenker, U; deMarees, M; Achtzehn, S; Mester, J; Schänzer, W

    2010-06-01

    Exercise induced proteinuria is a common phenomenon in high performance sports. Based on the appearance of so called "effort urines" in routine doping analysis the purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of exercise induced proteinuria on IEF profiles and SDS-PAGE relative mobility values (rMVs) of endogenous human erythropoietin (EPO). Twenty healthy subjects performed cycle-ergometer exercise until exhaustion. VO (2)max, blood lactate, urinary proteins and urinary creatinine were analysed to evaluate the exercise performance and proteinuria. IEF and SDS-PAGE analyses were performed to test for differences in electrophoretic behaviour of the endogenous EPO before and after exercise. All subjects showed increased levels of protein/creatinine ratio after performance (8.8+/-5.2-26.1+/-14.4). IEF analysis demonstrated an elevation of the relative amount of basic band areas (13.9+/-11.3-36.4+/-12.6). Using SDS-PAGE analysis we observed a decrease in rMVs after exercise and no shift in direction of the recombinant human EPO (rhEPO) region (0.543+/-0.013-0.535+/-0.012). Following identification criteria of the World Anti Doping Agency (WADA) all samples were negative. The implementation of the SDS-PAGE method represents a good solution to distinguish between results influenced by so called effort urines and results of rhEPO abuse. Thus this method can be used to confirm adverse analytical findings.

  9. The effect of border noise on the performance of projection-based page segmentation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafait, Faisal; Breuel, Thomas M

    2011-04-01

    Projection methods have been used in the analysis of bitonal document images for different tasks such as page segmentation and skew correction for more than two decades. However, these algorithms are sensitive to the presence of border noise in document images. Border noise can appear along the page border due to scanning or photocopying. Over the years, several page segmentation algorithms have been proposed in the literature. Some of these algorithms have come into widespread use due to their high accuracy and robustness with respect to border noise. This paper addresses two important questions in this context: 1) Can existing border noise removal algorithms clean up document images to a degree required by projection methods to achieve competitive performance? 2) Can projection methods reach the performance of other state-of-the-art page segmentation algorithms (e.g., Docstrum or Voronoi) for documents where border noise has successfully been removed? We perform extensive experiments on the University of Washington (UW-III) data set with six border noise removal methods. Our results show that although projection methods can achieve the accuracy of other state-of-the-art algorithms on the cleaned document images, existing border noise removal techniques cannot clean up documents captured under a variety of scanning conditions to the degree required to achieve that accuracy.

  10. Motor Learning in Lucid Dreams: Prevalence, Induction, and Effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Stumbrys, Tadas

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to explore the potentials for motor learning in a special state of consciousness – so called lucid dreams (dreams in which the dreamers are aware that they are dreaming): its prevalence among athletes, facilitating methods and effectiveness. The contents of this dissertation are structured in the following way. The first chapter introduces the concept of mental practice in sports, reviews the evidence for its effectiveness and presents main theorie...

  11. Web page recommending system; Web page suisen system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This system allows a user to retrieve relevant unknown useful web pages from other users who have the similar interest by comparing the web pages collected by the first user with the web pages collected by the others. The system collects web pages that one is fond of by performing 'labeling' that allows information to be put in order in more flexible manner, rather than by a book mark that has hierarchical folder structure. The system recommends useful web pages or users who have similar interest by sharing and comparing the correlation between labels of all the users and the web pages. This system was also introduced into the comprehensive regional information and culture aiding system for Nagao Township in Kagawa Prefecture, where verification is being carried out on the system effectiveness for community formation. (translated by NEDO)

  12. Page 5

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ezra

    Samaru Journal of Information Studies Vol. 7 (2)2007. Page 5. Stress Management By Library And Information Science Professionals In Nigerian University Libraries. BY. Ahmed Aliyu Lemu. Department of Library and Information Science. Ahmadu Bello University. Abstract. Job stress is an uncomfortable condition resulting ...

  13. National Prevalence and Effects of Multiple Chemical Sensitivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinemann, Anne

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of multiple chemical sensitivities (MCS), its co-occurrence with asthma and fragrance sensitivity, and effects from exposure to fragranced consumer products. A nationally representative cross-sectional population-based sample of adult Americans (n = 1137) was surveyed in June 2016. Among the population, 12.8% report medically diagnosed MCS and 25.9% report chemical sensitivity. Of those with MCS, 86.2% experience health problems, such as migraine headaches, when exposed to fragranced consumer products; 71.0% are asthmatic; 70.3% cannot access places that use fragranced products such as air fresheners; and 60.7% lost workdays or a job in the past year due to fragranced products in the workplace. Prevalence of diagnosed MCS has increased over 300%, and self-reported chemical sensitivity over 200%, in the past decade. Reducing exposure to fragranced products could help reduce adverse health and societal effects.

  14. Prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection and effect on lamb growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinshamn Håvard

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A major challenge in sheep farming during the grazing season along the coast of south-western Norway is tick-borne fever (TBF caused by the bacteria Anaplasma phagocytophilum that is transmitted by the tick Ixodes ricinus. Methods A study was carried out in 2007 and 2008 to examine the prevalence of A. phagocytophilum infection and effect on weaning weight in lambs. The study included 1208 lambs from farms in Sunndal Ram Circle in Møre and Romsdal County in Mid-Norway, where ticks are frequently observed. All lambs were blood sampled and serum was analyzed by an indirect fluorescent antibody assay (IFA to determine an antibody status (positive or negative to A. phagocytophilum infection. Weight and weight gain and possible effect of infection were analyzed using ANOVA and the MIXED procedure in SAS. Results The overall prevalence of infection with A. phagocytophilum was 55%. A lower weaning weight of 3% (1.34 kg, p A. phagocytophilum infection compared to seronegative lambs at an average age of 137 days. Conclusions The results show that A. phagocytophilum infection has an effect on lamb weight gain. The study also support previous findings that A. phagocytophilum infection is widespread in areas where ticks are prevalent, even in flocks treated prophylactic with acaricides.

  15. Amblyopia: prevalence, natural history, functional effects and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Ann L; Wood, Joanne

    2005-11-01

    Amblyopia, defined as poor vision due to abnormal visual experience early in life, affects approximately three per cent of the population and carries a projected lifetime risk of visual loss of at least 1.2 per cent. The presence of amblyopia or its risk factors, mainly strabismus or refractive error, have been primary conditions targeted in childhood vision screenings. Continued support for such screenings requires evidence-based understanding of the prevalence and natural history of amblyopia and its predisposing conditions, and proof that treatment is effective in the long term with minimal negative impact on the patient and family. This review summarises recent research relevant to the clinical understanding of amblyopia, including prevalence data, risk factors, the functional impact of amblyopia and optimum treatment regimes and their justification from a vision and life skills perspective. Collectively, these studies indicate that treatment for amblyopia is effective in reducing the overall prevalence and severity of visual loss from amblyopia. Correction of refractive error alone has been shown to significantly reduce amblyopia and less frequent occlusion can be just as effective as more extensive occlusion. Occlusion or penalisation in amblyopia treatment can create negative changes in behaviour in children and impact on family life, and these factors should be considered in prescribing treatment, particularly because of their influence on compliance. Ongoing treatment trials are being undertaken to determine both the maximum age at which treatment of amblyopia can still be effective and the importance of near activities during occlusion. This review highlights the expansion of current knowledge regarding amblyopia and its treatment to help clinicians provide the best level of care for their amblyopic patients that current knowledge allows.

  16. The prevalence and effect of burnout on graduate healthcare students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Garrett; Kraft, Lynnea; Amsden, Katherine; Gore, Whitney; Prengle, Bobby; Wimsatt, Jeffrey; Ledbetter, Leila; Covington, Kyle; Goode, Adam

    2017-06-01

    Burnout is a growing epidemic among professional healthcare students. Unaddressed burnout has been shown to have psychological and performance related detriments. The purpose of this scoping literature review was to investigate the prevalence of burnout and its effects on the psychological, professional, empathetic ability, and academic acuity of graduate healthcare students. Inclusion criteria included English language papers published within the last 10 years and subjects in graduate healthcare professional programs. This search encompassed 8,214 articles. After title and abstract screening, 127 articles remained and were sorted into five domains of interest: etiology, professionalism, mental health, empathy, and academic performance. After duplicates were removed, 27 articles remained for the scoping review. Graduate level healthcare students had higher levels of burnout than age matched peers and the general population. The high prevalence of burnout within graduate healthcare students can have an effect on their mental health, empathy, and professional conduct. Understanding the occurrence and effects of burnout within graduate healthcare programs allows faculty and administration to plan curriculum, and provide information to students to understand, recognize, and create opportunities to decrease burnout in order to create long lasting quality clinicians.

  17. Sleep Apnea Information Page

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Page You are here Home » Disorders » All Disorders Sleep Apnea Information Page Sleep Apnea Information Page What research is being done? ... Institutes of Health (NIH) conduct research related to sleep apnea in laboratories at the NIH, and also ...

  18. Effect of climatic changes on the prevalence of zoonotic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam Sachan and V.P.Singh

    Full Text Available Combustion of fossil fuels and human activities has led to sharp increase in greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. These climate changes have tremendous effect on prevalence of zoonotic diseases. The changes in climate may increase the insect vectors, prolong transmission cycles or increase the importation of vectors or animal reservoirs. It may also have an adverse effect on biodiversity, distribution of animals and microflora which may lead to emergence of zoonotic disease outbreaks. A historical perspective on major vector-borne diseases such as arboviral encephalitides, dengue fever and Rift Valley fever, Lyme disease, West Nile virus, malaria, plague, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome and dengue fever have been shown to have a distinct seasonal pattern and in some instances their frequency has been shown to be weather sensitive. Because of the sensitivities of the vectors and animal hosts of these diseases to climactic factors, climate change-driven ecological changes such as variations in rainfall and temperature could significantly alter the range, seasonality and human incidence of many zoonotic and vector-borne diseases. The evolution of emerging zoonotic diseases globally during the period 1996 to 2007 was Ebola haemorrhagic fever, Rift Valley fever, avian influenza H5N1, plague and Nipah virus. Whereas, bird flu and swine flu like diseases are still creating havoc for human and animal health worldwide. It is a today’s and tomorrow’s demand that interdisciplinary communication between health professionals, veterinarians, environmental scientists, ecologists, geographers and economists seeking to understand climate change will be key to protecting people in India and worldwide against these threats. Rigorous cross-disciplinary studies using a variety of methodological tools will enable us to predict the transmission dynamics of diseases under different climate scenarios and estimate the cost-effectiveness of mitigation strategies. In this

  19. Minors' exposure to online pornography: prevalence, motivations, contents and effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva González-Ortega

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Since Internet has made pornographic materials more available, there is a need for more research on the characteristics and implications of children's and adolescents' exposure to such materials. This study examined the prevalence and extent of minors' exposure to online pornography, the reasons for exposure, the types of images seen and the strong effects of exposure, as reported by college students. We used an online survey to collect retrospective reports of a sample of 494 students of the University of Salamanca. Results show that 63% of boys and 30% of girls were exposed to online pornography during adolescence. Boys are more likely to have ever been exposed for more than 30 minutes. Boys are more likely to report deliberate consumption and sexual excitement seeking, whereas girls are more likely to report involuntary exposure. Both genders remember viewing a variety of images, including contents of bondage, child pornography and rape. One in six of exposed participants remember strong reactions. While more boys report sexual excitement and masturbation, more girls report avoidance, disgust or concern.

  20. Are we on the same page? The performance effects of congruence between supervisor and group trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Min Z; Mossholder, Kevin W

    2015-09-01

    Taking a multiple-stakeholder perspective, we examined the effects of supervisor-work group trust congruence on groups' task and contextual performance using a polynomial regression and response surface analytical framework. We expected motivation experienced by work groups to mediate the positive influence of trust congruence on performance. Although hypothesized congruence effects on performance were more strongly supported for affective rather than for cognitive trust, we found significant indirect effects on performance (via work group motivation) for both types of trust. We discuss the performance effects of trust congruence and incongruence between supervisors and work groups, as well as implications for practice and future research. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Page 1 Effect of Detergents on the Activity and Inactivation of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Effect of Detergents on the Activity and Inactivation of Invertase 225. SUMMARY. 1. Detergents are shown to decrease the activity of sucrase. 2. The cationic detergents are found to be more effective than the anionic detergents. 3. The critical pH region of inactivation of sucrase is found to shift to higher pH values in the ...

  2. Realistic page-turning of electronic books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chaoran; Li, Haisheng; Bai, Yannan

    2014-01-01

    The booming electronic books (e-books), as an extension to the paper book, are popular with readers. Recently, many efforts are put into the realistic page-turning simulation o f e-book to improve its reading experience. This paper presents a new 3D page-turning simulation approach, which employs piecewise time-dependent cylindrical surfaces to describe the turning page and constructs smooth transition method between time-dependent cylinders. The page-turning animation is produced by sequentially mapping the turning page into the cylinders with different radii and positions. Compared to the previous approaches, our method is able to imitate various effects efficiently and obtains more natural animation of turning page.

  3. Social Bookmarking Induced Active Page Ranking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Tsubasa; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Keita

    Social bookmarking services have recently made it possible for us to register and share our own bookmarks on the web and are attracting attention. The services let us get structured data: (URL, Username, Timestamp, Tag Set). And these data represent user interest in web pages. The number of bookmarks is a barometer of web page value. Some web pages have many bookmarks, but most of those bookmarks may have been posted far in the past. Therefore, even if a web page has many bookmarks, their value is not guaranteed. If most of the bookmarks are very old, the page may be obsolete. In this paper, by focusing on the timestamp sequence of social bookmarkings on web pages, we model their activation levels representing current values. Further, we improve our previously proposed ranking method for web search by introducing the activation level concept. Finally, through experiments, we show effectiveness of the proposed ranking method.

  4. effect of westernization on the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abe Olugbenga

    lifestyle (more television, video and computer games, less use of playgrounds, sporting facilities), longer school hours, etc. (20,21). Studies have shown that physical activity levels are ..... The growing prevalence of type 2 diabetes: increased incidence or improved survival? Curr Diab Rep.2013. ;13(6):786-94. 26.Gureje O ...

  5. Prevalence and effects of functional vitamin K insufficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riphagen, Ineke J.; Keyzer, Charlotte A.; Drummen, Nadja E.A.; Borst, de Martin H.; Beulens, Joline W.J.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Muskiet, Frits A.J.; Navis, Gerjan; Visser, Sipke T.; Vermeer, Cees; Kema, Ido P.; Bakker, Stephan J.L.

    2017-01-01

    Matrix Gla Protein (MGP) is a strong vitamin K-dependent inhibitor of soft tissue calcification. We assessed the prevalence of functional vitamin K insufficiency, as derived from plasma desphospho-uncarboxylated MGP (dp-ucMGP), and investigated whether plasma dp-ucMGP is associated with all-cause

  6. Prevalence and effect of developmental coordination disorder on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physically awkward children face a host of difficulties, which include difficulties in the school environment. Therefore, it is important to identify Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) early in a child's life to allow for proper and timely intervention and support. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence ...

  7. The prevalence, types and effects of traditional eye medicine use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The use of Traditional Medicines (TM) is common practice world over. Traditional Eye Medicine (TEM) use may be associated with various ocular complications including blindness. A study on the prevalence of TEM use was carried out at Sekuru Kaguvi Hospital Eye Unit (SKHEU) in Harare, with emphasis on ...

  8. PAGING IN COMMUNICATIONS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    A method and an apparatus are disclosed for managing paging in a communications system. The method may include, based on a received set of physical resources, determining, in a terminal apparatus, an original paging pattern defining potential time instants for paging, wherein the potential time...

  9. The Marketing Effectiveness of Hotel Facebook Pages: From Perspectives of Customers and Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Xi Yu

    2012-01-01

    In the hotel industry, social media marketing has become a new trend hoteliers are chasing and an increasing number of hotels are using social media to promote their business. However, the marketing effectiveness of social media is still a big challenge in both academic and business world. Since social media marketing is totally different from…

  10. Deriving implicit user feedback from partial URLs for effective web page retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, R.; van der Weide, Theo

    2010-01-01

    User click-throughs provide a search context for understanding the user need of complex information. This paper re-examines the effectiveness of this approach when based on partial clicked data using the language modeling framework. We expand the original query by topical terms derived from clicked

  11. Improving the web site's effectiveness by considering each page's temporal information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, ZG; Sun, MT; Dunham, MH; Xiao, YQ; Dong, G; Tang, C; Wang, W

    2003-01-01

    Improving the effectiveness of a web site is always one of its owner's top concerns. By focusing on analyzing web users' visiting behavior, web mining researchers have developed a variety of helpful methods, based upon association rules, clustering, prediction and so on. However, we have found

  12. Stuttering Prevalence among Kurdish-Farsi Students Effects of the Two Languages Similarities

    OpenAIRE

    Hiwa Mohamadi; Reza Nilipour; Fariba Yadegari

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: It has been noted that stuttering is more prevalent in bilinguals than in monolinguals. The similarities of the languages involved have been mentioned to justify the difference between stuttering prevalence among bilingual and monolingual speakers. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of language similarities on prevalence of stuttering among Kurdish-Farsi bilingual students. Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive analytic study, we examined all of Javanrou...

  13. 27 | Page

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    effectiveness, efficiency, compliance with global best practice and a drastic minimization of any form of financial crimes ... information all over the world, the processing of sensitive data, the use of close circuit television. (CCTV) and the .... This eventually became part of an advertisement for Amazon, where the barrel was for ...

  14. Page 28

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ezra

    an effective tool in modern information and research have called for serials managers with in- depth knowledge of their peculiarity and. Techniques for controlling them. Scope and Limitation. This study compares serials management in two polytechnics – Yaba College of Technology and. Kaduna Polytechnic Libraries.

  15. 81 | Page

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    legal issues include- inadequate consumer protection measures and lack of effective consumer dispute ... business practices. In order to facilitate the growth of electronic commerce in Nigeria, these issue have to be resolved urgently through government/legislative intervention. ..... and commercialisation processes.

  16. 173 | Page

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    Again, individuals and non-governmental organization (NGO's) suffer great restraint in .... by individuals or non-governmental organizations (NGOs) with observer status before the African. Commission on Human and ..... Innovations and Prospect of the African Court on Human and Peoples' Rights. In furtherance of effective ...

  17. Multiplex PageRank.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arda Halu

    Full Text Available Many complex systems can be described as multiplex networks in which the same nodes can interact with one another in different layers, thus forming a set of interacting and co-evolving networks. Examples of such multiplex systems are social networks where people are involved in different types of relationships and interact through various forms of communication media. The ranking of nodes in multiplex networks is one of the most pressing and challenging tasks that research on complex networks is currently facing. When pairs of nodes can be connected through multiple links and in multiple layers, the ranking of nodes should necessarily reflect the importance of nodes in one layer as well as their importance in other interdependent layers. In this paper, we draw on the idea of biased random walks to define the Multiplex PageRank centrality measure in which the effects of the interplay between networks on the centrality of nodes are directly taken into account. In particular, depending on the intensity of the interaction between layers, we define the Additive, Multiplicative, Combined, and Neutral versions of Multiplex PageRank, and show how each version reflects the extent to which the importance of a node in one layer affects the importance the node can gain in another layer. We discuss these measures and apply them to an online multiplex social network. Findings indicate that taking the multiplex nature of the network into account helps uncover the emergence of rankings of nodes that differ from the rankings obtained from one single layer. Results provide support in favor of the salience of multiplex centrality measures, like Multiplex PageRank, for assessing the prominence of nodes embedded in multiple interacting networks, and for shedding a new light on structural properties that would otherwise remain undetected if each of the interacting networks were analyzed in isolation.

  18. Multiplex PageRank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halu, Arda; Mondragón, Raúl J; Panzarasa, Pietro; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2013-01-01

    Many complex systems can be described as multiplex networks in which the same nodes can interact with one another in different layers, thus forming a set of interacting and co-evolving networks. Examples of such multiplex systems are social networks where people are involved in different types of relationships and interact through various forms of communication media. The ranking of nodes in multiplex networks is one of the most pressing and challenging tasks that research on complex networks is currently facing. When pairs of nodes can be connected through multiple links and in multiple layers, the ranking of nodes should necessarily reflect the importance of nodes in one layer as well as their importance in other interdependent layers. In this paper, we draw on the idea of biased random walks to define the Multiplex PageRank centrality measure in which the effects of the interplay between networks on the centrality of nodes are directly taken into account. In particular, depending on the intensity of the interaction between layers, we define the Additive, Multiplicative, Combined, and Neutral versions of Multiplex PageRank, and show how each version reflects the extent to which the importance of a node in one layer affects the importance the node can gain in another layer. We discuss these measures and apply them to an online multiplex social network. Findings indicate that taking the multiplex nature of the network into account helps uncover the emergence of rankings of nodes that differ from the rankings obtained from one single layer. Results provide support in favor of the salience of multiplex centrality measures, like Multiplex PageRank, for assessing the prominence of nodes embedded in multiple interacting networks, and for shedding a new light on structural properties that would otherwise remain undetected if each of the interacting networks were analyzed in isolation.

  19. Exploiting link structure for web page genre identification

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Jia

    2015-07-07

    As the World Wide Web develops at an unprecedented pace, identifying web page genre has recently attracted increasing attention because of its importance in web search. A common approach for identifying genre is to use textual features that can be extracted directly from a web page, that is, On-Page features. The extracted features are subsequently inputted into a machine learning algorithm that will perform classification. However, these approaches may be ineffective when the web page contains limited textual information (e.g., the page is full of images). In this study, we address genre identification of web pages under the aforementioned situation. We propose a framework that uses On-Page features while simultaneously considering information in neighboring pages, that is, the pages that are connected to the original page by backward and forward links. We first introduce a graph-based model called GenreSim, which selects an appropriate set of neighboring pages. We then construct a multiple classifier combination module that utilizes information from the selected neighboring pages and On-Page features to improve performance in genre identification. Experiments are conducted on well-known corpora, and favorable results indicate that our proposed framework is effective, particularly in identifying web pages with limited textual information. © 2015 The Author(s)

  20. Popularity of brand posts on brand fan pages : An investigation of the effects of social media marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, L.; Gensler, S.; Leeflang, P.S.H.

    Social media outlets constitute excellent vehicles for fostering relationships with customers. One specific way to do this is to create brand fan pages on social networking sites. Companies can place brand posts (containing videos, messages, quizzes, information, and other material) on these brand

  1. Prevalence of Celiac Disease and its Effects on Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Nazemalhosseini-Mojarad

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the coeliac disease(CD symptoms is infertility and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Furthermore, we are not cognizant of any CD reports in pregnancy in Iran. Therefore, this study aims to prospectively estimate the prevalence of undiagnosed CD in a population of pregnant women as well as its complications in pregnancy. Methods: 796 pregnant women with mean age of 26 years(SD= 26 and mean pregnancy duration of 5.4 months participated in this descriptive study from 2007 to 2008. Total IgA test and antitissue transglutaminase(tTGA antibodies were measured. Those with positive TGA underwent histological biopsy specimens according to modified Marsh classification. Results: A positive CD serology for tTGA was obderved in 17(2.1% out of 796 pregnant women. Out of the 17 seropositive patients, 10 had abnormal histology compatible with CD(Marsh I-IIIc symptoms. Two pregnant women had already experienced miscarriage. Moreover, 3 patients had born low birth weight babies. Conclusion: In this study, there was no significant relationship between CD and high incidence of adverse outcomes. Overall, 1 out of 66 pregnant women(1.5% rate of prevalence suffered from CD. Celiac disease shows different severity in different individuals. In other words, not every celiac patient is at high risk for its complications. This may propose that gluten free diet could be avoided in the patients who have a normal pregnancy

  2. Tobacco prevention policies in west-African countries and their effects on smoking prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Volker; Lan, Yong; Becher, Heiko

    2015-12-08

    The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control was shown to effectively lower smoking prevalence in in high income countries, however knowledge for low and middle income settings is sparse. The objective of this study was to describe WHO MPOWER policy measures in thirteen West-African countries and to investigate their correlation with smoking prevalence. Age-standardized smoking prevalence data and policy measures were collected from various WHO reports. For analysis MPOWER measures from 2008 and 2010, were combined with prevalence data from 2009 and 2011. Multiple linear regression models were set up. In West-Africa mean smoking prevalence was approximately 20% among males and approximately 3% among females. Policy measures were mostly at a middle or low level. Regression analysis showed that tobacco cessation programs, health warnings on cigarettes, and higher price of cigarettes were negatively correlated with smoking prevalence. Significant effects were observed for only one policy measure (tobacco cessation programs) and only within the male population where smoking prevalence is generally higher. Tobacco control policies are enforced at relatively low levels in West-African countries. However, improving tobacco control policy implementation according to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control should assist in the reduction of smoking prevalence in African countries, thereby counteracting pro-smoking initiatives set forth by the tobacco industry.

  3. Creating Web Pages Simplified

    CERN Document Server

    Wooldridge, Mike

    2011-01-01

    The easiest way to learn how to create a Web page for your family or organization Do you want to share photos and family lore with relatives far away? Have you been put in charge of communication for your neighborhood group or nonprofit organization? A Web page is the way to get the word out, and Creating Web Pages Simplified offers an easy, visual way to learn how to build one. Full-color illustrations and concise instructions take you through all phases of Web publishing, from laying out and formatting text to enlivening pages with graphics and animation. This easy-to-follow visual guide sho

  4. Secure Page Fusion with VUsion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliverio, Marco; Bos, Herbert; Razavi, Kaveh; Giuffrida, Cristiano

    2017-01-01

    To reduce memory pressure, modern operating systems and hypervisors such as Linux/KVM deploy page-level memory fusion to merge physical memory pages with the same content (i.e., page fusion). A write to a fused memory page triggers a copy-on-write event that unmerges the page to preserve correct

  5. Residential segregation and the health of African-American infants: does the effect vary by prevalence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyarko, Kwame A; Wehby, George L

    2012-10-01

    Segregation effects may vary between areas (e.g., counties) of low and high low birth weight (LBW; segregation on county-level LBW and PTB rates for African-American infants vary by the prevalence of these conditions. The study sample includes 368 counties of 100,000 or more residents and at least 50 African-American live births in 2000. Residentially segregated counties are identified alternatively by county-level dissimilarity and isolation indices. Quantile regression is used to assess how residential segregation affects the entire distributions of county-level LBW and PTB rates (i.e. by prevalence). Residential segregation increases LBW and PTB rates significantly in areas of low prevalence, but has no such effects for areas of high prevalence. As a sensitivity analysis, we use metropolitan statistical area level data and obtain similar results. Our findings suggest that residential segregation has adverse effects mainly in areas of low prevalence of LBW and preterm birth, which are expected overall to have fewer risk factors and more resources for infant health, but not in high prevalence areas, which are expected to have more risk factors and fewer resources. Residential policies aimed at area resource improvements may be more effective.

  6. Stuttering Prevalence among Kurdish-Farsi Students Effects of the Two Languages Similarities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiwa Mohamadi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: It has been noted that stuttering is more prevalent in bilinguals than in monolinguals. The similarities of the languages involved have been mentioned to justify the difference between stuttering prevalence among bilingual and monolingual speakers. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of language similarities on prevalence of stuttering among Kurdish-Farsi bilingual students. Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive analytic study, we examined all of Javanroud’s schools’ bilingual students. We used teacher referral method for the primary screening of speech disorders. Essential information about speech disorders, specifically stuttering, had been given to teachers before this primary step. The bilingual researcher then diagnosed stuttering students based on DSM-IV criteria through personal interview, text reading, and spontaneous speech in Kurdish and Farsi. Results: Among 11425 bilingual students of Javanroud’s schools, 129 students were identified as stutterers. These findings indicated that overall prevalence of stuttering in this population is 1.13%. Among elementary, guidance and high school students the prevalence of stuttering was 2.06%, 0.87% and 0.5% respectively. Prevalence of stuttering among boys was 1.35% and 0.88% among girls. An overall male/female ratio was 1.5/1. Prevalence of stuttering in elementary, guidance and high school differed significantly (P=0.000. Prevalence of stuttering in males was significantly higher than females (P=0.034. Discussion: Prevalence of stuttering among Javanroud’s bilingual students was higher than the universal accepted prevalence in monolinguals (1% but lower than other studies in bilingual population. The similarities of Kurdish and Farsi languages play an important role in this and are discussed in the paper.

  7. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Danish patients with HIV infection: the effect of antiretroviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, B R; Petersen, J; Haugaard, S B

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) in HIV-infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is a subject of debate. We investigated the prevalence of MS in a cohort of Danish HIV-infected patients and estimated the effect of the various classes of antiretroviral...... Education Programme (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III diagnostic criteria. RESULTS: Five hundred and sixty-six patients were included in the study, of whom 27% were diagnosed with MS. In univariate analysis, the duration of treatment with different drug classes was associated with the prevalence of MS......% confidence interval (CI) 1.73-6.74; and OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.19-3.22, respectively]. CONCLUSIONS: MS is prevalent in HIV-infected Danes. However, treatment with specific drug classes does not seem to confer an elevated risk for MS, other than the risk conferred by known acute effects on triglycerides....

  8. Page Styles on steroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Designing a page style has long been a pain for novice users. Some parts are easy; others need strong LATEX knowledge. In this article we will present the memoir way of dealing with page styles, including new code added to the recent version of memoir that will reduce the pain to a mild annoyance...

  9. On Page Rank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoede, C.

    In this paper the concept of page rank for the world wide web is discussed. The possibility of describing the distribution of page rank by an exponential law is considered. It is shown that the concept is essentially equal to that of status score, a centrality measure discussed already in 1953 by

  10. Effect of Host Condition on Intestinal Parasite Load and Prevalence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Host condition had effect on therate of infection and greater effect on intestinal parasite load in Malapterurus electricus . These vary among sex, sizes and weights of conspecific individuals. This was investigated over a period of two years.A total of 340 fishes from the lagoon were caught and dissected for intestinal helminth ...

  11. New WWW Pages

    CERN Multimedia

    Pommes, K

    New WWW pages have been created in order to provide easy access to the many activities and pertaining information of the ATLAS Technical Coordination. The main entry point is available on the ATLAS Collaboration page by clicking the Technical Coordination link which leads to the page shown in the following picture. Each button links to a page listing all tasks of the corresponding activity, the responsible task leaders, schedules, work-packages, and action lists, etc... The "ATLAS Documentation Center" button will present the pop-up window shown in the next figure: Besides linking to the Technical Coordination Activities, this page provides direct access to the tools for Project Progress Tracking (PPT) and Engineering Data Management (EDMS), as well as to the main topics being coordinated by the Technical Coordination.

  12. Influence of auditory and audiovisual stimuli on the right-left prevalence effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu, Kim-Phuong L; Minakata, Katsumi; Ngo, Mary Kim

    2014-01-01

    compatibility. The right-left prevalence effects obtained with auditory stimuli are typically larger than that obtained with visual stimuli even though less attention should be demanded from the horizontal dimension in auditory processing. In the present study, we examined whether auditory or visual dominance...... vertical coding through use of the spatial-musical association of response codes (SMARC) effect, where pitch is coded in terms of height in space. In Experiment 1, we found a larger right-left prevalence effect for unimodal auditory than visual stimuli. Neutral, non-pitch coded, audiovisual stimuli did......When auditory stimuli are used in two-dimensional spatial compatibility tasks, where the stimulus and response configurations vary along the horizontal and vertical dimensions simultaneously, a right-left prevalence effect occurs in which horizontal compatibility dominates over vertical...

  13. Effects of rodent community diversity and composition on prevalence of an endemic bacterial pathogen - Bartonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Y.; Kosoy, M.Y.; Calisher, C.H.; Cully, J.F.; Collinge, S.K.

    2009-01-01

    By studying Bartonella prevalence in rodent communities from 23 geographic sites in the western United States and one site in northern Mexico, the present study focused on the effects of rodent community diversity (measured by richness and Shannon index) and composition on prevalence of Bartonella infections. The analysis showed negative correlations of Bartonella prevalence with rodent richness and Shannon index. Further, Bartonella prevalence varied among rodent genera/species. Three models were applied to explain the observations. (1) Within-species/genus transmission: Bartonella strains usually are host-specific and adding non-host species would decrease Bartonella prevalence in its principal host through reduction of host contact (encounter reduction); (2) Frequency-dependence: Adding hosts would decrease the proportion of all infected individuals in the community, resulting in a reduction in the number of contacts between susceptible and infected individuals that usually leads to transmission (transmission reduction); and (3) Dominant species effect: Dominant species, if not susceptible to Bartonellae, can constrain the abundance of susceptible hosts (susceptible host regulation). These mechanisms work in concert; and the level of Bartonella prevalence is an outcome of regulation of all of these mechanisms on the entire system.

  14. Prevalence and Behaviour Effects of Psychoactive Substance Use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Psychoactive substances can alter consciousness, mood and behaviour of an individual user. Objectives: To determine the pattern of psychoactive substance use and its mental and behavioural effects on university students in Enugu, Nigeria. Methods: A descriptive study was conducted among 422 ...

  15. Prevalence, perceived benefits and effectiveness of herbal medicine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2011-12-21

    Dec 21, 2011 ... hospice or palliative care service (Demmer, 2007). In the absence of effective ... most common herbal product used. It was reported that .... Vaginal discharge. 3. 51. 11.16. White spots in the mouth (oral thrush). 4. 51. 11.16. Skin rash. 5. 46. 10.06. Skin itch. 6. 38. 8.2. Respiratory problems. 7. 29. 6.79.

  16. Web page sorting algorithm based on query keyword distance relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Han; Cui, Hong Gang; Tang, Hao

    2017-08-01

    In order to optimize the problem of page sorting, according to the search keywords in the web page in the relationship between the characteristics of the proposed query keywords clustering ideas. And it is converted into the degree of aggregation of the search keywords in the web page. Based on the PageRank algorithm, the clustering degree factor of the query keyword is added to make it possible to participate in the quantitative calculation. This paper proposes an improved algorithm for PageRank based on the distance relation between search keywords. The experimental results show the feasibility and effectiveness of the method.

  17. Global evidence on the effect of point-of-sale display bans on smoking prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yanyun; Shang, Ce; Huang, Jidong; Cheng, Kai-Wen; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2018-01-13

    Since Iceland became the first country to impose a ban on point-of-sale (POS) tobacco product displays in 2001, 20 countries have implemented POS display bans as of 2016. This study examined the effect that POS display bans have on smoking prevalence. Data were sourced from Euromonitor International and the WHO MPOWER package for 2007-2014 from 77 countries worldwide. generalised linear models with country and year fixed effects were estimated to analyse the effect of POS display bans on smoking prevalence. Having a POS display ban reduced overall adult daily smoking, male smoking and female smoking by about 7%, 6% and 9%, respectively. Having a POS display ban is likely to reduce smoking prevalence and generate public health benefits. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. The effect of teacher education on the prevalence of obesity in kindergarten children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanachu-ek, Suntaree; Moungnoi, Pranee

    2008-10-01

    Childhood obesity is increasing worldwide and becoming an important health problem in both the children's current life and their later years. Providing kindergarten teachers with the knowledge should reduce the severity of obesity and prevent childhood obesity. To monitor the prevalence of over-nutrition and obesity in kindergarten children for 3 years, and to evaluate the effects of teacher education on the prevalence of over-nutrition and obesity. Kindergarten children from 7 schools in Bangkok were enrolled in this cohort study for 3 years (2005-2007). Three school groups were classified according to the number of informed teachers in the school. The children's weight and height were measured yearly using standard instruments. Nutritional status was assessed by% weight for height (%W/H), using the Thai Growth Reference, 1999. After the second measurement, all teachers were informed directly at the schools. The prevalence of over-nutrition and obesity was assessed and compared among the 3 years, and the 3 groups, using Chi-square (chi 2) test. In the year 2005, 1,232 kindergarten children from 7 schools were enrolled. The prevalence of over-nutrition and obesity was 33% and 17.4% in 2005; 32.8% and 17.2% in 2006; 28.8% and 15.3% in 2007. In the 3rd year the prevalence of over-nutrition decreased statistically significantly from the first 2 years. The prevalence of over-nutrition and obesity in 3 years decreased insignificantly in each group. This showed the positive effects of the teacher education. Teacher education has effects in reducing the prevalence of over-nutrition and obesity in the kindergarten children.

  19. Prevalence of type III secretion system in effective biocontrol pseudomonads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almario, Juliana; Gobbin, Davide; Défago, Geneviève; Moënne-Loccoz, Yvan; Rezzonico, Fabio

    2014-05-01

    Functional type III secretion system (T3SS) genes are needed for effective biocontrol of Pythium damping-off of cucumber by Pseudomonas fluorescens KD, but whether biocontrol Pseudomonas strains with T3SS genes display overall a higher plant-protecting activity is unknown. The assessment of 198 biocontrol fluorescent pseudomonads originating from 60 soils worldwide indicated that 32% harbour the ATPase-encoding T3SS gene hrcN, which was most often found in tomato isolates. The hrcN(+) biocontrol strains (and especially those also producing 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol and displaying 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity) displayed higher plant-protecting ability in comparison with hrcN(-) biocontrol strains, both in the Pythium/cucumber and Fusarium/cucumber pathosystems. Copyright © 2014 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Quantitative proteomics analysis using 2D-PAGE to investigate the effects of cigarette smoke and aerosol of a prototypic modified risk tobacco product on the lung proteome in C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elamin, Ashraf; Titz, Bjoern; Dijon, Sophie; Merg, Celine; Geertz, Marcel; Schneider, Thomas; Martin, Florian; Schlage, Walter K; Frentzel, Stefan; Talamo, Fabio; Phillips, Blaine; Veljkovic, Emilija; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Vanscheeuwijck, Patrick; Peitsch, Manuel C; Hoeng, Julia

    2016-08-11

    Smoking is associated with several serious diseases, such as lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Within our systems toxicology framework, we are assessing whether potential modified risk tobacco products (MRTP) can reduce smoking-related health risks compared to conventional cigarettes. In this article, we evaluated to what extent 2D-PAGE/MALDI MS/MS (2D-PAGE) can complement the iTRAQ LC-MS/MS results from a previously reported mouse inhalation study, in which we assessed a prototypic MRTP (pMRTP). Selected differentially expressed proteins identified by both LC-MS/MS and 2D-PAGE approaches were further verified using reverse-phase protein microarrays. LC-MS/MS captured the effects of cigarette smoke (CS) on the lung proteome more comprehensively than 2D-PAGE. However, an integrated analysis of both proteomics data sets showed that 2D-PAGE data complement the LC-MS/MS results by supporting the overall trend of lower effects of pMRTP aerosol than CS on the lung proteome. Biological effects of CS exposure supported by both methods included increases in immune-related, surfactant metabolism, proteasome, and actin cytoskeleton protein clusters. Overall, while 2D-PAGE has its value, especially as a complementary method for the analysis of effects on intact proteins, LC-MS/MS approaches will likely be the method of choice for proteome analysis in systems toxicology investigations. Quantitative proteomics is anticipated to play a growing role within systems toxicology assessment frameworks in the future. To further understand how different proteomics technologies can contribute to toxicity assessment, we conducted a quantitative proteomics analysis using 2D-PAGE and isobaric tag-based LC-MS/MS approaches and compared the results produced from the 2 approaches. Using a prototypic modified risk tobacco product (pMRTP) as our test item, we show compared with cigarette smoke, how 2D-PAGE results can complement and support LC-MS/MS data, demonstrating

  1. TCRC Fertility Page

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Testicular Cancer Resource Center The TCRC Fertility Page Testicular Cancer and fertility are interrelated in numerous ways. TC usually affects young men still in the process of having a family. ...

  2. Effects of the economic crisis on smoking prevalence and number of smokers in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallus, Silvano; Ghislandi, Simone; Muttarak, Raya

    2015-01-01

    Scanty and controversial information is available on the impact of macroeconomic fluctuations on smoking behaviour. No study has quantified the effects of fiscal crises on smoking prevalence. This study aimed to investigate the effects of the 2007-2008 economic crisis on smoking prevalence and number of smokers in the USA. Using data from the repeated Behavioural Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) surveys in pre-crisis (2005-2007) and post-crisis (2009-2010) periods on a total of 1,981,607 US adults, we separated the expected (after allowance for the demographic growth of the US population, secular smoking prevalence trends and changes in sociodemographic characteristics) from the unexpected (assumed attributable to the economic crisis) changes in the number of smokers across different employment statuses. Joinpoint regression analysis revealed no significant changes in smoking prevalence trends over the period 2005-2010. The crisis resulted in an increase in the number of smokers in the US by 0.6 million. This is largely due to an unexpected decrease of 1.7 million smokers among employed and an increase of 2.4 million smokers among unemployed individuals, whose smoking prevalence also remains extremely high in the post-crisis period (32.6%). The 2008 financial crisis had a weak effect on smoking prevalence. The pro-cyclical relationship (ie, the crisis results in a lower number of smokers) found among the employed is offset by the counter-cyclical relationship (ie, the crisis results in a higher number of smokers) found among unemployed individuals. Public health interventions should specifically target those in unemployment, particularly in hard times. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Basic versus Supplementary Health Insurance : The Role of Cost Effectiveness and Prevalence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.

    2014-01-01

    In a model where patients face budget constraints that make some treatments unaffordable, we ask which treatments should be covered by universal basic insurance and which by private voluntary insurance. We argue that both cost effectiveness and prevalence are important if the government wants to

  4. The prevalence effect in lateral masking and its relevance for visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geelen, B P; Wertheim, A H

    2015-04-01

    In stimulus displays with or without a single target amid 1,644 identical distractors, target prevalence was varied between 20, 50 and 80 %. Maximum gaze deviation was measured to determine the strength of lateral masking in these arrays. The results show that lateral masking was strongest in the 20 % prevalence condition, which differed significantly from both the 50 and 80 % prevalence conditions. No difference was observed between the latter two. This pattern of results corresponds to that found in the literature on the prevalence effect in visual search (stronger lateral masking corresponding to longer search times). The data add to similar findings reported earlier (Wertheim et al. in Exp Brain Res, 170:387-402, 2006), according to which the effects of many well-known factors in visual search correspond to those on lateral masking. These were the effects of set size, disjunctions versus conjunctions, display area, distractor density, the asymmetry effect (Q vs. O's) and viewing distance. The present data, taken together with those earlier findings, may lend credit to a causal hypothesis that lateral masking could be a more important mechanism in visual search than usually assumed.

  5. Prevalence of the white-coat effect at multiple visits before and during treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberk, Willem J.; Kroon, Abraham A.; Thien, Theo; Lenders, Jacques W. M.; van Montfrans, Gert A.; Smit, Andries J.; de Leeuw, Peter W.

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence and persistence of the white-coat effect (WCE) and white-coat hypertension (WCH) on multiple blood pressure measurement occasions in hypertensive patients with and without treatment. Design Essential hypertensive patients in whom we took office blood pressure

  6. Prevalence of the white-coat effect at multiple visits before and during treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberk, W.J.; Kroon, A.A.; Thien, Th.; Lenders, J.W.M.; Montfrans, G.A. van; Smit, A.J.; Leeuw, P.W. de

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and persistence of the white-coat effect (WCE) and white-coat hypertension (WCH) on multiple blood pressure measurement occasions in hypertensive patients with and without treatment. DESIGN: Essential hypertensive patients in whom we took office blood

  7. Prevalence of the white-coat effect at multiple visits before and during treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberk, Willem J.; Kroon, Abraham A.; Thien, Theo; Lenders, Jacques W. M.; van Montfrans, Gert A.; Smit, Andries J.; de Leeuw, Peter W.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and persistence of the white-coat effect (WCE) and white-coat hypertension (WCH) on multiple blood pressure measurement occasions in hypertensive patients with and without treatment. DESIGN: Essential hypertensive patients in whom we took office blood

  8. Anabolic Androgenic Steroid Use in Teens: Prevalence, Demographics, and Perception of Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorang, Melissa; Callahan, Bryan; Cummins, Kevin M.; Achar, Suraj; Brown, Sandra A.

    2011-01-01

    Multiple risks are associated with early use of anabolic androgenic steroids, yet public understanding is limited and teen use not uncommon. The present study surveyed 4,231 high school students to understand prevalence of use, association with athletics and other substance use and expectations of drug effects. While overall rates of steroid use…

  9. Using the symptom monitor in a randomized controlled trial: the effect on symptom prevalence and severity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Johanna; de Vos, Rien; van Duijn, Nico P.; Schadé, Egbert; Bindels, Patrick J. E.

    2006-01-01

    This randomized controlled trial investigated the effect of reporting physical symptoms by using a systematic symptom monitoring instrument, the Symptom Monitor, on symptom prevalence and severity among patients with cancer in the palliative phase. The overall objective was to achieve symptom relief

  10. Trends in adolescent alcohol use: Effects of age, sex and cohort on prevalence and heritability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geels, L.M.; Bartels, M.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; Willemsen, G.; van der Aa, N.; Boomsma, D.I.; Vink, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Aims To determine the effect of age, sex and cohort on the prevalence and genetic architecture of adolescent alcohol use (AAU). Design Survey study in participants registered with the Netherlands Twin Register. Setting Twins from the general population. Participants Two cohorts (data collected in

  11. Effect of misclassification of antiretroviral treatment status on the prevalence of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro Hannah

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estimates of the prevalence of transmitted HIV drug resistance (TDR in a population are derived from resistance tests performed on samples from patients thought to be naïve to antiretroviral treatment (ART. Much of the debate over reliability of estimates of the prevalence of TDR has focused on whether the sample population is representative. However estimates of the prevalence of TDR will also be distorted if some ART-experienced patients are misclassified as ART-naïve. Methods The impact of misclassification bias on the rate of TDR was examined. We developed methods to obtain adjusted estimates of the prevalence of TDR for different misclassification rates, and conducted sensitivity analyses of trends in the prevalence of TDR over time using data from the UK HIV Drug Resistance Database. Logistic regression was used to examine trends in the prevalence of TDR over time. Results The observed rate of TDR was higher than true TDR when misclassification was present and increased as the proportion of misclassification increased. As the number of naïve patients with a resistance test relative to the number of experienced patients with a test increased, the difference between true and observed TDR decreased. The observed prevalence of TDR in the UK reached a peak of 11.3% in 2002 (odds of TDR increased by 1.10 (95% CI 1.02, 1.19, p(linear trend = 0.02 per year 1997-2002 before decreasing to 7.0% in 2007 (odds of TDR decreased by 0.90 (95% CI 0.87, 0.94, p(linear trend Conclusion The effect of misclassification of ART on estimates of the prevalence of TDR may be appreciable, and depends on the number of naïve tests relative to the number of experienced tests. Researchers can examine the effect of ART misclassification on their estimates of the prevalence of TDR if such a bias is suspected.

  12. Reductive Effect of Fly Screens on the Campylobacter Prevalence of Broiler Flocks in Summer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, B.; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Skovgård, H. S.

    Flies act as vectors in the introduction of Campylobacter from the environment to broiler flocks. We conducted a case-control study to evaluate the effect of fly screens on the prevalence of Campylobacter in broiler flocks. Cases were 52 broiler flocks reared in 20 houses on 11 farms between June...... and November 2006, where houses were equipped with fly screens made of glass fibre mesh. The controls consisted of 70 broiler flocks reared in 25 matched houses on 13 farms without screens. Other bio-security and management routines were strictly as before the study. All broiler houses were ventilated through...... wall inlets and roof outlets. The broiler flocks were sampled at days 21, 28, and 35 and at slaughter (on day 35 to 42). Samples were tested for Campylobacter by PCR. Campylobacter prevalence data were analyzed using SAS (SAS Institute). In fly screened houses, the Campylobacter prevalence was 15.4% (8...

  13. Effects of diabetes definition on global surveillance of diabetes prevalence and diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bugge, Anna; Grøntved, Anders; Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann

    2015-01-01

    prevalence levels. Prevalence based on HbA1c was lower than prevalence based on FPG in 42·8% of age-sex-survey groups and higher in another 41·6%; in the other 15·6%, the two definitions provided similar prevalence estimates. The variation across studies in the relation between glucose-based and HbA1c......BACKGROUND: Diabetes has been defined on the basis of different biomarkers, including fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h plasma glucose in an oral glucose tolerance test (2hOGTT), and HbA1c. We assessed the effect of different diagnostic definitions on both the population prevalence of diabetes...... of the biomarkers used for defining diabetes. Diabetes was defined using HbA1c (HbA1c ≥6·5% or history of diabetes diagnosis or using insulin or oral hypoglycaemic drugs) compared with either FPG only or FPG-or-2hOGTT definitions (FPG ≥7·0 mmol/L or 2hOGTT ≥11·1 mmol/L or history of diabetes or using insulin...

  14. Functional Multiplex PageRank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovacci, Jacopo; Rahmede, Christoph; Arenas, Alex; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2016-10-01

    Recently it has been recognized that many complex social, technological and biological networks have a multilayer nature and can be described by multiplex networks. Multiplex networks are formed by a set of nodes connected by links having different connotations forming the different layers of the multiplex. Characterizing the centrality of the nodes in a multiplex network is a challenging task since the centrality of the node naturally depends on the importance associated to links of a certain type. Here we propose to assign to each node of a multiplex network a centrality called Functional Multiplex PageRank that is a function of the weights given to every different pattern of connections (multilinks) existent in the multiplex network between any two nodes. Since multilinks distinguish all the possible ways in which the links in different layers can overlap, the Functional Multiplex PageRank can describe important non-linear effects when large relevance or small relevance is assigned to multilinks with overlap. Here we apply the Functional Page Rank to the multiplex airport networks, to the neuronal network of the nematode C. elegans, and to social collaboration and citation networks between scientists. This analysis reveals important differences existing between the most central nodes of these networks, and the correlations between their so-called pattern to success.

  15. Users page feedback

    CERN Multimedia

    2010-01-01

    In October last year the Communication Group proposed an interim redesign of the users’ web pages in order to improve the visibility of key news items, events and announcements to the CERN community. The proposed update to the users' page (right), and the current version (left, behind) This proposed redesign was seen as a small step on the way to much wider reforms of the CERN web landscape proposed in the group’s web communication plan.   The results are available here. Some of the key points: - the balance between news / events / announcements and access to links on the users’ pages was not right - many people asked to see a reversal of the order so that links appeared first, news/events/announcements last; - many people felt that we should keep the primary function of the users’ pages as an index to other CERN websites; - many people found the sections of the front page to be poorly delineated; - people do not like scrolling; - there were performance...

  16. The effect of MPOWER scores on cigarette smoking prevalence and consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Anh; Cheng, Kai-Wen; Chaloupka, Frank J; Shang, Ce

    2017-12-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) introduced the MPOWER package to support policy implementation under the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). This study examined the effect of MPOWER policies on smoking prevalence and cigarette consumption in a global context. The MPOWER composite score was constructed by adding up the six MPOWER scores for each country and survey year 2007-2008, 2010, 2012, and 2014, with a possible range between 6 (1 in each of the six score) and 29 (4 in M score and 5 in POWER scores). MPOWER composite scores that measured policy implementation were then linked to cigarette smoking prevalence and consumption data from Euromonitor International. Fractional logit and OLS regressions were employed to examine the effect of the composite MPOWER score on adult smoking prevalence and cigarette consumption, respectively. Results indicate that a 1-unit increase in the composite score reduces smoking prevalence by 0.2 percentage points (p<0.05) among adults and 0.3 percentage points (p<0.01) among adult males; and a reduction of 23 sticks of cigarette (1 pack of cigarettes) in cigarette consumption per capita per year. At this rate, if countries had implemented the MPOWER package to the highest levels during 2007-2014, they would have experienced a reduction in smoking prevalence of 7.26% among adults and 7.87% among adult males and a reduction of 13.80% in cigarette consumption. MPOWER policies were effective in reducing cigarette smoking among adults. Parties should continue to implement MPOWER policies that have been recommended by the WHO FCTC to curb tobacco epidemic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Digital marketing in travel industry. Case: Hotel landing page optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Bitkulova, Renata

    2017-01-01

    Landing page optimization is implementation of the principles of digital service design to improve the website’s user experience. Well done landing page optimization can have a significant positive effect on the usability and profitability of the website. The objective of the study was to optimize the Russian language version of Vuokatti landing page in order to increase conversion, defined as the number of clicks to accommodation search button. A literature survey was made to determine ...

  18. Effects of folic acid fortification on the prevalence of neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Sâmya Silva; Braga, Cynthia; Souza, Ariani Impieri de; Figueiroa, José Natal

    2009-08-01

    To analyze the effect of folic acid-fortified foods on the prevalence of neural tube defects in live newborns. Longitudinal study with newborns from the city of Recife, Northeastern Brazil, between 2000 and 2006. Data analyzed were obtained from the Sistema Nacional de Informações de Nascidos Vivos (National Information System on Live Births). Neural tube defects were defined in accordance with the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision (ICD-10): anencephaly, encephalocele, and spina bifida. Prevalences from the periods before (2000-2004) and after (2005-2006) the mandatory fortification period were compared. Time trend of three-month prevalences of neural tube defects were analyzed using Mann-Kendall test and Sen's Slope estimator. Tendency towards reduction in the occurrence of outcome (Mann-Kendall test; p= 0.270; Sen's Slope estimator =-0.008) was not identified in the period studied. The difference between prevalences of neural tube defects in the periods before and after food fortification with folic acid was not statistically significant, according to maternal characteristics. Even though reduction in neural tube defects after the period of mandatory food fortification with folic acid was not observed, results found do not enable its benefit to prevent malformations to be ruled out. Studies assessing longer periods and considering the level of consumption of fortified products by women of fertile age are necessary.

  19. Full page insight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortsen, Rikke Platz

    2014-01-01

    Alan Moore and his collaborating artists often manipulate time and space by drawing upon the formal elements of comics and making alternative constellations. This article looks at an element that is used frequently in comics of all kinds – the full page – and discusses how it helps shape spatio-t...

  20. Pages 552 - 556.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    recorded using optical microscope. Image Pro-Plus. 5.1 was used to calculate relative area of penumbra. Gap junction protein Cx43 measurement using. Western-blot. The tissues were sonicated in lysis buffer to extract and determine total protein. Each sample was electrophoresed on 10% SDS-PAGE and then transferred ...

  1. Title and title page.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peh, W C G; Ng, K H

    2008-08-01

    The title gives the first impression of a scientific article, and should accurately convey to a reader what the whole article is about. A good title is short, informative and attractive. The title page provides information about the authors, their affiliations and the corresponding author's contact details.

  2. Folding worlds between pages

    CERN Document Server

    Meier, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    "We all remember pop-up books form our childhood. As fascinated as we were back then, we probably never imagined how much engineering know-how went into these books. Pop-up engineer Anton Radevsky has even managed to fold a 27-kilometre particle accelerator into a book" (4 pages)

  3. stage/page/play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    context. Contributors: Per Brask, Dario Fo, Jette Barnholdt Hansen, Pil Hansen, Sven Åke Heed, Ulla Kallenbach, Sofie Kluge, Annelis Kuhlmann, Kela Kvam, Anna Lawaetz, Bent Flemming Nielsen, Franco Perrelli, Magnus Tessing Schneider, Antonio Scuderi. stage/page/play is published as a festschrift...

  4. Consumption of Energy Drinks Among Lebanese Youth: A Pilot Study on the Prevalence and Side Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Itany, Manal; Diab, Batoul; Rachidi, Samar; Awada, Sanaa; Al Hajje, Amal; Bawab, Wafaa; Salameh, Pascale

    2014-01-01

    Background: The new millennium has been together with a variety of synthetic and caffeinated high-energy drinks targeting the youth market. Energy drinks raise the level of energy and their consumption has been increased significantly worldwide. Objectives: This research aimed to determine patterns of energy drink consumption and to assess the prevalence of adverse side effects among energy drink users. Patients and Methods: A pilot cross-sectional study survey was undertaken on students aged...

  5. Prevalence of fatigue in patients with multiple sclerosis and its effect on the quality of life

    OpenAIRE

    Karthik Nagaraj; Arun B Taly; Anupam Gupta; Chandrajit Prasad; Rita Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This prospective study was carried out to observe the prevalence of fatigue in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and its effect on quality-of-life (QoL). Study Design and Setting: Prospective observational study in a University Tertiary Research Hospital in India. Patients and Methods: A total of 31 patients (25 females) with definite MS according to McDonald's criteria presented in out-patient/admitted in the Department of Neurology (between February 2010 and December 2011) we...

  6. Chapter 07: Species description pages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex C. Wiedenhoeft

    2011-01-01

    These pages are written to be the final step in the identification process; you will be directed to them by the key in Chapter 6. Each species or group of similar species in the same genus has its own set of pages. The information in the first page describes the characteristics of the wood covered in the manual. The page shows images of similar or confusable woods,...

  7. Effect of food prices on the prevalence of obesity among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, E; Powell, L M

    2011-03-01

    To examine the extent to which various food prices were associated with the obesity status of young adults. Retrospective cohort study of 6537 men and 5324 women in the USA using panel data from the Monitoring the Future Surveys (1992-2003), which were merged with two food-at-home and one food-away-from-home price measures from the American Chamber of Commerce Researchers Association. Longitudinal individual random effect and fixed effect models were estimated. This study found that food prices did not have a significant effect on the prevalence of obesity among young female adults. For young adult men, an individual random effect estimator suggested that a 10% increase in the price of fast food was associated with a 13.2% decrease in the probability of obesity, but this effect lost its economic and statistical significance once individual fixed effects were controlled for in the estimation. Overall, the results imply that observed time-varying individual characteristics, such as working status, marital status and school enrolment status, may over-ride the effect of changes in food prices for young adults. More research employing longitudinal data is necessary to determine if food subsidies or taxes, particularly soft drink and fast food taxes or subsidies for fruit and vegetables, could be effective policy measures to curtail the increasing prevalence of obesity among young adults. Copyright © 2010 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. PageRank (II): Mathematics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    maths/stats

    Page Rank is a virtual value meaning nothing until you put it into the context of search engine results. Higher Page Rank pages will have tendency to rank better in the search engine results provided they are still optimized for the keywords you are searching for. Visitors coming from search engines are most praised kind of.

  9. Prevalence and Effect of Problematic Spasticity After Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtz, Kaila A; Lipson, Rachel; Noonan, Vanessa K; Kwon, Brian K; Mills, Patricia B

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the prevalence and effect of spasticity after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). Prospective cohort study of the Rick Hansen Spinal Cord Injury Registry (RHSCIR) and retrospective review of inpatient medical charts. Quaternary trauma center, rehabilitation center, and community settings. Individuals (N=860) with a traumatic SCI between March 1, 2005, and March 31, 2014, prospectively enrolled in the Vancouver site RHSCIR were eligible for inclusion. Not applicable. Questionnaires (Penn Spasm Frequency Scale, Spinal Cord Injury Health Questionnaire) and antispasticity medication use. In 465 patients, the prevalence of spasticity at community discharge was 65%, and the prevalence of problematic spasticity (defined as discharged on antispasticity medication) was 35%. Problematic spasticity was associated with cervicothoracic neurologic level and injury severity (Pspasticity treatment (ie, problematic spasticity) was 35% at 1 year, 41% at 2 years, and 31% at 5 years postinjury. Interference with function caused by spasticity was reported by 27% of patients at 1 year, 25% at 2 years, and 20% at 5 years postinjury. Patients with American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale grade C injuries had the highest prevalence of ongoing spasticity treatment and functional limitation. Spasticity is a highly prevalent secondary consequence of SCI, particularly in patients with severe motor incomplete cervicothoracic injuries. It is problematic in one third of all patients with SCI up to 5 years postinjury. One in 5 patients will have ongoing functional limitations related to spasticity, highlighting the importance of close community follow-up and the need for further research into spasticity management strategies. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Urinary schistosomiasis among schoolchildren in Yemen: prevalence, risk factors, and the effect of a chemotherapeutic intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Waleedi, Ali A; El-Nimr, Nessrin A; Hasab, Ali A; Bassiouny, Hassan K; Al-Shibani, Latifa A

    2013-12-01

    Schistosomiasis is one of the most important public health problems in Yemen. The prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis varies considerably across different parts of Yemen and was estimated to be 10% among schoolchildren in Sana'a. Praziquantel (PZQ) is highly effective against all five major human species of schistosomes. The aim of the present work was to estimate the prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis, describe the risk factors associated with its endemicity, and implement and assess a chemotherapeutic intervention using PZQ in a village in Yemen. The sample included 696 schoolchildren from a village in Abyan Governorate. During the baseline school survey, personal, sociodemographic, and environmental data, and data on practices in relation to water contact were collected from each study participant using a predesigned structured questionnaire. Urine samples from each participant were examined for macrohematuria and the presence of Schistosoma haematobium eggs. The chemotherapeutic intervention was assessed 3 and 6 months after the treatment and certain indicators were calculated. The prevalence of S. haematobium was 18.1%. The main significant risk factors were male sex; proximity of houses to water ponds; and using pond water for swimming, agricultural activities, and for bathing in houses. PZQ treatment reduced the prevalence of infection and decreased the prevalence of high-intensity infection. Survival analysis showed that the probability of residual infection also dropped after the treatment intervention. Male sex and using pond water for various activities were the main significant risk factors associated with urinary schistosomiasis. PZQ is still a cornerstone drug in reducing or eliminating morbidity associated with schistosomiasis infection. Health education programs tailored for the community are required for the control and prevention of urinary schistosomiasis. To address schoolchildren, school curricula should include lessons about urinary

  11. Effects of neighbourhood-level educational attainment on HIV prevalence among young women in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayeyi, Nkomba; Sandøy, Ingvild F; Fylkesnes, Knut

    2009-08-25

    Investigations of the association between socio-economic position indicators and HIV in East, Central and Southern Africa have chiefly focused on factors that pertain to individual-level characteristics. This study investigated the effect of neighbourhood educational attainment on HIV prevalence among young women in selected urban and rural areas in Zambia. This study re-analysed data from a cross-sectional population survey conducted in Zambia in 2003. The analyses were restricted to women aged 15-24 years (n = 1295). Stratified random cluster sampling was used to select 10 urban and 10 rural clusters. A measure for neighbourhood-level educational attainment was constructed by aggregating individual-level years-in-school. Multi-level mixed effects regression models were run to examine the neighbourhood-level educational effect on HIV prevalence after adjusting for individual-level underlying variables (education, currently a student, marital status) and selected proximate determinants (ever given birth, sexual activity, lifetime sexual partners). HIV prevalence among young women aged 15-24 years was 12.5% in the urban and 6.8% in the rural clusters. Neighbourhood educational attainment was found to be a strong determinant of HIV infection in both urban and rural population, i.e. HIV prevalence decreased substantially by increasing level of neighbourhood education. The likelihood of infection in low vs. high educational attainment of neighbourhoods was 3.4 times among rural women and 1.8 times higher among the urban women after adjusting for age and other individual-level underlying variables, including education. However, the association was not significant for urban young women after this adjustment. After adjusting for level of education in the neighbourhood, the effect of the individual-level education differed by residence, i.e. a strong protective effect among urban women whereas tending to be a risk factor among rural women. The findings suggested structural

  12. Page placement policies for NUMA multiprocessors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaRowe, R.P. Jr.; Ellis, C.S. (Dept. of Computer Science, Duke Univ., Durham, NC (US))

    1991-02-01

    In many parallel applications, the size of the program's data exceeds even the very large amount of main memory available on large-scale multiprocessors. Virtual memory, in the sense of a transparent management of the main/secondary memory hierarchy, is a natural solution. The replacement, fetch, and placement policies used in uniprocessor paging systems need to be reexamined in light of the differences in the behavior of parallel computations and in the memory architectures of multiprocessors. In this paper the authors investigate the impact of page placement in nonuniform memory access time (NUMA) shared memory MIMD machines. The authors experimentally evaluate several paging algorithms that incorporate different approaches to the placement issue. Under certain workload assumptions, the results show that placement algorithms that are strongly biased toward local frame allocations but are able to borrow remote frames can reduce the number of page faults over strictly local allocation. The increased cost of memory operations due to the extra remote accesses is more than compensated for by the savings resulting from the reduction in demand fetches, effectively reducing the computation completion time for these programs without having adverse effects on the performance of typical NUMA programs. The authors also discuss some early results obtained from an actual kernel implementation of one of the page placement algorithms.

  13. Lead exposure in Laysan albatross adults and chicks in Hawaii: prevalence, risk factors, and biochemical effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, T M; Smith, M R

    1996-07-01

    Prevalence of lead exposure and elevated tissue lead was determined in Laysan albatross (Diomedea immutabilis) in Hawaii. The relationship between lead exposure and proximity to buildings, between elevated blood lead and droopwing status, and elevated liver lead and presence of lead-containing paint chips in the proventriculus in albatross chicks was also examined. Finally, the effects of lead on the enzyme delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) was determined. There was a significant association between lead exposure or elevated tissue lead and proximity to buildings in albatross chicks and presence of lead paint chips in the proventriculus and elevated liver lead in carcasses. Although there was a significant association between elevated blood lead and droopwing chicks, there were notable exceptions. Prevalence of elevated tissue lead in albatross chicks was highest on Sand Island Midway and much less so on Kauai and virtually nonexistent in other areas. Prevalence of lead exposure decreased as numbers of buildings to which chicks were exposed on a given island decreased. Laysan albatross adults had minimal to no lead exposure. There was a significant negative correlation between blood lead concentration and ALAD activity in chicks. Based on ALAD activity, 0.03-0.05 microg/ml was the no effect range for blood lead in albatross chicks.

  14. Manifold habitat effects on the prevalence and diversity of avian blood parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravinder N.M. Sehgal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Habitats are rapidly changing across the planet and the consequences will have major and long-lasting effects on wildlife and their parasites. Birds harbor many types of blood parasites, but because of their relatively high prevalence and ease of diagnosis, it is the haemosporidians – Plasmodium, Haemoproteus, and Leucocytozoon – that are the best studied in terms of ecology and evolution. For parasite transmission to occur, environmental conditions must be permissive, and given the many constraints on the competency of parasites, vectors and hosts, it is rather remarkable that these parasites are so prevalent and successful. Over the last decade, a rapidly growing body of literature has begun to clarify how environmental factors affect birds and the insects that vector their hematozoan parasites. Moreover, several studies have modeled how anthropogenic effects such as global climate change, deforestation and urbanization will impact the dynamics of parasite transmission. This review highlights recent research that impacts our understanding of how habitat and environmental changes can affect the distribution, diversity, prevalence and parasitemia of these avian blood parasites. Given the importance of environmental factors on transmission, it remains essential that researchers studying avian hematozoa document abiotic factors such as temperature, moisture and landscape elements. Ultimately, this continued research has the potential to inform conservation policies and help avert the loss of bird species and threatened habitats.

  15. The effects of tertiary wastewater treatment on the prevalence of antimicrobial resistant bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guardabassi, L.; Wong, Danilo Lo Fo; Dalsgaard, A.

    2002-01-01

    with a genus-specific DNA probe. Independent of the different antibiotics and media used, the total numbers of resistant bacteria in treated sewage were 10-1000 times lower than in raw sewage. Based on linear regression analysis of data on bacteriological counts, the prevalences of antimicrobial-resistant...... by antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Acinetobacter isolates. Based on logistic regression analysis, isolates from treated sewage and digested sludge were generally not significantly more resistant compared with isolates from raw sewage. Based on these evidences, it was concluded that tertiary wastewater......The effects of tertiary wastewater treatment on the prevalence of antimicrobial resistant bacteria were investigated in two large-scale municipal treatment plants during a period of six months. Total and relative numbers of resistant bacteria were determined in raw sewage, treated sewage...

  16. PREVALENCE OF TRICHOMONIASIS IN DOMESTIC AND WILD PIGEONS AND ITS EFFECTS ON HEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. SALEEM, M. S. KHAN, A. S. CHAUDRY AND H. A. SAMAD

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of trichomoniasis and its effect on some blood parameters in pigeons. A total of 100 samples from the pigeons (50 wild and 50 domestic were collected during the months of March and April 2005. Higher prevalence (P<0.05 was recorded in wild pigeons (60% than in domestic pigeon (26%. The overall prevalence recorded was 43%, being non significantly higher in April (56% than in March (30%. In infected pigeons, there was significant (P<0.05 decrease in hemoglobin concentration number of monocytes packed cell volume, body weight, than healthy birds. Likewise, the values of total leukocyte count, lymphocytes and eosinophils were higher significantly (P<0.05 in infected pigeons than the healthy ones. While, no significant difference was observed for heterophils count when infected and healthy birds were compared. It was concluded that trichomonad infection is quite common in wild, as well as in domestic, pigeons under the prevailing cage system.

  17. Prevalence and associated factors of Schistosomiasis among children in Yemen: implications for an effective control programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sady, Hany; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Mahdy, Mohammed A K; Lim, Yvonne A L; Mahmud, Rohela; Surin, Johari

    2013-01-01

    Schistosomiasis, one of the most prevalent neglected tropical diseases, is a life-threatening public health problem in Yemen especially in rural communities. This cross-sectional study aims to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of schistosomiasis among children in rural Yemen. Urine and faecal samples were collected from 400 children. Urine samples were examined using filtration technique for the presence of Schistosoma haematobium eggs while faecal samples were examined using formalin-ether concentration and Kato Katz techniques for the presence of S. mansoni. Demographic, socioeconomic and environmental information were collected via a validated questionnaire. Overall, 31.8% of the participants were found to be positive for schistosomiasis; 23.8% were infected with S. haematobium and 9.3% were infected with S. mansoni. Moreover, 39.5% of the participants were anaemic whereas 9.5% had hepatosplenomegaly. The prevalence of schistosomiasis was significantly higher among children aged >10 years compared to those aged ≤ 10 years (PYemen. These findings support an urgent need to start an integrated, targeted and effective schistosomiasis control programme with a mission to move towards the elimination phase. Besides periodic drug distribution, health education and community mobilisation, provision of clean and safe drinking water, introduction of proper sanitation are imperative among these communities in order to curtail the transmission and morbidity caused by schistosomiasis. Screening and treating other infected family members should also be adopted by the public health authorities in combating this infection in these communities.

  18. The effect of religious practice on the prevalence of knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokkhanchitchai, Surachai; Tangarunsanti, Tanee; Jaovisidha, Suphaneewan; Nantiruj, Kanokrat; Janwityanujit, Suchela

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of religious practice on the prevalence, severity, and patterns of knee osteoarthritis (OA) in a Thai elderly population with the same ethnicity and culture but different religions. A house-to-house survey was conducted in two subdistricts of Phranakhon Sri Ayutthaya province where inhabitants are a mixture of Buddhists and Muslims. One hundred fifty-three Buddhists and 150 Muslims aged >or= 50 years were evaluated demographically, physically, and radiographically. Those suffering knee pains were questioned about severity using the Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) scores and examined for their range of knee motion. Radiographic knee OA (ROA) was defined as Kellgren-Lawrence radiographic grade >or=2 while symptomatic knee OA (SOA) was defined as knee symptoms of at least 1 month in a knee with ROA. Muslims had on average a higher number of daily religious practices than their Buddhist neighbors (p SOA, Buddhists showed a trend towards higher prevalence than Muslims (47.71 vs. 37.32, p = 0.068). No significant difference was found when the range of motion and WOMAC scores were compared between the two groups. Muslims had a lower prevalence of OA than their Buddhists counterparts with the same ethnicity but different religious practice. The Muslim way of praying since childhood, forcing the knees into deep flexion, may stretch the soft tissue surrounding the knee and decrease stiffness and contact pressure of the articular cartilage.

  19. Obstructive sleep apnea combined dyslipidemia render additive effect on increasing atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhiyong; Zhang, Ping; He, Zhiqing; Yang, Jing; Liang, Chun; Ren, Yusheng; Wu, Zonggui

    2016-05-26

    Current study was designed to investigate the effects of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) combined dyslipidemia on the prevalence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (ASCVD). This was a cross-sectional study and subjects with documented dyslipidemia and without previous diagnosis of OSA were enrolled. Polysomnography was applied to evaluate apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). Based on AHI value, subjects were classified into four groups: without OSA, mild, moderate and severe OSA groups. Clinical characteristics and laboratory examination data were recorded. Relationship between AHI event and lipid profiles was analyzed, and logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the effects of OSA combined dyslipidemia on ASCVD prevalence. Totally 248 subjects with dyslipidemia were enrolled. Compared to the other 3 groups, subjects with severe OSA were older, male predominant and had higher smoking rate. In addition, subjects with severe OSA had higher body mass index, waist-hip ratio, blood pressure, and higher rates of overweight and obesity. Serum levels of fasting plasma glucose, glycated hemoglobin, LDL-C and CRP were all significantly higher. ASCVD prevalence was considerably higher in subjects with severe OSA. AHI event in the severe OSA group was up to 35.4 ± 5.1 events per hour which was significantly higher than the other groups (P dyslipidemia plus no-OSA group (reference group), OSA enhanced ASCVD risk in subjects with dyslipidemia, regardless of OSA severity. After extensively adjusted for confounding variables, the odds of dyslipidemia plus mild-OSA was reduced to insignificance. While the effects of moderate- and severe-OSA on promoting ASCVD risk in subjects with dyslipidemia remained significant, with severe-OSA most prominent (odds ratio: 1.52, 95% confidence interval: 1.13-2.02). OSA combined dyslipidemia conferred additive adverse effects on cardiovascular system, with severe-OSA most prominent.

  20. Prevalence and associated factors of Schistosomiasis among children in Yemen: implications for an effective control programme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany Sady

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis, one of the most prevalent neglected tropical diseases, is a life-threatening public health problem in Yemen especially in rural communities. This cross-sectional study aims to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of schistosomiasis among children in rural Yemen.Urine and faecal samples were collected from 400 children. Urine samples were examined using filtration technique for the presence of Schistosoma haematobium eggs while faecal samples were examined using formalin-ether concentration and Kato Katz techniques for the presence of S. mansoni. Demographic, socioeconomic and environmental information were collected via a validated questionnaire. Overall, 31.8% of the participants were found to be positive for schistosomiasis; 23.8% were infected with S. haematobium and 9.3% were infected with S. mansoni. Moreover, 39.5% of the participants were anaemic whereas 9.5% had hepatosplenomegaly. The prevalence of schistosomiasis was significantly higher among children aged >10 years compared to those aged ≤ 10 years (P<0.05. Multivariate analysis confirmed that presence of other infected family member (P<0.001, low household monthly income (P = 0.003, using unsafe sources for drinking water (P = 0.003, living nearby stream/spring (P = 0.006 and living nearby pool/pond (P = 0.002 were the key factors significantly associated with schistosomiasis among these children.This study reveals that schistosomiasis is still highly prevalent in Yemen. These findings support an urgent need to start an integrated, targeted and effective schistosomiasis control programme with a mission to move towards the elimination phase. Besides periodic drug distribution, health education and community mobilisation, provision of clean and safe drinking water, introduction of proper sanitation are imperative among these communities in order to curtail the transmission and morbidity caused by schistosomiasis. Screening and treating other infected

  1. Prevalence of herpesviruses in gingivitis and chronic periodontitis: relationship to clinical parameters and effect of treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rucha Shah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Assess the prevalence of herpesviruses in healthy subjects, gingivitis, and chronic periodontitis patients, to assess the relationship between the prevalence of herpesviruses and periodontal clinical parameters, and to evaluate the effect of phase-I therapy on the level of viral detection. Materials and Methods: Hundred patients consisting of 20 healthy subjects, 40 gingivitis, and 40 chronic periodontitis were included in the study. Clinical parameters recorded included plaque index, gingival index, sulcus bleeding index, probing depth, and clinical attachment level. The gingivitis and chronic periodontitis patients received phase-I periodontal therapy including oral hygiene instructions, full mouth scaling for gingivitis patients and scaling and root planing for chronic periodontitis patients. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF was collected, and the presence of herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1, HSV-2, cytomegalovirus, and Epstein–Barr virus (EBV was analyzed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Recording of periodontal parameters as well as GCF collection was performed at baseline and 6 weeks postphase-I therapy. Results: At baseline, the levels of HSV-1 and EBV detection were lower in healthy controls as compared to gingivitis (P < 0.05 and chronic periodontitis cases (P < 0.001. Phase-I therapy led to reduction in the amount of HSV-1 and EBV in gingivitis patients (P < 0.05 and for HSV-1, human cytomegalovirus and EBV in chronic periodontitis patients (P < 0.05 in comparison to baseline. The prevalence of EBV in chronic periodontitis patients was positively associated with increased gingival index, probing depth and loss of clinical attachment (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Higher prevalence of HSV-1 and EBV viruses in GCF of gingivitis and chronic periodontitis suggests a strong association between these viruses and periodontal diseases and periodontal therapy can lead to a reduction in herpesviruses at infected sites.

  2. HIV in children in a general population sample in East Zimbabwe: prevalence, causes and effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica L Pufall

    Full Text Available There are an estimated half-million children living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. The predominant source of infection is presumed to be perinatal mother-to-child transmission, but general population data about paediatric HIV are sparse. We characterise the epidemiology of HIV in children in sub-Saharan Africa by describing the prevalence, possible source of infection, and effects of paediatric HIV in a southern African population.From 2009 to 2011, we conducted a household-based survey of 3389 children (aged 2-14 years in Manicaland, eastern Zimbabwe (response rate: 73.5%. Data about socio-demographic correlates of HIV, risk factors for infection, and effects on child health were analysed using multi-variable logistic regression. To assess the plausibility of mother-to-child transmission, child HIV infection was linked to maternal survival and HIV status using data from a 12-year adult HIV cohort.HIV prevalence was (2.2%, 95% CI: 1.6-2.8% and did not differ significantly by sex, socio-economic status, location, religion, or child age. Infected children were more likely to be underweight (19.6% versus 10.0%, p = 0.03 or stunted (39.1% versus 30.6%, p = 0.04 but did not report poorer physical or psychological ill-health. Where maternal data were available, reported mothers of 61/62 HIV-positive children were deceased or HIV-positive. Risk factors for other sources of infection were not associated with child HIV infection, including blood transfusion, vaccinations, caring for a sick relative, and sexual abuse. The observed flat age-pattern of HIV prevalence was consistent with UNAIDS estimates which assumes perinatal mother-to-child transmission, although modelled prevalence was higher than observed prevalence. Only 19/73 HIV-positive children (26.0% were diagnosed, but, of these, 17 were on antiretroviral therapy.Childhood HIV infection likely arises predominantly from mother-to-child transmission and is associated with poorer physical

  3. Insights into Facebook Pages: an early adolescent health research study page targeted at parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amon, Krestina L; Paxton, Karen; Klineberg, Emily; Riley, Lisa; Hawke, Catherine; Steinbeck, Katharine

    2016-02-01

    Facebook has been used in health research, but there is a lack of literature regarding how Facebook may be used to recruit younger adolescents. A Facebook Page was created for an adolescent cohort study on the effects of puberty hormones on well-being and behaviour in early adolescence. Used as a communication tool with existing participants, it also aimed to alert potential participants to the study. The purpose of this paper is to provide a detailed description of the development of the study Facebook Page and present the fan response to the types of posts made on the Page using the Facebook-generated Insights data. Two types of posts were made on the study Facebook Page. The first type was study-related update posts and events. The second was relevant adolescent and family research and current news posts. Observations on the use of and response to the Page were made over 1 year across three phases (phase 1, very low Facebook use; phase 2, high Facebook use; phase 3, low Facebook use). Most Page fans were female (88.6%), with the largest group of fans aged between 35 and 44 years. Study-related update posts with photographs were the most popular. This paper provides a model on which other researchers could base Facebook communication and potential recruitment in the absence of established guidelines.

  4. Effect of tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption on the prevalence of nickel sensitization and contact sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Johansen, Jeanne D; Menné, Torkil

    2010-01-01

    sensitization and nickel sensitization. A random sample of adults (n=3460) from the general population of Copenhagen was invited to participate in a general health examination including patch-testing. Alcohol consumption was not associated with nickel sensitization, whereas a significant trend (p......There is evidence that stimulants such as alcohol and tobacco have an effect on the immune system, but little is known about how these lifestyle factors affect the prevalence of contact sensitization. This study investigated whether smoking and alcohol consumption were associated with contact...

  5. Effect of tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption on the prevalence of nickel sensitization and contact sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Johansen, Jeanne D; Menné, Torkil

    2010-01-01

    There is evidence that stimulants such as alcohol and tobacco have an effect on the immune system, but little is known about how these lifestyle factors affect the prevalence of contact sensitization. This study investigated whether smoking and alcohol consumption were associated with contact...... sensitization and nickel sensitization. A random sample of adults (n=3460) from the general population of Copenhagen was invited to participate in a general health examination including patch-testing. Alcohol consumption was not associated with nickel sensitization, whereas a significant trend (p...

  6. Observations on the Prevalence, Characteristics, and Effects of Self-Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangge eMa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aims: When facing illness, a person may choose self-treatment as an alternative to hospital (and primary care-based treatment. Despite its important role in healthcare, the study on self-treatment remains limited. The goal is to collectively report the observations in the literature on the prevalence, characteristics, and effects of self-treatment.Methods: Extensive literature search was conducted, and relevant information was extracted.Results: Published studies have reported that in some regions, the prevalence of self-treatment is high and varies across illness conditions and treatment approaches. Self-medication is the most popular self-treatment approach. Multiple regional, demographic, personal, cultural and religious factors have been implicated in the pursuit of self-treatment. In addition, accessibility of healthcare also plays a role. Self-treatment in general has a positive clinical and financial effect. However there have been concerns on abuse and possible negative effects. Conclusions: This article reviews observations made in recent studies on several important aspects of self-treatment. Comprehensive and systematic study is still lacking. Interventions are needed to solve several problems associated with self-treatment.

  7. Pages 140 -147.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Key words: microalbuminuria, obesity, hypertension, children, Nigeria ... and adults. In Africa, there is paucity of data on the prevalence of microalbuminuria in the general population of children. In Nigeria, Ibadin et al16 reported a 19% prevalence of microalbuminuria ... adolescents and young adults in a study conducted.

  8. The cost-effectiveness of intervening in low and high HIV prevalence areas in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josue Mbonigaba

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This research compared the cost-effectiveness of a set of HIV/AIDS interventions in a low HIV prevalence area (LPA and in a high HIV prevalence area (HPA in South Africa. The rationale for this analysis was to assess the interaction dynamics between a specific HIV/AIDS intervention and an area of implementation and the effects of these dynamics on the cost-effectiveness of such an HIV/AIDS intervention. A pair of Markov models was evaluated for each intervention; one model for a HPA and another for an LPA and the cost-effectiveness of that intervention was compared across an LPA and a HPA. The baseline costs and health outcomes in each area were collected from the literature. To depict interaction dynamics between an HIV/AIDS intervention and an area of implementation, baseline health outcomes collected in each area, were adjusted over time based on the patterns of the projections observed in the AIDS model of the Actuarial Society of South Africa (ASSA2008. The study found that the VCT and treatment of STDs were equally cost-effective in an LPA and in a HPA while PMTCT and HAART were more cost-effective in an LPA than in a HPA. As a policy proposal, resources earmarked to non-ARV based interventions (VCT and treatment of STDs should  be equally shared across an LPA and a HPA while  more of the resources reserved for ARV-based interventions (PMTCT and HAART should go in an LPA in order to increase efficiency.

  9. [High prevalence of specific language impairment in Robinson Crusoe Island. A possible founder effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Pía; de Barbieri, Zulema; Palomino, Hernán M; Palomino, Hernán

    2008-02-01

    Specific language impairment (SLI) occurs in 2% to 8% of preschool children. Major and candidate genes are probably involved. Genetic drift is a cause for the presence of high frequencies of deleterious alíeles of a specific disease and the founder effect is one of its forms. Robinson Crusoe Island has 633 inhabitants and its actual population began with 8 families that repopulated the island at the end of XIXth century. To assess the frequency of specific language impairment among children living in Robinson Crusoe Island. All 66 children aged between 3 and 9 years living in the island, were studied. Parents were interviewed and in children, non verbal intelligence, audiometric parameters, comprehension and expression of oral language were assessed. Extended genealogies were also performed. Forty children had at least one parent that was descending of founder families. Among these, 35% had SLI. Eighth five percent of SLI affected children came from the same colonizer family. The prevalence of SLI in Robinson Crusoe Island is higher than that reported in mainland Chile and abroad. This high prevalence, associated to a high frequency of consanguinity, supports the influence of genetic mechanisms in SLI transmission, based on a founder effect.

  10. Radiation effects-prevalence of contributory risk factors a pilot study in Visakhapthnam steel plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakshman rao, K. V.

    2004-01-01

    Integrated Steel Plants contribute significant air pollution, water pollution and solid waste generation. Diverse occupational health hazards present is steel industry pose ill effects to the industrial workers. Occupational health services and research center (OHS and RC) of this plant established in the year 1992 to protect the health and well-being of all the employees working in different occupations. the primary role OHS and RC is to conduct periodical medical examinations, monitoring of the working environments, suggest the suitable personal protective equipment to the workers, evaluate risk factors, work practices, risk management and industrial toxicological studies. Dissemination of information related to occupational health and safety to the working population through regular educational sessions at the workplaces as at training and development center (T and DC) is also part of our services. The proneness for effects of exposure to ionizing radiation is enhanced by various factors related to the family history of chronic diseases, nutritional status of the individuals, the lifestyle factors apart from psycho-social factors like illiteracy, ignorance, negligence and inadequate utilization of personal protective equipment (PPE) at workplace. To evaluate the prevalence of such contributory risk factors, a pilot study has been conducted in Visakhapatnam Steel Plant. The data is obtained through routine periodical medical examination of workers at the Occupational Health Services Center through standard format. The study revealed statistically high prevalence of the risk factors and indicated the necessity of intensifying primary prevention methods in addition to environmental control and usage of PPE. (Author)

  11. Radiation effects-prevalence of contributory risk factors a pilot study in Visakhapthnam steel plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakshman rao, K. V.

    2004-07-01

    Integrated Steel Plants contribute significant air pollution, water pollution and solid waste generation. Diverse occupational health hazards present is steel industry pose ill effects to the industrial workers. Occupational health services and research center (OHS and RC) of this plant established in the year 1992 to protect the health and well-being of all the employees working in different occupations. the primary role OHS and RC is to conduct periodical medical examinations, monitoring of the working environments, suggest the suitable personal protective equipment to the workers, evaluate risk factors, work practices, risk management and industrial toxicological studies. Dissemination of information related to occupational health and safety to the working population through regular educational sessions at the workplaces as at training and development center (T and DC) is also part of our services. The proneness for effects of exposure to ionizing radiation is enhanced by various factors related to the family history of chronic diseases, nutritional status of the individuals, the lifestyle factors apart from psycho-social factors like illiteracy, ignorance, negligence and inadequate utilization of personal protective equipment (PPE) at workplace. To evaluate the prevalence of such contributory risk factors, a pilot study has been conducted in Visakhapatnam Steel Plant. The data is obtained through routine periodical medical examination of workers at the Occupational Health Services Center through standard format. The study revealed statistically high prevalence of the risk factors and indicated the necessity of intensifying primary prevention methods in addition to environmental control and usage of PPE. (Author)

  12. Prevalence of Colour Vision Anomalies Amongst Dental Professionals and its Effect on Shade Matching of Teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maini, Anuj Paul; Wangoo, Anuj; Singh, Sukhman; Mehar, Damanpreet Kaur

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction The success of a restoration is dependent on accurate shade matching of teeth leading to studies evaluating the factors affecting the perception of shades. Colour vision anomalies including colour blindness have been found to exist in the population and it has been thought to be a potential factor affecting the colour perception ability. Aim The present study was done to evaluate the prevalence of colour vision anomalies and its effect on matching of shades of teeth. Materials and Methods A total of 147 dental professionals were randomly selected for the study and were first tested for visual acuity using the Snellen’s Eye Chart so as to carry on the study with only those operators who had a vision of 6/6. Then, the Ishihara’s colour charts were used to test the operators for colour vision handicap. In the last stage of the study, test for accuracy of shade selection was done using the Vitapan Classical shade guide. The shade guide tabs were covered to avoid bias. Percentage was used to calculate the prevalence of colour vision handicap and its effect on matching of shades of teeth as compared to normal vision, which was evaluated using Chi square test. Results Nineteen operators had colour vision anomalies out of hundred operators and only two operators presented with colour blindness. Colour vision anomaly was more prevalent than colour blindness and it was also found that it was more prevalent in males than females. The difference between the accuracy of shade matching between the operators with normal vision and colour vision defect and operators with normal vision and colour blindness was statistically not significant. Conclusion Colour blindness and colour vision handicap are rare conditions, with the latter being more common in the population. According to our study, it was concluded that no statistically significant difference existed amongst the operators with normal vision and colour vision anomaly or operators with normal vision

  13. Poly-victimization in a Norwegian adolescent population: Prevalence, social and psychological profile, and detrimental effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossige, Svein; Huang, Lihong

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on poly-victimization, with the aim of providing a realistic estimation of the prevalence of lifetime victimization in a Norwegian adolescent population (ages 18-19 years). Based upon the concept from previous research, we applied measures of child poly-victimization on Norwegian data obtained from a national youth survey in 2015 (N = 4,531) to arrive at an estimation of its prevalence. We used variables that measure individual characteristics such as gender and educational aspiration and socio-economic factors such as parents' education level and home economic situation to derive a social and psychological profile of victimization and poly-victimization among young people. Finally, we estimated the effects of poly-victimization on mental health such as symptoms of depression, anxiety and trauma. Our study identified a poly-victimization prevalence of 8.6% among young people, i.e. they were exposed to three of all four forms of violence investigated by our study: non-physical violence, witnessing violence against parents, physical violence and sexual abuse. Adolescents of poly-victimization are six times more likely to report depression and anxiety and trauma when compared with those without victimization. Poly-victimization is a phenomenon that heavily burdens many young people across many national contexts. Poly-victims clearly tend to develop depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress symptoms. The early detection of sexual abuse, physical violence, and bullying victimization is of critical importance and preventive measures could consider addressing family factors through parental educational programs.

  14. Poly-victimization in a Norwegian adolescent population: Prevalence, social and psychological profile, and detrimental effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svein Mossige

    Full Text Available This study focuses on poly-victimization, with the aim of providing a realistic estimation of the prevalence of lifetime victimization in a Norwegian adolescent population (ages 18-19 years.Based upon the concept from previous research, we applied measures of child poly-victimization on Norwegian data obtained from a national youth survey in 2015 (N = 4,531 to arrive at an estimation of its prevalence. We used variables that measure individual characteristics such as gender and educational aspiration and socio-economic factors such as parents' education level and home economic situation to derive a social and psychological profile of victimization and poly-victimization among young people. Finally, we estimated the effects of poly-victimization on mental health such as symptoms of depression, anxiety and trauma.Our study identified a poly-victimization prevalence of 8.6% among young people, i.e. they were exposed to three of all four forms of violence investigated by our study: non-physical violence, witnessing violence against parents, physical violence and sexual abuse. Adolescents of poly-victimization are six times more likely to report depression and anxiety and trauma when compared with those without victimization.Poly-victimization is a phenomenon that heavily burdens many young people across many national contexts. Poly-victims clearly tend to develop depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress symptoms. The early detection of sexual abuse, physical violence, and bullying victimization is of critical importance and preventive measures could consider addressing family factors through parental educational programs.

  15. Prevalence of fatigue in patients with multiple sclerosis and its effect on the quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthik Nagaraj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This prospective study was carried out to observe the prevalence of fatigue in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS and its effect on quality-of-life (QoL. Study Design and Setting: Prospective observational study in a University Tertiary Research Hospital in India. Patients and Methods: A total of 31 patients (25 females with definite MS according to McDonald′s criteria presented in out-patient/admitted in the Department of Neurology (between February 2010 and December 2011 were included in the study. Disease severity was evaluated using the Kurtzke′s expanded disability status scale (EDSS. Fatigue was assessed using Krupp′s fatigue severity scale (FSS. QoL was assessed by the World Health Organization QoL-BREF questionnaire. Results: The mean age of patients was 30.1 ± 9.1 years. The mean age at first symptom was 25.23 ± 6.4 years. The mean number of relapses was 4.7 ± 3.6 in the patients. The mean duration of illness was 4.9 ± 4.4 years. The mean EDSS score was 3.5 ± 2.2. Mean fatigue score was 38.7 ± 18.5 (cut-off value 36 in FSS. The prevalence of fatigue in patients with MS was 58.1% (18/31. MS patients with fatigue were significantly more impaired (P < 0.05 on all QoL domains (i.e., physical, psychosocial, social, and environment than MS patients without fatigue. Conclusion: Prevalence of fatigue was found to be high in the MS patients in the study. All four domains of QoL were significantly more impaired in the group with fatigue than in those without fatigue.

  16. Prevalence and effects of West Nile virus on wild American kestrel (Falco sparverius) populations in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusek, Robert J.; Iko, William M.; Hofmeister, Erik K.; Paul, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    To assess the potential impacts of West Nile virus (WNV) on a wild population of free-ranging raptors, we investigated the prevalence and effects of WNV on American Kestrels (Falco sparverius) breeding along the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains in northern Colorado. We monitored kestrel nesting activity at 131 nest boxes from March to August 2004. Of 81 nest attempts, we obtained samples from 111 adults and 250 young. We did not detect WNV in sera; however, 97.3% (108/111) of adults tested positive for WNV neutralizing antibodies, which possibly represented passive transfer of maternal antibodies. Clutch size, hatching, and fledging success in our study did not differ from that previously reported for this species, suggesting that previous WNV exposure in kestrels did not have an effect on reproductive parameters measured in the breeding populations we studied in 2004.

  17. Translation of risk factor estimates into on-farm interventions and their effect on Campylobacter broiler flock prevalence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Nauta, Maarten; Rosenquist, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    Before deciding upon interventions to control Campylobacter in broiler flocks, it would be useful to estimate the potential effects of different interventions. Certain previously identified risk factors for colonization of broiler flocks with Campylobacter may seem to have large impact...... on the broiler flock prevalence. Nevertheless, interventions related to these risk factors may have only limited effect on the overall prevalence estimate, since in practice only a relatively small fraction of farms are actually amenable for an intervention related to a given risk factor.We present a novel...... had shown to have significant impact on Campylobacter flock prevalence, were translated into practical on-farm interventions. Given the implementation of these interventions the population prevalence was predicted by developing and using a statistical method anchored in the ideas behind standardized...

  18. Prevalence, side effects and awareness about energy drinks among the female university students in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahamathulla, Mohamudha Parveen

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the consumption, prevalence, side effects and awareness of energy drinks among female university students in Saudi Arabia. A quantitative research design was implied with sample size of 358 female students, recruited from Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University. The data, gathered through self-administered questionnaire, was analyzed through SPSS version 20.0 with p value energy drink consumers. The reasons for increased consumption of energy drinks mainly include giving company to friends (59.4%), better performance in exams (41.2%), and better concentration in studies (39.4%). The most common side effect was headache (32.3%), and the least was identified as allergy (2%). Only 39.4% and 29.9% of students acquired awareness regarding the harmful effects of energy drink consumption during pregnancy and breast feeding respectively. A significant proportion of female students at Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz have reported to consume energy drinks regularly with several adverse effects. The government of Saudi Arabia should take serious initiatives towards organizing effective awareness programs specifically in universities and colleges to control the consumption of energy drinks and educate on the adverse effects.

  19. Physical activity overcomes the effects of cumulative work time on hypertension prevalence among Brazilian taxi drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Marcelo C; Sperandei, Sandro; Reis, Arianne C

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the physical activity profile of taxi drivers and its relationship with hypertension prevalence in this group of workers. Cross sectional exploratory study. Between November 2008 and April 2009, 491 taxi drivers from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, answered a questionnaire focusing on previous hypertension diagnosis, occupational characteristics and physical activity habits. Two logistic models were developed to determine risk factors related to hypertension and to find variables associated with a higher probability of sedentarism. Hypertension prevalence was 22.6%. The workload of the group investigated was high. Results indicate that 'age', 'Body Mass Index', 'physical activity', and 'years as a taxi driver' are related to the probability of hypertension. Physical activity was shown to be a protection factor for hypertension, even considering the deleterious effect of time as a taxi driver. Our results also determined that the practice of physical activity is influenced by age, level of education and workload. It is recommended that programs to combat sedentary lifestyles as well as measures to reduce workloads be developed as strategies to prevent hypertension.

  20. Prevalence of autoimmune thyroiditis in children with celiac disease and effect of gluten withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloni, Antonella; Mandas, Chiara; Jores, Rita Désirée; Congia, Mauro

    2009-07-01

    To study the prevalence of autoimmune thyroiditis (AT) in Sardinian children with celiac disease (CD) and the effects of a gluten-free diet (GFD) on thyroid function. Children with biopsy-proven CD (n = 324; female:male 2:1; mean age, 6.6 years) followed from 1 to 15 years, were retrospectively evaluated for AT at onset of CD and during GFD. Serum thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin antibodies (AbTPO, AbTG), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), and thyroid ultrasonography were considered. Age-matched Sardinian schoolchildren (n = 8040), previously evaluated for antithyroid antibodies and thyroid function, were used as controls. Thirty-four patients with CD (10.5%) developed AT (female:male 4,5:1; mean age, 10.5 years), 11 at onset of CD and 23 during GFD, with a higher prevalence than controls (P = 2.9(-13)). Twenty-eight patients were euthyroid and 6 hypothyroid. AbTPO and/or AbTG persisted elevated for 2 to 9 years despite the GFD in 9 of 11 patients with AT at onset of CD. AT is strongly associated with CD in Sardinian children, has an age of onset of 10.5 years, and appears to be gluten-independent. In children with CD with AT, the female:male bias reported in adult AT is present before puberty.

  1. [Birth cohort effect on prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in coronary artery disease. Experience in a Latin-american country].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiel, Marisol; Cepeda, Magda; Ochoa, Julián; Loaiza, John H; Velásquez, Jorge G

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of major risk factors associated to coronary artery disease has changed over time. Today, the frequency of dyslipidemia, hypertension and diabetes mellitus has increased, while smoking has decreased. The birth cohort effect for coronary artery disease in subjects as an approximation of the true prevalence over time has not been studied in Latin-America. To determine the trends in the prevalence of major risk factors for coronary artery disease by birth cohort effect in a high risk population. We estimate the prevalence of diabetes mellitus, smoking, hypertension and dyslipidemia from a prospective institutional registry (DREST registry) of patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention for acute coronary event. Birth cohort effect was defined as a statistical, epidemiological and sociological methodology to identify the influence of the environment in the lifetime from birth by each decade. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed adjusted by gender. Out of 3,056 subjects who were enrolled, 72% were male, with a median age of 61 years (interquartile range=53-69). Hypertension prevalence was 62.3%, for diabetes mellitus it was 48.8%, for smoking it was 18.8% and for dyslipidemia it was 48.8%. We observed an increase in prevalence for diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia in each cohort according to birth decade, while there was a reduction in prevalence for hypertension in the same decades. The prevalence of major cardiovascular risk factors has changed in time and the presence of time at birth effect is evident, possibly influenced by the environment's social conditions in each decade of life. Copyright © 2013 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  2. Infertility associated with precoital ovulation in observant Jewish couples; prevalence, treatment, efficacy and side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haimov-Kochman, Ronit; Adler, Chana; Ein-Mor, Eliana; Rosenak, Daniel; Hurwitz, Arye

    2012-02-01

    Religious (halachic*) infertility' results from precoital ovulation prior to immersion in a ritual bath (mikveh) 7 days after menstruation, as mandated by Jewish religious law. Previous authors recommended treatment with estradiol to postpone ovulation and enhance pregnancy rates. To evaluate the prevalence of halachic infertility in an ultra-Orthodox jewish community, and assess the efficacy of estradiol treatment in postponing ovulation and increasing pregnancy rates. We reviewed 88 cycles, of which 23 were control cycles and 65 estradiol-treated cycles, and analyzed the files of 23 women who were treated with 6 mg estradiol/day from day 1 for 5 days of the cycle. The prevalence of precoital ovulation in the infertile population was 21%. Most of the patients (94%) ovulated before day 13 of the cycle. A short follicular phase due to low ovarian reserve orthyroid endocrinopathy was noted in 12% of the patients. While 64% of the women reported consultation with a Rabbinate authority, 68% of the patients sought medical therapy. Estradiol postponed ovulation for at least one day in 89% of the treatment cycles. Ovulation post-mikveh occurred in 73% of estradiol-treated cycles. The pregnancy rate was 12.5% per cycle and the cumulative pregnancy rate 35% per woman. Half the patients reported spotting during estradiol-treated cycles, and this postponed coitus. Precoital ovulation is a major reason for infertility among observant couples attending fertility clinics. Estradiol treatment is effective in delaying ovulation and restoring fecundity; however, it causes some adverse effects that may decrease its effectiveness.

  3. Academic Effects and Cost Benefit of a Four-Day Week at College of DuPage, an Illinois Community College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Carol C.

    The implementation of a four-day week (Monday-Thursday) for on-campus classes at the College of DuPage, an Illinois community college, was assessed in terms of student registration; class enrollment; student success rates; instructional quality; and savings resulting from driving differences, energy use, and building maintenance. Withdrawal and…

  4. Reese Sorenson's Individual Professional Page

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Reese; Nixon, David (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The subject document is a World Wide Web (WWW) page entitled, "Reese Sorenson's Individual Professional Page." Its can be accessed at "http://george.arc.nasa.gov/sorenson/personal/index.html". The purpose of this page is to make the reader aware of me, who I am, and what I do. It lists my work assignments, my computer experience, my place in the NASA hierarchy, publications by me, awards received by me, my education, and how to contact me. Writing this page was a learning experience, pursuant to an element in my Job Description which calls for me to be able to use the latest computers. This web page contains very little technical information, none of which is classified or sensitive.

  5. Prevalence of habit of tobacco and its deleterious effects in general population of Jaipur District, Rajasthan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vela Desai

    2012-01-01

    Materials and methods: A total of 552 patients who visited Outpatient Department of Jaipur Dental College, Jaipur, were studied. Complete information regarding presence of smoking and other forms of tobacco was recorded in case history proforma and any of tobacco-related oral lesions among these patients were examined. Results: In age group of 0.05 in 12.84% subjects, oral cancer was reported in 33 patients (p-value = 0.001 whereas smoker′s palate in 25 patients and OSMF being the most common. Awareness level about ill effects of tobacco was 51.10 %. Conclusion: High incidence of tobacco usage in smokeless form is seen in Jaipur population especially in adolescents. There were no significant findings found between males and females. Of all lesion examined, OSMF was found to be more prevalent. Therefore, it is important to take immediate steps to curb the habit.

  6. Effects of breathable disposable diapers: reduced prevalence of Candida and common diaper dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, F; Spraker, M; Aly, R; Leyden, J; Raynor, W; Landin, W

    2001-01-01

    Infants wearing breathable disposable diapers experienced significantly less diaper dermatitis (DD) compared to infants wearing standard, nonbreathable disposable diapers in a series of double-blind clinical trials. Severe DD, including confirmed infection with Candida albicans, was reduced by 38-50% among infants wearing highly breathable (HB) diapers. The prevalence of DD was inversely related to the breathability of the garments. The inhibitory effect of breathable diapers on the survival of Candida was further confirmed in controlled experiments with adult volunteers. A suspension of C. albicans cells was applied to delineated sites on the volar forearm. Each site was then covered by a full-thickness patch from either an HB or a standard diaper. Survival of Candida colonies was reduced by almost two-thirds in the breathable diaper-covered sites compared to the control sites.

  7. Search | Page 4 | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Search | Page 3 | IDRC - International Development Research Centre. Manz devised the filter after witnessing the effects of contaminated water in South Africa and the Philippines in the late 1980s. His device got a big boost after .

  8. Estimating the Smoking Ban Effects on Smoking Prevalence, Quitting and Cigarette Consumption in a Population Study of Apprentices in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Pieroni

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We evaluated the effects of the Italian 2005 smoking ban in public places on the prevalence of smoking, quitting and cigarette consumption of young workers. Data and Methods: The dataset was obtained from non-computerized registers of medical examinations for a population of workers with apprenticeship contracts residing in the province of Viterbo, Italy, in the period 1996–2007. To estimate the effects of the ban, a segmented regression approach was used, exploiting the discontinuity introduced by the application of the law on apprentices’ smoking behavior. Results: It is estimated that the Italian smoking ban generally had no effect on smoking prevalence, quitting ratio, or cigarette consumption of apprentices. However, when the estimates were applied to subpopulations, significant effects were found: −1% in smoking prevalence, +2% in quitting, and −3% in smoking intensity of apprentices with at least a diploma.

  9. Estimating the Smoking Ban Effects on Smoking Prevalence, Quitting and Cigarette Consumption in a Population Study of Apprentices in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieroni, Luca; Muzi, Giacomo; Quercia, Augusto; Lanari, Donatella; Rundo, Carmen; Minelli, Liliana; Salmasi, Luca; dell'Omo, Marco

    2015-08-13

    We evaluated the effects of the Italian 2005 smoking ban in public places on the prevalence of smoking, quitting and cigarette consumption of young workers. The dataset was obtained from non-computerized registers of medical examinations for a population of workers with apprenticeship contracts residing in the province of Viterbo, Italy, in the period 1996-2007. To estimate the effects of the ban, a segmented regression approach was used, exploiting the discontinuity introduced by the application of the law on apprentices' smoking behavior. It is estimated that the Italian smoking ban generally had no effect on smoking prevalence, quitting ratio, or cigarette consumption of apprentices. However, when the estimates were applied to subpopulations, significant effects were found: -1% in smoking prevalence, +2% in quitting, and -3% in smoking intensity of apprentices with at least a diploma.

  10. The Faculty Web Page: Contrivance or Continuation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennex, Lesia

    2007-01-01

    In an age of Internet education, what does it mean for a tenure/tenure-track faculty to have a web page? How many professors have web pages? If they have a page, what does it look like? Do they really need a web page at all? Many universities have faculty web pages. What do those collective pages look like? In what way do they represent the…

  11. The Goat (Capra hircus) Mammary Gland Mitochondrial Proteome: A Study on the Effect of Weight Loss Using Blue-Native PAGE and Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cugno, Graziano; Parreira, José R.; Ferlizza, Enea; Hernández-Castellano, Lorenzo E.; Carneiro, Mariana; Renaut, Jenny; Castro, Noemí; Arguello, Anastasio; Capote, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Seasonal weight loss (SWL) is the most important limitation to animal production in the Tropical and Mediterranean regions, conditioning producer’s incomes and the nutritional status of rural communities. It is of importance to produce strategies to oppose adverse effects of SWL. Breeds that have evolved in harsh climates have acquired tolerance to SWL through selection. Most of the factors determining such ability are related to changes in biochemical pathways as affected by SWL. In this study, a gel based proteomics strategy (BN: Blue-Native Page and 2DE: Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis) was used to characterize the mitochondrial proteome of the secretory tissue of the goat mammary gland. In addition, we have conducted an investigation of the effects of weight loss in two goat breeds with different levels of adaptation to nutritional stress: Majorera (tolerant) and Palmera (susceptible). The study used Majorera and Palmera dairy goats, divided in 4 sets, 2 for each breed: underfed group fed on wheat straw (restricted diet, so their body weight would be 15–20% reduced by the end of experiment), and a control group fed with an energy-balanced diet. At the end of the experimental period (22 days), mammary gland biopsies were obtained for all experimental groups. The proteomic analysis of the mitochondria enabled the resolution of a total of 277 proteins, and 148 (53%) were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. Some of the proteins were identified as subunits of the glutamate dehydrogenase complex and the respiratory complexes I, II, IV, V from mitochondria, as well as numerous other proteins with functions in: metabolism, development, localization, cellular organization and biogenesis, biological regulation, response to stimulus, among others, that were mapped in both BN and 2DE gels. The comparative proteomics analysis enabled the identification of several proteins: NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase 75 kDa subunit and lamin B1 mitochondrial (up

  12. The Goat (Capra hircus Mammary Gland Mitochondrial Proteome: A Study on the Effect of Weight Loss Using Blue-Native PAGE and Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziano Cugno

    Full Text Available Seasonal weight loss (SWL is the most important limitation to animal production in the Tropical and Mediterranean regions, conditioning producer's incomes and the nutritional status of rural communities. It is of importance to produce strategies to oppose adverse effects of SWL. Breeds that have evolved in harsh climates have acquired tolerance to SWL through selection. Most of the factors determining such ability are related to changes in biochemical pathways as affected by SWL. In this study, a gel based proteomics strategy (BN: Blue-Native Page and 2DE: Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to characterize the mitochondrial proteome of the secretory tissue of the goat mammary gland. In addition, we have conducted an investigation of the effects of weight loss in two goat breeds with different levels of adaptation to nutritional stress: Majorera (tolerant and Palmera (susceptible. The study used Majorera and Palmera dairy goats, divided in 4 sets, 2 for each breed: underfed group fed on wheat straw (restricted diet, so their body weight would be 15-20% reduced by the end of experiment, and a control group fed with an energy-balanced diet. At the end of the experimental period (22 days, mammary gland biopsies were obtained for all experimental groups. The proteomic analysis of the mitochondria enabled the resolution of a total of 277 proteins, and 148 (53% were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. Some of the proteins were identified as subunits of the glutamate dehydrogenase complex and the respiratory complexes I, II, IV, V from mitochondria, as well as numerous other proteins with functions in: metabolism, development, localization, cellular organization and biogenesis, biological regulation, response to stimulus, among others, that were mapped in both BN and 2DE gels. The comparative proteomics analysis enabled the identification of several proteins: NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase 75 kDa subunit and lamin B1 mitochondrial

  13. PREVALENCE OF LOCOMOTOR PROBLEMS AND THEIR EFFECT ON THE LONGEVITY OF SWINE MATRICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Capeletto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Removing matrices for locomotor problems in a swine production system is among the main causes of waste. The prevalence of these problems have the effect of reducing the productive life of dies, resulting in decreased longevity of the squad. Considering the longevity of the matrix is important to maintain good herd productivity rates, this study aimed to evaluate what is the prevalence and severity of lesions on the hulls of weaned matrices, being these injuries a major cause of problems locomotores.Foram 471 females evaluated in different lines (a, B and C, in phase maternity and delivery of different orders. The standard used for evaluation of lesions in hooves followed the method provided by the company Zinpro Performance Minerals, which guides the evaluations of the injuries are made on the hulls of the hindlimbs, classifying them into type (growth and erosion of the bead, lug-soled crack white line splitting, horizontal wall crack, vertical wall crack, nail growth and growth of nail accessory and scores (0 without injury, 1-slight, 2-moderate, 3-severe .From these data was calculated per animal hull lesion index. This index is a comparison between the two members, where the highest score of each type of injury is added and this result classifies the animal in normal (result = 0, with the degree of injury (1 result from 1 to 7, degree 2 (results from 8 to 14 or grade 3 (results above 14. It has been shown that the prevalence of the problem is 99.6% of females, or only 0.4% of females had no damage to the hull; 66.9% had grade 1 injury; 32.1% degree of injury 2; and 0.6% grade 3 injury. To evaluate the age of rejection for locomotor problems, it was found that 55.6% of the sows by some change in the system were the third delivery. This work points out the existing importance in providing good management conditions, housing and nutrition for mothers, because the financial returns expected in the production system depends on the productivity

  14. The effect of osteoarthritis definition on prevalence and incidence estimates: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, D; Peleteiro, B; Araújo, J; Branco, J; Santos, R A; Ramos, E

    2011-11-01

    To understand the differences in prevalence and incidence estimates of osteoarthritis (OA), according to case definition, in knee, hip and hand joints. A systematic review was carried out in PUBMED and SCOPUS databases comprising the date of publication period from January 1995 to February 2011. We attempted to summarise data on the incidence and prevalence of OA according to different methods of assessment: self-reported, radiographic and symptomatic OA (clinical plus radiographic). Prevalence estimates were combined through meta-analysis and between-study heterogeneity was quantified. Seventy-two papers were reviewed (nine on incidence and 63 on prevalence). Higher OA prevalences are seen when radiographic OA definition was used for all age groups. Prevalence meta-analysis showed high heterogeneity between studies even in each specific joint and using the same OA definition. Although the knee is the most studied joint, the highest OA prevalence estimates were found in hand joints. OA of the knee tends to be more prevalent in women than in men independently of the OA definition used, but no gender differences were found in hip and hand OA. Insufficient data for incidence studies didn't allow us to make any comparison according to joint site or OA definition. Radiographic case definition of OA presented the highest prevalences. Within each joint site, self-reported and symptomatic OA definitions appear to present similar estimates. The high heterogeneity found in the studies limited further conclusions. Copyright © 2011 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Consumption of energy drinks among lebanese youth: a pilot study on the prevalence and side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itany, Manal; Diab, Batoul; Rachidi, Samar; Awada, Sanaa; Al Hajje, Amal; Bawab, Wafaa; Salameh, Pascale

    2014-09-01

    The new millennium has been together with a variety of synthetic and caffeinated high-energy drinks targeting the youth market. Energy drinks raise the level of energy and their consumption has been increased significantly worldwide. This research aimed to determine patterns of energy drink consumption and to assess the prevalence of adverse side effects among energy drink users. A pilot cross-sectional study survey was undertaken on students aged between 13 and 30 years in private and public schools and universities in Lebanon over 5 months. A self-administered questionnaire was used inquiring about sociodemographic characteristics, consumption patterns, attitudes and beliefs about energy drinks. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. Data was analyzed using SPSS 17. We studied 1500 students (mean age: 18.92 ± 1.85; 51.3% were males). The overall prevalence of energy drinks consumption was 63.6% (60.5% were males), among which 50.5% used alcoholic energy drinks. Respondents indicated that most consumed energy drinks were "Red Bull" and "Boom Boom" (70.9% and 51.5% respectively). In total, 64.5% of participants believed the effect of these drinks in energizing the body, and 72.7% believed that they can stimulate intellectual capacities. In addition, 29.6% of consumers experienced at least one adverse effect, where tachycardia was reported in 21.1% of cases. On the other hand, desired effects felt after consumption were mostly pleasure (33.8%). Males had a 3-time more risk of consuming such drinks compared to females (OR: 0.381, P energy drinks consumption and regions outside Beirut (OR: 1.401, P: 0.006; 95% CI: 1.103-1.781), medical field of work (OR: 0.376, P: 0.010; 95% CI: 0.179-0.790) and higher personal income (OR: 1.317, P energy drinks consumption among youth. The current results highlight the importance of education to prevent the consumption of energy drinks in excessive quantities and modifying some wrong perceptions regarding the benefits

  16. Page 82 - 85.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    prevalence of hydatid disease in Turkey are the country's zoogeographical structure, climate conditions, social and economic conditions, poor veterinary health, and lack of public education about. E. Granulosus prevention. Most previous studies of pulmonary hydatid disease were conducted in rural areas of Eastern and ...

  17. JAMA Patient Page: Trachoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the prevalence of trachoma and reduce trachoma-related blindness. Trachoma occurs in children as well as adults in all parts of the world. Women are much more likely than men to develop trachoma or become blind from trachoma. In the ...

  18. Pages 368 - 375.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Abstract. Background: Multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli (MDR E. coli) has become a major public health concern in Sudan and many countries, causing failure in treatment with consequent huge health burden. Objectives: To determine the prevalence and susceptibility of MDR E. coli isolated from patients in hospitals at ...

  19. Food advertising to children and its effects on diet: review of recent prevalence and impact data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyland, Emma Jane; Whalen, Rosa

    2015-08-01

    In the context of a global obesity epidemic that has led to an unprecedented burden of non-communicable disease, the role of food and beverage marketing to children has been scrutinised in numerous studies. This article discusses the broader concept of an obesity-promoting food environment, before reviewing key, recent (last 5 yr) international research findings with regard to both the prevalence and effects of food and beverage advertising on children's intake. Evidence relating to the two main avenues of food marketing exposure, television, and the Internet, is explored and consideration is given to the differences in consumer experience of these types of promotion. Despite methodological differences and the varying population samples studied, the outcomes are broadly consistent - food advertising is prevalent, it promotes largely energy dense, nutrient poor foods, and even short-term exposure results in children increasing their food consumption. Policymakers are implored to drive forward meaningful changes in the food environment to support healthier choices and reduce the incidence of obesity and related diseases. This article aims at providing an overview of recent developments in this field. After limiting the search to the last five full years 2009-2014, we searched the following databases: Web of Knowledge and PubMed (keyword search terms used: television, Internet, new media, food advertising, food marketing, children, food intake, energy intake, consumption, and combinations of these terms). In addition we used the references from the articles obtained by this method to check for additional relevant material. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Effect of correcting for gestational age at birth on population prevalence of early childhood undernutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumal, Nandita; Roth, Daniel E; Perdrizet, Johnna; Barros, Aluísio J D; Santos, Iná S; Matijasevich, Alicia; Bassani, Diego G

    2018-01-01

    Postmenstrual and/or gestational age-corrected age (CA) is required to apply child growth standards to children born preterm (age). Yet, CA is rarely used in epidemiologic studies in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), which may bias population estimates of childhood undernutrition. To evaluate the effect of accounting for GA in the application of growth standards, we used GA-specific standards at birth (INTERGROWTH-21st newborn size standards) in conjunction with CA for preterm-born children in the application of World Health Organization Child Growth Standards postnatally (referred to as 'CA' strategy) versus postnatal age for all children, to estimate mean length-for-age (LAZ) and weight-for-age (WAZ) z scores at 0, 3, 12, 24, and 48-months of age in the 2004 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort. At birth (n = 4066), mean LAZ was higher and the prevalence of stunting (LAZ age (mean ± SD): - 0.36 ± 1.19 versus - 0.67 ± 1.32; and 8.3 versus 11.6%, respectively. Odds ratio (OR) and population attributable risk (PAR) of stunting due to preterm birth were attenuated and changed inferences using CA versus postnatal age at birth [OR, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.32 (95% CI 0.95, 1.82) vs 14.7 (95% CI 11.7, 18.4); PAR 3.1 vs 42.9%]; differences in inferences persisted at 3-months. At 12, 24, and 48-months, preterm birth was associated with stunting, but ORs/PARs remained attenuated using CA compared to postnatal age. Findings were similar for weight-for-age z scores. Population-based epidemiologic studies in LMICs in which GA is unused or unavailable may overestimate the prevalence of early childhood undernutrition and inflate the fraction of undernutrition attributable to preterm birth.

  1. Exploring the use of a Facebook page in anatomy education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffar, Akram Abood

    2014-01-01

    Facebook is the most popular social media site visited by university students on a daily basis. Consequently, Facebook is the logical place to start with for integrating social media technologies into education. This study explores how a faculty-administered Facebook Page can be used to supplement anatomy education beyond the traditional classroom. Observations were made on students' perceptions and effectiveness of using the Page, potential benefits and challenges of such use, and which Insights metrics best reflect user's engagement. The Human Anatomy Education Page was launched on Facebook and incorporated into anatomy resources for 157 medical students during two academic years. Students' use of Facebook and their perceptions of the Page were surveyed. Facebook's "Insights" tool was also used to evaluate Page performance during a period of 600 days. The majority of in-class students had a Facebook account which they adopted in education. Most students perceived Human Anatomy Education Page as effective in contributing to learning and favored "self-assessment" posts. The majority of students agreed that Facebook could be a suitable learning environment. The "Insights" tool revealed globally distributed fans with considerable Page interactions. The use of a faculty-administered Facebook Page provided a venue to enhance classroom teaching without intruding into students' social life. A wider educational use of Facebook should be adopted not only because students are embracing its use, but for its inherent potentials in boosting learning. The "Insights" metrics analyzed in this study might be helpful when establishing and evaluating the performance of education-oriented Facebook Pages. © 2013 American Association of Anatomists.

  2. Estimating the global prevalence of inadequate zinc intake from national food balance sheets: effects of methodological assumptions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ryan Wessells

    Full Text Available The prevalence of inadequate zinc intake in a population can be estimated by comparing the zinc content of the food supply with the population's theoretical requirement for zinc. However, assumptions regarding the nutrient composition of foods, zinc requirements, and zinc absorption may affect prevalence estimates. These analyses were conducted to: (1 evaluate the effect of varying methodological assumptions on country-specific estimates of the prevalence of dietary zinc inadequacy and (2 generate a model considered to provide the best estimates.National food balance data were obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Zinc and phytate contents of these foods were estimated from three nutrient composition databases. Zinc absorption was predicted using a mathematical model (Miller equation. Theoretical mean daily per capita physiological and dietary requirements for zinc were calculated using recommendations from the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine and the International Zinc Nutrition Consultative Group. The estimated global prevalence of inadequate zinc intake varied between 12-66%, depending on which methodological assumptions were applied. However, country-specific rank order of the estimated prevalence of inadequate intake was conserved across all models (r = 0.57-0.99, P<0.01. A "best-estimate" model, comprised of zinc and phytate data from a composite nutrient database and IZiNCG physiological requirements for absorbed zinc, estimated the global prevalence of inadequate zinc intake to be 17.3%.Given the multiple sources of uncertainty in this method, caution must be taken in the interpretation of the estimated prevalence figures. However, the results of all models indicate that inadequate zinc intake may be fairly common globally. Inferences regarding the relative likelihood of zinc deficiency as a public health problem in different countries can be drawn based on the country

  3. Bullying Victimization Prevalence and Its Effects on Psychosomatic Complaints: Can Sense of Coherence Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Moya, Irene; Suominen, Sakari; Moreno, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of bullying victimization and its impact on physical and psychological complaints in a representative sample of adolescents and to explore the role of sense of coherence (SOC) in victimization prevalence and consequences. Methods: A representative sample of Spanish adolescents (N =…

  4. Cytological endometritis at artificial insemination in dairy cows: Prevalence and effect on pregnancy outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogado Pascottini, O; Hostens, M; Sys, P; Vercauteren, P; Opsomer, G

    2017-01-01

    The aims of our field study in dairy cows were (1) to consolidate cytotape (CT) as a valid technique to diagnose cytological endometritis (CYTO) during artificial insemination (AI); (2) to establish a cutoff point concerning the polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) proportion to diagnose CYTO at AI; (3) to assess the prevalence of CYTO at AI; and (4) to evaluate the effect of CYTO on the pregnancy outcome of that AI. The investigation was performed using 1,625 AI-CT samples harvested from 873 Holstein-Friesian cows from 18 dairy farms in the Flemish region of Belgium. The CT device consisted of adapting a 1.5-cm piece of paper tape on the top of a conventional AI catheter covered with a double guard sheet, allowing an endometrial cytology sample to be taken when performing an AI. A receiving operator characteristic curve was built to assess the threshold level above which the PMN proportion significantly affected the AI success. Multilevel generalized mixed-effect models were built to identify factors affecting the pregnancy outcome of the AI under investigation. Only 7 samples (0.4%) harvested in 5 cows were discarded because of low-quality parameters. The cutoff point for CYTO at AI was set at ≥1% PMN (sensitivity=33.8%, specificity=88.6%). Prevalence of CYTO at AI was 27.8%. The conception rate for CYTO-positive samples was 32.7%, whereas it was 47% for CYTO-negative samples. A CYTO-negative AI had 1.8 [odds ratio (OR)] more chances to become pregnant than a CYTO-positive one. Other factors identified as detrimental for the pregnancy outcome were body condition score ≤1.5 (OR=0.6), relative 305-d milk yield (OR=0.9), dystocia (OR=0.3), parity ≥2 (OR=0.7), and warm months of the year. In conclusion, CT is a consolidated technique to diagnose CYTO at AI, PMN 1% is the threshold level to diagnose CYTO at AI, around one-quarter of inseminated uteri suffer from CYTO, and affected uteri having a significantly lower chance to become pregnant from that insemination

  5. Italy SimSmoke: the effect of tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and smoking attributable deaths in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levy David

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While Italy has implemented some tobacco control policies over the last few decades, which resulted in a decreased smoking prevalence, there is still considerable scope to strengthen tobacco control policies consistent with the World Health Organization (WHO policy guidelines. The present study aims to evaluate the effect of past and project the effect of future tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and associated premature mortality in Italy. Methods To assess, individually and in combination, the effect of seven types of policies, we used the SimSmoke simulation model of tobacco control policy. The model uses population, smoking rates and tobacco control policy data for Italy. Results Significant reductions of smoking prevalence and premature mortality can be achieved through tobacco price increases, high intensity media campaigns, comprehensive cessation treatment program, strong health warnings, stricter smoke-free air regulations and advertising bans, and youth access laws. With a comprehensive approach, the smoking prevalence can be decreased by as much as 12% soon after the policies are in place, increasing to a 30% reduction in the next twenty years and a 34% reduction by 30 years in 2040. Without effective tobacco control policies, a total of almost 300 thousand lives will be prematurely lost due to smoking by the year 2040. Conclusion Besides presenting the benefits of a comprehensive tobacco control strategy, the model helps identify information gaps in surveillance and evaluation schemes that will promote the effectiveness of future tobacco control policy in Italy.

  6. Cardiology Patient Page: Electronic Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... American Heart Association Cardiology Patient Page Electronic Cigarettes Rachel A. Grana , Pamela M. Ling , Neal Benowitz , Stanton ... 129: e490-e492 Originally published May 12, 2014 Rachel A. Grana From the Center for Tobacco Control ...

  7. Code AI Personal Web Pages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Joseph A.; Smith, Charles A. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The document consists of a publicly available web site (george.arc.nasa.gov) for Joseph A. Garcia's personal web pages in the AI division. Only general information will be posted and no technical material. All the information is unclassified.

  8. PageRank of integers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frahm, K M; Shepelyansky, D L; Chepelianskii, A D

    2012-01-01

    We up a directed network tracing links from a given integer to its divisors and analyze the properties of the Google matrix of this network. The PageRank vector of this matrix is computed numerically and it is shown that its probability is approximately inversely proportional to the PageRank index thus being similar to the Zipf law and the dependence established for the World Wide Web. The spectrum of the Google matrix of integers is characterized by a large gap and a relatively small number of nonzero eigenvalues. A simple semi-analytical expression for the PageRank of integers is derived that allows us to find this vector for matrices of billion size. This network provides a new PageRank order of integers. (paper)

  9. Bothersome lower urinary tract symptoms 1 year after first delivery: prevalence and the effect of childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Brummen, Henriette J; Bruinse, Hein W; van de Pol, Geerte; Heintz, A Peter M; van der Vaart, C Huub

    2006-07-01

    To assess the severity of both stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms during and after the first pregnancy, using a self-reported health-related quality-of-life questionnaire, and to assess the effect of pregnancy and childbirth on bothersome lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) persisting at 1 year after the first childbirth. In a prospective cohort study, 344 women completed four self-reported questionnaires. Urogenital symptoms were assessed with the Urogenital Distress Inventory (UDI), assessing if a urogenital symptom is present and the amount of bother it causes, measured on a 4-point Likert scale, i.e. 'not at all', 'slightly', 'moderately' and 'greatly bothered'. Bothersome LUTS were defined as reporting moderate or great bother from the symptom, and as not bothersome if it was absent or present with none or only a slight degree of self-reported bother. In the analysis we used three of the five subscales from the UDI; UI, OAB and obstructive voiding, where each subscale has a range of 0 (no symptom) to 100 (all symptoms present with the highest degree of bother). Of the 344 women, 83 (24.2%) reported having a moderate to greatly bothersome frequency symptom at 36 weeks of gestation. After childbirth there was a statistically significant decline in the prevalence of bothersome frequency to 38 (9.6%) women (P childbirth. Fifty-eight (16.9%) women reported having moderate to greatly bothersome urge UI (UUI) and at 1 year after childbirth, 51 (14.8%) were still bothered by it. After univariate and multivariate analysis, the predictive factors for the presence of bothersome SUI were greater maternal age (32.5 vs 30.3 years old at delivery) and the presence of bothersome SUI at 12 weeks of gestation. Bothersome UUI was significantly associated with a lower educational level (odds ratio 0.08, 95% confidence interval 0.02-0.36). Women after a Caesarean delivery had more bothersome UUI and women after a spontaneous vaginal delivery

  10. A Survey on PageRank Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Berkhin, Pavel

    2005-01-01

    This survey reviews the research related to PageRank computing. Components of a PageRank vector serve as authority weights for web pages independent of their textual content, solely based on the hyperlink structure of the web. PageRank is typically used as a web search ranking component. This defines the importance of the model and the data structures that underly PageRank processing. Computing even a single PageRank is a difficult computational task. Computing many PageRanks is a much mor...

  11. Effects of dietary habits and risk factors on allergic rhinitis prevalence among Turkish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamay, Zeynep; Akcay, Ahmet; Ergin, Ahmet; Guler, Nermin

    2013-09-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a global health problem affecting many people from childhood to adulthood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of AR and related symptoms, and to assess the risk factors, dietary habits and the Mediterranean diet affecting AR. In a cross-sectional study design, 9991 children, aged 13-14 years in 61 primary schools in 32 districts of Istanbul were evaluated. The prevalence of AR symptoms among the children was evaluated using the ISAAC protocol. In our study, total of 10,984 questionnaires were distributed to 13-14yr-old schoolchildren to 61 schools in 32 district of Istanbul and 9991 questionnaires were suitable for analysis with an overall response of 91.7%. The rates of lifetime rhinitis, rhinitis in last 12 months and lifetime doctor diagnosed AR prevalence were 53.5%, 38.3% and 4.5%, respectively. The variation among districts in the prevalence of doctor diagnosed AR was very high. The highest prevalence was about 10 times higher than in the district with the lowest prevalence (range: 1.4-14.5) of Istanbul. A family history of atopy, mother with a university degree, presence of cat at home during last 12 months and adenoidectomy were significant for increased doctor diagnosed AR risk. Additionally, although fish and other sea foods, fermented drinks made from millets and various seeds, animal fats and butter were independent risk factors for doctor diagnosed AR, fish oil and hamburger were protective foods for doctor diagnosed AR. The MD was not associated with the prevalence of doctor diagnosed AR. This study shows that that there are wide variations for the prevalence of AR related symptoms in 13-14yr-old schoolchildren among districts of Istanbul in Turkey. Socio-economical, environmental factors, some dietary habits, but not Mediterranean diet may affect the prevalence of AR. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. People with gender dysphoria who self-prescribe cross-sex hormones: prevalence, sources, and side effects knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mepham, Nick; Bouman, Walter P; Arcelus, Jon; Hayter, Mark; Wylie, Kevan R

    2014-12-01

    There is a scarcity of research into the use of non-physician-sourced cross-sex hormones in the transgender population. However, when medication is not prescribed by health professionals, users' knowledge of such medication may be adversely affected. This study aims to define the prevalence of Internet-sourced sex hormone use in a population attending for initial assessment at a gender identity clinic, to compare the prevalence between gender-dysphoric men and women, and to compare knowledge of cross-sex hormone side effects between users who source cross-sex hormones from medical doctors and those who source them elsewhere. In the first part of the study, a cross-sectional design is used to measure the overall prevalence of sex hormone use among individuals referred to a gender clinic. The second part is a questionnaire survey aiming at measuring sex hormone knowledge among individuals referred to this clinic. Main outcome measures were (i) categorical data on the prevalence and source of cross-sex hormone use and (ii) knowledge of sex hormone side effects in a population referred to a gender clinic. Cross-sex hormone use was present in 23% of gender clinic referrals, of whom 70% sourced the hormones via the Internet. Trans men using testosterone had a sex hormone usage prevalence of 6%; one-third of users sourced it from the Internet. Trans women had a sex hormone usage prevalence of 32%; approximately 70% of users sourced hormones from the Internet. Cross-sex hormone users who sourced their hormones from physicians were more aware of side effects than those who used other sources to access hormones. One in four trans women self-prescribe cross-sex hormones before attending gender clinics, most commonly via the Internet. This practice is currently rare among trans men. Self-prescribing without medical advice leaves individuals without the knowledge required to minimize health risks. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  13. The effect of somatic symptom attribution on the prevalence rate of depression and anxiety among nursing home patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smalbrugge, M.; Pot, A.M.; Jongenelis, L.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Eefsting, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    The validity of diagnostic psychiatric instruments for depression and anxiety disorders may be compromised among patients with complex physical illness and disability. The objective of this study was to determine the effect on the prevalence rate of depression and anxiety in a nursing home

  14. Disparity in Autism Spectrum Disorder Prevalence among Taiwan National Health Insurance Enrollees: Age, Gender and Urbanization Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Shang-Wei; Chiang, Po-Huang; Lin, Lam-Ping; Lin, Jin-Ding

    2012-01-01

    The present study aims to characterize the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in Taiwan while examining the effects of age, gender, and urbanization on ASD occurrence. A cross-sectional study was conducted to analyze data from 895,639 random health insurance claimants who claimed medical services in the year 2007. Autism was defined…

  15. No evidence for long-term effects of reproductive effort on parasite prevalence in great tits Parus major

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Margje E.; Fokkema, Rienk W.; Ubels, Richard; van der Velde, Marco; Tinbergen, Joost M.

    Allocation of resources between the life history traits reproduction and parasite defence are expected because both are energetically costly. Experimental evidence for such allocation has been found in short-term effects of reproduction on parasite prevalence or immune function. However, there is

  16. The prevalence and effects of urinary incontinence in women working in the Universitas Academic Hospital, Bloemfontein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronique C. Bailey

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Urinary incontinence affects 30% of women by the time they reach 50 years of age and continues to increase thereafter. Symptoms vary in severity and adversely impact on the physical and psychosocial wellbeing of affected individuals. By means of a self-administered questionnaire, the study investigated the prevalence of urinary incontinence and its effects on the quality of life in women working at the Universitas Academic Hospital in Bloemfontein in 2007. Pregnant women were not included in the study. One hundred and nine questionnaires were analysed. Participants were 24–62 years of age (mean age 44.4 years. Of these, 27.5% reported symptoms of urinary incontinence. Only one affected individual was younger than 30 years. Three-quarters of affected women rated their symptoms as light to moderate. In 34.6% of the affected women, the condition did not interfere with everyday activities at all, but 11.5% reported severe interference. Information regarding urinary incontinence, precautionary measures, such as Kegel exercises, and its associated psychosocial consequences, should be disseminated to women of all ages.

  17. Prevalence of myofascial chronic pelvic pain and the effectiveness of pelvic floor physical therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedaiwy, Mohamed A; Patterson, Betsy; Mahajan, Sangeeta

    2013-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of myofascial pain and the outcome of transvaginal pelvic floor physical therapy for the treatment of chronic pelvic pain caused by myofascial pelvic pain in a tertiary care facility. A retrospective chart review was performed on all women who presented to our facility between January 2005 and December 2007. Those diagnosed with myofascial pelvic pain and referred for transvaginal pelvic floor physical therapy over this 3-year period were evaluated. Participants with an initial pain score of > or = 4, myofascial pelvic pain on examination, and who attended 2 or more physician visits were included in the analysis. Patient physical examination findings, symptoms, and verbal pain ratings were reviewed. In all, 146 (13.2%) of 1,106 initially screened patients were diagnosed with myofascial pain. Seventy-five (51%) of the 146 patients who were referred for physical therapy were included, and 75% had an initial pain score of > or = 7. Pain scores significantly improved proportional to the number of physical therapy visits completed, with 63% of patients reporting significant pain improvement. Transvaginal physical therapy is an effective treatment for chronic pelvic pain resulting from myofascial pelvic pain.

  18. Prevalence of anemia in pregnant women and its effect on neonatal outcomes in Northeast India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Reeta; Sable, Corey; Wolfson, Julian; Boro, Kanta; Rao, Raghavendra

    2014-06-01

    To determine the prevalence of anemia in pregnant women and characterize its effect on neonatal outcome in Northeast India. Four hundred and seventy mothers and their newborn infants during a one month period were included. The association between maternal hemoglobin (Hb) at delivery and neonatal outcomes were determined. Anemia (Hb < 110 g/L) was present in 421 (89.6%) mothers with 35 (8.3%) having severe anemia(Hb < 70 g/L). After adjusting for maternal and neonatal variables, each 10 g/L decrease in maternal Hb was associated with 0.18 week decrease in gestational length (p = 0.003) and 21 g decrease in birth weight (p = 0.093). Severe maternal anemia was associated with 0.63 week (95% CI, 0.03-1.23week) shorter gestation, 481 g (95% CI, 305-658 g) lower birth weight and 89% increased risk of small-for-gestation (OR 1.89, 95% CI, 1.25-2.86)in the offspring, compared with those born to mothers without anemia (p < 0.001). Maternal anemia was highly prevalentin this population. Lower gestational age and birth weight, and increased risk of small-for-gestation were associated with maternal anemia, especially when maternal Hb was <80 g/L. Maternal anemia needs urgent attention to improve neonatal outcome in this population.

  19. Prevalence of Ureaplasma and Mycoplasma in Infertile Men in Van Region and Effects to Semen Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerem Taken

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU and Mycoplasma hominis (MH in semen cultures of cases with primary infertility in the Van Province, and also to determine the effect of therapy on sperm parameters. Material and Method: The study included 106 individuals divided into three groups: The infertile group (41 cases, the group with lower urinary tract symptoms (33 cases, and the control group (32 cases. The patients in the infertile group had no history of varicocele, testicular torsion, hydrocele, undescended testis, and hormonal disorders. The control group included cases without infertility and lower urinary tract symptoms. The parameters of culture-positive cases in the infertile group were determined before and after therapy. The identification of Mycoplasma species was made using the Biomerieux® Mycoplasma IST 2 (RCS Lyon-France kit. The sperm count was carried out with the Makler counting chamber (Self Medical Industries, Haifa, Israel. Results: In the infertile group, UU was isolated from 17 and MH was isolated from 3 cases. In the group with lower urinary tract symptoms, UU was isolated from 15 (45.5% and MH was isolated from 6 (18.8% cases. In the control group, UU was isolated from 6 (18.8% cases, but MH was isolated from none of the cases. In the infertile group, the sperm counts in 3 culture-positive cases (15% and in 10 culture-negative cases (50% were

  20. Ranking nodes in growing networks: When PageRank fails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Manuel Sebastian; Medo, Matúš; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2015-11-10

    PageRank is arguably the most popular ranking algorithm which is being applied in real systems ranging from information to biological and infrastructure networks. Despite its outstanding popularity and broad use in different areas of science, the relation between the algorithm's efficacy and properties of the network on which it acts has not yet been fully understood. We study here PageRank's performance on a network model supported by real data, and show that realistic temporal effects make PageRank fail in individuating the most valuable nodes for a broad range of model parameters. Results on real data are in qualitative agreement with our model-based findings. This failure of PageRank reveals that the static approach to information filtering is inappropriate for a broad class of growing systems, and suggest that time-dependent algorithms that are based on the temporal linking patterns of these systems are needed to better rank the nodes.

  1. Ranking nodes in growing networks: When PageRank fails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Manuel Sebastian; Medo, Matúš; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2015-11-01

    PageRank is arguably the most popular ranking algorithm which is being applied in real systems ranging from information to biological and infrastructure networks. Despite its outstanding popularity and broad use in different areas of science, the relation between the algorithm’s efficacy and properties of the network on which it acts has not yet been fully understood. We study here PageRank’s performance on a network model supported by real data, and show that realistic temporal effects make PageRank fail in individuating the most valuable nodes for a broad range of model parameters. Results on real data are in qualitative agreement with our model-based findings. This failure of PageRank reveals that the static approach to information filtering is inappropriate for a broad class of growing systems, and suggest that time-dependent algorithms that are based on the temporal linking patterns of these systems are needed to better rank the nodes.

  2. An Adaptive Reordered Method for Computing PageRank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ming Bu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an adaptive reordered method to deal with the PageRank problem. It has been shown that one can reorder the hyperlink matrix of PageRank problem to calculate a reduced system and get the full PageRank vector through forward substitutions. This method can provide a speedup for calculating the PageRank vector. We observe that in the existing reordered method, the cost of the recursively reordering procedure could offset the computational reduction brought by minimizing the dimension of linear system. With this observation, we introduce an adaptive reordered method to accelerate the total calculation, in which we terminate the reordering procedure appropriately instead of reordering to the end. Numerical experiments show the effectiveness of this adaptive reordered method.

  3. An Optimization Model for Product Placement on Product Listing Pages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Kwang Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The design of product listing pages is a key component of Website design because it has significant influence on the sales volume on a Website. This study focuses on product placement in designing product listing pages. Product placement concerns how venders of online stores place their products over the product listing pages for maximization of profit. This problem is very similar to the offline shelf management problem. Since product information sources on a Web page are typically communicated through the text and image, visual stimuli such as color, shape, size, and spatial arrangement often have an effect on the visual attention of online shoppers and, in turn, influence their eventual purchase decisions. In view of the above, this study synthesizes the visual attention literature and theory of shelf-space allocation to develop a mathematical programming model with genetic algorithms for finding optimal solutions to the focused issue. The validity of the model is illustrated with example problems.

  4. Effects of migratory status and habitat on the prevalence and intensity of infection by haemoparasites in passerines in eastern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivera, J.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Iberian peninsula is a suitable place to study the effects of migratory condition on the prevalence of blood parasites in avian communities as resident, local populations cohabit with migratory species and with abundant vector populations. In this study we examined the incidence of avian blood parasites in three localities in the Mediterranean region (east Spain, in relation to the migratory status of the species. We analyzed 333 blood smears from 11 avian species, and obtained an overall prevalence of 9.6%. The prevalence of parasites varied among the different species studied, although intensity of infection did not. Our results are discussed in terms of population dynamics and abundance of Diptera vectors able to transmit blood parasites to other birds.

  5. Birth prevalence of non-syndromic orofacial clefts in Saudi Arabia and the effects of parental consanguinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbagh, Heba J.; Innes, Nicola P.; Sallout, Bahauddin I.; Alamoudi, Najlaa M.; Hamdan, Mustafa A.; Alhamlan, Nasir; Al-Khozami, Amaal I.; Abdulhameed, Fatma D.; Al-Aama, Jumana Y.; Mossey, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the characteristics and prevalence of non-syndromic orofacial clefting (NSOFC) and assess the effects of parental consanguinity on NSOFC phenotypes in the 3 main cities of Saudi Arabia. Methods: All infants (114,035) born at 3 referral centers in Riyadh, and 6 hospitals in Jeddah and Madinah between January 2010 and December 2011 were screened. The NSOFC cases (n=133) were identified and data was collected through clinical examination and records, and information on consanguinity through parent interviews. The diagnosis was confirmed by reviewing medical records and contacting the infants’ pediatricians. Control infants (n=233) matched for gender and born in the same hospitals during the same period, were selected. Results: The prevalence of NSOFC was 1.07/1000 births in Riyadh, and 1.17/1000 births overall; cleft lip (CL) was 0.47/1000 births, cleft lip and palate (CLP) was 0.42/1000 births, and cleft palate (CP) was 0.28/1000 births. Cleft palate was significantly associated with consanguinity (p=0.047, odds ratio: 2.5, 95% confidence interval: 1 to 6.46), particularly for first cousin marriages. Conclusion: The birth prevalence of NSOFC in Riyadh alone, and in the 3 main cities of Saudi Arabia were marginally lower than the mean global prevalence. While birth prevalence for CLP was comparable to global figures, the CL:CLP ratio was high, and only CP was significantly associated with consanguinity. PMID:26318465

  6. Birth prevalence of non-syndromic orofacial clefts in Saudi Arabia and the effects of parental consanguinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba J. Sabbagh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To describe the characteristics and prevalence of non-syndromic orofacial clefting (NSOFC and assess the effects of parental consanguinity on NSOFC phenotypes in the 3 main cities of Saudi Arabia. Methods: All infants (114,035 born at 3 referral centers in Riyadh, and 6 hospitals in Jeddah and Madinah between January 2010 and December 2011 were screened. The NSOFC cases (n=133 were identified and data was collected through clinical examination and records, and information on consanguinity through parent interviews. The diagnosis was confirmed by reviewing medical records and contacting the infants’ pediatricians. Control infants (n=233 matched for gender and born in the same hospitals during the same period, were selected. Results: The prevalence of NSOFC was 1.07/1000 births in Riyadh, and 1.17/1000 births overall; cleft lip (CL was 0.47/1000 births, cleft lip and palate (CLP was 0.42/1000 births, and cleft palate (CP was 0.28/1000 births. Cleft palate was significantly associated with consanguinity (p=0.047, odds ratio: 2.5, 95% confidence interval: 1 to 6.46, particularly for first cousin marriages. Conclusion: The birth prevalence of NSOFC in Riyadh alone, and in the 3 main cities of Saudi Arabia were marginally lower than the mean global prevalence. While birth prevalence for CLP was comparable to global figures, the CL:CLP ratio was high, and only CP was significantly associated with consanguinity.

  7. Effect of the Healthy Schools Program on prevalence of overweight and obesity in California schools, 2006-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Kristine A; Cotterman, Carolyn; Crawford, Pat; Stevelos, JoAnn; Archibald, Abbie

    2015-05-21

    The Alliance for a Healthier Generation's Healthy Schools Program (HSP) is a national evidence-based obesity-prevention initiative aimed at providing the schools in greatest need with onsite training and technical assistance (TTA) and consultation with national experts (HSP national advisors) to create sustainable healthy change in schools' nutrition and physical activity environments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of HSP on the prevalence of overweight and obesity in California schools, from HSP's inception in 2006 through 2012. We used statewide body mass index (BMI) data collected annually from 5th-, 7th-, and 9th-grade students to determine whether enrolling in the HSP's onsite intervention reduced the prevalence of overweight and obesity in intervention schools (n = 281) versus propensity-score matched control schools (n = 709) and whether increasing exposure to the program (TTA and contact with HSP national advisors) was associated with reductions in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Analyses showed no difference between HSP schools and control schools in overweight or obesity prevalence. However, program exposure varied widely among participating schools, and each additional contact with TTA or HSP national advisors was associated with a 0.3% decline in overweight and obesity prevalence (P schools in reducing obesity. Although participation in HSP alone was not sufficient to improve weight status in California schools, there was a clear dose-response relationship to the program. HSP serves as an effective model for addressing childhood obesity among engaged schools.

  8. Prevalence of the use of effective ergogenic aids among professional athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frączek, Barbara; Warzecha, Maja; Tyrała, Florentyna; Pięta, Aleksandra

    Athletic performance can be substantially enhanced with supplements and functional food which are considered by scientists as efficient, safe and legal, such as protein, carbohydrate and protein-carbohydrate supplements, isotonic sports drinks, carbohydrate-protein bars, carbohydrate bars, creatine and caffeine. The study is aimed at an analysis and evaluation of the prevalence of using effective ergogenic aids (creatine, caffeine, isotonic drinks, carbohydrates, and proteins) in a group of Polish professional athletes. The research was conducted on 600 athletes (216 women, 384 men) practicing various sports disciplines; the younger group (18-23 years old) consisted of 307 people, while the older one (24-35 years old) was comprised of 293 subjects. A questionnaire was used with questions concerning the frequency and types of consumed supplements. Nearly half of the athletes (48,2%) admitted to taking supplementation, of which 36.7% consumed the supplements occasionally and 11.5% continually. The majority of the group (75.4%) claimed to be consuming isotonic drinks, which were the most commonly chosen nutritional aid enhancing physical performance, most frequently supplementing the diet in a continuous manner (41.2%). The least frequently used supplement was creatine, chosen by only one in three interviewees (34,5%). The ergogenic aids were used more often by men than women (50.5% vs. 44.1%), and so were nutrients based on proteins (51.8% vs. 32.0%), carbohydrates (60.7% vs. 46.8%), protein-carbohydrates (45.6% vs. 32.9%), as well as creatine (39.8% vs. 25.0%). The studies showed the inessential difference in the frequency of taking supplementation based on the interviewees' age (0.4%). Competitors who use supplements over those who choose not to, seems to reflect the continuous lack of the athletes' sufficient awareness of the effectiveness, safety, and health benefits of dietary supplementation that enhances physical performance. supplements, dietary

  9. The effects of the Korean reference value on the prevalence of osteoporosis and the prediction of fracture risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungwha; Choi, Moon-Gi; Yu, Jaemyung; Ryu, Ohk-Hyun; Yoo, Hyung Joon; Ihm, Sung-Hee; Kim, Doo-Man; Hong, Eun-Gyung; Park, Kyutae; Choi, Myungjin; Choi, Hyunhee

    2015-03-27

    Since the reference value is the core factor of the T-score calculation, it has a significant impact on the prevalence of osteoporosis. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of using the Korean reference value on the prevalence of osteoporosis and on the prediction of fracture risk. We used femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008-2011. The Korean reference was identified by the mean and standard deviation of men and women aged 20-29 years. We compared the prevalence and the fracture risk assessment tool (FRAX™) probability obtained from the Korean reference and the NHANES III reference. In men, the prevalence of osteoporosis increased when using the Korean men's reference, and the difference increased up to 9% for those in their 80s. In women, the prevalence increased when using the NHANES III reference, and the difference increased up to 17% for those in their 80s. The reference value also affected the fracture risk probability, and the difference from changing the reference value increased in women and in subjects with more clinical fracture risk factors. In major osteoporotic fractures, the difference of the risk probability was up to 6% in women aged 70-79 years with two clinical risk factors. For femoral neck fractures, the difference was up to 7% in women aged 50-59 years with two clinical risk factors. We confirmed that the reference value had significant effects on the prevalence of osteoporosis and on the fracture risk probability. The KNHANES 2008-2011 BMD data reflected the characteristics of the Korean BMD status well with regard to data size and study design; therefore, these data can be used as reference values.

  10. Metabolic disorders in dairy Simmentals - prevalence risk and effect on subsequent daily milk traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Gantner

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyse metabolic disorders in Simmental cows, 2.641.223 test-day records have been used. The metabolic disorders prevalence risk was indicated by the fat to protein (F/P ratio, while the subclinical disorder was demonstrated using the F/P ratio and daily production. In terms of the ketosis prevalence risk (KPR, the highest prevalence risks occurred at the 20th lactation day in all tested cows with exception of cows in parity P4+ which experienced peak prevalence risk at 25th lactation day. A steady decrease of KPR after peak prevalence was observed in all animals except the 3rd lactation cows which experienced the second peak prevalence at the 30th lactation day, after which the prevalence risk continued to decline. The highest acidosis prevalence risk (APR was detected among 4+ parity cows. Considering the lactation stage, the highest APR occurred within the first 10 days, with the indication from 16 to 23 %, depending on parity. The peak prevalence risk was followed by a considerable decline during the ensuing 20 days. The prevalence risk began to increase among all cows after the 25th lactation day. Furthermore, there was a considerable decrease in a daily milk yield and variation of daily milk contents due to subclinical disorders. The most noticeable drop in daily milk yield, for both ketosis/acidosis, was detected in cows in 4+ parity in the amounts of 7.45 kg/day and 2.73 kg/day respectively. There was also a production decline in the subsequent milk controls. Subclinical disorders can also substantially change daily milk contents. The daily fat content was considerably reduced by the subclinical ketosis and the same parameter was considerably increased by the subclinical acidosis. The opposite trends were detected for daily protein content. Since indication criteria was set on Holstein population and considering the fact that Simmental cows produce noticeably less, some adjustment is needed before a routine use of test

  11. Municipal elections on the front pages of daily newspapers: a comparison between newspaper journalism in two cities with different political configurations and its effect on mass democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Urizzi Cervi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses front-page headlines concerning the 2008 municipal electoral disputes in Brazilian daily newspapers. The front pages of two newspapers were analyzed: Gazeta do Povo and Jornal da Manhã. The first is distributed regionally and is published in Curitiba, the capital of Paraná state. The second has local circulation and is restricted to the interior of Paraná state. For comparative purposes, the type of visibility given to the municipal elections in each newspaper was evaluated, with the goal of identifying the importance of electoral campaigning in the news. The discussion centers on the role of the media in the dissemination of politically relevant information, taking into consideration the electoral context. While in Curitiba the incumbent mayor was re-elected in the first round with almost 80% of the votes, indicating a lack of a real electoral dispute, in Ponta Grossa the candidate for re-election won in the runoff election with a less than 4% advantage over the runner-up. The analysis questions the need to consider the social context to explain journalistic production.

  12. MUNICIPAL ELECTIONS ON THE FRONT PAGES OF DAILY NEWSPAPERS: A comparison between newspaper journalism in two cities with different political configurations and its effect on mass democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Urizzi Cervi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses front-page headlines concerning the 2008municipal electoral disputes in Brazilian daily newspapers. The front pages of two newspapers were analyzed: Gazeta do Povo and Jornal da Manhã. The first is distributed regionally and is published in Curitiba, the capital of Paraná state. The second has local circulation and is restricted to the interior of Paraná state. For comparative purposes, the type of visibility given to the municipal elections in each newspaper was evaluated, with the goal of identifying the importance of electoral campaigning in the news. The discussion centers on the role of the media in the dissemination of politically relevant information, taking into consideration the electoral context. While in Curitiba the incumbent mayor was re-elected in the first round with almost 80% of the votes, indicating a lack of a real electoral dispute, in Ponta Grossa the candidate for re-election won in the runoff election with a less than 4% advantage over the runner-up. The analysis questions the need to consider the social context to explain journalistic production. 

  13. Effect of the Syrian Civil War on Prevalence of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Southeastern Anatolia, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inci, Rahime; Ozturk, Perihan; Mulayim, Mehmet Kamil; Ozyurt, Kemal; Alatas, Emine Tugba; Inci, Mehmet Fatih

    2015-07-20

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a vector-mediated skin disease, characterized by chronic wounds on the skin and caused by macrophages in protozoan parasites. It is an endemic disease in the southern and southeastern Anatolia region and is still an important public health problem in Turkey. Because of the civil war in Syria, immigrants to this region in the last 3 years have begun to more frequently present with this disease. The aim of this study was to draw attention to the dramatic increase in new cases with CL after the beginning of the civil war in Syria. In this retrospective study, we evaluated demographic, epidemiological, and clinical features of 110 patients diagnosed with cutaneous leishmaniasis who were admitted to the Department of Dermatology at Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University Faculty of Medicine between January 2011 and June 2014. A total of 110 patients included in the study; 50 (45%) were males, and 60 (55%) were females. The age range of the study group was 1-78 years, and the infection was more prevalent in the 0-20 year age group. Of these patients, 76 (69%) were Syrian refugees living in tent camps and 34 (31%) were Turkish citizens. The majority of the cases were diagnosed between October and December. Immigrations to endemic regions of Turkey from neighbouring countries where CL incidence is higher may lead to large increases in case numbers. In order to decrease the risk of exposure, housing conditions of the refugees must be improved, routine health controls must be performed, effective measures must be set in place for vector control, and infected individuals must be diagnosed and treated to prevent spread of the infection.

  14. Descendants of Hardship: Prevalence, Drivers and Scarring Effects of Social Exclusion in Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cok Vrooman

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The social exclusion of children is problematic for two reasons. Young people typically inherit their marginal position from their family, and therefore cannot be held responsible for their hardship themselves; and social exclusion in childhood may affect their wellbeing and subsequent development, possibly leading to a “scarring effect” in later life. In this contribution we develop an instrument for measuring social exclusion among children. Social exclusion is regarded as a theoretical construct with four sub-dimensions: material deprivation, limited social participation, inadequate access to social rights, and a lack of normative integration. First we analyse data from a survey of 2,200 Dutch children, which contains a large set of social exclusion items. We applied nonlinear principal components analysis in order to construct a multidimensional scale. Measured in this way, the prevalence of social exclusion among children is 4.5%. Boys and children living in large families are more likely to experience social exclusion than girls and children with few siblings. The parental level of education and dependency on social security benefits are also important driving factors of childhood social exclusion. Subsequently we investigate the scarring effect. Longitudinal administrative income and household data covering 25 years were combined with a new survey of just under 1,000 Dutch adults, a third of whom were poor as a child. The survey assessed their past and current degree of social exclusion, and their health and psychosocial development, educational career, past family circumstances, etc. In an absolute sense scarring turns out to have been limited during this period: a very large majority of those who were poor or excluded as a child are above the threshold values in adult life. However, the “descendants of hardship” are still more likely to be socially excluded as adults than people who grew up in more favourable conditions. A

  15. Glucose-induced effects and joker function of glucose: endocrine or genotoxic prevalence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berstein, L M; Vasilyev, D A; Poroshina, T E; Kovalenko, I G

    2006-10-01

    The steady increase in chronic "glycemic load" is characteristic for modern times. Among myriad of glucose functions, two principals can be emphasized: first, endocrine (in particular, ability to induce insulin secretion) and second, DNA-damaging related to formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). It was suggested by us earlier that a shift in the ratio of mentioned functions reflects a possible "joker" role of glucose as an important modifier of human pathology. Therefore, we embarked on a study to investigate an individual effect of peroral glucose challenge on serum insulin level and ROS generation by mononuclears (luminol-dependent/latex-induced chemiluminescence) in 20 healthy people aged between 28-75. Concentrations of glucose, blood lipids, carbonylated proteins, malondialdehyde, leptin and TNF-alpha were determined as well. On the basis of received data two separate groups could be distinguished: one (n=8), in which glucose stimulation of ROS generation by mononuclears was increased and relatively prevailed over induction of insulin secretion (state of the so called glucose-induced genotoxicity, GIGT), and another (n=12), in which signs of GIGT were not revealed. People who belonged to the first group were characterized with a tendency to lower body mass index, blood leptin and cholesterol and to higher TNF-alpha concentration. Thus, if joker function of glucose is realized in "genotoxic mode", the phenotype (and probably genotype) of subjects may be rather distinctive to the one discovered in glucose-induced "endocrine prevalence". Whether such changes may serve as a pro-mutagenic or pro-endocrine basis for the rise of different chronic diseases or, rather, different features/aggressiveness of the same disease warrants further study.

  16. Prevalence and severity of the premenstrual syndrome. Effects of foods and beverages that are sweet or high in sugar content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossignol, A M; Bonnlander, H

    1991-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether certain foods and beverages that are high in sugar content or taste sweet are related to the prevalence and severity of the premenstrual syndrome. Specifically, we sought to evaluate whether consumption of "junk foods", chocolate, caffeine-free cola, fruit juices or alcoholic beverages might exert an effect on the premenstrual syndrome apart from any effects of daily consumption of beverages that are high in caffeine (caffeine-containing coffee, tea and colas). The study was based on 853 responses to a questionnaire probing menstrual and premenstrual health and certain daily dietary practices; it was mailed to female university students in Oregon. An analysis of the data revealed that the consumption of chocolate, but not of other junk foods, was related to the prevalence of the premenstrual syndrome among women with more severe premenstrual symptoms. Likewise, the consumption of alcoholic beverages (all alcoholic beverages and beer only) was related to the prevalence of the premenstrual syndrome among women with more severe symptoms, as were both fruit juice and caffeine-free soda. None of the associations was substantially altered when the daily consumption of beverages high in caffeine content was controlled for. Taken together, these data suggest that the consumption of foods and beverages that are high in sugar content or taste sweet is associated with prevalence of the premenstrual syndrome.

  17. Effects of Menthol Supplementation in Feedlot Cattle Diets on the Fecal Prevalence of Antimicrobial-Resistant Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C C Aperce

    Full Text Available The pool of antimicrobial resistance determinants in the environment and in the gut flora of cattle is a serious public health concern. In addition to being a source of human exposure, these bacteria can transfer antibiotic resistance determinants to pathogenic bacteria and endanger the future of antimicrobial therapy. The occurrence of antimicrobial resistance genes on mobile genetic elements, such as plasmids, facilitates spread of resistance. Recent work has shown in vitro anti-plasmid activity of menthol, a plant-based compound with the potential to be used as a feed additive to beneficially alter ruminal fermentation. The present study aimed to determine if menthol supplementation in diets of feedlot cattle decreases the prevalence of multidrug-resistant bacteria in feces. Menthol was included in diets of steers at 0.3% of diet dry matter. Fecal samples were collected weekly for 4 weeks and analyzed for total coliforms counts, antimicrobial susceptibilities, and the prevalence of tet genes in E. coli isolates. Results revealed no effect of menthol supplementation on total coliforms counts or prevalence of E. coli resistant to amoxicillin, ampicillin, azithromycin, cefoxitin, ceftiofur, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, kanamycin, nalidixic acid, streptomycin, sulfisoxazole, and sulfamethoxazole; however, 30 days of menthol addition to steer diets increased the prevalence of tetracycline-resistant E. coli (P < 0.02. Although the mechanism by which menthol exerts its effects remains unclear, results of our study suggest that menthol may have an impact on antimicrobial resistance in gut bacteria.

  18. Prevalence of Anemia and Risk of Adverse Bleeding Effect of Drugs: Implication for Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uba Nwose, Ezekiel

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the progress in reduction of prevalence of anemia in rural Australia. It also investigates the prevalence of hypoviscosity in anaemia with a view to determine the fraction of anaemic patients at risk of drug-inducible exacerbation of anemia. Archived clinical pathology data (N = 130, 354) for the period of 1999 to 2008 were utilized. The prevalence of anemia and hypoviscosity was evaluated by working out (i) the number that fell within anemia definition as a percentage of the population and (ii) the number that fell within hypoviscosity definition as a percentage of anemic patients. The prevalence in anemic diabetes and dyslipidaemia was further determined. There was progressive reduction in anemia from 6.1% to 3.2% over the ten years period. Prevalence of anemia is statistically significantly higher in males than in females (P < 0.0001), but protein level is lower in anemic females than in anemic males (P < 0.01). The results further show that up to 75% of anemic patients may benefit from NSAID or salicylates. This paper highlights differences between genders. It suggests more concerted effort in men's health and speculates a new factor to investigate in women's health. PMID:22506109

  19. The Effect of Age on the Prevalence of Obesity among US Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Must, Aviva; Eliasziw, Misha; Phillips, Sarah M; Curtin, Carol; Kral, Tanja V E; Segal, Mary; Sherwood, Nancy E; Sikich, Linmarie; Stanish, Heidi I; Bandini, Linda G

    2017-02-01

    We sought to assess the association between age and the prevalence of obesity among children with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health. Analyses were restricted to 43,777 children, ages 10-17, with valid measures of parent-reported weight, height, and ASD status. Exploratory analyses describe the impact of sex, race/ethnicity, and household income on the relationship between age and obesity in ASD. Although the overall prevalence of obesity among children with ASD was significantly (p obesity among children with ASD compared with children without ASD increased monotonically from ages 10 to 17 years. This pattern arose due to a consistently high prevalence of obesity among children with ASD and a decline in prevalence with advancing age among children without ASD. These findings were replicated using a propensity score analysis. Exploratory analyses suggested that the age-related change in obesity disparity between children with and without ASD may be further modified by sex, race/ethnicity, and household income. The patterns of prevalence observed with increasing age among children with and without ASD were unexpected. A better understanding of the etiological and maintenance factors for obesity in youth with ASD is needed to develop interventions tailored to the specific needs of these children.

  20. Prevalence of cognitive impairment: effects of level of education, age, sex and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán-Calenti, José C; Tubío, Javier; Pita-Fernández, Salvador; González-Abraldes, Isabel; Lorenzo, Trinidad; Maseda, Ana

    2009-01-01

    To examine the prevalence of cognitive impairment in a Spanish elderly population and to analyse its association with some social and medical factors. We randomly selected a representative sample (n = 600) of people over 65 from Narón Council (A Coruña). Socio-demographic and biomedical data were collected and cognitive status was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). We determined variations in the prevalence from 35.2%, when age or level of education distribution was not applied, to 22.2% when they were applied. Women showed a higher probability of cognitive impairment than men. Negative correlation was observed between the age of the subject and the MMSE score (Spearman correlation rho = -0.45, p Knowledge of the real prevalence rates, together with the establishment of adequate preventive and intervention measures, can be factors that may diminish the socio-sanitary impact of cognitive impairment. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Low prevalence of diabetes mellitus in patients with Takotsubo syndrome: A plausible 'protective' effect with pathophysiologic connotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madias, John E

    2016-04-01

    The pathophysiology of Takotsubo syndrome is still elusive; coronary vasospasm, microvascular dysfunction, or catecholamine-mediated injury to the cardiomyocytes, effected by local release from the autonomic nerves and/or blood-borne catecholamines, are considered as tentative cause(s). Diabetes mellitus-induced autonomic neuropathy leads to a brain-heart disconnection, and it can conceivably ameliorate/block the effect of an unbridled adrenergic storm to the heart, and the emergence of Takotsubo syndrome. This study sought to evaluate the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in patients with Takotsubo syndrome. All the papers accessed in PubMed were reviewed, to evaluate the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and hypertension in Takotsubo syndrome patients, employing the rate of the latter as an index of how representative of the general population were the study patients, and the rate of the former as the focus of this investigation. Out of the 1932 papers, 959 were suitable for analysis, reporting on 33,894 patients (88.9% women) with Takotsubo syndrome. In five subanalyses, of all patients, patients reported individually, patients reported collectively in case series, patients ⩾ 60 years old reported individually, and patients ⩾ 65 years old reported individually, the prevalence of hypertension was 57.4%, 42.8%, 57.9%, 50.4%, and 52.2%, correspondingly, and comparable to the 65.4% shown by the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the five subgroups was 16.8%, 10.2%, 17.0%, 11.9%, and 12.5%, correspondingly, and lower than the 26.9% found by the NHANES. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus in patients with Takotsubo syndrome is low. This insight may be useful for the diagnosis, pathophysiology unraveling, and employment of autonomic adrenergic blocking agents in the management of patients with Takotsubo syndrome. © The European Society of Cardiology 2015.

  2. Effect of nutrition survey ‘cleaning criteria’ on estimates of malnutrition prevalence and disease burden: secondary data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonya Crowe

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Tackling childhood malnutrition is a global health priority. A key indicator is the estimated prevalence of malnutrition, measured by nutrition surveys. Most aspects of survey design are standardised, but data ‘cleaning criteria’ are not. These aim to exclude extreme values which may represent measurement or data-entry errors. The effect of different cleaning criteria on malnutrition prevalence estimates was unknown. We applied five commonly used data cleaning criteria (WHO 2006; EPI-Info; WHO 1995 fixed; WHO 1995 flexible; SMART to 21 national Demographic and Health Survey datasets. These included a total of 163,228 children, aged 6–59 months. We focused on wasting (low weight-for-height, a key indicator for treatment programmes. Choice of cleaning criteria had a marked effect: SMART were least inclusive, resulting in the lowest reported malnutrition prevalence, while WHO 2006 were most inclusive, resulting in the highest. Across the 21 countries, the proportion of records excluded was 3 to 5 times greater when using SMART compared to WHO 2006 criteria, resulting in differences in the estimated prevalence of total wasting of between 0.5 and 3.8%, and differences in severe wasting of 0.4–3.9%. The magnitude of difference was associated with the standard deviation of the survey sample, a statistic that can reflect both population heterogeneity and data quality. Using these results to estimate case-loads for treatment programmes resulted in large differences for all countries. Wasting prevalence and caseload estimations are strongly influenced by choice of cleaning criterion. Because key policy and programming decisions depend on these statistics, variations in analytical practice could lead to inconsistent and potentially inappropriate implementation of malnutrition treatment programmes. We therefore call for mandatory reporting of cleaning criteria use so that results can be compared and interpreted appropriately. International consensus

  3. Type 2 diabetes in Mauritania: prevalence of the undiagnosed diabetes, influence of family history and maternal effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiloud, Ghlana; Arfa, Imen; Kefi, Rym; Abdelhamid, Isselmou; Veten, Fatimetou; Lasram, Khaled; Ben Halim, Nizar; Sidi Mhamed, Abdallahi; Samb, Abdoulaye; Abdelhak, Sonia; Houmeida, Ahmed Ould

    2013-04-01

    We estimated the prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes, analyzed the influence of family history on the occurrence of T2D and evaluated its aggregation pattern in the Mauritanian population. The prevalence of unknown diabetes was obtained using data compiled from 1278 Mauritanian adults applying a questionnaire and fasting serum glucose tests. Detailed family history of diabetes and clinical characteristics were gathered from 421 T2D patients. The prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes was 4.7 ± 1.2% in the studied population (3.1% in men and 6.4% in women). 27% of T2D patients reported at least one relative with diabetes. Association between family history and diabetes was higher among first degree compared to second degree relatives (p=0.003). We observed more probands with an affected mother than those who have a father with diabetes (p = 0.002), suggesting a preferential maternal effect which did not extend to second degree relatives. These results show that the prevalence of diabetes in the Mauritanian population could be higher than currently thought. Family history screening may be used in the management of this condition in Mauritania. Copyright © 2012 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. AUTOMATIC TAGGING OF PERSIAN WEB PAGES BASED ON N-GRAM LANGUAGE MODELS USING MAPREDUCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Shahrivari

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Page tagging is one of the most important facilities for increasing the accuracy of information retrieval in the web. Tags are simple pieces of data that usually consist of one or several words, and briefly describe a page. Tags provide useful information about a page and can be used for boosting the accuracy of searching, document clustering, and result grouping. The most accurate solution to page tagging is using human experts. However, when the number of pages is large, humans cannot be used, and some automatic solutions should be used instead. We propose a solution called PerTag which can automatically tag a set of Persian web pages. PerTag is based on n-gram models and uses the tf-idf method plus some effective Persian language rules to select proper tags for each web page. Since our target is huge sets of web pages, PerTag is built on top of the MapReduce distributed computing framework. We used a set of more than 500 million Persian web pages during our experiments, and extracted tags for each page using a cluster of 40 machines. The experimental results show that PerTag is both fast and accurate

  5. Use of fluoride tablets and effect on prevalence of dental caries and dental fluorosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalsbeek, H.; Verrips, E.; Dirks, O.B.

    1992-01-01

    A study was executed to investigate the relation between the use of fluoride tablets by children in the age period 1.5-6 yr on the one hand and the caries experience at the age of 6 and 15 yr and the prevalence of fluorosis at the age of 15 yr on the other hand. The year of birth of the child, the

  6. Age and gender effects on the prevalence of poor sleep quality in the adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrid-Valero, Juan J; Martínez-Selva, José M; Ribeiro do Couto, Bruno; Sánchez-Romera, Juan F; Ordoñana, Juan R

    Sleep quality has a significant impact on health and quality of life and is affected, among other factors, by age and sex. However, the prevalence of problems in this area in the general population is not well known. Therefore, our objective was to study the prevalence and main characteristics of sleep quality in an adult population sample. 2,144 subjects aged between 43 and 71 years belonging to the Murcia (Spain) Twin Registry. Sleep quality was measured by self-report through the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Logistic regression models were used to analyse the results. The prevalence of poor sleep quality stands at 38.2%. Univariate logistic regression analyses showed that women were almost twice as likely as men (OR: 1.88; 95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 1.54 to 2.28) to have poor quality of sleep. Age was directly and significantly associated with a low quality of sleep (OR: 1.05; 95%CI: 1.03 to 1.06). The prevalence of poor sleep quality is high among adults, especially women. There is a direct relationship between age and deterioration in the quality of sleep. This relationship also appears to be more consistent in women. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevalence and Effects of Functional Vitamin K Insufficiency : The PREVEND Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riphagen, Ineke J; Keyzer, Charlotte A; Drummen, Nadja E A; de Borst, Martin H; Beulens, Joline W J; Gansevoort, Ron T; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Muskiet, Frits A J; Navis, Gerjan; Visser, Sipke T; Vermeer, Cees; Kema, Ido P; Bakker, Stephan J L

    2017-01-01

    Matrix Gla Protein (MGP) is a strong vitamin K-dependent inhibitor of soft tissue calcification. We assessed the prevalence of functional vitamin K insufficiency, as derived from plasma desphospho-uncarboxylated MGP (dp-ucMGP), and investigated whether plasma dp-ucMGP is associated with all-cause

  8. Prevalence of ruminants fascioliasis and their economic effects in Kashan, center of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Khoramian

    2014-11-01

    Conclusions: This study indicated that the Fasciola sp. clearly remains prevalent and causes considerable economic losses in study region in sheep, goats and cattle and presumably, other areas and hosts of Iran, providing baseline data for the future monitoring of this potentially important parasitic infection in the country.

  9. Trends in the prevalence of female genital muti-lation and its effect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rational: Female genital mutilation (FGM) is prevalent in northern Ghana, as the practice is seen as a passage rite to women adulthood and thus undertaken just before marriage. Objectives: We determined the changes in trend of FGM in deliveries at the Navrongo War Memo-rial hospital, and compared the outcomes and ...

  10. Effect of gender on hospital admissions for asthma and prevalence of self-reported asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, E; Lange, P; Vestbo, J

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Women are more often admitted to hospital for asthma than men. A study was undertaken to determine whether this is caused by gender differences in the prevalence or severity of the disease. METHODS: Admissions to hospital for asthma in 13,540 subjects were followed from 1977 to 1993. ...

  11. Effect of ABCDE Bundle Implementation on Prevalence of Delirium in Intensive Care Unit Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounds, Mandy; Kram, Stacey; Speroni, Karen Gabel; Brice, Kim; Luschinski, Mary Anne; Harte, Stephanie; Daniel, Marlon G

    2016-11-01

    The ABCDE bundle incorporates multidisciplinary measures to improve and/or preserve patients' physical, functional, and neurocognitive status through awakening and breathing coordination, delirium prevention and management, and early physical mobility. To quantify the prevalence and duration of delirium in patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) before and after implementation of the ABCDE bundle. Delirium prevalence was defined as the percentage of patients who had at least 1 positive delirium score on the Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist (ICDSC) during the ICU stay; delirium duration was the number of days during the ICU stay that a positive ICDSC score was noted. Retrospective data were collected from before and after implementation of the ABCDE bundle. Of the 159 records reviewed (80 before and 79 after bundle implementation), most were for white men (mean age, 66.3 years). After implementation of the ABCDE bundle, the prevalence of delirium decreased significantly (from 38% to 23%, P = .01) and the mean number of days of delirium decreased significantly (from 3.8 to 1.72 days, P < .001). The number of patients with delirium-free stays increased after bundle implementation. Implementation of the ABCDE bundle led to significant decreases in the prevalence and duration of delirium in ICU patients. ©2016 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  12. Is Domain Highlighting Actually Helpful in Identifying Phishing Web Pages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Aiping; Proctor, Robert W; Yang, Weining; Li, Ninghui

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of domain highlighting in helping users identify whether Web pages are legitimate or spurious. As a component of the URL, a domain name can be overlooked. Consequently, browsers highlight the domain name to help users identify which Web site they are visiting. Nevertheless, few studies have assessed the effectiveness of domain highlighting, and the only formal study confounded highlighting with instructions to look at the address bar. We conducted two phishing detection experiments. Experiment 1 was run online: Participants judged the legitimacy of Web pages in two phases. In Phase 1, participants were to judge the legitimacy based on any information on the Web page, whereas in Phase 2, they were to focus on the address bar. Whether the domain was highlighted was also varied. Experiment 2 was conducted similarly but with participants in a laboratory setting, which allowed tracking of fixations. Participants differentiated the legitimate and fraudulent Web pages better than chance. There was some benefit of attending to the address bar, but domain highlighting did not provide effective protection against phishing attacks. Analysis of eye-gaze fixation measures was in agreement with the task performance, but heat-map results revealed that participants' visual attention was attracted by the highlighted domains. Failure to detect many fraudulent Web pages even when the domain was highlighted implies that users lacked knowledge of Web page security cues or how to use those cues. Potential applications include development of phishing prevention training incorporating domain highlighting with other methods to help users identify phishing Web pages.

  13. Measurment of Web Usability: Web Page of Hacettepe University Department of Information Management

    OpenAIRE

    Nazan Özenç Uçak; Tolga Çakmak

    2009-01-01

    Today, information is produced increasingly in electronic form and retrieval of information is provided via web pages. As a result of the rise of the number of web pages, many of them seem to comprise similar contents but different designs. In this respect, presenting information over the web pages according to user expectations and specifications is important in terms of effective usage of information. This study provides an insight about web usability studies that are executed for measuring...

  14. Training Activity Summary Page (TASP) Campus

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Training Activity Summary Page (formerly the Training Exit Survey Cover Page) dataset contains data about each training event. This dataset includes information...

  15. Effect of the Healthy Schools Program on Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in California Schools, 2006–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotterman, Carolyn; Crawford, Pat; Stevelos, JoAnn; Archibald, Abbie

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The Alliance for a Healthier Generation’s Healthy Schools Program (HSP) is a national evidence-based obesity-prevention initiative aimed at providing the schools in greatest need with onsite training and technical assistance (TTA) and consultation with national experts (HSP national advisors) to create sustainable healthy change in schools’ nutrition and physical activity environments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of HSP on the prevalence of overweight and obesity in California schools, from HSP’s inception in 2006 through 2012. Methods We used statewide body mass index (BMI) data collected annually from 5th-, 7th-, and 9th-grade students to determine whether enrolling in the HSP’s onsite intervention reduced the prevalence of overweight and obesity in intervention schools (n = 281) versus propensity-score matched control schools (n = 709) and whether increasing exposure to the program (TTA and contact with HSP national advisors) was associated with reductions in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Results Analyses showed no difference between HSP schools and control schools in overweight or obesity prevalence. However, program exposure varied widely among participating schools, and each additional contact with TTA or HSP national advisors was associated with a 0.3% decline in overweight and obesity prevalence (P schools in reducing obesity. Although participation in HSP alone was not sufficient to improve weight status in California schools, there was a clear dose–response relationship to the program. HSP serves as an effective model for addressing childhood obesity among engaged schools. PMID:25996984

  16. What snippets say about pages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demeester, Thomas; Nguyen, Dong-Phuong; Trieschnigg, Rudolf Berend; Develder, Chris; Hiemstra, Djoerd

    What is the likelihood that a Web page is considered relevant to a query, given the relevance assessment of the corresponding snippet? Using a new FederatedWeb Search test collection that contains search results from over a hundred search engines on the internet, we are able to investigate such

  17. Search Engine Ranking, Quality, and Content of Web Pages That Are Critical Versus Noncritical of Human Papillomavirus Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Linda Y; Zook, Kathleen; Spoehr-Labutta, Zachary; Hu, Pamela; Joseph, Jill G

    2016-01-01

    Online information can influence attitudes toward vaccination. The aim of the present study was to provide a systematic evaluation of the search engine ranking, quality, and content of Web pages that are critical versus noncritical of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. We identified HPV vaccine-related Web pages with the Google search engine by entering 20 terms. We then assessed each Web page for critical versus noncritical bias and for the following quality indicators: authorship disclosure, source disclosure, attribution of at least one reference, currency, exclusion of testimonial accounts, and readability level less than ninth grade. We also determined Web page comprehensiveness in terms of mention of 14 HPV vaccine-relevant topics. Twenty searches yielded 116 unique Web pages. HPV vaccine-critical Web pages comprised roughly a third of the top, top 5- and top 10-ranking Web pages. The prevalence of HPV vaccine-critical Web pages was higher for queries that included term modifiers in addition to root terms. Compared with noncritical Web pages, Web pages critical of HPV vaccine overall had a lower quality score than those with a noncritical bias (p Web pages required viewers to have higher reading skills, were less likely to include an author byline, and were more likely to include testimonial accounts. They also were more likely to raise unsubstantiated concerns about vaccination. Web pages critical of HPV vaccine may be frequently returned and highly ranked by search engine queries despite being of lower quality and less comprehensive than noncritical Web pages. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The mathematics behind PageRank algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Spačal, Gregor

    2016-01-01

    PageRank is Google's algorithm for ranking web pages by relevance. Pages can then be hierarchically sorted in order to provide better search results. The MSc thesis considers functioning, relevance, general properties of web search and its weaknesses before the appearance of Google. One of the most important questions is, if we can formally explain the mathematics behind PageRank algorithm and what mathematical knowledge is necessary. Finally, we present an example of its implementation i...

  19. Period Prevalence and Perceived Side Effects of Hormonal Contraceptive Use and the Menstrual Cycle in Elite Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Daniel; Sale, Craig; Cooper, Simon B; Elliott-Sale, Kirsty J

    2017-12-28

    To identify the period prevalence of hormonal contraceptive (HC) use and characterise the perceived side effects associated with the menstrual cycle and HC use. 430 elite female athletes completed a questionnaire to assess; the period prevalence of HC use, the reasons for initiation and discontinuation of HCs and the side effects experienced by HC and non-HC users. Descriptive statistics, between-group comparisons and associations between categorical variables were calculated. 49.5% of athletes were currently using HCs and 69.8% had used HCs at some point. Combined oral contraceptives were most commonly used (68.1%), with 30.0% using progestin-only contraceptives (implant = 13.1%; injection = 3.7%; intrauterine system = 2.8%). Perceived negative side effects were more common with progestin-only HC use (39.1%) compared to combined HC use (17.8%; P = 0.001) and were most prevalent in implant users (53.6%; P = 0.004). HC users reported perceived positive side effects relating to the ability to predict and/or manipulate the timing, frequency and amount of menstrual bleeding. Non-HC users had a menstrual cycle length of 29 ± 5 d and 77.4% reported negative side effects during their menstrual cycle, primarily during days 1-2 of menstruation (81.6%). Approximately half of elite athletes used HCs and progestin-only contraceptive users reported greater incidences of negative side effects, especially with the implant. Due to the high inter-individual variability in reported side effects, athletes and practitioners should maintain an open dialogue to pursue the best interests of the athlete.

  20. The effects of tertiary wastewater treatment on the prevalence of antimicrobial resistant bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guardabassi, L.; Wong, Danilo Lo Fo; Dalsgaard, A.

    2002-01-01

    and anaerobically digested sludge by bacteriological counts on media selective for coliforms (MacConkey agar) and Acinetobacter spp. (Baumann agar). In addition, the level of antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by the disc-diffusion method in 442 Acinetobacter isolates identified by colony hybridisation......-resistant presumptive coliforms and Acinetobacter spp. in treated sewage and digested sludge were not significantly higher compared with raw sewage. On the contrary at one plant, statistically significant decreases were observed in the prevalence of ampicillin-resistant presumptive Acinetobacter spp. (p = 0.......0188) following sewage treatment, and in the prevalence of either ampicillin-resistant presumptive Acinetobacter spp. (p = 0.0013) or ampicillin- and gentamicin-resistant presumptive coliforms (p = 0.0273 and p = 0.0186) following sludge treatment. The results obtained by bacteriological counts were confirmed...

  1. Accessibility of State Department of Education Home Pages and Special Education Pages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitz, Christine; Savenye, Wilhelmina; Rowland, Cyndi

    2003-01-01

    This study evaluated State Department of Education Internet home pages and special education pages for accessibility compliance with standards of the World Wide Web Consortium and Section 508 of the revised Rehabilitation Act. Only 26% of state department home pages and 52% of special education pages achieved W3C compliance and fewer conformed…

  2. Dermatology Internet Yellow Page advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Shayla; Kozak, Katarzyna Z; Heilig, Lauren; Lundahl, Kristy; Bowland, Terri; Hester, Eric; Best, Arthur; Dellavalle, Robert P

    2006-07-01

    Patients may use Internet Yellow Pages to help select a physician. We sought to describe dermatology Internet Yellow Page advertising. Dermatology advertisements in Colorado, California, New York, and Texas at 3 Yellow Page World Wide Web sites were systematically examined. Most advertisements (76%; 223/292) listed only one provider, 56 listed more than one provider, and 13 listed no practitioner names. Five advertisements listed provider names without any credentialing letters, 265 listed at least one doctor of medicine or osteopathy, and 9 listed only providers with other credentials (6 doctors of podiatric medicine and 3 registered nurses). Most advertisements (61%; 179/292) listed a doctor of medicine or osteopathy claiming board certification, 78% (139/179) in dermatology and 22% (40/179) in other medical specialties. Four (1%; 4/292) claims of board certification could not be verified (one each in dermatology, family practice, dermatologic/cosmetologic surgery, and laser surgery). Board certification could be verified for most doctors of medicine and osteopathy not advertising claims of board certification (68%; 41/60; 32 dermatology, 9 other specialties). A total of 50 advertisements (17%) contained unverifiable or no board certification information, and 47 (16%) listed a physician with verifiable board certification in a field other than dermatology. All Internet Yellow Page World Wide Web sites and all US states were not examined. Nonphysicians, physicians board certified in medical specialties other than dermatology, and individuals without verifiable board certification in any medical specialty are advertising in dermatology Internet Yellow Pages. Many board-certified dermatologists are not advertising this certification.

  3. Low Prevalence and Clinical Effect of Vascular Risk Factors in Early-Onset Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yaohua; Sillaire, Adeline Rollin; Dallongeville, Jean; Skrobala, Emilie; Wallon, David; Dubois, Bruno; Hannequin, Didier; Pasquier, Florence

    2017-01-01

    Determinants of early-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD) are not well known. In late-onset AD, vascular risk factors (VRFs) are associated with earlier clinical manifestation. The objective of this study was to assess the putative association between VRFs and EOAD. We studied participants with dementia meeting criteria for EOAD (recruited into the French CoMAJ prospective cohort study from 1 June 2009 to 28 February 2014) and age-, gender-matched controls (ratio 1:3, drawn randomly from the French MONA-LISA population-based survey between 2005 and 2007). Demographic data, VRFs, comorbidities, treatments, and APOE genotypes were compared in multivariable logistic regression analyses. We studied 102 participants with dementia (mean±standard deviation age: 59.5±3.8; women: 59.8%) and 306 controls. Compared with controls, EOAD participants had spent less time in formal education (9.9±2.9 versus 11.7±3.8 y; p < 0.0001), were less likely to be regular alcohol consumers (p < 0.0001), had a lower body mass index (-2 kg/m2; p < 0.0004), and a lower mean systolic blood pressure (-6.2 mmHg; p = 0.0036). The prevalence of APOE ɛ4 allele was higher in participants with dementia than in controls (50% versus 29.4%; p = 0.0002), as was the prevalence of depression (48% versus 32%; p < 0.001). Similar results were observed in multivariable analysis. Compared with EOAD participants lacking VRFs, EOAD participants with at least one VRF had a higher prevalence of depression (29.6% versus 53.3%, respectively; p = 0.03). The prevalence of VRFs is not elevated in EOAD patients (in contrast to older AD patients). Extensive genetic testing should be considered more frequently in the context of EOAD.

  4. Prevalence of insomnia symptoms in a general population sample of young children and preadolescents: gender effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Susan L; Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Vgontzas, Alexandros N; Liao, Duanping; Bixler, Edward O

    2014-01-01

    Our population-based study examined the prevalence of insomnia symptoms and its sociodemographic, subjective, and polysomnographic (PSG) sleep risk factors in young and preadolescent children. We performed a cross-sectional study of 700 children, ages 5-12 years who underwent a 9-h PSG and parent-completed sleep and development questionnaires (Penn State Child Cohort). Insomnia symptoms were defined as parent report of difficulty falling or staying asleep and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) as an apnea hypopnea index of ≥1. The prevalence of insomnia symptoms was 19.3% and did not significantly change (20.2%) when children with SDB were excluded. A significant interaction between gender and age revealed that the prevalence of insomnia symptoms was highest in girls ages 11 to 12 years (30.6%). This gender difference was not associated with significant differences between girls and boys ages 11-12 years in anxiety and depressive symptoms. In contrast girls ages 11-12 years with insomnia symptoms, but not boys of the same group, demonstrated clinically significant PSG sleep disturbances compared to those without insomnia symptoms. These data suggest that one out of five young children and preadolescents of the general population have insomnia symptoms. Importantly, the prevalence of insomnia symptoms peaks in girls ages 11 to 12 years and is associated with objective sleep disturbances which may be related to hormonal changes associated with the onset of puberty rather than anxiety and depression. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Eating Disorders in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Prevalence and Effect on Treatment Outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Tobiassen, Linn Graham

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the prevalence of eating disorder symptoms in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Additional aims were to assess whether having comorbid eating disorders could influence the treatment outcome for OCD, and if symptoms of eating disorders were reduced after treatment for OCD. The sample consisted of 93 patients with a primary diagnosis of OCD. The patients underwent assessment with the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, Beck Depress...

  6. The Effect of Draft DSM-5 Criteria on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Prevalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Patrick S.; Hertzberg, Jeffrey S.; Kirby, Angela C.; Dennis, Michelle F.; Hair, Lauren P.; Dedert, Eric A.; Beckham, Jean C.

    2012-01-01

    Background This study was designed to examine the concordance of proposed DSM-5 posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) criteria with DSM-IV classification rules and examine the impact of the proposed DSM-5 PTSD criteria on prevalence. Method The sample (N=185) included participants who were recruited for studies focused on trauma and health conducted at an academic medical center and VA medical center in the southeastern United States. The prevalence and concordance between DSM-IV and the proposed DSM-5 classifications were calculated based on results from structured clinical interviews. Prevalence rates and diagnostic efficiency indices including sensitivity, specificity, area under the curve (AUC), and Kappa were calculated for each of the possible ways to define DSM-5 PTSD. Results Ninety-five percent of the sample reported an event that met both DSM-IV PTSD Criterion A1 and A2, but only 89% reported a trauma that met Criterion A on DSM-5. Results examining concordance between DSM-IV and DSM-5 algorithms indicated that several of the algorithms had AUCs above .90. The requirement of two symptoms from both Clusters D and E provided strong concordance to DSM-IV (AUC = .93; Kappa = .86) and a greater balance between sensitivity and specificity than requiring three symptoms in both Clusters D and E. Conclusions Despite several significant changes to the diagnostic criteria for PTSD for DSM-5, several possible classification rules provided good concordance with DSM-IV. The magnitude of the impact of DSM-5 decision rules on prevalence will be largely affected by the DSM-IV PTSD base rate in the population of interest. PMID:23109002

  7. The effect of draft DSM-V criteria on posttraumatic stress disorder prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Patrick S; Hertzberg, Jeffrey S; Kirby, Angela C; Dennis, Michelle F; Hair, Lauren P; Dedert, Eric A; Beckham, Jean C

    2012-12-01

    This study was designed to examine the concordance of proposed DSM-V posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) criteria with DSM-IV classification rules and examine the impact of the proposed DSM-V PTSD criteria on prevalence. The sample (N = 185) included participants who were recruited for studies focused on trauma and health conducted at an academic medical center and VA medical center in the southeastern United States. The prevalence and concordance between DSM-IV and the proposed DSM-V classifications were calculated based on results from structured clinical interviews. Prevalence rates and diagnostic efficiency indices including sensitivity, specificity, area under the curve (AUC), and Kappa were calculated for each of the possible ways to define DSM-V PTSD. Ninety-five percent of the sample reported an event that met both DSM-IV PTSD Criterion A1 and A2, but only 89% reported a trauma that met Criterion A on DSM-V. Results examining concordance between DSM-IV and DSM-V algorithms indicated that several of the algorithms had AUCs above 0.90. The requirement of two symptoms from both Clusters D and E provided strong concordance to DSM-IV (AUC = 0.93; Kappa = 0.86) and a greater balance between sensitivity and specificity than requiring three symptoms in both Clusters D and E. Despite several significant changes to the diagnostic criteria for PTSD for DSM-V, several possible classification rules provided good concordance with DSM-IV. The magnitude of the impact of DSM-V decision rules on prevalence will be largely affected by the DSM-IV PTSD base rate in the population of interest. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Classifying web pages with visual features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, V.; van Someren, M.; Lupascu, T.; Filipe, J.; Cordeiro, J.

    2010-01-01

    To automatically classify and process web pages, current systems use the textual content of those pages, including both the displayed content and the underlying (HTML) code. However, a very important feature of a web page is its visual appearance. In this paper, we show that using generic visual

  9. Normocalcaemic hypoparathyroidism: prevalence and effect on bone status in older women. The OPUS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Andrea; Jacques, Richard; Gossiel, Fatma; Reid, David M; Roux, Christian; Felsenberg, Dieter; Glueer, Claus-C; Eastell, Richard

    2015-06-01

    There are no consistent data on the prevalence and bone status of normocalcaemic hypoparathyroidism (NHYPO) as defined by normal adjusted calcium and low PTH level. Our aim was to determine the prevalence and the metabolic bone profile of NHYPO in older women, assessing its evolution over time. The second objective was to evaluate the prevalence of other calcium metabolic disorders. The Osteoporosis and Ultrasound Study (OPUS) is a 6-yr prospective study of fracture-related factors. A total of 2419 older women (age 55-79 yrs) and 258 younger women (age 30-40 yrs) participated. Complete follow-up data were available in 1416 subjects. After calculating the adjusted calcium according to James' formula, we identified 'abnormal' calcium and PTH using Mahalanobis distances and allocated older women into different pathological categories using reference intervals from the healthy young women. We identified 57 subjects with NHYPO (2·4%). These women had lower than expected bone turnover as assessed by bone alkaline phosphatase (-14·5%, 95% CI: -26·2 to -3·0, P = 0·007), CTX (-66·3%, 95% CI: -74·0 to -56·4, P hypoparathyroidism and only 15 (0·6%) subjects had persistent evidence of NHYPO. We also identified 86 subjects (3·6%) affected by hyperparathyroid hypercalcaemia. This is the first large population-based study to investigate NHYPO in older women. NHYPO is fairly common, not always persistent and is characterized by low bone turnover. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. PREVALENCE OF PHYSICAL VIOLENCE AGAINST PREGNANT WOMEN AND EFFECTS ON MATERNAL AND BIRTH OUTCOMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nojomi Z. Akrami

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Violence and the threat of violence against pregnant women are main barriers to women’s empowerment and equal participation in society. When stress and violence increase in developing societies, women’s safety in the home, workplace and community is often seriously affected. To determine the prevalence of physical abuse in pregnant women and to assess association between physical violence during pregnancy and maternal complications and birth outcomes, we used clinicbased data from a sample of 403 women who delivered live born infants during the summer of 2002 in our hospital. Data of physical violence against women’s during pregnancy and 3 months before that were based on questionnaire and interview. Outcomes data including antenatal hospitalization, labor and delivery complications were obtained from the records. Prevalence of physical violence during pregnancy was reported as 10.7%. Prevalence of experience of physical abuse 3 months before pregnancy was 11.9%. Women who experienced physical violence compared with those not reporting abuse were more likely to be smoker and hospitalized before delivery for maternal complications such as preterm labor, kidney infections, premature rupture of membranes and vaginal bleeding with pain. There was a significant association between physical violence and low birth weight and mother’s education. Physical violence during pregnancy is common and is associated with maternal complications and adverse birth outcomes. We suggest including methods to determine frequency of violence during pregnancy and assessment of violence in pregnancy by a screening program integrated in prenatal care.

  11. Current levels of gonorrhoea screening in MSM in Belgium may have little effect on prevalence: a modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyze, J; Vanden Berghe, W; Hens, N; Kenyon, C

    2018-02-01

    There is considerable uncertainty as to the effectiveness of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) screening in men who have sex with men. It is important to ensure that screening has benefits that outweigh the risks of increased antibiotics resistance. We develop a mathematical model to estimate the effectiveness of screening on prevalence. Separable Temporal Exponential family Random Graph Models are used to model the sexual relationships network, both with main and casual partners. Next, the transmission of Gonorrhoea is simulated on this network. The models are implemented using the R package 'statnet', which we adapted among other things to incorporate infection status at the pharynx, urethra and rectum separately and to distinguish between anal sex, oral sex and rimming. The different screening programmes compared are no screening, 3.5% of the population screened, 32% screened and 50% screened. The model simulates day-by-day evolution for 10 years of a population of 10 000. If half of the population would be screened, the prevalence in the pharynx decreases from 11.9% to 10.2%. We conclude that the limited impact of screening on NG prevalence may not outweigh the increased risk of antibiotic resistance.

  12. Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate- Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS- PAGE) of Irradiated Wheat Flour Proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souzan, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    Sodium dodecyl sulfate - polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of wheat (Triticum aestivum L) flour have revealed 23 polypeptides of molecular weights between 170 and 11.57 KDa, High molecular weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS) were distinguished. Densitometric analysis of the gel showed the effect of radiation on polypeptide constitution at radiation energy up to 7.5 kGy. Irradiation of wheat flour with 2.5 kGy have resulted in a slight increase in the molecular weight of wheat flour protein subunits. The increase of irradiation dose to 5.0 kGy has also induced an additional increase of molecular weight of protein subunits. The continuity in application of more radiation energy to a level of 7.5 kGy have resulted in the prevalence of degradation processes of all protein subunits more than the aggregation

  13. Effects of Carbapenem consumption on the prevalence of Acinetobacter infection in intensive care unit patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogutlu, Aziz; Guclu, Ertugrul; Karabay, Oguz; Utku, Aylin Calica; Tuna, Nazan; Yahyaoglu, Mehmet

    2014-01-09

    The consumption of carbapenems has increased worldwide, together with the increase in resistant gram negative bacilli. Subsequently, the prevalence of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter infections has increased rapidly and become a significant problem particularly in intensive care unit patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the changes in the prevalence of Acinetobacter infection by restricting the consumption of carbapenems in intensive care unit patients. This study was conducted between May 1, 2011 and February 28, 2013. The amount of carbapenem consumption and the number of patients with multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAB) isolates during the study period were retrospectively obtained from the records of the patients, who were hospitalized in the intensive care unit. The study period was divided into two periods named as: Carbapenem non-restricted period (CNRP) and carbapenem-restricted period (CRP). During CNRP, no restrictions were made on the use of carbapenems. During CRP, the use of carbapenems was not allowed if there was an alternative to carbapenems. Primary Endpoint: MDRAB infection after ICU admission. The definition of nosocomial infections related to Acinetobacter spp. was based on the criteria of the Center for Disease Control (CDC). The correlation between the amount of carbapenem consumption and the number of infections with MDRAB strains between the two periods were evaluated. During the study period, a total of 1822 patients' (1053 patients in CNRP and 769 patients in CRP) records were evaluated retrospectively. A total of 10.82 defined daily dose (DDD/100 ICU days) of anti-pseudomonal carbapenem were used in CNRP, and this figure decreased to 6.95 DDD/100 ICU days in CRP. In the 8-month CNRP, 42 (3.98%) MDRAB-related nosocomial infections were detected, and 14 (1.82%) infections were detected in CRP (p = 0.012). The prevalence of MDRAB strains isolated in the CNRP was 2.24-fold higher than the prevalence in

  14. Effect of sibling number in the household and birth order on prevalence of Helicobacter pylori: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Alexander C; Forman, David; Bailey, Alastair G; Goodman, Karen J; Axon, Anthony T R; Moayyedi, Paul

    2007-12-01

    Infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is acquired mainly in childhood, with studies demonstrating this is related to living conditions. Effects of sibling number and birth order on prevalence of infection have not been extensively studied. The authors performed a cross-sectional survey of adults, aged between 50 and 59 years, previously involved in a community-screening programme for H. pylori in Leeds and Bradford, UK. Prevalence of H. pylori was assessed at baseline with urea breath test. All individuals who were alive, and could be traced, were contacted by postal questionnaire in 2003 obtaining information on number of siblings and birth order. Data concerning childhood socioeconomic conditions were stored on file from the original study. 3928 (47%) of 8407 original participants provided data. Prevalence of infection increased according to sibling number (20% in those with none vs 63% with eight or more). Controlling for childhood socioeconomic conditions and birth order using multivariate logistic regression, infection odds were substantially increased with three siblings compared with none [odds ratio (OR) 1.51; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-2.15], and a gradient of effect continued up to eight or more siblings (OR 5.70; 95% CI 2.92-11.14). Odds of infection also increased substantially with birth order, but the positive gradient disappeared on adjustment for sibling number and childhood socioeconomic conditions. : In this cross section of UK adults, aged 50-59 years, sibling number in the household, but not birth order, was independently associated with prevalence of H. pylori infection.

  15. The Prevalence of Anabolic Steroid Misuse and the Awareness about Its Negative Effects among Bodybuilders in Karaj City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Arazi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Regarding the increase in the misuse of anabolic steroids among young athletes particularly bodybuilding and power lifting athletes, this study aims to specify the degree of misuse prevalence anabolic steroid and the awareness of the side effects of such drugs among Karaj bodybuilders. Materials and Methods: This study is descriptive. All the bodybuilders of Karaj city was the participants of this research. The measurement instrument of this research was a questionnaire that contained 25 questions (7 questions were for background information, 9 questions were for awareness, 4 questions for attitudes about use of such drugs and the left 5 ones were for misuse prevalence that distributed among 320 bodybuilding athletes of different parts of Karaj. The response rate was 63.75% (240 persons from total 320 persons. At last, the current research output analyzed by the SPSS software and descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: The analysis showed that 62.7% of athletes that participated in the research used such drugs. Also, the data analysis showed that there was a meaningful relationship between the sport histories of the involved participants with misuse prevalence (p0.05. In addition to this, data analysis showed that there was a significant relationship between misuse prevalence and wrong attitudes about anabolic steroid (p< 0.05. The comparison of the current study results about the misuse of anabolic steroid with a similar research at 1382 showed 140% increase in the misuse of these drugs. Conclusion: This study indicates the high use of anabolic steroids among bodybuilders. According to this, we understand that the bodybuilders in Karaj don’t consult with specialist in this field get wrong information from unprofessional people. This leads the high misuse of such drugs. So, it is recommended to hold the prevention programs and athletes training about the side effects of anabolic steroids.

  16. Pages 524 - 529.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    cream (group III). The effects of the treatments on rate of wound closure, epithelialisation time and histological organization of tissue were assessed. Results: The herbal formulation (Jena) had a ... Histological picture revealed more collagen fibers, less inflammation and better tissue remodeling for rats treated with herbal.

  17. Pages 370 - 376.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    cryotherapy is appropriate and effective for most women with abnormalities on visual screening. Additional research is needed to investigate factors influencing the cure-rate of cryotherapy in low- resource settings. Acknowledgements. This project was supported by a grant from The. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation through ...

  18. Pages 498 - 506.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    , MO USA. Serum biochemical ... The effect of kolaviron (KV) administered daily for. 3 consecutive weeks was studied in STZ-diabetic .... (life span of red blood cells) and it reflects glycemic control in patients30. In this study, the levels of HbA1c.

  19. Pages 545 - 551.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    To further substantiate the claimed use of the plant, the present study reports the hypotensive effect of the aqueous extract of the leaves of M.stenopetala both in in vivo and in vitro experiments. Methods. Plant material collection, extraction and laboratory animal preparation. Fresh and uncrushed leaves of M. stenopetala ...

  20. Pages 370 - 376.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Background: In low-resource settings, cryotherapy can be cost-effective, affordable, and a first-line treatment for cervical intraepithelial neplasia ... Methods: Visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA)-positive women and those suspected of having cervical cancer based on an initial ... These slides were examined by a cytologist ...

  1. Trends and age, period and cohort effects for marijuana use prevalence in the 1984-2015 US National Alcohol Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, William C; Lui, Camillia; Ye, Yu

    2018-03-01

    Epidemiological trends show marijuana use in the United States to have increased in recent years. Previous research has identified cohort effects as contributing to the rising prevalence, in particular birth cohorts born after 1945. However, given recent policy efforts to regulate marijuana use at the state level, period effects could also play a contributory role. This study aimed to examine whether cohort or period effects play a larger role in explaining trends in marijuana use. Using data from seven National Alcohol Surveys, we estimated age-period-cohort decomposition models for marijuana use, controlling for socio-demographic measures. United States. US general population aged 18 and older from 1984 to 2015. Any past-year marijuana use. Results indicated that period effects were the main driver of rising marijuana use prevalence. Models including indicators of medical and recreational marijuana policies did not find any significant positive impacts. The steep rise in marijuana use in the United States since 2005 occurred across the population and is attributable to general period effects not linked specifically to the liberalization of marijuana policies in some states. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  2. Effect of working characteristics and taught ergonomics on the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders amongst dental students

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Work-related musculoskeletal disorders are one of the main occupational health hazards affecting dental practitioners. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorder (WMSD) amongst dental students. Possible correlations with the working environment and ergonomics taught in Malaysian dental schools were also sought. Methods Five dental schools in Malaysia participated in this cross-sectional study. A validated self-administered questionnaire was used to establish the point prevalence of WMSD in the dental students based on various body regions. The questionnaire also collected data regarding the working environment, clinical practice and the taught ergonomics of the students during their training years. Results Out of five hundred and sixty eight dental students who participated in the study, 410 were in their clinical years whilst 158 were students in their non- clinical years. Ninety three percent of the clinical year students reported symptoms of WMSD in one or more body regions. Female students reported a significantly higher numbers of symptoms compared to male students. The neck (82%) and lower back (64%) were reported to have the highest prevalence of WMSD. Discomfort in the neck region was found to be associated with self-reported frequency of bending of the neck. A majority of students (92%) reported minimum participation in workshops related to ergonomics in dentistry and 77% were unfamiliar with treatment and remedies available in the case of WMSD. Conclusions There was more WMSD seen in dental students who had started their clinical years. Neck and lower back are more injury prone areas and are at increased risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders. Theory and practice of ergonomics should be incorporated into the dental undergraduate curriculum. PMID:23547959

  3. PREVALENCE OF BACTERIAL VAGINOSIS IN CASES OF PRETERM LABOUR AND ITS EFFECTS ON OBSTETRIC OUTCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mini Chenicheri

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Abnormal vaginal flora is an important cause of preterm labour with subsequent delivery of a preterm newborn, which is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Bacterial vaginosis is a condition where there is a decrease in concentration of Lactobacillus and an increase in pathogenic bacteria. The aim of the study is to study the- 1. Prevalence of bacterial vaginosis in preterm labour in comparison with term pregnant women in labour. 2. Adverse obstetric outcome associated with bacterial vaginosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS Study was carried out in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology and Microbiology, Government Medical College, Kozhikode. It is a prospective, cross-sectional descriptive study from August 2012 to January 2013. Subjects included 100 women in spontaneous preterm labour. 100 term women in labour were the controls. All patients had vaginal discharge collected from the posterior vaginal fornix with cotton swabs. Clinical composite criteria by Amsel’s and Nugent’s scoring was used to diagnose bacterial vaginosis. The saline wet mount of the discharge was examined microscopically for ‘clue’ cells, 10% KOH added to get an amine odour. Vaginal smear was Gram stained and evaluated by Nugent’s criteria. Obstetric outcome noted in both groups. RESULTS Prevalence was more (38% in the preterm group. Bacterial vaginosis detected by Amsel’s criteria was 30% in preterm and 7% in term group. Sensitivity of Amsel’s criteria was 48.7%, specificity was 88.8% with a positive predictive value of 51.4% and negative predictive value of 87.7%. With Nugent’s criteria, number of patients with score >7 was significantly higher (19% in preterm than term (4% patients. CONCLUSION Prevalence of bacterial vaginosis was higher in the preterm group. Clinical method using Amsel’s criteria together with Gram stain is a simple, inexpensive, easily reproducible method for diagnosis. Bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy has a

  4. The Effect of Human Impact on Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis prevalence in Taricha torosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, V.; Macario, E.; Tumey, C.

    2014-12-01

    Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is emerging as a major cause of the amphibian extinction. As amphibians serve an important role as indicator species in their ecosystem and play a vital role in the food chain, Bd will not only affect the amphibian population but also the health of the environment. Bd is an aquatic fungus that blocks the porous skin of amphibians which interrupts electrolyte, gas and water transfer. This imbalances the electrolyte system which causes cells and organs to malfunction, therefore killing the amphibian. While frogs are more common for Bd, it is not often found in newts. However, Dr. Vance Vredenburg recently found an outbreak of Bd in Taricha torosa in Marin Headlands, California. This location was used in the research as the sample site with most human impact and was expected to have the highest prevalence according to the proposed hypothesis that more human impact will correspond with a higher prevalence of Bd. Decreasing the level of human impact, Fairfield Osborn Preserve and Galbreath Preserve were picked as the other sample sites. After the samples went through qPCR, all of them came back negative for Bd. These results did not support the hypothesis, however, it contributed data to explaining the dynamics of Bd when combined with Dr. Vance Vredenburg's data from 2 months earlier. Within the two months, there was a huge difference in the prevalence of Bd as it dropped from 88% to 0%. This shows that Taricha torosa does in fact get Bd. However, it is rarely detected because Bd is fast-acting and has high mortality rates. Therefore, it is least likely for current nonspecific surveys to swab the newts during a short but lethal Bd outbreak.

  5. Effect of gender on hospital admissions for asthma and prevalence of self-reported asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, E; Lange, P; Vestbo, J

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Women are more often admitted to hospital for asthma than men. A study was undertaken to determine whether this is caused by gender differences in the prevalence or severity of the disease. METHODS: Admissions to hospital for asthma in 13,540 subjects were followed from 1977 to 1993......% confidence interval 1.2 to 2.4). This increased risk was not due to misclassification of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as asthma. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate gender-related differences in either the severity, perception, or management of asthma....

  6. Urinary Incontinence in Pregnant Women: Prevalence, Associated Factors, and Its Effects on Health-Related Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Gulsah; Seven, Memnun; Guvenc, Gulten; Akyuz, Aygul

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for urinary incontinence (UI) during pregnancy and to evaluate its effect on health-related quality of life. Descriptive, cross-sectional study. The sample of the study comprised 287 pregnant women attending an outpatient clinic located in a research and training hospital in Ankara, Turkey. Data were collected using an investigator-developed questionnaire that included 2 validated instruments, the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Short Form and Incontinence Quality of Life scale. The prevalence of UI in the study population was 21.3% (n = 61). Cumulative scores in pregnant women who "always" experienced UI and those who expressed a "large amount" of UI were lower than women with milder UI. Logistic regression analysis found associations between UI and age in years (odds ratio [OR] = 3.833; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.763-8.332), parity (OR = 2.539; 95% CI, 1.135-5.675), third trimester versus first trimester (OR = 3.206; 95% CI, 1.178-8.725), and prior use of hormonal contraceptives (OR = 0.209; 95% CI, 0.085-0.513). Urinary incontinence is prevalent among pregnant women. Age, parity, and gestational week were associated with an increased likelihood of UI during pregnancy. Prior use of contraceptive hormones was associated with a reduced risk of UI during pregnancy.

  7. Menstruation disturbances: prevalence, characteristics, and effects on the activities of daily living among adolescent girls from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitangui, Ana Carolina R; Gomes, Mayra Ruana de A; Lima, Alaine Souza; Schwingel, Paulo Adriano; Albuquerque, Ana Paula dos S; de Araújo, Rodrigo Cappato

    2013-06-01

    To determine the prevalence, characteristics and effects on the activities of daily living of menstruation disturbances among adolescent girls. Descriptive, cross-sectional study. A public school in the city of Petrolina, Brazil. 218 female adolescents of ages between 12 and 17 years. We used a structured questionnaire addressing the socio-demographic and menstrual characteristics of the adolescents. The intensity of menstrual pain and its effect on the activities of daily living were measured using an 11-point numeric rating scale. The mean age of adolescent girls was 13.7 ± 1.5 years. The menstrual cycles of 67% were regular, while 33% were irregular. Dysmenorrhea had a prevalence of 73%, and school absenteeism was observed among 31% of the adolescents. In addition, 66% of the participants considered that dysmenorrhea affected their activities of daily living. Associations were found between the intensity of pain and the variables: school absenteeism; affected activities of daily living; need to use medications; and between affected activities of daily living and school absenteeism (P < .05). Among the menstrual disturbances observed dysmenorrhea stood out due to its high prevalence among adolescents with a negative effect on adolescents' activities of daily living. Early diagnosis and knowledge about menstrual disturbances are essential because in addition to reiterating the importance of implementing health education actions, they also help to choose appropriate treatments, thus minimizing the negative effects of these disturbances on the lives of adolescents. Copyright © 2013 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The effect of new links on Google Pagerank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avrachenkov, K.; Litvak, Nelli

    2006-01-01

    PageRank is one of the principle criteria according to which Google ranks Web pages. PageRank can be interpreted as the frequency that a random surfer visits a Web page, and thus it reflects the popularity of a Web page. We study the effect of newly created links on Google PageRank. We discuss to

  9. White coat effect and masked uncontrolled hypertension in treated hypertensive-diabetic patients: Prevalence and target organ damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiria, Liana F; Severo, Mateus D; Ledur, Priscila S; Becker, Alexandre D; Aguiar, Fernanda M; Massierer, Daniela; Freitas, Valéria C; Schaan, Beatriz D; Gus, Miguel

    2015-09-01

    The association between hypertensive phenotypes of controlled hypertension (CH), white-coat effect (WCE), masked uncontrolled hypertension (MUH) and sustained hypertension (SH) with target organ damage have not been clearly established in diabetic hypertensive treated patients. The present study aims to evaluate the prevalence of the four phenotypes considering the current cut-off points for office and 24 h-ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) and the association with left ventricle hypertrophy (LVH), diastolic function and nephropathy. Cross-sectional study with 304 patients on anti-hypertensive treatment aged 57.6 ± 6.1 years, who were submitted to ABPM and echocardiography. They were classified into CH (normal office BP and ABPM), WCE (high office BP and normal ABPM), MUH (normal office BP and high ABPM), and SH (high office BP and ABPM). Median HbA1c and diabetes duration were 7.9% (6.8-9.2), and 10 years (5-16), respectively. Prevalences of CH, WCE, MUH and SH were 27.3%, 17.1%, 18.8%, and 36.8%. MUH prevalence was higher than previously described. There was a significant increasing trend across the four groups in variables related to LVH (P ABPM beyond the traditional cardiovascular risk stratification tools has limitations, but is still useful in high-risk patients. Longitudinal studies could better evaluate the role of the use of ABPM in this scenario. Cut-off points for normality of office and ABPM influence the prevalences of WCH and MUH. © 2014 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. Market study: Tactile paging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    A market survey was conducted regarding the commercialization potential and key market factors relevant to a tactile paging system for deaf-blind people. The purpose of the tactile paging system is to communicate to the deaf-blind people in an institutional environment. The system consists of a main console and individual satellite wrist units. The console emits three signals by telemetry to the wrist com (receiving unit) which will measure approximately 2 x 4 x 3/4 inches and will be fastened to the wrist by a strap. The three vibration signals are fire alarm, time period indication, and a third signal which will alert the wearer of the wrist com to the fact that the pin on the top of the wrist is emitting a morse coded message. The Morse code message can be felt and recognized with the finger.

  11. 30 Page 22 www.jopat.gov.ng JOPAT Vol. 15(2)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    COMPASIONATE

    ABSTRACT. Aim: This study was aimed at determining the prevalence, antibiotic resistance and heat resistance ... grounded garlic, chunked fresh tomatoes and .... Page 26 www.jopat.gov.ng. Table 3. Antibiotic susceptibility study of the isolates from suya samples. Antibiotics. Sensitive. Resistant. Intermediate. Gentamicin.

  12. Prevalence of low-back pain in Danish office workers and the effect of Intelligent Physical Exercise Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalager, Tina; Justesen, Just Bendix; Murray, Mike

    Background: Low back pain is common among office workers. Physical exercise training at the workplace may reduce the prevalence and result in additional health benefits. The present aim was to assess the effect of individually tailored Intelligent Physical Exercise Training (IPET......) on musculoskeletal health. Methods: Office workers were randomized 1:1 to a training group, TG (N=194) or a reference group, REF (N=195). TG received one-hour supervised high intensity IPET every week within working hours for one year and requested to exercise 30 minutes moderate intensity six days weekly during...

  13. The prevalence and nature of sexual harassment in the workplace: A model for early identification and effective management thereof

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ramsaroop

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the prevalence and nature of sexual harassment and, assesses the impact of supervisory relations, levels of interaction, appearance and personality and types of behaviour. The study was undertaken at a tertiary institution using a sample of 74 employees, drawn by means of simple random sampling. Data was collected using a self-developed questionnaire, which was statistically tested and, analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results indicate that the sub-dimensions of the study impact significantly on sexual harassment. Based on the findings, a model for early identification and effective management of sexual harassment in the workplace was generated.

  14. The cumulative effect of core lifestyle behaviours on the prevalence of hypertension and dyslipidemia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Villegas, Raquel

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most cardiovascular disease (CVD) occurs in the presence of traditional risk factors, including hypertension and dyslipidemia, and these in turn are influenced by behavioural factors such as diet and lifestyle. Previous research has identified a group at low risk of CVD based on a cluster of inter-related factors: body mass index (BMI) < 25 Kg\\/m2, moderate exercise, alcohol intake, non-smoking and a favourable dietary pattern. The objective of this study was to determine whether these factors are associated with a reduced prevalence of hypertension and dyslipidemia in an Irish adult population. METHODS: The study was a cross-sectional survey of 1018 men and women sampled from 17 general practices. Participants completed health, lifestyle and food frequency questionnaires and provided fasting blood samples for analysis of glucose and insulin. We defined a low risk group based on the following protective factors: BMI <25 kg\\/m2; waist-hip ratio (WHR) <0.85 for women and <0.90 for men; never smoking status; participants with medium to high levels of physical activity; light alcohol consumption (3.5-7 units of alcohol\\/week) and a "prudent" diet. Dietary patterns were assessed by cluster analysis. RESULTS: We found strong significant inverse associations between the number of protective factors and systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and dyslipidemia. The prevalence odds ratio of hypertension in persons with 1, 2, 3, > or = 4 protective factors relative to those with none, were 1.0, 0.76, 0.68 and 0.34 (trend p < 0.01). The prevalence odds ratio of dyslipidemia in persons with 1, 2, 3, > or = 4 protective factors relative to those with none were 0.83, 0.98, 0.49 and 0.24 (trend p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Our findings of a strong inverse association between low risk behaviours and two of the traditional risk factors for CVD highlight the importance of \\'the causes of the causes\\' and the potential for behaviour modification in CVD prevention

  15. Cost, affordability and cost-effectiveness of strategies to control tuberculosis in countries with high HIV prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Brian G

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The HIV epidemic has caused a dramatic increase in tuberculosis (TB in East and southern Africa. Several strategies have the potential to reduce the burden of TB in high HIV prevalence settings, and cost and cost-effectiveness analyses can help to prioritize them when budget constraints exist. However, published cost and cost-effectiveness studies are limited. Methods Our objective was to compare the cost, affordability and cost-effectiveness of seven strategies for reducing the burden of TB in countries with high HIV prevalence. A compartmental difference equation model of TB and HIV and recent cost data were used to assess the costs (year 2003 US$ prices and effects (TB cases averted, deaths averted, DALYs gained of these strategies in Kenya during the period 2004–2023. Results The three lowest cost and most cost-effective strategies were improving TB cure rates, improving TB case detection rates, and improving both together. The incremental cost of combined improvements to case detection and cure was below US$15 million per year (7.5% of year 2000 government health expenditure; the mean cost per DALY gained of these three strategies ranged from US$18 to US$34. Antiretroviral therapy (ART had the highest incremental costs, which by 2007 could be as large as total government health expenditures in year 2000. ART could also gain more DALYs than the other strategies, at a cost per DALY gained of around US$260 to US$530. Both the costs and effects of treatment for latent tuberculosis infection (TLTI for HIV+ individuals were low; the cost per DALY gained ranged from about US$85 to US$370. Averting one HIV infection for less than US$250 would be as cost-effective as improving TB case detection and cure rates to WHO target levels. Conclusion To reduce the burden of TB in high HIV prevalence settings, the immediate goal should be to increase TB case detection rates and, to the extent possible, improve TB cure rates, preferably

  16. Concurrent sexual partnerships among youth in urban Kenya: Prevalence and partnership effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hongwei; Luke, Nancy; Msiyaphazi Zulu, Eliya

    2010-11-01

    Research on concurrent sexual partnerships is hindered by lack of accurate partnership data. Using unique life-history calendar data from a population-based sample of youths aged 18-24 in urban Kenya, we estimated the prevalence and correlates of concurrency. In the sixth month before the survey, 3.5 per cent of females and 4.0 per cent of males were engaged in concurrent sexual partnerships. In the previous 9.5 years, males experienced more concurrent partnerships than females and they were of shorter duration. Using survival analysis, we find that the characteristics of initial partnerships affect entry into a second (concurrent) relationship. For females, geographic separation from a partner increases the risk of concurrency, while concurrency is positively associated with the duration of the initial relationship for males. For both sexes, the perception of partner infidelity increases the risk, suggesting that concurrency expands individuals' sexual networks and bridges additional networks involving partners' other sexual partners.

  17. [Effect of colistin consumption and prevalence of colistin-resistant bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanulík, Vojtěch; Suchánková, Hana; Urbánek, Karel; Imwensi, Peter; Htoutou Sedláková, Miroslava; Vojtová, Vladimírá; Kolář, Milan

    2013-06-01

    Recently, there has been a renaissance of the use of the antibiotic colistin resulting from increasing resistance of bacterial pathogens, particularly in intensive care patients. The study aimed at assessing the impact of colistin consumption on the prevalence of colistin-resistant bacteria in the University Hospital Olomouc (UHO). A laboratory database was retrospectively searched to identify all clinically significant colistin-resistant bacterial strains isolated between 2007 and 2011. These data were compared with colistin consumption over the same period and the results were statistically processed. Over the study period, a total of 6 338 clinically significant colistin-resistant strains were detected in the UHO (Acinetobacter spp., Burkholderia cepacia complex, Citrobacter spp., Enterobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Morganella morganii, Proteus spp., Providencia spp., Pseudomonas spp., Serratia marcesces and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia). Over the same period, the consumption of colistin increased nearly 10-fold. With the increasing colistin consumption, the numbers of colistin-resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. decreased over that period of time. By contrast, there was an increase in the rates of naturally Burkholderia cepacia complex strains naturally resistant to colistin. An alarming finding is that the prevalence of colistin-resistant strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae increased in the last years of the study period, especially in intensive care patients. In the UHO, higher consumption of colistin was accompanied by increased numbers of colistin-resistant strains. There was a marked increase of Burkholderia cepacia complex strains and, recently, a statistically insignificant but alarming increase in colistin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strains.

  18. Low serum uric acid concentration augments insulin effects on the prevalence of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porchia, Leonardo M; Gonzalez-Mejia, M Elba; Torres-Rasgado, Enrique; Ruiz-Vivanco, Guadalupe; Pérez-Fuentes, Ricardo

    2017-12-22

    Insulin and uric acid were shown affect the prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS), but no studies examine their interaction. Therefore, we conducted this study to determine their biological interaction in subjects from central Mexico. 433 subjects were enrolled for a cross-sectional study. MetS was defined according to the Harmonizing Definition. Hyperuricemia was defined as ≥7.0 mg/dL in males and ≥5.8 mg/dL in females. Hyperinsulinemia was defined as ≥11.0 μU/mL. Pearson correlation coefficient (r) was calculated to determine the association between uric acid or insulin and MetS. Logistic regression was used to determine the risk (odds ratio) of developing MetS. Biological interactions were determined by the PROCESS Macro and Anderson's method. Insulin and uric acid levels were elevated in MetS positive group (p 7.0 mg/dL. When the cohort was separated by hyperinsulinemia and hyperuricemia, there was a significant risk of developing MetS for subjects with hyperuricemia (odds ratio = 2.3; 95%CI: 1.1-4.8, p < .05), hyperinsulinemia (odds ratio = 3.1; 95%CI: 1.9-4.9, p < .05), or both (odds ratio = 7.4; 95%CI: 3.2-17.2, p < .05); however, there was no multiplicative or additive interaction. Here, we show that uric acid and insulin augments the prevalence of MetS; however, no biological interaction was determined for hyperuricemia and hyperinsulinemia. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The cumulative effect of core lifestyle behaviours on the prevalence of hypertension and dyslipidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kearney Patricia M

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most cardiovascular disease (CVD occurs in the presence of traditional risk factors, including hypertension and dyslipidemia, and these in turn are influenced by behavioural factors such as diet and lifestyle. Previous research has identified a group at low risk of CVD based on a cluster of inter-related factors: body mass index (BMI 2, moderate exercise, alcohol intake, non-smoking and a favourable dietary pattern. The objective of this study was to determine whether these factors are associated with a reduced prevalence of hypertension and dyslipidemia in an Irish adult population. Methods The study was a cross-sectional survey of 1018 men and women sampled from 17 general practices. Participants completed health, lifestyle and food frequency questionnaires and provided fasting blood samples for analysis of glucose and insulin. We defined a low risk group based on the following protective factors: BMI 2; waist-hip ratio (WHR Results We found strong significant inverse associations between the number of protective factors and systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and dyslipidemia. The prevalence odds ratio of hypertension in persons with 1, 2, 3, ≥ 4 protective factors relative to those with none, were 1.0, 0.76, 0.68 and 0.34 (trend p Conclusion Our findings of a strong inverse association between low risk behaviours and two of the traditional risk factors for CVD highlight the importance of 'the causes of the causes' and the potential for behaviour modification in CVD prevention at a population level.

  20. Effect of social and environmental determinants on overweight and obesity prevalence among adolescent school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R K Anuradha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Overweight and obesity among children and adolescents is a public health concern. Objective: To assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity and its association with social and environmental determinants among the adolescent school children of Tirupati town of Andhra Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods: Data was collected by interviewer-administered method from school children aged between 12 to 16 years. The sample consisted of 2258 subjects (1097 boys and 1161 girls. Overweight and obesity were defined by body mass index (BMI based on the current method recommended by the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention 2000. Data on social and environmental determinants were collected by using a pre-tested and validated questionnaire. Results: In the present sample, 11.2 percent and 4.8 percent of boys and 10.3 percent and 4.8 percent of girls were overweight and obese. The literacy level of parents, family income and child sleep duration significantly associated with overweight. Parental level of education was a risk factor for overweight (Mother: 1.570; 95% CI: 1.048-2.354. Similarly increase in family income (OR = 1.529; 95% CI: 1.089-2.148 and child sleep duration <7 hrs per day (OR = 2.006; 95% CI: 1.194-3.371 raised children′s association in gaining weight. Conclusion: Our study reinforces the burgeoning prevalence of overweight and obesity among the adolescents. Interventional measures taken should consider family, school and physical environment to check the problem of overweight/obesity.

  1. Estimating the prevalence of comorbid conditions and their effect on health care costs in patients with diabetes mellitus in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huber CA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Carola A Huber,1 Peter Diem,2 Matthias Schwenkglenks,3 Roland Rapold,1 Oliver Reich1 1Department of Health Sciences, Helsana Group, Zürich, Switzerland; 2Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, and University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland; 3Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland Background: Estimating the prevalence of comorbidities and their associated costs in patients with diabetes is fundamental to optimizing health care management. This study assesses the prevalence and health care costs of comorbid conditions among patients with diabetes compared with patients without diabetes. Distinguishing potentially diabetes- and nondiabetes-related comorbidities in patients with diabetes, we also determined the most frequent chronic conditions and estimated their effect on costs across different health care settings in Switzerland. Methods: Using health care claims data from 2011, we calculated the prevalence and average health care costs of comorbidities among patients with and without diabetes in inpatient and outpatient settings. Patients with diabetes and comorbid conditions were identified using pharmacy-based cost groups. Generalized linear models with negative binomial distribution were used to analyze the effect of comorbidities on health care costs. Results: A total of 932,612 persons, including 50,751 patients with diabetes, were enrolled. The most frequent potentially diabetes- and nondiabetes-related comorbidities in patients older than 64 years were cardiovascular diseases (91%, rheumatologic conditions (55%, and hyperlipidemia (53%. The mean total health care costs for diabetes patients varied substantially by comorbidity status (US$3,203–$14,223. Patients with diabetes and more than two comorbidities incurred US$10,584 higher total costs than patients without comorbidity. Costs were significantly higher in patients with

  2. Parental Mate Choice Manipulation Tactics: Exploring Prevalence, Sex and Personality Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menelaos Apostolou

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Parents and children are genetically related but not genetically identical, which means that their genetic interests overlap but also diverge. In the area of mating, this translates into children making mate choices that are not in the best interest of their parents. Parents may then resort to manipulation in order to influence their children's mating decisions in a way that best promotes the former's interests. This paper attempts to identify the structure of manipulation tactics that parents employ on their daughters and sons, as well as on their daughters' and sons' mates, and also to estimate their prevalence. On the basis of the structure of the derived tactics, four hypotheses are tested: Mothers are more willing than fathers to use manipulation tactics; parents are willing to use more manipulation on their daughters than on their sons; the personality of parents predicts the use of tactics on their children and on their children's mates; and the personality of children and of children's mates predicts the use of tactics on them. Evidence from two independent studies provides support for the first three hypotheses, but mixed support for the fourth hypothesis. The implications of these findings are further discussed.

  3. Effectiveness of Implant Therapy Analyzed in a Swedish Population: Prevalence of Peri-implantitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derks, J; Schaller, D; Håkansson, J; Wennström, J L; Tomasi, C; Berglundh, T

    2016-01-01

    Peri-implantitis is an inflammatory disease affecting soft and hard tissues surrounding dental implants. As the global number of individuals that undergo restorative therapy through dental implants increases, peri-implantitis is considered as a major and growing problem in dentistry. A randomly selected sample of 588 patients who all had received implant-supported therapy 9 y earlier was clinically and radiographically examined. Prevalence of peri-implantitis was assessed and risk indicators were identified by multilevel regression analysis. Forty-five percent of all patients presented with peri-implantitis (bleeding on probing/suppuration and bone loss >0.5 mm). Moderate/severe peri-implantitis (bleeding on probing/suppuration and bone loss >2 mm) was diagnosed in 14.5%. Patients with periodontitis and with ≥4 implants, as well as implants of certain brands and prosthetic therapy delivered by general practitioners, exhibited higher odds ratios for moderate/severe peri-implantitis. Similarly, higher odds ratios were identified for implants installed in the mandible and with crown restoration margins positioned ≤1.5 mm from the crestal bone at baseline. It is suggested that peri-implantitis is a common condition and that several patient- and implant-related factors influence the risk for moderate/severe peri-implantitis (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01825772). © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  4. Textual Article Clustering in Newspaper Pages

    OpenAIRE

    Aiello, Marco; Pegoretti, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    In the analysis of a newspaper page an important step is the clustering of various text blocks into logical units, i.e., into articles. We propose three algorithms based on text processing techniques to cluster articles in newspaper pages. Based on the complexity of the three algorithms and experimentation on actual pages from the Italian newspaper L’Adige, we select one of the algorithms as the preferred choice to solve the textual clustering problem.

  5. Prevalence and severity of cyclic leg pain in women with endometriosis and in controls - effect of laparoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walch, Katharina; Kernstock, Tamara; Poschalko-Hammerle, Gunda; Gleiß, Andreas; Staudigl, Christine; Wenzl, René

    2014-08-01

    In addition to dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, and subfertility, pain in the lower extremities has been described to be a further complaint in women affected by endometriosis, and lysis of nerve entrapment was thought to be associated with amelioration of leg pain. Therefore, we aimed to compare the prevalence of cyclic leg pain and pain intensity between women with endometriosis and without endometriosis, and to evaluate the effect of laparoscopic surgery. Forty-four women with endometriosis and 58 controls were included in a prospective, controlled clinical trial at a University hospital/tertiary referral center. Participants were asked to complete questionnaires the day before and six to nine weeks after laparoscopy. The prevalence and intensity of leg pain and improvement after laparoscopic surgery, quantified according to a visual analog scale (VAS) score, were evaluated. We also recorded involvement of dermatomes, the presence and intensity of dysmenorrhea, and correlations between age, stage of endometriosis (rAFS-score), and preoperative VAS scores. Before surgery, more women were affected by leg pain in the endometriosis group, compared to the control group (45.5% and 25.9%, respectively). Preoperative VAS scores for leg pain, however, were not significantly different between the two groups. A moderate correlation in the preoperative VAS scores between leg pain and dysmenorrhea was observed. After laparoscopy, we found a significant improvement in leg pain intensity in both groups. The mean difference in the VAS score for pain reduction between the study group and the control group was 0.74 (95% CI: -0.61-2.08), which was not statistically significant. The prevalence of leg pain is increased in endometriosis, while leg pain intensity is not, compared to women without endometriosis. Laparoscopic surgery-even without preparation and decompression of nerve tissue-is associated with an improvement in pain intensity in women with endometriosis, as well as in the

  6. The Prevalence of Hypomagnesaemia in Pediatric Patients with Mitral Valve Prolapse Syndrome and the Effect of Mg Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Amoozgar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: A paucity of data exists regarding the prevalence and relationship of hypomagnesaemia with clinical symptoms of mitral valve prolapse (MVP in pediatric patients. Objective: In this study we evaluated the prevalence of magnesium (Mg deficiency in pediatric patients with MVP syndrome and attempted to clarify the effect of Mg therapy on alleviating their symptoms. Methods: The present study was conducted from April 2010 to January 2012, and included 230 patients (90 males and 140 females with symptoms of mitral valve prolapse and mean age of 11.6±3.66. Serum magnesium (Mg level less than 1.5 mg/dl was defined as hypomagnesaemia. Patients with 2 mm leaflet displacement and maximum leaflet thickness of 5 mm in echocardiography were considered to have classic MVP, while those with leaflet thickness less than 5 mm were considered as non-classic MVP. Patients with hypomagnesaemia were orally treated with 4.5 mg/kg/day Mg chloride for 5 weeks followed by re-evaluation of symptoms of chest pain, palpitation, fatigue and dyspnea. Results: Hypomagnesaemia was found in 19 (8.2 % of 230 patients with mitral valve prolapse. The re-evaluation of patients with Hypomagnesaemia after 5 weeks of Mg therapy, showed statistically significant relief of chest pain (P=0.01. However, no significant changes was detected in regard to palpitation (P=0.06, fatigue (P= 0.5 and dyspnea (P=0.99. Conclusion: This study revealed that the prevalence of hypomagnesaemia in pediatric patients with mitral valve prolapse is relatively low compared to adults, but treatment with oral Mg in patient with hypomagnesaemia decreases chest pain.

  7. New page Intranet: just messaging?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaniel Barceló Fernández

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to specify the multi-purpose use of the new Intranet at the Pedagogical University “Rafael M. de Mendive”, and the ways to accede into the variety of services it offers, not only as an e-mail service provider, which is the reason more oftenly used by costumers who visit it. So that, here are clarified the new, exclusive advantages of this web page, as well as to make all costumers realize that an intelligent use of this new option might bring to them benefits and only benefits.

  8. Interstellar Initiative Web Page Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Alkesh

    1999-01-01

    This summer at NASA/MSFC, I have contributed to two projects: Interstellar Initiative Web Page Design and Lenz's Law Relative Motion Demonstration. In the Web Design Project, I worked on an Outline. The Web Design Outline was developed to provide a foundation for a Hierarchy Tree Structure. The Outline would help design a Website information base for future and near-term missions. The Website would give in-depth information on Propulsion Systems and Interstellar Travel. The Lenz's Law Relative Motion Demonstrator is discussed in this volume by Russell Lee.

  9. DP: Parameter Display Page Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.

    1994-01-01

    The Parameter Display Page program (DP) is a Motif/X11-based program to allow easily configured, dynamic device and process variable monitoring and manipulation in the EPICS environment. DP provides a tabular data format for interactive viewing and manipulation of device and process variable statistics, as well as formatted PostScript output to files and printers. DP understands and operates in two (unfortunately disjoint at this time) namespaces in the EPICS environment ''devices'' and ''process variables''. The higher level namespace of devices includes Composite and Atomic Devices registered via the Device Access server; the lower level (flat) namespace is that of normal Process Variables accessible via Channel Access

  10. Creating a Facebook Page for the Seismological Society of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, S. B.

    2009-12-01

    In August, 2009 I created a Facebook “fan” page for the Seismological Society of America. We had been exploring cost-effective options for providing forums for two-way communication for some months. We knew that a number of larger technical societies had invested significant sums of money to create customized social networking sites but that a small society would need to use existing low-cost software options. The first thing I discovered when I began to set up the fan page was that an unofficial SSA Facebook group already existed, established by Steven J. Gibbons, a member in Norway. Steven had done an excellent job of posting material about SSA. Partly because of the existing group, the official SSA fan page gained fans rapidly. We began by posting information about our own activities and then added links to activities in the broader geoscience community. While much of this material also appeared on our website and in our publication, Seismological Research Letters (SRL), the tone on the FB page is different. It is less formal with more emphasis on photos and links to other sites, including our own. Fans who are active on FB see the posts as part of their social network and do not need to take the initiative to go to the SSA site. Although the goal was to provide a forum for two-way communication, our initial experience was that people were clearly reading the page but not contributing content. This appears to be case with fan pages of sister geoscience societies. FB offers some demographic information to fan site administrators. In an initial review of the demographics it appeared that fans were younger than the overall demographics of the Society. It appeared that a few of the fans are not members or even scientists. Open questions are: what content will be most useful to fans? How will the existence of the page benefit the membership as a whole? Will the page ultimately encourage two-way communication as hoped? Web 2.0 is generating a series of new

  11. Poisson statistics of PageRank probabilities of Twitter and Wikipedia networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frahm, Klaus M.; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

    2014-04-01

    We use the methods of quantum chaos and Random Matrix Theory for analysis of statistical fluctuations of PageRank probabilities in directed networks. In this approach the effective energy levels are given by a logarithm of PageRank probability at a given node. After the standard energy level unfolding procedure we establish that the nearest spacing distribution of PageRank probabilities is described by the Poisson law typical for integrable quantum systems. Our studies are done for the Twitter network and three networks of Wikipedia editions in English, French and German. We argue that due to absence of level repulsion the PageRank order of nearby nodes can be easily interchanged. The obtained Poisson law implies that the nearby PageRank probabilities fluctuate as random independent variables.

  12. The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and the effect of medical treatment in children 2-5 years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alavi Naeeni M

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasitic infections are found all over the world. With all the progresses made in the last decades which have resulted in reduction of infection and mortality, yet parasitic infections are one of the biggest public health problems in the developing countries. In this research children 2-5 years old of Saveh city were randomly chosen. Intestinal parasitic infections and the effect of medical treatment on the infected cases were assessed. In order to treat the infected cases. Iranian generic drugs were used in which for Giardia infection Metronidazole 87.5% and furazolidone (66.7% were proved effective. Metronidazole in treatment of Entamoeba histolytica infection (88.2% and Metronidazole+Paramomycin proved 100% effective. In treatment of children infected with Oxyuris, the two drugs, Metronidazole and Pyrvinium Pamoate were almost 100% effective. Metronidazole in Ascaris infection was about 88.9% effective. Niclosamide in treatment of Hymenolepis nana (100% and in Tenia saginata were 75% effective. Reinfection after three months in treated children was about 20.9% which was the most prevalent intestinal parasitic infection related to Oxyuris. The successfully treated group had higher average body weight compared to the control group.

  13. Swallowing Disorders in Sjögren's Syndrome: Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Effects on Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Jenny L; Tanner, Kristine; Merrill, Ray M; Miller, Karla L; Kendall, Katherine A; Roy, Nelson

    2016-02-01

    This epidemiological investigation examined the prevalence, risk factors, and quality-of-life effects of swallowing disorders in Sjögren's syndrome (SS). One hundred and one individuals with primary or secondary SS (94 females, 7 males; mean age 59.4, SD = 14.1) were interviewed regarding the presence, nature, and impact of swallowing disorders and symptoms. Associations among swallowing disorders and symptoms, select medical and social history factors, SS disease severity, and the M.D. Anderson Dysphagia Inventory (MDADI) and Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) were examined. The prevalence of a current self-reported swallowing disorder was 64.4 %. SS disease severity was the strongest predictor of swallowing disorders, including significant associations with the following swallow symptoms: taking smaller bites, thick mucus in the throat, difficulty placing food in the mouth, and wheezing while eating (p quality of life. Among those with swallowing disorders, 42 % sought treatment, with approximately half reporting improvement. Patient-perceived swallowing disorders are relatively common in SS and increase with disease severity. Specific swallowing symptoms uniquely and significantly reduce swallow and health-related quality of life, indicating the need for increased identification and management of dysphagia in this population.

  14. Effects of tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and tobacco-attributable deaths in Mexico: the SimSmoke model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Myriam Reynales-Shigematsu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine how policies adopted in Mexico in response to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control affected smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths. METHODS: The SimSmoke simulation model of tobacco control policy is applied to Mexico. This discrete time, first-order Markov model uses data on population size, smoking rates and tobacco control policy for Mexico. It assesses, individually and jointly, the effects of seven types of policies: cigarette taxes, smoke-free air laws, mass media campaigns, advertising bans, warning labels, cessation treatment, and youth tobacco access policies. RESULTS: The Mexico SimSmoke model estimates that smoking rates have been reduced by about 30% as a result of policies implemented since 2002, and that the number of smoking-attributable deaths will have been reduced by about 826 000 by 2053. Increases in cigarette prices are responsible for over 60% of the reductions, but health warnings, smoke-free air laws, marketing restrictions and cessation treatments also play important roles. CONCLUSIONS: Mexico has shown steady progress towards reducing smoking prevalence in a short period of time, as have other Latin American countries, such as Brazil, Panama and Uruguay. Tobacco control policies play an important role in continued efforts to reduce tobacco use and associated deaths in Mexico.

  15. Personal and Public Start Pages in a library setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kieft-Wondergem, Dorine

    Personal and Public Start Pages are web-based resources. With these kind of tools it is possible to make your own free start page. A Start Page allows you to put all your web resources into one page, including blogs, email, podcasts, RSSfeeds. It is possible to share the content of the page with

  16. An Improved Focused Crawler: Using Web Page Classification and Link Priority Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houqing Lu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A focused crawler is topic-specific and aims selectively to collect web pages that are relevant to a given topic from the Internet. However, the performance of the current focused crawling can easily suffer the impact of the environments of web pages and multiple topic web pages. In the crawling process, a highly relevant region may be ignored owing to the low overall relevance of that page, and anchor text or link-context may misguide crawlers. In order to solve these problems, this paper proposes a new focused crawler. First, we build a web page classifier based on improved term weighting approach (ITFIDF, in order to gain highly relevant web pages. In addition, this paper introduces an evaluation approach of the link, link priority evaluation (LPE, which combines web page content block partition algorithm and the strategy of joint feature evaluation (JFE, to better judge the relevance between URLs on the web page and the given topic. The experimental results demonstrate that the classifier using ITFIDF outperforms TFIDF, and our focused crawler is superior to other focused crawlers based on breadth-first, best-first, anchor text only, link-context only, and content block partition in terms of harvest rate and target recall. In conclusion, our methods are significant and effective for focused crawler.

  17. The changing pages of comics : Page layouts across eight decades of American superhero comics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pederson, Kaitlin; Cohn, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Page layouts are one of the most overt features of comics’ structure. We hypothesized that American superhero comics have changed in their page layout over eight decades, and investigated this using a corpus analysis of 40 comics from 1940 through 2014. On the whole, we found that comics pages

  18. Lower prevalence of carotid plaque hemorrhage in women, and its mediator effect on sex differences in recurrent cerebrovascular events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neghal Kandiyil

    Full Text Available Women are at lower risk of stroke, and appear to benefit less from carotid endarterectomy (CEA than men. We hypothesised that this is due to more benign carotid disease in women mediating a lower risk of recurrent cerebrovascular events. To test this, we investigated sex differences in the prevalence of MRI detectable plaque hemorrhage (MRI PH as an index of plaque instability, and secondly whether MRI PH mediates sex differences in the rate of cerebrovascular recurrence.Prevalence of PH between sexes was analysed in a single centre pooled cohort of 176 patients with recently symptomatic, significant carotid stenosis (106 severe [≥70%], 70 moderate [50-69%] who underwent prospective carotid MRI scanning for identification of MRI PH. Further, a meta-analysis of published evidence was undertaken. Recurrent events were noted during clinical follow up for survival analysis.Women with symptomatic carotid stenosis (50%≥ were less likely to have plaque hemorrhage (PH than men (46% vs. 70% with an adjusted OR of 0.23 [95% CI 0.10-0.50, P<0.0001] controlling for other known vascular risk factors. This negative association was only significant for the severe stenosis subgroup (adjusted OR 0.18, 95% CI 0.067-0.50 not the moderate degree stenosis. Female sex in this subgroup also predicted a longer time to recurrent cerebral ischemic events (HR 0.38 95% CI 0.15-0.98, P = 0.045. Further addition of MRI PH or smoking abolished the sex effects with only MRI PH exerting a direct effect. Meta-analysis confirmed a protective effect of female sex on development of PH: unadjusted OR for presence of PH = 0.54 (95% CI 0.45-0.67, p<0.00001.MRI PH is significantly less prevalent in women. Women with MRI PH and severe stenosis have a similar risk as men for recurrent cerebrovascular events. MRI PH thus allows overcoming the sex bias in selection for CEA.

  19. Search Results | Page 35 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 341 - 350 of 1129 ... Health systems in sub-Saharan Africa face a “triple” burden: a high prevalence of childhood malnutrition, an increase in diet-related chronic ... the effectiveness of development projects in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) that serve to enable the rural poor by sharing innovations, best ...

  20. Publications | Page 466 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 4651 - 4660 of 6380 ... The goal is more effective prevention of HIV transmission in Sub-Saharan Africa. In Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa, where the Network''s Pietermaritzburg centre is located, there are segments of the population in which HIV prevalence has reached 45 percent. Each month, at the Lifeline Rape Crisis ...

  1. Publications | Page 238 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cigarette taxation in Tanzania : final technical report (open access). Taxation has proved to be the single most effective tool in reducing tobacco consumption and smoking prevalence. The research aims to reduce tobacco use while increasing government revenue in Tanzania through an appropriate taxation policy; to use ...

  2. Geostatistical modelling of malaria indicator survey data to assess the effects of interventions on the geographical distribution of malaria prevalence in children less than 5 years in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ssempiira, Julius; Nambuusi, Betty; Kissa, John; Agaba, Bosco; Makumbi, Fredrick; Kasasa, Simon; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2017-01-01

    Malaria burden in Uganda has declined disproportionately among regions despite overall high intervention coverage across all regions. The Uganda Malaria Indicator Survey (MIS) 2014-15 was the second nationally representative survey conducted to provide estimates of malaria prevalence among children less than 5 years, and to track the progress of control interventions in the country. In this present study, 2014-15 MIS data were analysed to assess intervention effects on malaria prevalence in Uganda among children less than 5 years, assess intervention effects at regional level, and estimate geographical distribution of malaria prevalence in the country. Bayesian geostatistical models with spatially varying coefficients were used to determine the effect of interventions on malaria prevalence at national and regional levels. Spike-and-slab variable selection was used to identify the most important predictors and forms. Bayesian kriging was used to predict malaria prevalence at unsampled locations. Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS) and Insecticide Treated Nets (ITN) ownership had a significant but varying protective effect on malaria prevalence. However, no effect was observed for Artemisinin Combination-based Therapies (ACTs). Environmental factors, namely, land cover, rainfall, day and night land surface temperature, and area type were significantly associated with malaria prevalence. Malaria prevalence was higher in rural areas, increased with the child's age, and decreased with higher household socioeconomic status and higher level of mother's education. The highest prevalence of malaria in children less than 5 years was predicted for regions of East Central, North East and West Nile, whereas the lowest was predicted in Kampala and South Western regions, and in the mountainous areas in Mid-Western and Mid-Eastern regions. IRS and ITN ownership are important interventions against malaria prevalence in children less than 5 years in Uganda. The varying effects of the

  3. Geostatistical modelling of malaria indicator survey data to assess the effects of interventions on the geographical distribution of malaria prevalence in children less than 5 years in Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Ssempiira

    Full Text Available Malaria burden in Uganda has declined disproportionately among regions despite overall high intervention coverage across all regions. The Uganda Malaria Indicator Survey (MIS 2014-15 was the second nationally representative survey conducted to provide estimates of malaria prevalence among children less than 5 years, and to track the progress of control interventions in the country. In this present study, 2014-15 MIS data were analysed to assess intervention effects on malaria prevalence in Uganda among children less than 5 years, assess intervention effects at regional level, and estimate geographical distribution of malaria prevalence in the country.Bayesian geostatistical models with spatially varying coefficients were used to determine the effect of interventions on malaria prevalence at national and regional levels. Spike-and-slab variable selection was used to identify the most important predictors and forms. Bayesian kriging was used to predict malaria prevalence at unsampled locations.Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS and Insecticide Treated Nets (ITN ownership had a significant but varying protective effect on malaria prevalence. However, no effect was observed for Artemisinin Combination-based Therapies (ACTs. Environmental factors, namely, land cover, rainfall, day and night land surface temperature, and area type were significantly associated with malaria prevalence. Malaria prevalence was higher in rural areas, increased with the child's age, and decreased with higher household socioeconomic status and higher level of mother's education. The highest prevalence of malaria in children less than 5 years was predicted for regions of East Central, North East and West Nile, whereas the lowest was predicted in Kampala and South Western regions, and in the mountainous areas in Mid-Western and Mid-Eastern regions.IRS and ITN ownership are important interventions against malaria prevalence in children less than 5 years in Uganda. The varying

  4. Reductive Effect of Fly Screens on the Campylobacter Prevalence of Broiler Flocks in Summer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Sommer, Helle M.; Skovgård, Henrik

    Flies act as vectors in the introduction of Campylobacter from the environment to broiler flocks. We conducted a case-control study to evaluate the effect of fly screens on the prevalence of Campylobacter in broiler flocks. Cases were 52 broiler flocks reared in 20 houses on 11 farms between June...... and November 2006, where houses were equipped with fly screens made of glass fibre mesh. The controls consisted of 70 broiler flocks reared in 25 matched houses on 13 farms without screens. Other bio-security and management routines were strictly as before the study. All broiler houses were ventilated through...... production to be 11% at day 35 in houses with fly screens and 42% in houses without screens. We conclude that implementation of fly screens in broiler houses is likely to enhance food safety and reduce the risk of food-borne campylobacteriosis. The significant role of flies as vectors for Campylobacter...

  5. Prevalence of coeliac disease in idiopathic hypoparathyroidism and effect of gluten-free diet on calcaemic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Soma; Saini, Savita; Makharia, Govind K; Datta Gupta, Siddhartha; Goswami, Ravinder

    2016-04-01

    Patients with idiopathic hypoparathyroidism (IH) require variable doses of calcium and 1-α-(OH)D. The reasons for such variability are not clear. As autoimmune mechanisms may play a role in IH, there is a possibility of coexistent coeliac disease with calcium/vitamin D malabsorption. We assessed the prevalence of coeliac disease and antitissue transglutaminase autoantibodies (anti-tTGAbs) in IH and analysed the effect of a gluten-free diet on calcaemic control. A total of 171 patients with IH and 126 healthy controls were screened for anti-tTGAb. IH patients with anti-tTGAb >20 RU/ml underwent duodenoscopy and intestinal biopsy; those with biopsy-proven coeliac disease were followed up on a gluten-free diet. Eleven of 171 (6·4%) patients with IH and seven of 126 (5·6%) controls had anti-tTGAb (P = 0·81). There was no difference in the clinical and biochemical parameters at diagnosis and during long-term follow-up of 7·2 ± 4·8 year (mean serum total calcium = 1·88 ± 0·16 vs 1·82 ± 0·36 mmol/l, P = 0·52; phosphorus = 1·81 ± 0·17 vs 1·87 ± 0·36 mmol/l, P = 0·53) in IH patients with and without anti-tTGAb. Although CaSRAb positivity was comparable in the two groups, IH patients with anti-tTGAb had higher TPOAb positivity (45·5% vs 12·8%, P = 0·02). Coeliac disease was diagnosed in only 2/9 patients with IH on biopsy, both of whom showed improved calcaemic control with a gluten-free diet. The prevalence of coeliac autoimmunity (6·4%) and coeliac disease (1·2%) in patients with IH seems to be similar to that in the general population. Notwithstanding this modest prevalence, it is important to be aware of the potential occurrence of coeliac disease with IH and the beneficial effect of a gluten-free diet on calcium control. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. [Are we all on the same temporal page? The moderating effects of temporal team cognition on the polychronicity diversity–team performance relationship].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Susan; Nadkarni, Sucheta

    2014-05-01

    Integrating research on polychronicity, team diversity, and team cognition, we hypothesized that shared temporal cognition (overlapping knowledge) and temporal transactive memory systems (differentiated knowledge) would moderate the effects of polychronicity diversity on team performance. Results from 71 teams in an Indian organization revealed opposing moderating effects in that shared temporal cognition attenuated, but temporal transactive memory systems amplified, the negative effects of polychronicity diversity on team performance. Shared temporal cognition also exerted a strong, positive effect on team performance. Study results provide support for the continued examination of polychronicity diversity and temporal team cognition. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Missing Clinical Information in NHS hospital outpatient clinics: prevalence, causes and effects on patient care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moorthy Krishna

    2011-05-01

    to their care and 20% had a risk of harm. In over half of cases the doctor relied on the patient for the information, making a clinical decision despite the information being missing in 20% of cases. Hospital mergers, temporary staff and non-integrated IT systems were contributing factors. Conclusions If these findings are replicated across the NHS then almost 10 million outpatients are seen each year without key clinical information, creating over a million unnecessary appointments, and putting nearly 2 million patients at risk of harm. There is a need for a systematic, regular audit of the prevalence of missing clinical information. Only then will we know the impact on clinical decision making and patient care of new technology, service reorganisations and, crucially given the present financial climate, temporary or reduced staffing levels. Further research is needed to assess the relationship between missing clinical information and diagnostic errors; to examine the issue in primary care; and to consider the patients perspective.

  8. The effect of sugar and processed food imports on the prevalence of overweight and obesity in 172 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tracy Kuo; Teymourian, Yasmin; Tursini, Maitri Shila

    2018-04-14

    Studies find that economic, political, and social globalization - as well as trade liberalization specifically - influence the prevalence of overweight and obesity in countries through increasing the availability and affordability of unhealthful food. However, what are the mechanisms that connect globalization, trade liberalization, and rising average body mass index (BMI)? We suggest that the various sub-components of globalization interact, leading individuals in countries that experience higher levels of globalization to prefer, import, and consume more imported sugar and processed food products than individuals in countries that experience lower levels of globalization. This study codes the amount of sugar and processed food imports in 172 countries from 1995 to 2010 using the United Nations Comtrade dataset. We employ country-specific fixed effects (FE) models, with robust standard errors, to examine the relationship between sugar and processed foods imports, globalization, and average BMI. To highlight further the relationship between the sugar and processed food import and average BMI, we employ a synthetic control method to calculate a counterfactual average BMI in Fiji. We find that sugar and processed food imports are part of the explanation to increasing average BMI in countries; after controlling for globalization and general imports and exports, sugar and processed food imports have a statistically and substantively significant effect in increasing average BMI. In the case of Fiji, the increased prevalence of obesity is associated with trade agreements and increased imports of sugar and processed food. The counterfactual estimates suggest that sugar and processed food imports are associated with a 0.5 increase in average BMI in Fiji.

  9. Web page classification on child suitability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Eickhoff (Carsten); P. Serdyukov; A.P. de Vries (Arjen)

    2010-01-01

    htmlabstractChildren spend significant amounts of time on the Internet. Recent studies showed, that during these periods they are often not under adult supervision. This work presents an automatic approach to identifying suitable web pages for children based on topical and non-topical web page

  10. Customisation of Indico pages - Layout and Menus

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Ferreira, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    In this tutorial you are going to learn how to customize the layout of your Indico pages (for example you can change the color of the background images or change the logo) and the menus on your Indico pages  (for example you can add or hide certain blocks, or change their name and order).  

  11. 40 CFR 1502.7 - Page limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Page limits. 1502.7 Section 1502.7 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT § 1502.7 Page limits. The text of final environmental impact statements (e.g., paragraphs (d) through (g) of § 1502.10...

  12. Textual Article Clustering in Newspaper Pages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aiello, Marco; Pegoretti, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    In the analysis of a newspaper page an important step is the clustering of various text blocks into logical units, i.e., into articles. We propose three algorithms based on text processing techniques to cluster articles in newspaper pages. Based on the complexity of the three algorithms and

  13. Textual Article Clustering in Newspaper Pages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aiello, Marco; Pegoretti, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    In the analysis of a newspaper page an important step is the clustering of various text blocks into logical units, i.e., into articles. We propose three algorithms based on text processing techniques to cluster articles in newspaper pages. Based on the complexity of the three algorithms and

  14. Google Analytics: Single Page Traffic Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    These are pages that live outside of Google Analytics (GA) but allow you to view GA data for any individual page on either the public EPA web or EPA intranet. You do need to log in to Google Analytics to view them.

  15. CERN Web Pages Receive a Makeover

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    Asudden allergic reaction to the colour turquoise? Never fear, from Monday 2 April you'll be able to click in the pink box at the top of the CERN users' welcome page to go to the all-new welcome page, which is simpler and better organized. CERN's new-look intranet is the first step in a complete Web-makeover being applied by the Web Public Education (WPE) group of ETT Division. The transition will be progressive, to allow users to familiarize themselves with the new pages. Until 17 April, CERN users will still get the familiar turquoise welcome page by default, with the new pages operating in parallel. From then on, the default will switch to the new pages, with the old ones being finally switched off on 25 May. Some 400 pages have received the makeover treatment. For more information about the changes to your Web, take a look at: http://www.cern.ch/CERN/NewUserPages/ Happy surfing!

  16. Mitigating effects of pollen during paraquat exposure on gene expression and pathogen prevalence in Apis mellifera L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mattos, Igor Medici; Soares, Ademilson E E; Tarpy, David R

    2018-01-01

    Honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) populations have been experiencing notable mortality in Europe and North America. No single cause has been identified for these dramatic losses, but rather multiple interacting factors are likely responsible (such as pesticides, malnutrition, habitat loss, and pathogens). Paraquat is one of the most widely used non-selective herbicides, especially in developing countries. This herbicide is considered slightly toxic to honey bees, despite being reported as a highly effective inducer of oxidative stress in a wide range of living systems. Here, we test the effects of paraquat on the expression of detoxification and antioxidant-related genes, as well as on the dynamics of pathogen titers. Moreover, we tested the effects of pollen as mitigating factor to paraquat exposure. Our results show significant changes in the expression of several antioxidant-related and detoxification-related genes in the presence of paraquat, as well as an increase of pathogens titers. Finally, we demonstrate a mitigating effect of pollen through the up-regulation of specific genes and improvement of survival of bees exposed to paraquat. The presence of pollen in the diet was also correlated with a reduced prevalence of Nosema and viral pathogens. We discuss the importance of honey bees' nutrition, especially the availability of pollen, on colony losses chronically reported in the USA and Europe.

  17. Screening Homeless Youth for Histories of Abuse: Prevalence, Enduring Effects, and Interest in Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeshin, Brooks R.; Campbell, Kristine

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To identify the incidence of self-reported physical and sexual child abuse among homeless youth, the self-perceived effects of past abuse, and current interest in treatment for past abuse among homeless youth with histories of abuse. Methods: Homeless and street-involved persons aged 18-23 filled out a questionnaire and participated in…

  18. Prevalence, Causes and Effects of Bullying in Tertiary Institutions in Cross River State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ada, Mary Juliana; Okoli, Georgina; Obeten, Okoi Okorn; Akeke, M. N. G.

    2016-01-01

    This research is an evaluation of the impact of causes, consequences and effects of bullying in academic setting on student academic performance in tertiary institutions in Cross River State, Nigeria. The research made use of purposive and random sampling techniques made up of 302 students. Questionnaire served as the data collection instrument.…

  19. The prevalence of an excessive prepuce and the effects of distal circumcision on premature ejaculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Gallo

    2017-06-01

    Conclusions: An excessive prepuce is very common in patients affected by PE. Although accepted by only 13% of our patients, distal circumcision was shown to be a very effective surgical treatment for definitive treatment of PE. We therefore recommend assessing patients complaining of lifelong PE for an excessive prepuce and if they have an excessive prepuce to suggest that they undergo distal circumcision.

  20. Deformity Prevalence and Meristic Characteristics in Atlantic salmon : The Effect of Ploidy, Incubation Temperature and Hybridization

    OpenAIRE

    Fleming, Mitchell

    2013-01-01

    Intense salmon farming regimes in Norway have resulted in hundreds of thousands of salmon escaping each year. These domesticated salmon have been selectively bred for generations and therefore have the potential to genetically infiltrate wild population’s causing gene flow, out breeding depression and ultimately a decline in stocks. Triploidization has become a popular method for inducing sterility into large batches of salmon. This study investigated the effects of triploidization on Atlanti...

  1. Effect of bariatric surgery on the prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies and protein status

    OpenAIRE

    Moizé Arcone, Violeta

    2017-01-01

    [eng] BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery (BS) is the most effective long-term therapy for the treatment of severe obesity. Benefits of BS include a reduction of overall and cardiovascular mortality, incidence of first occurrence of fatal- or nonfatal-cardiovascular events, prevention and remission of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and improved quality of life. Nonetheless, BS is associated with potential complications amongst which micronutrient deficiencies are relevant. AIM: Against this background,...

  2. Prevalence and Predicting Factors for Commonly Neglected Sexual Side Effects to External-Beam Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Anders; Pedersen, Christian; Lindberg, Henriette; Bisbjerg, Rasmus; Sønksen, Jens; Fode, Mikkel

    2017-04-01

    Changes in sexual function other than erectile dysfunction are sparsely investigated after radiation therapy for prostate cancer. To investigate orgasmic dysfunction, urinary incontinence during sexual activity, changes in penile morphology, and sensory disturbances in the penis in patients with prostate cancer treated with external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT). In February 2015, men treated with EBRT at our center 3 months to 5 years previously (N = 519) received a study-specific questionnaire. This was developed from purpose-built questions and validated tools including the Erection Hardness Scale. All patients had received a radiation dose of 78 Gy. Androgen deprivation therapy was administered according to disease characteristics. Outcome measurements were prevalence rates and predictors of these side effects as identified by multivariate logistic regression analyses. One hundred nine patients were eligible (sexually active and had completed androgen deprivation therapy) for inclusion. Twenty-four percent reported anorgasmia, 44% reported a decreased intensity of their orgasms, and 40% reported that the time it took to reach orgasm had increased. Eleven percent reported anejaculation. Fifteen percent reported orgasm-associated pain. Only 4% reported urinary incontinence during sexual activity. Subjective penile length loss in excess of 1 cm was reported by 42%. Twelve percent reported an altered curvature of their penis after EBRT. Six percent reported painful erections. Twenty-seven percent reported decreased sensitivity in the penis after EBRT, 2% reported a cold sensation, and 2% reported paresthesia. Increasing time since final treatment increased the risk of penile sensory disturbances (odds ratio = 1.05; P = .028). Orgasmic dysfunction, changes in penile morphology, and sensory disturbances in the penis are common side effects of ERBT. Patients should be properly informed of the occurrence of these side effects before deciding which treatment to

  3. Intramammary infection with coagulase-negative staphylococci at parturition: Species-specific prevalence, risk factors, and effect on udder health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Visscher, A; Piepers, S; Haesebrouck, F; De Vliegher, S

    2016-08-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are the main cause of bovine intramammary infections (IMI) in many countries. Despite a high prevalence of CNS IMI at parturition, species-specific risk factor studies, relying on accurate identification methods, are lacking. Therefore, this observational study aimed at determining the prevalence and distribution of different CNS species causing IMI in fresh heifers and dairy cows in Flemish dairy herds and identifying associated species- and subgroup-specific risk factors at the herd, cow, and quarter level. The effect on udder health was investigated as well. Staphylococcus chromogenes, S. sciuri, and S. cohnii were the most frequently isolated species. The only CNS species causing IMI in fresh heifers and dairy cows in all herds was Staphylococcus chromogenes, whereas large between-herd differences in distribution were observed for the other species. Quarters from heifers and quarters with an inverted teat end had higher odds of being infected with S. chromogenes, S. simulans, or S. xylosus as well as with S. chromogenes solely. Prepartum teat apex colonization with S. chromogenes increased the likelihood of S. chromogenes IMI in the corresponding quarters at parturition. Quarters with dirty teat apices before calving were more likely to be infected with S. cohnii, S. equorum, S. saprophyticus, or S. sciuri, supporting the environmental nature of these CNS species. Three species (S. chromogenes, S. simulans, and S. xylosus) were associated with a higher quarter somatic cell count at parturition as compared with uninfected quarters. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The prevalence of mental health problems among users of NHS stop smoking services: effects of implementing a routine screening procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratschen Elena

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco dependence among people with mental health problems is an issue that deserves attention both from a clinical and from a public health perspective. Research suggests that Stop Smoking Services often fail to ask clients about underlying mental health problems and thus fail to put in place the treatment adaptations and liaison procedures often required to meet the needs of clients with a mental health condition who want to stop smoking. This study assesses the recording of mental health problems in a large NHS stop smoking service in England and examines the effect of implementing a short screening procedure on recording mental health conditions. Methods Treatment records from the Stop Smoking Service covering a period of 13 months were audited. The prevalence of reported mental health problems in the six month period before the implementation of the mental health screening procedure was compared with that of the six month period following implementation. The screening procedure was only implemented in the support services directly provided by the Stop Smoking Service. Comparisons were also made with third-party sections of the service where no such screening procedure was introduced. Results The prevalence of reported mental health problems among a total of n = 4999 clients rose from less than 1% before implementation of the screening procedure to nearly 12% in the period following implementation, with the change being statistically significant. No significant rise was observed over the same period in the sections of the service where no screening procedure was implemented. Conclusions The absence of standard procedures to record mental health problems among service users in many stop smoking services is currently likely to prevent the detection of co morbidity. Implementing a simple screening procedure appears suitable to increase the routine recording of mental health problems in a stop smoking service, which is an

  5. Survey on the Prevalence of Allergic Rhinitis and its Effect on the Quality of High School Students’ Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Amizadeh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Allergic rhinitis (AR is a common airway disease. In order to study  the  prevalence of  AR in high school students  in  Kerman, the Score for Allergic Rhinitis (SFAR was used and the quality of life  in  the  students  affected  by  rhinitis was  evaluated using the SF-36 questionnaire.   Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional, analytical, descriptive study, based on the SFAR scale. Quality of life in students with AR was evaluated using the SF-36 questionnaire.   Results: From 1511 students who completed the SFAR questionnaire, 291 (52.6%, girls; 47.4%, boys  had AR. Domestic dust was the most common cause of the disease. The most common symptoms of AR were rhinorrhea (76.6%, epiphora (76.3%, nasal congestion (64.3%, and itching (54.3%. According to the ARYA scale, (Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma, 41.9% of students had moderate-to-severe rhinitis and 58.1% had mild rhinitis. A total of 43.1% of patients with moderate-to-severe rhinitis had a persistent condition and 56.9% had an intermediate condition. Results of the SF-36 questionnaire among students with AR showed a significant difference in physical functioning and bodily pain in comparison with healthy students.   Conclusion:  The results of this study show that the prevalence of AR among Kerman high school students is 19.3%. Because of the effect of this disease on the life quality of high school students in terms of both physical functioning and bodily pain, efforts should be made to reduce allergen levels as far as possible.

  6. Use of nurse-observed symptoms of delirium in long-term care: effects on prevalence and outcomes of delirium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCusker, Jane; Cole, Martin G; Voyer, Philippe; Monette, Johanne; Champoux, Nathalie; Ciampi, Antonio; Vu, Minh; Belzile, Eric

    2011-05-01

    Previous studies have reported that nurse detection of delirium has low sensitivity compared to a research diagnosis. As yet, no study has examined the use of nurse-observed delirium symptoms combined with research-observed delirium symptoms to diagnose delirium. Our specific aims were: (1) to describe the effect of using nurse-observed symptoms on the prevalence of delirium symptoms and diagnoses in long-term care (LTC) facilities, and (2) to compare the predictive validity of delirium diagnoses based on the use of research-observed symptoms alone with those based on research-observed and nurse-observed symptoms. Residents aged 65 years and over of seven LTC facilities were recruited into a prospective study. Using the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM), research assistants (RAs) interviewed residents and nurses to assess delirium symptoms. Delirium symptoms were also abstracted independently from nursing notes. Outcomes measured at five month follow-up were: death, the Hierarchic Dementia Scale (HDS), the Barthel ADL scale, and a composite outcome measure (death, or a 10-point decline in either the HDS or the ADL score). The prevalence of delirium among 235 LTC residents increased from 14.0% (using research-observed symptoms only) to 24.7% (using research- and nurse-observed symptoms). The relative risks (and 95% confidence intervals) for prediction of the composite outcome, after adjustment for covariates, were: 1.43 (0.88, 1.96) for delirium using research-observed symptoms only; 1.77 (1.13, 2.28) for delirium using research- and nurse-observed symptoms, in comparison with no delirium. The inclusion of delirium symptoms observed by nurses not only increases the detection of delirium in LTC facilities but improves the prediction of outcomes.

  7. The Yazd People’s Point of View about Effect of Visual Media on Smoking Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Baghianimoghadam

    2013-10-01

    Results: Based on participants' view role of family, friends and media respectively were more important in tendency of teenagers and adolescents smoking users. Almost 80 percent of subjects showed that influence of smoking in the media on a positive attitude towards tobacco smoking among adolescents and young people was very high. More than 55% of participants confirmed that the lack of smoking in movies is not effective in quality of the films. It was also confirmed, that in last month advertisements and anti-smoking programs were not seen by participants. Conclusion: The present study suggest control and monitoring on media, limitation or lack of smoking on media and films is an important factor to decreasing and control of smoking in adolescents and young adults.

  8. The prevalence of overactive bladder syndrome and urinary incontinence in a Turkish women population; associated risk factors and effect on Quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarici, Hasmet; Ozgur, Berat Cem; Telli, Onur; Doluoglu, Omer Gokhan; Eroglu, Muzaffer; Bozkurt, Selen

    2016-05-24

    To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of overactive bladder syndrome and urinary incontinence in Turkish women; furthermore, to assess the impact on the quality of life. A cross-sectional, epidemiological study was carried out in women of reproductive age to define overactive bladder syndrome, urinary incontinence, ICIQ-SF score and medical care seeking. The women's average age was 34.4 ± 5.26 years. The prevalence of UI was 26.9%. Stress UI was the predominant form. The prevalence of UI increased with age, BMI, number of pregnancies and children delivered. The prevalence of OAB was 20.7%. Women with OAB were older and had greater number of pregnancies than women without OAB. History of nocturnal enuresis was a significant risk factor for OAB and UUI. Women with MUI had more frequent and more abundant leakage of urine. 10.7% of women sought medical care for their condition. Although prevalence estimates differ across studies, the available evidence indicates that UI and OAB are highly prevalent conditions among women. UI had negative effect on QoL, but only severely-affected women sought medical care. Public health and clinical management programs are needed to determine diagnosis and management of these social problems.

  9. Prevalence of intestinal parasites among captive Asian Elephants Elephas maximus: effect of season, host demography, and management systems in Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Vanitha

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of wild animals in captivity is fraught with numerous challenges, including the control of disease. This study evaluates the effect of season, host demography (age-sex, and differing management systems on the prevalence of intestinal parasites among elephants managed in three captive systems: temple, private, and forest department, in Tamil Nadu. In addition, the study also assessed the availability of veterinary care for elephants in these systems. The parasitic prevalence was evaluated by direct microscopic identification of helminth eggs in faecal samples (n = 115 collected from different age/sex classes of elephants. Of the 115 elephants examined, 37% showed positive results, being infected only with Strongyles sp. The prevalence rate varied significantly across seasons, with the highest rate during summer (49% followed by monsoon (41% and the lowest rate during winter (15%. While males had a significantly lower parasite prevalence compared to females (29% vs. 40%, age classes showed no significant difference. Despite the fact that the proportion of animals receiving veterinary care was higher under the forest department system (100% compared to the private system (26%, parasite prevalence was significantly higher under the former (48% than the latter (31% system. The difference in the proportion of animals with parasitic prevalence among the three systems could be due to differing management practices (i.e. in solitary versus groups and the details are discussed.

  10. Prevalence and Side Effects of Energy Drink Consumption among Medical Students at Umm Al-Qura University, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naif A. Bawazeer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Energy drinks are freely available at markets and shops on the university campus without regulation or proper education regarding its side effects. The caffeine amount within energy drinks is high and could become an addictive substance or cause intoxication. Therefore, this study aims to assess the prevalence of energy drink consumption and its reported side effects among medical students. Methods:A total number of 257 medical students from Umm Al-Qura University completed a questionnaire about energy drinks that was administrated electronically from September through November, 2012. Results:Out of the 257 participants, 27.2% (n=70 reported consuming at least one energy drink per month, with 61.5% (n=48 being males. Males consume significantly more energy drinks than females (p=0.0001. The students consumed energy drinks to get energy in general (32.8% and while studying for exams or finishing a project (31.4%. Other reasons given include, lack of sleep (12.8%, just to be like friends (11.4%, or driving (8.5%. Heart palpitations are the most common side effect in our sample (20%, followed by insomnia (10%, headache and tremors (5.7%, nausea and vomiting (4.2% and nervousness (2.8%. Conclusion: Energy drinks consumption is common practice among medical students and the main reason cited for consumption is the need for energy during general activities. Approximately one-third of the consumers manifested some side effect after consumption. We recommend the need to create public awareness about energy drinks. Further studies are recommended to assess the educational level of students consuming energy drinks, about the dangerous side effects.

  11. Flash-Aware Page Replacement Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangxia Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the limited main memory resource of consumer electronics equipped with NAND flash memory as storage device, an efficient page replacement algorithm called FAPRA is proposed for NAND flash memory in the light of its inherent characteristics. FAPRA introduces an efficient victim page selection scheme taking into account the benefit-to-cost ratio for evicting each victim page candidate and the combined recency and frequency value, as well as the erase count of the block to which each page belongs. Since the dirty victim page often contains clean data that exist in both the main memory and the NAND flash memory based storage device, FAPRA only writes the dirty data within the victim page back to the NAND flash memory based storage device in order to reduce the redundant write operations. We conduct a series of trace-driven simulations and experimental results show that our proposed FAPRA algorithm outperforms the state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of page hit ratio, the number of write operations, runtime, and the degree of wear leveling.

  12. Effects of prevalent freshwater chemical contaminants on in vitro growth of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgins, James [USDA-ARS, Bldg 173, 10300 Baltimore Ave., Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States)], E-mail: tarbandu12@juno.com; Hohn, Christina [NCSU College of Veterinary Medicine, Raleigh, NC 27606 (United States)

    2008-03-15

    Many surface and ground waters in the continental US are contaminated with a variety of chemical pollutants, which are usually present in concentrations in the ppm and ppb range. The effects of these pollutants on coliform bacteria, which are prominent members of the aquatic flora, are poorly understood. Using a microtiter plate assay, isolates of Escherichia coli (from chicken intestine and fresh water), and an isolate of Klebsiella pneumoniae (from bovine milk) were exposed to varying concentrations of common pollutants over a 24 h period. The herbicides/pesticides simazine, atrazine, and diazinon; the VOCs trichloroethene and MTBE; the estrogens estradiol and estrone; and caffeine, all failed to inhibit bacterial growth at ppm levels. Only ethylene glycol, and the herbicide 2,4-D, significantly inhibited bacterial growth compared to controls. These results suggest that the replication of coliform bacteria in fresh waters is not adversely impacted by many common pollutants. - Using a microtiter plate assay, E. coli and Klebsiella bacteria were exposed to a panel of common chemical pollutants of fresh water; only ethylene glycol and 2,4-D inhibited bacterial replication.

  13. Prevalence of glutathione S-transferase gene deletions and their effect on sickle cell patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey Sanjay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glutathione S-transferase gene deletions are known detoxification agents and cause oxidative damage. Due to the different pathophysiology of anemia in thalassemia and sickle cell disease, there are significant differences in the pathophysiology of iron overload and iron-related complications in these disorders. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to estimate the frequency of the GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotypes in sickle cell disease patients and their effect on iron status. METHODS: Forty sickle cell anemia and sixty sickle ß-thalassemia patients and 100 controls were evaluated to determine the frequency of GST gene deletions. Complete blood counts were performed by an automated cell analyzer. Hemoglobin F, hemoglobin A, hemoglobin A2 and hemoglobin S were measured and diagnosis of patients was achieved by high performance liquid chromatography with DNA extraction by the phenol-chloroform method. The GST null genotype was determined using multiplex polymerase chain reaction and serum ferritin was measured using an ELISA kit. Statistical analysis was by EpiInfo and GraphPad statistics software. RESULTS: An increased frequency of the GSTT1 null genotype (p-value = 0.05 was seen in the patients. The mean serum ferritin level was higher in patients with the GST genotypes than in controls; this was statistically significant for all genotypes except GSTM1, however the higher levels of serum ferritin were due to blood transfusions in patients. CONCLUSION: GST deletions do not play a direct role in iron overload of sickle cell patients.

  14. Founder effect of a prevalent phenylketonuria mutation in the Oriental population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Tao (Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States) Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing (China)); Okano, Yoshiyuki; Eisensmith, R.C.; Harvey, M.L.; Woo, S.L.C. (Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)); Lo, W.H.Y.; Yuan, Lifang (Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing (China)); Huang, Shuzhen; Zeng, Yitao (Shanghai Children' s Hospital (China)); Furuyama, Junichi (Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya (Japan)); Oura, Toshiaki (Osaka Municipal Rehabilitation Center for the Disabled, Osaka (Japan)); Sommer, S.S. (Mayo Clinic/Foundation, Rochester, MN (United States))

    1991-03-15

    A missense mutation has been identified in the human phenylalanine hydroxylase Chinese patient with classic phenylketonuria (PKU). A G-to-C transition at the second base of codon 413 in exon 12 of the gene results in the substitution of Pro{sup 413} for Arg{sup 413} in the mutant protein. This mutation (R413P) results in negligible enzymatic activity when expressed in heterologous mammalian cells and is compatible with a classic PKU phenotype in the patient. Population genetic studies reveal that this mutation is tightly linked to restriction fragment length polymorphism haplotype 4, which is the predominant haplotype of the PAH locus in the Oriental population. It accounts for 13.8% of northern Chinese and 27% of Japanese PKU alleles, but it is rare in southern Chinese (2.2%) and is absent in the Caucasian population. The data demonstrate unambiguously that the mutation occurred after racial divergence of Orientals and Caucasians and suggest that the allele has spread throughout the Orient by a founder effect. Previous protein polymorphism studies in eastern Asia have led to the hypothesis that northern Mongoloids represented a founding population in Asia. The results are compatible with this hypothesis in that the PKU mutation might have occurred in northern Mongoloids and subsequently spread to the Chinese and Japanese populations.

  15. Founder effect of a prevalent phenylketonuria mutation in the Oriental population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Tao; Okano, Yoshiyuki; Eisensmith, R.C.; Harvey, M.L.; Woo, S.L.C.; Lo, W.H.Y.; Yuan, Lifang; Huang, Shuzhen; Zeng, Yitao; Furuyama, Junichi; Oura, Toshiaki; Sommer, S.S.

    1991-01-01

    A missense mutation has been identified in the human phenylalanine hydroxylase Chinese patient with classic phenylketonuria (PKU). A G-to-C transition at the second base of codon 413 in exon 12 of the gene results in the substitution of Pro 413 for Arg 413 in the mutant protein. This mutation (R413P) results in negligible enzymatic activity when expressed in heterologous mammalian cells and is compatible with a classic PKU phenotype in the patient. Population genetic studies reveal that this mutation is tightly linked to restriction fragment length polymorphism haplotype 4, which is the predominant haplotype of the PAH locus in the Oriental population. It accounts for 13.8% of northern Chinese and 27% of Japanese PKU alleles, but it is rare in southern Chinese (2.2%) and is absent in the Caucasian population. The data demonstrate unambiguously that the mutation occurred after racial divergence of Orientals and Caucasians and suggest that the allele has spread throughout the Orient by a founder effect. Previous protein polymorphism studies in eastern Asia have led to the hypothesis that northern Mongoloids represented a founding population in Asia. The results are compatible with this hypothesis in that the PKU mutation might have occurred in northern Mongoloids and subsequently spread to the Chinese and Japanese populations

  16. Effects of prevalent freshwater chemical contaminants on in vitro growth of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, James; Hohn, Christina

    2008-01-01

    Many surface and ground waters in the continental US are contaminated with a variety of chemical pollutants, which are usually present in concentrations in the ppm and ppb range. The effects of these pollutants on coliform bacteria, which are prominent members of the aquatic flora, are poorly understood. Using a microtiter plate assay, isolates of Escherichia coli (from chicken intestine and fresh water), and an isolate of Klebsiella pneumoniae (from bovine milk) were exposed to varying concentrations of common pollutants over a 24 h period. The herbicides/pesticides simazine, atrazine, and diazinon; the VOCs trichloroethene and MTBE; the estrogens estradiol and estrone; and caffeine, all failed to inhibit bacterial growth at ppm levels. Only ethylene glycol, and the herbicide 2,4-D, significantly inhibited bacterial growth compared to controls. These results suggest that the replication of coliform bacteria in fresh waters is not adversely impacted by many common pollutants. - Using a microtiter plate assay, E. coli and Klebsiella bacteria were exposed to a panel of common chemical pollutants of fresh water; only ethylene glycol and 2,4-D inhibited bacterial replication

  17. DOWN-SYNDROME - EFFECTS OF DEMOGRAPHIC-FACTORS AND PRENATAL-DIAGNOSIS ON THE FUTURE LIVEBIRTH PREVALENCE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    CORNEL, MC; BREED, ASPM; BEEKHUIS, [No Value; MEERMAN, GJT; TENKATE, LP

    In northwest European countries maternal age is increasing. This will lead to an increase of the prevalence of Down syndrome conceptuses. Meanwhile, the increased use of prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis (PCD) will lead to a decrease in the prevalence of Down syndrome among livebirths. We were

  18. Happy hours and other alcohol discounts in cafés: prevalence and effects on underage adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoof, Joris; van Noordenburg, Marieke; de Jong, Menno

    2008-09-01

    Adolescents' alcohol-related attitudes and behaviors may be affected by marketing efforts of the alcohol industry, retailers, and the catering industry. Most research has focused on the effects of commercials and media exposure. This article investigates another aspect of alcohol marketing in the Netherlands: the use of alcohol discounts by cafés. The prevalence of alcohol discounts was studied using unobtrusive café observations and website content analysis. It is estimated that 39% of the cafés offer some kind of cash discount for alcoholic beverages. The effects of alcohol discounts were investigated in a survey among adolescents (14-17 years old, N=409). Adolescents reported using alcohol discounts eight times a year, and consuming more alcohol when discounts were offered. Alcohol discounts, however, do not attract adolescents to visit particular cafés and/or to spend more money when going out. No differences were found between minors (16-17 years) and underage adolescents (14-15 years).

  19. Effect of executive programs of infection control committees on the prevalence of nosocomial infections in Kermanshah's Hospitals (2010-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatankhah, Sodabe; Mokarami, Hamidreza; Karchani, Mohsen; Hosseini, Zahra; Izadi, Babak; Moradi, Farideh

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of executive programs of infection control committees on the incidence of nosocomial infections in hospitals affiliated with the Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences (Kermanshah, Iran) during 2010 and 2011. The numbers of patients admitted in 2010 and 2011 were 8084 and 7166, respectively, and the average prevalence of nosocomial infections in 2010 and 2011 was 0.8 and 1.9 infections per 100 patients, respectively. In 2010, the mean scores obtained by hospital for regular Infection Control Committee meetings, regular gatherings, registration of program information analysis, and regular follow-up meetings were 19, 31, 30.5, and 41.7 (out of 100), respectively. In 2011, they were 20.2, 36.4, 38.1, and 50, respectively. The results of this study indicated that executive programs of infection control committees had no effect on the incidence of nosocomial infections; therefore, the experts who assess hospitals should pay more attention to the systems that are used to conduct surveillance of nosocomial infection control programs.

  20. Prevalence and effect of schistosome and soil-transmitted helminth infection on labour input in rice-growing communities of Ogun State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sammy Olufemi Sam-Wobo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH are public health problems in communities which lack basic social amenities with poor hygienic conditions. Studies were carried out to determine the prevalence and effect of schistosomes and soil-transmitted helminths infection on labour input on rice production in 9 rice-growing communities of Ogun State. Parasitological examinations of urine and faecal samples, and structured questionnaires were conducted on 243 consented individuals from May 2009 to March 2010. The results showed an overall prevalence of 17% for Ascaris lumbricoides, 12% for hookworms, 2% for Trichuris trichiura, 1% for Schistosoma haematobium and 1% for Schistosoma mansoni. A. lumbricoides and hookworms were more prevalent in Agbajege (25%, and varied in the other 8 communities. T. trichiura was prevalent in three communities, Agbajege (5%, Akodu (4.2%, and Moloko-Asipa (4.8 %; S. haematobium was prevalent only in Ayedere (2.6% and Lufoko (8%, while S. mansoni was prevalent only in Moloko-Asipa (9.5%. Infections among the gender were varied as 26.3 % of males and 33.8 % of females had an overall prevalence of: A. lumbricoides (16.8%, hookworms (11.8%, T. trichiura (1.6%, S. haematobium (1.1% and S. mansoni (1.1%. On frequency of infection to incapacitation per year, 45% of respondents were incapacitated 1-2 times, 27% 3-4 times and 19% were incapacitated more than 4 times. Understanding the effect of these two diseases will not only improve the health status of residents but also increase their productivity and ensure food security.

  1. PageFocus: Using paradata to detect and prevent cheating on online achievement tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedenhofen, Birk; Musch, Jochen

    2017-08-01

    Cheating threatens the validity of unproctored online achievement tests. To address this problem, we developed PageFocus, a JavaScript that detects when participants abandon test pages by switching to another window or browser tab. In a first study, we aimed at testing whether PageFocus could detect and prevent cheating. We asked 115 lab and 186 online participants to complete a knowledge test comprising items that were difficult to answer but easy to look up on the Internet. Half of the participants were invited to look up the solutions, which significantly increased their test scores. The PageFocus script detected test takers who abandoned the test page with very high sensitivity and specificity, and successfully reduced cheating by generating a popup message that asked participants not to cheat. In a second study, 510 online participants completed a knowledge test comprising items that could easily be looked up and a reasoning task involving matrices that were impossible to look up. In a first group, a performance-related monetary reward was promised to the top scorers; in a second group, participants took part in a lottery that provided performance-unrelated rewards; and in a third group, no incentive was offered. PageFocus revealed that participants cheated more when performance-related incentives were offered. As expected, however, this effect was limited to items that could easily be looked up. We recommend that PageFocus be routinely employed to detect and prevent cheating on online achievement tests.

  2. Emerging Pattern-Based Clustering of Web Users Utilizing a Simple Page-Linked Graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuming Yu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Web usage mining is a popular research area in data mining. With the extensive use of the Internet, it is essential to learn about the favorite web pages of its users and to cluster web users in order to understand the structural patterns of their usage behavior. In this paper, we propose an efficient approach to determining favorite web pages by generating large web pages, and emerging patterns of generated simple page-linked graphs. We identify the favorite web pages of each user by eliminating noise due to overall popular pages, and by clustering web users according to the generated emerging patterns. Afterwards, we label the clusters by using Term Frequency-Inverse Document Frequency (TF-IDF. In the experiments, we evaluate the parameters used in our proposed approach, discuss the effect of the parameters on generating emerging patterns, and analyze the results from clustering web users. The results of the experiments prove that the exact patterns generated in the emerging-pattern step eliminate the need to consider noise pages, and consequently, this step can improve the efficiency of subsequent mining tasks. Our proposed approach is capable of clustering web users from web log data.

  3. Prevalence of Tobacco Use among School Teachers and Effect of Training on Tobacco Use in Western Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mermer, Gülengül; Dağhan, Şafak; Bilge, Ayşegül; Dönmez, Renginar Öztürk; Özsoy, Süheyla; Günay, Türkan

    2016-06-01

    Tobacco consumption is still a prevalent issue. Given that teachers are respected in society, they have a great responsibility for tobacco control. This study examines, using the Transtheoretical Model (TTM), the prevalence of tobacco use among teachers and their different stages of tobacco use. It also evaluates teachers' views on smoking and the effectiveness of training on tobacco use. This study is quasi-experimental. Pre-test and post-test were used first with a cross-sectional group, then with a single group to determine the frequency of tobacco use. The research participation complied with the voluntary principles and the participation rate was 84.9%. The research sample comprised 450 teachers working at schools (N=17) under the Kemalpasa Directorate of Education. The data form contained 29 questions about socio-demographic characteristics and smoking habits. The Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND), Smoking Decisional Balance Scale (SDBS), and the Stage of Change were used. A pre-test was also administered, and training was given between January 13 and March 4, 2014. After the training sessions, two short messages (SMS) were sent on March 12 and March 19, 2014. A post-test was administered between April 1 and May 21, 2014. The relevant institutions and participants gave the requisite permission for the data used in this study. Percentage distribution, dependent t-tests and chi-square tests were used to evaluate the research data. The median age of the teachers was 37.49±7.84. The teachers' mean score for the pre-test of FTND was 5.7±2.03, and their mean score for the post-test was 3.25±2.07. Post-test scores were remarkably lower than the pre-test scores. It was found that teachers' mean scores for SDBS were different before and after training. After training, anti-smoking attitudes increased (pros-cons scores: pre-test: -3.64±4.68, post-test: -11.25±5.48). The training helped the entire group to make progress in the process change. After

  4. Prevalence of cytological endometritis and effect on pregnancy outcomes at the time of insemination in nulliparous dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascottini, O Bogado; Hostens, M; Dini, P; Van Eetvelde, M; Vercauteren, P; Opsomer, G

    2016-11-01

    The objectives of the present study were to assess the prevalence of cytological endometritis (CYTO) at the time of artificial insemination (AI) and its effect on pregnancy outcomes in nulliparous dairy heifers. In total, 512 endometrial cytology samples were taken during AI from 351 nulliparous Holstein-Friesian heifers using cytotape (a 1.5-cm piece of paper tape rolled on the top of an AI catheter covered with a double guard sheet). After sampling, the top of the AI catheter was gently rolled onto a glass slide, air-dried, and stained using Diff-Quick (Fisher Diagnostics, Newark, DE). For each slide, 300 nucleated cells were counted, and the polymorphonuclear cell ratio (% PMN) was assessed at 400× magnification. We constructed a receiver operating characteristic curve to find the cutoff point at which sensitivity and specificity (% PMN) affected pregnancy outcomes. The receiver operating characteristic curve revealed that the threshold level for diagnosing CYTO in nulliparous dairy heifers was 1% PMN. An insemination was considered successful when pregnancy was confirmed by rectal palpation at least 45d post-AI. Heifers were considered not pregnant when they received a subsequent insemination or were diagnosed empty by rectal palpation. We built multilevel generalized mixed-effect models to test factors affecting pregnancy outcomes and the occurrence of CYTO at AI. We excluded 16 samples harvested from 12 heifers due to poor sample quality or unavailability of reproductive data. Of the 496 AI samples, the prevalence of CYTO at AI was 7.86% (n=39). The conception rate was 62.8% (n=287) in CYTO-negative samples (n=457) and 38.46% (n=15) in CYTO-positive samples. Risk factors for non-pregnancy were a previous AI (odds ratio 2.96; 95% confidence interval: 1.21-7.26) and the interaction between CYTO and previous AI. The only risk factor identified as being associated with the occurrence of CYTO was a previous AI (odds ratio 4.7; 95% confidence interval: 2

  5. The effect of three ergonomics training programs on the prevalence of low-back pain among workers of an Iranian automobile factory: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghilinejad, M; Bahrami-Ahmadi, A; Kabir-Mokamelkhah, E; Sarebanha, S; Hosseini, H R; Sadeghi, Z

    2014-04-01

    Many workers suffer from low-back pain. Type and severity of spinal complaints have relationship with work load. Lack of adherence to ergonomics recommendations among the important causes of low-back pain. To assess the effect of 3 ergonomics training programs on the prevalence of lowback pain among workers of an Iranian automobile factory. In a parallel-design 4-arm randomized clinical trial, 760 active workers of an automobile factory were studied. 503 workers were found eligible and randomized into 3 intervention groups (n=252), and a control group (n=251). The intervention groups consisted of 3 arms: 84 workers were educated by pamphlet, 84 by lectures, and 84 by workshop. Nordic questionnaire was used to determine the prevalence of spinal complaint before and 1-year after the interventions. The trial is registered with the Iranian Randomized Clinical Trial Registry, number IRCT2013061213182N2. Out of 503 workers, 52 lost to follow-up leaving 451 workers for analyses. The prevalence of low-back pain at the baseline was not significantly different among the studied arms. 1-year after the interventions, the prevalence did not change significantly from the baseline values for the lecture and pamphlet group. However, the prevalence of LBP experienced during the last year significantly (p=0.036) decreased from 42% to 23% in participant took part in the workshop. Training of automobile factory workers in ergonomics is more effective by running workshop than giving lecture or disseminating pamphlet.

  6. Arabic web pages clustering and annotation using semantic class features

    OpenAIRE

    Hanan M. Alghamdi; Ali Selamat; Nor Shahriza Abdul Karim

    2014-01-01

    To effectively manage the great amount of data on Arabic web pages and to enable the classification of relevant information are very important research problems. Studies on sentiment text mining have been very limited in the Arabic language because they need to involve deep semantic processing. Therefore, in this paper, we aim to retrieve machine-understandable data with the help of a Web content mining technique to detect covert knowledge within these data. We propose an approach to achieve ...

  7. Page curves for tripartite systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Junha; Lee, Deok Sang; Nho, Dongju; Oh, Jeonghun; Park, Hyosub; Zoe, Heeseung; Yeom, Dong-han

    2017-01-01

    We investigate information flow and Page curves for tripartite systems. We prepare a tripartite system (say, A , B , and C ) of a given number of states and calculate information and entropy contents by assuming random states. Initially, every particle was in A (this means a black hole), and as time goes on, particles move to either B (this means Hawking radiation) or C (this means a broadly defined remnant, including a non-local transport of information, the last burst, an interior large volume, or a bubble universe, etc). If the final number of states of the remnant is smaller than that of Hawking radiation, then information will be stored by both the radiation and the mutual information between the radiation and the remnant, while the remnant itself does not contain information. On the other hand, if the final number of states of the remnant is greater than that of Hawking radiation, then the radiation contains negligible information, while the remnant and the mutual information between the radiation and the remnant contain information. Unless the number of states of the remnant is large enough compared to the entropy of the black hole, Hawking radiation must contain information; and we meet the menace of black hole complementarity again. Therefore, this contrasts the tension between various assumptions and candidates of the resolution of the information loss problem. (paper)

  8. Page turning solutions for musicians: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolberg, George; Schipper, Irene

    2012-01-01

    Musicians have long been hampered by the challenge in turning sheet music while their hands are occupied playing an instrument. The sight of a human page turner assisting a pianist during a performance, for instance, is not uncommon. This need for a page turning solution is no less acute during practice sessions, which account for the vast majority of playing time. Despite widespread appreciation of the problem, there have been virtually no robust and affordable products to assist the musician. Recent progress in assistive technology and electronic reading devices offers promising solutions to this long-standing problem. The objective of this paper is to survey the technology landscape and assess the benefits and drawbacks of page turning solutions for musicians. A full range of mechanical and digital page turning products are reviewed.

  9. Comparing classical and quantum PageRanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loke, T.; Tang, J. W.; Rodriguez, J.; Small, M.; Wang, J. B.

    2017-01-01

    Following recent developments in quantum PageRanking, we present a comparative analysis of discrete-time and continuous-time quantum-walk-based PageRank algorithms. Relative to classical PageRank and to different extents, the quantum measures better highlight secondary hubs and resolve ranking degeneracy among peripheral nodes for all networks we studied in this paper. For the discrete-time case, we investigated the periodic nature of the walker's probability distribution for a wide range of networks and found that the dominant period does not grow with the size of these networks. Based on this observation, we introduce a new quantum measure using the maximum probabilities of the associated walker during the first couple of periods. This is particularly important, since it leads to a quantum PageRanking scheme that is scalable with respect to network size.

  10. Universal emergence of PageRank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frahm, K M; Georgeot, B; Shepelyansky, D L, E-mail: frahm@irsamc.ups-tlse.fr, E-mail: georgeot@irsamc.ups-tlse.fr, E-mail: dima@irsamc.ups-tlse.fr [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique du CNRS, IRSAMC, Universite de Toulouse, UPS, 31062 Toulouse (France)

    2011-11-18

    The PageRank algorithm enables us to rank the nodes of a network through a specific eigenvector of the Google matrix, using a damping parameter {alpha} Element-Of ]0, 1[. Using extensive numerical simulations of large web networks, with a special accent on British University networks, we determine numerically and analytically the universal features of the PageRank vector at its emergence when {alpha} {yields} 1. The whole network can be divided into a core part and a group of invariant subspaces. For {alpha} {yields} 1, PageRank converges to a universal power-law distribution on the invariant subspaces whose size distribution also follows a universal power law. The convergence of PageRank at {alpha} {yields} 1 is controlled by eigenvalues of the core part of the Google matrix, which are extremely close to unity, leading to large relaxation times as, for example, in spin glasses. (paper)

  11. Universal emergence of PageRank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frahm, K M; Georgeot, B; Shepelyansky, D L

    2011-01-01

    The PageRank algorithm enables us to rank the nodes of a network through a specific eigenvector of the Google matrix, using a damping parameter α ∈ ]0, 1[. Using extensive numerical simulations of large web networks, with a special accent on British University networks, we determine numerically and analytically the universal features of the PageRank vector at its emergence when α → 1. The whole network can be divided into a core part and a group of invariant subspaces. For α → 1, PageRank converges to a universal power-law distribution on the invariant subspaces whose size distribution also follows a universal power law. The convergence of PageRank at α → 1 is controlled by eigenvalues of the core part of the Google matrix, which are extremely close to unity, leading to large relaxation times as, for example, in spin glasses. (paper)

  12. Search Results | Page 788 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 7871 - 7880 of 8490 ... ... changing economic landscape. Research in Action. Private sector development Trade and investment. Changing the rules for businesses. Research in Action. Economic and social development POVERTY ALLEVIATION Poverty Gender. Managing opium: Policy choices for Afghanistan. Pages.

  13. An efficient scheme for automatic web pages categorization using the support vector machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Vinod Kumar; Kumar, Neeraj

    2016-07-01

    In the past few years, with an evolution of the Internet and related technologies, the number of the Internet users grows exponentially. These users demand access to relevant web pages from the Internet within fraction of seconds. To achieve this goal, there is a requirement of an efficient categorization of web page contents. Manual categorization of these billions of web pages to achieve high accuracy is a challenging task. Most of the existing techniques reported in the literature are semi-automatic. Using these techniques, higher level of accuracy cannot be achieved. To achieve these goals, this paper proposes an automatic web pages categorization into the domain category. The proposed scheme is based on the identification of specific and relevant features of the web pages. In the proposed scheme, first extraction and evaluation of features are done followed by filtering the feature set for categorization of domain web pages. A feature extraction tool based on the HTML document object model of the web page is developed in the proposed scheme. Feature extraction and weight assignment are based on the collection of domain-specific keyword list developed by considering various domain pages. Moreover, the keyword list is reduced on the basis of ids of keywords in keyword list. Also, stemming of keywords and tag text is done to achieve a higher accuracy. An extensive feature set is generated to develop a robust classification technique. The proposed scheme was evaluated using a machine learning method in combination with feature extraction and statistical analysis using support vector machine kernel as the classification tool. The results obtained confirm the effectiveness of the proposed scheme in terms of its accuracy in different categories of web pages.

  14. Effect of repeated mass drug administration with praziquantel and track and treat of taeniosis cases on the prevalence of taeniosis in Taenia solium endemic rural communities of Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Magnussen, Pascal; Ndawi, Benedict

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of mass drug administration (MDA) with praziquantel administered to school-aged children (SAC) combined with ‘track and treat’ of taeniosis cases in the general population on the copro-antigen (Ag) prevalence of taeniosis. The study was conducted in 14 villages...

  15. The effect on haemoglobin of the use of iron cooking pots in rural Malawian households in an area with high malaria prevalence: a randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerligs, Paul Prinsen; Brabin, Bernard; Mkumbwa, Albert; Broadhead, Robin; Cuevas, Luis E.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND Innovative low-cost sustainable strategies are required to reduce the high prevalence of iron-deficiency anaemia in developing countries. METHODS We undertook a community-based randomized controlled intervention trial to assess the effects of cooking in iron or aluminium cooking pots in

  16. Effects of diabetes definition on global surveillance of diabetes prevalence and diagnosis: a pooled analysis of 96 population-based studies with 331288 participants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danaei, Goodarz; Fahimi, Saman; Lu, Yuan; Zhou, Bin; Hajifathalian, Kaveh; Di Cesare, Mariachiara; Lo, Wei-Cheng; Reis-Santos, Barbara; Cowan, Melanie J.; Shaw, Jonathan E.; Bentham, James; Lin, John K.; Bixby, Honor; Magliano, Dianna; Bovet, Pascal; Miranda, J. Jaime; Khang, Young-Ho; Stevens, Gretchen A.; Riley, Leanne M.; Ali, Mohammed K.; Ezzati, Majid; Abdeen, Ziad A.; Kadir, Khalid Abdul; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M.; Acosta-Cazares, Benjamin; Aekplakorn, Wichai; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.; Ahmadvand, Alireza; Al Nsour, Mohannad; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Amouyel, Philippe; Andersen, Lars Bo; Anderssen, Sigmund A.; Andrade, Dolores S.; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer; Aris, Tahir; Arlappa, Nimmathota; Arveiler, Dominique; Assah, Felix K.; Avdicova, Maria; Balakrishna, Nagalla; Bandosz, Piotr; Barbagallo, Carlo M.; Barcelo, Alberto; Batieha, Anwar M.; Baur, Louise A.; Ben Romdhane, Habiba; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Bhargava, Santosh K.; Bi, Yufang; Bjerregaard, Peter; Bjorkelund, Cecilia; Blake, Margaret; Blokstra, Anneke; Bo, Simona; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Boissonnet, Carlos P.; Brajkovich, Imperia; Breckenkamp, Juergen; Brewster, Lizzy M.; Brian, Garry R.; Bruno, Graziella; Bugge, Anna; de Leon, Antonio Cabrera; Can, Gunay; Candido, Ana Paula C.; Capuano, Vincenzo; Carvalho, Maria J.; Casanueva, Felipe F.; Caserta, Carmelo A.; Castetbon, Katia; Chamukuttan, Snehalatha; Chaturvedi, Nishi; Chen, Chien-Jen; Chen, Fangfang; Chen, Shuohua; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Chetrit, Angela; Chiou, Shu-Ti; Cho, Yumi; Chudek, Jerzy; Cifkova, Renata; Claessens, Frank; Concin, Hans; Cooper, Cyrus; Cooper, Rachel; Costanzo, Simona; Cottel, Dominique; Cowell, Chris; Crujeiras, Ana B.; D'Arrigo, Graziella; Dallongeville, Jean; Dankner, Rachel; Dauchet, Luc; de Gaetano, Giovanni; de Henauw, Stefaan; Deepa, Mohan; Dehghan, Abbas; Dhana, Klodian; Di Castelnuovo, Augusto F.; Djalalinia, Shirin; Doua, Kouamelan; Drygas, Wojciech; Du, Yong; Egbagbe, Eruke E.; Eggertsen, Robert; El Ati, Jalila; Elosua, Roberto; Erasmus, Rajiv T.; Erem, Cihangir; Ergor, Gul; Eriksen, Louise; la Penaa, Jorge Escobedo-De; Fall, Caroline H.; Farzadfar, Farshad; Felix-Redondo, Francisco J.; Ferguson, Trevor S.; Fernandez-Berges, Daniel; Ferrari, Marika; Ferreccio, Catterina; Finn, Joseph D.; Foger, Bernhard; Foo, Leng Huat; Fouad, Heba M.; Francis, Damian K.; Franco, Maria do Carmo; Franco, Oscar H.; Frontera, Guillermo; Furusawa, Takuro; Gaciong, Zbigniew; Galbarczyk, Andrzej; Garnett, Sarah P.; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Gasull, Magda; Gates, Louise; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Ghasemain, Anoosheh; Giampaoli, Simona; Gianfagna, Francesco; Giovannelli, Jonathan; Gross, Marcela Gonzalez; Rivas, Juan P. Gonzalez; Gorbea, Mariano Bonet; Gottrand, Frederic; Grant, Janet F.; Grodzicki, Tomasz; Grontved, Anders; Gruden, Grabriella; Gu, Dongfeng; Guan, Ong Peng; Guerrero, Ramiro; Guessous, Idris; Guimaraes, Andre L.; Gutierrez, Laura; Hardy, Rebecca; Kumar, Rachakulla Hari; He, Jiang; Heidemann, Christin; Hihtaniemi, Ilpo Tapani; Ho, Sai Yin; Ho, Suzanne C.; Hofman, Albert; Russo, Andrea R. V.; Hormiga, Claudia M.; Horta, Bernardo L.; Houti, Leila; Hussieni, Abdullatif S.; Huybrechts, Inge; Hwalla, Nahla; Iacoviello, Licia; Iannone, Anna G.; Ibrahim, Mohsen M.; Ikeda, Nayu; Ikram, M. Arfan; Irazola, Vilma E.; Islam, Muhammad; Iwasaki, Masanori; Jacobs, Jeremy M.; Jafar, Tazeen; Jasienska, Grazyna; Jiang, Chao Qiang; Jonas, Jost B.; Joshi, Pradeep; Kafatos, Anthony; Kalter-Leibovici, Ofra; Kasaeian, Amir; Katz, Joanne; Kaur, Prabhdeep; Kavousi, Maryam; Kelishadi, Roya; Kengne, Andre P.; Kersting, Mathilde; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Kiechl, Stefan; Kim, Jeongseon; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Kolsteren, Patrick; Korrovits, Paul; Koskinen, Seppo; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Kromhout, Daan; Kula, Krzysztof; Kurjata, Pawel; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Lachat, Carl; Laid, Youcef; Lam, Tai Hing; Landrove, Orlando; Lanska, Vera; Lappas, Georg; Laxmaiah, Avula; Leclercq, Catherine; Lee, Jeannette; Lee, Jeonghee; Lehtimaki, Terho; Lekhraj, Rampal; Leon-Munoz, Luz M.; Li, Yanping; Lim, Wei-Yen; Lima-Costa, M. Fernanda; Lin, Hsien-Ho; Lin, Xu; Lissner, Lauren; Lorbeer, Roberto; Lozano, Jose Eugenio; Lundqvist, Annamari; Lytsy, Per; Ma, Guansheng; Machado-Coelho, George L. L.; Machi, Suka; Maggi, Stefania; Makdisse, Marcia; Rao, Kodavanti Mallikharjuna; Manios, Yannis; Manzato, Enzo; Margozzini, Paula; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Martorell, Reynaldo; Masoodi, Shariq R.; Matsha, Tandi E.; Mbanya, Jean Claude N.; McFarlane, Shelly R.; McGarvey, Stephen T.; McLachlan, Stela; McNulty, Breige A.; Mediene-Benchekor, Sounnia; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Menezes, Ana Maria B.; Merat, Shahin; Meshram, Indrapal I.; Mi, Jie; Miquel, Juan Francisco; Mohamed, Mostafa K.; Mohammad, Kazem; Mohan, Viswanathan; Yusoff, Muhammad Fadhli Mohd; Moller, Niels C.; Molnar, Denes; Mondo, Charles K.; Moreno, Luis A.; Morgan, Karen; Moschonis, George; Mossakowska, Malgorzata; Mostafa, Aya; Mota, Jorge; Muiesan, Maria L.; Muller-Nurasyid, Martina; Mursu, Jaakko; Nagel, Gabriele; Namesna, Jana; Nang, Ei Ei K.; Nangia, Vinay B.; Navarrete-Munoz, Eva Maria; Ndiaye, Ndeye Coumba; Nervi, Flavio; Nguyen, Nguyen D.; Nieto-Martinez, Ramfi S. E.; Ning, Guang; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Noale, Marianna; Noto, Davide; Ochoa-Aviles, Angelica M.; Oh, Kyungwon; Onat, Altan; Osmond, Clive; Otero, Johanna A.; Palmieri, Luigi; Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra; Panza, Francesco; Parsaeian, Mahboubeh; Peixoto, Sergio Viana; Pereira, Alexandre C.; Peters, Annette; Peykari, Niloofar; Pilav, Aida; Pitakaka, Freda; Piwonska, Aleksandra; Piwonski, Jerzy; Plans-Rubio, Pedro; Porta, Miquel; Portegies, Marileen L. P.; Poustchi, Hossein; Pradeepa, Rajendra; Price, Jacqueline F.; Punab, Margus; Qasrawi, Radwan F.; Qorbani, Mostafa; Raitakari, Olli; Rao, Sudha Ramachandra; Ramachandran, Ambady; Ramos, Rafel; Rampal, Sanjay; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Redon, Josep; Reganit, Paul Ferdinand M.; Rigo, Fernando; Robinson, Sian M.; Robitaille, Cynthia; Rodriguez, Laura A.; Rodriguez-Artalejo, Fernando; Rodriguez-Perez, Maria del Cristo; Rojas-Martinez, Rosalba; Romaguera, Dora; Rosengren, Annika; Rubinstein, Adolfo; Rui, Ornelas; Ruiz-Betancourt, Blanca Sandra; Rutkowski, Marcin; Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Sachdev, Harshpal S.; Saidi, Olfa; Sakarya, Sibel; Salanave, Benoit; Salonen, Jukka T.; Salvetti, Massimo; Sanchez-Abanto, Jose; Nunes, Renata; Santos, Rute; Sardinha, Luis B.; Scazufca, Marcia; Schargrodsky, Herman; Scheidt-Nave, Christa; Shibuya, Kenji; Shin, Youchan; Shiri, Rahman; Siantar, Rosalynn; Sibai, Abla M.; Simon, Mary; Simons, Judith; Simons, Leon A.; Sjostrom, Michael; Slowikowska-Hilczer, Jolanta; Slusarczyk, Przemyslaw; Smeeth, Liam; Snijder, Marieke B.; Solfrizzi, Vincenzo; Sonestedt, Emily; Soumare, Aicha; Staessen, Jan A.; Steene-Johannessen, Jostein; Stehle, Peter; Stein, Aryeh D.; Stessman, Jochanan; Stockl, Doris; Stokwiszewski, Jakub; Strufaldi, Maria Wany; Sun, Chien-An; Sundstrom, Johan; Suriyawongpaisal, Paibul; Sy, Rody G.; Tai, E. Shyong; Tarawneh, Mohammed; Tarqui-Mamani, Carolina B.; Thijs, Lutgarde; Tolstrup, Janne S.; Topbas, Murat; Torrent, Maties; Traissac, Pierre; Trinh, Oanh T. H.; Tulloch-Reid, Marshall K.; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Turley, Maria L.; Tzourio, Christophe; Ueda, Peter; Ukoli, Flora M.; Ulmer, Hanno; Valdivia, Gonzalo; van Valkengoed, Irene G. M.; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Vanuzzo, Diego; Vega, Tomas; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo; Veronesi, Giovanni; Verschuren, Monique; Vioque, Jesus; Virtanen, Jyrki; Visvikis-Siest, Sophie; Viswanathan, Bharathi; Vollenweider, Peter; Voutilainen, Sari; Wade, Alisha N.; Wagner, Aline; Walton, Janette; Mohamud, Wan Nazaimoon Wan; Wang, Ming-Dong; Wang, Ya Xing; Wannamethee, S. Goya; Weerasekera, Deepa; Whincup, Peter H.; Widhalm, Kurt; Wiecek, Andrzej; Wilks, Rainford J.; Willeit, Johann; Wojtyniak, Bogdan; Wong, Tien Yin; Woo, Jean; Woodward, Mark; Wu, Aleksander Giwercman; Wu, Frederick C.; Wu, Shou Ling; Xu, Haiquan; Yang, Xiaoguang; Ye, Xingwang; Yoshihara, Akihiro; Younger-Coleman, Novie O.; Zambon, Sabina; Zargar, Abdul Hamid; Zdrojewski, Tomasz; Zhao, Wenhua; Zheng, Yingfeng

    2015-01-01

    Background Diabetes has been defined on the basis of different biomarkers, including fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h plasma glucose in an oral glucose tolerance test (2hOGTT), and HbA(1c). We assessed the effect of different diagnostic definitions on both the population prevalence of diabetes and

  17. The effects of demographic, social, and environmental characteristics on pathogen prevalence in wild felids across a gradient of urbanization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse S Lewis

    Full Text Available Transmission of pathogens among animals is influenced by demographic, social, and environmental factors. Anthropogenic alteration of landscapes can impact patterns of disease dynamics in wildlife populations, increasing the potential for spillover and spread of emerging infectious diseases in wildlife, human, and domestic animal populations. We evaluated the effects of multiple ecological mechanisms on patterns of pathogen exposure in animal populations. Specifically, we evaluated how ecological factors affected the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii (Toxoplasma, Bartonella spp. (Bartonella, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV, and feline calicivirus (FCV in bobcat and puma populations across wildland-urban interface (WUI, low-density exurban development, and wildland habitat on the Western Slope (WS and Front Range (FR of Colorado during 2009-2011. Samples were collected from 37 bobcats and 29 pumas on the WS and FR. As predicted, age appeared to be positively related to the exposure to pathogens that are both environmentally transmitted (Toxoplasma and directly transmitted between animals (FIV. In addition, WS bobcats appeared more likely to be exposed to Toxoplasma with increasing intraspecific space-use overlap. However, counter to our predictions, exposure to directly-transmitted pathogens (FCV and FIV was more likely with decreasing space-use overlap (FCV: WS bobcats and potential intraspecific contacts (FIV: FR pumas. Environmental factors, including urbanization and landscape covariates, were generally unsupported in our models. This study is an approximation of how pathogens can be evaluated in relation to demographic, social, and environmental factors to understand pathogen exposure in wild animal populations.

  18. The Brave New World of Personality Disorder-Trait Specified: Effects of Additional Definitions on Coverage, Prevalence, and Comorbidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Lee Anna; Vanderbleek, Emily N.; Shapiro, Jaime L.; Nuzum, Hallie; Allen, Xia; Daly, Elizabeth; Kingsbury, Thomas J.; Oiler, Morgan; Ro, Eunyoe

    2015-01-01

    The alternative dimensional model for personality disorder (PD) in DSM-5, Section III (DSM-5-III) includes two main criteria: (A) personality-functioning impairment, and (B) personality-trait pathology; provides specific functioning-and-trait criteria for six PD-type diagnoses; and introduces PD-trait specified (PD-TS), which requires meeting the general PD criteria and not meeting criteria for any specific PD type. We termed this Simple PD-TS and developed two additional definitions: Mixed PD-TS, meeting criteria for one or two PD types and having five or more additional pathological traits; and Complex PD-TS, meeting criteria for three or more PD types. In a mixed sample of 165 outpatients and 215 community adults screened to be at high-risk for PD, we investigated the effect of these additional definitions on prevalence, coverage, comorbidity, and within-diagnosis heterogeneity, and conclude that eliminating the PD-type diagnoses and thus having PD-TS as the only PD diagnosis would be both more parsimonious and more useful clinically. PMID:26097740

  19. Effect of heifer-raising practices on E. coli antimicrobial resistance and Salmonella prevalence in heifer raisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, R V; Siler, J D; Cummings, K J; Davis, M A; Warnick, L D

    2015-11-01

    Although cattle movement and commingling play an important role in the inter-herd transmission of pathogens, little is known about the effect of commingling of heifers at raising operations. The objective of this study was to compare the resistance of E. coli and prevalence of Salmonella from pooled faecal pats of heifers raised off-farm at multi-source raisers (MULTI) that raised heifers from at least two farms compared with on-farm raisers (HOME), with heifers from only that farm. MULTI faecal pat samples were collected from pens with animals that had arrived at the farm within the previous 2 months (AP) and from animals that would be departing the heifer raiser in 2-3 months (DP). Corresponding age sampling was conducted at HOME raisers. Odds of ampicillin resistance were 3·0 times greater in E. coli collected from MULTI compared to HOME raisers. E. coli from AP pens had significantly (P streptomycin, and tetracycline compared to DP pens. Salmonella recovery was not significantly different between heifer-raising systems (P = 0·3). Heifer-raising system did not have a major overall impact on selection of resistant E. coli, which was strongly affected by the age of the animals sampled.

  20. The effects of demographic, social, and environmental characteristics on pathogen prevalence in wild felids across a gradient of urbanization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Kenneth A.; Alldredge, Mat W.; Carver, Scott; Bevins, Sarah N.; Lappin, Michael; VandeWoude, Sue; Crooks, Kevin R.

    2017-01-01

    Transmission of pathogens among animals is influenced by demographic, social, and environmental factors. Anthropogenic alteration of landscapes can impact patterns of disease dynamics in wildlife populations, increasing the potential for spillover and spread of emerging infectious diseases in wildlife, human, and domestic animal populations. We evaluated the effects of multiple ecological mechanisms on patterns of pathogen exposure in animal populations. Specifically, we evaluated how ecological factors affected the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii (Toxoplasma), Bartonella spp. (Bartonella), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and feline calicivirus (FCV) in bobcat and puma populations across wildland-urban interface (WUI), low-density exurban development, and wildland habitat on the Western Slope (WS) and Front Range (FR) of Colorado during 2009–2011. Samples were collected from 37 bobcats and 29 pumas on the WS and FR. As predicted, age appeared to be positively related to the exposure to pathogens that are both environmentally transmitted (Toxoplasma) and directly transmitted between animals (FIV). In addition, WS bobcats appeared more likely to be exposed to Toxoplasma with increasing intraspecific space-use overlap. However, counter to our predictions, exposure to directly-transmitted pathogens (FCV and FIV) was more likely with decreasing space-use overlap (FCV: WS bobcats) and potential intraspecific contacts (FIV: FR pumas). Environmental factors, including urbanization and landscape covariates, were generally unsupported in our models. This study is an approximation of how pathogens can be evaluated in relation to demographic, social, and environmental factors to understand pathogen exposure in wild animal populations. PMID:29121060

  1. The Brave New World of Personality Disorder-Trait Specified: Effects of Additional Definitions on Coverage, Prevalence, and Comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Lee Anna; Vanderbleek, Emily N; Shapiro, Jaime L; Nuzum, Hallie; Allen, Xia; Daly, Elizabeth; Kingsbury, Thomas J; Oiler, Morgan; Ro, Eunyoe

    The alternative dimensional model for personality disorder (PD) in DSM-5 , Section III ( DSM-5 -III) includes two main criteria: (A) personality-functioning impairment, and (B) personality-trait pathology; provides specific functioning-and-trait criteria for six PD-type diagnoses; and introduces PD-trait specified (PD-TS), which requires meeting the general PD criteria and not meeting criteria for any specific PD type. We termed this Simple PD-TS and developed two additional definitions: Mixed PD-TS, meeting criteria for one or two PD types and having five or more additional pathological traits; and Complex PD-TS, meeting criteria for three or more PD types. In a mixed sample of 165 outpatients and 215 community adults screened to be at high-risk for PD, we investigated the effect of these additional definitions on prevalence, coverage, comorbidity, and within-diagnosis heterogeneity, and conclude that eliminating the PD-type diagnoses and thus having PD-TS as the only PD diagnosis would be both more parsimonious and more useful clinically.

  2. Prevalence and sport-related predictors of disturbed eating attitudes and behaviors: Moderating effects of sex and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanfranchi, M-C; Maïano, C; Morin, A J S; Therme, P

    2014-08-01

    Very few studies examined the prevalence and sport-related predictors of disturbed eating attitudes and behaviors (DEABs) among adolescents involved in sport practice, and their results are mixed and inconclusive. These inconsistencies are most likely due to their methodological heterogeneity and to the fact that none of these studies took into consideration the potentially relevant characteristics of the sport practice context. This study attempts to answer this limitation among French adolescents not involved or involved in various sports contexts defined based on their organization, leanness-centration, and competitive level. Participants were 335 adolescents involved in sport practice, and 435 adolescents not involved in any form of regular sport practice. The DEABs were measured using the Eating Attitudes Test-26. Global results do not showed any significant association between the status of the participants and DEAB. However, these results drastically changed when we considered the potential moderating role of sex and age on these relations. Indeed, sports involvement in general, and involvement in leanness and competitive sports were found to exert sex- and age-differentiated effects on the risks of presenting clinically significant levels of DEAB. This study suggests the importance of monitoring, preventive, and early intervention mechanisms within the context of practice, particularly for adolescent girls. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The effect of propolis honey candy on Streptococcus mutans prevalence in caries and caries-free subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soekanto, Sri Angky; Bachtiar, Endang W.; Jiwanakusuma, Pramodanti; Gladea, Zahara; Sahlan, Muhamad

    2018-02-01

    This study was to evaluate the effect of Propolis Honey candy on Streptococcus mutans prevalence in caries and caries-free subject. The subject of this research was caries and caries-free subjects. The Streptococcus mutans colony was counted in saliva samples before and after a 7-day period of consuming Propolis Honey candy, Honey candy, and "X" candy. The Streptococcus mutans was proliferated in a TYS20B gelatin medium for 48 hours. The number of Streptococcus mutans colonies was expressed in CFU/ml. Compared with the pre-treatment group, the number of Streptococcus mutans colonies in the treatment group tends to show a statistically significant reduction (pStreptococcus mutans after consuming Propolis honey candy were lower (5.8×106 CFU/ml) than before (2.4×1010 CFU/ml) in caries-free subject. In caries subject, the result of Propolis honey candy were also lower (2.2×107 CFU/ml) than before (5.8×109 CFU/ml). The study showed a decrease in the number of Streptococcus mutans colonies from caries and caries-free subjects after propolis honey candy consumption.

  4. The Importance of Prior Probabilities for Entry Page Search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaij, W.; Westerveld, T.H.W.; Hiemstra, Djoerd

    An important class of searches on the world-wide-web has the goal to find an entry page (homepage) of an organisation. Entry page search is quite different from Ad Hoc search. Indeed a plain Ad Hoc system performs disappointingly. We explored three non-content features of web pages: page length,

  5. Probabilistic relation between In-Degree and PageRank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Litvak, Nelli; Scheinhardt, Willem R.W.; Volkovich, Y.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a novel stochastic model that explains the relation between power laws of In-Degree and PageRank. PageRank is a popularity measure designed by Google to rank Web pages. We model the relation between PageRank and In-Degree through a stochastic equation, which is inspired by the

  6. Query-Structure Based Web Page Indexing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    task. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Same as Report (SAR) 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 13 19a. NAME OF...finding, Entity finding, and Web pages classification . The design of highly-scalable indexing algorithms is needed, especially with an estimate of one...content, e.g., “ Fibromyalgia " or "Lipoma". • Combining: this type of query is processed using primitive keywords from urls and/or titles that imply

  7. Using Links to Classify Wikipedia Pages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaptein, Rianne; Kamps, Jaap

    This paper contains a description of experiments for the 2008 INEX XML-mining track. Our goal for the XML-mining track is to explore whether we can use link information to improve classification accuracy. Our approach is to propagate category probabilities over linked pages. We find that using link information leads to marginal improvements over a baseline that uses a Naive Bayes model. For the initially misclassified pages, link information is either not available or contains too much noise.

  8. Effect of repeated mass drug administration with praziquantel and track and treat of taeniosis cases on the prevalence of taeniosis in Taenia solium endemic rural communities of Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Magnussen, Pascal; Ndawi, Benedict

    This study evaluated the effect of mass drug administration (MDA) with praziquantel administered to school-aged children (SAC) combined with ‘track and treat’ of taeniosis cases on the prevalence of taeniosis. The study was conducted in 14 villages in Mbozi and Mbeya district, Tanzania. SAC...... received MDA with praziquantel in 2012 (both districts) and in 2013 (Mbozi only). Three cross-sectional population-based surveys were performed in 2012 (R0), 2013 (R1), and 2014 (R2). In each survey approximately 3,000 participants of all ages were tested using copro-antigen-ELISA. The prevalence...

  9. Banner Pages on the New Printing Infrastructure

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Changes to the printing service were announced in CERN Bulletin No. 37-38/2006. In the new infrastructure, the printing of the banner page has been disabled in order to reduce paper consumption. Statistics show that the average print job size is small and the paper savings by not printing the banner page could be up to 20 %. When each printer is moved onto the new infrastructure banner page printing will be disabled. In the case of corridor printers which are shared by several users, the Helpdesk can re-enable banner page printing upon request. We hope ultimately to arrive at a situation where banner page printing is enabled on fewer than 10% of printers registered on the network. You can still print banner pages on printers where it has been centrally disabled by using Linux. Simply add it to your print job on the client side by adding the -o job-sheets option to your lpr command. Detailed documentation is available on each SLC3/4 under the following link: http://localhost:631/sum.html#4_2 Please bea...

  10. Investigation of Prevalence of Energizer Drugs and Supplements Consumption and Effective Factors Among Bodybuilder Men in Karaj (2011)

    OpenAIRE

    F. Shoshtarizadeh; F. Bahramian; A.A. Safari; M. Pourghaderi; H. Barati

    2013-01-01

    Background: Body builder athletes’ high attention to form of body can result in high prevalence of nutritional disorders and habit to energizer drugs consumption. With notice to abuse problems of these drugs, this research was carried out to estimate prevalence of energizer drugs and supplements consumption in Karaj body builder men in 2011. Method: In cross-sectional (description- analytical) research 780 Karaj body builder men were selected randomly. Data were collected through interv...

  11. The effect of environmental factors and migration dynamics on the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli in estuary environments

    OpenAIRE

    Na, Guangshui; Lu, Zihao; Gao, Hui; Zhang, Linxiao; Li, Qianwei; Li, Ruijing; Yang, Fan; Huo, Chuanlin; Yao, Ziwei

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the antibiotic resistance transmission mechanisms and migration dynamics of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) in the natural environment is critical given the increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance. The aim of this study was to examine the fate of sulfonamide-resistant fecal bacteria (E. coli) in an estuary ecosystem and to explore the role and contribution of environmental factors in this process. The prevalence of sulfonamide-resistance status of E. coli was analyzed...

  12. Investigation of Prevalence of Energizer Drugs and Supplements Consumption and Effective Factors Among Bodybuilder Men in Karaj (2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Shoshtarizadeh

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Body builder athletes’ high attention to form of body can result in high prevalence of nutritional disorders and habit to energizer drugs consumption. With notice to abuse problems of these drugs, this research was carried out to estimate prevalence of energizer drugs and supplements consumption in Karaj body builder men in 2011. Method: In cross-sectional (description- analytical research 780 Karaj body builder men were selected randomly. Data were collected through interview with questionnaires containing demographic questions and using information of drugs. Data were analyzed with SPSS software (Ver. 19 and κ² test with meaningful level of P<0.05. Result: Prevalence of consumption in studied sample from different types of supplements and energizer drugs was estimated 88.2%. The most consumption prevalence belonged to food supplements and vitamins group and combination of those (69.9%. About anabolic and energizer compounds and also hormonal drugs and corticosteroids, prevalence was 5.6% and 2.1% respectively and 7.7% totally. There was meaningful relation between experience times of abuse problems, place of drug and supplement supply and attention to being permissible or impermissible of those items with type of drugs or supplement (P = 0.001. Also relation between consumption of supplements and drugs with main goal in using them was meaningful (P = 0.045. Conclusion: Consumption of supplement and energizer drugs in Karaj body builder men has high prevalence.

  13. A national cross-sectional study on effects of fluoride-safe water supply on the prevalence of fluorosis in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Gao, Yanhui; Wang, Wei; Zhao, Lijun; Zhang, Wei; Han, Hepeng; Shi, Yuxia; Yu, Guangqian; Sun, Dianjun

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the effects of provided fluoride-safe drinking-water for the prevention and control of endemic fluorosis in China. Design A national cross-sectional study in China. Setting In 1985, randomly selected villages in 27 provinces (or cities and municipalities) in 5 geographic areas all over China. Participants Involved 81 786 children aged from 8 to 12 and 594 698 adults aged over 16. Main outcome measure The prevalence of dental fluorosis and clinical skeletal fluorosis, the fluoride concentrations in the drinking-water in study villages and in the urine of subjects. Results The study showed that in the villages where the drinking-water fluoride concentrations were higher than the government standard of 1.2 mg/l, but no fluoride-safe drinking-water supply scheme was provided (FNB areas), the prevalence rate and index of dental fluorosis in children, and prevalence rate of clinical skeletal fluorosis in adults were all significantly higher than those in the historical endemic fluorosis villages after the fluoride-safe drinking-water were provided (FSB areas). Additionally, the prevalence rate of dental fluorosis as well as clinical skeletal fluorosis, and the concentration of fluoride in urine were found increased with the increase of fluoride concentration in drinking-water, with significant positive correlations in the FNB areas. While, the prevalence rate of dental fluorosis and clinical skeletal fluorosis in different age groups and their degrees of prevalence were significantly lower in the FSB areas than those in the FNB areas. Conclusions The provision of fluoride-safe drinking-water supply schemes had significant effects on the prevention and control of dental fluorosis and skeletal fluorosis. The study also indicated that the dental and skeletal fluorosis is still prevailing in the high-fluoride drinking-water areas in China. PMID:23015601

  14. Document representations for classification of short web-page descriptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović Miloš

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by applying Text Categorization to classification of Web search results, this paper describes an extensive experimental study of the impact of bag-of- words document representations on the performance of five major classifiers - Naïve Bayes, SVM, Voted Perceptron, kNN and C4.5. The texts, representing short Web-page descriptions sorted into a large hierarchy of topics, are taken from the dmoz Open Directory Web-page ontology, and classifiers are trained to automatically determine the topics which may be relevant to a previously unseen Web-page. Different transformations of input data: stemming, normalization, logtf and idf, together with dimensionality reduction, are found to have a statistically significant improving or degrading effect on classification performance measured by classical metrics - accuracy, precision, recall, F1 and F2. The emphasis of the study is not on determining the best document representation which corresponds to each classifier, but rather on describing the effects of every individual transformation on classification, together with their mutual relationships. .

  15. Arabic web pages clustering and annotation using semantic class features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan M. Alghamdi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To effectively manage the great amount of data on Arabic web pages and to enable the classification of relevant information are very important research problems. Studies on sentiment text mining have been very limited in the Arabic language because they need to involve deep semantic processing. Therefore, in this paper, we aim to retrieve machine-understandable data with the help of a Web content mining technique to detect covert knowledge within these data. We propose an approach to achieve clustering with semantic similarities. This approach comprises integrating k-means document clustering with semantic feature extraction and document vectorization to group Arabic web pages according to semantic similarities and then show the semantic annotation. The document vectorization helps to transform text documents into a semantic class probability distribution or semantic class density. To reach semantic similarities, the approach extracts the semantic class features and integrates them into the similarity weighting schema. The quality of the clustering result has evaluated the use of the purity and the mean intra-cluster distance (MICD evaluation measures. We have evaluated the proposed approach on a set of common Arabic news web pages. We have acquired favorable clustering results that are effective in minimizing the MICD, expanding the purity and lowering the runtime.

  16. In-Degree and PageRank of web pages: why do they follow similar power laws?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Litvak, Nelli; Scheinhardt, Willem R.W.; Volkovich, Y.

    2009-01-01

    PageRank is a popularity measure designed by Google to rank Web pages. Experiments confirm that PageRank values obey a power law with the same exponent as In-Degree values. This paper presents a novel mathematical model that explains this phenomenon. The relation between PageRank and In-Degree is

  17. In-degree and pageRank of web pages: Why do they follow similar power laws?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Litvak, Nelli; Scheinhardt, Willem R.W.; Volkovich, Y.

    The PageRank is a popularity measure designed by Google to rank Web pages. Experiments confirm that the PageRank obeys a 'power law' with the same exponent as the In-Degree. This paper presents a novel mathematical model that explains this phenomenon. The relation between the PageRank and In-Degree

  18. Prevalence and Effect of Cyberbullying on Children and Young People: A Scoping Review of Social Media Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Michele P; Newton, Amanda S; Chisholm, Annabritt; Shulhan, Jocelyn; Milne, Andrea; Sundar, Purnima; Ennis, Heather; Scott, Shannon D; Hartling, Lisa

    2015-08-01

    Social media has had a profound effect on how children and adolescents interact. While there are many benefits to the use of social media, cyberbullying has emerged as a potential harm, raising questions regarding its influence on mental health. To review existing publications that examine the health-related effects of cyberbullying via social media among children and adolescents. We searched 11 electronic databases from January 1, 2000, through January 17, 2012 (updated June 24, 2014). Studies were screened by 2 independent reviewers and were included if they reported primary research, described or evaluated the use of a social media tool in the context of cyberbullying, and were conducted with children or adolescents. Data were extracted by 1 reviewer and verified by a second. All studies were assessed by 2 reviewers for methodological quality using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. Results were not pooled owing to heterogeneity in study objectives and outcomes; a narrative analysis is presented. Thirty-six studies in 34 publications were included. Most were conducted in the United States (21 [58.3%]), sampled middle and high school populations (24 [66.7%]), and included adolescents who were 12 to 18 years of age (35 [97.2%]). The median reported prevalence of cyberbullying was 23.0% (interquartile range, 11.0%-42.6%). Five studies reported inconsistent and/or weak correlations between cyberbullying and anxiety. Ten studies found a statistically significant association between cyberbullying and report of depression. Five studies investigated self-harm or suicidality, with conflicting results. Results indicate that the most common reason for cyberbullying is relationship issues, with girls most often being the recipients. Responses to cyberbullying are most often passive, with a pervasive lack of awareness or confidence that anything can be done. There is a consistent relationship across studies between cyberbullying and depression among children and adolescents

  19. Page 1 ~'----------------------------- Dose-dependent effects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract We cOInpared the serwn levels of oestrogen and progesterone and the endoInetrial Inorphology of. nOrInal pregnant rats at 5,5 days' gestation ~th those of pregnant rats given either low (10 IU) or high (20 IU) doses of two gonadotrophins: follicle-. stiInulating hOrInone (FSH) and hwnan chorionic gonadotrophin ...

  20. Page sample size in web accessibility testing: how many pages is enough?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velleman, Eric Martin; van der Geest, Thea

    2013-01-01

    Various countries and organizations use a different sampling approach and sample size of web pages in accessibility conformance tests. We are conducting a systematic analysis to determine how many pages is enough for testing whether a website is compliant with standard accessibility guidelines. This

  1. The (Untold) Drama of the Turning Page: The Role of Page Breaks in Understanding Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Katrina Emily Bartow

    2016-01-01

    While scholars have recognized the importance of page breaks in both the construction and comprehension of narrative within picture books, there has previously been limited research that focused directly on how children discuss and make sense of these spaces in the text. Yet, because of their nature as dramatic gaps in the narrative, page breaks…

  2. Female genital mutilation: prevalence, perceptions and effect on women’s health in Kersa district of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yirga, Wondimu Shanko; Kassa, Nega Assefa; Gebremichael, Mengistu Welday; Aro, Arja R

    2012-01-01

    Background Female genital mutilation (FGM) is nontherapeutic surgical modification of the female genitalia. It is an ancient tradition in large parts of Africa, including Ethiopia, especially in the eastern part of the country. This study aimed to identify the prevalence, perceptions, perpetuators, reasons for conducting FGM, and factors associated with this practice with regard to women’s health. Methods Community-based cross-sectional house-to-house interviews were conducted during 2008 among 858 females of reproductive age (15–49 years), in Kersa district, East Hararge, Oromia region, Ethiopia. Proportions and Chi-square tests were used to describe the data and logistic regression was used to describe statistical associations. Statistical significance was set at P female sexual hyperactivity (reported by 198 women [60.3%]). Circumcision of daughters was reported by 288 (88.1%) respondents, and this showed a statistically significant association with the Christian religion (P = 0.003), illiteracy (P = 0.01), and Amhara ethnicity (P = 0.012). The majority of the respondents (792, 92.3%) were themselves circumcised and 68.8% did not know of any health-related problems associated with FGM. Conclusion In spite of FGM being a common practice in the study area, only one third of the respondents stated that they knew about it. Local healers were the main performers of FGM. Some of the women knew about the negative reproductive health effects of FGM and some had also experienced these themselves. However, only a few had tried to stop the practice and the majority had taken no steps to do so. This may be attributable to the fear of becoming alienated from the cultural system and fear of isolation. PMID:22371659

  3. Prevalence of thyroid disorders in untreated adult celiac disease patients and effect of gluten withdrawal: an Italian multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sategna-Guidetti, C; Volta, U; Ciacci, C; Usai, P; Carlino, A; De Franceschi, L; Camera, A; Pelli, A; Brossa, C

    2001-03-01

    Many afflictions have been associated with celiac disease, but chance associations may exists. The aim of this study was to establish, by means of a multicenter prospective study, the prevalence of thyroid impairment among adult patients with newly diagnosed celiac disease and to evaluate the effect of a 1-yr gluten withdrawal on thyroid function. A total of 241 consecutive untreated patients and 212 controls were enrolled. In 128 subjects a thorough assessment, including intestinal biopsy, was repeated within 1 yr of dietary treatment. Thyroid function was assayed by measuring the levels of TSH, free T3, free T4, thyroperoxidase, and thyroid microsome antibodies. Thyroid disease was 3-fold higher in patients than in controls (p Hypothyroidism, diagnosed in 31 patients (12.9%) and nine controls (4.2%), was subclinical in 29 patients and of nonautoimmune origin in 21. There was no difference regarding hyperthyroidism, whereas autoimmune thyroid disease with euthyroidism was present in 39 patients (16.2%) and eight controls (3.8%). In most patients who strictly followed a 1-yr gluten withdrawal (as confirmed by intestinal mucosa recovery), there was a normalization of subclinical hypothyroidism. Twenty-five percent of patients with euthyroid autoimmune disease shifted toward either a subclinical hyperthyroidism or subclinical hypothyroidism; in these subjects, dietary compliance was poor. In addition, 5.5% of patients whose thyroid function was normal while untreated developed some degree of thyroid dysfunction 1 yr later. The greater frequency of thyroid disease among celiac disease patients justifies a thyroid functional assessment. In distinct cases, gluten withdrawal may single-handedly reverse the abnormality.

  4. Effects and prevalence of nonresponders after 12 weeks of high-intensity interval or resistance training in women with insulin resistance: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Cristian; Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2017-04-01

    Our aim was to investigate the effects and prevalence of nonresponders (NR) to high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and resistance training (RT) in women with insulin resistance on cardiometabolic health parameters. Sedentary overweight/obese insulin-resistant women (age = 33.5 ± 6.5 yr; body mass index = 29.9 ± 3.7 kg/m 2 ) were randomly assigned to a triweekly HIIT program (HIIT; n = 18) or resistance training (RT; n = 17). Anthropometry (body mass, fat mass, muscle mass, waist circumference, and skinfold thickness), cardiovascular (blood pressure), metabolic [fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and homeostatic model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)], as well as muscle strength, and endurance performance covariables were measured before and after 12 wk in both intervention groups. The interindividual variability to exercise training of the subjects was categorized as responders and NR using as cut points two times the typical error of measurement in mean outcomes. After intervention, significant reduction in waist circumference, skinfold thicknesses, fat mass, blood pressure, fasting glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR ( P training. A uniqueness of the present study was to examine the NR prevalence in women with insulin resistance after high-intensity interval (HIIT) and resistance training (RT). This study demonstrates that 12 wk of HIIT and RT have similar effects and NR prevalence to improve glucose control variables. However, significantly different NR prevalence were observed in other anthropometric, cardiovascular, strength, and endurance performance measurements. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Prevalence of Urogenital Mycoplasmas in Iran and Their Effects on Fertility Potential: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    AHMADI, Mohammad Hossein; MIRSALEHIAN, Akbar; BAHADOR, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Background: Urogenital mycoplasmas are potentially pathogenic species causing genitourinary tract infections that may be initially asymptomatic but can progress and lead to severe complications and threaten reproductive health. However, the overall prevalence rate of this bacterium and its probable impacts on fertility potential have yet to be determined. Methods: We searched both English and Persian electronic databases using key words such as “Mycoplasma,” “Ureaplasma,” “M. hominis,” “M. genitalium,” “U. urealyticum,” “U. parvum,” “prevalence,” and “Iran”. Finally, after some exclusion, 29 studies from different regions of Iran were included in our study, and a meta-analysis was performed on collected data. Results: Urogenital mycoplasmas prevalence for women and men was high and ranged from 2%–40.5% and 2%–44.3%, respectively. The pooled prevalence in the male population was 11.1% (95% CI, 7.4%–16.4%) and in female was 12.8% (95% CI, 9.8%–16.5%). The prevalence of these bacteria was significantly higher in infertile men compared with that in fertile men. A high level of heterogeneity was observed for both men (I2 = 92.4%; Purogenital mycoplasmas may play a role in male infertility, screening strategies, particularly for asymptomatic individuals, and treatment of infected ones, which can reduce consequent complications, looks to be necessary. PMID:27252910

  6. Native SDS-PAGE: high resolution electrophoretic separation of proteins with retention of native properties including bound metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowski, Andrew B; Wobig, William J; Petering, David H

    2014-05-01

    Sodium dodecyl-sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) is commonly used to obtain high resolution separation of complex mixtures of proteins. The method initially denatures the proteins that will undergo electrophoresis. Although covalent structural features of resolved proteins can be determined with SDS-PAGE, functional properties are destroyed, including the presence of non-covalently bound metal ions. To address this shortcoming, blue-native (BN)-PAGE has been introduced. This method retains functional properties but at the cost of protein resolving power. To address the need for a high resolution PAGE method that results in the separation of native proteins, experiments tested the impact of changing the conditions of SDS-PAGE on the quality of protein separation and retention of functional properties. Removal of SDS and EDTA from the sample buffer together with omission of a heating step had no effect on the results of PAGE. Reduction of SDS in the running buffer from 0.1% to 0.0375% together with deletion of EDTA also made little impact on the quality of the electrophoretograms of fractions of pig kidney (LLC-PK1) cell proteome in comparison with that achieved with the SDS-PAGE method. The modified conditions were called native (N)SDS-PAGE. Retention of Zn(2+) bound in proteomic samples increased from 26 to 98% upon shifting from standard to modified conditions. Moreover, seven of nine model enzymes, including four Zn(2+) proteins that were subjected to NSDS-PAGE retained activity. All nine were active in BN-PAGE, whereas all underwent denaturation during SDS-PAGE. Metal retention after electrophoresis was additionally confirmed using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and in-gel Zn-protein staining using the fluorophore TSQ.

  7. The longitudinal prevalence of MRSA in care home residents and the effectiveness of improving infection prevention knowledge and practice on colonisation using a stepped wedge study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, C; Wilcox, M; Barr, B; Hall, D; Hodgson, G; Parnell, P; Tompkins, D

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To determine the prevalence and health outcomes of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonisation in elderly care home residents. To measure the effectiveness of improving infection prevention knowledge and practice on MRSA prevalence. Setting Care homes for elderly residents in Leeds, UK. Participants Residents able to give informed consent. Design A controlled intervention study, using a stepped wedge design, comprising 65 homes divided into three groups. Baseline MRSA prevalence was determined by screening the nares of residents (n=2492). An intervention based upon staff education and training on hand hygiene was delivered at three different times according to group number. Scores for three assessment methods, an audit of hand hygiene facilities, staff hand hygiene observations and an educational questionnaire, were collected before and after the intervention. After each group of homes received the intervention, all participants were screened for MRSA nasal colonisation. In total, four surveys took place between November 2006 and February 2009. Results MRSA prevalence was 20%, 19%, 22% and 21% in each survey, respectively. There was a significant improvement in scores for all three assessment methods post-intervention (p≤0.001). The intervention was associated with a small but significant increase in MRSA prevalence (p=0.023). MRSA colonisation was associated with previous and subsequent MRSA infection but was not significantly associated with subsequent hospitalisation or mortality. Conclusions The intervention did not result in a decrease in the prevalence of MRSA colonisation in care home residents. Additional measures will be required to reduce endemic MRSA colonisation in care homes.

  8. Effectiveness of HBV vaccination in infants and prediction of HBV prevalence trend under new vaccination plan: findings of a large-scale investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-gui Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection remains a severe public health problem. Investigating its prevalence and trends is essential to prevention. METHODS: To evaluate the effectiveness of HBV vaccination under the 1992 Intervention Program for infants and predicted HBV prevalence trends under the 2011 Program for all ages. We conducted a community-based investigation of 761,544 residents of 12 counties in Zhejiang Province selected according to their location, population density, and economic development. The HBV prevalence trends were predicted by a time-shifting approach. HBV surface antigen (HBsAg and alanine amino transferase (ALT were determined. RESULTS: Of the 761,544 persons screened for HBsAg, 54,132 were positive (adjusted carrier rate 6.13%; 9,455 had both elevated ALT and a positive HBsAg test (standardized rate 1.18%. The standardized HBsAg carrier rate for persons aged ≤20 years was 1.51%. Key factors influencing HBV infection were sex, age, family history, drinking, smoking, employment as a migrant worker, and occupation. With the vaccination program implemented in 2011, we predict that by 2020, the HBsAg carrier rate will be 5.27% and that for individuals aged ≤34 years will reach the 2% upper limit of low prevalence according to the WHO criteria, with a standardized rate of 1.86%. CONCLUSIONS: The national HBV vaccination program for infants implemented in 1992 has greatly reduced the prevalence of HBV infection. The 2011 program is likely to reduce HBV infection in Zhejiang Province to a low moderate prevalence, and perinatal transmission is expected to be controlled by 2020.

  9. Effect of lifestyle on the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among farmers, migrants with Yi ethnicity and Han population in Sichuan province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunxiu; Wei, Daying; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Jianhua; Zhang, Konglai; Ma, Mingju; Pan, Li; Yu, Tao; Xue, Fang; Shan, Guangliang

    2010-01-01

    Yi people are the most primitive society in China. Little information on the metabolic syndrome (MS) is available in Yi people. We explored whether differing lifestyle affected the prevalence of MS among farmers and migrants of Yi ethnicity and Han population in one of the Southwestern parts of China. The prevalence of MS among the three populations was described under the same International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. The study populations comprised of 1,535 Yi farmers, 1,306 Yi migrants and 2,130 Han people. The effects of physical activity, obesity and other risk factor on MS were evaluated. Results showed that the age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of MS was 9.9 times higher in Yi migrants (23.8%) and 6.3 times higher in Han people (15.2%) than in Yi farmers (2.4%). In addition, the prevalence of MS increased significantly with age in both sexes, except for a slight increase in Yi farmers. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was much lower in Yi farmers (9.3% in men and 16.5% in women) than that in Yi migrants (46.2% in men and 34.8% in women) and Han people (40.6% in men and 31.9% in women). Levels of physical activity were much greater in Yi farmers than in Yi migrants and Han people. These results indicated that lifestyle had strongly influenced the development of MS in Han and Yi Chinese and our study provided one more piece of evidence imputing that high prevalence of MS might be related to a change in lifestyle associated with urbanization.

  10. The Effect of Improved Water Supply on Diarrhea Prevalence of Children under Five in the Volta Region of Ghana: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungman Cha

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Although a number of studies have been conducted to explore the effect of water quality improvement, the majority of them have focused mainly on point-of-use water treatment, and the studies investigating the effect of improved water supply have been based on observational or inadequately randomized trials. We report the results of a matched cluster randomized trial investigating the effect of improved water supply on diarrheal prevalence of children under five living in rural areas of the Volta Region in Ghana. We compared the diarrheal prevalence of 305 children in 10 communities of intervention with 302 children in 10 matched communities with no intervention (October 2012 to February 2014. A modified Poisson regression was used to estimate the prevalence ratio. An intention-to-treat analysis was undertaken. The crude prevalence ratio of diarrhea in the intervention compared with the control communities was 0.85 (95% CI 0.74–0.97 for Krachi West, 0.96 (0.87–1.05 for Krachi East, and 0.91 (0.83–0.98 for both districts. Sanitation was adjusted for in the model to remove the bias due to residual imbalance since it was not balanced even after randomization. The adjusted prevalence ratio was 0.82 (95% CI 0.71–0.96 for Krachi West, 0.95 (0.86–1.04 for Krachi East, and 0.89 (0.82–0.97 for both districts. This study provides a basis for a better approach to water quality interventions.

  11. Study of the effect of vitamin D supplementation on glycemic control in type 2 diabetic prevalent hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohamed A; Sarhan, Iman I; Halawa, Mohamed R; Afify, Essam N; Hebah, Hayam A; Al-Gohary, Eman A; El-Shazly, Islam O

    2015-10-01

    Vitamin D is claimed to have an adjuvant effect on glycemic control by dual action on pancreatic β-cells and insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to assess the possible effect of short-term alfacalcidol supply on glycemic control in type 2 diabetic hemodialysis (HD) patients. Twenty type 2 diabetic HD patients (using diet and oral drugs but not insulin) were randomly selected from our dialysis unit as well as 20 non-diabetic HD patients as control. A third group of 12 healthy subjects were studied as well. All three groups were similar in age, sex, and body mass index. Oral alfacalcidol therapy was administrated daily as recommended by Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (K/DOQI) guidelines for 12 weeks guided by monthly serum phosphorus and Cax PO4 product. Corrected total calcium, phosphorus, intact parathyroid hormone, 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25[OH]D), and glucoparameters (fasting blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c%], insulin resistance by homeostatic model assessment, and β-cell function by HOMA-β%) were measured under basal conditions and after 3 months of therapy. 25(OH)D was non-significantly lower in diabetic than non-diabetic HD patients, but significantly lower than healthy subjects at the start of the study. However, vitamin D level increased significantly after 3 months of trial, although the levels did not reach normal values. This vitamin D rise was associated with highly significant improvement in concentrations of fasting blood sugar (FBS), fasting insulin, HbA1c%, and HOMA-β-cell function in diabetic and non-diabetic controls. However, there was a significant rise in insulin resistance after treatment. The percentage of change was evident more in diabetics regarding FBS and 25(OH)D concentration. Adjustment of 25(OH)D level in type 2 diabetic prevalent HD patients may improve, at least with short-term therapy, glycemic control mainly through improving β-cell function. © 2015 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  12. Effects of diabetes definition on global surveillance of diabetes prevalence and diagnosis: a pooled analysis of 96 population-based studies with 331,288 participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Diabetes has been defined on the basis of different biomarkers, including fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h plasma glucose in an oral glucose tolerance test (2hOGTT), and HbA1c. We assessed the effect of different diagnostic definitions on both the population prevalence of diabetes and the classification of previously undiagnosed individuals as having diabetes versus not having diabetes in a pooled analysis of data from population-based health examination surveys in different regions. We used data from 96 population-based health examination surveys that had measured at least two of the biomarkers used for defining diabetes. Diabetes was defined using HbA1c (HbA1c ≥6·5% or history of diabetes diagnosis or using insulin or oral hypoglycaemic drugs) compared with either FPG only or FPG-or-2hOGTT definitions (FPG ≥7·0 mmol/L or 2hOGTT ≥11·1 mmol/L or history of diabetes or using insulin or oral hypoglycaemic drugs). We calculated diabetes prevalence, taking into account complex survey design and survey sample weights. We compared the prevalences of diabetes using different definitions graphically and by regression analyses. We calculated sensitivity and specificity of diabetes diagnosis based on HbA1c compared with diagnosis based on glucose among previously undiagnosed individuals (ie, excluding those with history of diabetes or using insulin or oral hypoglycaemic drugs). We calculated sensitivity and specificity in each survey, and then pooled results using a random-effects model. We assessed the sources of heterogeneity of sensitivity by meta-regressions for study characteristics selected a priori. Population prevalence of diabetes based on FPG-or-2hOGTT was correlated with prevalence based on FPG alone (r=0·98), but was higher by 2-6 percentage points at different prevalence levels. Prevalence based on HbA1c was lower than prevalence based on FPG in 42·8% of age-sex-survey groups and higher in another 41·6%; in the other 15·6%, the two definitions

  13. Russia SimSmoke: the long-term effects of tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslennikova, Galina Ya; Oganov, Rafael G; Boytsov, Sergey A; Ross, Hana; Huang, An-Tsun; Near, Aimee; Kotov, Alexey; Berezhnova, Irina; Levy, David T

    2014-11-01

    Russia has high smoking rates and weak tobacco control policies. A simulation model is used to examine the effect of tobacco control policies on past and future smoking prevalence and premature mortality in Russia. The Russia model was developed using the SimSmoke tobacco control model previously developed for the USA and other nations. The model inputs population size, birth, death and smoking rates specific to Russia. It assesses, individually and in combination, the effect of seven types of policies consistent with the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC): taxes, smoke-free air, mass media campaign, advertising bans, warning labels, cessation treatment and youth access policies. Outcomes are smoking prevalence and the number of smoking-attributable deaths by age and gender from 2009 to 2055. Increasing cigarette taxes to 70% of retail price, stronger smoke-free air laws, a high-intensity media campaign and comprehensive treatment policies are each potent policies to reduce smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable premature deaths in Russia. With the stronger set of policies, the model estimates that, relative to the status quo trend, smoking prevalence can be reduced by as much as 30% by 2020, with a 50% reduction projected by 2055. This translates into 2 684 994 male and 1 011 985 female premature deaths averted from 2015-2055. SimSmoke results highlight the relative contribution of policies to reducing the tobacco health burden in Russia. Significant inroads to reducing smoking prevalence and premature mortality can be achieved through strengthening tobacco control policies in line with FCTC recommendations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Assessment of the routine, occupation-based gonorrhea and syphilis screening program in Moscow, Russia: an analysis of sexually transmitted infection prevalence and cost-effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourbatova, Ekaterina V; Akovbyan, Vagan A; Chesson, Harrell W; Lytkina, Irina N; Dmitriev, Georgyi A; Tikhonova, Lilia I; Koubanova, Anna A; Petukhova, Irina I; Latypova, Munira F; Aboymova, Olga A; Lewis, Joel S; Ryan, Caroline A; Shakarishvili, Anna

    2008-05-01

    In the Russian Federation, large sectors of the population regularly undergo mandatory occupational screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Objectives of our study were to determine the prevalence of syphilis and gonorrhea in the screened occupational groups in Moscow and to conduct a cost-effectiveness evaluation of the occupational screening program. Serum samples from 4 main occupational groups (food handlers and other food industry workers, market salespersons, education and health care providers, and hotel and other public utility workers) were tested for syphilis and gonorrhea. We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis (in 2003 rubles) of the screening program using decision analysis models. In the total sample of 1000 study participants, overall prevalence for syphilis was 1.2% with the highest rate in market salespersons (4.4%) and for gonorrhea 0.3%. The incremental cost per case of STI treated was 8409 rubles ($252) for syphilis screening (compared with no screening) with higher incremental costs associated with expanding the program to include gonorrhea screening. The relatively low STI prevalence in the screened groups and the poor performance of the diagnostic tests used were important factors in the estimated cost-effectiveness of occupation-based screening. Modifications to occupation-based screening, including an increased focus on higher risk population and the adoption of more current diagnostic technologies, could help to use prevention resources more effectively.

  15. The Effect of a Pro-Breastfeeding and Healthy Complementary Feeding Intervention Targeting Adolescent Mothers and Grandmothers on Growth and Prevalence of Overweight of Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Renata; Vigo, Álvaro; Dias de Oliveira, Luciana; Justo Giugliani, Elsa Regina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The pattern and duration of breastfeeding (BF) and the age at onset of complementary feeding, as well as its quality, have been associated with the prevalence of overweight in childhood. Objective To assess the effect of a pro-BF and healthy complementary feeding intervention, targeted to adolescent mothers and maternal grandmothers, on growth and prevalence of overweight and obesity in children at preschool age. This intervention had a positive impact on duration of BF and timing of onset of complementary feeding. Methods This randomized clinical trial involved 323 adolescent mothers, their infants, and the infants’ maternal grandmothers, when they cohabited. Mothers and grandmothers in the intervention group received counseling sessions on BF and healthy complementary feeding at the maternity ward and at home (7, 15, 30, 60, and 120 days after delivery). When children were aged 4 to 7 years, they underwent anthropometric assessment and collection of data on dietary habits. Multivariable Poisson regression with robust estimation was used for analysis. Results BMI-for-age and height-for-age were similar in the intervention and control groups, as was the prevalence of overweight (39% vs. 31% respectively; p=0.318). There were no significant between-group differences in dietary habits. Conclusion Although the intervention prolonged the duration of exclusive BF and delayed the onset of complementary feeding, it had no impact on growth or prevalence of overweight at age 4 to 7 years. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00910377 PMID:26161657

  16. The Effect of a Pro-Breastfeeding and Healthy Complementary Feeding Intervention Targeting Adolescent Mothers and Grandmothers on Growth and Prevalence of Overweight of Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Renata; Vigo, Álvaro; de Oliveira, Luciana Dias; Justo Giugliani, Elsa Regina

    2015-01-01

    The pattern and duration of breastfeeding (BF) and the age at onset of complementary feeding, as well as its quality, have been associated with the prevalence of overweight in childhood. To assess the effect of a pro-BF and healthy complementary feeding intervention, targeted to adolescent mothers and maternal grandmothers, on growth and prevalence of overweight and obesity in children at preschool age. This intervention had a positive impact on duration of BF and timing of onset of complementary feeding. This randomized clinical trial involved 323 adolescent mothers, their infants, and the infants' maternal grandmothers, when they cohabited. Mothers and grandmothers in the intervention group received counseling sessions on BF and healthy complementary feeding at the maternity ward and at home (7, 15, 30, 60, and 120 days after delivery). When children were aged 4 to 7 years, they underwent anthropometric assessment and collection of data on dietary habits. Multivariable Poisson regression with robust estimation was used for analysis. BMI-for-age and height-for-age were similar in the intervention and control groups, as was the prevalence of overweight (39% vs. 31% respectively; p=0.318). There were no significant between-group differences in dietary habits. Although the intervention prolonged the duration of exclusive BF and delayed the onset of complementary feeding, it had no impact on growth or prevalence of overweight at age 4 to 7 years. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00910377.

  17. The Effect of a Pro-Breastfeeding and Healthy Complementary Feeding Intervention Targeting Adolescent Mothers and Grandmothers on Growth and Prevalence of Overweight of Preschool Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Schwartz

    Full Text Available The pattern and duration of breastfeeding (BF and the age at onset of complementary feeding, as well as its quality, have been associated with the prevalence of overweight in childhood.To assess the effect of a pro-BF and healthy complementary feeding intervention, targeted to adolescent mothers and maternal grandmothers, on growth and prevalence of overweight and obesity in children at preschool age. This intervention had a positive impact on duration of BF and timing of onset of complementary feeding.This randomized clinical trial involved 323 adolescent mothers, their infants, and the infants' maternal grandmothers, when they cohabited. Mothers and grandmothers in the intervention group received counseling sessions on BF and healthy complementary feeding at the maternity ward and at home (7, 15, 30, 60, and 120 days after delivery. When children were aged 4 to 7 years, they underwent anthropometric assessment and collection of data on dietary habits. Multivariable Poisson regression with robust estimation was used for analysis.BMI-for-age and height-for-age were similar in the intervention and control groups, as was the prevalence of overweight (39% vs. 31% respectively; p=0.318. There were no significant between-group differences in dietary habits.Although the intervention prolonged the duration of exclusive BF and delayed the onset of complementary feeding, it had no impact on growth or prevalence of overweight at age 4 to 7 years.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00910377.

  18. West nile virus prevalence across landscapes is mediated by local effects of agriculture on vector and host communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Crowder

    Full Text Available Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses threaten the health of humans, livestock, and wildlife. West Nile virus (WNV, the world's most widespread arbovirus, invaded the United States in 1999 and rapidly spread across the county. Although the ecology of vectors and hosts are key determinants of WNV prevalence across landscapes, the factors shaping local vector and host populations remain unclear. Here, we used spatially-explicit models to evaluate how three land-use types (orchards, vegetable/forage crops, natural and two climatic variables (temperature, precipitation influence the prevalence of WNV infections and vector/host distributions at landscape and local spatial scales. Across landscapes, we show that orchard habitats were associated with greater prevalence of WNV infections in reservoirs (birds and incidental hosts (horses, while increased precipitation was associated with fewer infections. At local scales, orchard habitats increased the prevalence of WNV infections in vectors (mosquitoes and the abundance of mosquitoes and two key reservoir species, the American robin and the house sparrow. Thus, orchard habitats benefitted WNV vectors and reservoir hosts locally, creating focal points for the transmission of WNV at landscape scales in the presence of suitable climatic conditions.

  19. Indirect Genetic Effects and the Spread of Infectious Disease: Are We Capturing the Full Heritable Variation Underlying Disease Prevalence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lipschutz-Powell, D.; Woolliams, J.A.; Bijma, P.; Doeschl-Wilson, A.B.

    2012-01-01

    Reducing disease prevalence through selection for host resistance offers a desirable alternative to chemical treatment. Selection for host resistance has proven difficult, however, due to low heritability estimates. These low estimates may be caused by a failure to capture all the relevant genetic

  20. Musculoskeletal Complaints in Transverse Upper Limb Reduction Deficiency and Amputation in The Netherlands : Prevalence, Predictors, and Effect on Health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postema, Sietke G.; Bongers, Raoul M.; Brouwers, Michael A.; Burger, Helena; Norling-Hermansson, Liselotte M.; Reneman, Michiel F.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; van der Sluis, Corry K.

    Objective: (1) To determine the prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints (MSCs) in individuals with upper limb absence in The Netherlands, (2) to assess the health status of individuals with upper limb absence in general and in relation to the presence of MSCs, and (3) to explore the predictors of

  1. Underreporting of BMI in adults and its effect on obesity prevalence estimtions in the period 1998-2001.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, T.L.S.; Viet, A.L.; Kroesbergen, M.; Seidell, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To identify the determinants of underreporting BMI and to evaluate the possibilities of using self-reported data for valid obesity prevalence rate estimations. Research Methods and Procedures: A cross-sectional monitoring health survey was carried out between 1998 and 2002, and a review

  2. Underreporting of BMI in adults and its effect on obesity prevalence estimations in the period 1998 to 2001

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, Tommy L S; Viet, A Lucie; Kroesbergen, Ike H T; Seidell, Jacob C

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the determinants of underreporting BMI and to evaluate the possibilities of using self-reported data for valid obesity prevalence rate estimations. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: A cross-sectional monitoring health survey was carried out between 1998 and 2002, and a review

  3. Effect of axillary lymph node dissection on prevalence and intensity of chronic and phantom pain after breast cancer surgery.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steegers, M.A.H.; Wolters, B.; Evers, A.W.; Strobbe, L.; Wilder-Smith, O.H.G.

    2008-01-01

    Chronic pain after breast cancer surgery is a major problem and is expected to increase in the coming years because of an increased prevalence of breast cancer coupled with better survival. Axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) in patients with breast cancer is associated with nerve damage. The

  4. High trait shame undermines the protective effects of prevalence knowledge on state shame following HPV/CIN diagnosis in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory A.; Segerstrom, Suzanne C.; Logue, Christen T.; Studts, Jamie L.

    2017-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV), and the related, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), are common yet poorly understood physical conditions. The diagnosis of HPV often elicits shame and guilt, which in turn may undermine psychological and physical health. The current study compared shame and guilt responses to diagnosis among two groups: women diagnosed with HPV/CIN and women diagnosed with Epstein–Barr Virus (EBV/IM). Eighty women recently diagnosed with HPV/CIN or EBV/IM completed measures of shame- and guilt-proneness, shame and guilt following diagnosis, and disease knowledge including prevalence estimates (HPV and EBV, respectively). HPV/CIN (vs. EBV/IM) predicted more diagnosis-related shame and guilt. Estimates of high prevalence interacted with diagnosis and shame-proneness to predict diagnosis-related shame. Simple slope analyses indicated that in women with HPV/CIN reporting low-to-average shame-proneness, high prevalence estimates reduced diagnosis-related shame; however, women high in shame-proneness experienced high diagnosis-related shame regardless of more accurate prevalence estimates. Women high in shame-proneness appear to be particularly vulnerable to HPV-related shame even when they are aware that it is very common. PMID:28417294

  5. Malaria and helminthic co-infection among HIV-positive pregnant women: Prevalence and effects of antiretroviral therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivan, Emil; Crowther, Nigel J.; Rucogoza, Aniceth T.; Osuwat, Lawrence O.; Munyazesa, Elizaphane; Mutimura, Eugene; Njunwa, Kato J.; Zambezi, Kakoma J. B.; Grobusch, Martin P.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of malaria on anemia and the interplay with helminths underline the importance of addressing the interactions between HIV/AIDS, malaria and intestinal helminth infections in pregnancy. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of malaria-helminth dual infections among HIV

  6. Serologic prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Indian women of child bearing age and effects of social and environmental factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarman Singh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Seroprevalence and incidence of toxoplasmosis in women of child bearing age has remained a contentious issue in the Indian subcontinent. Different laboratories have used different patient recruitment criteria, methods and variable results, making these data difficult to compare. AIM: To map the point-prevalence and incidence of toxoplasmosis in India. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 1464 women of fertile age were recruited from 4 regions using similar recruitment plans. This included women from northern (203, southern (512, eastern (250 and western (501 regions of India. All samples were transported to a central laboratory in Delhi and tested using VIDAS technology. Their age, parity, eating habits and other demographic and clinical details were noted. RESULTS: Most women were in the 18-25 years age group (48.3%, followed by 26-30 years (28.2% and 31-35 years (13.66. Few (45 women older than 35 yr. were included. Overall prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies was seen in 22.40%, with significantly more in married women (25.8% as compared to single women (4.3%. Prevalence increased steadily with age: 18.1% in the 18-25 yr. age group to 40.5% in women older than 40 yr. The prevalence was high (66% in those who resided in mud houses. Region-wise, the highest prevalence was observed in South India (37.3% and the lowest (8.8% in West Indian women. This difference was highly significant (P<0.001. Prevalence was 21.2% in East India and 19.7% in North India. The IgM positivity rate ranged from 0.4% to 2.9% in four study centers. CONCLUSIONS: This pan-India study shows a prevalence rate of 22.4% with a wide variation in four geographical regions ranging from as low as 8.8% to as high as 37.3%. The overall IgM positivity rate was 1.43%, indicating that an estimated 56,737-176,882 children per year are born in India with a possible risk of congenital toxoplasmosis.

  7. Serologic prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Indian women of child bearing age and effects of social and environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sarman; Munawwar, Arshi; Rao, Sugandhi; Mehta, Sanjay; Hazarika, Naba Kumar

    2014-03-01

    Seroprevalence and incidence of toxoplasmosis in women of child bearing age has remained a contentious issue in the Indian subcontinent. Different laboratories have used different patient recruitment criteria, methods and variable results, making these data difficult to compare. To map the point-prevalence and incidence of toxoplasmosis in India. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 1464 women of fertile age were recruited from 4 regions using similar recruitment plans. This included women from northern (203), southern (512), eastern (250) and western (501) regions of India. All samples were transported to a central laboratory in Delhi and tested using VIDAS technology. Their age, parity, eating habits and other demographic and clinical details were noted. Most women were in the 18-25 years age group (48.3%), followed by 26-30 years (28.2%) and 31-35 years (13.66). Few (45) women older than 35 yr. were included. Overall prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies was seen in 22.40%, with significantly more in married women (25.8%) as compared to single women (4.3%). Prevalence increased steadily with age: 18.1% in the 18-25 yr. age group to 40.5% in women older than 40 yr. The prevalence was high (66%) in those who resided in mud houses. Region-wise, the highest prevalence was observed in South India (37.3%) and the lowest (8.8%) in West Indian women. This difference was highly significant (P<0.001). Prevalence was 21.2% in East India and 19.7% in North India. The IgM positivity rate ranged from 0.4% to 2.9% in four study centers. This pan-India study shows a prevalence rate of 22.4% with a wide variation in four geographical regions ranging from as low as 8.8% to as high as 37.3%. The overall IgM positivity rate was 1.43%, indicating that an estimated 56,737-176,882 children per year are born in India with a possible risk of congenital toxoplasmosis.

  8. Using stool antigen to screen for Helicobacter pylori in immigrants and refugees from high prevalence countries is relatively cost effective in reducing the burden of gastric cancer and peptic ulceration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R Schulz

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Refugees and immigrants from developing countries settling in industrialised countries have a high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori. Screening these groups for H. pylori and use of eradication therapy to reduce the future burden of gastric cancer and peptic ulcer disease is not currently recommended in most countries. We investigated whether a screening and eradication approach would be cost effective in high prevalence populations. METHODS: Nine different screening and follow-up strategies for asymptomatic immigrants from high H. pylori prevalence areas were compared with the current approach of no screening. Cost effectiveness comparisons assumed population prevalence's of H. pylori of 25%, 50% or 75%. The main outcome measure was the net cost for each cancer prevented for each strategy. Total costs of each strategy and net costs including savings from reductions in ulcers and gastric cancer were also calculated. RESULTS: Stool antigen testing with repeat testing after treatment was the most cost effective approach relative to others, for each prevalence value. The net cost per cancer prevented with this strategy was US$111,800 (assuming 75% prevalence, $132,300 (50% and $193,900 (25%. A test and treat strategy using stool antigen remained relatively cost effective, even when the prevalence was 25%. CONCLUSIONS: H. pylori screening and eradication can be an effective strategy for reducing rates of gastric cancer and peptic ulcers in high prevalence populations and our data suggest that use of stool antigen testing is the most cost effective approach.

  9. Page Recognition: Quantum Leap In Recognition Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Larry

    1989-07-01

    No milestone has proven as elusive as the always-approaching "year of the LAN," but the "year of the scanner" might claim the silver medal. Desktop scanners have been around almost as long as personal computers. And everyone thinks they are used for obvious desktop-publishing and business tasks like scanning business documents, magazine articles and other pages, and translating those words into files your computer understands. But, until now, the reality fell far short of the promise. Because it's true that scanners deliver an accurate image of the page to your computer, but the software to recognize this text has been woefully disappointing. Old optical-character recognition (OCR) software recognized such a limited range of pages as to be virtually useless to real users. (For example, one OCR vendor specified 12-point Courier font from an IBM Selectric typewriter: the same font in 10-point, or from a Diablo printer, was unrecognizable!) Computer dealers have told me the chasm between OCR expectations and reality is so broad and deep that nine out of ten prospects leave their stores in disgust when they learn the limitations. And this is a very important, very unfortunate gap. Because the promise of recognition -- what people want it to do -- carries with it tremendous improvements in our productivity and ability to get tons of written documents into our computers where we can do real work with it. The good news is that a revolutionary new development effort has led to the new technology of "page recognition," which actually does deliver the promise we've always wanted from OCR. I'm sure every reader appreciates the breakthrough represented by the laser printer and page-makeup software, a combination so powerful it created new reasons for buying a computer. A similar breakthrough is happening right now in page recognition: the Macintosh (and, I must admit, other personal computers) equipped with a moderately priced scanner and OmniPage software (from Caere

  10. Diversity and prevalence of Arcobacter spp. in broiler chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atabay, H.I.; Corry, J.E.L.; On, Stephen L.W.

    1998-01-01

    (Preston) identification scheme developed for campylobacters. Fifty strains were selected for examination using a more comprehensive probabilistic identification scheme, and the identity of representative strains confirmed by protein profiling using SDS-PAGE, All 25 carcasses yielded Arcobacter butzleri...... in identifying all but one strain, the identity of which was clarified by the use of SDS-PAGE. To our knowledge this is the first time that arcobacters other than A. butzleri have been reported in poultry meat or any other food of animal origin. Their high prevalence in poultry products may be of significance...

  11. Prevalence, Reasons, and Perceived Effects of Khat Chewing Among Students of a College in Gondar Town, Northwestern Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teni, F S; Surur, A S; Hailemariam, A; Aye, A; Mitiku, G; Gurmu, A E; Tessema, B

    2015-01-01

    The estimate of the number of people chewing Khat globally ranges from 5 to 10 million people. Its use may result in a variety of effects due to the different compounds in it with effects on the gastro-intestinal system and nervous system being the principal ones. To assess the prevalence, factors, and effects of Khat chewing among students of a college in Gondar town, northwestern Ethiopia. An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted from 15(th) to 20(th) of April 2009 on a total sample of 424 students who were selected using stratified random sampling technique. Data were collected by three of the principal investigators using a structured pretested data collection instrument and analyzed by Epi Info version 3.5.2. The lifetime and current prevalence of Khat chewing among the respondents were 42% (168/400) and 32.5% (130/400), respectively. Sex (P sleep disturbance, 82.3% (107/130) loss of appetite, and 80.8% (105/130) constipation. The prevalence of Khat chewing was fairly high among the students and the majority among them used other substances together with Khat. Spending of a significant amount of money and facing health problems were reported to be consequences of the habit. The college should take steps to make students aware of the ills of Khat chewing and associated habits.

  12. Prevalence of sarcopenia in Germany and the corresponding effect of osteoarthritis in females 70 years and older living in the community: results of the FORMoSA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; Teschler, Marc; Goisser, Sabine; Bebenek, Michael; von Stengel, Simon; Bollheimer, Leo Cornelius; Sieber, Cornel C; Freiberger, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Although sarcopenia represents a challenging burden for health care systems around the world, its prevalence in the elderly population varies widely. The primary aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of sarcopenia in community-dwelling (CD) German women aged 70 years and older; the secondary aim was to assess the effect of osteoarthritis (OA) on sarcopenia prevalence in this cohort. A total of 689 Caucasian females 18-35 years old and 1,325 CD females 70 years+ living in Northern Bavaria, Germany, were assessed during the initial phase of the FORMoSA research project. Anthropometry, total and regional muscle mass, were assessed by segmental multifrequency Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis. Further 10 m walking speed and handgrip strength were evaluated to apply the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People definition of sarcopenia. Covariates were determined by questionnaires and interviews. Applying the algorithm of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People of two standard deviations below the mean value for appendicular skeletal muscle mass of a reference cohort of the young cohort (5.66 kg/m(2)), low gait speed (≤0.8 m/s), and low grip strength (<20 kg), the prevalence of sarcopenia in CD German females 70 years and older was 4.5% (70-79 years: 2.8% vs ≥80 years: 9.9%; P<0.001). Participants with OA at the hip and lower limbs (n=252) exhibited significantly higher rates of sarcopenia (OA: 9.1 vs non-OA: 3.5%). Of importance, anthropometric, demographic, health, and lifestyle parameters (except exercise participation) of our cohorts corresponded with Bavarian or German data for CD women 70 years+. The prevalence of sarcopenia in CD German females 70 years+ is relatively low. However, participants with OA at the hip or lower limbs were at increased risk for sarcopenia.

  13. Standing at the crossroads between new and historically prevalent heart disease: effects of migration and socio-economic factors in the Heart of Soweto cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Simon; Carrington, Melinda; Pretorius, Sandra; Methusi, Puthuma; Sliwa, Karen

    2011-02-01

    Migration, urbanization, and change in socio-economic factors have potentially profound effects on heart disease in low-to-middle income countries. Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital in Soweto, South Africa, provides health care to >1 million Africans. We systematically captured data from all de novo presentations of suspected heart disease (focusing on 'new' vs. historically prevalent forms) during 2006-2008. There were 3168 female (52 ± 18 years) vs. 2160 male (53 ± 17 years) cases. Overall, 999 (19%) presented with uncomplicated hypertension (n = 988) or type II diabetes, 1862 cases (35%) 'new' heart disease (1146 and 581 cases of hypertensive heart failure and coronary artery disease), and 2092 cases (39%) of historically prevalent heart disease (including 724 with primary valve disease and 502 idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathies). Level of education and non-communicable risk factors were important correlates of advanced disease. The rate of historically prevalent cases was higher in those aged 20-49 years (19-60 cases/100,000 population/annum) whilst being higher for "new" heart disease in those aged >50 years (155-343 cases/population/annum). Historically prevalent heart disease cases were younger [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.98, 95% 0.97-0.99 per year], more likely to be African (OR 4.59, 95% 2.76-7.60) while being less likely to originate from Soweto (OR 0.87, 95% 0.75-1.00) and be female (OR 0.67, 95% 0.49-0.92). Dynamic socio-economic and lifestyle factors characteristic of epidemiological transition appear to have positioned the urban, mainly African community of Soweto at the crossroads between historically prevalent and 'new' forms of heart disease.

  14. Decline of ambient air pollution levels due to measures to control automobile emissions and effects on the prevalence of respiratory and allergic disorders among children in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasunuma, Hideki; Ishimaru, Yasushi; Yoda, Yoshiko; Shima, Masayuki

    2014-05-01

    In Japan, air pollution due to nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) has been gradually reduced since control measures based on the Automobile NOx/PM law were enforced beginning in 2001. The effects of decrease in air pollutants due to the control measures during the past decade on the prevalence of respiratory and allergic disorders such as asthma in children were evaluated. Using data of 618,973 children collected in 28 regions of Japan from 1997 to 2009, we evaluated whether reductions in the concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and suspended particulate matter (SPM) contribute to the decrease in the prevalence of asthma, wheezing, bronchitis, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis by multiple linear regression analysis, including adjustments for related factors. The annual rates of decrease in air pollution in the PM-law-enforced areas were 2.0 and 2.5 times higher for NO2 and SPM, respectively, compared with those in the non-enforced areas. The prevalence of asthma decreased significantly at -0.073% per year in the areas in which measures based on the Automobile NOx/PM law were taken but not in area where such measures were not applied. Multiple linear regression analysis showed a reduction in the ambient air pollution was significantly associated with a reduction in the prevalence of asthma, with a rate of 0.118% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.012-0.225] per 1 ppb for NO2, and 0.050% [95% CI: 0.020-0.080] per 1 μg/m(3) for SPM. An increase in the ambient air pollution was associated with an increase in the prevalence of atopic dermatitis of 0.390% [95% CI: 0.107-0.673] per 1 ppb for NO2, 0.141% [95% CI: 0.058-0.224] per 1 μg/m(3) for SPM. The changes in the prevalence of wheezing and allergic rhinitis were not significantly correlated with changes in air pollutant concentrations. The enforcement of measures to control automobile emissions based on the Automobile NOx/PM law was shown to have reduced air pollution and contributed to

  15. Effect of fixation on brain and lymphoreticular vCJD prions and bioassay of key positive specimens from a retrospective vCJD prevalence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Jonathan D F; Dalmau-Mena, Inmaculada; Joiner, Susan; Linehan, Jacqueline M; O'Malley, Catherine; Powell, Caroline; Brandner, Sebastian; Asante, Emmanuel A; Ironside, James W; Hilton, David A; Collinge, John

    2011-03-01

    Anonymous screening of lymphoreticular tissues removed during routine surgery has been applied to estimate the UK population prevalence of asymptomatic vCJD prion infection. The retrospective study of Hilton et al (J Pathol 2004; 203: 733-739) found accumulation of abnormal prion protein in three formalin-fixed appendix specimens. This led to an estimated UK prevalence of vCJD infection of ∼1 in 4000, which remains the key evidence supporting current risk reduction measures to reduce iatrogenic transmission of vCJD prions in the UK. Confirmatory testing of these positives has been hampered by the inability to perform immunoblotting of formalin-fixed tissue. Animal transmission studies offer the potential for 'gold standard' confirmatory testing but are limited by both transmission barrier effects and known effects of fixation on scrapie prion titre in experimental models. Here we report the effects of fixation on brain and lymphoreticular human vCJD prions and comparative bioassay of two of the three prevalence study formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) appendix specimens using transgenic mice expressing human prion protein (PrP). While transgenic mice expressing human PrP 129M readily reported vCJD prion infection after inoculation with frozen vCJD brain or appendix, and also FFPE vCJD brain, no infectivity was detected in FFPE vCJD spleen. No prion transmission was observed from either of the FFPE appendix specimens. The absence of detectable infectivity in fixed, known positive vCJD lymphoreticular tissue precludes interpreting negative transmissions from vCJD prevalence study appendix specimens. In this context, the Hilton et al study should continue to inform risk assessment pending the outcome of larger-scale studies on discarded surgical tissues and autopsy samples.

  16. Effect of subtherapeutic administration of antibiotics on the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli bacteria in feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, T W; Yanke, L J; Topp, E; Olson, M E; Read, R R; Morck, D W; McAllister, T A

    2008-07-01

    Antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli in 300 feedlot steers receiving subtherapeutic levels of antibiotics was investigated through the collection of 3,300 fecal samples over a 314-day period. Antibiotics were selected based on the commonality of use in the industry and included chlortetracycline plus sulfamethazine (TET-SUL), chlortetracycline (TET), virginiamycin, monensin, tylosin, or no antibiotic supplementation (control). Steers were initially fed a barley silage-based diet, followed by transition to a barley grain-based diet. Despite not being administered antibiotics prior to arrival at the feedlot, the prevalences of steers shedding TET- and ampicillin (AMP)-resistant E. coli were >40 and combination with sulfamethazine increased the prevalence of tetracycline- and AMP-resistant E. coli in cattle. However, resistance to antibiotics may be related to additional environmental factors such as diet.

  17. The prevalence of violent disagreements in US families: effects of residence, race/ethnicity, and parental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Charity G; Probst, Janice C; Tompkins, Mark; Cuffe, Steven; Martin, Amy B

    2007-02-01

    Witnessing domestic violence increases a child's chance of emotional or behavioral problems during childhood and entering abusive relationships in adulthood, even without co-occurring child maltreatment. Our goals were to estimate the prevalence of reported violent disagreements in the homes of US children and to assess prevalence differences by race/ethnicity, residence, and reported parenting stress. Data were drawn from the 2003 National Survey of Children's Health. Case subjects with unknown gender, race/ethnicity, or residence were excluded, yielding 99660 observations. Disagreements were classified on the basis of how the family deals with serious disagreement. If disagreements involved hitting or throwing, even rarely, the household was categorized as having violent disagreements. Households reporting heated argument and shouting were classified as having heated disagreement. Nationally, 10.3% of children lived in homes with reported violent disagreements. Violent disagreements were most prevalent among black households (15.1%), followed by "other" (12.1%), Hispanic (11.3%), and white (8.6%) households. Urban areas had higher prevalence (10.7%) than did small through large rural counties (8.3%-9.9%). In multinomial logistic analysis, parents living in rural counties were less likely to report violent disagreements compared with those in urban. Black children were more likely to be exposed to both violent and heated disagreements than were white children. Parents reporting high parenting stress had higher odds of violent and heated disagreement than parents reporting less stress. A substantial number of children are exposed to violent disagreement. Although demographic and cultural factors may also influence disagreement style, parental stress seems instrumental in the development of violent disagreements. Parents who experience difficulty with parenting constitute a high-risk population. Helping parents understand and address child behavior may reduce such

  18. [Links and effects of globalization on social and economic organization and malaria prevalence in the Coastal Region of Livingston, Guatemala].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Caro Méndez

    2007-01-01

    As a result of Guatemala's growing involvement in international markets and policies favoring industrial and export-oriented efforts, the population has experienced substantial changes in its economic and social organization, with consequences for the health and well-being of marginal groups. The article discusses various links between global processes, national policies and priorities, social and economic strategies, and malaria prevalence, with the Coastal Region of Livingston, Guatemala as the case study carried out between 2001 and 2003.

  19. The prevalence and nature of sexual harassment in the workplace: A model for early identification and effective management thereof

    OpenAIRE

    A Ramsaroop; S Brijball Parumasur

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the prevalence and nature of sexual harassment and, assesses the impact of supervisory relations, levels of interaction, appearance and personality and types of behaviour. The study was undertaken at a tertiary institution using a sample of 74 employees, drawn by means of simple random sampling. Data was collected using a self-developed questionnaire, which was statistically tested and, analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results indicate that th...

  20. Training Activity Summary Page (TASP) State and Tribe

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Training Activity Summary Page (formerly the Training Exit Survey Cover Page) dataset contains data about each training event. This dataset includes information...

  1. Categorization of web pages - Performance enhancement to search engine

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Lakshminarayana, S.

    search systems. Categorization of the web pages abet fairly in addressing this issue. The anatomy of the web pages, links, categorization of text and their relations are empathized with time. Search engines perform critical analysis using several inputs...

  2. The impact of Arizona Highways Magazine's facebook page.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    This project examined the relationship between use of the Arizona Highways magazine (AHM) Facebook Page and the decision to : travel to or within Arizona. Key purposes were to: (1) provide a thorough understanding of AHM Facebook Page users, includin...

  3. Effect of montanide adjuvanted staphylococcus aureus bacterin-toxiod on prevalence and incidence of mastitis in cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousif, A.; Muhmmad, G.; Masood, M.Z.; Rahman, S.U.; Siddique, M.

    2009-01-01

    The current study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and incidence of mastitis associated with Montanide adjuvanted Staphylococcus aureus bacterin toxiod in dairy cows in Faisalabad (Punjab, Pakistan). A total of 60 mastitis free dairy cows, in first and second month of lactation, were selected on the basis of results determined by California mastitis test and Surf field mastitis test. The animals were randomly divided into three groups (C1, C2, and C3) each containing twenty cows. The vaccine was administered twice with four weeks interval at the rate of 5 ml intramuscularly in the neck region in all the animals of group C1 and C2. Levamisole HCl (Nilverm at the rate, ICI, Pakistan) at the rate 2.5 mg per kg weight was given orally to animals of group C2 after first and second injections of vaccine, while the animals in group C3 were kept as control (non-vaccinated and non-medicated with levamisole HCl). Prevalence and incidence rates were determined at 1st, 30th , 60th , 120th and 180th days post-vaccination. The results showed that maximum numbers of quarters were found positive in group C3 with maximum cumulative prevalence (27.5%) while minimum (11.25%) was recorded in group C2 followed by vaccinated group (13.75 %). There was no significant variation in cumulative incidence between the vaccinated and vaccinated plus levamisole HCl group. (author)

  4. The validated hypoallergenic cosmetics rating system: its 30-year evolution and effect on the prevalence of cosmetic reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verallo-Rowell, Vermén M

    2011-01-01

    The validated hypoallergenic (vh) rating system was initiated in 1988 to try to objectively validate the "hypoallergenic" claim in cosmetics. To show how the system rates cosmetic hypoallergenicity and to compare the prevalence of cosmetic contact dermatitis (CCD) among users of regular cosmetics versus cosmetics with high VH numbers. (1) Made a VH list based on top allergens from patch-test results published by the North American Contact Dermatitis Group (NACDG) and the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA); (2) reviewed global regulatory, cosmetic, drug, packaging, and manufacturing practices to show how allergens may contaminate products; (3) compared cosmetic ingredients lists against the VH list to obtain the VH rating (the more allergens absent, the higher the VH rating); and (4) obtained CCD prevalence among users of regular cosmetics versus users of cosmetics with high VH ratings. (1) Two VH lists (1988, 2003) included only cosmetic allergens in the NACDG surveys, the third (2007) included cosmetic and potential contaminant noncosmetic allergens, and the fourth (2010) adds ESSCA patch-test surveys. (2) CCD prevalence is 0.05 to 0.12% (average, 0.08%) among users of cosmetics with high VH ratings versus 2.4 to 36.3% among users of regular cosmetics. The VH rating system is shown to objectively validate the hypoallergenic cosmetics claim.

  5. Prevalence and reproductive effects of Ureaplasma diversum in beef replacement heifers and the relationship to blood urea nitrogen level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, M W; Chenoweth, P J; Yeary, T; Nietfeld, J C

    2000-08-01

    A systematic sample of replacement heifers from 5 herds underwent prebreeding vaginal swab cultures for Ureaplasma diversum. Heifers from three of the herds were subsequently sampled at pregnancy examination. Sampled heifers were given a vaginal lesion score (VLS), reproductive tract score (RTS) and body condition score (BCS), and peripheral blood was collected for serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN) estimation. Culture results revealed an overall prevalence of Ureaplasma diversum of 51% (87/171) at prebreeding and 65% (64/98) at pregnancy examination. Within herd prevalence ranged from 36% to 64% at prebreeding and 54% to 76% at pregnancy examination. Prevalence tended to differ between herds (P=0.08). At the prebreeding examination, heifers with a BCS of 5.5 or less were more likely to be culture positive than heifers with a BCS greater than 5.5 (p<0.05). No relationship was noted between BUN, VLS, RTS, or pregnancy status and prebreeding culture status. There was little variability among the heifers for any of these variables, with vaginal lesion scores generally being mild, RTS scores being high and BCS scores being moderate. At pregnancy examination, heifers that were culture negative tended to be more likely to be pregnant (odds 3.7, p=0.10) than culture positive heifers.

  6. Prevalence of intestinal protozoa infection among school-aged children on Pemba Island, Tanzania, and effect of single-dose albendazole, nitazoxanide and albendazole-nitazoxanide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speich, Benjamin; Marti, Hanspeter; Ame, Shaali M; Ali, Said M; Bogoch, Isaac I; Utzinger, Jürg; Albonico, Marco; Keiser, Jennifer

    2013-01-04

    Pathogenic intestinal protozoa infections are common in school-aged children in the developing world and they are frequently associated with malabsorption syndromes and gastrointestinal morbidity. Since diagnosis of these parasites is difficult, prevalence data on intestinal protozoa is scarce. We collected two stool samples from school-aged children on Pemba Island, Tanzania, as part of a randomized controlled trial before and 3 weeks after treatment with (i) single-dose albendazole (400 mg); (ii) single-dose nitazoxanide (1,000 mg); (iii) nitazoxanide-albendazole combination (1,000 mg-400 mg), with each drug given separately on two consecutive days; and (iv) placebo. Formalin-fixed stool samples were examined for the presence of intestinal protozoa using an ether-concentration method to determine the prevalence and estimate cure rates (CRs). Almost half (48.7%) of the children were diagnosed with at least one of the (potentially) pathogenic protozoa Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar and Blastocystis hominis. Observed CRs were high for all treatment arms, including placebo. Nitazoxanide showed a significant effect compared to placebo against the non-pathogenic protozoon Entamoeba coli. Intestinal protozoa infections might be of substantial health relevance even in settings where they are not considered as a health problem. Examination of a single stool sample with the ether-concentration method lacks sensitivity for the diagnosis of intestinal protozoa, and hence, care is indicated when interpreting prevalence estimates and treatment effects.

  7. Thomas Jefferson, Page Design, and Desktop Publishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, James

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of page design for desktop publishing focuses on the importance of functional issues as opposed to aesthetic issues, and criticizes a previous article that stressed aesthetic issues. Topics discussed include balance, consistency in text structure, and how differences in layout affect the clarity of "The Declaration of…

  8. Stochastic analysis of web page ranking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volkovich, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Today, the study of the World Wide Web is one of the most challenging subjects. In this work we consider the Web from a probabilistic point of view. We analyze the relations between various characteristics of the Web. In particular, we are interested in the Web properties that affect the Web page

  9. Publications | Page 470 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 4691 - 4700 of 6381 ... Comments on Organic Law for Tobacco Control Bill, September, 2009 (restricted access). This 22 page draft ''for internal discussion only'' unreviewed by any legal body, proposes amendments to proposed Ecuadorean laws by tobacco industry affiliates of Philip Morris International. For instance ...

  10. Search Results | Page 782 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 7811 - 7820 of 8491 ... Addressing violence against Palestinian women. Research in Action. -. Tools for educational change. Research in Action ... From forests to fields in Côte d'Ivoire. Research in Action. POVERTY ALLEVIATION Economic and social development. Giving the poor a voice. Pages. « first · ‹ previous …

  11. Search Results | Page 110 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In Conversation: David Brooks on Water Scarcity and Local-level Management. Research in Action. Access to ICT Networking Gender. Telecentres: From Idea to Reality in Mozambique ... Commentary: From the Rockies to the Andes — How to Manage Scarcer Water Supplies. Pages. « first · ‹ previous … 104 · 105 · 106 ...

  12. Search Results | Page 101 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Research in Action. LIVESTOCK Gender. In Laos: Testing mobile solutions for poultry care. Research in Action. Gender. Soil bacteria help Ethiopian farmers grow more nutritious and higher yielding crops. Research in Action. Gender Crops. Empowering African women and communities through agriculture. Pages. « first · ‹ ...

  13. 16 CFR 436.3 - Cover page.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... with a cover page, in the order and form as follows: (a) The title “FRANCHISE DISCLOSURE DOCUMENT” in... begin operation of a [franchise system name] franchise is [the total amount of Item 7 (§ 436.5(g... affiliate. (2) This disclosure document summarizes certain provisions of your franchise agreement and other...

  14. Upgrade of CERN OP Webtools IRRAD Page

    CERN Document Server

    Vik, Magnus Bjerke

    2017-01-01

    CERN Beams Department maintains a website with various tools for the Operations Group, with one of them being specific for the Proton Irradiation Facility (IRRAD). The IRRAD team use the tool to follow up and optimize the operation of the facility. The original version of the tool was difficult to maintain and adding new features to the page was challenging. Thus this summer student project is aimed to upgrade the web page by rewriting the web page with maintainability and flexibility in mind. The new application uses a server--client architecture with a REST API on the back end which is used by the front end to request data for visualization. PHP is used on the back end to implement the API's and Swagger is used to document them. Vue, Semantic UI, Webpack, Node and ECMAScript 5 is used on the fronted to visualize and administrate the data. The result is a new IRRAD operations web application with extended functionality, improved structure and an improved user interface. It includes a new Status Panel page th...

  15. Search Results | Page 82 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-01-01

    Results 811 - 820 of 8492 ... IPv6 deployment. Published date. January 1, 2010. Studies. -. Welcome address by Prof. Z.D. Kadzamira, Chairman, UA, at the UbuntuNet Connect 2010. Published date. January 1, 2010. Studies. -. CHAIN project and prospects for Sub Saharan Africa. Published date. January 1, 2010. Pages.

  16. Dynamic intelligent paging in mobile telecommunication network

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S R PARIJA

    2018-03-10

    Mar 10, 2018 ... Mobility management; telecommunication network; intelligent profile-based paging; call data ... Bhattacharya and Das [9] studied the human mobility ...... Theory Eng. 2(4):. 581–585, https://doi.org/10.7763/ijcte.2010.v2.205. [20] Zahran A H and Liang B 2007 A generic framework for mobility modeling and ...

  17. Dynamic intelligent paging in mobile telecommunication network

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S R PARIJA

    2018-03-10

    Mar 10, 2018 ... An illustrative scenario demonstrates the proposed approach with synthetic data. The novelty of this work is that instead of using theoretically predicted data it uses actual CDR data to profile the users. Keywords. Mobility management; telecommunication network; intelligent profile-based paging; call data.

  18. Modeling clicks beyond the first result page

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chuklin, A.; Serdyukov, P.; de Rijke, M.

    2013-01-01

    Most modern web search engines yield a list of documents of a fixed length (usually 10) in response to a user query. The next ten search results are usually available in one click. These documents either replace the current result page or are appended to the end. Hence, in order to examine more

  19. Page header image | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Page header image. Chestnut farm worker carries basket of harvest chestnuts on shoulders in China. What we do · Funding · Resources · About IDRC. Knowledge. Innovation. Solutions. Careers · Contact Us · Site map · Copyright · Open access policy · Privacy policy · Research ethics · Transparency · Website usage.

  20. Page header image | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Page header image. What we do · Funding · Resources · About IDRC. Knowledge. Innovation. Solutions. Careers · Contact Us · Site map · Copyright · Open access policy · Privacy policy · Research ethics · Transparency · Website usage. Follow us; Facebook · Twitter · Youtube · Linked In · RSS Feed. © 2016 IDRC. All rights ...

  1. Search Results | Page 844 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 8431 - 8440 of 8492 ... IDRC permits reading, downloading, copying, redistributing, printing, linking and searching, for non-commercial or academic purposes, of any of its content, provided that credit and reference is given to IDRC and the original source page and, in the. Webpage ...

  2. Search Results | Page 786 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 7851 - 7860 of 8491 ... Gender Equity. Addressing barriers to empowering women: A South Asian perspective. Research in Action. Health systems Equity Gender. The challenge of achieving health equity ... Afghan journalists tour Canada to share "Afghanistan's Story". Pages. « first · ‹ previous … 782 · 783 · 784 · 785 ...

  3. Search Results | Page 60 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2009-08-19

    Results 591 - 600 of 8490 ... ... the case of DrumNet in Kenya; paper presented at IAAE eARN Africa Symposium, Beijing, August 19, 2009. Published date. January 1, 2009. Studies. Conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity : the case of medicinal plants and traditional medicine. Published date. January 1, 2006. Pages.

  4. Search Results | Page 784 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 7831 - 7840 of 8491 ... Research in Action. Water. Liquid manna? Treating urban wastewater for local gardening. Research in Action. Biodiversity Gender. Medicinal plant potential and profits in Latin America. Research in Action. HIV/AIDS Biodiversity. Recognition and respect for African traditional medicine. Pages.

  5. Page | 199 APPRAISAL OF THE OPERATIONALISATION OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    National Environmental (Noise Standards and Control) Regulations, S.I. No. 35 of 2009 ... Nigeria, the tranquillity of their surroundings and their psychological well-being by regulating noise levels and generally ... Page | 207 constitute public nuisance and/or have negative impact on public health and safety67 among other.

  6. Search Results | Page 55 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2009-01-01

    Results 541 - 550 of 8491 ... Introduction to geographic information systems (GIS). Published date. January 1, 2009. Studies. -. Impacts of climate change on water resources in ... Published date. January 1, 2009. Studies. -. Remote sensing and GIS : monitoring tools for conservation. Published date. January 1, 2009. Pages.

  7. [Effects of ecological characteristics of place of residence on the incidence, prevalence and risk of multiple sclerosis in the Republic North Ossetia - Alania].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodova, M A; Sivertseva, S A; Smirnova, N F; Gusev, E I; Boĭko, A N

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To study the relationship between characteristics of place of residence and epidemiological indicators of multiple sclerosis (MS) in the Republic North Ossetia - Alania. Material and methods. We present the data on the effects of environmental characteristics of place of residence on the incidence, prevalence and risk of MS. Data of 110 MS patients and matched controls have been analyzed. Results. Ecological characteristics of place of residence of MS patients differ significantly from those of controls. The prevalence and incidence of MS increase in patients who have moved from presumably pollution free areas to the places with high population density and plant facilities. Conclusion. MS is thought to be a disease caused by the interaction of genetic susceptibility and environmental factors. Risk factors are intoxication with heavy metal and chemical compounds and living in environmentally disadvantaged areas.

  8. Young Children's Interpretations of Page Breaks in Contemporary Picture Storybooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipe, Lawrence R.; Brightman, Anne E.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on a study of the responses of a second-grade class to the page breaks in contemporary picturebooks. In a picturebook, the text and accompanying illustrations are divided into a series of facing pages called openings, and the divisions between the openings are called page breaks or turns. Unlike a novel, in which the page…

  9. OnlineMin: A Fast Strongly Competitive Randomized Paging Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Moruz, Gabriel; Negoescu, Andrei

    2012-01-01

    approach that both has optimal competitiveness and selects victim pages in subquadratic time. In fact, if k pages fit in internal memory the best previous solution required O(k 2) time per request and O(k) space, whereas our approach takes also O(k) space, but only O(logk) time in the worst case per page...

  10. Required Discussion Web Pages in Psychology Courses and Student Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettijohn, Terry F., II; Pettijohn, Terry F.

    2007-01-01

    We conducted 2 studies that investigated student outcomes when using discussion Web pages in psychology classes. In Study 1, we assigned 213 students enrolled in Introduction to Psychology courses to either a mandatory or an optional Web page discussion condition. Students used the discussion Web page significantly more often and performed…

  11. Digital Ethnography: Library Web Page Redesign among Digital Natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klare, Diane; Hobbs, Kendall

    2011-01-01

    Presented with an opportunity to improve Wesleyan University's dated library home page, a team of librarians employed ethnographic techniques to explore how its users interacted with Wesleyan's current library home page and web pages in general. Based on the data that emerged, a group of library staff and members of the campus' information…

  12. Monte Carlo methods of PageRank computation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Litvak, Nelli

    2004-01-01

    We describe and analyze an on-line Monte Carlo method of PageRank computation. The PageRank is being estimated basing on results of a large number of short independent simulation runs initiated from each page that contains outgoing hyperlinks. The method does not require any storage of the hyperlink

  13. PageRank in scale-free random graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Ningyuan; Litvak, Nelli; Olvera-Cravioto, Mariana; Bonata, Anthony; Chung, Fan; Pralat, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the distribution of PageRank on a directed configuration model and show that as the size of the graph grows to infinity, the PageRank of a randomly chosen node can be closely approximated by the PageRank of the root node of an appropriately constructed tree. This tree approximation is in

  14. Prevalence of sarcopenia in Germany and the corresponding effect of osteoarthritis in females 70 years and older living in the community: results of the FORMoSA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemmler W

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Wolfgang Kemmler,1 Marc Teschler,1 Sabine Goisser,2 Michael Bebenek,1 Simon von Stengel,1 Leo Cornelius Bollheimer,2,3 Cornel C Sieber,2,3 Ellen Freiberger2 1Institute of Medical Physics, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany; 2Institute for Biomedicine of Aging, University Erlangen-Nürnberg, Nürnberg, Germany; 3Department of General Internal Medicine and Geriatrics, St John of God Hospital, Regensburg, GermanyBackground: Although sarcopenia represents a challenging burden for health care systems around the world, its prevalence in the elderly population varies widely. The primary aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of sarcopenia in community-dwelling (CD German women aged 70 years and older; the secondary aim was to assess the effect of osteoarthritis (OA on sarcopenia prevalence in this cohort.Methods: A total of 689 Caucasian females 18–35 years old and 1,325 CD females 70 years+ living in Northern Bavaria, Germany, were assessed during the initial phase of the FORMoSA research project. Anthropometry, total and regional muscle mass, were assessed by segmental multifrequency Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis. Further 10 m walking speed and handgrip strength were evaluated to apply the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People definition of sarcopenia. Covariates were determined by questionnaires and interviews.Results: Applying the algorithm of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People of two standard deviations below the mean value for appendicular skeletal muscle mass of a reference cohort of the young cohort (5.66 kg/m2, low gait speed (≤0.8 m/s, and low grip strength (<20 kg, the prevalence of sarcopenia in CD German females 70 years and older was 4.5% (70–79 years: 2.8% vs ≥80 years: 9.9%; P<0.001. Participants with OA at the hip and lower limbs (n=252 exhibited significantly higher rates of sarcopenia (OA: 9.1 vs non-OA: 3.5%. Of importance, anthropometric, demographic

  15. Human Papillomavirus - Prevalence of High-Risk and Low-Risk Types among Females Aged 14-59 Years, National Health and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Archive Data & Statistics Sexually Transmitted Diseases Figure 45. Human Papillomavirus — Prevalence of High-risk and Low-risk ... on the STD Data and Statistics page . * HPV = human papillomavirus. NOTE: Error bars indicate 95% confidence interval. ...

  16. Low Prevalence and Clinical Effect of Vascular Risk Factors in Early-Onset Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yaohua; Sillaire, Adeline Rollin; Dallongeville, Jean; Skrobala, Emilie; Wallon, David; Dubois, Bruno; Hannequin, Didier; Pasquier, Florence; Bombois, Stéphanie; Boutantin, Justine; Cassagnaud, Pascaline; Chen, Yaohua; Delbeuck, Xavier; Delmaire, Christine; Deramecourt, Vincent; Gele, Patrick; Houssein-Foucher, Claude; Jacquemont, Charlotte; Lebert, Florence; Lebouvier, Thibaud; Lopez, Renaud; Mackowiak, Marie-Anne; Maureille, Aurélien; Pasquier, Florence; Petyt, Grégory; Pollet, Marianne; Rollin-Sillaire, Adeline; Schraen, Susanna; Semah, Franck; Vanhoutte, Matthieu

    2017-01-01

    Background: Determinants of early-onset Alzheimer’s disease (EOAD) are not well known. In late-onset AD, vascular risk factors (VRFs) are associated with earlier clinical manifestation. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the putative association between VRFs and EOAD. Methods: We studied participants with dementia meeting criteria for EOAD (recruited into the French CoMAJ prospective cohort study from 1 June 2009 to 28 February 2014) and age-, gender-matched controls (ratio 1:3, drawn randomly from the French MONA-LISA population-based survey between 2005 and 2007). Demographic data, VRFs, comorbidities, treatments, and APOE genotypes were compared in multivariable logistic regression analyses. Results: We studied 102 participants with dementia (mean±standard deviation age: 59.5±3.8; women: 59.8%) and 306 controls. Compared with controls, EOAD participants had spent less time in formal education (9.9±2.9 versus 11.7±3.8 y; p < 0.0001), were less likely to be regular alcohol consumers (p < 0.0001), had a lower body mass index (–2 kg/m2; p < 0.0004), and a lower mean systolic blood pressure (–6.2 mmHg; p = 0.0036). The prevalence of APOE ɛ4 allele was higher in participants with dementia than in controls (50% versus 29.4%; p = 0.0002), as was the prevalence of depression (48% versus 32%; p < 0.001). Similar results were observed in multivariable analysis. Compared with EOAD participants lacking VRFs, EOAD participants with at least one VRF had a higher prevalence of depression (29.6% versus 53.3%, respectively; p = 0.03). Conclusion: The prevalence of VRFs is not elevated in EOAD patients (in contrast to older AD patients). Extensive genetic testing should be considered more frequently in the context of EOAD. PMID:28984595

  17. HIV associated neurocognitive disorders in the modern antiviral treatment era: prevalence, characteristics, biomarkers, and effects of treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Phillip; Brew, Bruce J

    2014-09-01

    The introduction of combination antiretroviral treatment (cART) has significantly reduced the mortality secondary to opportunistic infections in HIV patients by restoring the immune system. In the central nervous system (CNS), there has also been benefit with a marked reduction of HIV associated dementia. However, the milder forms of HIV associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND), namely asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment and mild neurocognitive disorder, remain prevalent in the cART era. In this article, we will discuss how cART interacts with HAND in terms of clinical characteristics and biomarkers. We will then review the outcomes of recent clinical studies focused on the CNS penetrating antiretroviral regimens and some novel therapeutic approaches.

  18. Microseismic Event Relocation and Focal Mechanism Estimation Based on PageRank Linkage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, A. C.; Myers, S. C.

    2017-12-01

    Microseismicity associated with enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) is key in understanding how subsurface stimulation can modify stress, fracture rock, and increase permeability. Large numbers of microseismic events are commonly associated with hydroshearing an EGS, making data mining methods useful in their analysis. We focus on PageRank, originally developed as Google's search engine, and subsequently adapted for use in seismology to detect low-frequency earthquakes by linking events directly and indirectly through cross-correlation (Aguiar and Beroza, 2014). We expand on this application by using PageRank to define signal-correlation topology for micro-earthquakes from the Newberry Volcano EGS in Central Oregon, which has been stimulated two times using high-pressure fluid injection. We create PageRank signal families from both data sets and compare these to the spatial and temporal proximity of associated earthquakes. PageRank families are relocated using differential travel times measured by waveform cross-correlation (CC) and the Bayesloc approach (Myers et al., 2007). Prior to relocation events are loosely clustered with events at a distance from the cluster. After relocation, event families are found to be tightly clustered. Indirect linkage of signals using PageRank is a reliable way to increase the number of events confidently determined to be similar, suggesting an efficient and effective grouping of earthquakes with similar physical characteristics (ie. location, focal mechanism, stress drop). We further explore the possibility of using PageRank families to identify events with similar relative phase polarities and estimate focal mechanisms following Shelly et al. (2016) method, where CC measurements are used to determine individual polarities within event clusters. Given a positive result, PageRank might be a useful tool in adaptive approaches to enhance production at well-instrumented geothermal sites. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344

  19. Effect of the Prevalence of HIV/AIDS and the Life Expectancy Rate on Economic Growth in SSA Countries: Difference GMM Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waziri, Salisu Ibrahim; Mohamed Nor, Norashidah; Raja Abdullah, Nik Mustapha; Adamu, Peter

    2015-09-01

    The productivity of countries around the globe is adversely affected by the health-related problems of their labour force. This study examined the effect of the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) and life expectancy on the economic growth of 33 Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries over a period of 11 years (2002-2012). The study employed a dynamic panel approach as opposed to the static traditional approach utilised in the literature. The dynamic approach became eminent because of the fact that HIV/AIDS is a dynamic variable as its prevalence today depends on the previous years. The result revealed that HIV/AIDS is negatively correlated with economic growth in the region, with a coefficient of 0.014, and significant at the 1% level. That is, a 10% increase in HIV/AIDS prevalence leads to a 0.14% decrease in the GDP of the region. Tackling HIV/AIDS is therefore imperative to the developing Sub-Saharan African region and all hands must be on deck to end the menace globally.

  20. Prevalence of diabetic nephropathy in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in rural communities of Guanajuato, Mexico. Effect after 6 months of Telmisartan treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenteno-Castillo, Priscyla; Muñoz-López, Daniela Beatriz; Merino-Reyes, Benjamín; Vega-Sánchez, Ángel; Preciado-Puga, Monica; González-Yebra, Ana Lilia; Kornhauser, Carlos

    2015-12-01

    To determine the prevalence of Diabetic Nephropathy (DN) in patients with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) with over 5 years of evolution in rural communities of Guanajuato, Mexico, and evaluate the effects of an ARB treatment over 6 months in patients with DN. Patients of both sexes, 38-86 years, T2DM over 5 years of evolution and diagnosed with arterial hypertension (HT) after T2DM incidence. Monthly determination of microalbuminuria (MA), lipids, glucose, serum creatinine, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) formula. A dose of 80 mg of Telmisartan was administered daily over 6 months. The total adult population of two rural communities (3609 subjects) was studied, 335 subjects had T2DM, among them 80 (with a prevalence of 24%) had DN and HT. Sixty-seven patients received Telmisartan, and showed significant improvement in all parameters studied. A higher prevalence of DN than that reported in the Mexican National Health Survey (ENSANUT) was found. Further research is required in a larger population sample in order to confirm the results of Telmisartan treatment.

  1. Monte Carlo methods in PageRank computation: When one iteration is sufficient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avrachenkov, K.; Litvak, Nelli; Nemirovsky, D.; Osipova, N.

    PageRank is one of the principle criteria according to which Google ranks Web pages. PageRank can be interpreted as a frequency of visiting a Web page by a random surfer, and thus it reflects the popularity of a Web page. Google computes the PageRank using the power iteration method, which requires

  2. Monte Carlo methods in PageRank computation: When one iteration is sufficient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avrachenkov, K.; Litvak, Nelli; Nemirovsky, D.; Osipova, N.

    2005-01-01

    PageRank is one of the principle criteria according to which Google ranks Web pages. PageRank can be interpreted as a frequency of visiting a Web page by a random surfer and thus it reflects the popularity of a Web page. Google computes the PageRank using the power iteration method which requires

  3. Effect of vaccinating breeder chickens with a killed Salmonella vaccine on Salmonella prevalences and loads in breeder and broiler chicken flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghaus, R D; Thayer, S G; Maurer, J J; Hofacre, C L

    2011-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of vaccination of breeder chickens on Salmonella prevalences and loads in breeder and broiler chicken flocks. Chickens housed on six commercial breeder farms were vaccinated with a killed Salmonella vaccine containing Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, and Salmonella Kentucky. Unvaccinated breeders placed on six additional farms served as controls. Eggs from vaccinated and unvaccinated breeder flocks were kept separately in the hatchery, and the resulting chicks were used to populate 58 commercial broiler flock houses by using a pair-matched design. Vaccinated breeder flocks had significantly higher Salmonella-specific antibody titers than did the unvaccinated breeder flocks, although they did not differ significantly with respect to environmental Salmonella prevalences or loads. Broiler flocks that were the progeny of vaccinated breeders had significantly lower Salmonella prevalences and loads than broiler flocks that were the progeny of unvaccinated breeders. After adjusting for sample type and clustering at the farm level, the odds of detecting Salmonella in samples collected from broiler flocks originating from vaccinated breeders were 62% lower (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 0.38 [0.21, 0.68]) than in flocks from unvaccinated breeders. In addition, the mean load of culture-positive samples was lower in broilers from vaccinated breeders by 0.30 log most probable number per sample (95% confidence interval of -0.51, -0.09; P = 0.004), corresponding to a 50% decrease in Salmonella loads. In summary, vaccination of broiler breeder pullets increased humoral immunity in the breeders and reduced Salmonella prevalences and loads in their broiler progeny, but did not significantly decrease Salmonella in the breeder farm environment.

  4. An Efficient PageRank Approach for Urban Traffic Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Pop

    2012-01-01

    to determine optimal decisions for each traffic light, based on the solution given by Larry Page for page ranking in Web environment (Page et al. (1999. Our approach is similar with work presented by Sheng-Chung et al. (2009 and Yousef et al. (2010. We consider that the traffic lights are controlled by servers and a score for each road is computed based on efficient PageRank approach and is used in cost function to determine optimal decisions. We demonstrate that the cumulative contribution of each car in the traffic respects the main constrain of PageRank approach, preserving all the properties of matrix consider in our model.

  5. Chagas' disease and HIV co-infection in patients without effective antiretroviral therapy: prevalence, clinical presentation and natural history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Eros A; Lima, Josué N; Lages-Silva, Eliane; Guariento, Maria E; Aoki, Francisco H; Torres-Morales, Ana E; Pedro, Rogério J

    2010-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to establish the prevalence of Chagas' disease among HIV seropositive patients and to define the clinical profile of co-infected cases. Cross-sectional study: the prevalence of co-infected subjects was 1.3% and there was no significant difference between co-infected and non co-infected patients relative to race, birthplace, home address and CD4 T cells. The co-infected group comprised predominantly women and mean age and median viral load were higher. Longitudinal study: included 20 patients (12 women) and described the clinical presentation and natural history of concomitant infections. The mean follow-up time was 35.8 months, mean age was 43+/-8.7 years and 60% of patients were white. During the follow-up, a total of 113 serological tests for Chagas' disease were performed: 89 (78.8%) were reactive/positive, 21 (18.6%) were doubtful and three (2.6%) were non-reactive/negative. Positive results for xenodiagnosis were high (81%). At the baseline evaluation, thirteen patients had the indeterminate form of Chagas' disease and seven cardiopathy. One patient developed from indeterminate to digestive form, three had a reactivation of Chagas' disease in the central nervous system, all had parasitological confirmation and received specific treatment. There were 11 deaths. Thus, HIV-infected patients should be tested for Chagas' disease when epidemiologically relevant. Copyright 2010 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Prevalence of hypothyroidism in nondiabetic chronic kidney disease and effect of thyroxine replacement on estimated glomerular filtration rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Bajaj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reduced T3 and free T4, elevated thyroid stimulating hormone, and hyporesponsiveness to thyrotropin releasing hormone raise questions about the presence of hypothyroidism in chronic kidney disease (CKD and raise the possibility of benefit from thyroxine supplementation. A prospective cohort study was conducted on 73 nondiabetic CKD cases. Hypothyroid patients were started on levothyroxine and were reviewed after 3 and 6 months. The mean age of study population was 42.3 ± 16.8 years. Of the total population, 32 (43.8% cases had hypothyroidism, among whom 2 (2.7% had overt hypothyroidism and 30 (41.1% had subclinical hypothyroidism. Prevalence of hypothyroidism increased with increasing severity of CKD. There were 1 (3.1% case with hypothyroidism in stage 3b, 8 (25% cases in stage 4, and 23 (71.9% cases in stage 5. The mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (ml/min/1.73 m2 at baseline was 13.7 ± 8.9 which increased to 17.5 ± 6.8 and 22.4 ± 9.3 after 3 and 6 months of thyroid hormone replacement therapy (THRT, respectively (P < 0.001. Hypothyroidism is commonly associated with nondiabetic CKD and its prevalence increases with declining renal function. THRT significantly improves renal function in nondiabetic CKD with hypothyroidism.

  7. Effects of Climate and land use on diversity, prevalence, and seasonal transmission of avian hematozoa in American Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Carter T.; Utuzurrum, Ruth B.; Seamon, Joshua O.; Schmaedick, Mark A.; Lapointe, Dennis; Apelgren, Chloe; Egan, Ariel N.; Watcher-Weatherwax, William

    2016-01-01

    The indigenous forest birds of American Samoa are increasingly threatened by changing patterns of rainfall and temperature that are associated with climate change as well as environmental stressors associated with agricultural and urban development, invasive species, and new introductions of avian diseases and disease vectors. Long term changes in their distribution, diversity, and population sizes could have significant impacts on the ecological integrity of the islands because of their critical role as pollinators and seed dispersers. We documented diversity of vector borne parasites on Tutuila and Ta‘u Islands over a 10-year period to expand earlier observations of Plasmodium, Trypanosoma, and filarial parasites, to provide better parasite identifications, and to create a better baseline for detecting new parasite introductions. We also identified potential mosquito vectors of avian Plasmodium and Trypanosoma, determined whether land clearing and habitat alterations associated with subsistence farming within the National Park of American Samoa can influence parasite prevalence, and determined whether parasite prevalence is correlated with seasonal changes in rainfall, temperature and wind speed.

  8. The effects of physical and psychosocial factors and ergonomic conditions on the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among dentists in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taib, Mohd Firdaus Mohd; Bahn, Sangwoo; Yun, Myung Hwan; Taib, Mohd Syukri Mohd

    2017-01-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) have been recognized as one of the main occupational health problems for dentists. Many studies have suggested that dentists experience work-related pain or discomfort in the neck, shoulder, and back, as well as in other parts of the body. This study aimed to examine the relationship between specific physical and psychosocial factors and/or ergonomic conditions on MSD symptoms among dentists in Malaysia. A group of 85 dentists was asked to complete a questionnaire to determine whether their complaints were related to physical and psychosocial factors and/or ergonomic conditions in their practices. Among the nine reviewed body areas, the shoulders were most often affected by symptoms of MSDs (92.7%). Moreover, MSDs of the neck and upper back were most likely to prevent these practitioners from engaging in normal activities (32.9%). In general, no significant differences were found in the prevalence of MSD symptoms in relation to gender, age, body mass index, years in practice, number of patients, and frequency of breaks. Our results were consistent with those reported in other studies that focused on MSD problems among dentists in other countries. To reduce the prevalence of MSDs, more attention should be paid to instituting ergonomically sensible approaches in the dental practice setting.

  9. The effect of environmental factors and migration dynamics on the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli in estuary environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Guangshui; Lu, Zihao; Gao, Hui; Zhang, Linxiao; Li, Qianwei; Li, Ruijing; Yang, Fan; Huo, Chuanlin; Yao, Ziwei

    2018-01-26

    Understanding the antibiotic resistance transmission mechanisms and migration dynamics of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) in the natural environment is critical given the increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance. The aim of this study was to examine the fate of sulfonamide-resistant fecal bacteria (E. coli) in an estuary ecosystem and to explore the role and contribution of environmental factors in this process. The prevalence of sulfonamide-resistance status of E. coli was analyzed over different seasons in two estuary systems. Environmental factors and disturbance indices of anthropogenic activities were evaluated by detecting antibiotic concentrations, heavy metal abundance and other physicochemical parameters. The abundances of antibiotic-resistant E. coli were significantly attenuated during land-sea migration suggesting that estuary environments play a natural mitigation role in the contamination of freshwaters by antibiotic-resistant E. coli. Additionally, environmental factors and disturbance indices of anthropogenic activities significantly correlated with the distribution and migration of antibiotic-resistant E. coli in the estuaries. Lastly, simulation experiments suggested differential adaptability between antibiotic-resistant and non-resistant E. coli towards environmental changes in estuary environments. Meanwhile, our results indicate that low concentrations of antibiotics will not increase the competitive advantage of resistant E. coli in estuaries.

  10. The Brazil SimSmoke policy simulation model: the effect of strong tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths in a middle income nation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Levy

    Full Text Available Brazil has reduced its smoking rate by about 50% in the last 20 y. During that time period, strong tobacco control policies were implemented. This paper estimates the effect of these stricter policies on smoking prevalence and associated premature mortality, and the effect that additional policies may have.The model was developed using the SimSmoke tobacco control policy model. Using policy, population, and smoking data for Brazil, the model assesses the effect on premature deaths of cigarette taxes, smoke-free air laws, mass media campaigns, marketing restrictions, packaging requirements, cessation treatment programs, and youth access restrictions. We estimate the effect of past policies relative to a counterfactual of policies kept to 1989 levels, and the effect of stricter future policies. Male and female smoking prevalence in Brazil have fallen by about half since 1989, which represents a 46% (lower and upper bounds: 28%-66% relative reduction compared to the 2010 prevalence under the counterfactual scenario of policies held to 1989 levels. Almost half of that 46% reduction is explained by price increases, 14% by smoke-free air laws, 14% by marketing restrictions, 8% by health warnings, 6% by mass media campaigns, and 10% by cessation treatment programs. As a result of the past policies, a total of almost 420,000 (260,000-715,000 deaths had been averted by 2010, increasing to almost 7 million (4.5 million-10.3 million deaths projected by 2050. Comparing future implementation of a set of stricter policies to a scenario with 2010 policies held constant, smoking prevalence by 2050 could be reduced by another 39% (29%-54%, and 1.3 million (0.9 million-2.0 million out of 9 million future premature deaths could be averted.Brazil provides one of the outstanding public health success stories in reducing deaths due to smoking, and serves as a model for other low and middle income nations. However, a set of stricter policies could further reduce

  11. Implementing database system for LHCb publications page

    CERN Document Server

    Abdullayev, Fakhriddin

    2017-01-01

    The LHCb is one of the main detectors of Large Hadron Collider, where physicists and scientists work together on high precision measurements of matter-antimatter asymmetries and searches for rare and forbidden decays, with the aim of discovering new and unexpected forces. The work does not only consist of analyzing data collected from experiments but also in publishing the results of those analyses. The LHCb publications are gathered on LHCb publications page to maximize their availability to both LHCb members and to the high energy community. In this project a new database system was implemented for LHCb publications page. This will help to improve access to research papers for scientists and better integration with current CERN library website and others.

  12. Developing a web page: bringing clinics online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Ronnie; Berns, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Introducing clinical staff education, along with new policies and procedures, to over 50 different clinical sites can be a challenge. As any staff educator will confess, getting people to attend an educational inservice session can be difficult. Clinical staff request training, but no one has time to attend training sessions. Putting the training along with the policies and other information into "neat" concise packages via the computer and over the company's intranet was the way to go. However, how do you bring the clinics online when some of the clinical staff may still be reluctant to turn on their computers for anything other than to gather laboratory results? Developing an easy, fun, and accessible Web page was the answer. This article outlines the development of the first training Web page at the University of Wisconsin Medical Foundation, Madison, WI.

  13. The prevalence, metabolic risk and effects of lifestyle intervention for metabolically healthy obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis: A PRISMA-compliant article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hanli; Zhang, Liqun; Zheng, Ruizhi; Zheng, Yishan

    2017-11-01

    We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to firstly obtain a reliable estimation of the prevalence of metabolically healthy obese (MHO) individuals in obesity, then assessed the risk of developing metabolic abnormalities (MA) among MHO individuals. At last, we evaluated the effects of traditional lifestyle interventions on metabolic level for MHO subjects. A systematic review and meta-analysis (PRISMA) guideline were conducted, and original studies were searched up to December 31, 2016. The prevalence of MHO in obesity from each study was pooled using random effects models. The relative risks (RRs) were pooled to determine the risk of developing MA for MHO compared with metabolically healthy normal-weight (MHNW) subjects. For the meta-analysis of intervention studies, the mean difference and standardized mean differences were both estimated for each metabolic parameter within each study, and then pooled using a random-effects model. Overall, 40 population-based studies reported the prevalence of MHO in obesity, 12 cohort studies and 7 intervention studies were included in the meta-analysis. About 35.0% obese individuals were metabolically healthy in the obese subjects. There were dramatic differences in the prevalence among different areas. However, 0.49 (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 0.38 to 0.60) of the MHO individuals would develop one or more MA within 10 years. Compared with MHNW subjects, the MHO subjects presented higher risk of incident MA (pooled RR = 1.80, 95%CI: 1.53-2.11). Following intervention, there was certain and significant improvement of metabolic state for metabolically abnormal obesity (MAO) subjects. Only diastolic blood pressure had reduced for MHO individuals after intervention. Almost one-third of the obese individuals are in metabolic health. However, they are still at higher risk of advancing to unhealthy state. Therefore, it is still needed to advise MHO individuals to maintain or adopt a healthy lifestyle, so as to

  14. Reason and Reaction: The Dual Route of Decision Making Process on Social Media Usage: The Case of Hospitality Brand Fan Pages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manthiou, Aikaterini

    2012-01-01

    A new phenomenon on Facebook, resulting from social media revolution, is the emergence of numerous Facebook fan pages. This form of online brand community is an effective tool for building relationships with consumers. Many hospitality firms (i.e. restaurants) have captured the strength of a fan page because it can enhance brand attractiveness and…

  15. Block models and personalized PageRank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloumann, Isabel M; Ugander, Johan; Kleinberg, Jon

    2017-01-03

    Methods for ranking the importance of nodes in a network have a rich history in machine learning and across domains that analyze structured data. Recent work has evaluated these methods through the "seed set expansion problem": given a subset [Formula: see text] of nodes from a community of interest in an underlying graph, can we reliably identify the rest of the community? We start from the observation that the most widely used techniques for this problem, personalized PageRank and heat kernel methods, operate in the space of "landing probabilities" of a random walk rooted at the seed set, ranking nodes according to weighted sums of landing probabilities of different length walks. Both schemes, however, lack an a priori relationship to the seed set objective. In this work, we develop a principled framework for evaluating ranking methods by studying seed set expansion applied to the stochastic block model. We derive the optimal gradient for separating the landing probabilities of two classes in a stochastic block model and find, surprisingly, that under reasonable assumptions the gradient is asymptotically equivalent to personalized PageRank for a specific choice of the PageRank parameter [Formula: see text] that depends on the block model parameters. This connection provides a formal motivation for the success of personalized PageRank in seed set expansion and node ranking generally. We use this connection to propose more advanced techniques incorporating higher moments of landing probabilities; our advanced methods exhibit greatly improved performance, despite being simple linear classification rules, and are even competitive with belief propagation.

  16. Effectiveness of a course on the prevention and control of the smoking habit on its prevalence and incidence among students of health sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Vicente; Molina, Antonio J; Fernández, Daniel; Fernández, Tania; de Abajo, Serafín; Delgado, Miguel

    2011-04-01

    This paper is a report of the effectiveness of a tobacco use prevention and control course on health sciences students' smoking prevalence and incidence. Although it is known that the intervention of health professionals in their patients' tobacco use can be affected by their own habit, very few studies have analysed the effect of specific tobacco-oriented training on smoking among health science students. This study is a quasi-experimental study of community intervention. During the years 2005-2008, a total of 290 health science students on the intervention campus and 256 on the control campus took part in the study. In the former, the intervention consisted of a course on the prevention and control of tobacco use for students, which was not offered on the control campus. Data about tobacco use and socio-demographic variables were collected by means of a questionnaire before and 6 months after the intervention. Prevalence of tobacco use decreased in the intervention group (-1.1%) and increased in the control group (1.5%). The risk of acquiring the habit was almost three times higher in the control group than in the intervention group and the probability of cessation was 40% higher in the intervention group and correlated with nicotine dependence. The intervention suggests the effect on habit acquisition was slight but not so on cessation. Preventive interventions should be carried out before students go to university, while more specific cessation programmes are required to reduce tobacco use among students. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Prevalence of Gastroesophageal Reflux in Cats During Anesthesia and Effect of Omeprazole on Gastric pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, R S; Belafsky, P C; Della Maggiore, A; Osborn, J M; Pypendop, B H; Pierce, T; Walker, V J; Fulton, A; Marks, S L

    2017-05-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is poorly characterized in anesthetized cats, but can cause aspiration pneumonia, esophagitis, and esophageal stricture formation. To determine whether pre-anesthetic orally administered omeprazole increases gastric and esophageal pH and increases serum gastrin concentrations in anesthetized cats, and to determine the prevalence of GER using combined multichannel impedance and pH monitoring. Twenty-seven healthy cats undergoing elective dental procedures. Prospective, double-masked, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. Cats were randomized to receive 2 PO doses of omeprazole (1.45-2.20 mg/kg) or an empty gelatin capsule placebo 18-24 hours and 4 hours before anesthetic induction. Blood for measurement of serum gastrin concentration was collected during anesthetic induction. An esophageal pH/impedance catheter was utilized to continuously measure esophageal pH and detect GER throughout anesthesia. Mean gastric pH in the cats that received omeprazole was 7.2 ± 0.4 (range, 6.6-7.8) and was significantly higher than the pH in cats that received the placebo 2.8 ± 1.0 (range, 1.3-4.1; P < .001). Omeprazole administration was not associated with a significant increase in serum gastrin concentration (P = .616). Nine of 27 cats (33.3%) had ≥1 episode of GER during anesthesia. Pre-anesthetic administration of 2 PO doses of omeprazole at a dosage of 1.45-2.20 mg/kg in cats was associated with a significant increase in gastric and esophageal pH within 24 hours, but was not associated with a significant increase in serum gastrin concentration. Prevalence of reflux events in cats during anesthesia was similar to that of dogs during anesthesia. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  18. Optimizing TLB entries for mixed page size storage in contiguous memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Gara, Alan; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Kriegel, Jon K.; Ohmacht, Martin; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard

    2013-04-30

    A system and method for accessing memory are provided. The system comprises a lookup buffer for storing one or more page table entries, wherein each of the one or more page table entries comprises at least a virtual page number and a physical page number; a logic circuit for receiving a virtual address from said processor, said logic circuit for matching the virtual address to the virtual page number in one of the page table entries to select the physical page number in the same page table entry, said page table entry having one or more bits set to exclude a memory range from a page.

  19. If You Build (and Moderate) It, They Will Come: The Smokefree Women Facebook Page

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This analysis explores the impact of modifying the Smokefree Women Facebook social media strategy, from primarily promoting resources to encouraging participation in communications about smoking cessation by posting user-generated content. Analyses were performed using data from the Smokefree Women Facebook page to assess the impact of the revised strategy on reach and engagement. Fan engagement increased 430%, and a strong and statistically significant correlation (P < .05) between the frequency of moderator posts and community engagement was observed. The reach of the page also increased by 420%. Our findings indicate that the strategy shift had a statistically significant and positive effect on the frequency of interactions on the Facebook page, providing an example of an approach that may prove useful for reaching and engaging users in online communities. Additional research is needed to assess the association between engagement in virtual communities and health behavior outcomes. PMID:24395993

  20. [Smoking prevalence, nicotine dependence and effects of low cost cigarette sale among military healthcare personal in Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günay, Ersin; Simşek, Ziya; Kutucularoğlu, Gürkan; Metinyurt, Gürkan

    2010-01-01

    Health professionals, particularly clinicians and nurses in the community have an important role in preventing to start smoking. In our study; we aimed to determine the prevalence of cigarette smoking, nicotine dependence level and the effects of low price tobacco sale among healthcare personal in a military hospital. A questionnaire was applied to healthcare personal, which evaluates their smoking habits, nicotine dependence level with Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) and the effects of low cost cigarette sale on smoking habits. Seventy male and 46 female among 138 healthcare personals (84%) responded to the questionnaire. Mean age of participants was 33.7 ± 5.6. Among all participants, 53.4% were smoking. There was no significant difference between male and female participants in case of smoking prevalence (p> 0.05). Seven participants who started smoking regularly after they appointed to Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus explained why they started smoking as secondary to lower cigarette prices in this country. 48.3% of participants (40% of male smokers and 59.3% of female smokers) reported increased cigarette consumption as a result of low cost cigarette sales. There was a significant difference between male and female participants in case of increase in cigarette consumption (< 0.05). According to results of FTND, about 70% of participants were low and very low-dependant, and about 22% were high and very high- dependant smokers. Smoking prevalence of healthcare personal who participated in our study was higher than that reported for community and for other healthcare personal.

  1. Maillard Proteomics: Opening New Pages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Soboleva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Protein glycation is a ubiquitous non-enzymatic post-translational modification, formed by reaction of protein amino and guanidino groups with carbonyl compounds, presumably reducing sugars and α-dicarbonyls. Resulting advanced glycation end products (AGEs represent a highly heterogeneous group of compounds, deleterious in mammals due to their pro-inflammatory effect, and impact in pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus, Alzheimer’s disease and ageing. The body of information on the mechanisms and pathways of AGE formation, acquired during the last decades, clearly indicates a certain site-specificity of glycation. It makes characterization of individual glycation sites a critical pre-requisite for understanding in vivo mechanisms of AGE formation and developing adequate nutritional and therapeutic approaches to reduce it in humans. In this context, proteomics is the methodology of choice to address site-specific molecular changes related to protein glycation. Therefore, here we summarize the methods of Maillard proteomics, specifically focusing on the techniques providing comprehensive structural and quantitative characterization of glycated proteome. Further, we address the novel break-through areas, recently established in the field of Maillard research, i.e., in vitro models based on synthetic peptides, site-based diagnostics of metabolism-related diseases (e.g., diabetes mellitus, proteomics of anti-glycative defense, and dynamics of plant glycated proteome during ageing and response to environmental stress.

  2. Proteomic study of muscle sarcoplasmic proteins using AUT-PAGE/SDS-PAGE as two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picariello, Gianluca; De Martino, Alessandra; Mamone, Gianfranco; Ferranti, Pasquale; Addeo, Francesco; Faccia, Michele; Spagnamusso, Salvatore; Di Luccia, Aldo

    2006-03-20

    In the present study, an alternative procedure for two-dimensional (2D) electrophoretic analysis in proteomic investigation of the most represented basic muscle water-soluble proteins is suggested. Our method consists of Acetic acid-Urea-Triton polyacrylamide gel (AUT-PAGE) analysis in the first dimension and standard sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel (SDS-PAGE) in the second dimension. Although standard two-dimensional Immobilized pH Gradient-Sodium Dodecyl-Sulphate (2D IPG-SDS) gel electrophoresis has been successfully used to study these proteins, most of the water-soluble proteins are spread on the alkaline part of the 2D map and are poorly focused. Furthermore, the similarity in their molecular weights impairs resolution of the classical approach. The addition of Triton X-100, a non-ionic detergent, into the gel induces a differential electrophoretic mobility of proteins as a result of the formation of mixed micelles between the detergent and the hydrophobic moieties of polypeptides, separating basic proteins with a criterion similar to reversed phase chromatography based on their hydrophobicity. The acid pH induces positive net charges, increasing with the isoelectric point of proteins, thus allowing enhanced resolution in the separation. By using 2D AUT-PAGE/SDS electrophoresis approach to separate water-soluble proteins from fresh pork and from dry-cured products, we could spread proteins over a greater area, achieving a greater resolution than that obtained by IPG in the pH range 3-10 and 6-11. Sarcoplasmic proteins undergoing proteolysis during the ripening of products were identified by Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time of Flight (MALDI-ToF) mass spectrometry peptide mass fingerprinting in a easier and more effective way. Two-dimensional AUT-PAGE/SDS electrophoresis has allowed to simplify separation of sarcoplasmic protein mixtures making this technique suitable in the defining of quality of dry-cured pork products by immediate

  3. Research and optimization of page updated forecast on Nutch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HU Wei

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Web page updated prediction method of Nutch is an adjacent method and its relevant update parameters need to be set artificially,not adaptively adjustable,and unable to cope with the differences of massive web page updates.To address this problem,this paper puts forward dynamic selection strategy to improve the method of Nutch web page updated prediction.When the historical updated web page data are insufficient,the strategy uses DBSCAN clustering algorithm based on MapReduce to reduce the number of the pages of the crawler system crawling,the update cycle of the sample web pages is used as update cycle of other pages which are in the same category.When the historical updated web page data are enough,the data are used to model with the Poisson Process,which can more accurately predict each web page update cycle.Finally the improving strategy is tested in the Hadoop distributed platform.The experimental results show that the performance of optimized web page updated prediction method is better.

  4. Research of Subgraph Estimation Page Rank Algorithm for Web Page Rank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Lan-yin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The traditional PageRank algorithm can not efficiently perform large data Webpage scheduling problem. This paper proposes an accelerated algorithm named topK-Rank,which is based on PageRank on the MapReduce platform. It can find top k nodes efficiently for a given graph without sacrificing accuracy. In order to identify top k nodes,topK-Rank algorithm prunes unnecessary nodes and edges in each iteration to dynamically construct subgraphs,and iteratively estimates lower/upper bounds of PageRank scores through subgraphs. Theoretical analysis shows that this method guarantees result exactness. Experiments show that topK-Rank algorithm can find k nodes much faster than the existing approaches.

  5. Improving Marketing Students' Writing Skills Using a One-Page Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Newell D.; Larsen, Val

    2016-01-01

    Employers of marketing graduates view good writing as a core marketing skill, but many marketing students are weak writers. The improvement of student writing should therefore be an important objective in a well-designed marketing curriculum. One-page papers combine the effective teaching of marketing concepts with writing instruction while…

  6. Using the Front Page of "The Wall Street Journal" to Teach Document Design and Audience Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Patrick

    1989-01-01

    Explains an assignment for the audience analysis segment of a business writing course which compares the front page design of "The Wall Street Journal" with that of a local daily newspaper in order to emphasize the use of design devices in effectively writing to busy people. (SR)

  7. Unlocking the Gates to the Kingdom: Designing Web Pages for Accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Steven C.

    As the use of the Web is perceived to be an effective tool for dissemination of research findings for the provision of asynchronous instruction, the issue of accessibility of Web page information will become more and more relevant. The World Wide Web consortium (W3C) has recognized a disparity in accessibility to the Web between persons with and…

  8. Overall and income specific effect on prevalence of overweight and obesity of 20% sugar sweetened drink tax in UK: econometric and comparative risk assessment modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Adam D M; Mytton, Oliver T; Kehlbacher, Ariane; Tiffin, Richard; Rayner, Mike; Scarborough, Peter

    2013-10-31

    To model the overall and income specific effect of a 20% tax on sugar sweetened drinks on the prevalence of overweight and obesity in the UK. Econometric and comparative risk assessment modelling study. United Kingdom. Adults aged 16 and over. A 20% tax on sugar sweetened drinks. The primary outcomes were the overall and income specific changes in the number and percentage of overweight (body mass index ≥ 25) and obese (≥ 30) adults in the UK following the implementation of the tax. Secondary outcomes were the effect by age group (16-29, 30-49, and ≥ 50 years) and by UK constituent country. The revenue generated from the tax and the income specific changes in weekly expenditure on drinks were also estimated. A 20% tax on sugar sweetened drinks was estimated to reduce the number of obese adults in the UK by 1.3% (95% credible interval 0.8% to 1.7%) or 180,000 (110,000 to 247,000) people and the number who are overweight by 0.9% (0.6% to 1.1%) or 285,000 (201,000 to 364,000) people. The predicted reductions in prevalence of obesity for income thirds 1 (lowest income), 2, and 3 (highest income) were 1.3% (0.3% to 2.0%), 0.9% (0.1% to 1.6%), and 2.1% (1.3% to 2.9%). The effect on obesity declined with age. Predicted annual revenue was £276m (£272m to £279m), with estimated increases in total expenditure on drinks for income thirds 1, 2, and 3 of 2.1% (1.4% to 3.0%), 1.7% (1.2% to 2.2%), and 0.8% (0.4% to 1.2%). A 20% tax on sugar sweetened drinks would lead to a reduction in the prevalence of obesity in the UK of 1.3% (around 180,000 people). The greatest effects may occur in young people, with no significant differences between income groups. Both effects warrant further exploration. Taxation of sugar sweetened drinks is a promising population measure to target population obesity, particularly among younger adults.

  9. Search Results | Page 6 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2014-01-01

    Results 51 - 60 of 1119 ... Guatemala is experiencing the double burden of disease that combines a high prevalence of childhood stunting with a rising childhood overweight prevalence, while the food industry is flooding the market with advertising aimed at children and takin. Published date. January 1, 2014. Journal articles.

  10. Publications | Page 102 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Prevalence and predictors of cigarette smoking among adolescents of Ethiopia : school based cross sectional survey (open access). A disproportionate share of the global tobacco burden falls on developing countries, where 84% of the 1.3 billion people current smokers reside. This study aims to assess the prevalence and ...

  11. Prevalence of Hypothyroidism in a Cohort of Saudi Women with Heart Failure and Effect on Systolic and Diastolic Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlGhalayini, K.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of hypothyroidism in a cohort of Saudi women with heart failure; to define the demographic variables associated with heart failure; and the impact of hypothyroidism on systolic function in relation to non-hypothyroidism group. Methods: The cross-sectional cohort study was conducted at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, and comprised all women diagnosed with heart failure who were seen in the Cardiology outpatients clinic between February 2010 and March 2013. All of them were subjected to complete medical history and clinical examination, including complete cardiac clinical examination, electrocardiogram, echocardiography, blood pressure reading as well as thyroid examination. Laboratory tests were performed for thyroid stimulating hormone, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein. Results: Of the 111 patients, 37 (33.3 percent) had hypothyroidism (p<0.001), and 16(14.4 percent) of them showed subclinical hypothyroidism. The mean value for thyroid stimulating hormone was 4.79+/-4.98U/L. There was a significant negative correlation between thyroid stimulating hormone and ejection fraction. Conclusion: There was close relation between hypothyroidism and heart failure. Further large-scale studies are recommended for early detection of hypothyroidism. (author)

  12. Effect of pronase on high-incidence blood group antigens and the prevalence of antibodies to pronase-treated erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, M E; Greeen, C A; Hoffer, J; Øyen, R

    1996-01-01

    Pronase is a useful and relatively nonspecific protease that cleaves many red blood cell (RBC) membrane proteins that carry blood group antigens. Unexpected findings in tests using pronase-treated RBCs during the investigation of a patient's blood sample led us to test which high-incidence blood group antigens were sensitive and which were resistant to pronase treatment, and to determine the prevalence of antipronase in the serum of blood donors. Our results show that antigens in the Cromer and Lutheran blood group systems and the JMH antigen were sensitive to pronase treatment of RBCs. Antigens in the Dombrock blood group system and Sc1 were either sensitive to or markedly weakened by pronase treatment of RBCs. The following high-incidence antigens were resistant to treatment of RBCs with pronase: AnWj, Ata, Coa, Co3, Dib, EnaFR, Era, Fy3, Jk3, Jra, k, Kpb, Jsb, K14, Lan, Oka, Rh17, U, Vel, and Wrb. Over half of the serum samples from normal blood donors contained antibodies to pronase-treated RBCs. When testing human serum against pronase-treated RBCs, it is essential either to use an autocontrol or to perform the testing with an eluate.

  13. Prevalence of hypothyroidism in a cohort of Saudi women with heart failure and effect on systolic and diastolic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlGhalayini, Kamal

    2015-12-01

    To determine the prevalence of hypothyroidism in a cohort of Saudi women with heart failure; to define the demographic variables associated with heart failure; and the impact of hypothyroidism on systolic function in relation to non-hypothyroidism group. The cross-sectional cohort study was conducted at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, and comprised all women diagnosed with heart failure who were seen in the Cardiology outpatients clinic between February 2010 and March 2013. All of them were subjected to complete medical history and clinical examination, including complete cardiac clinical examination, electrocardiogram, echocardiography, blood pressure reading as well as thyroid examination. Laboratory tests were performed for thyroid stimulating hormone, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein. Of the 111 patients, 37 (33.3%) had hypothyroidism (phypothyroidism. The mean value for thyroid stimulating hormone was 4.79+/-4.98U/L. There was a significant negative correlation between thyroid stimulating hormone and ejection fraction. There was close relation between hypothyroidism and heart failure. Further large-scale studies are recommended for early detection of hypothyroidism.

  14. The prevalence and effectiveness of complementary and alternative medicine: what has been learned and what it may be telling us about our patients, ourselves, and conventional medical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyad, M A

    2001-11-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has been popular in numerous countries around the world. The fairly large range of prevalence may be partially due to different definitions of CAM from a variety of researchers, patients, and the general public. Beyond prevalence issues, few studies have specifically explored the reasons for the use of CAM. Studies that have attempted to answer this question have found that issues such as distress and quality of life issues are some partial reasons for its use. Despite the fact that few, if any, CAM therapies have prolonged survival, encouraging future research into potential benefits seems warranted because some CAM therapies have preliminary encouraging results, and overall, CAM therapies are just in need of more randomized trials. Perhaps, at this time, the central focus of studies should revolve around potential improvements in quality of life issues. Some therapies have been found to potentially improve this parameter. However, during the course of certain conventional medical treatments, many CAM therapies, such as dietary supplements, should be discouraged. These could theoretically reduce the oxidative stress caused by effective treatments, such as radiation or chemotherapy, thus reducing their efficacy. Other basic lifestyle changes, such as simple dietary changes and exercise, should be encouraged during the course of treatment because of the potential benefits already demonstrated. In addition, these simple lifestyle changes may improve overall health, which is a serious issue for many patients. The prevalence of CAM should provide a challenge to health care professionals as a call to improve already existing services and communication between patients. Rather than perceiving CAM as a potential hindrance to proper conventional treatment, the reality could be that CAM is providing a unique opportunity and insight to health care professionals on how to make our current system that much better.

  15. Effectiveness of a school-based intervention to reduce the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children aged 7-11 years from Poznań (Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilińska, Inez; Kryst, Łukasz

    2017-07-01

    The epidemic of obesity, which is one of the most important public health problems, appeared paradoxically as a result of improving living conditions. The aim of this study was to determine the effects on overweight/obesity prevalence of the primary-school-based intervention program. The group of 5,293 children (7-11 year-olds) from Poznań (Poland) was divided into two subgroups: experimental and control one. The research group was participating in extra physical activities. Measurements (height and weight) were taken twice: at baseline and after 1-year follow-up. The estimations of the prevalence of overweight/obesity were based on the cut-off points of the IOTF values. To estimate the risk the odds ratio (OR) were calculated. There were no differences in BMI for both boys and girls. Also there were no significant differences in prevalence of overweight and obesity, for both sexes. The risk of being overweight/obese was not reduced in children in the experimental group - OR for boys was 0.93 (0.80, 1.08), and for girls OR = 0.88 (0.76, 1.03). In conclusion, the risk of overweight/obesity has not changed after one year of extra physical activities and engagement in health-oriented education program. This study shows that in case of such programs it is necessary to apply more intense interventions, probably also during longer period of time. It is possible that other adverse factors have a stronger influence on the body mass, which would suggest that the theoretical part of intervention concerning pro-health-related behaviors was not implemented in practice.

  16. The effect on haemoglobin of the use of iron cooking pots in rural Malawian households in an area with high malaria prevalence: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerligs, Paul Prinsen; Brabin, Bernard; Mkumbwa, Albert; Broadhead, Robin; Cuevas, Luis E

    2003-04-01

    Innovative low-cost sustainable strategies are required to reduce the high prevalence of iron-deficiency anaemia in developing countries. We undertook a community-based randomized controlled intervention trial to assess the effects of cooking in iron or aluminium cooking pots in Malawian households in an area with high malaria prevalence. Analysis was by intention to treat and consistency of use. The primary outcomes were change in haemoglobin and iron status. The study population comprised 164 participants eating from aluminium cooking pots and 158 from iron cooking pots. The mean haemoglobin change was significantly increased after 6 weeks in adults who consistently ate from an iron cooking pot (+3.6 g/l compared to -3.2 g/l, mean difference between groups 6.8 g/l, 95% CI +0.86, +12.74). In children, no significant haemoglobin change was observed in consistent pot users, although they showed a significant reduction in iron deficiency (iron 8.6 ZP/g and aluminium 10.8 ZP/g, mean difference 2.2 ZP/g, 95% CI +1.08, +3.32). Rural Malawian adults in a high malaria transmission area who consistently consume food prepared in iron cooking pots show a significant rise in haemoglobin after 6 weeks use. Children showed a reduction in iron deficiency, but no significant improvement in haemoglobin, possibly because of their high malaria parasite prevalence. Using iron cooking pots in developing countries could provide an innovative way to prevent iron deficiency and anaemia in malarious areas where regular iron supplementation is problematic.

  17. Prevalence of hearing loss and tinnitus in Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans: A Chronic Effects of Neurotrauma Consortium study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, A A; Nelson, J T; Swiger, B; Jaramillo, C A; Eapen, B C; Packer, M; Pugh, M J

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of hearing loss and tinnitus in a cohort of Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans (IAV) with common post-deployment conditions, including traumatic brain injury (TBI), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and other typical post-concussive conditions such as headaches and vertigo/dizziness. This retrospective observational study used data from the national Veterans Health Administration (VA) data repository from fiscal years 2001-2014. Veteran data was included if there were at least three years of VA care, with one or more years of care in 2007 or after. We identified comorbidities that may be associated with post-deployment hearing loss or tinnitus including TBI, PTSD, depression, and common post-concussive symptoms using International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification codes. A multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to examine conditions associated with hearing loss or tinnitus. Among IAV, 570,332 were included in the final analysis. Of these, 7.78% of these were diagnosed with hearing loss alone, 6.54% with tinnitus alone, and 6.24% with both hearing loss and tinnitus. Comorbid TBI, PTSD, and depression were significantly associated with increased rates of hearing loss, tinnitus, or both conditions together. Older individuals, males, and those with TBI, PTSD, or vertigo/dizziness were significantly more likely to have hearing loss, tinnitus, or both. In order to provide more holistic post-deployment support, this myriad of conditions should be carefully considered in the planning of clinical care and beyond. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Review Pages: Cities, Energy and Mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennaro Angiello

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the relationship between urban planning and mobility management, TeMA has gradually expanded the view of the covered topics, always remaining in the groove of rigorous scientific in-depth analysis. During the last two years a particular attention has been paid on the Smart Cities theme and on the different meanings that come with it. The last section of the journal is formed by the Review Pages. They have different aims: to inform on the problems, trends and evolutionary processes; to investigate on the paths by highlighting the advanced relationships among apparently distant disciplinary fields; to explore the interaction’s areas, experiences and potential applications; to underline interactions, disciplinary developments but also, if present, defeats and setbacks. Inside the journal the Review Pages have the task of stimulating as much as possible the circulation of ideas and the discovery of new points of view. For this reason the section is founded on a series of basic’s references, required for the identification of new and more advanced interactions. These references are the research, the planning acts, the actions and the applications, analysed and investigated both for their ability to give a systematic response to questions concerning the urban and territorial planning, and for their attention to aspects such as the environmental sustainability and the innovation in the practices. For this purpose the Review Pages are formed by five sections (Web Resources; Books; Laws; Urban Practices; News and Events, each of which examines a specific aspect of the broader information storage of interest for TeMA.

  19. Review Pages: Cities, Energy and Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennaro Angiello

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the relationship between urban planning and mobility management, TeMA has gradually expanded the view of the covered topics, always remaining in the groove of rigorous scientific in-depth analysis. During the last two years a particular attention has been paid on the Smart Cities theme and on the different meanings that come with it. The last section of the journal is formed by the Review Pages. They have different aims: to inform on the problems, trends and evolutionary processes; to investigate on the paths by highlighting the advanced relationships among apparently distant disciplinary fields; to explore the interaction’s areas, experiences and potential applications; to underline interactions, disciplinary developments but also, if present, defeats and setbacks. Inside the journal the Review Pages have the task of stimulating as much as possible the circulation of ideas and the discovery of new points of view. For this reason the section is founded on a series of basic’s references, required for the identification of new and more advanced interactions. These references are the research, the planning acts, the actions and the applications, analysed and investigated both for their ability to give a systematic response to questions concerning the urban and territorial planning, and for their attention to aspects such as the environmental sustainability and the innovation in the practices. For this purpose the Review Pages are formed by five sections (Web Resources; Books; Laws; Urban Practices; News and Events, each of which examines a specific aspect of the broader information storage of interest for TeMA.

  20. Review Pages: Cities, Energy and Built Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennaro Angiello

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the relationship between urban planning and mobility management, TeMA has gradually expanded the view of the covered topics, always remaining in the groove of rigorous scientific in-depth analysis. During the last two years a particular attention has been paid on the Smart Cities theme and on the different meanings that come with it. The last section of the journal is formed by the Review Pages. They have different aims: to inform on the problems, trends and evolutionary processes; to investigate on the paths by highlighting the advanced relationships among apparently distant disciplinary fields; to explore the interaction’s areas, experiences and potential applications; to underline interactions, disciplinary developments but also, if present, defeats and setbacks. Inside the journal the Review Pages have the task of stimulating as much as possible the circulation of ideas and the discovery of new points of view. For this reason the section is founded on a series of basic’s references, required for the identification of new and more advanced interactions. These references are the research, the planning acts, the actions and the applications, analysed and investigated both for their ability to give a systematic response to questions concerning the urban and territorial planning, and for their attention to aspects such as the environmental sustainability and the innovation in the practices. For this purpose the Review Pages are formed by five sections (Web Resources; Books; Laws; Urban Practices; News and Events, each of which examines a specific aspect of the broader information storage of interest for TeMA.

  1. Hiding in Plain Sight: The Anatomy of Malicious Facebook Pages

    OpenAIRE

    Dewan, Prateek; Kumaraguru, Ponnurangam

    2015-01-01

    Facebook is the world's largest Online Social Network, having more than 1 billion users. Like most other social networks, Facebook is home to various categories of hostile entities who abuse the platform by posting malicious content. In this paper, we identify and characterize Facebook pages that engage in spreading URLs pointing to malicious domains. We used the Web of Trust API to determine domain reputations of URLs published by pages, and identified 627 pages publishing untrustworthy info...

  2. Discovering author impact: A PageRank perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Erjia; Ding, Ying

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an alternative perspective for measuring author impact by applying PageRank algorithm to a coauthorship network. A weighted PageRank algorithm considering citation and coauthorship network topology is proposed. We test this algorithm under different damping factors by evaluating author impact in the informetrics research community. In addition, we also compare this weighted PageRank with the h-index, citation, and program committee (PC) membership of the International So...

  3. Magic angle effect in MR imaging of ankle tendons: influence of foot positioning on prevalence and site in asymptomatic subjects and cadaveric tendons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mengiardi, Bernard; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A.; Hodler, Juerg; Zanetti, Marco; Schoettle, Philip B.; Vienne, Patrick; Bode, Beata

    2006-01-01

    The influence of foot positioning on prevalence of the magic angle effect (MAE) in ankle tendons was investigated. In 30 asymptomatic volunteers and five cadaveric feet, MR imaging of the ankle was performed in the supine (neutral position of the foot) and prone (plantar-flexed foot) position. MAE was considered if increased T1-weighted signal at a certain site was seen in one position only. Histological correlation was obtained at 25 sites of the cadaveric posterior tibialis tendons (PTT). MAE occurred in 6/30 vs 1/30 (supine vs prone) anterior tibialis tendons (ATT), 30/30 vs 0/30 extensor hallucis longus and 27/30 vs 0/30 extensor digitorum longus tendons, 29/30 vs 0/30 PTTs, 30/30 vs 0/30 flexor digitorum and flexor hallucis longus tendons, 30/30 vs 1/30 peroneus brevis and 23/30 vs 1/30 peroneus longus tendons. At 12/25 cadaveric PTT sites where MAE was exclusively responsible for the increased signal, histology revealed normal tissue (11/12) or minimal degeneration (1/12). In conclusion, the supine body position with neutral position of the foot, a high prevalence (77-100%) of MAE in ankle tendons except for the ATT (20%) is seen. MAE is almost absent in the prone body position with plantar flexion of the foot. (orig.)

  4. [Effect of physical activity strength on the diabetes mellitus prevalence in the elderly under the influence of International Physical Activity Questionnaire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chao-qiang; Xu, Lin; Lam, Tai-hing; Zhang, Wei-sen; Liu, Bin; Lin, Jie-ming; Yue, Xiao-jun; Jin, Ya-li; Thomas, G Neil

    2009-05-01

    To examine the impact of International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) physical activity intensity on to the prevalence of diabetes mellitus among Chinese elderly. A total number of 1996 residents aged 50 or above living in Guangzhou city were recruited from the phase 3 of the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study. Information on physical activity and fasting plasma glucose status was derived from standardized interviews and laboratory assays. Among the participants who were classified as physically active (60.0%), moderate active (29.8%) and inactive (10.2%), the prevalence rates of type 2 diabetes mellitus were 9.1%, 12.0% and 14.2%, respectively. After adjustment on age, sex, obesity and other potential confounding factors, data from logistic regression model showed that the odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for diabetes on subjects in physically moderate active and active group were 0.75(0.46-1.26)and 0.60(0.38-0.97) respectively with P for trend as 0.03, when comparing to those physically inactive ones. Promotion of physical activity might have had some effects in reducing the risk of diabetes mellitus among the older adults.

  5. Magic angle effect in MR imaging of ankle tendons: influence of foot positioning on prevalence and site in asymptomatic subjects and cadaveric tendons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mengiardi, Bernard; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A.; Hodler, Juerg; Zanetti, Marco [Orthopedic University Hospital Balgrist, Department of Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Schoettle, Philip B.; Vienne, Patrick [Orthopedic University Hospital Balgrist, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zurich (Switzerland); Bode, Beata [Zurich University Hospital, Department of Pathology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2006-10-15

    The influence of foot positioning on prevalence of the magic angle effect (MAE) in ankle tendons was investigated. In 30 asymptomatic volunteers and five cadaveric feet, MR imaging of the ankle was performed in the supine (neutral position of the foot) and prone (plantar-flexed foot) position. MAE was considered if increased T1-weighted signal at a certain site was seen in one position only. Histological correlation was obtained at 25 sites of the cadaveric posterior tibialis tendons (PTT). MAE occurred in 6/30 vs 1/30 (supine vs prone) anterior tibialis tendons (ATT), 30/30 vs 0/30 extensor hallucis longus and 27/30 vs 0/30 extensor digitorum longus tendons, 29/30 vs 0/30 PTTs, 30/30 vs 0/30 flexor digitorum and flexor hallucis longus tendons, 30/30 vs 1/30 peroneus brevis and 23/30 vs 1/30 peroneus longus tendons. At 12/25 cadaveric PTT sites where MAE was exclusively responsible for the increased signal, histology revealed normal tissue (11/12) or minimal degeneration (1/12). In conclusion, the supine body position with neutral position of the foot, a high prevalence (77-100%) of MAE in ankle tendons except for the ATT (20%) is seen. MAE is almost absent in the prone body position with plantar flexion of the foot. (orig.)

  6. Protective Effects of Social Support Content and Support Source on Depression and Its Prevalence 6 Months after Wenchuan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Suran; Tian, Donghua; Wang, Xiaohua; Xiao, Yun; He, Huan; Qu, Zhiyong; Zhang, Xiulan

    2015-12-01

    A magnitude 8.0 earthquake struck China's southwestern Sichuan province on 12 May 2008. The reported rates of depression symptoms across studies were not consistent, and its protective factors were unknown. This study collected data from Wenchuan earthquake survivors to estimate the prevalence of depression and explore the protective effects of social support and support source on depression. A randomized sampling cross-sectional survey based on community was conducted in January 2009, in Mianzhu and Anxian counties, and 633 survivors were entered into the study. The Chinese edition of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and the Social Support Rating Scale were used to investigate depression and social support. The prevalence of probable depression in adults 6 months after the Wenchuan earthquake was 22.9% (145/633). Total social support, subjective support, support use and support from family members, neighbours and organizations negatively predicted depression. According to the results, depression was common 6 months after this major disaster. Total social support, subjective support, support use and support from family members, neighbours and organizations were all protective factors for depression after a major disaster. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. SI_pages 771-785.pdf

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Fig. S1. Powder X-ray diffraction pattern (Cu Kα) for AlPO-5: (a) as prepared, (b) calcined and (c) simulated [Ref. 27]. 10. 20. 30. 40. 50. Intensity (a.u) b c a. 2θ. Page 2. Fig. S2. Powder X-ray diffraction pattern (Cu Kα) for MeAlPO-5: (a) as prepared ZnAlPO-5, (b) calcined. ZnAlPO-5, (c) as prepared CoAlPO-5, (d) calcined ...

  8. Application of the multimedia for web page

    OpenAIRE

    Krstev, Dejan; Krstev, Aleksandar; Krstev, Boris

    2012-01-01

    Bargala is one of the most important antic town in Macedonia which name ethimology connect with Bregalnica River. This town is located 12 km west-eastern from Stip town among the Kozjacka River below the Plackovica mountain. Web-page for Bargala is unique way to represent and show what is Macedonia, what is history and civilization by centuries earlier. Basic colour which is set on the back is aproximatively dark brown (#1D1A15) and used combination with red colour (#9D1014). The dimension o...

  9. Turning a page of Agency history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    Recent developments, and especially the new and critical interest of developing countries, have helped to mark the turning of a page in the Agency's history. If the present situation in the economics of nuclear power does not change there is a danger that developing countries will lag further and further behind the advanced countries in its use. Shortage of resources impose a brake on Agency efforts to promote benefits of nuclear techniques, especially by technical assistance. These were some of the points made by Dr. Sigvard Eklund, the Director General, when he presented the Agency's annual report to the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) in July. (author)

  10. A thorough spring-clean for CERN's Web pages

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    This coming Tuesday will see the unveiling of CERN's new user pages on the Web. Their simplified layout and design will make everybody's lives a whole lot easier. Stand by for Tuesday 17 April when, as announced in the Weekly Bulletin of 2 April (n°14/2001), the new newly-designed users welcome page will be hitting our screens as the default CERN home page. But don't worry, if you've got the blues for the good old blue-green home page it's still in service and, to ensure a smooth transition, will be maintained in parallel until 25 May. But in all likelihood you'll be quickly won over by the new-look pages, which are so much simpler to use. Welcome to the new Web! The aim of this revamp, led by the WPE (Web Public Education) group, is to simplify and introduce a more logical hierarchy into the menus and welcome pages on CERN's Intranet. In a second stage, the 'General Public' pages will get a similar makeover. The fact is that the number of links on the user pages, and in particular the welcome page...

  11. A Note on the PageRank of Undirected Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Grolmusz, Vince

    2012-01-01

    The PageRank is a widely used scoring function of networks in general and of the World Wide Web graph in particular. The PageRank is defined for directed graphs, but in some special cases applications for undirected graphs occur. In the literature it is widely noted that the PageRank for undirected graphs are proportional to the degrees of the vertices of the graph. We prove that statement for a particular personalization vector in the definition of the PageRank, and we also show that in gene...

  12. Perceptual metrics and visualization tools for evaluation of page uniformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh Q.; Jessome, Renee; Astling, Steve; Maggard, Eric; Nelson, Terry; Shaw, Mark; Allebach, Jan P.

    2014-01-01

    Uniformity is one of the issues of most critical concern for laser electrophotographic (EP) printers. Typically, full coverage constant-tint test pages are printed to assess uniformity. Exemplary nonuniformity defects include mottle, grain, pinholes, and "finger prints". It is a real challenge to make an overall Print Quality (PQ) assessment due to the large coverage of a letter-size, constant-tint printed test page and the variety of possible nonuniformity defects. In this paper, we propose a novel method that uses a block-based technique to analyze the page both visually and metrically. We use a grid of 150 pixels × 150 pixels ( ¼ inch × ¼ inch at 600-dpi resolution) square blocks throughout the scanned page. For each block, we examine two aspects: behavior of its pixels within the block (metrics of graininess) and behavior of the blocks within the printed page (metrics of nonuniformity). Both ΔE (CIE 1976) and the L* lightness channel are employed. For an input scanned page, we create eight visual outputs, each displaying a different aspect of nonuniformity. To apply machine learning, we train scanned pages of different 100% solid colors separately with the support vector machine (SVM) algorithm. We use two metrics as features for the SVM: average dispersion of page lightness and standard deviation in dispersion of page lightness. Our results show that we can predict, with 83% to 90% accuracy, the assignment by a print quality expert of one of two grades of uniformity in the print.

  13. Migrating Multi-page Web Applications to Single-page AJAX Interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mesbah, A.; Van Deursen, A.

    2006-01-01

    Recently, a new web development technique for creating interactive web applications, dubbed AJAX, has emerged. In this new model, the single-page web interface is composed of individual components which can be updated/replaced independently. With the rise of AJAX web applications classical

  14. The effects of amoxicillin treatment of newborn piglets on the prevalence of hernias and abscesses, growth and ampicillin resistance of intestinal coliform bacteria in weaned pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jinhyeon; Olkkola, Satu; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa; Oliviero, Claudio; Heinonen, Mari

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a single amoxicillin treatment of newborn piglets on the prevalence of hernias and abscesses until the age of nine weeks. We also studied whether the treatment was associated with growth and mortality, the need for treatment of other diseases, the proportions of ampicillin resistant coliforms and antimicrobial resistance patterns of intestinal Escherichia coli (E. coli). A total of 7156 piglets, from approximately 480 litters, were divided into two treatment groups: ANT (N = 3661) and CON (N = 3495), where piglets were treated with or without a single intramuscular injection of 75 mg amoxicillin one day after birth, respectively. The umbilical and inguinal areas of weaned pigs were palpated at four and nine weeks of age. At the same time, altogether 124 pigs with hernias or abscesses and 820 non-defective pigs from three pens per batch were weighed individually. Mortality and the need to treat piglets for other diseases were recorded. Piglet faecal samples were collected from three areas of the floors of each pen at four weeks of age. The prevalence of umbilical hernias or abscesses did not differ between the groups at four weeks of age, but it was higher in the CON group than in the ANT group at nine weeks of age (2.3% vs. 0.7%, P coliform bacteria and the resistance patterns of the E. coli isolates were not different between the ANT and CON groups. In conclusion, our results showed that the amoxicillin treatment of new-born piglets produced statistically significant effect in some of the parameters studied. However, as these effects were only minor, we did not find grounds to recommend preventive antibiotic treatment. Further, continuous antimicrobial treatment of newborn piglets could negatively influence the development of the normal microbiota of the piglet and promote selection of antimicrobial resistance genes in herds. Therefore we suggest rejection of the use of routine administration of antimicrobial agents at birth

  15. The effects of amoxicillin treatment of newborn piglets on the prevalence of hernias and abscesses, growth and ampicillin resistance of intestinal coliform bacteria in weaned pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jinhyeon; Olkkola, Satu; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa; Oliviero, Claudio; Heinonen, Mari

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a single amoxicillin treatment of newborn piglets on the prevalence of hernias and abscesses until the age of nine weeks. We also studied whether the treatment was associated with growth and mortality, the need for treatment of other diseases, the proportions of ampicillin resistant coliforms and antimicrobial resistance patterns of intestinal Escherichia coli (E. coli). A total of 7156 piglets, from approximately 480 litters, were divided into two treatment groups: ANT (N = 3661) and CON (N = 3495), where piglets were treated with or without a single intramuscular injection of 75 mg amoxicillin one day after birth, respectively. The umbilical and inguinal areas of weaned pigs were palpated at four and nine weeks of age. At the same time, altogether 124 pigs with hernias or abscesses and 820 non-defective pigs from three pens per batch were weighed individually. Mortality and the need to treat piglets for other diseases were recorded. Piglet faecal samples were collected from three areas of the floors of each pen at four weeks of age. The prevalence of umbilical hernias or abscesses did not differ between the groups at four weeks of age, but it was higher in the CON group than in the ANT group at nine weeks of age (2.3% vs. 0.7%, P resistant intestinal coliform bacteria and the resistance patterns of the E. coli isolates were not different between the ANT and CON groups. In conclusion, our results showed that the amoxicillin treatment of new-born piglets produced statistically significant effect in some of the parameters studied. However, as these effects were only minor, we did not find grounds to recommend preventive antibiotic treatment. Further, continuous antimicrobial treatment of newborn piglets could negatively influence the development of the normal microbiota of the piglet and promote selection of antimicrobial resistance genes in herds. Therefore we suggest rejection of the use of routine administration of

  16. Probabilistic cost-effectiveness analysis of the long-term effect of universal hepatitis B vaccination: an experience from Taiwan with high hepatitis B virus infection and Hepatitis B e Antigen positive prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Hui-Fang; Chen, Tony Hsiu-Hsi

    2009-11-12

    To assess cost-effectiveness of hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination strategies from health care payer and societal perspectives, focusing on the long-term effect, in Taiwan where prevalence of HBV and Hepatitis B e Antigen (HBeAg) is high. A decision analysis was performed to compare total costs and effectiveness between two vaccination strategies: universal vaccination and no-vaccination. The Markov process was defined as a series of states including acute HBV infection, asymptomatic carrier, chronic hepatitis, compensated and decompensated liver cirrhosis, hepatoma, and death. Direct and indirect costs were also imputed based on estimates. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) per life-year gained and quality-adjusted life years gained were calculated at a 3% discount rate. By assigning a series of specific distributions to each parameter, a probabilistic cost-effective analysis using Monte Carlo simulation was conducted to yield 5000 ICER replicates. The effectiveness of a universal vaccination program for reducing hepatocellular carcinoma cases and deaths was approximately 86%. The average life years gained per subject as a result of such a universal vaccination was 3.9. The vaccination program dominated over a no-vaccination program (less cost and more effectiveness). A universal vaccination program against hepatitis B infection is not only effective for reducing long-term sequelae but is also a cost-saving primary preventive strategy, which supports a universal infant immunization in endemic area with high prevalence of HBV and HBeAg.

  17. Effects of biomarkers of oxidative stress damage on prevalence and severity of visual disability among black Central Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo-Mbenza, B; Muaka, M Mvitu; Yokobo, E Cibanda; Phemba, I Longo; Mokondjimobe, E; Gombet, T; Ndembe, D Kibokela; Mona, D Tulomba; Masamba, S Wayiza

    2012-01-01

    Because of the demographic transition, lifestyle changes, urbanization, and nutrition transition, Central Africans are at higher risk of ocular diseases associated with oxidative stress and visual disability. This study aimed to estimate the normal values of oxidant status defined by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL), 8-Isoprostane and 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and to determine their pathogenic role in the prevalence and the severity of visual disability among these black Africans. This was a cross-sectional study, run in a case-control study randomly selected from Kinshasa province, DR Congo. The study included 150 type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients (cases) matched for sex and age to 50 healthy non diabetic controls. Logistic regression models were used to identify independent determinants of visual disability. The presence rates were 8.5% for blindness, 20.5% for visual impairment and 29% for visual disability including blindness and visual impairment. After adjusted for taro leaves intake, red beans intake, T2DM, aging, waist circumference, and systolic blood pressure, we identified low education level (OR=3.3 95%CI 1.5-7.2; p=0.003), rural-urban migration (OR=2.6 95% CI 1.2-5.6; p=0.017), and high Ox-LDL (OR=2.3 95% CI 1.1-4.7; p=0.029) as the important independent determinants of visual disability. After adjusted for education, intake of red beans, intake of taro leaves, triglycerides, and T2DM, we identified no intake of safou fruit (OR=50.7 95% CI 15.2-168.5; pvisual disability. After adjusted for education level, no intake of red beans, no intake of Taro leaves, triglycerides, and T2DM, we identified no intake of Safou fruit (OR=43.1 95% CI 13.7-135.4; pvisual disability. Visual disability remains a public health problem in Central Africa. Antioxidant supplement, fruit intake, nutrition education, control of migration, and blocking of oxidative stress are crucial steps for delayed development of vision loss.

  18. Detection of spam web page using content and link-based techniques

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of a Web page to rank it. Spammers try to understand the weakness of these models and try to manipulate the content of the target page. For example, increasing the term frequencies for terms appear in a page, repeating important terms many times on a target page, putting all dictionary terms on a target page are some of ...

  19. Facebook's personal page modelling and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarlis, Apostolos S.; Sakas, Damianos P.; Vlachos, D. S.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper we will try to define the utility of Facebook's Personal Page marketing method. This tool that Facebook provides, is modelled and simulated using iThink in the context of a Facebook marketing agency. The paper has leveraged the system's dynamic paradigm to conduct Facebook marketing tools and methods modelling, using iThink™ system to implement them. It uses the design science research methodology for the proof of concept of the models and modelling processes. The following model has been developed for a social media marketing agent/company, Facebook platform oriented and tested in real circumstances. This model is finalized through a number of revisions and iterators of the design, development, simulation, testing and evaluation processes. The validity and usefulness of this Facebook marketing model for the day-to-day decision making are authenticated by the management of the company organization. Facebook's Personal Page method can be adjusted, depending on the situation, in order to maximize the total profit of the company which is to bring new customers, keep the interest of the old customers and deliver traffic to its website.

  20. Web Page Classification Method Using Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selamat, Ali; Omatu, Sigeru; Yanagimoto, Hidekazu; Fujinaka, Toru; Yoshioka, Michifumi

    Automatic categorization is the only viable method to deal with the scaling problem of the World Wide Web (WWW). In this paper, we propose a news web page classification method (WPCM). The WPCM uses a neural network with inputs obtained by both the principal components and class profile-based features (CPBF). Each news web page is represented by the term-weighting scheme. As the number of unique words in the collection set is big, the principal component analysis (PCA) has been used to select the most relevant features for the classification. Then the final output of the PCA is combined with the feature vectors from the class-profile which contains the most regular words in each class before feeding them to the neural networks. We have manually selected the most regular words that exist in each class and weighted them using an entropy weighting scheme. The fixed number of regular words from each class will be used as a feature vectors together with the reduced principal components from the PCA. These feature vectors are then used as the input to the neural networks for classification. The experimental evaluation demonstrates that the WPCM method provides acceptable classification accuracy with the sports news datasets.